Citation
Report Florida agricultural extension service

Material Information

Title:
Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title:
Annual report
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla. The Service
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Creation Date:
1950
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1939-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note:
At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46387223 ( OCLC )
2001229382 ( LCCN )

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Full Text

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30,1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director












1950 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE
















REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1950

with

FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE

FISCAL YEAR ENDED

JUNE 30, 1950












COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND 11OME ECONOMTICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director













1950 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE

















REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1950 with

FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE

FISCAL YEAR ENDED

JUNE 30, 1950







BOARD OF CONTROL


Frank M. Harris, Chairman,
St. Petersburg
Eli H. Pink, Jacksonville George J. White, Sr., Mt. Dora


Hollis Rinehart, Miami N. B. Jordan, Quincy W. F. Powers, Secretary,
Tallahassee


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President of the University' J. Wayne Reitz, P.H.D., Provost for Agriculture' H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of Extension Marshall 0. Watkins, M.Agr., Assistant to the Director3 Roger L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative Manager,

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor' Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor' Leon 0. Griffith, A.B.J., Assistant Editor, J. Lee Smith, District Agent K. S. McMullen, B.S.A., District Agent F. S. Perry, B.S.A., District Agent H. S. McLendon, B.A., Soil Conservationist R. S. Dennis, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.2 Oliver F. Goen, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist J. A. McGregor, B.S., Assistant Animal Industrialist C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman N. R. Mehrhof, M. Agr., Poultry Husbandman' A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist" Charles M. Hampson, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management' D. E. Timmons, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing F. W. Parvin, B.S.A., Assistant Economist John M. Johnson, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer, Fred P. Lawrence, B.S.A., Citriculturist W. W. Brown, B.S.A., Boys' Club Agent Joe N. Busby, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent A. M. Pettis, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist2 John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist2 J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist' F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crop Specialist' Stanley E. Rosenberger, M. Agr., Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist Forrest E. Myers, B.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist

Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Home Demonstration Agent Ethyl Holloway, B.S., District Agent Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus, B.S.H.E., District Agent Joyce Bevis, M.A., Clothing Specialist Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist Grace I. Neely, M.S., Asso. Economist in Food Conservation Lorene H. Stevens, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club Agent Ruth S. Lemmon, B.S.H.E., Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent Mrs. Gladys Kendall, A.B., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent

'Cooperative other divisions, U. of F.
2In cooperation with U. S.
3On leave.







CONTENTS


Page
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------------------------------ 11

------------------------------ 15

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------------------------------ 19

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------------------------------ 21

------------------------------ 22

------------------------------ 26

------------ ----------------- 29

------------------------------ 32

------------------------------ 36

------------------------------ 38

------------------------------ 41

------------------------------ 43

------------------------------ 47

----------------------------- 50

1 ----------------------------- 53

------------------------------ 57

------------------------------ 60

------------------------------ 62

------------------------------ 68

------------------------------ 70

------------------------------ 74

------------------------------ 77

------------------------------ 80

------------------------------ 82

------------------------------ 84

------------------------------ 86


Director's Report -------------------------------------------------------------------------Statistical Report -----------------------------------------------------------------Publications, N ews, Radio, Film s ---------------------------------------------Safety and Fire Prevention ---------------------------------------------------------W ork of County, District Agents ---------------------------------------------Agricultural Econom ics ---------------------------------------------------------------Farm M anagem ent -------------------------------------------------------------M arketing ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Citrus Grove M anagem ent ------------------------------------- -----------Agricultural Engineering -------------------------------------------------------------Farm Electrification -------------------------------------------------------------Agronom y -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Anim al H usbandry -----------------------------------------------------------------------Apiculture -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Boys' 4-H Club W ork -----------------------------------------------------------------Citrus Culture -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Dairy H usbandry -------------------------------------------------------------------------Forestry ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poultry Activities ------------------------------------------------------- I ------------------Soil and W ater Conservation ------------------------------------------------------Vegetable Production and Merchandising ---------------------------------Hom e D em onstration W ork ------------------------------------------------------Clothing and Textiles -----------------------------------------------------------------Girls' 4-H Club W ork -----------------------------------------------------------------H om e Improvem ent ---------------------------------------------------------------------H om e Industries and M arketing -----------------------------------------------Nutrition and Foods -------------------------------------------------------------------Negro Farm D em onstration W ork ---------------------------------------------Negro H om e D em onstration W ork ---------------------------------------------Negro Statistical Report ---------------------- -------------------------------







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of November 30, 1950)


COUNTY AGENT


HOME ADDRESS DEMONSTRATION AGENT


---- Loonis Blitch ------- Gainesville -------- Mrs. Josephine
McSwine


Alachua (Asst.) -------- Charles C. Below ----Baker --------------G. T. Huggins ------Bay ---------------------- J. A. Sorenson ------Bradford---------------- T. K. MeClane, Jr.---Brevard ---------------- J. T. Oxford -------Brevard (Asst.) ------James Nesmith ------Broward ---------- B. E. Lawton --------


Broward (Asst.)Calhoun -- ---Calhoun (Asst.)_


-Robert S. Pryor -----Thomas B. Jones -----


.Fred J. Green-


-G ainesville --------------------_M acdlenny ---------------- ------Panam a City -------------------Starke -------Miss Dorothy P. Ross Cocoa ---------Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
.C o co a - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Ft. Lauderdale ------- Miss Louise Taylor
-Ft. Lauderdale --------- - --------Blountstown ------- Miss Florence L.
Gatlin
-Blountstow n --------------------


Charlotte -------------- N. H. McQueen ------Punta Gorda----------------------------Citrus - --------------- Quentin Medlin -------Inverness -----Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Citrus (Asst.)----------- Edsel W. Rowan -------Inverness---------------------------Collier -------------- -Herbert L. Miller----- Everglades ----- -----------------------
Columbia -------------- James N. Watson -------Lake City ---Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia (Asst.) ----Aubrey L. Harrell---Lake City-----------------------------Dade -------------- C. H. Steffani . ------Miami ---------Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.)----------- J. Lawrence Edwards-_ Miami ------------Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.) ----------- John D. Campbell ----Miami ----------Miss Ruth Taylor
Dade (Asst.) --------.A. E. C. McIntyre ----- Homestead.----------DeSoto ----------------- W . L. W oods ------- Arcadia ------------------------Dixie-------------------- Clarence L. Dickinson-Cross City ---------------------Duval------------------- A. S. Lawton------------ Jacksonville -----Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) ----. --Ralph F. Jones --------Jacksonville ----Mrs. Lucille Colsen
Duval (Asst.)----------------------------- Jacksonville ------- Miss Emma Sue
Warren
Escambia -----------E. N. Stephens---------- Pensacola -----Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia (Asst.) ------Albert H. Odom-------Pensacola ----------- Miss Mary D.
Buffington
Gadsden ----------- ---A. G. Driggers -------- Quincy -------- Miss Elise Laffitte
Gadsden (Asst.) -----Bernard H. Clark ------Quincy ----- Mrs. Ivan S. Woodhery
Gilchrist--------------- Harry E. George ------ Trenton ----------------------Glades -------------A. G. Hutchinson-------Moore Haven ------------------Gulf -------------------- C. R. Laird-------------- Wewahitchka -------Miss Emma L.
Stevenson


------------- A. E. Nesmith ---------- E. H. Va c ---


Hendry ------------ H. L. Johnson---Hernando ----------Harry J. BrinkleyHighlands -----------V. T. Oxer ------Highlands (Asst.) ------ Bert J. Harris, Jr.Hillsboro--------------- Alec White-----Hillsboro (Asst.) -----Edwin Booth----Hillsboro (Asst.) -----Jean Beam.-----Hillsboro (Asst.) -----1. 0. Armor------


- - - - - - - - - - - - - ------Jasper -----------------------.__.Wauchula --------Mrs. Frances P.
Denington
----- L aB elle --------------------------- B rooksville --- --------- -------------- Sebring ----Miss Catherine Brabson
----- Sebring ------------- ------------Tampa ----------- Miss Lora Kiser
Tampa --------------------------------- -_.-Tampa ----------------------------------- Plant City -------- Miss Emily King


COUNTY

Alacbua


Hamilton Hardee __








HOME ADDRESS DEMONSTRATION AGENT


COUNTY


COUNTY AGENT


Hillsboro (Asst.) ------ - - Seton N. Edson -------- - ---- Ruskin -- - -------------------------------------------Holmes --- 7 - ------- -- --.Stuart C. Bell --------------- Bonifay ---------- Mrs. Laurena Croom
Ward
Indian River --------------- Marcel A. Boudet ---------- Vero Beach -------------- - ------- - -------- - ---
Jackson ------------------------ W oodrow W . Glenn ----- Marianna -------- Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson (Asst.) -------- ---- W illiam C. Zorn ------------ Marianna -------------------------------------------Jefferson ---------------------- J. W . Malone --------------- Monticello -------- Miss Mary A. Curtis
Lafayette -------------------- S. L. Brothers --------------- Mayo -------------------------------------------------Lake ------------------------ R. E. Norris ------------ - ---- Tavares ---------- Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lake (Asst.) ---- - --------- Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr. Tavares -----------------------------------------------Lee P. Heuck ------------- Fort Myers ---------------------------------------Leon ----------------- - -------- James L. Rhoden - ------- Tallahassee -------- Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Leon (Asst.) ---- - --------- Alexander H. Clemons Tallahassee --------------- - - - ------------ - -- -_ I
Levy --------------------------- M D. Rickenbaker ------- Bronson -------- Mrs. Sue P. Murphy
Liberty - --------------------------- Bristol -------- Mrs. Camilla R. Radnev


11 -----------------------
Madison --------------------- Fred C. Summers ---Manatee --------------------- Ed L. Ayers ----------
Manatee (Asst.) -- - ------ Johnnie E. Davis ---Manatee (Asst.) -------Johnnie F. Barco ---Marion ----------------------- A. David Baillie, Jr.
Marion (Asst.) ------------ Carey A. Robbins ---Martin ----------------------- L. M. Johnson -------Nassau ----------------------- Gordon B. Ellis -----Okaloosa ------------- - - - - Fred W. Barber -----Okeechobee ---- - -- ____C. R. Boyles -----------Orange ----------------------- F. E. Baetzman -----Orange (Asst.) ----- - ----- Henry F. Swanson -Osceola . ---------------------- J. R. Gunn -------------Palm Beach ------------ - -- M. U. Mounts -------Palm Beach (Asst.) --- John 11. Causey ------


Madison ------ Miss Bennie F. Wilder
------ Palmetto ---------- Mrs. Anne D. Davis
----- Palmetto -------------------------------------------------- Palmetto ------------------------------------------------ Ocala -------------- Miss Allie Lee Rush
----- Ocala ------ Mrs. Mamie C. Daugbtry
----- Stuart ---------------- Miss Lucile Inscoe
----- Hilliard -------- Mrs. Julia P. Jernagan
----- Crestview ------------------------------------------
------ Okeechobee -------------------------------------------- Orlando ---- Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
----- Orlando ------------------- - -------------------- - ------- Kissimmee -------- Miss Muriel A. Beek
----- West Palm Beach ------------ Miss Sara
Horton
------ West Palm Beach ____ Mrs. Mildred J.
Michaud


Palm Beach (Asst.) Pasco --------------------Pasco (Asst.) -----------Pinellas --------------------


_H. L. Speer ----__J. F. Higgins ----james B. Smith
__.J. H. Logan -----


------------- Belle Glade
------------- Dade City ------------- Dade City
-------- Clearwater


------------------------------------------ Mrs. Mary R. Stearns
----------------------------------------------- Mrs. Charlotte M.
Lattimer
------------ Miss Muriel C.
Thomas


Pinellas (Asst.) ------------ L. E. Cunningham _-Clearwater


Polk ---------------------------- NV. P. Hayman ------------- Bartow ------ Mrs. Minnie M. Carlton
Polk (Asst.) ------------------ Wilson H. Kendrick ------ Bartow ---------- Miss Doris E. Frazier
Putnam ------------------------ H. E. Maltby ------------ .--Palatka ---Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam (Asst.) ---------- Ralph T. Clay ------------- Palatka -----------------------------------------------Saint Johns ----------------- Y. R. McMullen ----------- St. Augustine ---- Miss Anna E. Heist
Saint Lucie ---- - -- - ----- Charles D. Kime --------- Fort Pierce ---- Miss Sammie J. Kilgore
Santa Rosa ----------------- Emmett D. McCall ----- Milton ---------------- Miss Lora A. Botts
Santa Rosa (Asst.) ------ Henry P. Davis ----------- Milton ---------------- - -------------------------------Sarasota ---------- - ---------- Kenneth A. Clark ------- Sarasota -------- Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Sarasota (Asst.) --------- Donald W. Lander ----- Sarasota ---------------------------------------------Seminole -------------------- C. R. Dawson ------------- Sanford -------------- Miss Lila Woodard
Sumter ------------------------ 0. M. Marines, Jr - -------- Bushnell -------------- Miss Tillie Roesel
Sumter (Asst.) --------.Earl M. Kelly ---------------- Bushnell ----------------------------------------------[51









COUNTY

Suwannee ----Taylor -- ----Umion ------Volusia ----Volusia (Asst.) Wakulla ----Walton ----Washington--


NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS


COUNTY AGENT


HOME ADDRESS DEMONSTRATION AGENT


Alachua -------------English M. Greene ----Gainesville - ---Leontine Williams
Columbia --- -- ---- .M cKinley Jeffers ----- Lake City ----------------------D ade -----------------------------------M iam i -------Victoria M . Sim pson
Duval -------------------------------- - acksonville -----Ethel M. Powell
Gadsden --------------- Russell Stephens -----Quincy -----------Gladys Wilkins
Hamilton -------------N. H. Bennett ----------White Springs ------------------Hillsboro--------------------------------------- Tampa ------------Sudella J. Ford
Jackson ----------- ---Virgil Elkins ------------ Marianna ----- Annie Doris Preston
Jefferson -------_ .M. E. Groover --------- Monticello -------- ---------------Leon-------------------- Richard A. Hartsfield -Tallahassee ---------Irie Mae Clark
Madison---------------- James C. Miller - ----- Madison------------------ Althea Ayer
Marion - ------ -- Eugene P. Smith -----Ocala -------------------------
Marion ------------- --------Reddick ---------- Idella R. Kelly
Sumter ------- -_ Richard L. Bradley ----Bushnell ----------------------Volusia ---------- --- --------------------- DeLand --------- Ida T. Pemberton


HOME
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS DEMONSTRATION
AGENT
-------Floyd L. Eubanks ---- Live Oak ----- Miss Edith.M. Martin
----------- S. C. Kierce ------------Perry Mrs. Ruth McKeown Elkins
------- W illiam J. Cowen----Lake Butler ------------------- -------- William J. Platt, Jr.---- DeLand --------Mrs. Edna L. Eby
- -------- Thomas R. Townsend -DeLand ---------------------------- A. S. Laird --------------Crawf ordville --------------------------Mitchell Wilkins ------ DeFuniak Springs --- Mrs. Marguerite
R. Brock
11------ . 0. Harrison ------- Chipley ----- Mrs. Mary L. Minchin


COUNTY









Part I Gera


DIRECTOR'S REPORT
H. G. CLAYTON, Director
MARSHALL 0. WAmKINs, Assistant Director'

Florida Agricultural Extension Service staff members in 1950 continued to work- together to serve Florida farm families effectively. Working together in a coordinated program, they reached a total of 89,974 families.
Extension served more farm youth ixl Florida in 1950. Enrollment in 4-H1 Clubs in the state increased from 26,095 in 1949 to 26,837 in 1950. Not only did enrollment increase, but active participation by more farm youth in a wider variety.of activities was apparent.
It was possible to make more additions to the staff during 1950 as a result of the additional funds allocated by the 1949 Florida Legislature. One county agent, 5 assistant county agents, one home demonstration agent, two specialists for men's work, one specialist for women's work, and one negro home demonstration agent were added to the staff in 1950.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1949-50


Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever----------------------------------------------- $ 70,994.81
Bankhead-Jones -----------------------------129,651.51
Capper-Ketcham----------------------------------------- 27,417;72
Bankhead-Flannagan -------------------------121,915.18
Clark-M cNary -------- - ------------------- 1,620.00
Research & Marketing------------------------------------ 1,500.00
Farm Housing --------------------------------------------- 2,000.00

State Appropriations:
Legislature ---------------------------- -----$473,795.00
State Trust Funds:------------------------------------ $ 16,157.08
County Appropriations:--------------------------------------- $363,396.00
G ran d T otal --- -- - - - - - - - - -- - - -- - - - - - -- - -- - --- --- ---


$355,098.72

$473,795.00 $ 16,157.08 $363,396.00
$1,208,446.80


FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1950-51


Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever --------------------------Bankhead-Jones --------------- ----Capper-Ketcham ----------------Bankhead-F 'lannagan -------------Clark-M cNary -------------------Research & Marketing -------------Farm Housing -------------------


-----------$ 70,994.31
---------------- ---------- --- 129,651.51
---------------- -------------- 27,417.72
--------------121,915.18
------------- 1,620.00
------------ 1,500.00
--- -------- 640.00


$353,738.72
State Appropriations:
Legislature --------------------------------- $578,602.44 $578,602.44
State Trust Funds: ---------------------------$ 20,000.00 $ 20,000.00
County Appropriations: ---------------------------$390,412.60 $390,412.60
Grand Total --------------- ------- ------------------- $1,342,753.76

'On leave September 1, 1950, to pursue graduate work at Harvard University.








Florida Cooperative Extension


During 1950 the Extension Service had 62 county agents, 35 assistant county agents, 46 home demonstration agents and 12 assistant home demonstration agents. Men on the state staff included 2 administrators, 3 supervisors and 28 specialists. Women included I administrator, 3 supervisors and 6 specialists. The negro staff was composed of 2 supervisors, 10 county agents and 12 home demonstration agents.
Some difficulty is still encountered in locating qualified persons for home demonstration positions, in both white and ncgro work.

TRAINING EXTENSION WORKERS
A three weeks' training course for Extension agents was held in the summer of 1950 for the fifth consecutive year. Four courses were offered, each carrying IY2 hours of graduate credit. Extension workers were enrolled for one or two courses. Courses offered were advanced rural leadership, advanced agricultural Extension Service youth programs, advanced public speaking and social recreation.
Extension workers are kept abreast of new research work by occasional training meetings at the Experiment Stations. One two-day school was held at the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred for all agents working in citrus producing counties. A one-day vegetable school was held for agents in Central and South Florida at the Everglades Station, Belle Glade.
The annual conference for Extension workers was held at the University of Florida October 16-20 and provided in-service training for agents as well as inspiration for the job ahead. Morning sessions were devoted largely to discussions by outstanding speakers on topics of national and international importance. Both men and women attended morning sessions, while most afternoon sessions were separate and were devoted to new research information and methods.
The annual conference for negro Extension agents was held at Florida A & M College, Tallahassee, during the week November 6-10. A committee composed of the Negro District Agents, the Assistant Director, and a white District Home Demonstration Agent planned this, conference.

DEVELOPING STATE PROGRAMS
Beginning in 1949 Extension workers in Florida have spent considerable time and effort developing improved methods for evolving Extension programs and plans. During 1950 all district supervisors acted as a continuing committee to attempt to revise and improve the frameworkset, up in 1949. The revised and improved plan.makes provision for obtaining information, analyzing situations, determining problems, developing objectives and accomplishing solutions.
This revised procedure was presented to agents at the Extension Agents' Annual Conference. In addition, the district supervisors met jointly in conference in each county with the entire county staff. The plan has met with approval in every quarter and it is believed that the quality of plans and programs for 1951 will reflect the concerted efforts expended in this direction.
The State Rural Housing Committee, with the Assistant Director as coordinator, continued to function in 1950 as it has each year since its organization in 1946. The following agencies are represented on the committee: Agricultural Extension Service; State Department of Education-Vocational Agriculture, Home Economics and Supervision; State Board of Health; Project of Applied Economics, College of Education, University of Florida; School of Home Economics, Florida State University; Farmers Home Administration; and Rural Electrification Administration.
The aims and purposes of the State Rural Housing Committee are:







Annual Report, 1950 9

1. To encourage cooperative action between educational agencies in the State concerned with housing, for the purpose of improving health, home sanitation and beautification through better housing.
2. To compile factual information on housing conditions in Florida and distribute it to state and county committee members.
3. To encourage studies on rural housing in Florida.
4. To secure cooperation and support of agencies and individuals concerned with the various phases of housing for rural families, and in position to assist with this program, or prepared to act as advisers of the State Committee.
5. To develop a practical action program for the execution of these programs.
6. To encourage and assist in establishing training courses on rural housing for professional workers, for interested volunteer leaders, and for persons interested in improving their own homes and housing facilities.
The Extension citrus and vegetable advisory committees, composed of state and county workers, serve a very worthwhile purpose. These committees determine overall Extension programs for these two major commodities at periodic meetings. All agents from citrus counties and all agents from vegetable counties met for separate two-day refresher and conference schools during the year to become acquainted with the latest research information and methods in these fields.
Club work among boys is advanced by the functioning of 10 4-H Club districts. One agent in each district is elected chairman. Activities for club members and training schools for 4-H Club officers are planned by the districts and carried out with the assistance of the state staff.
In practically all counties the county agent serves as secretary to the County PMA Committee and the soil conservation district supervisors, in addition to various crop, poultry and livestock organizations. This keeps the Extension worker informed and also permits him to participate in the work of these groups. The specialists work very closely with these organized agricultural groups.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
The State USDA Council holds regular monthly meetings and attendance and interest are good. The Council serves as a medium for promoting understanding of the current programs and activities of the various agencies. The Extension Director is chairman of the State Council and the State Coordinator of the Soil Conservation Service is secretary. During the past year every other monthly meeting has been held at some point where some of the work of one of the agricultural agencies could be seen. These meetings have enabled Council members to become better acquainted with specific work being done by various agencies and this has been helpful.
County councils in some instances hold regular meetings with good programs. In other cases they meet at irregular intervals.
It is a policy for Extension workers in Florida to work harmoniously with the various agricultural committees and organizations in the state. Some of the committee assignments and Extension responsibilities are as follows:
The Director is active in the following organizations; Chairman of the State Seed Certification Technical Advisory Corrunittee; chairman of the State P&MA Technical Committee; chairman of the State USDA Council; Administrator of the State Soil Conservation Board; vice-chairman of the Agricultural Division, and the chairman of the ub-comrnittee on general agricultural research of the State Chamber of Commerce; ex-officio member of the State Production and Marketing Administrative Committee; member of the Farmers Home Administration State Advisory Committee.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Assistant Director was coordinator of the State Rural Housing Committee and a member of the State Pesticide Special Committee. The Extension Forester is a member of the Florida Forestry Council. The Apiculturist is chairman of the program committee of the State Beekeepers Association.
The Economist in Marketing is secretary of the Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives and chairman of the Southeastern Regional Transportation Committee of the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives. He is also secretary of the Watermelon Growers' and Distributors' Association.
The Dairyman was chairman of the Extension Section of the American Dairy Science Association. He continues as a member of three committees of the Florida Dairy Industry Association and secretary of the Florida State Long-Range Dairy Committee. He was asked to judge two shows in Cuba for the Cuban National Livestock show.
The Poultry Husbandman is secretary of the Florida Poultry Council and the Extension Poultryman is secretary of the Florida Turkey Federation. These two staff members also serve as consultants to the Florida State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Hatchery and Breeders' Association, Record of Performance Association, and Florida Feed Dealers' Association.
The Animal Husbandman is chairman of the State Livestock Loss Prevention Committee; and the Assistant Animal Industrialist is superintendent of the Beef Cattle Section of the Florida State Fair.
A District Agent serves as consultant to the State Crop Improvement Association.
The Florida, Agricultural Council consists of representatives of 14 statewide organizations which are agricultural in nature. The organizations included are the State Horticultural Society, Florida Poultry Producers Association, Florida Beekeepers Association, State Cattlemen's Association, Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, Florida Agricultural Research Institute, Florida Seedsmen's Association, Florida Dairy Industry Association, Florida Farm Bureau Federation, Florida Turf and Lawn Conference, Florida Feed Dealers Association, Florida Citrus Research Liaison Committee, Florida Association of Soil Conservation District Supervisors, and Florida and Georgia Cigar Tobacco Growers Association. The Council takes a keen interest in the agricultural development of the state.

CHANGES IN STAFF
Appointments and promotions:
Joe N. Busby promoted to Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent from Assistant County Agent, December 16, 1949.
J. S. Moore promoted to Extension Poultryman from Assistant, January 1, 1950.
Oliver F. Goen promoted to Animal Husbandman from Assistant Animal Industrialist, February 1, 1950.
James A. McGregor, Assistant Animal Industrialist, February 1, 1950.
Forrest E. Myers, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist, February 1, 1950.
Marshall 0. Watkins promoted to Assistant Director from Assistant to the Director, July 1, 1950.
W. W. Brown promoted to State Boys' 4-H Club Agent from Assistant, July 1, 1950.
H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist, July 1, 1950.
Ruth S. Lemmon, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent, July 1, 1950.
Jasper N. joiner, Assistant Editor, July 1, 1950.
Miss Anna Mae Sikes promoted to State Home Demonstration Agent from District Agent, October 1, 1950.
Leon Odell Griffith, Assistant Editor, November 14, 1950.








Annual Report, 1950 11

Deceased:
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent, August 11, 1950.
Granted Leave:
Marshall 0. Watkins, September 16, 1950.
jasper N. joiner, November 1, 1950.


,STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from White County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) -------------------------------------------------------- 1,734
Days of Service: In office-19,866; In field-21,981 ------------------------------------ 41,847
Farm or home visits made ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67,356
Different farms or homes visited -------------------------------------------------------------- 4 ---- 37,176
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-244,481; Telephone -------------- 71 ---- 207,920
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youths -------------------------------- 13,883
News articles or stories published --------------------------------------------------------- - --------- 10,924
Bulletins distributed ----------------------------- I ---------------------------------------------------------- 300,857
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ------------------------------------------------------------------ 2,454
Training meetings held for local1leaders or committeemen:
Number ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 995
Total attendance of men and women ------------------------------------------------------ ' 13,784
Method demonstration meetings:
Number --------------------- - ---------- - ----------------------------------------------------------------- 11,033
Total attendance ------------------------------------------------------------------------ - ------------ 245,905
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
Number - --------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- 1,458
Attendance ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 29,136
Tours ------------------------------------------------------------------ - ---------------------------------------------- 640
Achievement days held for 4-11, older youth and adult work --------------------- 653
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings -------------------------------------- 9,800

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 64,235.
Farms on which changes irl practices have resulted from agricultural I I
program -------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- 32,390
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home
demonstration program ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17,231
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural program
for the first time this year -------------------------------------------------------- I -------------- 47756
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home demonstration programs for first time this year -------------------------------- - ------------------- 8,448
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled -------------------------------------------- 10,906
Non-farm families making changes in practices as result of the agricultural
program ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21,785
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
'demonstration program ---------------------------------------------------------- I ------------------ 19,293
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled% ------------------------------------ 7,382
Different farm families influenced by some phase of Extension program --- 43,876
Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program ---------------- 39,395







12 Florida Cooperative Extension

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural Planning group -------------------------------------------------------- 828
Unpaid ------------------------------------------------------------------- I ----------------------------------- 565
Paid ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 263
Communities in agricultural planning ------------------------------------------------------------ 102
Members in community agricultural planning ---------------------------------------------- 431
Planning meetings held ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,564
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
workers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3,017
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen -------------------------------------------------- 3,292
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen ---------- 7,607

CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9,088
Communities in which work was conducted -------------------------------------------------- 3,233
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ------------------------------------------------------------ 1,282

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work ---------------------------------------- - - I --------------------------------------- 6,756
Communities in which work was conducted ------------------------------------------------ 2,383
Voluntary committeemen and leaders ------------------------------------------------------------ 824
Breeding and improvement organizations ---------------------------------------------------- 130
Farmers assisted ---------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------- 45,904

CONSERVATION NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work ------------------------------------------------------------------ 7 ----------------- 1,944
Communities in which work was conducted ------------------------------------- - --------- 1,160
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ---------------------------------------------------- 606
Farmers assisted in soil management ------------------------------------------------------------ 47,225
'Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation ---------------------------------- 13,594

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work ---------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------ 1,640
Farmers assisted ------------------------- L ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 14,012

GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE
Days devoted to work ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 391
Communities in which. work was conducted ------------------------------------------------ 470
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ------------------------------------------------------------ 313
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ---------------------------------------- 778

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2,960
Communities in which work was conducted ------------------------------------ - ---------- 3,171
Established cooperatives assisted ----------------- ----------------------------------- - ----------- ill
New cooperatives assisted in organizing -------------------------------------- - ---------------- 15







Annual Report, 1950 13

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted ti) work -------------- ------------ z -------------------------------------------------------- 2,751
Communities in which work was conducted ------------------------------------------------ 1,724
Voluntary leaders and committeemen -------------------------- - --------------------- - --------- 1,112
Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification and farm buildings ---------------------------- 44,613

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work ------------------------------------------------------------- - --------------------- 6,057
Communities in which work was done -------------------- --------------------------------------- 2,529
Families assisted: In improving diets-17,751; food preparation19,195; Total --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36,946
Families assisted with food preservation problems ---------------------------------------- 18,839

HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 573
Communities in which work was done ---------------------------------------------------------- 417
Voluntary leaders assisting ------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------- 343
Families assisted ------------------------------------------- I -------------------------------------------------- 3,878
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies -------- 349
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies -------------------- .15,342
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems ---------------------------------------- 8,038

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work ------------------------------------------------------------ - ------------------------ 2,341
Communities in which work was done ---------------------------------------------------------- 602
Voluntary leaders assisting ---------------------------------------------------- - ---------------------- 861
Families assisted ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36,972

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 457
Communities in which work was done ---------------------------------------------------------- 357
Voluntary leaders assisting --------------------------------------------------------------------------- --- 355

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,121
Communities in which work was done ------------------------------------------------------------ 594
Voluntary leaders assisting ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- - 1,036
Families assisted in improving home recreation -------------------------------------------- 6,225
Communities assisted in improving community recreational facilities -------- 320
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs of
activities or meeting programs ---------------------------------------------------------------- 467
Communities assisted in providing library facilities ------------------------------------ 54

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8,426
Projects completed by girls ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25,285
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ---------------------------------------------------- 960
Boys completing fruit projects ---------------------------------------------------- ------------------- 182







Florida Cooperative Extension


Boys completing garden projects -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,651
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ------------------------ 202
Boys completing dairy projects ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 672
Boys completing poultry projects -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,355
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects --------- - ------------------------------------- 90
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ---------------------------------------- 142
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects -------------------------------------------- 1,663
Girls completing fruit projects ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 243
Girls completing garden projects --------------------------------------------------------------------- 2,159
Girls, completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ------------------------ 2
Girls completing dairy projects ----------------------- ------------------------------------------------ 127
Girls completing poultry projects -------------------------------------------------------------------- 767
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ---------------------------- 4,565
Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid projects ------------------------ 2,384
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and room
improvement projects -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8,931
Girls completing food preservation projects ---------------------------------------------------- 1,165
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-6,580; non-farm-2,418; total -------------------------------------------- 8,998
Girls: Farm-6,503; non-farm-6,156; total -------------------------------------------- 12,659
4-H club members having examinations because of participation in
Extension program ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1,842
.4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school
Rounds and conducting local fairs ---------------- I ---------------------------------------- 538







Annual Report, 1950


EDITORIAL AND MAILING DEPARTMENT

J. FRANCIS COOPER, Editor
CLYDE BEALE, Associate Editor
JASPER N. JOINER, Assistant Editor2
L. ODELL GRIFFITH, Assistant Editor3
The amount of information being disseminated by the Editorial Office increased materially near the end of 1950, with the appointment of an additional Assistant Editor. Principal emphasis will be placed on enlarging the output of news and visual aids material, since the bulletin publication and radio fields are more adequately covered already.
As in the past, Editorial and Mailing Department staff members devote approximately half of their time to work for the Agricultural Experiment Station.

PRINTED MATERIALS
Four new bulletins, about the average number for many years, and four circulars were printed. One bulletin was reprinted. The new bulletins amounted to 200 pages all told, ranging from 20 to 124 pages. Editions varied from 10,000 to 25,000, totaling 65,000 copies.
The circulars ranged in size from four to six pages, in edition from 5,000 to 10,000 copies, and totaled 20 pages and 30,000 copies. A large number of record books and other miscellaneous materials were printed also.
Publications and other materials printed during the year ending June 30 include:


Pages Edition
Dooryard Citrus Plantings in Florida ----------------------------- 24 15,000
Avocado Production in Florida -------------------------------------- 124 10,000
Camellia Growing ------------------------------------------------------------ 20 15,000
Household Insects and Their Control ---------------------------- 32 25,000
Papaya Culture in Florida (revised) ------------------------------ 32 15,000
Five-Deep Brood Frame Hive ----------------------------------------- 4 5,000
Brucellosis ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4 5,000
Portable Farrow House -------------------------------- --------------- 6 10,000
Planning Farm Wiring ---------------------------------------------------- 6 10,000
Florida Farm Record Book B (reprint) -------------------------- 28 6,000
Final Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Test -------- 28 2,000
4-H Club Apiary Record Book -------------------------------------- 16 2 500
4-H Club Record Book ---------------------------------------------------- 16 25,060
4-11 Club Poultry Record for junior Members ------------ 4 15,000
4-H Club Garden Record foi junior Members ------------ 4 15,000
4-H Club Livestock Record for Junior Members -------- 4 12-000
4-H Crops Record for junior Members ------------------------ 4 10,000
4-H Club Nursery Record for junior Members ------------ 4 3.000
4-H Club Rabbit Record for junior Members -------------- 4 2.000
4-H Club Forestry Record for junior Members ------------ 4 3 000
Florida Clothing Program for junior 4-H Girls ------------ 4 20,000
Florida Food Preparation Record for junior 4-H Club
Girls, Demonstrations I and H ------------------------------ 4 12,000
Individual Club Member's Record Cards -------------------- 2 20,000


Bul. Bul. Bul. Bul. Bul. I Circ. Cire. Circ. Cire. N1. P.


'Appointed February 20, 1950; called to active military service October 1, 1950. 3Appointed November 14, 1950.







16 Florida Cooperative Extensioin

Other miscellaneous materials printed included envelopes, exhibit cards, 4-11 coop cards, enrollment cards, postcards, calendar of 4-11 events, monthly egg record, cards advertising the Poultry Institute, boys' short course programs and certificates and others.
Distribution of the publications is handled from the mailing room, with copies of each Dew bulletin and circular going to libraries and specialists as well as to county and home demonstration agents. About 15,000 people are notified of new bulletins available. Distribution is largely on request.
As in previous years, the Editor served as Distribution Control Officer for U. S. Department of Agriculture publications, and sent thousands of copies of them to county and home demonstration agents and other staff members.

SERVICE TO NEWSPAPERS AND JOURNALS
The printed clipsbeet, Agricultural News Service, was continued for its 35th year. Containing from 8 to 15 separate news items each week, it is sent primarily to weekly newspapers, farm papers, county and horne agents, vocational agriculture teachers, and agricultural research workers. One thousand copies were printed each week, the State Plant Board paying for 10 issues.
On the average around three stories a week were released through the Associated Press or direct to one or more daily newspapers. The number materially increased near the end of the year, with the employment of an additional Assistant Editor.
County and home demonstration agents report 10,924 news articles released in their local newspapers.
I Farm journals and periodicals continued generous use of copy supplied by the
Florida Extension Editors, one national, two Southern and two state journals printing 17 articles, amounting to 377 column inches of space.
ON THE AIR
During 1950 the Florida Agricultural Extension Service was represented on television for the first time. The home demonstration agents in Duval County appeared on television shows in Jacksonville near the end of the year.
Radio broadcasting, long an important and effective means of disseminating information, expanded slightly during the year. Twenty-seven home demonstration and 35 county agents in 37 counties reported making 2,454 broadcasts. In at least one county the agents broadcast daily. In a number of others they appear weekly on the radio.
Radio service from this office blankets the entire state. The Editors supplied seven 30-minute tapes to one station, each tape containing from four to six recorded features, and three 15-minute tapes to another station. They also cut two platters which were used on three stations each.
During the year the Editors sent 268 Farm Flashes to 31 radio stations and county agents. Each was approximately seven minutes long. Of these, 123 were based on material by Experiment Station workers, 93 by Extension Service staff members, 37 from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 7 from the Editors and 8 from others. Separate flashes were prepared for north and south Florida stations six times.
The Associate Editor prepared a weekly Florida Farm Review and a monthly Home Demonstration Review which were released by the Associated Press to 23 stations. He sent a bi-weekly roundup to 24 stations not receiving the AP service.
The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, in its 22nd year of continuous broadcast, remained an important radio outlet. It was 30 minutes on each of five days a







Annual Report, 1950


week, 15 minutes on Saturday. It included 852 separate talks and interviews on 312 days, one program being cancelled because of a national broadcast and four being reduced to 15 minutes each by other national features.
Regular features prepared in this office included farm news highlights for 298 days, the farm question box weekly for 48 weeks, home economics notes weekly for 50 weeks, and the editorial of the week 50 times. The Editors prepared and made eight additional talks.
Other features included 130 talks by Experiment Station workers, 85 by other members of the Extension staff, 124 Farm Flashes from the USDA, 13 talks by teachers in the College of Agriculture, 11 by members of the State Production and Marketing Administration staff, and four by State Plant Board workers. Once a month for 10 months veterans and their trainers in the on-farm training program were interviewed, 31 veterans and trainers appearing.
Four remote broadcasts were staged from the Florida State Fair in Tampa, one from the College of Agriculture Fair on the campus and one from the Lake County Fair at Eustis. Recordings broadcast included features from the State 4-H Dairy Show in Orlando, the Alachua County 4-H Fair and an interview with a Census official.

MISCELLANEOUS
The filmstrip library was maintained and increased, the accessions being from the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Strips were loaned on request to county and home demonstration agents and others. Agents were assisted in obtaining motion picture films and those in two counties were aided in purchasing motion picture projection equipment. Two motion picture projectors, two strip projectors and four public address systems were maintained.
Food and Home Notes from the USDA were sent weekly to all home demonstration agents, many of whom used them in radio broadcasts and in news stories.
Organizations and agencies extended cooperation in the release of news and radio materials during the year included the College of Agriculture, State Plant Board, Production and Marketing Administration, Farmers' Home Administration, Rural Electrification Administration and vocational agriculture department.
The Editors spoke to eight groups on various phases of information work, with 185 people present.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION
BONNIE J. CARTER AND L. T. NIELAND

National Farm Safety Week and National Fire Prevention Week were observed by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service. Through the Extension Editor's office packets of material on safety, prepared by the National Safety Council, and on fire prevention by the USDA Council and the National Fire Protection Association were provided to help agents organize and conduct safety and fire prevention programs. Entomologists from the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station brought up to date information on precautions to follow when using some of the new and old pesticides and this information was sent to the agents also.
The Extension editorial staff prepared radio scripts and spot announcements and helped publicize the program over Station WRUF, Gainesville, through news articles, feature stories and editorials.
The Home Improvement Specialist, who directs the safety and fire prevention activities for women and girls, prepared suggested activities, including outlines for simple demonstrations, used by volunteer local leaders and 4-H Club girls in developing the 4-H Club safety and fire prevention program.
During the annual Short Course for 4-H Club Girls at Florida State University in June, two county home demonstration agents and a University 4-H Club girl assisted with instruction in the two subjects. They used motion pictures, posters, exhibits, demonstrations, lectures and mimeographed material to present the subject to 250 girls, volunteer leaders and home demonstration agents from all parts of the state.
Reports from county home demonstration agents show that they carried out organized programs in safety and fire prevention in each of the 35 counties. Through the efforts of these agents, 3,566 women and 3,798 girls were enrolled for demonstrations in safety and fire prevention; 488 volunteer local leaders assisted with the program and 887 method demonstrations were given at 1,14S meetings. Approximately 8,000 families were assisted and encouraged to remove fire and safety hazards and 5,610 young people in 31 counties received definite training along these lines.
Agents, volunteer leaders, 4-H Club girls, home demonstration women and specialists presented radio programs and spot announcements over radio, showed motion pictures and filmstrips, placed posters and exhibits, wrote news articles, held meetings, made surveys and gave method demonstrations, and conducted clean-up campaigns to focus attention of people on the need for adopting good practices in safety and fire prevention.
Specialists in Clothing and Textiles, 11cine Improvement, Food Conservation, and Home Industries and Marketing included safety and fire prevention in their programs.
Again this year, water safety was emphasized in the 4-H Club camp program at three district camps for white and one for negro boys and girls, as well as in several county camps. Over 5,000 girls and boys learned the fundamentals of water safety, some learned to swim, others increased their swimming ability, while still others prepared themselves for life saving. Camp programs also included environmental safety. Girls and boys made surveys of camp areas to find and remedy hazards.







Annual Report, 1950


Part 11 --- Men's Work


SUPERVISORY ACTIVITIES

H. G. CLAYTON, Director
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
0
F. S. PERnY, District Agent K. S. MCMULLEN, District Agent

With the assistance and close cooperation of boards of county commissioners, the Extension program was strengthened in the counties by additions to the staff and by some increases in salaries. District Agents continued to work closely with boards of county commissioners to see that Extension programs in the counties were designed to fill the specific needs of the particular counties.
There were a large number of changes in county Extension personnel and the District Agents played an important role in seeing that the new personnel were Placed so as to fill the specific needs of the counties concerned. The county agents and new assistant agents were given needed assistance and training for their new positions by the District Agents.
District Agents served on many committees designed to improve and expand the work of the Extension Service. The more important of these committees were: 4-H Club Cam13 Finance Committee, Florida State Fair 4-H Club Exhibit Committee, Extension Program Planning Committee, Extension Citrus Advisory Committee, Extension Vegetable Advisory Committee, and Extension Training Committee.
District Agents assisted in every way possible to maintain and promote good relations between agencies, organizations, commodity groups and county agents, which are so necessary for good Extension work. The support of these groups has been very evident during the year and has made it possible to'reach additional people.
District Agents continued their efforts to strengthen the new system of program development and integration. In county planning meetings, attended by all county Extension personnel, the District Agents brought a high degree of uniformity into the county programs.
Much time was spent by District Agents in correlating the work of specialists within the districts, thus facilitating and making more effective the work of the specialists. The District Agents spent some time working with the Citrus Institute, the Poultry Institute and the Farm and Home Institute. They also assisted county workers with local, district and state shows and fairs.
Four-H club work within the districts and on a state-wide basis was a major responsibility of the three District Agents. They attended 10 group meetings of county agents to discuss and plan 4-H activities. The scheduling of counties to 4-H camps was also their responsibility.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. C. HANULToN, Agricultural Economist
FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
C. M. HAMPSON, Economist in Farm Management F. W. PARviN, Associate Economist

The Economist's time was divided about equally between farm management extension projects and the teaching of methods in Agricultural Extension. The Associate Economist gave full time to farm management work.
Farm and Home Planning.-The farm and home planning project with individuals, now in its tenth year, was conducted on the same plan as in past years with only slight expansion. Plans for 271 farm families were made by the Economist, the county agent, the farmer and his wife. About 1,600 changes in practices were agreed upon, about 70 percent of which were carried out in a creditable manner, resulting in an average increase in net farm income of about $220, or 10 percent over the previous year. The work is carried on.in nine counties.
Assistance to Veterans.-The Economist is consultant to the veterans' supervisor of vocational agriculture; and as such supplies standards for measuring size of farm business, assists with the state annual meeting and various district meetings of veterans' teachers, conducts discussions with local classes, and in answer to written requests gives much information and some advice.
Assistance to Negroes.-Approximately one half of the work done in farm and home planning is conducted with negro agents and farmers. Two of the district meetings for veterans' teachers were with negro teachers and three 4-H leader training meetings were for negro leaders. Two or more days were given to each of , the following: 4-H camp, 4-H short course, Resources Committee and Annual Conference of Extension Agents.
Teaching Methods in Agricultural Extension.-Two regularly scheduled undergraduate courses are offered each fall semester, four courses are offered during a three-week summer school for in-service workers, and two problems courses are offered each term of school. Twenty students were enrolled in the summer school, 56 in the fall classes and 12 in problems courses. The classroom teaching is followed by assistance in the field. Aid was given in conducting training meetings for 4-H leaders and officers of 21 counties.
Economic Considerations in Florida's Pasture Development Program.-Continning the preliminary work started in 1949 the Associate Economist asked county agents in a large number of Florida's important beef-producing counties to collect certain information pertaining to the pasture development program.
Preliminary analysis of the data collected by those agents indicates that there is the widest possible range in methods and types of pasture development. The cost of development ranged between $10 per acre and $84 per acre. The cost of maintenance ranged between $0 and $16 per acre in the cases reported.
While no research has yet been initiated in the field of costs and returns in Florida's vast pasture development program, it is.hoped that such will be forthcoming in the not-too-distant future.
Farm Management for Florida's Agricultural Credit Sources.-During 1950 the Associate Economist made a concerted drive to impress upon all major sources of agricultural credit the fact that good farm management principles and practices are important.
Rural bankers, Production Credit Association officers and Farmers' Home Ad-







Annual Report, 1950


ministration officials were told that the adoption of good farm management principles should be made a part of the loan requirements.
In this connection the Associate Economist addressed the director's conference of the Production Credit Association, the agricultural short course of the Florida Bankers' Association, and the annual conference of the Farmers' Home Administration.
Economic Outlook for Florida Farmers.-A mimeographed sheet summarizing economic information important to Florida agriculture adapted from reports from USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics was prepared monthly for use of county agents, vocational agriculture teachers, veterans' teachers, rural bankers and Extension staff members.
Florida Agricultural Outlook.-Following the national outlook conference in Washington, October 30 to November 3, the Associate Economist prepared a general report entitled The Outlook for Florida Farmers in 1951. This report was distributed to 1,200 people who serve Florida farmers.
During the year the Associate Economist appeared before 17 farmer meetings in 11 counties and discussed the general subject of agricultural outlook for Florida farmers. The combined attendance at these meetings was approximately 1,925 farmers. Thirteen radio talks were prepared and delivered on the subject of outlook for various commodities and supplies for Florida farmers.
4-H Club Work.-Assistance was given at 35 4-H club events, including short course and camps and seven district and county fairs, and in the selection of state prize winners for national contests. Help was given in conducting training meetings with 4-H leaders froin 21 counties and 4-H officers from six counties.
Miscellaneous Activities.-Assistance was given in conducting 4-H camps, short course, rally days, and achievement days and in judging exhibits and record books. Cooperation was extended to 10 different farmer and civic organizations and to college teachers. Assistance was also given in the preparation of manuscripts by members of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station staff.

MARKETING
D. E. TuNINIONS, Economist, Marketing

There were a number of crop hazards in 1950, including freezes, hurricanes, droughts, etc., and as has been the case before, some crops brought much better prices than others. On the whole, prices for vegetables were not considered satisfactory. Citrus and livestock prices were good. Honey, syrup and some poultry products were unsatisfactory in price.
Citrus Fruits.-It was not necessary to spend as much time with these products in 1950 as in 1949 because: Prices were better, the citrus code that required more time in 1949 is in effect and the lime research project that took a lot of time in planning in 1949 is in progress. Special effort was made to comply with requests to attend meetings of trade associations and take part in various educational meetings. Trade associations worked with include: Florida Citrus Mutual, Producers Trade Association, United Growers and Shippers, Florida Canner Association, Florida Express Fruit Shippers Association, Canners League of Florida, Federal Marketing Agreement Committees (lime-avocado-mango); Extension Citrus Committee and Citrus Institutes.
The Extension Economist cooperated with lime, avocado and mango committees in an effort to develop better and more practical maturity standards, more satisfactory containers and improved grade. standards. -







Florida Cooperative Extension


Vegetables.-Tbe Extension Economist spent more time with vegetables in 1950 than in any other recent year. Vegetable prices were relatively low and it seemed advisable that he make a special effort to assist growers and marketing agencies in finding ways to economize. Much emphasis was given to technological improvements, especially those designed to save labor. There is a definite trend, and the Extension Economist has cooperated in it, to package vegetables more nearly at the point of growing. It is estimated that machinery has already been developed that will cut harvesting and packing costs of some vegetable crops as much as 20%. Quite noticeable are developments in sweet corn and in celery. There are other efforts being made in such crops as cauliflower and leafy winter vegetables.
Transportation.-Transportation was a major project in 1950. The Extension Economist in Marketing is Chairman of the Southeastern Cooperative Transportation Committee. This committee has concerned itself with cooperating with the railroads in improving equipment, increasing certain types of equipment, better use of equipment, and doing educational work all along the line in conserving as well as making better use of available equipment. In connection with this project, stress has been given to the importance of simplifying freight tariffs and to standardize motor-truck weight and equipment regulations.
Cooperative Marketing.-A long-time project of the Extension Marketing Specialist is encouraging farmers who need to organize themselves to take advantage of the provisions of the cooperative laws. Small farmers are handicapped in both selling and buying. By performing these functions collectively, it has been possible to reduce costs and thereby make small growers better able to compete with larger farmers.
Watermelon Growers and Distributors Association.-The Extension Economist is secretary of this association. This organization is primarily an educational group whose purpose is to assist in production, packing, transportation and distribution of watermelons. One meeting is held annually. The Marketing Specialist is pri.marily responsible for arranging the program for this meeting.
Livestock.-Rapid increase in the production of cattle has necessitated considerable attention to the needs brought about by this increase. Assistance has been given a number of livestock auctions in improving their facilities to handle the increased volume and to other groups in determining needs for additional markets. Possibly the warning against building a market where one could hardly succeed is as important as to help to build one that is needed.
Miscellaneous.-There are a number of miscellaneous jobs that the Marketing Specialist is called on to do, such as outlook meetings, which are in cooperation with Mr. Parvin; attending the Southeast Shippers Advisory Board meetings when practical (information obtained at these meetings is of value in connection with the transportation projects); livestock shows, which are helpful in working with farmers in an effort to increase quality; Poultry Institutes; 4-H Club camps; vocational agriculture teachers' annual meetings; Governor's Safety Council; meetings of the Citrus Products Research Council; and meetings of civic organizations. It is estimated that these miscellaneous projects take up about 10 to 15% of the time of the Extension Economist in Marketing.

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT ZACH SAVAcE, Associate Agricultural Economist, Experiment Station
Tabulated results of this project began in 1931 and the project has been under way continually since that time. The number of records included varied from 70 in 1931-32 to 326 in 1936-37 and has averaged 251 per season. The acreage included varied from 2,036 acres in 1931-32 to 10,479 acres in 1940-41. The







Annual Report, 1950 23

average for the 18 seasons was 8,630 acres- per season. In the 1948-49 season there were 223 records representing 7,883 acres of grove. Data completed to date for the 1949-50 season do not include returns from fruit on 239 groves of 8,119 acres.
Production costs per acre decreased each successive season since the 1946-47 season through 1949-50 on groves over 10 years of age. Labor, power and equipment, fertilizer materials, and spray and dust materials usually constitute 89 percent of the operating costs. Each of these items decreased during the 1946-50 period on a per-acre basis. Money spent for fertilizer materials decreased most at 85 percent. Spray and dust material costs per acre decreased 17 percent, and labor, power and equipment costs 12 percent. Operating costs per acre decreased 19 percent over this period. Operating costs and the three items of labor, power and equipment, fertilizer materials, and spray and dust materials all were higher per acre in the 1946-47 season than for any other of the 19 seasons of these cost records. One of the chief reasons for this was that the 1946-47 season followed five seasons of good fruit prices-varying from $1.02 per box in 1941-42 to $2.02 in 1944-45 and averaging $1.68. Good fruit prices accompanying rising costs of production labor and materials seem to accelerate the increase of production costs with each passing season. Then when fruit prices decline, as was the case in 1946-47 and 1947-48, production costs tend to remain high for some time. Also, data calculated on a crop-year basis tend to prolong these high costs one year longer than if on a fiscal-year basis. These data are on the crop-year basis, which means that the designation for the season was for the season in which the fruit was marketed and the production costs were incurred the previous season-the season in which the bloom occurred.
The number of boxes of fruit harvested per acre increased each season since 1944-45, when it was 225 boxes. Hurricane damage in sorne sections lowered the average that season. Boxes harvested increased to 342 boxes per acre in 1948-49 and averaged 319 boxes for the three seasons of 1946-49. There was some increase in age of trees during this period. Also, there were good weather conditions generally with little damage from low temperatures. Fruit harvested per acre during the 18-year period, 1931-49, averaged 206 boxes from trees that averaged 21 years of age-four years younger than the age for the 1946-49 period.
The decreases in per-acre costs accompanied by increases in boxes harvested accelerated the decreases in per-box costs. The season of 1946-47 had the highest per-box costs for labor, power and equipment, fertilizer materials, spray and dust materials, and total operating costs of the three seasons, 1946-49. The per-box costs for the 1946-47 season were highest of the 18 seasons, 1931-49, for labor, power and equipment, spray and dust materials, and total operating costs. There were two seasons, 1931-32 and 1944-45, with higher costs per box in fertilizer materials. The cost of fertilizer materials per box was 12 cents in 1948-49, the lowest since 1941-42 season, when such was also 12 cents. There were only two seasons of this 18-year period when fertilizer material costs were less than for the 1948-49 season. These two seasons were 1939-40 and 1940-41, when they were 11 cents per box. Total operating costs per box were 40 cents in 1948-49, the lowest since the 1943-44 season and I cent under the 18-year average. There were eight seasons when such costs averaged less than 40 cents.
Returns per acre from fruit were $136.41 in 1947-48-the lowest of any season since 1940-41. The price received for fruit averaged 43 cents in 1947-48, which was the lowest since 1938-39. There was one other season of this period, 1932-33, when the fruit price was less than in 1947-48. There were 15 seasons when the average fruit price was higher than this season and nine seasons when the price was more than twice the 1947-48 price. The price received for fruit in 1948-49 of







Florida Cooperative Extension


$1.14 was two and two-thirds times the price the preceding season. The returns from fruit per acre in 1948-49 were almost three times the returns in 1947-48.
Returns from fruit per acre in 1947-48 lacked $21.97 of refunding operating costs. There was one other season- 1932-33-of the 18 when there was an operating loss, but this loss was less than in 1947-48. The average return above operating cost for the last three seasons, 1946-49, were $96.14 per acre or 30 cents per box. There were 12 individual seasons of this period when return above operation" costs per acre were less than the average of these three seasons of 194649, and nine seasons when the per-box figure was less than the 30-cent average. The 1948-49 results greatly improved the averages for the three-year period, 1946-49. Returns above operating costs in 1948-49 amounted to $254.31 per acre or 74 cents per box. There were only four seasons of the 18, 1942-46, when more returns above operating costs were realized.
It is generally considered that good yields and high production lower prices received for the product. In the case of citrus this was not so much the case during the five seasons of 1941-46. During this period there were higlT production and high prices received for citrus-two favorable factors seldom occurring at the same time. The results were that the Florida citrus grower enjoyed great prosperity when compared to the 10 seasons of 1931-41.
Citrus yields were good during the three seasons of 1946-49. The average yield of 821-boxes on the groves of these records for 1947-48 was the highest of the 17 seasons up to that time. The following season, 1948-49, the yield averaged 342 boxes-21 boxes higher. The price received for fruit was low for two of these seasons, 1946-48, but improved to $1.14 in 1948-49. The yield per acre of all groves in Florida during each of these three seasons was not exceeded in any prior season, but in each season the state average was lower than the corresponding average of these records. The price received for all fruit in the state during this three-year period was 83 cents per box. This was 5 cents per box or 6 percent higher than the average price received during the'saine period by the growers of these records.
Total operating costs for the 1949-50 season wore $30.87 per acre, or 19 percent, less than in the 1946-47 season. The yield for 1949-50 was good, with a considerably higher price received for fruit than in 1948-49. When the receipts are all accounted for. in the. 1949-50 season, with the help of the decreased operating costs, it is expected that the returns above operating costs will equal or exceed any previous season for the groves included in these records. '
The individual report for each grove was increased to two pages. For the first time, labor, power and equipment costs for irrigation were separated frorn such costs used for otler purposes. It was thought advisable to begin a more detailed cost analysis of i ligation, as many growers are purchasing rather elaborate irrigation equipment and are spending liberally otherwise in irrigation.
Six additional items were added to the list, malzing 13 in all, of items ranked for the 200 groves over 10 years of age. Comparisons of quantities of available plant foods added during the season were included. Quantities of each of 10 fertilizer clement 'were given on per-box, per-acre, and ratio-to-nitrogen bases for the individual grove, average of all groves, and average recommendations by production authorities. It was hoped that this type of information would stimulate grower thinking sufficiently for him to correlate the poundage of plant foods added with anticipated and actual yields f or, the purposed lowering fertilizer costs where feasible.' A bound copy of individual grove reports was supplied county agents in Lake, Orange, Polk , and Highlands counties. These are used by these agents for reference when advising with the grower concerned for making recommendations concerning grove management.







Annual Report, 1950 25

A copy of the Citrus Grove Record Book was sent each cooperator using this book in keeping his record. Assistance was given the Citriculturist by supplying information for publication in "Citrus Notes for County Agents in Citrus Producing Counties." Manuscripts were prepared for two issues of The Citrus Industry and nine for Citrus magazine. The article that appeared in the July issue of Citrus also appeared in the September issue of The California Citrograpb.
Citrus cost accounts were discussed before college classes in horticulture and agricultural economics. Published material in this work was distributed to each member of each class. A total of 1,572 copies of publications was used for this purpose.
A short statement relative to the rental of citrus groves was prepared for the Agricultural Experiment Station to be published in a forthcoming bulletin.
The tabulation and presentation of this work was expedited by the issuance of nine different forms, or a total of 5,100 copies. Four form letters were written totaling 1,725 copies. Fifteen publications were issued representing a total of 10,925 copies of publications. A total of 28 different publications, letters, and forms were issued representing 17,750 copies, or a total of 73,800 pages of material.








Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRIFICATION

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
JO::N M. JOINSON, Agricultural Engincer
The Extension agricultural eng'neering program includes farm housing, farm buildings fain inarken' fa lites. irrigation, farm drainage, and personal service work. Re, ults an]1 method denis tratic ns illustrated lectures at farmer meetings, work group tra:n: g ex'iibits, news an l radio articles were employed.
The Engineer answer 1 (41 letters requesting information on various phases of the program, yartic:pated in 91 farmer meetings and demonstrations and 21 training schools, and1 visited 111 farmers in answer to requests for on-the-spot assistance.
Farm Structures.-The primary aim of the farm structures program is to improve the standard of living and income through properly planned, better constructed, and more efficiently arranged farls buildings.
One of the most valuable contributions to tle success of this program is tile Florida Farm Building Plan Service, whereby approved plans for dwellings and other farm buildings are provided free to Florida farmers. For reproducing prints, to be mailed in response to requests by farmers, 286 different building plais are on file. Two iiiiecographed publications, Farls Building Plans and Plaus for Farm Dwellings and Appurtenances, list several of the most popular plans of each type and describe each plan. These publications are supplied fon county Extension office bulletin racks, vocational agriculture and veterans teachers. In" addition to these descriptive bulletins, 2,000 sets of building plans are furnished count% workers for their reference files.

Fig. 1-Tie state 4-Il Club tractor driving contest, staged at Short Course during 1950 for the first tiise, showed the skill of the bos and attracted nuch attention.







Annual Report, 1950 27

During the year 5,801 plans for various farm buildings were mailed to farmers in answer to requests. To always have modern, up-to-date plans for distribution, new plans are constantly being added. The Engineer maintains a drafting office with two graduate student assistants, from which has come 38 of the most popular plans which include 6 dwellings, 2 dairy calf barns, a portable farrowing house, and a multiple outdoor fireplace.
The dairy calf barns and farrowing house were developed in cooperation with members of the Animal Husbandry Department. Scale models of the low-cost dwelling house and the calf barn were made and have been used in teaching and in exhibits. The dairy calf barn has become very popular with dairymen who are members of an artificial breeding association.
In cooperation with the Extension Home Improvement Specialist and the. Farm Electrification Specialist, nine regional training meetings (two for negro and seven for white) were conducted for professional workers in the field. The training classes covered planning, construction, use of materials, and use of electricity, with special emphasis on methods to be used in presenting housing information to rural people.
The Agricultural Engineer spent 57 days in the fiIJ as-isting county and home demonstration agents in conducting their educational prcg-am; in farm structures. The agents devoted 2,446 days to this phase cf the agricultural engineering program.
Farm. Machinery.-No farm can be considered mccan'z d to its practical economic limits so long as any operation that can be acc mplshed though the use of power equipment is being performed at a higher ccst or with Ic.3s efficiency through hand labor or animal power.
The aim of the Extension farm machinery program is t:) teach Cie farmer, his son, his hired labor, and the county agent the irn-)rrtance cf wise selection, proper use, and constant maintenance of the many useful pieces of machinery employed in modern farming operations. There are now an estimated 121,200 pieces of automotive equipment, including 25,000 farm tractors, operating on Florida farms. The number of tractors has increased 67% since July 1946.
The exhibit-demonstration has been used primarily in the phase of the program concerned with selection and operation. one hundred farm equipment dealers in the state have cooperated in providing machinery for 72 exhibit-demonstrations held at various farmer gatherings this year. An estimated 22,000 farmers inspected or operated the machinery at gatherings which included farm machinery field days, farm tours, county fair , and county 4-11 tractor operators' contests.
Preventive maintenance is an important factor in the efficient operation of mechmical equipment. The 4-H tractor maintenance project is based upon this premise. Two three-day tractor maintenance training schools, for 22 volunteer lacal leaders from 16 counties, were held this year for the purpose of giving the leader subject matter which be in turn uses in conducting his county schools for 1-H boys enrolled in the tractor maintenance project. To coincide with the maintenance program, a tractor operators' contest has been organized and last year was conducted in 17 counties for the selection of the champion 4-H tractor operator to represent the county at the state operators' contest held at annual 4-H short course.
The engineer devoted 51 field days and 22 office days to the machinery program. This time was spent answering 110 letters requesting information on machinery, preparing news items, and planning demonstrations and schools. Sixteen days were spent in personal service visits to 28 farms in answer to requests for assistance, 18 days were spent conducting schools and contests; and 5 days were. spent with manufacturers in work on new equipment.







Florida Cooperative Extension


County agents devoted 385 days to assisting 4,711 farmers with machinery problems. This work was conducted with the assistance of 169 volunteer local leaders in 418 communities in 57 counties.
Marketing Facilities.-It is important for farmers to go beyond the production stage to obtain the most possible return for their labor and investment in their product. Preparation of a commodity quite often determines the grade in which the commodity is sold. Therefore, if proper preparation is lacking the profit will be reaucea.
The aim of the marketing facilities program is to furnish all available information to the farmer and packer on preparing his products for both market And home use in the most efficient manner to obtain quality and sustain price.
The major activities of this program center around crop drying and fence post treatment. At the beginning of the Extension agricultural engineering program in 1945, a study revealed that there were no mechanical hay driers in the state. Also, there was very little hay being produced, for long bad the farmer known that the excessive rains and high humidities that existed during the haying seasons made this practice a risky one. As a result, millions of dollars were being spent yearly by farmers and dairymen on inferior imported hays.
The Engineering Specialist designed the first successful mechanical farm hay drier constructed in the state and last year designed and assisted in the construction of the largest farm-type seed drier in the state. The seed drier has been operated two seasons, during which time 527,000 pounds of blue lupine, 140,000 pounds of Bahia grass, 11,000 pounds of hairy indigo, 1,000 pounds of carpet grass, and small quantities of various other seeds have been dried.
In the fertile lands of South Florida corn can be grown at a yield many times larger than in other areas of the South. The difficulty encountered in the southern area is in high moisture and insect damage. Last year several ranchers grew corn for finishing beef animals. These progressive ranchers employed mechanical driers and were able to produce home-grown corn for feed on a large scale for the first time.
As a result of the successful drying operations of the drier installed during the past two years, the interest in this activity among farmers and ranchers has risen greatly. There are now over 50 mechaniLl drie s operating on farms in the state.
Due to the sustained and increased interest in livestock production, the activity on fence post treatment, in cooperation with the Extension Forester, has been continued. A farm method, which consists of a shallow tank suitable for day-to-day operations, has been devised by the two specialists. The treatment recommended, now used extensively throughout the state for treating posts and timber, employs a 5% solution of copper naphtlienate or pentcblorophenol in the cold soak method. A two-page mimeographed leaflet describing the operation is provided for bulletin racks.
A total of 30 days were spent making personal service calls and conducting demonstrations. Ninety-five letters were answered and nine groups totaling 405 farmers and 250 individual farmers and ranchers were met for the purpose of discussing various phases of the marketing facilities program, which included crop drying, fence post and lumber treating, tobacco curing, and washing and precooling vegetables. ,
Drainage and I.rrigation.-The activity in these phases of agricultural engineering has been confined to personal service calls and demonstrations. ,
Twenty-six days were devoted to answering letters requesting information on drainage or irrigation, planning or conducting demonstrations, and in visiting 11 farms to inspect and make recommendations regarding drainage problems.
Five irrigation demonstrations were conducted, attended by 1,850 farmers and ranchers. Agents assisted 1,445 farmers with irrigation and 2,274 farmers with farm drainage problems.







Anuial Report,. 1959


FARM ELECTRIFICATION
A. M. PETI-is. Farm Electrification Specialist
Safe, Adequate Wiring.-The frm ci ectrifi ation program in Florida is bascd (n safe, adequate wiring. Electrh'al far0 and hi m' equipiw,nt will not operate properly and may he a hazard, ii the xiing is not ade(uate k:r the I )a1. This specialist wrote a leaflet entitled, i'linnin" Faln Wi.ring." Copie of this lcali' haxe been mailed to ecery county Extexnsion w0Xrler i' ," iti ti i jint ni' ted farmers. In addition many copies ha e been ersmally ditrl,ut',' at Lig 1 this Specialist.
To demon tratc the effects of poor wirin ,- the xx r:er buil it a pM o dr op i'anel which has been revised and enlaired to gisc more effect e deilionstrations. Demonstrations xxith this equipment and wiring talks haxe been gi iven 53 tim's this vear to 8,500 rural people, including famers. Extension agents, 4-1I members, an 1 others.
Proper Lighting.-The Farm Electrification Specialist plian,.d an1 equipped a lighting panel to show Extension workers and rural people the differences in kind; of lighting and the need for good lighting. This panel is 7 feet high. 8 feet ling, an-1 ,3 feet deep. It contains pin-up lamps, a fluorescent fixture, a poor drop light and an inmproved drop light. a poor ceiling fixture and an ilnproxed ceiling fixture. a night light, and wall outlets. Ma\ Extas ension xxrii i and farlinwrs hase been taught facts of good lighting at txo fal MiCrl ia 1 ho1e in;tituItCs and the Ixtinsion annual conference. In promoting godr iF hting this Specialit has had xery close cooperation of the Extension iHme Improxement Specialist.
Electrical Equipment.-'rii ghiiigloit the year assistance has becoi given tf) Extension workers, farmers, alid I-Il members en the selection, care, alld iise of

Fig. 2.-This lighting panel helped tell the storx of better li ghts in the home to



10 111 R g.il1I 1







Florida Cooperative Extension


electrical farm and home equipment; Bulletins on electric water systems, homemade chick brooders, electric motors, and other electrical equipment have been supplied to farm leaders and farmers.
4-H Farm and Home Electric Contest.-A survey was conducted by this Specialist to stimulate interest among county Extension workers and to determine their need for contest material. Helpful material was obtained for 40 agents desiring it. Assistance has been given to 40 agents and local leaders. Four discussions with 230 4-H members have helped to stimulate interest in this contest. At the summer 4-H camps this specialist supervised 4-H members in practical wiring work. Outdoor floodlights were installed and permanent wiring was installed to an exhaust fan. The state winner in the Farm and Home Electric Contest this year was Roy Heatbcoe of Hillsborough County.
Co-ordination of County Work.-On numerous occasions this Specialist has promoted better relations between county agricultural workers and power suppliers. Specifically, be has urged rural electric cooperatives to mail Extension workers copies of newsletters sent regularly to their members. Electrification advisers hired by the cooperatives have been assisted in their work with county agricultural workers. The writer has encouraged electric cooperatives to place Extension workers on the programs of their annual meetings and to publicize the activities of Extension workers. County Extension workers have been urged to attend annual meetings of electric cooperatives and have been informed of the organization and operation of these cooperatives.
Training Program.-This Specialist, in cooperation with the Extension Engineer and the Home Improvement Specialist, organized a training program for home demonstration agents in 1949. This year six additional advanced training schools, attended by 82 home demonstration agents, were held to teach housing information. This Specialist l taught fundamentals of electricity and planning proper wiring.
At the annual Extension conference additional information on farm electrification was presented to home demonstration agents. At the negro agents' annual conference this Specialist instructed 22. negro county and home demonstration agents in simple electricity and planning proper wiring. Basic things that could be done to assist their colored farmers in the safe, economical use of electricity were emphasized.
In cooperation with the Rural Electrification Administration and the electric cooperatives, this Specialist has helped train electrification advisers hired by the cooperatives. An orientation school, a wiring school, and a range school have been hold this year. This Specialist devoted considerable time to planning these schools, as well as teaching subjects in the schools.
This Specialist encourages power suppliers to inform their consumers about proper wiring, good lighting, and the safe, economical use of electrical equipment. Six electrification advisers have been hired by the electric cooperatives in the state to assist their members. Eleven electric cooperatives publish newsletters regularly to bring timely information to their members. This Specialist has assisted every electrification adviser to organize a program of work with rural people. This includes acquiring and using demonstration material. The writer helps to co-ordinate the efforts of these workers with farm leaders, including county Extension personnel, vocational agriculture teachers, and veterans' teachers. Each of the electric cooperatives has an annual meeting attended by large crowds of their members. This specialist has given demonstrations and talks at seven annual meetings, attended by 7,200 rural people this year.
Rural Telephones.-Work in the field of rural telephones has been done as the need has arisen. At present about 12% of Florida farms have telephones. This compares with 40% of the nation's farms. 'The first loan made by the Rural







Annual Report, 1950


Electrification Administration to further telephone service directly affects Florida farmers. The Florala Telephone Company, Florala, Alabama, received this loan, and additional lines will be built in Walton and Okaloosa counties in Florida, as well as a county in Alabama.
Six existing small commercial telephone companies in Florida have applied for loans. Three groups of rural people, in every case assisted 1y county Extension workers, are attempting to obtain rural telephone service for their areas. This Specialist presented the latest information on rural telephones to Extension agents at their annual conference. He supervised a rural telephone survey covering part of four counties for the lEA. The writer has contributed information at four telephone meetings and has co-ordinated the efforts of the three interested groups in the state so that a maxinmn effort may be made to obtain telephone service for rural people in Florida.
Additional Uses of Electricity.-This Specialist is on the alert to learn of more practical uses of electricity on the farm. At the request of a county agent and an electric cooperative manager, assistance was given toward preparing a demonstration. This demonstration used infra-red beat lamps to limit the effects of blue mold in a tobacco bed. This Specialist also assisted the Experiment Station Engineer in preparing a test tobacco bed. This bed used infra-red lamps over one-half of the bed to determine the extent of blue mold control by the lamps. Restilts of this one test have been encouraging. Further experimentation is needed to determine the cost and effectiveness of this method of control as compared with other methods.
Fig. 3.-Infra-red lights used on this tobacco plant bed showed a degree of control of ])ie mold, but more information is needed about costs and methods of using the rays.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRONOMY
J. R. HENDERSoN, Extension Agronomist

Major activities of the project leader in agronomy Extension included:
1. Preparing and distributing to county agents recommendations for production of the major field crops and the various kinds of pasture and specific suggestions for county Extension activities in agronomy.
2. Conferences with county agents, in groups and individually, for presentation of subject-matter information and discussion of Extension methods.
3. Meetings with seed, fertilizer, and pesticide dealers and with groups of farmers to better acquaint them with Extension recommendations for the production and management of field crops and pastures.
4. Assisting county agents with specific Extension projects in soils, field crops and pastures.
The project leader has continued to assist agents in all sections of the state in gaining an appreciation of soil conditions in their respective counties and in determining lime and fertilizer requirements of different soils when used for production of various field crop and pasture plants.
As an aid to county workers the project leader developed and distributed to them a mimeographed set of recommendations for the production of the major field crops and the various kinds of pastures. These recommendations are developed in such a way that each agent can lift from them recommendations applicable to his county.
Suggestions for project activities were outlined at the beginning of the crop year and again, particularly from the standpoint of desirable result demonstrations, at the annual conference in October.
Meetings.-In cooperation with district supervisors, county agents and other specialists, and with assistance of personnel of the Experiment Station and the Production and Marketing Administration, community meetings were held during January in 20 counties in the general farming area. At these meetings, information on outlook, price supports, marketing quotas and conservation payments and recommendations on production and management of livestock, pastures and field crops were presented. These meetings were attended by approximately 3,500 farmers.
Two meetings for seed, fertilizer and pesticide dealers were held, one at DeFuniak Springs and one at Madison, in early December. Research information on varieties, fertilization and pest control was reviewed and Extension recommendations were outlined. In each case county agents secured attendance of dealers and accompanied them to the meetings.
In cooperation with the Extension Vegetable Specialist and officers of the Florida Seedsmen's Association, the Extension Agronomist gave instruction on soils, fertilizers and field crop varieties at a seedsmen's school held at Gainesville in January. Also, be was a member of a panel that reviewed research information and presented Extension recommendations on varieties and fertilization of field crops and pastures at the annual meeting of the Association in June.
The project leader, in cooperation with other specialists and research workers, planned and made all arrangements for a meeting of seed producers at Tallahassee in November. This meeting was well attended and was followed by the organization of the Florida Seed Producers' Association.
The project leader assisted with three pasture field days for bankers and professional agricultural workers.







Annual Report, 1950


Assistance was given agents in planning and conducting farm tours and in presenting subject-matter information at special farm meetings and at meetings of farm organizations and civic clubs.
Again this year the Extension Agronomist cooperated with county agents and 4-H Club leaders in carrying out production projects with field crops, with special emphasis on corn production, using seed of the best hybrid available and heavier than usual rates of fertilization. An excellent State 4-H Corn Show, described by many as the best to date, was staged at Tallahassee in October.
In cooperation with the Tobacco Branch of the Production and Marketing Administration, tobacco sorting and grading demonstrations were held in mid-July in each of the counties where flue-cured tobacco is produced.
Permanent Pastures.-Activities during the year were designed to secure the establishment of more pastures and the improvement of the carrying capacities of those already established.
Recommended practices for pasture establishment and management emphasized during the year are generally as follows: (1) Choose varieties to fit soil conditions and grow legumes with grasses wherever possible andprofitable; (2) prepare a firm, fertile seedbed; (3) lime in accordance with soil conditions and the requirements of plants to be grown; (4) fertilize adequately, including minor elements where they are needed, keeping in mind the kind of soil and the nutrient requirements of the grasses or grass-legume combinations to be grown; (5) seed or sod at proper rates and when soil moisture and temperature are favorable for germination and growth; (6) inoculate legumes at rates above those recommended by the manufacturers of inoculants, increasing the rates as the size of seed decreases;
(7) cover seed or vegetative material, by appropriate means, immediately after sowing or scattering and make seedbed firm by rolling with suitable equipment;
(8) when seeding legumes on established grass sod, first remove excess grass by mowing or close grazing and disk sod lightly; (9) mow or chop as often as necessary for control of weeds; (10) refertilize grass or grass-summer legume pastures each spring and grass-winter legume pastures each fall, using a complete fertilizer for grass pastures on mineral soils and phosphate and potash fertilizers for grass pastures on organic soils and for grass-legume pastures; (11) regime every four or five years to bring calcium supply or soil PH values back to desired levels; and (12) practice rotational grazing or control cattle numbers so that succulence is maintained, maximum production of forage is secured, and natural reseeding of legumes is permitted.
Detailed recommendations, based on these general principles, were furnished all county agents, who were confronted with the greatest demand ever for this type of information. Throughout the year the county agents assisted farmers with their pasture, problems. In addition to furnishing production recommendations they held meetings, staged demonstrations, conducted tours, and assisted in lo ating supplies of seed, limestone and other materials. The project leader assisted several agents in holding meetings and conducting tours. These tours and meetings, no doubt, did much to increase interest in the development of better pastures.
Indications are that more pastures were established on Florida farms this year than in any other year in history. The increase in acreage of winter pasture legumes would have been much larger if weather conditions had been more favorable. Particularly noteworthy was the increase in pasture acreage on smaller farms.
Research work on pasture varieties and fertilization was reviewed and detailed recommendations for result demonstrations, involving promising new varieties and rates, dates, and kind of fertilization, were outlined at the a gents' conference in October.
Temporary Grazing Crops.-In addition to furnishing county agents with







,Florida Cooperative Extension


production recommendations the Agronomist assisted them in locating seed supplies of recommended varieties of sweet lupines, reseeding Crimson clover, oats and rye.
Due to the prevalence of Victoria blight and a new race of crown rust during the last four growing seasons, acreage devoted to oats has declined. All Victoria strains of oats, formerly widely used, are highly susceptible to Victoria blight, and all Red Rustproof types are moderately susceptible to new races of crown rust. Camellia oats and Florida Black rye are resistant to both diseases. Again this year the Extension Agronomist located seed supplies of these varieties, furnished this information to seed dealers and county agents, and urged them to secure the widest possible use of these varieties.
Southland, a new variety of oats superior to Camellia in both grain and forage production, was selected at the North Florida Experiment Station and seed supplies were increased through Experiment Station plantings at Gainesville, Quincy and Jay. The project leader accepted applications and otherwise assisted with the distribution of approximately 10,000 bushels of seed of this new variety.
Corn.-Workers at the Florida Experiment Station have shown that corn yields can be increased economically by improving the soil fertility with leguminous crops, using seed of adapted hybrids, applying fertilizers at heavier rates, and spacing plants properly., Recommendations based on these findings were furnished to county agents who brought them to the attention of farmers by appropriate means. Production projects by 4-H Club members were used to demonstrate the soundness of recommended practices and also to demonstrate that round seed produce as well as flat seed. Very successful contests among adults were staged in several counties, under financial sponsorship of local Farm Bureau and local business men.
Particular emphasis was placed on the use of Dixie 18, a hybrid developed at the Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station from four inbred lines, two of which were developed at the Florida Station. High yield, good resistance to weevil and high resistance to lodging are all combined in it. It is estimated that 32 percent of the corn acreage was planted with hybrid seed.
The Agronomist assisted farmers in securing foundation seed for planting 600 acres of Dixie 18 and other adapted hybrids. Although the use of Dixie 18, a yellow corn, has become widespread, there is still a demand for a white hybrid with the superior qualities possessed by Dixie 18. Through cooperation of the Georgia Coastal Plain Station, a small quantity of seed of Ga. 281, a white hybrid formerly known as GCP 8100, was distributed among agents in 28 counties for demonstration plantings. Agents" reports and research data indicate that this hybrid is equal to Dixie 18 in yield and resistance to weevils and to lodging.
Peanuts.-The Agronomist, cooperating with county agents, and the agents working alone in their respective counties, continued to emphasize Extension recommendations as regards varieties, seed treatment, spacing, rates and kind of fertilization, placement of fertilizers, and dusting for control of disease and insect pests.
Special emphasis'was placed on further development of certified seed of Dixie Runner, a high-yielding variety that is relatively free of concealed damage. At the suggestion of the Agronomist, the Experiment Station produced approximately 20 tons of foundation seeding 1949, which were distributed to seed producers last spring. Seventeen farmers produced certified seed on 1,485 acres in 1950. In contrast, nine farmers produced certified seed on 432 acres in 1949.
Flue-Cured Tobacco.-As a result of widespread adoption of Extension recommendations for control of weeds, insects and diseases, and for correlation of soil type, fertilization and spacing, the average yield of flue-cured tobacco increased from 721 pounds per acre in 1941 to 1,079 pounds per acre in 1949.








Annual Report, 1950


Control of insects during 1950 was simplified by adequate supplies of the newer insecticides and the widespread adoption of the sled-row method of planting, which permitted the use of tractor-drawn dusters and sprayers.
Dry weather during the early part of the growing season, combined with widespread damage by nematodes and use of excessive rates of fertilization by many farmers, resulted in lowering of yields and quality on many farms.
Because of the interest in nematode control, latest information on soil fumigation'was brought to the attention of the county agents and seven test demonstrations on'the use of soil fumigants for nematode control were conducted in five of the more important tobacco counties.
Through cooperation of a friend of tobacco farmers, the Extension Service again sponsored an area-wide contest in which awards to growers were made on basis of quality. This contest is doing much to increase interest in methods of producing tobacco of higher quality.
Cotton. -Experimental plantings of Sealand 542,. a long staple cotton that resembles upland cotton in growth habit, have been made for several years. Up to date information on yields, prices, staple length and cultural practices were furnished to county agents in central and northern Florida for their guidance in making recommendations to farmers interested in growing this variety. The project leader assisted with a Sealand cotton production contest, in which prize money made available by the Florida Department of Agriculture was awarded to three growers in each of four different areas.
The Extension Agronomist spent 101 days in the field, of which 46 were spent on area or statewide activities and 55 were spent in assisting county agents individually.
Reports from the county agents show that they spent a total of 5,218 days on field crops and pastures.








Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
OLIVER F. CoEN, Animal Husbandman
J. A. MCGREGort, Assistant Animal Industrialist

Many dollars are lost each year to Florida livestock raisers due to lack of proper regard for herd sanitation and the health of their livestock by livestock raisers. Through talks to farmer groups, county agents, and cattlemen's association meetings, radio talks, news articles, and exhibits, the importance of good livestock sanitation practices and their relation to the control and prevention of animal diseases and parasites have been pointed out.
Loss of many dollars to Florida livestock producers from crippling, bruising, and killing of livestock due to improper handling from farm to market and at livestock markets continues to be a problem. The State Livestock Loss Prevention Committee endeavors through education to promote prevention of livestock losses. The Extension Animal Husbandman is chairman of this committee. One meeting was held in Quincy, attended by more than 200 persons. Through news articles and talks to various farmer groups and other groups connected with the livestock industry, the Extension Animal Husbandman has pointed out these losses and emphasized how they affect all members of the industry.
Beef Cattle.-Beef cattle are playing a more important part in the agricultural economy of the state. Cross income from beef cattle during 1949 was better than $21,000,000. The total number of cows and calves reported on Florida farms January 1, 1950, was 1,392,000, an increase of 127,000 head. The clearing and Planting of unimproved rangeland into pasture has continued at a very rapid rate. The beefiness and quality of Florida cattle have not kept pace with the improvement in the feed supply.
Since the advent of citrus by-product feeds, the production of Big Joe corn in the Okeechobee muckland area, and the production of more corn in the west Florida area, the feeding of concentrated feeds to cattle has become more profitable.
There are approximately 380 purebred herds in the state. Extension specialists have worked closely with purebred breeders individually and through their associations in organizing sales and field days. They have promoted the use of purebred bulls in improving the beefiness and quality of commercial herds and in the production of high grade cattle that are of sufficient quality to be suitable for the feedlot. County agents have reported assisting 665 cattlemen to secure purebred bulls and 629 to secure purebred or high grade heifers. Reports also show 3,763 farmers controlling external parasites affecting beef cattle, while 3,139 farmers used control measures on internal parasites and diseases of beef cattle. County agents, assisted by 253 local leaders, spent 2,152 days in 577 communities working on beef cattle problems. They assisted 3,093 farmers in improving methods of feeding beef cattle.
Hogs.-There were reported 619,000 head of hogs on Florida farms January 1, 1950. There were 524,000 head of hogs marketed in the state during 1949. The gross income from hogs to farmers of the state during 1949 was $17,514,000. By talks to farmer groups, consultations with county agents, circular letters, radio talks, personal contacts, and work with 4-H club members, problems of Florida hog producers, as recognized by the Extension Animal Husbandry Specialists, were discussed and their solutions pointed out.
Reports show that county agents helped 488 farmers to secure purebred boars and 484 to secure purebred or high grade gilts. They assisted 3,979 farmers in controlling external parasites of hogs and 5,697 in controlling internal parasites and diseases affecting hogs. County agents assisted 2,600 farmers in improving







Annual Report, 1950 37

methods of feeding hogs. County agents, assisted by 85 local leaders, devoted 1,468 work days on swine production.
4-H Club Activities.-Expansion of 4-H Club livestock work has been a major project stressed in the animal husbandry program. Three separate beef projects have been suggested to cover three different phases of the field. First, a commercial calf project was designed to utilize Florida-produced calves and as much Florida-produced feed as possible, the ultimate product being a calf suitable to go into the commercial feed lots of Florida or one suitable for marketing as a good slaughter calf. Second, a cow and calf project to give the club member a complete education in all phases of cattle production, to produce high quality calves for feeder calf sales, and to start the 4-H club member in the cow business with a small herd of commercial cattle. Third, the 4-H club fat steer project to enable the individual club member to gain experience in handling good cattle and in producing a superior product at the end of the project. A fat steer project gives the 4-H club member invaluable experience for use in later work in raising or handling cattle where purebred or high quality cattle are involved.
A fat barrow project and a sow and pig project are the two swine projects that have been stressed.
The Extension Animal Husbandry Specialists attended four 4-H club camps at which various subjects relating to animal husbandry were taught.








Florida Cooperative Extension


APICULTURE
JoHN D. HAYNIE, Apiculturist

Honey production in Florida reached its highest record in 1950 with over 15.6 million pounds, in spite of the partial crop failure in the tupelo section, the second largest honey-producing area. This is the second timo-the first was in 1946that Florida beekeepers have produced over 15 million pounds of honey.
The citrus bloom extended over a much longer period this year, being somewhat similar to 1949, but honey production was heavier. Other nectar flows were from weak to good.
Florida again ranked fifth in honey production, led by Minnesota, California, Iowa and Texas. This 1950 crop of honey was produced by an estimated 208,000 colonies. The estimated average yield of honey per colony was 75 pounds this year and 56 pounds last year.
Three new packing plants were established this year, indicating an increased demand for Florida honey.
There was an unexpected increase in the number of colonies. But with this increase and the large crop of honey, there proved to be no unusual marketing problem. So far, only two carloads of honey have been bought by the government under the support-price program. This honey purchased by the government is to be distributed to school lunchrooms throughout the state.
The Extension Apiculturist's approach to a program in beekeeping is carried out through the county and home agents, district beekeepers' associations, the State Beekeepers' Association, the Florida State Fair, horticultural societies and any group interested in the activities of the honey bee.
The radio, news letters and special circulars on beekeeping enable the Apiculturist to recommend better methods and practices in the field of beekeeping.
Many personal service trips are made to the field to analyze beekeeping problems in cooperation with county agents.
Pollination.-Demands for legume seed are increasing each year. North Florida counties are planting more pastures and legumes furnish a large amount of the forage when grown either separately or with grasses. Since legumes fertilize the grass and also furnish pasture for grazing, legume seed production is steadily increasing.
Honey bees increase the seed yields tremendously when sufficient numbers of colonies are uniformly distributed in the legume fields.
The County Agent in Jefferson was assisted in the selection of 65 colonies of honey bees for seed growers in that county. The colonies were moved to the legume fields to assist the natural insects in the pollination of Crimson clover, Annual Sweet (Hubam) clover, White Dutch clover and watermelons.
An exhibit of legume pollination, honey bees and bulletin information on pollination was set up at the Jefferson County Fair in October 1950. The legume pollination exhibit was shown at the Jackson County Fair, where the farmers are beginning to increase their legumes for pasture purposes and seed production.
Work With 4-H Club Members.-Tbe main project for 4-H Club beekeeping is carried on at Camp McQuarrie. This apiary site is proving to be economically sound in honey production and providing an excellent laboratory for the instruction of agents and 4-H Club boys and girls. While the boys are usually more interested in beekeeping projects than the girls, yet a few girls keep bees.,
Carey Robbins, Thomas Townsend and Ralph T. Clay assisted the Apiculturist in moving the bees to the citrus bloom and then back to the honey flow around







Annual Report, 1950


Camp MeQuarrie. These assistant agents all have demonstration colonies and boys with apiary projects. Being located near the 4-H Club apiary at Camp McQuarrie, the agents have assisted the Apiculturist in all the operations of the apiary, preparing the colony for the spring honey flow, loving colonies, supering, taking off honey, extracting and preparing colonies for the winter.
The Assistant Agent in Polk County conducts a demonstration apiary and the 4-H Club bovs put on a bee and hones exhibit each year at the county fair. The Assistant Agent in Orange County has used visual aids in connection with Apiculturist in developing interest in 4-H Club beekeeping.
The Assistant Htone Agent in eastern Hillsborough County set up a demonstration apiary to teach 4-l1 Club girls ssho were interested in honey bees. The apiary has been very productive and gives the girls another opportunity to decide if they would like hees for a project. Other assistant home agents have bee projects planned for their 4-H Club girls.
Beekeepers' Associations.-The Apiculturist plans the program of the Florida State Beekeepers' Association each year. The meeting is a short course or institute for beekeepers from all over the state. Problems are discussed and plans made to study such problems with the hope that a solution may be found.
There arc nine district beekeepers' associations, but not all of them are active. Some of these associations meet once a month, some every two months and some every quarter. The Apicultirist meets with as many of the district beekeepers' associations as is practical.
Florida State Fair.-The beekeepers display Over 2,000 square feet in bee and honey exhibits at the State Fair in Tampa each year. P. T. Strieder. fair manager, says this is the largest honey show in the country.
Beekeepers in Florida produce many varieties of hones which are displayed

Fig. 4.-The honey display at the Florida State Fair covered a large area, was of top quality, and received high praise.




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40 Florida Cooperative Extension

each year at the State Fair. Each beekeeper plans his booth so as to tell the story best, where his honey is produced and from what plant source.
Cooperative Research Programs.-The Extension Apiculturist continued experimental work with Dr. C. K. Parris, Plant Pathologist at the Experiment Station's Leesburg field laboratory, studying the activities of honey bees in the pollination of watermelon fields, and with Dr. C. B. Killinger, agronomist at the Main Station, in the seed set of clovers with and without honey bees.
The setting of melons has been increased by the activities of honey bees and clover seed yields appear to increase with the increase of colonies up to a certain point. More work will have to be done before definite recommendation can be made on the number of colonies per acre necessary for good pollination of clover and watermelon fields.
The Extension Apiculturist cooperates further with Lillian E. Arnold, assistant botanist at the Main Station, in collecting and identifying honey plants for publication and with Frank Robinson, Assistant Apiculturist, in setting up field test plots and the growing of honey plants that will fit into the beekeepers' program.








Annual Repor-t, 1950


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
WV. NV. BROWVN, State Boys' Club Agent
JOE; N. BUSBY, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent
As usual, the club agents received full cooperation of all Extension staff memnbers and many from the Experiment Station in conducting the various phases of the 4-H program with boys during the year.
Participation in 4-H active ities throughout Florida increased substantially during 1950, particularly in judging contests, liv estock and poultry shows, method demonstrations and the awards program.
During the year, 8,998 4-H- Club boys were enrolled, xvith 5,961 of them comnpleting one or more projects. An user-all total of 12.367 projects were carried; of this number 8,426 were completed. This is a higher percentage of completions than in previous years and indicates that efforts by Florida Agricultural Extension workers to improve basic 4-H Club phases are bearing fruit.
A few of the activities which helped, and are continuing to help, thle 4-H Club program included 11 leaders' training meetings, 15 demonstration teams, 24 4-H judging contests, attendance by boys at summer camps, 224 4-H tours, 37 educational trips, 1,938 recreation and social meetings, 52 achievement days and activities of 83 clubs on a community basis.
An increase in the quality of club projects and activities was noted during thle year by both local and state leaders.
District Programs.-The district program for boys' 4-11 Club work was continued, since apparently it contributes more than any other one thing to 4-H Club achievements. The counties are div ided into 10 districts. County agents and assistants hold district meetings, generally in December, to formulate sound and constructive programs for the coming year. Results from these district meetings have been tremendous. Plans are nosy being made to hold a second meeting in each district during the summer in order that goals established for each area may be pursued more completely.
Camnps.-Camping continued to be an integral parit of club activities. The new camp in Highlands County xxas used] for the first tine. While it is only partially completed, it was employed for three wxeeks of camping by box's. Construction is continuing and this camp will he used more fulls' in 19.51. Via. .5. The neet4-I1 camp, nerLake Placid inHighlands Coontvws cu
this year and was used for three weeks, although only partially complete.








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Florida Cooperative Extension


This gives a total of five permanent 4-H Club camps in Florida operated by the Agricultural Extension Service. Three others for white mernbers are at Timpoochee, Cherry Lake and McQuarrie. The Negro 4-H camp, Doe Lake, was operated for its second summer during 1950.
White 4-H members camped for a total of 35 weeks at four camps, Negroes for seven weeks at Doe Lakc7 More than 4,500 members attended'during the 42 weeks. In addition to providing recreation, the camps gave opportunity for instruction, leadership training and citizenship development.
Citrus and poultry institutes were held at McQuarrie as usual, and farm and home institutes were staged at Timpoocbee and Cherry Lake. These were attended by several hundred farm men and women and members of their families. .
Because of the growing interest in these institutes, attendance has made, handling difficult with presently available camp facilities.
Short Course.-The largest short course in the history of Florida boys' 4-H Club work was held during the summer of 1950 with a total of 342 members in attendance. Held for the first time, a tractor driving contest provided competitive participation for champion drivers of 17 counties. Operation of farm machinery adds stimulus to boys' club work.
Demonstrations.-Encouraged during the year was the giving of demonstrations, such as the 25 to 30 teams representing various counties at the Florida State Fair in Tampa. The demonstration is a prime asset in individual development, since it acquaints the general public with current information on agricultural practices and provides training for the participants.
Several commercial concerns cooperated in helping to stage the demonstrations given throughout Florida upon various occasions.
Studies.-Tbe Florida part of the Southern region study, sponsored by the USDA Extension Service, was completed during the year. This is an effort to learn what makes a 4-H Club program successful in an above-average county. The study was made in Marion County, with assistance from club and district agents and county personnel.
The workers interviewed 127 4-H 'members, parents, leaders, business men, farmers, bankers and others interested to obtain their views on the things contributing to the success of the 4-H Club program.
The Florida study will be combined with material from other states in the Southern region to present results which can be used by all states. I Awards.-The 4-H awards program is vital in the administration of effective
club activities; at present, Florida 4-H boys have more than 20 awards contests in which they may participate. These include free trips to the National Club Congress, gold watches, scholarships, cash awards, statues and county medals. The outstanding award each year is the trip to the National 4-H Club Camp in Washington for two outstanding boys and two girls. A third boy is selected to attend the Danforth Leadership bunp at Shelby, Mich., annually.







Annual Report, 1950


CITRUS CULTURE
FRED P. LAWRENCE, Citriculturist

In addition to the Citriculturist, the Extension Marketing Economist and an Experiment Station economist worked in the field of citrus.
The Citriculturist spent 136 days in the office and 125 days in the field. fie prepared eight pamphlets (mimeographed) giving recommendations in various phases of citrus production, eight radio talks, seven news stories, four newsletters and two scientific papers for delivery at citrus institutes, in addition to 13 other talks. He also planned two training schools for county agents and conducted one training school for Farmers' Home Administration field personnel. He assisted in planning the programs for three citrus institutes, four citrus clinics, two ornamentals institutes and one transportation school.
He also served on the State Citrus Advisory Committee, Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee, state committee on arrangements for the Southeastern Regional Horticultural Society meeting, and the committee that develops and publishes the Florida Better Fruit Spray and Dust Program.
Profitable Season.-Florida citrus growers reaped one of the richest harvests in the history of the industry during the 1949-50 season. Following a slow and dismal beginning, with pre-boliday prices at relatively low levels, growers were soon in the enviable position of having the fresh, canned and frozen fruit buyers actively bidding against each other for raw fruit. Prices at all levels (on tree, auction and f.o.b.) skyrocketed far above the most optimistic pre-season predictions.
This unprecedented prosperity was due to a number of factors: California and Texas had not recovered from their freezes; the continued phenomenal growth of frozen concentrate; the stabilizing effect of minimum prices established by Florida Citrus Mutual; the enactment of the 1949 Florida citrus code, which raised the maturity standards on all edrus; a hurricane the preceding August which reduced the Florida crop by some 15 million boxes; the improved advertising program of the Florida Citrus Commission; and the restrictions of the Federal Marketing Agreement Committee.
More capital, especially out-of-state capital, was invested in the Florida citrus industry this season than in any other single season * Many large and well established groves, packing and processing plants changed hands. Frequent individual sales ran well into the millions of dollars. Thousands of acres of new groves were and are still being planted. Modern concentrating plants, representing investments of millions of dollars, were constructed, while still other plants are being modernized and expanded.
Florida citrus growers have certainly been on the long end of natural and artificial conditions this season. They experienced one of the warmest and driest years in the state's history this year. In fact, last January was the warmest for that month in 35 years. The rains were.so limited the past spring that. many groves bloomed several times before finally setting a crop. Many groves continued to bloom through July and August. All in all, nature has been extremely kind to Florida citrus growers this year. With hurricanes screaming around our shores from mid-August to late October, growers were on the "anxious seat." Only one of these winds did us damage and, taking the industry as a whole, the rains the storm brought were worth far more than the damage it did. Following the hurricane season, the growers relaxed. But then came the sudden threat of a freeze the like of which has not been known in many years. Here, too, a benevolent dame nature stepped in, in the form of high, warm, dry winds to drive out the icy blasts that were being swept in from Canada. This late November cold wave brought tem-

















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Annual Report, 1950


peratures over most of the citrus belt that in extreme low locations were down to from 22 to 25 degrees. Although some scattered fruit was lost, the sudden cold snap killed many insects and improved the quality (color and solids) of the fruit.
The Citrus Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie as usual.
Citrus Clinics.-In addition to the customary methods and teaching devices, such as grower demonstrations, actual individual demonstrations, tours, fairs, flannel board, slides, movies, charts and the like, a new device was used this year with very gratifying success.
Because practically every home owner in central and southern Florida has citrus trees planted in his yard, and because citrus must have proper care and attention to survive, countyagents and the Citriculturist are constantly getting requests for help from these small growers. This year the demand for this type service was extremely high, especially in urban areas. It was evident that the county agent staff could not handle these many requests through individual calls. The East Florida District Agent, the Broward County Agent and the Citriculturist decided that perhaps if all these people were given an opportunity to bring their problems in for discussion on a certain day many more growers could be helped and the requests for service lessened. A time was set and through the use of radio, newspapers and circular letters, the public was invited to bring specimens and their problems to an .,open house" on a specified day. This met with so much success that other agents have tried it and all have been successful.
The idea has been improved upon to the extent that now extensive exhibits of live specimens are prepared before the meeting. Exhibits of insects, diseases and nutritional deficiencies are properly identified with labels that also carry the recommended cures or controls. The county agents act 4s receptionists and direct the people who come-at their convenience during the day-to the proper person to identify their specimen and answer their questions. Then they are permitted to pass among the exhibits, study them and ask any additional questions they would like.
So far, four of these "clinics" have been held and, although no record of attendance has been kept, it is estimated that up to 400 individuals have been serviced in a day through this program.
Citrus Advisory Committee.-The Citrus Advisory Committee continued its policy of meeting with various citrus industry organizations to have their programs thoroughly discussed in order that this information could be passed on to the growers through the county agent. Among those to appear before the committee during the past year were; The chairman of the Florida Citrus Commission, the secretarymanager and the president of Florida Citrus Mutual, the advertising manager of the Florida Citrus Commission, the research director of Florida Canners Cooperative, the president and general manager of Waverly Growers Cooperative, the secretary-manager of Florida Express Fruit Shippers and representatives of the Florida Feed Dealers Association.
The committee has visited the USDA Sub-Tropical Fruits Field Station, Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Florida Citrus Commission, Florida Canners Cooperative, Waverly Growers Cooperative Association and the Soil Science Foundation.
Through its many contacts with every phase of the citrus industry, the committee is in a favorable position to develop a long-range citrus program for county agent use.
Realizing that the county agent must be able to advise intelligently his growers on all phases of agriculture and further realizing that the citrus industry is so highly technical, the Citriculturist, through the Citrus Advisory Committee, has arranged for an annual two-day training school at the Citrus Experiment Station.







46 Florida Cooperative Extension

Various Experiment Station workers bring the Agents up-to-date on new insects, insect control, diseases, disease control, new chemicals and their value and all other current research that has been conducted during the year.
In addition to this intensive training, the agents spend the evening visiting with the Citrus Commission, Florida Citrus Mutual and any other agency-that has timely information or new programs that need to be explained to the county agent.







Annual Report, 1950


DAIRY HUSBANDRY
C. W. REAVEs, Extension Dairy Husbandman

The dairy Extension program was carried out through the county agents in their respective counties. Better dairy herd replacements and improved feeding, pasture production, and herd health, were the major objectives during 1950.
Dairy Herd Improvement Association Program.-The DHIA project provided basic information and demonstrations for the overall dairy Extension program in many counties. DIIIA herds provide result demonstration of better methods of feeding, utilization of pasture, culling, breeding, and other phases of herd management. Herds developed to high production capacity -through a continuous dairy herd improvement program provide a source of breeding stock for other herds.
Twelve bulls were proved in DHIA herds, some with a high level of production, by the DHIA records of their daughters. Three Florida-proved bulls are in use in a regional artificial breeding program providing bull semen to eight states.
The following summary gives the yearly per cow averages of the Duval DHIA for the 1949-50 year, compared to the previous year: Value of Feed Cost of
Total Product Above Producing
Year Lbs. Milk Lbs. Fat Feed Cost Feed Cost 100 lbs. Milk
1949-50 7,006 332 $200 $303 $2.85
1948-49 6,786 32.1 229 269 3.38
1949-50 compared
to 1948-49 + 220 + 11 - 29 + 34 0.53
The abo- e results show the improvement attained by those members who are carrying out DHIA methods of developing higher producing and more profitable herds.
The table below shows the growth of DHIA work in the state:
1948 1949 1950
Number DHIA's ------------------------------------------------ 3 5 6
Number counties carrying on DHIA work ---- 9 16 20
Cows on DHIA test ------------------------------------------- 2,600 4,887 6,469
The Dairy Herd Improvement Associations are the Jackson County, North Florida (Quincy), Duval County, Pioneer (DeLand), Orange, and the West Coast DHIA (Largo). The Jackson County DHIA was organized in March 1950. The Duval County DHIA was expanded and added the second full-time test supervisor in March 1950. The Pioneer DHIA with herds along the East Coast is ready to employ a second test supervisor as soon as a qualified person can be secured.
The cows on dairy herd improvement test represent 4.3 percent of all milk cows in the state, which is the second highest percentage among the 13 Southern states.
Herd Management, Feed and Pasture Program.-The checking of production and provision of feed recommendations by the DHIA supervisors give the most effective help on feeding and other herd management problems. Results of feeding and herd management methods of DHIA herds were carried to other dairymen by reports, news letters, dairy meetings, radio, and pasture tours. The seven DHIA supervisors and 13 artificial breeding technicians make up a total of 20 trained dairy workers in daily contact with dairymen of the state. The summary of county agents' reports showed 1,863 farmers assisted in improved methods of feeding dairy herds or family milk cows. Feed and pasture analyses were made on selected herds







Florida Cooperative Extension


on which DHIA records are available to show results secured in increased production and decreased feed costs from improved pastures. Pasture establishment and management have been emphasized on dairy field days and pasture tours. County, district and state winners in an efficient dairy production contest were selected on the basis of utilization of efficient dairy practices, and honored at the annual dairy field day banquet.
Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is superintendent of official Cow testing in the state. Fourteen Guernsey herds are on Advanced Registry test, nine Jersey herds on Register of Merit and one Ayrshire, one Guernsey and 10 Jersey herds on Herd Improvement Registry test. This work is carried out through the national breed associations as a part of our state dairy herd improvement program and shows the nation that good records are made by Florida dairy cows. Six Florida herds qualified for the National Herd Honor Roll by achievement of a yearly per cow production in excess of 350 pounds butterfat on DHIA test.
Better Sire Service for Better Herd Replacements.-The expansion of the artificial breeding program has been one of the far-reaching developments of the dairy industry during 1950. The following figures show the expansion:
1949 1950
Number breeding associations -------------------------- T 13
Cows in artificial breeding units ----------------------- 9,292 16,500
The artificial breeding program provides a method by which dairymen secure the services of outstanding production proved bulls at a cost comparable to that of maintaining bulls on their own farms. The local associations secure semen from regional bull studs which maintain production proved bulls ranking in the top 1% percent of all bulls proved in the United States. Thus, artificial breeding provides the service of some of the best bulls in the nation to large and small dairymen and the family cow owners in those areas of the state in which an artificial breeding association is organized. The Escambia, Duval, Volusia, Orange, Polk, Pinellas and Palm Beach Artificial Breeding Associations were operating at the beginning of the year and have continued. The Alachua, Hillsborough, Manasota, Central Florida, North Florida, and Broward Breeding Associations were organized during 1950. The Broward group maintains its own bull stud. A few large herds are carrying out artificial breeding by private arrangements.
The average rate of conception on first services of the approved artificial breeding associations was approximately 61 percent during 1950, which compares favorably with that obtained by natural breeding.
Placement of Bulls.-Assistance has been given also in the selection and placement of bulls for natural service where needed. County agents reports show a total of 288 farmers assisted in locating purebred dairy bulls and 605 farmers assisted in obtaining purebred or high grade females.
Raising Herd Replacements and Calf Barn Plans.-Empbasis on proper development of dairy heifers has been made in each area with an artificial breeding association. Because cows in the artificial breeding program are bred to outstanding bulls there is increased interest in raising dairy heifers.
To assist dairymen in properly caring for the calves, calf barn plans were prepared by the Extension Agricultural Engineer and made available to dairymen. Many calf barns have been built in Duval, Orange, and Dade counties, especially.
4-H Dairy Club Work.-A total of 1,120-932 boys and 188 girls-enrolled in the 4-11 dairy project with 1,257 animals incompleted projects. Two production contests provided additional incentives for good work with the animals, the dairy







Annual Report, 1950


achievement contest and the efficient dairy production contest. The former was sponsored by the National 4-H Club committee, the latter by the National Dairy Products Corporation. Polk County won the plaque for the outstanding county 4-H dairy program.
A series of county and district shows and a state 4-H show have been established. Five district 4-H dairy shows were held during 1950-tbe West Florida Dairy Show at Chipley, the 4-H District VII Sears Dairy Show at Orlando, the, Florida West Coast Dairy Show in up-town Tampa, the Southeast Florida Livestock Show at Belle Glade, and the 4-H District V Livestock Show at Jacksonville. The State Department of Agriculture contributed to the premiums.
The third annual State 4-H Dairy Show, held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition, had an even 100 animals exhibited and keen enthusiasm was shown by the 4-H members in the various 4-H dairy contests. Fifteen counties exhibited animals and 18 counties participated in the statejudging contest.
Home Milk Supply.-The home milk supply for farm families is benefited by the raising and care of dairy animals in the 4-H program. County agents in many counties arranged for Bang's and T.B. tests of all family milk cows by the Bureau of Animal Industry. Artificial breeding organizations have made the service of good bulls available to family cow owners in 16 counties. Work on the care and use of milk is carried out by home demonstration agents as a part of their nutrition program. The summary of their reports show 3,837 families assisted in improving their food supply by making changes in home milk supply.
Cooperation with Other Organizations.-Assistance was given the Florida Guernsey Cattle Club and the Florida Jersey Cattle Club in Planning and carrying out constructive programs of work, including two field days, two state sales, and two promotional sales. Cooperation has been given to and received from the Florida Dairy Industry Association, the State Department of Agriculture, State Livestock Sanitary Board and its mastitis division, State Fair, vocational agricultural department, State Bankers' Association, and federal agencies.
Special Activities.-The Extension Dairyman served as a member of the milk production, field day, and advisory committees of the Florida Dairy Industry Association, secretary of the State Long-Range Dairy Committee, and on the Dairy Advisory Committee of the State Fair. He assisted in planning and conducting the one-week herdsmen's short course at the University in December.
He judged dairy cattle at Sancti Spiritus, Cuba, and at the Cuban National Livestock Show in Havana in May 1950. He served as chairman of the Extension Section of the American Dairy Science Association for the 1949-50 fiscal year.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOMSTRY
L. T. NIELAND, Forester
The Extension program for farm forestry was actively promoted during the year in 62 of Florida's 67 counties. The main features in the farm forestry program are fire prevention, forest planting, marketing forest products, producing forest products for home use, combining timber growing with grazing, and 4-H forestry club work. County agents and farmers were assisted in establishing demonstrations in each of these improved forestry practices. Close cooperative relations in establishing better forestry practices were also maintained with the State Forest Service, U. S. Forest Service, Florida Forestry Council, Agricultural Experiment Stations, six Florida pulp mills, naval stores conservation program, Turpentine Farmers' Association, Forest Farmers Association and American Forest Products Industries.
Progress was made all along the line in the adoption of good forest management practices. Farmers showed increasing interest, particularly in forest planting, fire protection and better harvesting and marketing of farm timber. There were, also, more farm boys enrolled in 4-H forestry project work than ever before.
Forest Fire Prevention. -Since forest fires continue to be the principal obstacle to successful and profitable forestry in Florida, this part of the program demanded a large share of the Extension Forester's time. Most fires are man-caused and are therefore preventable. Some forest fires are due to carelessness but the majority are intentionally set, either to "green up the woods" so that early spring grazing may be improved or just because woods burning is an old custom in Florida.
It is our belief that the woods burning problem can eventually be solved largely through educational programs. Furthermore, it is believed that the best way to get rid of a bad practice is to suggest a better one. Since most woods fires are the result of intentional burning to improve grazing, the combined timber-grazing-game program has been consistently advocated as a better and more constructive grazing procedure. This three-point program is also considered the most effective, economical and acceptable means of solving the woods burning problem in Florida. The program appears to be gaining steadily in favor but should be more widely advocated by foresters, conservationists and agricultural workers.
The need for protecting forest lands from fire was included as an important feature of all educational and demonstrational work with 4-11 club members.
County agents in 41 counties reported that 11,146 farmers cooperated in protecting their timber lands from fire.
Forest Planting.-Forest planting on Florida farms was one of the principal farm forestry programs promoted during the year. The fourpulp mills which made free slash pine seedlings available last year cooperated 'again in the free tree distribution program and two more joined. Six million forest seedlings were purchased by these six pulp mills for free distribution by county agents to 1,429 farmers and other forest landowners. The forest seedlings were grown by the State Forest Service in their nurseries and Forest Service personnel cooperated closely in the distribution program.
The large number of forest trees planted this year by farmers and other small woodland owners will help materially in making these landowners more conscious of the importance of their forest holdings and of the need for preventing forest fires.
In addition to the forest plantings on farms, the Extension Forester developed and distributed to county agents and farmers instructions on the establishment of







Annual Report, 1950 51

fence post plantings, shade and shelter plantings for livestock and windbreak plantings, using native species of forest trees.
Because nursery planting stock of some of the important tree species needed for establishing these demonstration plantings is not now obtainable, the Extension Forester collected forest tree seeds and wilding seedlings from the woods and hopes, with the help of the Agricultural Experiment Stations, to provide at least a part of the forest seedlings needed for demonstrations next year.

Timber Marketing.-Through close cooperation with Norris-Doxey woodland marketing projects, county agents in 25 Florida counties were able to provide farmers with much needed advice and assistance in proper cutting and marketing of their timber stands. In other counties where Norris-Doxey foresters were not available, the Extension Forester provided county agents and farmers with information and advice on good marketing practices whenever called upon. However, because of the magnitude of this job, it was, of course, not possible to prevent many of our farmers, who did not request assistance, from making unsatisfactory or destructive timber sales.
It is true, on the other hand, that a large number of farmers were aided in making a good timber sale and in preventing destructive cutting in their woods by the distribution of thousands of government bulletins on timber marketing through county agents' offices.
Since a profitable timber sale, leaving plenty of young trees for future harvests, is one of the most effective ways of convincing farmers that timber is an important farin crop, much attention was given to the marketing problein.
Forest Products for Home Use.-Because the farm itself is the best market for home-grown forest products, such as lumber, fence posts, fuel wood, stack poles, stakes and handle material, county agents and farmers were again urged to include this feature in developing farm woodlands. Enough trees should be reserved or, wherever practical, new species of trees planted to take care of farm needs for wood products. The Extension Forester also suggested that this important idea be included in the over-all plans for the "farm forestry 40 acres" demonstration areas now being developed by the Southern Forest Experiment Stations. It is believed that this would add considerably to the value of such demonstrations.
This new idea was promoted further through radio talks, personal visits with county agents, farm foresters and farmers, during instruction periods at 4-H club camps and by displaying exhibit materials at 4-H club fairs, county fairs, farmers' institutes and at other meetings.
4-H Forestry Club Work.-The Extension Forester gave instruction in farm forestry to 215 4-H club members during a week of instruction at 4-H summer camps and at the annual 4-H short course. In addition, instruction was given to eight different 4-H clubs in forest planting, fire protection, timber estimating and tree identification.
According to county agents' reports, 237 boys enrolled in 4-H forestry projects and planted a total of 966 acres of forest trees.
Projectwork outlines were prepared and county agents and 4-H club members given other assistance in carrying on project work under the state and regional 4-H forestry awards program. Club mernbers in 10 counties won county medals for carrying out the best 4-11 forestry project in their counties. A state medal and free trip to the National 4-H Club Congress was awarded to Ralph Carter of Washington County for the best 4-H forestry project for 1950.
Three 4-H club forests are now being developed in three different counties by 4-H club members working as groups. The total acreage in these three forests is







52 Florida Cooperative Extension

1,160 acres. The club boys carry on the planting and most of the other improvement work. Income from the forest will revert to the participating clubs and will be used in furthering 4-11 club work. The boys are "learning by doing" and are getting valuable experience in forest management. A fourth 4-H club forest of this type is now being acquired, in Orange County. The Extension Forester serves as consultant in planning and executing all development work.
Work with rural boys in developing both individual and group 4-H forestry projects is considered one of the most important programs in forestry education in the state.







Annual Report, 1950


POULTRY ACTIVITIES

N. R. MEHRHOF, Poultry Husbandman
J. S. MOORE, Extension Poultryman
A. W. O'STEEN, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test

Florida's Poultry Industry has made substantial growth and development during recent years, and is now in fifth place of importance of agricultural enterprises of the state. This development has been accompanied by some changes. The trend is toward larger flocks of layers and larger units of birds for broilers.
Florida farmers had 2,431,000 layers on band January 1, 1950.
Broiler growing is rapidly expanding in Putnam, Walton and Hillsborough Counties. Ten million broilers were grown in Florida in 1950.
The hatchery industry has over 4,000,000 egg capacity and produced approximately. 20,000,000 chicks during the year.
Approximately 131,000 turkeys were raised in 1950. This is a slight increase over the number raised in 1949.
Efficient Management of the Laying Flock.-Commercial egg producers have found the following management practices to be helpful in securing higher returns from their flocks:
1. Keep all-pullet flocks or at least 60 to 100%. Pullets lay more eggs than hens in the fall and winter, when egg prices are best.
2. Artificial lights. It has been found profitable to use artificial lights during the shorter days of the fall and winter on hens and pullets to increase the rate of lay when egg prices are relatively high. Morning and all-night lights are the two systems used primarily in the state.
3. The use of special feeding methods during fall and winter, such as moist mash, pellets, grain soaked in milk, to stimulate feed consumption and to help maintain the bird's body weight during heavy production.
4. Culling unprofitable birds from the flock results in more efficient feed utilization; reduced depreciation cost on birds, and increased returns per bird.
5. Prevention of diseases and parasites. Mortality is expensive and poultrymen realize the importance of adopting a program of sanitation to prevent or reduce losses due to either disease or parasites, while birds are in the laying house. Extension workers stressed the importance of sanitation, including the vaccination of birds against such diseases as chicken pox and newcastle, rotation of land to help prevent internal parasites, and treating birds for lice and poultry .houses for mites each spring and fall to keep these parasites under control.
6. Records. The commercial egg producer was urged to keep a record of his operations.
Broiler Management.-The broiler industry continued to expand in 1950, even 'with rather low prices prevailing a part of the year. These low prices tended to force the small producer and the inefficient producer out of broiler production. The larger producers, by efficient management and volume production, have continued to expand.
Broiler producers have been urged to purchase and grow quality chicks bred for meat production; to keep complete records and study these records to determine methods of improving their operations.
Farm and Home Flocks.-Since poultry meat and eggs are so very important in the diet for every family, the poultry Extension workers felt that every effort







Florida Cooperative Extension


should be made to promote the growing of small flocks in backyards and on small farms to supply these products.
Recommendations were made that purebred dual-purpose birds be used; that the chicks and pullets be raised according to the grow healthy chick prograrn; that a continuous culling program be carried on; that the flock be replaced each year; feed sonic mash to the birds and use at all times as much honic-grown feeds as possible.

Egg Quality Program.-The egg quality prograrn sponsored jointly by the Florida Poultry Council and t ' be several educational agencies has resulted in a better quality egg and poultry meat for the consumer.
In cooperation with the Poultry and Egg Inspection Division of theDepartment of Agriculture, candling and grading demonstrations were given. Information was furnished the industry concerning the specifications and requirements of Florida's egg and poultry law.
An exhibit showing the grades and specifications for each grade of eggs was prepared and used at two farm and home institutes and at the poultry institute. Egg candling and grading demonstrations were given at each of the places where the exhibit was used.

Home-Grown Feeds and Green Feed.-Feed cost makes up, around 50 to 60% of the cost of producing poultry. The Extension workers have urged that wherever possible home-grown feeds be utilized, especially green feed. This program has been stressed with the small farm flocks that are lused primarily for poultry and eggs for home consumption.
With the commercial flocks for layers, a system of rotation to provide green feed for the growing pullets and for the laying birds has been recommended.
Junior Poultry Work.-Work with 4-H club members was one of the major projects of Extension workers in 1950. These club members were assisted and encouraged in their program of supplying eggs and poultry meat for home consumption.
A district 4-H poultry show and judging contest was held in Jacksonville on January 14. The following counties participated: Bradford, Baker, Duval, Nassau, St. Johns and Putnam. There were 200 pullets, 17 cockerels, 19 pens of broilers with six birds to the pen and 60 dozen eggs exhibited.
The Extension Poultryman judged poultry shows niade up primarily of exhibits of 4-H club members in Pinellas, Lake-, Dade, Leon, Nassau, Hillsborough and Gadsden counties.
The annual State 4-H Club Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest was held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition at Orlando, February 20-25, 1950. One hundred eighty-five club members from 13 counties participated in the show and 54 judges entered the judging contest. The high point judge was Phillip Ball of St. Johns County. The Duval County boys bad high point team in the contest. A total of 1,999 birds and 218 dozen eggs were entered in the show.
Poultry classes were taught at 4-11 boys' and girls' camps and also at the girls' short course and the boys' short course. Approximately 300 4-11 Club boys and girls attended these classes.
The special 4-11 Club girls' demonstration project, sponsored by Sears Roebuck Foundation, was continued during the year with the following counties participating in the program: Alachua, Orange, Marion, Santa Rosa, Hillsborougbl Leon, Washington, Manatee, Escambia and Columbia.








Annual Report, 1950


Turkey Management.-It is estimated that only 131,000 turkeys were raised in Florida in 1950.
The Extension workers did some survey work to determine why more turkeys were not being grown in Florida. Some of the disadvantages found were: lack of financing, shortage of quality local poults, feed prices higher than in grain belt, lack of dressing facilities and in some cases a lack of knowledge of turkey growing.
.The advantages found were excellent: near-by markets, low housing cost, mild winter for breeders and well drained sandy soils. The fact that we have near-by excellent markets outweighed most of the disadvantages.
During the annual poultry institute a part of the program was devoted to turkeys. A temporary state turkey organization was formed.
Egg-Laying Test.-The 24th Florida National Egg-Laying Test was concluded September 22, 1950, with the 1,352 pullets entered averaging 214 eggs per bird (60% rate of lay) during the 357 day period. These eggs averaged slightly over 24 ounces to the dozen.
The average feed consumption per bird was 101.1 pounds (mash and grain). Five and one-half pounds of feed were required for each dozen eggs produced.
Mortality was 12.2 percent during the year.
A pen of S. C. White Leghorns owned by the Capital Breeding Farm, St. Paul, Minn., was high pen, producing 3,667 eggs valued at 3,792.55 points. A S. C. White Leghorn pullet owned by Rusk Poultry Farm and Hatchery, Windsor, Missouri, laid 328 eggs for a value of 359.10 points and was high bird.
The high Florida entry was a pen of S. C. White Leghorns owned by the Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan. These 13 pullets produced 3,405 eggs valued at 3,435.15 points.
A pen of New Hampshires entered by Loga Vista, Box 66, Rt. 2, DeLand, was the high heavy breed entry from Florida. These pullets produced 3,124 eggs for a value of 3,276.85 points.
In the 24th Test there were five "Golden Egg" birds (birds producing at least 330 eggs averaging 24 or more ounces to the dozen). The birds were all S. C. White Leghorns and were entered by J. 0. Hanson and Sons, Corvallis, Oregon (337 eggs, 356.45 points); Capital Breeding Farm, St. Paul, Minn. (332 eggs, 355.05 points); Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan, Florida (331 eggs, 340.60 points); Pinebreeze Farm (331 eggs, 348.50 points); and Capital Breeding Farm (330 eggs, 338.20, points).
Chicken-of-Tomorrow Contest.-The 1950 Florida Chicken-of-Tomorrow Contest started March 8, 1950, with 24 entries of chicks. The growing period was for a period of 12 weeks. The state show and judging of the birds was held in Jacksonville May 31. Winners were J. D. Tindall, St. Augustine, 1st and 4th Places; Pine-Air Poultry Acres, Jacksonville, 2nd place; and Oak Crest Poultry Farm, Inc., Jacksonville, 3rd and 5th places.
Brooks Herman, Oak Crest Farm, Jacksonville, was selected as one of the 40 breeders in the United States to enter the National Contest in 1951. J. D. Tindall was selected as one of the alternates.
Annual Breeders Conference.-The annualPoultry Breeders' Conference was held in Gainesville, December 7 and 8. The program included discussions on the following topics: Fundamentals of poultry breeding, breeding for egg production, pullorumn testing, inbreds-hybrids, production of hatching eggs, and hatchery problems.
About 50 poultrymen were in attendance.








56 Florida Cooperative Extension

Poultry Institute.-The ninth annual Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie, August 21-26, 1950, with over 400 on hand during the week. All state agencies cooperated with the Agricultural Extension Service to make the week a success.
Annual meetings of the Florida State Poultry Producers' Association and the Hatchery and Breeders' Association were held during the week. Preliminary steps were taken to form a state turkey organization.

Cooperation with Other Agencies. -Poultry and allied associations which have assisted in the development of the Extension poultry program include: State Live Stock Sanitary Board, Department of Agriculture, Florida Poultry Council, Florida State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Hatchery and Breeders' Association, Florida R. 0. P. Federation, Florida Feed Dealers' Association, poultry and egg dealers of Florida with membership in the Southeastern Poultry and Egg Association, and the Florida Turkey Association.
The State Live Stock Sanitary Board is the M4licially designated state agency to administer the National Poultry Improvement Plan in Florida. The plan as carried out in Florida has resulted in better chicks for the industry. Improvement in breeding and reduction of pullorum by testing has meant nucli to Florida's growing poultry industry.
Some of the results of the pullorum testing program during 1950 are as follows: 90 of all birds tested were pullorum clean; 10% were pullorum passed (one test without any reactors). The percent of reactors in all flocks tested was .023%.
Ninety-one hatcheries with a total capacity of 3,878,091 eggs are cooperating in this plan. This is approximately 85% of all hatcherymen in the state.



Fig. 7.-Turkeys are attracting more attention and an organization of producers was
formed on a tentative basis at the Poultry Institute.







Annual Report, 1950


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

H. S. McUNDON, Soil Conservationist
Activities in Districts.-Information given is prepared from Soil Conservation Service records, which are compiled at six-month periods of the calendar year. The last report for 1950 will not be available until January, 1951. This statistical report covers information on 49 districts. However, several of these districts are new and work is just getting started or soon will be under way.


Combined Report of Soil Conservation Districts-Activities Organization to June 30, 1950.


From the Date of


Established
487,480 acres 189,563 acres 275,201 acres 272,440 acres
15j33 acres
169,681 acres 377,930 acres
5,213 acres
252,080 acres 229,281 acres 883,712 acres
19,815 acres
372
12,032.7 miles
141.5 miles
464,809 acres 876,960 L. feet
4,629.6 miles
34,141 acres 96,311 acres
28 miles
2,860 acres 8,814 acres 1?546 acres
13,419 acres
4,270.4 miles
414


Planned
584,143 acres 251,735 acres 371,166 acres
------ 373,143 acres
------ 25,259 acres
------ 356,320 acres
------ 1,299,417 acres
------ 15,903 acres
------ 1,110,541 acres
------ 259,443 acres
------ 1,091,689 acres
------ 47,426 acres
------ 538
------ 22,634.4 miles
------ 208.1 miles
------ 1,195,340 acres
1,143,260 L. feet
------ 6,518.4 miles
------ 57,355 acres
------ 131,709 acres
------ 124.6 miles
------ 7,135 acres
------ 24,715 acres
------ 4,590 acres
39,817 acres
9,128.4 miles
------ 827


Practice
Crop rotations -------------------------------- --Contour farming -------------------------------Cover cropping ---------------------------------Crop residue management -----------------Strip cropping ----------------------------------Range improvement --------------------------Pasture improvement ----------------------Seeding of range ----------------------Seeding of pastures -------------------------
.W ildlife area improvement. -------------Woodland management ------------------Tree planting ------------------------------------Farm and ranch ponds ---------------- - - -
Terraces --------------------------------------------Field diversions --------------------------------Farm drainage -----------------------------------Closed drains -------------------------------------Open drains --------------------------------------Irrigation land preparation ----------------Improved water applications ---------Field wind breaks ------ ----------------------W ater disposal areas -------------------- -------Kudzu -------------------------- ------------------ -Sericea ---------------------------------- ------------Alfalfa and perennial grass ----- -------Firebreaks ----------------------------------------Fish ponds -------------------- ----------------------


Farm and Ranch Conservation Plans


Number
2,516
16,704 2,315 1,953 12 255 11,129


Acres .1.289,384 7 527,677 2,481,388 630,058
4,244,313 3,930,176 362,576 1,760,719


Applications received this period ------- _. Applications received to date --- ------------Active applications to date -------------- __ .
Plans prepared and signed this period Plans prepared and signed to date --------Active conservation plans to date ----------Combined treatment this period ------------Combined treatment to date -------------------


Annual elections of supervisors were held in 43 districts in 1950. There is a total of 24,087,311 acres now covered by soil conservation districts, of which







Florida Cooperative Extension


8,018,079 were covered by soil conservation surveys as of June 30, 1950. There were 4,244,366 acres covered by 12,255 farm plans for the same period.
Organization of Districts.-The Director of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service is Administrator for the State Soil Conservation Board and is responsible for administering the Soil Conservation Districts Act. The Extension Soil Conservationist is responsible for organizational work in forming new districts in the state and the county agent assumes similar responsibility in the county.
Four new districts, Bradford, Nassau, Martin and Wakulla soil conservation districts, were organized during 1950. Charters have been issued i to two others, Osceola and St. Lucie. However, all the' organization work has not been completed. Okeechobee Soil Conservation District is now ready to apply for a charter.
Area of the Lee and Chipola River soil conservation districts has been increased. Two islands, Captiva and Sanibel, were included within the boundary of Lee Soil Conservation District, increasing the area by approximately 12,696 acres. The area of Chipola River Soil Conservation District was changed to include all land lying within the legal boundaries of Calhoun County, Florida, an increase of approximately 87,920 acres.
The Extension Soil Conservationist has met with a number of district boards of supervisors and made suggestions for getting a broader conservation program applied to farms in their districts. The records of the secretary-treasurer have been inspected and suggestions given as to how be could keep these up-to-date and accurate at all times. A number of field and pasture tours were attended, staged cooperatively by district supervisors, county agents, and technicians of the Soil Conservation Service.
The Extension Soil Conservationist works with the county agents and their assistants and the conservationists assigned to individual districts in carrying on 4-H Club conservation projects. He also met with groups of boys at 4-H Club camp and discussed soil and water problems with them. At a meeting of local 4-H leaders from 10 counties he discussed how these leaders might assist the club members in carrying out their projects.
The Extension Soil Conservationist prepared and showed an exhibit at two farm and home institutes and three county fairs. This showed soil conservation practices applied to farms in organized districts.

SUMMARY OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES
BY WHITE COUNTY AGENTS IN FLORIDA, 1950
Days devoted to work in soil and water ---------------------------------- 1,230 in 61 counties
Days devoted to work with wildlife ---------------------------------------- 193 in 48 counties
Number of communities in which work was conducted
(a) Soil and water ----------------------------------------------------------------- 573 in 61 counties
(b) W ildlife ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 215 in 49 counties
Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen
(a) Soil and water ---------------------------------------------------------------- 289 in 61 counties
(b) W ildlife ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 134 in 20 counties
Number of farmers assisted
(a) With problems of land use -------------------------------------------- 8,406 in 59 counties
(b) In the use of crop rotations ------------------------------------------ 4,716 in 53 counties
(c) With strip cropping ----------------------------- ------------------------ 324 in 13 counties
(d) In constructing terraces ------------------------------------------------ 235 in 18 counties
(e) In grassing waterways or preventing or
controlling gullies ------------------------------------------------- 534 in 32 counties







Annual Report, 1950


(f) With contour farming of cropland -------------------------------(g) In contouring pasture or range -----------------------------------(h) In the use of cover or green-manure crops ---------------W In controlling wind or water erosion. --------------------------(j) In summer fallowing -----------------------------------------------------(k) In making depth-of-moisture tests -----------------------------(1) With drainage ------------------- ------------------------------------(m) With irrigation -----------------------------------------------------------(n) With land-clearing -----------------------------------------------------Number of farmers in soil conservation districts which were assisted with education for organization or operation -------Number of farmers assisted in arranging for farm conservation Plans ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Number of farmers assisted in doing work based on definite farm conservation Plans ----------------------------------------------------------Number of farmers assisted in construction or management of ponds for fish -----------------------------------------------------------------------Number of farmers assisted in protection of wildlife areas, such as stream banks, odd areas, field borders, marshes and ponds from fire or livestock ------------------------ I ---------------------------Number of farmers assisted in Planting of edible wild fruits and nuts in hedges, stream banks, odd areas and field borders -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Number of farmers assisted with other plantings for food and protection in wildlife areas ---------------------------------------------Number of boys enrolled in 4-H soil and water conservation projects --------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------Number of boys completing ----------------------------------------------Number of boys enrolled in wildlife and nature study (game and fur animals) projects -------------------------------------------Number of boys completing - -------------------------------------------Number of different 4-H Club members, including those in corresponding projects, who received definite training in
(a) Wildlife conservation -----------------------------------------------(b) Soil and water conservation ----------------------------------------


293 169 14,598
1,040 1,078 132 2,205
1,405 1,620


counties counties counties counties counties counties counties counties counties


6,529 in 45 countie.i 2,204 in 44 counties 1,737 in 42 counties 281 in 42 counties


400 in 35 counties 201 in 22 counties 285 in 35 counties 103 in 13 counties 69 in 11 counties 63 in 9 counties 42 in 9 counties


1,596 in 31 counties 2,104 in 31 counties







Florida Cooperative Extension


VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND MERCHANDISING
F. S. JAxiisoN, Truck Horticulturist

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
F. E. MYERs, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist

Continued efforts were directed toward supplying the subject-matter field with information and guidance on commercial production of high yields of superior quality vegetables, better methods of handling the product, and the value and limitations of the home garden.
This was accomplished in part through seven area grower meetings, four county grower meetings, three area seed dealer meetings, one county agent training school , an annual conference of negro and another for white county and home demonstration agents, one boys' and one girls' 4-H Club short course, one boys' 4-H Club summer camp, six home demonstration club meetings, participation at four field days, four radio talks, variety demonstrations at five locations, and answering 1,050 inquiries by letter or personal visits.
Vegetable information also was presented at the annual and two commodity meetings of the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, and papers for publication were reviewed from the vegetable section of the Florida State Horticultural Society. Two short courses, the Second Annual Seedsmen's and the Third Annual Southeastern Short Course on Prevention of Transit Losses in Florida Fruits and Vegetables, were conducted in cooperation with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Seedsmen's Association and the Southeastern Railway Claims and Development Association, respectively. The Vegetable Specialist served on the state production adjustments committee and the certified seed advisory committee.
Publications included eight completed manuscripts on production of individual crops, eight draft manuscripts of proposed publications on additional crops, and seven county agents' newsletters, including state-wide recommendations on fertilization, insect and disease control, varieties, and current pertinent research results.

VEGETABLE MERCHANDISING
S. E. ROSENBERGEB, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Ineffective and inefficient methods of handling and displaying vegetables in many retail stores prevent maximum sales and use of fresh produce. The purpose of this project is to encourage increased consumption and prevent excessive losses of vegetables through proper handling and display methods in retail stores. During the year the Specialist worked with 16 independent retail stores, 25 chain food stores, one farmers' retail vegetable market, and one wholesale company. He met with county agents in one state-wide meeting, three area meetings and eight private conferences. Production and service people were also assisted in three statewide groups, two area meetings and two local gatherings. Altogether the Specialist held 23 training classes with a total attendance of 243 retailers. Marketing and merchandising talks were given before five different groups with a total of 348 people. One radio talk was given during the year.
The teaching methods are centered around "learn to do by doing." Actual practice in proper vegetable handling, preparation, displaying and pricing is given in class wherever possible. Visual aids and films are used as well. A very effective teaching aid is a personal visit to each store after completion of the training course. This visit is to discuss individual problems and to make recommendations.
Work through outside organizations and individuals is an important part of this







Annual Report, 1950 61

activity. They play a large part in establishing contacts with an industry that, until last year, the Extension Service had hardly touched. For instance, a newspaper food advertising salesman, a vegetable producer, and a wholesale produce company, each with good contacts in the food selling industry, played a large part in bringing retailers into the Extension program. Commercial and industrial associations in some cases supply subject matter and training materials.
Other Extension activities entered into by this Specialist were such things as judging 4-H Club fair exhibits, discussing the marketing problems with home demonstration clubs, presenting the problems of vegetable losses, etc., field day for producers, serving on the vegetable advisory committee, participating in departmental seminars, helping with horticultural short courses and conferring with home demonstration Pecialists.
As a measurement of effectiveness of the vegetable merchandising project, records have been kept on most of the stores that received the training course. In well over one-half the stores, dollar volume of sales has increased and the importance of the produce department has increased in percent of total store sales. Such things as cleaner, neater surroundings and improved displays are hard to measure except by photographs, but the better quality and more appealing appearance of the produce can be measured, and very often is, by customer acceptance and retailers' satisfaction.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Part III --- Work With

Women and Girls

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

MARY E. KEOWN, State Home Demonstration Agent (to August 11)
ANNA MAE SUCES, State Home Demonstration Agent (beginning October 1) ETHYL HOLLOWAY, District Agent
EDITH Y. BARRus, District Agent
Home demonstration workers in Florida are responsible for the development and supervision of coordinated programs of work for both white and negro home demonstration women and 4-H girls and share responsibility for the general Agricultural Extension program.
Miss Mary E. Keown died August 11, 1950. Miss Ethyl Holloway was Acting State Home Demonstration Agent from August 12 to September 30. The present State Home Demonstration Agent was named on October 1. The Home Industries and Marketing Specialist, in addition to her regular responsibilities, served as the Acting District Agent for Northwest Florida from October 1.
Organization and Personnel.-The 80 home demonstration workers exclusive of clerical assistants,, employed in state and county offices during 1950 included 46 county home demonstration agents, 12 assistants, 11 negro home demonstration agents, 7 specialists, 4 district home demonstration agents, and the state home demonstration agents.
Ten changes were made in county positions during the year. Four home demonstration agents resigned; one to teach in college, two because of ill health, and one to marry. One white and one negro home demonstration agent were transferred to counties where they had larger responsibilities and increased salaries, while one assistant agent resigned. Home demonstration work was re-established in one county and established in one new county.
Ten home demonstration agents attended the three weeks' short course at the University of Florida for Extension Service personnel. Six one-day conferences on home improvement and housing were conducted by the State Home Improvement Specialist, Agricultural Engineer, and Rural Electrification Specialist. Seven oneday conferences and work meetings on 4-H Club plans and programs were conducted by the district agents and 4-H Club agents.
Leadership training meetings were held in all counties by all specialists and district agents. Recreation institutes were held in Northwest Florida for men and women agents. The annual 4-H Club Short Course for girls was held at Florida State University, and the Annual Agents' Conference was held at the University of Florida. The Negro 4-H Club Short Course and Agents' Conference were held at Florida A & M College.
Two positions were maintained to give pre-service training to pros active home p
demonstration agents. Two, both former 4-H Club girls, received this training and one became a full-time home demonstration agent.
Separate but coordinated state-wide programs were developed for both women and 4-H girls in organized clubs and councils.
Home demonstration work was included in the regular Agricultural Extension Service Budget. Florida State University provided housing for the state office and a financial budget which permitted additional personnel and a pre-service training program for prospective home demonstration agents.








Annual Report, 1950


Forty-five boards of county commissioners and eight county school boards cooperated in employing county home demonstration agents. In a majority of the counties, contributions were made by both boards for 4-1 Short Course and camp scholarships, demonstration, and office supplies, for repairs and additions to work rooms, equipment and community and work centers. Increments for salaries and travel were appropriated in a large majority of the counties.
Negro hone demonstration work was supervised by a Negro District Home Demonstration Agent, xvho worked under the direction of the State Home Denonstration Agent. Headquarters were maintained at Florida A & M College. Negro county home demonstration agents served in 12 counties.
Leadership. -Two State Councils of Home Demonstration Work, with memberships of women and girls, assisted in developing a state-wide program based on the needs and interests of the people. The :36 county councils of senior work for women and :31 junior county councils for 4-H Cluh girls were made up of representative women and girls, and provided valuable assistance to the home demonstration agents in determining and carrying out county programs. The state council for women continued to maintain its scholarship fund for 4-H Club girls.
The development of trained volunteer leaders, capable of extending useful information to their neighbors and applying it to the benefit of the community, continued to be an important objective of home demonstration work and 6,992 volunteer local leaders or chairmen of special activities assisted in community work and were trained for their duties. Also, 2,1077 4-H Club girls were trained in leadership in 4-H Club camps and at short course. In 46 counties .3.547 women served either as local leaders or neighborhood leaders, in addition to the 8.37 women and 1,099 older 4-H Club girls serving as leaders for the work with youth. This did not include the 267 negro women in 11 counties serving as local and neighborhood

Fig. 8.-The State Council Of Senior Home Demonstration Work assists materially in formulating programs and cooperates with 4-11 Club work. Left to right: \lrs. Andrew Potter, Pinellas. president: Mrs. Cecil Spencer, Santa Rosa, first vice-president; Mrs. Frank Wellner, Dual, second sice-president; Mrs. Walter Duden, Levy, secretary; and Mrs. Cecil Nicholson, Bresard, treasurer.


N.







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

leaders and the 150 negro women and 24 older negro 4-H Club girls serving as leaders in the development of the negro 4-H Club program. I
Objectives.-Objectives of home demonstration work during 1950 included:
1. Development of sound, long-time program in each county and state-wide, to meet needs and interests of the people, with the people determining specific goals to be reached during the year.
2. Improvement of organization and better use of facilities to extend services of home demonstration work to a larger number of people.
3. Emphasis on well-balanced county programs and the establishment of wellplanned result demonstrations in the home, carried on by women and girls who served as demonstrators.
4. Development of activities for both girls and women which had economic value in the home.
5. Securing more adequate housing and home improvement, inside the home and in home surroundings, so that the steadily growing population of Florida could be cared for in satisfactory homes, conducive to a happy home life for all the family.
6. Improvement of health of Florida people by better use of home resources, better home health practices, and by acquiring facilities and services for health and medical care in the home and community.
7. Consumer education among both rural and urban homemakers, with emphasis on more intelligent and widespread use of Florida-produced food products for economy and to insure better nutrition for all family members.
8. Service to girls 10 to 20 years of age through 4-H Club work, with emphasis on training the girls in skills and leadership and on receiving cooperation of adults in meeting the needs of young people. Emphasis was placed also on the importance of expanded work with girls and boys to keep them busy, learning" proficiency in useful activities, and in good citizenship.
9. Development of trained rural leaders who understand their responsibilities and opportunities to serve their communities and their state, and who have a clear understanding of the far-reaching values to all members of the family of a satisfying family life.
10. Undersffinding by the women and girls of national and international relations, in order that they may function more usefully as informed American citizens.
Activities and Accomplisbments.-Some evidences of the accomplishment of these objectives were found in the 15,536 girls enrolled in 4-H Club work and 21,988 women who received direct assistance in home demonstration clubs and as individuals; the 6,922 volunteer local leaders assisting with community work and receiving training for their duties; the 46,567 rural and farm families and 40,600 non-farm families given direct service by home demonstration work; and the 483 home demonstration clubs and 718 4-H Clubs in Florida.
Other evidences were found in the 15,250 home gardens grown by women and girls; the 1,833 family cows purchased; the 542,799 pints of fruits, vegetables and meats, canned or stored; the 573,709 pints of jellies, preserves, marmalades, pickles, and relishes prepared and stored; the 538,834 pounds of beef cured; the 371,142 chickens in home poultry flocks; the 4,475 women and 11,135 girls enrolled in clothing demonstrations in which 175,425 garments were made and 44,701 garments were remodeled.
In addition, 2,706 families stored canned foods in cooler storage; 4,070 home freezers were used; 19,232 families improved their diets; 2,509 beautified their home' grounds; 608 families were assisted in construction of dwellings; and 2,996 were assisted with remodeling or repairing, tbe home; 2,810 kitchens were improved







Annual Report, 1950


and 1,203 homes were supplied with electricity; 638 sanitary privies and bathrooms were installed; 972 community recreation programs were conducted; and 11,013 families received help on renovation and remodeling of clothes.
Forty-seven home demonstration agents spent a combined total of 8,172 days, working with adults and 7,648 days working with 4-H Club and older youth, making 18,724 home visits, visiting 10,449 different farms. They received 62,970 personal calls at the office and 64,447 telephone calls for information; they made 12,781 farm and home visits; and they distributed 158,799 bulletins.
Home demonstration agents held 138 adult achievement days, attended by 88,571 persons, and 475 4-H Club achievement days, attended by 38,823 girls. Fifty-tbree 4-H camps, each of one-week duration, were held with 2,728 girls attending. Meetings as results of demonstrations numbered 1,189, attended by 19,036 persons.
The Extension Editorial Department materially assisted home demonstration workers in making more effective use of the radio and the press. Home demonstration agents wrote 5,135 news articles, distributed 193,427 bulletins, and 27 county home demonstration agents made 1,153 radio broadcasts in 42 counties.
Community Work.-There were 1,201 organized community clubs for white and negro women and girls. There were 15,536 4-H Club girls enrolled in 4-H Clubs and 21,998 enrolled in adult clubs. They held 13,331 meetings, attended by 310,238 persons.
Home demonstration clubs cooperated with other organizations in varied community activities. These included 262 clubs cooperating with the March of Dimes campaign, 317 clubs cooperating in tuberculosis seal sales, the 279 clubs working on the cancer drive, and the 450 clubs cooperating with other health sales and campaigns. Sixty-nine white and 13 negro home demonstration clubs made health surveys and 77 white and 11 negro clubs planned programs based on situations shown by health surveys.
Similar work on community problems included cooperation in the Rural Housing Committee. Home demonstration workers devoted approximately 400 days to cooperation with other federal, state and county groups on various and timely community problems in 46 counties.
4-H Club Activities and Awards.-Each member of the State Home Demonstration Staff assisted with the short course for 4-H Club girls. Members of this staff assisted with the negro 4-H Club short course for boys and girls.
Fourteen records were considered for the most outstanding award in 4-H Club work, representing Florida at the National 4-H Club Camp. Girls from Escambia and Manatee were selected. The Broward County girl who was the third highest girl was awarded the scholarship to the Danforth Foundation Christian Leadership Training Camp near Shelby, Michigan. Four negro 4-H Club girls were selected to attend the negro 4-H Regional Camp at Nashville. They were from Columbia, Leon, Jackson, and Volusia counties.
Six 4-H Club girls were selected to attend the National 4-H Club Congress from the 269 completed records submitted from 35 counties. They were from Orange, Gadsden, Marion, Volusia and Hardee counties. State awards were given to 4-H Club girls from Brevard, Madison and Santa Rosa counties for work in leadership, home beautification, andfrozen foods.
Home demonstration workers participated in the 4-H Club case study of a typical county-Marion.
The College 4-H Club, organized 32 years ago by the State Home Demonstration Agent, has a club room in the Student Alumni Building at Florida State University. Members meet regularly with an adviser from the state demonstration







Florida Cooperative Extension


staff to plan and develop programs for participation in leadership activities. Among these activities is assistance at the annual 4-H Club short course.
Other activities of the 4-H Clubs are cooperation and leadership within the Rural Youth Conference. exhibits at state, and county and district fairs.
National Home Demonstration Week. In preparation for the celebration of the fifth National Home Demonstration Week, a packet of timely and useful material was prepared and distributed to each honie demonstration agent. In addition to the state staff, mans outstanding leaders and key people contributed to the material in this packet. Certificates of recognition foi achievement, faithful service and active participation for 10 years or more in home demonstration swork in Florida have been presented to 615 leaders by 16 county home demonstration agents and I negro home demonstration agent. In addition to these certificates, three county councils presented 25 clnh members with the official hoone demonstration pin in recognition of 25 or nore years of active service as hoie demonstration club members and leaders.
Farm and Home Institute. Two farm and hone institutes were planned, arranged for and conducted under the direction of the district agents, men and

Fig. 9. Hone demonstration and 4-H Club imemlbers made hundreds of United Nations flags and presented them to schools and other public institutions as an evidence of their world patriotism.















i4,
'V -.







Annual Report, 1950 67

women, of northwest Florida at Camps Timpoochee and Cherry Lake. Outstanding speakers at these institutes were made available through the cooperation of the University of Florida, Florida State University, State Departments of Education and Health ' Florida Children's Commission, the Attorney General's Office and local churches. Exhibits of timely and up-to-date information and equipment were planned and arranged by the Extension specialists.
United Nations Project.-Home demonstration agents devoted a total of W days in promoting the idea and helping leaders to reach this goal of having a United Nations Flag in each county by United Nations Day. Approximately 600 United Nations flags were made in Florida by 4-H Club girls and home demonstration club members.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES

JOYCE BEVIS, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles,

During 1950, the Specialist spent 175 days doing office work which included
(1) general planning and evaluating in joint staff conference, necessary procedures for developing the total Extension program; (2) planning for special events and programs and specific plans for a well rounded, useful clothing program that would best fit the needs of the homemakers of Florida; (3) planning exhibits, preparing outlook material, preparing useful instruction leaflets and other teaching aids for 4-11 and adult groups; (4) planning for travel, making reports (both monthly and annual) and keeping up-to-date on the new developments in the field of clothing and textiles.
She spent 122 days with county home demonstration agents and club riiembers. She helped with the training of leaders, gave method demonstrations, assisted at county achievement days and county council meetings, attended and helped with regularly scheduled 4-H and home demonstration meetings, helped with camp activities and county fairs. The Specialist contacted and served in some way approximately 5,000 people in addition to the state and county Extension workers. The Specialist also helped the agents with training of leaders for 4-11 groups and clothing chairmen for the adult work; judging achievement exhibits in record keeping and story writing; method demonstrations of various phases of clothing work, such as selection, construction and care; and encouraged the establishment of more result demonstrations by adult club members.
The following statements from county reports show to some extent the influence of the time spent in the counties by the Specialist:
Fifty -seven home demonstration agents (46 whit and 11 negro) report 2,663 days developing the clothing program in the various counties. These agents gave 736 less method demonstrations on clothing this year than last, but volunteer project leaders were more active in giving demonstrations. There was an increase of 19 communities this year where clothing work was carried on. A better leadership program may help to account for this increase. Fifty-four agents report a total increase of 273 leaders or chairmen assisting with the clothing program this year.
The reports also show an increase of 333 families receiving help with clothing construction work; 56 more families receiving help with clothing selection problems; 61 more families receiving help in care, renovation and remodeling of clothes this year,- and 86 less families receiving help with clothing accounts and expenditures. During 1950 there were 33,903 more new garments made by Florida families than in 1949, 7,892 more articles made for the house, and approximately 900 more families who received help for better laundry practice.
There was a small increase of 34 more white 4-H girls taking clothing as a demonstration this year, and a decrease of 857 in the number of negro girls carrying on clothing demonstrations. Although the number taking clothing as a demonstration decreased 813 during 1950, the quality of work and percentage of girls completing their clothing demonstrations increased by 6 percent.
Almost every Extension method of reaching people was used by the Specialist, agents and leaders in developing a clothing program in the state. Of course, some were used more than others. Method demonstrations, home visits, office calls, letters, leaflets and the telephone were the ones used to reach individuals.








Annual Report, 1950


To help agents and leaders to reach the people, the Specialist attended various types of meetings, working with a g e n t s, leaders, club members, civic groups, etc. At these meetings she gave talks, method demonstrations, and job instruction training, set tIp exhibits, used charts, posters and bulletins and helped with the training of leaders in the use of the Extension methods.
This year in addition to the two achievement style shows put on at the state short courses for white and negro girls, the State Council of Home Demonstration Work sponsored a state style show for adult home demonstration club members. This was the first attempt at this type activity but was quite successful and 25 of the 46 counties had representatives in the show. It was very inspirational for the club members and will probably become an annual affair that will grow fast.
During the year the Specialist camped with eight counties in two district camps and gave daily assistance with the camp program during the two weeks.
Exhibits were planned, provided and set up at the two farm and honie institutes held at two of the district camps during the sunmer months by the Specialist with the help of the county home demonstration agents.


Fig. 10.-State 4-H Dress revue was an important feature at Short Cours. oyce Vhite, Escambia County, won i blue ribbon on her "school drcss."







Florida Cooperative Extension


GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK

LORENE STLVENS, State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
RUTH LEN'MION. Assistant State Girls' 4-11 Club Agent
Florida's 14,865 4-H Club girls conducted 49,619 demonstrations in foods and nutrition, clothing, interior and exterior horne improvement, food conservation, safety and fire prevention, child care, home dairying, home gardening, poultry, and livestock this year. They completed 32,221 of the demonstrations, meeting the requirements of the specific projects, turning in records, including stories on their accomplishments, and exhibiting as required for completion. In the East Coast


Fig. l-Officers of the State Council of junior Home Demonstration Work direct the Council and cooperate with the state home demonstration staff. Left to right, first row: Tally Coleman, Sarasota County, vice-president; Sallie Wilson, Madison, president; Wylene Mayfield, Volusia, historian; second row: Jackie Cummings, Lake, assistant secretary; Barbara Jean Dame, Broward, secretary; and Gay Roberts, Iardee, treasurer.







Annual Report, 1950


District, 4-H girls also had to give a method demonstration related to the project before claiming completion.
Organization and Leadership.-Each girls' 4-H Club has officers and committees and approximately 75 percent of thern had local leaders who met with the clubs and assisted the county home demonstration agents with the community 4-H program. Other adults, many of whom were members of home demonstration clubs, provided leadership in special activities.such as rallies, camps, achievement events and fairs.
Four-11 clubs met at schools once or twice per month with the county home demonstration agent and local leader. A few of the organizations had work meetings with the local leader in the homes of the girls. The majority of the girls' 4-11 Clubs did not meet during the summer months but the county home demonstration agents encouraged and assisted individual girls in the development of result demonstrations in their homes.
In 26 counties there were county girls' 4-H councils, composed of two representatives from ea ' ch of the local clubs. Two county councils met once per month and 24 met three or four times during the year. The major responsibilities of the county group included planning and directing the county-wide activities, correlating the 4-H program for girls with adult home demonstration work and to plan, with the 4-H boys, joint county activities.
The State.Girls' 4-H Council was composed of two representatives from each of the county councils. The annual meeting was held in Tallahassee as a part of the State Girls' 4-H Short Course. Its function was to strengthen county councils through a planned state program that met the needs of the county groups. Included in the program were:
1. That 4-H girls cooperate with State Boys' 4-11 Council, adult home demonstration clubs, and other community organizations.
2. That 4-H girls give information on 4-H to more communities.
3. That 4-H girls publicize 4-H work in the counties that people may have a better understanding 6f 4-11.
4. That 4-H girls sponsor, with the 4-H boys, such county-wide activities as achievement events, rallies, fairs, community recreation, 4-H Sunday, National 4-H Week, National 4-11 Achievement Week, and local campaigns and drives for the good of the community.
5. That 4-11 girls take more responsibility in leadership activities in the program.
These 4-H organizations, local, county and state, provided many opportunities for the growth of individual 4-H Club girls and leaders through leadership responsibilities.
Though 4-H Club work for boys and girls was organized separately, there were many meetings and activities that were jointly planned and directed by the local and county groups such as rallies, camps, regular 4-H meetings, fairs, achievement events, livestock shows, and the observances of National 4-11 Week, National 4-H Achievement Week, and Rural Life Sunday.
The value of leadership development in the 4-H program was emphasized by state staff members in their respective fields of work throughout the year and assistance was given by them to county home demonstration agents on securing, training and recognizing leaders.
A valuable contribution in 4-H leadership was made by local home demonstration clubs as a result of the recommendations made by the State Senior Council of








Florida Cooperative Extensiov.


Home Demonstration Work at its annual meeting. Included were such basic goals as:
1. To appoint a 4-H chairman in each home demonstration club to give a 4-H report at every meeting, to work closely with local leaders of 4-H Clubs, and to arrange for 4-H girls to appear on home demonstration programs.
2. To encourage more activities for older 4-H girls.
3. To work toward continued improvement of quality of work.
4. To promote and maintain a better understanding of the 4-H program in the county.
5. To help increase the number of trained volunteer leaders.


Fig. 12.-Team demonstrations at fairs gave 4-H Club girls and boys an opportunity to tell the public about interesting topics and to train themselves.







Annual Report, 1950


The 754 women who served as 4-H leaders gave time, effort and encouragement to the development of the program with the girls.
The training of adults in 4-H leadership was provided by county home demonstration agents through individual conference, letters, bulletins and training meetings.
Special Activities.-Florida 4-H girls participated in such special activities as National 4-H Week, National 4-H Achievement Week, Rural Life Sunday, local and county achievement events, county and state camps, rallies, fairs and livestock shows.
Approximately 600 4-H girls, leaders and county home demonstration agents attended the annual State Girls' 4-H Short Course in Tallahassee. Ten 4-H girls received state awards in the national awards program, two girls represented Florida at the National 4-H Camp in Washington, and one 4-H girl was awarded the American Youth Foundation Christian Leadership Training Camp Scholarship.
Seventeen 4-11 girls' teams gave demonstrations at the Florida State Fair and 19 received the State Fair 4_11 Award for outstanding accomplishments in the county 4-H program.
Eleven teams of negro 4-H girls also gave demonstrations at the State Fair and participated in the State Fair 4-H award program.
Approximately 150 negro 4-H girls attended theJoint boys and girls State Negro 4-H Short Course held in Tallahassee, and four negro 4-H girls represented the state's 4-H negro girls membership at the Regional 4-H Camp held in Virginia.
Signs of Progress. -Though they are informal measuring devices and may to a certain extent be inaccurate, the trends below indicate some of the strengths and weaknesses in the girls' 4-H program:
1. Increased membership in 4-11 Club.
2. Increased number of demonstration completions in counties with trained leaders.
3. Increased interest in the 4-H program by local people.
4. Increased interest of 4-H members in the program.
5. Increased interest and assistance from home demonstration clubs.
6. Increased requests for assistance with development of 4-H leadership
program.
7. Increased number of local leaders.
8. Improved quality and number of exhibits.
9. Increased interest of parents in the 4-H program.
10. Increased number of girls participating in the 4-H program.








Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT

BONNIE J. CARTER, Home Improvement Specialist

The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 47 counties with the help of the Home Improvement Specialist, county home demonstration agents, volunteer local leaders, senior and junior councils of home demonstration work, county rural housing committees, 4-H and women's club meetings, tours, achievement days and home visits and through work with other organizations and persons.
Assistance to negroes was given by the Specialist through the district agent, conferences, training meetings, bulletins, posters and loan exhibits.
Major home improvement opportunities and problems lie in the fields of housing, family living and consumer education.
Housing.-Florida needs more rural homes built for comfort, convenience, health and beauty so that rural people may live more satisfying lives and become better citizens.
The home demonstration agents' 1950 reports showed that 2,690 families received help with problems relating to building and remodeling homes; 2,028 with kitchen; and 2,796 with other room improvement. Better storage facilities for food, clothing and household equipment and supplies were provided by 1,408 families and better laundry space and equipment by 990. For comfort, convenience and better health, families installed 706 sewage disposal units, 571 sanitary toilets, 936 water systems and 263 heating systems; 2,679 families improved screens and adopted better pest control methods; and 10,317 followed better practices of handling and disposing of garbage.
The extension of electric lines by rural electric cooperatives made electricity available to more homes and Extension workers assisted 1,120 families in obtaining electricity. Help was given with lighting and electrical equipment problems to 4,010 families, with 11,660 pieces of electrical equipment being bought.
Over 7,703 improved their home grounds, with 2,507 of them using plans for complete improvement. Of these, 885 started new lawns, 5,672 maintained or improved lawns already established; 9,548 made foundation plantings, and 14,396 pruned, fertilized and otherwise cared for foundation and border plantings already started. Some planted trees, shrubs and flowers; 871 maintained propagating beds for ornamentals and 752 for fruit producing plants. Others built fences and gates, while still others removed them and some provided recreation areas with outdoor living rooms and stoves. Houses and out-buildings numbering 2,747 received coats of paint to improve their looks and to make them last longer. In 30 counties 257 home demonstration and 4-H clubs carried out organized clean-up campaigns.
Family Living.-Family living becomes more complicated daily and families find it difficult to make income, ability and time meet the needs and wants of family members. Some of the problems agents and volunteer local leaders helped solve related to increasing the income, spending wisely to make the money go further, producing food and feed when practicable, practicing orderly work habits, using time and effort to the best advantage; providing medical and dental care; security in old age; opportunities for religious, civic, educational and recreational activities for all family members.
Through the Extension program 5,272 homemakers were helped to become better housekeepers; 1,339 to make better use of their time; 564 with home accounts; 925 with financial planning and 104 with making better use of credit








Annual Report, 1.950


for family living. In addition, 5,439 4-11 Club members receive ed help with learning to keep personal accounts.
To prepare themselves to be better parents and guides for votung people, 208 men and 2,130 women participated in child-des elopment and parent-education programs; 3,039 families sought and receive ed help with child dev elopment and guidance problems; and 2.295 in improving family relationships.
Home demonstration agents, volunteer local leaders, and ]iomec demonstration and 4-H Club members assumed responsibility for helping with recreation in their respective communities. In 40) counties. 320 commnuni ties were assisted with improving recreational facilities. The 114 club houses and club rooms owned or controlled by home demonstration groups in 36 counties were used for regular club meetings, work meetings and recreation activities for both adult and youth groups. In 36 counties 912 entertainments were held for social purposes and 454 to make money for ss orthy ventures undertaken or supported 1by N the club members.
To offer facilities for reading. 4.5 communities in 26 counties were assisted in providing library facilities. In 40 counties 516 gIroups received help with organizational problems, program acts itics or meeting programs.
Additional community serve ice was provided in several counties where home demonstration and 4-H Club groups helped improve church buildings and grounds, cemeteries, and courthouse and school grounds. Tlsey cooperated with health units by prove iding places for and sponsoring health clinics, helped with mobile X-ray

Fig. 13. -Iomec de'monstrati on clubl meimlbers I cam ned to slip coveri chairs at clumb meetings throughout the state.







76 Florida Cooperative Extension

units, hookworm drives and diabetic clinics. They took active parts in tuberculosis seal sales, polio drives and other county-wide activities through their councils of home demonstration and 4-H Club work.
Consumer Education.-Home demonstration agents reported that 4,457 families were assisted with the purchase of food; 4,667 with clothing and household textiles; 3,112 with household furnishings and equipment; and 3,096 with household supplies. In addition, 2,954 received help with repairing, refinishing and remodeling household furnishings. A total of 7,800 families were assisted with consumer buying, 6,194 with "making versus buying" decisions, and 5,633 in usincy timely economic information to make adjustments in family living.
Volunteer local leaders numbering 750 gave 2,075 demonstrations in the various phases of the program to women and girls and attended 209 training meetings.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club home improvement program is designed to stimulate the girl's interest in learning to do simple home tasks well, to make her home more beautiful, comfortable and convenient both inside and out, and to become a well adjusted member of her family and her community. Records of home demonstration agents showed that 1,917 girls enrolled for homemaking, with 822 completing; 2,737 enrolled for room improvement and home furnishings, with 1,475 completing their demonstrations, thereby improving 1,608 rooms and making 5,745 articles to adorn their homes. Of the 1,362 enrolled for home grounds beautification, 822 completed their work of starting or maintaining lawns, making foundation plantings and doing other things to improve their homesites.
Special training in several phases of 4-H Club home improvement was given to approximately 600 4-H airls, volunteer local leaders and home demonstration agents at short courses. Others were helped through leader-training meetings, 4-H Club meetings, camps, and home visits. Necessary subject matter was prepared for use in this program.






Annual Report, 1950


HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING

GLADYs KrNDALL, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
The home industries and marketing project was established on November 16, 1949, because of a long-time and continued increase in demand for assistance with problems concerning ways and means to increase the family income, to use the family income wisely, and to use all available resources of the farm and home to best advantage.
The major problems with which the Specialist was concerned during 1950 were (1) to define and establish the project; and (2) to provide ways and means of developing it. All objectives for 1950 and work undertaken during the year were planned to help solve these major problems and to meet the needs of people who wanted to increase or extend their cash income,
The Specialist determined state-wide needs by studying and appraising the work in home industries and in marketing of home products already under way in ,the counties. She established a reference file of timely, useful information and illustrative and source materials, and supplied home demonstration agents and others with this information; secured equipment and supplies necessary to develop this phase of work; assisted the agents with training voluntary local leaders and others in skills and techniques; aided in developing horne industries that utilize materials native to Florida and in securing wider distribution, better production and marketing practices and wider use of agricultural products such as citrus, vegetables, poultry and dairy products, and tropical fruits; assisted result demonstrators in establishing and maintaining high standards of quality in products offered for sale; studied laws and regulations that govern marketing and interpreted them to the agents and others; became acquainted with personnel, marketing programs under way, methods used and accomplishments in such programs of other agencies, commodity groups and business concerns in Florida and in other states; and proposed a money-making and money-management demonstration for 4-H Club girls.
Home demonstration agents, white and negro, in 39 counties reported working in 1,609 different communities with 6,225 families on problems concerning marketing and home industries. They were assisted by 1,148 volunteer local leaders. The agents, assisted by the Specialist, reported training leaders in 31 counties.
While in the field the Specialist contacted, worked with or served in some way approximately 3,000 people, in addition to state and county Agricultural Extension Service personnel.
Standardizing Products.-In 22 counties 1,256 different club members standardized products for market. These women and girls reported receiving a total of $555,062.59 in cash from farm and home products sold. Of the total cash received, more than nine-tenths, or $512,792.00, was from the sale of food products which included eggs, poultry, fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products, baked and canned products, nuts, syrup, boney and meat; the remainder was from the sale of flowers, plants, handicraft articles and services.
An analysis of the records for 1949 and a study of home demonstration agents' i-eports for more than 25 years show that the sale of food products-fresh, canned, cured and cooked-has been the principal means women and girls have used to add cash to the family income. The Specialist emphasized this fact in talks given to clubs, county councils and other groups, in special activities planned for statewide groups and when training leaders to give demonstrations related to home industries and marketing.
Agents reported giving 118 less demonstrations in making handicraft articles.







Florida Coop-ative Extewsion


The demonstrations usually were gioen bv trained leaders and the crafts taught were useful anld marketable.
Most of the 4-11 and home demonstration clubs and county councils held money-making activities during the vear. Definite amounts of money earned were not reported b the agents. ilow er, they reported that community improvements, such as building. remodeling and furnishing club houses or community centers, maintaining health clinics and libraries, improving church buildings and grounds around churches and other Communitv buildings, and contributing to tuberculosis seal sales, March of Dimes and other similar drives were made bv home demonstration groups wxith money earned by these groups. This type of marketing added to family incomes indirectly because families were able to make contributions of home-grown or hand-made products and services rather than cash to worth-while community projects.
Assistance in planning, organizing and conducting a county program in home industries and marketing has heen given to home demonstration agents, leaders. adult and 4-H Club members and others at 4-H Short Courses for Girls, annual Extension Agents' Conferences, farn and home institutes, 4-H camps, annual meeting of State Senior Council of Home Demonstration Work, subject-matter training meetings and workshops and other state-wide and county activities and special events.
Results Obtained.-Both tangible and intangible results were evaluated when measuring the effectiveness of the home industries and marketing program. IntanFig. 14. Crafts displays and lmazaai's such as this not only brought cash to home demonstration club meoshis isiut also sisishowel the man things these Capable xmolen in Made.







Annual Report, 1950 79

gible results were evaluated by observing changes in attitude toward the program of the Extension workers and other individuals, by noting the interest shown by women in producing better quality products for the market, by tabulating the needs and desires expressed by home demonstration agents, club members and others and by observing home products that are offered for sale in markets and stores.
Methods and devices used to measure tangible results were: visits to result demonstrations; records kept by result demonstrators; number and kind of requests received by the Specialist for assistance from individuals and from county home demonstration agents; study of the annual report of the State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work; number of people contacted and assisted in the home industries and marketing program by the Specialist, home demonstration agents and leaders; conferences with state staff members and others; and observations made by the Specialist on fi6ld trips to counties and at state-wide and county special events and activities.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NUTRITION AND FOODS
GRACE 1. NEELY, Food Conservation Specialist
The home foods program was planned and varied to serve the needs of all groups. Emphasis was placed on providing an adequate daily food supply for the family. Improved practices in production, preservation and storage of foods have been developed, insuring a more nearly optimum nutrition for all groups and at all age levels.
Methods used varied. However, extra emphasis was placed on the development of local leadership and on the establishment of individual and family result demonstrations. The work was organized around two programs-adult and 4-H Club.
The world situation today has emphasized the importance of the "live-at-home" program. Home-produced and conserved foods, wherever possible, are one proven way to aid in cutting the cost of living. Planned bome-conserved foods make available at a minimum cost food for nutritious, well-balanced meals during ever season of the year.
Nutrition and Health.-Emphasis was placed on improvement of health through an appreciation of what good nutrition can contribute to health, a working knowledge of what constitutes a healthful diet at the different stages of life and economic ability to provide a nutritional diet.
Reports showed that 12,835 families in 45 counties were trained to recognize the difference between good and poor nutrition. Also, 4,150 more young homemakers and mothers were assisted with the study of nutrition.
Principles of a good diet were accepted by 9,359 families and they served balanced meals to include the seven basic food groups. Also, 12,989 families reported preparing foods by methods recommended to conserve more of the nutritive value. Local and seasonal foods were used to best advantage by 14,009 families.
The number of families using better methods in preparing dairy products were 7,714; meat cookery, 10,539; poultry products, 9,352; vegetables and fruits, 15,019; and baked products, 10,396.
Home Food Production.-The home gardens and orchards program showed good progress in better preparation of soil, use of compost and fertilizers where needed, better selection of varieties for the area and better pest control. The 47 counties with home demonstration agents reported 15,250 families with home gardens and 4,679 families having home orchards. This was a good increase over last year.
The number of families assisted in making changes in home food production were: Vegetables, 11,263; fruits, 6,785; meats, 5,361; milk, 4,487; and poultry and eggs, 7,119.
In 36 counties 4,350 were reported producing and preserving the home food supply according to an annual food budget.
Food Conservation.-A sound program on food conservation has aided in improving the nutritional status of Florida families. Food conserved at home or in community centers can be varieties found best for canning or freezing. These foods can be conserved when at their best to retain the maximum amount of their vital nutrients and flavor.
The State Home Demonstration Council for the past two years has sponsored a state-wide 5-jar quality canned exhibit of canned fruits, vegetables and meats. Each year at their annual conference the exhibit is set up and judged. The women







Annual Report, 1950


enjoy their exhibit and it has helped them to appreciate better quality canned foods. In the one year much progress was made in better selection of the maturity of vegetables best to can. They plan to have this exhibit another year. . ,
Summaries from reports show that 2,132,915 pints of food were canned; 982,111 pounds were frozen; 1,538,832 pounds cured meats; and 12,555,888 pounds potatoes, dried peas and beans were stored for the home food supply.
Based on poundage of canned, frozen, cured, and stored fruits, vegetables and meats conserved by Florida's 12,399 home demonstration club families for 1950, each family conserved enough fruit to supply a family of four for four months, in addition to the citrus fruit eaten fresh; enough vegetables for one month and enough meat for four months.
This would emphasize the need for more year-around home gardens or more conserved vegetables, if better balanced meals are to be served in many homes.
Storage.-Facilities for cooler storage of canned and fresh foods are needed in most areas of Florida, as cellars are not advisable due to the water table being so near the surface. The ventilated pantry has been promoted as one means of securing cooler temperatures. Home demonstration agents in 30 counties reported 2,706 families storing their canned foods in cooler storage (ventilated pantries), an increase of 1,577 over last year.
Miscellaneous.-This year 6,973 families were reported using county canning centers, a 45 percent increase. Most of this increase was in negro home demonstration club families, which was encouraging.
The number of home freezer owners has jumped from 1,000 reported in 1949 to 4,070 this year. This increase in freezing foods at home is in line with the increased number of Florida farmers having access to electric power.
The rural electrification program now enables 82 percent of the farm homes to use electricity. This was an increase of 6 percent over last year.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Part IV . Negro Work

NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK
JOSEPH A. GRESHAm, Negro District Agent

Farm demonstration work with negroes was carried on in 10 counties. No changes in personnel occurred nor was there any increase in staff during the year.
The biggest concentration of negro farmers is found in the northern section of the state where seven negro county agents are located; the other three are in central Florida counties. All 10 agents worked for the most part through community and neighborhood leaders, enabling them to reach maximum number of farm people.
As a result of efforts of the Negro District Agent, five county agents received .financial assistance from their counties and three had salaries increased. County offices are well located for the convenience of farmers. Four counties provide the necessary equipment to carry on a sound program and also provide part-time clerical help for negro county agents.
Two county agents attended the special three weeks' summer school for Extension workers held at Prairie View State College in Texas during August.
All county agents attended the annual conference for negro Extension workers at Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, November 6-10. Panel discussions on county programs and plans were presented by state Extension personnel and representatives of the USDA. Representatives of the Soil Conservation Service, Production Credit Association and the Farmers' Home Administration explained the functions, provisions and uses of the various services. I I Negro county agents reported holding 77 training meetings with adults. Fifty
4-H Club leaders received training.
Supervisory Responsibilities.-For the first time in the history of Florida Extension work, county programs and plans were made jointly in a few counties by white and colored workers. County and district Extension Service workers, negro and white, cooperated to advantage in determining methods of arriving at county programs and plans.
Negro county agents report working with all agencies in the field of agriculture which are beneficial to farm people.
The Negro District Agent assisted in making local county plans for adult and 4-H Club work, arranged for the annual 4-H Club short course and summer camps, and visited county agents to help with livestock, field crop and soil problems, give demonstrations and talks on Extension work.
Negro Agents,7Negro County agents made 5,203 farm or home visits to -2,661 different farms or homes last year.
They devoted 1,688 days to work with adults and 1,147 days to work with 4-H Clubs and older youth. The year's activities included 86 method demonstrations to 1,215 farmers and 113 demonstrations to 1,787 4-H Club boys. Fifty-nine result demonstrations were conducted with farm people to show the value of improved practices. Also, 62 meetings with 451 adults were held and 22 meetings with 663 4-H Club members were conducted during the year. ,
Working with voluntary leaders in the counties, the 10 agents assisted negro farmers in Florida to iner ' ease crop and livestock production on their farms, instructed them in the conservation of natural resources, assisted in planning farm activities and improving farms, homes and equipment as well as health conditions.







Annual Report, 1950


They carried on programs of recreation, community life and family relationships and worked with farmerson general economic problems related to agriculture and to marketing and distribution.
4-H Club Work.-There were 2,303 negro boys enrolled in 4-H Club work and they completed 2,844 projects.
With the idea of creating more interest and to give training and recreation to boys and girls, a State 4-11 Short Course was held at Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, early in June. A total of 319 boys and girls, with outstanding records of project achievement from counties where negro county and home demonstration agents are employed, attended the short course.
Two hundred sixty-six 4-11 Club boys and 10 leaders attended three camping periods at the Doe Lake 4-H Club camp in the Ocala National Forest. This was the second year of conducting the state camp. The permanent camp is considered one of the most beautiful camps for boys and girls in the state.
Four 4-117 Club boys who were outstanding in leadership and project work attended the third annual 4-H Club Camp at Virginia State College, Petersburg, Virginia, August 8-15. Four 4-H Club girls and two state leaders were also in the group representing Florida.
Ten achievement days were held with an attendance of 6,178 persons.
Fairs.-Three negro county agents assisted with exhibits at'county fairs. Other, agents helped with displays at the Florida State Fair, Tampa. The Negro District Agent assisted the negro agent in Gadsden County in conducting the 4-H fat cattle show and sale.







Florida Coope native Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLOY BnRT, District I Ionie Demonstration Agent

During 1950 negro omc demonstration work was expanded to include Dade County. Twelve negro home demonstration agents were employed. Vacancies occurred in Columbia and Putnam counties, and the latter vacancy has been filled.
Two home demonstration agents took advantage of an opportunity for further study last summer bv attending a three weeks' eorse in Extension work held in Texas during August. Negro home demonstration agents are especially aware of their responsibilities in informing, inspiring and motivating people through the "live-at-home program" to help themselves.
All 12 counties where home demonstration work is conducted provide offices for the agents. Nine counties supplement funds for travel and expenses, while three counties provide demonstration material. During the year office equipment xxvas improved in several counties.
Seven negro home demonstration agents shared offices with negro county agents, while the remaining five agents maintained separate offices. Four offices had part-time clerical help. One full-time stenographer is shared by the Negro District Agents. In several cumties county staff members, together with the district agents, hase held successful progrant-planning meetings which have proved effectis e in working out a more unified program.
Assistance in Carrying Out Extension Program.-The Negro District Home Demonstration Agent has been concerned with better organization of the work in the offices and in the field, keeping informed of the situations, problems and needs


Fig. 15.[-The negro 4-11 Club camp. Doc Lake. was used for its second sunnoer during 1950, and provided a xery satisfactory place for the girls and boys to camp.


Th�


r
'8,


Y I/~


L it


' '
(
1.







Annual Report, 1950


in the district and making suggestions for their improvement or solution, and promoting good relationships with other agencies and organizations. During the year, the Negro District Home Demonstration Agent made 46 visits to agents, visited 41 result demonstrations and 32 homes and attended 62 club, council and other meetings, achievement fairs and exhibits, planned for camps, short Course and annual conference and secured help of Extension home demonstration specialists.
State 4-H Short Course, Camps.-The annual short course for negro 4-H Club boys and girls was held at Florida A. & M. College in Tallahassee, the first week in June. A total of 203 4-11 Club girls and 11 leaders attended the short course.
Four girls, selected on the basis of outstanding records in 4-H project achievement and leadership, attended the third regional 4-H camp at Petersburg, Virginia.
The district 4-H Club camp at Doe Lake received many improvements over last year. Attending camping periods this year were 301 girls, 9 leaders and 11 home demonstration agents. The girls were given training in swimming, nature study, crafts, group singing and recreation.
Agents' Annual Conference.-The annual conference for Negro Farm and Home Demonstration Agents was held at Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, November 6-10. The theme for the meeting was "Better Living for a Better World."
Home Demonstration and 4-H Organizations.-A total of 495 women served as local leaders of home demonstration clubs and girls' 4-H Clubs last year. Negro home demonstration agents reported 115 training meetings, attended by 1,043 adults and 630 4-H girls.
In all 12 counties where home demonstration work is established, county councils have been organized. Composed of club officers, council members assist the agent in planning and determining the needs of the people in the counties and in promoting programs to meet the needs.
Records show 1,969 women enrolled in 98 home demonstration clubs. A total of 2,875 girls are members of 137 4-H clubs throughout the state. I
Food and Nutrition. -Reports from agents show that 2,705 gardens and 1,012 orchards weve started by negro families under the home demonstration program. A total of 2,112 poultry flocks and 2,264 dairy cows were raised.
In the field of nutrition, 2,676 families improved their food habits, 3,511 families made improvements in food preparation, 1,646 families increased their Planned food supply and 1,283 families improved their storage facilities and care.
Agents report also that 3,715 Florida negro families participated in conserving food bv canning, 485 by freezing and 193 by drying. One thousand eighty-four families stored foods thus conserved. ,
Clothing and Textiles.-Negro home demonstration agents were assisted by local leaders in conducting clothing and textiles work with farm families. A total of 1,018 families were helped with clothing construction problems, 1,149 with care and remodeling of clothing, 1,207 with clothing selection and buying and 370 with laundering problems.
Home Improvement.-Negro home demonstration agents I reported 1,248 houses repaired in their counties last year. Chief activities were the repair of furniture with 1,484 families participating and beautification of home grounds 'With 1,140 families improving their lawns. Also, 1,207 families improved their kitchens and 371 families were aided with the selection of furniture. A total of 3,273 families improved home safety conditions.
Health and Recreation.-Negro home demonstration agents reported health







Florida Cooperative Extension


improvement activities in their counties as including 3,167 physical examinations, 3,900 families taking advantage of improved methods of home sanitation, 666 negro women and girls participating in the home nursing program, and 1,471 families in community health programs. Five hundred forty-nine families took advantage of recreational activities.
Evaluation of Accomplishments.-There is favorable sentiment towards Extension work and Extension workers in all 12 counties. Home demonstration agents are highly respected by agencies and people of the counties and this respect is shown by the progress made by women and girls in the various counties.
Rural people are thinking more about family welfare, proper food, better health, adequate clothes, better education, improved housing conditions, more sanitation in the home, and in general they are interested in more wholesome living for their f families.
STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK (Men and Women)
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) -------------------------------------------------------- 250
Days of service: In office-2,030; in field-3,969 ------------------------------------------ 5,999
Farm or home visits made -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9,087
Different farms or homes visited ----------------------------------------- L ---------------- - ---------- 4,804
Calls relating to Extension Work: Office-13,394; Telephone -------------------- 5,907
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth ---------------------------------- 2,700
News articles or stories published ------------------------------- - ----------------------------------- 368
Bulletins distributed ----------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------ 15,566
Radio talks broadcast or prepared -------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen ---------------------------- 242
Total attendance of men and women ------------------------------------------------------ 3,356
Method demonstration meetings ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,090
Total attendance ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15,957
Meetings held at result demonstrations ------------------------------------------------------------ 279
Attendance ------------------------------------ 2 -------------------------------- ------------------ --------- 2,934
Tours conducted ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 83
Achievement days held for 4-11, older youth and adult work ------------------------ 64
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ---------------------------------------- 523
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms in counties worked ---------------------------------------------------- 7,435
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2,708
Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration and
agricultural programs -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,240
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the home
I demonstration program ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,701
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration and
agricultural program this year ---------------------------------------------------------------- 4,409,
Different farm families influenced by some phases of the Extension
program ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4,894
Other families influenced by some phases of the Extension program ------------ 1,631
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group -------------------------------------------------------- 31
Unpaid -------- - ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19







Annual Report, 1950


Paid
Days devoted to planning work by county and home
workers ---------- - - - - - ------------------------------------ - ------------------------Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ---------------------------Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen --------CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work ----------------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was conducted ----------------------------Voluntary leaders and committeemen ------------------------ - ----------LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY Days devoted to work ----------------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was conducted ----------------------------Voluntary committeemen and leaders --------------------------------------Farmers assisted ------------------------------------------------------------------------CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOUR Days devoted to work ------ ---------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was conducted --------------------------Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ----------------------------Farmers assisted in soil management --------------------------------------Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation ------------FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work ----------------------------------------------------------------Farmers assisted ------------------------------------------------------------------------GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO Days devoted to work ----------------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was conducted -----------------------------Voluntary leaders and committeemen -------------------------------------Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted --------------------MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION


----------------------demonstration
-------------------------------------------------------------------


-------- 889
-------- 751
719


-------- 621
-------- 526
357
5 Al


-------- 152
-------- 150
-------- 90


----------------------------------------CES
--------------------------------


----------------------- 2,808
----------------------- 1,384


----------------------- 265
----------------------- 3 ' 345
AGRICULTURE
----------------------- 102
----------------------- 92
----------------------- 73
----------------------- 99


Days devoted to work ---------------- - ---------------------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was conducted ---------------------------------------------------HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was conducted ---------------------------------------------------Voluntary leaders and committeemen -----------------------------------------------------------Families assisted in house furnishings, farm buildings, surroundings,
mechanical equipment, rural electrification -------------------------------------------NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was done -----------------------------------------------------------Families assisted. , Improving diets-1,648; food preparation- 1,664
Total ----------------------------- - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Families assisted with food-preservation problems ---------------------------------------HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was done -----------------------------------------------------------Voluntary leaders assisting ---------------------------------- - --------------------------------------------


891 915


532 308 278

6,580


1,158 620

3,312 11929


186 117 90,







Florida Cooperative Extension


Families assisted ------------------------------------------------------------ - ---------------------------------- 926
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies -------- 130
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies -------------------- 1,3)7
Families assisted with co sumer-buying problems ------ - ---- - -------------------------- 710
CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 339
Communities in which work was done ------------------------------------------------------------ 133
Voluntary leaders assisting -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 146
Families assisted ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3,669
FAMILY RELATIONSHIP-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work ---------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------ 157
Communities in which work was done ---------------- - ------------------------------------------ 116
Voluntary leaders assisting -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 82
RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE Days devoted to work ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 182
Communities in which work was done ------------------------------------------------------------ 138
Voluntary leaders assisting ------------------------------------- - ----------- - ---------------------------- 152
Families assisted in improving home recreation - ------------------------------------------ 355
Communities assisted in improving recreation facilities -------------------------------- 98
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs of
activities or meeting programers ----------- - --------------------------------------------------- 121
Communities assisted in providing library facilities ---------------------------------------- 29
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2,844
Projects completed by girls ------------------------------------------------------------------------ - ---- 9,151
Boys completing corn and peanut projects -------------------------------------------------------- 539
Boys completing fruit projects ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 57
Boys completing garden projects -------------------------------------------------------------------- 612
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ---------------------------- 23
Boys completing dairy projects ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 51
Boys completing poultry projects -------------------------------------------------------------------- 343
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ------------------------------------------------ 172
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ---------------------------------------- 165
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects -------------------------------------------- 373
Girls completing dairy projects -------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- 28
Girls completing poultry projects --------------------------------------------------------------------- 525
Girls completing home gardens ----------------- m ------------------------------------------------------ 686
Girls completing fruit projects ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 154
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ---------------------------- 12
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects -------------------------------- 1,033
Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid ---------------------------------- - ---- 430
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and room
improvement projects -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2,682
Girls completing food preservation projects -------------------------------------------------- 982
4-H Membership:
Boys: Farm-2,031; non-farm-272; total ------------------------ - -- - ---------------- 2,303
Girls: Farm-2,105; non-farm-772; total ---------------------------------------------- 2,877
4-11 members having health examinations because of participation in
Extension program ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1,720
4-H clubs engaged in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs ---------------------------------------------------------- 136







Annual Report, 195o


Agents, list of, 4 Agricultural economics, 20 Agricultural engineering, 26 Agricultural outlook, 21 Agronomy, 32 Animal husbandry, 36 Annual conference, 8 Apiculture, 38

Barrus, Edith Y., 62 Beale, Clyde, 15 Beef cattle, 36 Beekeeping, 38 Bevis, Joyce, 68 Boys' club work, 41 Britt, Ploy, 84 Broadcasting activities, 16 Broiler management, 53 Brown, W. W., 41 Buildings, farm, 26 Bulletins, 15 Busby, Joe N., 41

Camps, 18, 38, 41, 83, 85 Carter, Bonnie J., 18, 74 Cattle, 36
Changes in staff, 10 Chicken-of-Tomorrow contest, 55 Child development, 13 Citrus, 22, 43
acreage returns, 23
advisory committee, 45
culture, 43 clinics, 45
grove management, 22
institute, 44
marketing, 21
Clayton, H. G., 7, 19 Clothing and textiles, 13, 68, 85 Community life, 14 Conservation, food, 80
natural resources, 13 Consumer education, 76 Community work, 65, 75 Cooper, J. Francis, 15 Cooperation with other agencies, 9,
49, 56
Cooperative planning, 10
research, 40 Corn, 34
Cotton, 35 Councils, 4-H, 63, 71
home demonstration, 63, 69 Cow testing, 48 Credit, 20 Crop production, 12


Dairying, 12, 47
herd management, 47
feed and pasture program, 47
sire service, 48 DHIA, 47
Director's report, 7 Drainage and irrigation, 28 Driers, mechanical, 28

Economics, agricultural, 20 Editorial report, 15 Egg-laying test, 55 Egg quality program, 54 Electricity, uses of, 31 Electrical equipment, 29 Engineering, agricultural, 26 Extension organization, 7

Fairs, 39, 42, 54, 73, 83 Family living, 74
relationship, 13
Farm and home planning, 20 Farm conservation plans, 57
electrification, 29
forestry, 50
home improvement, 13
home institute, 66
journals, 16
machinery, 27
management, 20
structures, 26
Farmer cooperatives, 22 Feeds,54
Filmstrip, library, 17 Financial statement, 7 Fire prevention, 18 Florida Citrus Commission, 45 Florida Citrus Mutual, 45 Food and nutrition, 85 Food conservation, 80
production, 80
storage, 81 Forestry, 50 Forest fire prevention, 50
planting, 50
4-H club activities, 37, 65
awards, 42,65 beekeeping, 38 camps, 41
dairy work, 48 events, 21 farm and home electric contest, 30 forestry, 51 poultry projects, 54 short courses, 42 work, 14, 21, 37, 41, 42, 65, 83 work for girls, 70, 71, 72, 76, 85


INDEX







Florida Cooperative Extension


Goen, Oliver F., 36 Grazing crops, 33 Gresham, Joseph A., 82 Griffith, L. Odell, 15 Grove management, 22

Hamilton, H. G., 20 Hampson, C. M., 20 Hatcheries, chick, 56 Hay drier, 28 Haynie, John D., 38 Health, 80, 85 Henderson, J. R., 32 Hogs, 36
Holloway, Ethyl, 62 Home demonstration work, 62, 63,
64, 65, 66, 67, 84
food production, 80 forest products, 51
improvement, 13, 74, 85
industries and marketing, 77
institutes, 66
milk supply, 49
planning, 20 Housing, 13, 74 Housing Committee, 8

Irrigation, 28

Jamison, F. S., 60 Johnson, John M., 26 Joiner, Jasper N., 15 Journal articles, 16

Kendall, Gladys, 77 Keown, Mary E., 62

Lawrence, F. P., 43 Laying flock, 53 Leaders, 63 Lemmon, Ruth, 70 Lighting, 29 Livestock, 12, 22 Livestock Sanitary Board, 56 Machinery, farm, 27 Management, broiler, 53
farm, 20
laying stock, 53
turkey, 55
Marketing activities, 21, 77
facilities, 28
timber, 51
McGregor, J. A., 36 McLendon, H. S., 57 McMullen, K. S., 19 Mehrhof, N. R., 53 Men's work, 19 Myers, F. E., 60 Moore, J. S., 53


National Home Demonstration
Week, 66
Neely, Grace 1., 80 Negro agents, 6
assistance, 20
farm demonstration work, 82
farm planning, 20
home demonstration work, 84 Neiland, L. T., 18, 50 News releases, 16 Nutrition and food, 80 Nutrition and health, 13, 80

Oats, 34
O'Steen, A. W.; 53 Outlook, 21

Parvin, F. W., 20 Pastures, 20, 33 Peanuts, 34 Perry, F. S., 19 'Personnel training, 8 Pettis, A. M., 29 Pollination, 38 Poultry, 12, 53
breeders' conference, 55 broiler management, 53 egg quality program, 54
institute, 56
management, 53
Products standardization, 77 Publications, 15

Radio, 16
Reaves, C. W., 47 Recreation, 14, 75, 85 Rosenberger, S. E., 60 Rural housing, 8
telephones, 30

Safety, 18
Savage, Zach, 22 Short courses, 4-H, 18, 42, 73, 83, 85 Sikes, Anna Mae, 62 Smith, J. Lee, 19 Soil, water conservation, 57 Staff changes, 10 Statistics, 11, 86 Stevens, Lorene, 70 Swine, 36

Teaching methods, 20 Telephones, rural, 30 Textiles, 13, 68, 85 Timber marketing, 51 Timmons, D. E., 21 Tobacco, flue-cured, 31, 34 Tractor maintenance, 27 Training, 8, 30, 62








Annual Report, 1950


Transportation, 22 Turkey management, 55

'United Nations flag project, 67

Vegetables, 22
merchandising, 60 production, 60 Veterans' assistance, 20 Visual aids, 17


Water conservation, 57 Watermelon Growers and Distributors Association, 22 Watkins, Marshall 0., 7 Wiring, 29
Work with women and girls, 62




Full Text

PAGE 1

. "l <.:OOl'.IHtA'l'IVE J,;X'l.'ENSION WO.RK IN AGRICULTURE AND llOl\IE ECONOMICIS (Acts of l\Iay 8 and Jnne 30, 1914) Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida Florida State University And United States Department of Agricultur e Cooperating H. G. Clayton, Director 1950 REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1950 with FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1950

PAGE 2

COOI'ERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND 11O:\IE ECONO:\IICS (Acts of :\lay 8 and June 30, 1911) Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida Florida State University And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating H. G. Clayton, Director 1950 REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1950 with FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1950

PAGE 3

BOARD OF CONTROL Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg Hollis Rinehart, Miami N. B. Jordan, Quincy Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville George J. White, Sr., Mt. Dora W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President of the University' J. Wayne Reitz, P.H.D., Provost for Agriculture' H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of Extension Marshall 0. Watkins, M.Agr., Assistant to the Director3 Roger L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative Manager' Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville J . Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor' Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor' Leon 0. Griffith , A.B.J., Assistant Editor' J. Lee Smith, District Agent K. S. McMullen, B.S.A., District Agent F. S. Perry, B.S.A., District Agent H. S. McLendon, B.A., Soil Conservationist R. S. Dennis, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.2 Oliver F. Goen, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist J. A. McGregor, B.S., Assistant Animal Industrialist C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman N. R. Mehrhof, M. Agr., Poultry Husbandman1 A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester H. G. Hamilton, > Ph.D., Agricultural Economist• Charles M, Hampson, M.S,, Agricultural Economist, Farm Management' D. E. Timmons , . M.S.A., Economist in Marketing F. W. Parvin, B.S.A., Assistant Economist John M. Johnson, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer' Fred P. Lawrence, B.S.A., Citriculturist W. W. Brown, B.S.A., Boys' Club Agent Joe N. Busby, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent A. M. Pettis, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist2 John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist2 J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist' F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crop Specialist1 Stanley E. Rosenberger, M. Agr., Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist Forrest E. Myers, B.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Home Demonstration Agent Ethyl Holloway, B.S., District Agent Mrs . Edith Y. Barrus, B.S.H.E., District Agent Joyce Bevis, M.A., Clothing Specialist Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist Grace I. Neely, M.S., Asso. Economist in Food Conservation Lorene H. Stevens, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club Agent Ruth S. Lemmon, B.S.H.E., Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent Mrs. Gladys Kendall, A.B., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent J. A . Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent Cooperative other divisions, U. of F. 2 1n cooperation with U. S. on leave . [2]

PAGE 4

CONTENTS Page Director's Report . ........ .. ......................... .. .. .. . . ......................... ____ _ Statistical Report .. -------Publications, News, Radio, Films ......... . .. ... ............ . . ___________ _ Safety and Fire Prevention .............. ---7 11 15 18 Work of County, District Agents 19 Agricultu . ral Economics--------------------20 Farm Managemen 20 Marketing _______ 21 Citrus Grove ManagemenL ..... 22 Agricultural Engineering. . ............... 26 Farm Electrificatio ___________ 29 Agronomy........ _______________ 32 Animal Husbandry ........... 36 Apiculture............. 38 Boys' 4-H Club Work. .. ... ............ . ............ 41 Citrus Culture ......................................... . .......... .. ........ . ................. ............ . . ... ... . ..... 43 Dairy Husbandry ... . ..... 47 50 Poultry Activities. . ........... 53 Soil and Water Conservation............ 57 Vegetable Production and Merchandising _ __ _ _ Home Demonstration \Vork 60 62 Clothing and Textiles .. ....... . ................. . . . ... . .. . . . ... .. .... . ......... . ... 68 Girls' 4-H Club Work . .. . . ............... . .......... . ... . ............. .. . . ..... . .. .. . . ... . ..... 70 Home Improv e ment.. .... ___ _ Home Industries and Marketing .................................. . ............. ____ _ Nutrition and Foods .................................... . ................... ______ _ Negro Farm Demonstration \Vork ..... ... .... . . . ....... ---____ _ 74 77 80 82 Negro Home Demonstration \Vork ................. . .. ... . ... . .... . .......................... --84 Negro Statistical Report _____ 86 [3]

PAGE 5

COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS (As of November 30, 1950) COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT Alachua _____ Loonis Blitch ________________ Gainesville ________________ Mrs. J osephinc McSwine Alachua (Asst.) ____________ Charles C. Below ___________ Gainesville -----------------------------------------Baker ______ G. T. Huggins ___ Macclenny -----------------------Bay _______ J. A. Sorenson ____ Panama City ______________ _ Bradford ___________ T. K. McClane, Jr. ________ Starke ____________ Miss Dorothy P. Ross Brevard _________ .J. T. Oxford _____ Cocoa ________________ Mrs. Eunice F. Gay Brevard (Asst.) __________ .Jam.es Nesmith _______________ Cocoa ------'--------Broward _____________________ B. E. Lawton _________________ Ft. Lauderdale ____________ Miss Louise Taylor Broward (Asst.) ___________ Robert S. Pryor__ ___________ Ft. Lauderdale---~-------------Calhoun ________ Thomas B. Jones ___________ Blountstown __________ Miss Florence L. Gatlin Calhoun (Asst.) ___________ Fred J. Green _____ Blountstown _________________ _ Charlotte _____ N. H. McQueen ______________ Punta Gorda ________ _ Citrus ______ Quentin Medlin _____________ Inverness ________ Mrs. Doris R. Ttuner Citrus (Asst.) Edsel W. Rowan ___________ Jnverness -------------------------------------------Collier ______ Herbert L. Miller _________ Everglades __________ _ Columbia _____ James N. Watson ___________ Lake City ____ Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell Columbia (Asst.) _______ Aubrey L. Harrell___ ______ Lake City _________ _ Dade ______ C. H. Steffani ____________ Miami ____ Miss Eunice Grady Dade (Asst.) ____ J. Lawrence Edwards ___ Miami _______ Miss Olga Kent Dade (Asst.) _______________ John D. CampbelL ______ Miami Miss Ruth Taylor Dade (Asst.) _____________ A. E. C. Mclntyre _______ Homestead _________ _ DeSoto ______ W. L. Woods --~Arcadia __________ _ Dixie ______ Clarence L. Dickinson_Cross City _________ _ Duval ______ A. S. Lawton ____ Jacksonville ________ Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) ___ Ralph F. Jones ___ Jacksonville ______ Mrs.Lucille Colsen Duval (Asst.) ____________________________________________ Jacksonville ____________ Miss Emma Sue Warren Escambia ----~N. Stephens ___ Pensacola ________ Miss Ethel Atkinson Escambia (Asst.) __________ Albert H. Odom ___________ Pensacola _______ Miss Mary D. Buffington Gadsden __________ A.G. Driggers ______________ Quincy ________________ Miss Elise Laffitte Gadsden (Asst.) ____________ Bernard H. Clark __ c ______ Quincy ________ Mrs.Ivan S. Woodbery Gilchrist _____ Harry E. George ___________ Trenton -------------------------------Glades -----~• G. Hutchinson ________ Moore Haven _______ _ Gulf ____________________________ C. R. Lair~ ____ Wewahitchka ____________ Miss Emma L. Stevenson Hamilton . E. Nesmith ____ Jasper Hardee-----~H. Vance Wauchula ______________ Mrs.Frances P. Denington Hendry -----------------------H. L. Johnson LaBelle __________ _ Hernando _____ Harry J. Brinkley _________ Brooksville Highlands _____ v. T. Oxer _______ Sebring ______ Miss Catherine Brabson Highlands (Asst.) _________ Bert J. Harris, Jr. ________ Sebring __________ _ Hillsboro ----~,lee White ___________________ Tampa _____ Miss Lora Kiser Hillsboro (Asst.) __________ Edwin Boot.~ ___ Tampa Hillsboro (Asst.) _________ Jean Beam _ Tampa Hillsboro (Asst.) _________ J. 0. Armor___ ____________ ~--Plant City ______________ Miss Emily King [4]

PAGE 6

COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT H;llsboro (Asst.) _________ Seton N. Edson _____________ Ruskin ------------------Holmes Stuart C. Bell _______________ Bonifay __________ Mrs. Laurena Croom Ward Indian River _______________ Marcel A. Boudet _________ Vcro Beach ________ _ Jackson ______ Woodrow W. Glenn _____ Marianna ________ Mrs. Alyne C. Heath Jackson (Asst.) ____________ William C. Zorn ____________ Marianna -------------------Jefferson -----JW. Malone ____ Monticello ________ Miss Mary A. Curtis Lafayette _____ S, L. Brothers _______________ Mayo Lake ______ R. E. Norris ____ Tavares __________ Mrs. Lucie K. Miller Lake (Asst.) ____ Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr. Tavares-----------'-----------Lee _______ c, P. Heuck _____________ Fort Myers Leon _______________ James L. Rhoden _______ .Tallahassee ________ Mrs. Nellie D. Mills Leon (Asst.) ______________ Alexander H. Clemons Tallahassee Levy ___________________________ T. D. Rickenbaker _______ Bronson ________ Mrs. Sue P. Murphy Liberty _______________________________ Bristol ________ Mrs. Camilla R. Radney Madison _____________________ Fred C. Sumners _________ Madison ______ Miss Bennie F. Wilder Manatee _____ Ed L. Ayers ____ Palmetto---------Mrs. Anne D. Davis Manatee (Asst.) ________ Johnnie E. Davis _________ Palmetto _____________ _ Manatee (Asst.) _______ Johnnie F. Barco _________ Palmetto __________ _ Marion _______________________ A. David Baillie, Jr .... Ocala ___ Miss Allie Lee Rush Marion (Asst.) ____________ Carey A. Robbins _________ Ocala ______ Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry Martin _______________________ L. M. Johnson _____________ Stuart ____ Miss Lucile Inscoe Nassau _______________________ Gordon B. Ellis ___________ Hilliard ________ Mrs. Julia P. Jernagan Okaloosa ----~red \V. Barber ___________ Crestview------------------------------------------_ Okeechobee ____ .c. R. Boyles ____ Okeechobee Orange _____ F. E. Baetzman ----------Orlando ____ Miss Elizabeth Dickenson Orange (Asst.) __________ Henry F. Swanson ________ Orlando ________________ _ Osceola ______ J. R. Gunn ___________________ Kissimmee ________ Miss Muriel A. Beck Palm Beach ____ M, U. Mounts _____________ West Palm Beach ____________ Miss Sai:a Horton Palm Beach (Asst.) ___ John H. Causey ____________ \Vest Palm Beach ____ Mrs. Mildred J. Michaud Palm Beach (Asst.) ___ JI. L. Speer ____ Belle Glade Pasco _______ J. F. Higgins D,ide City ______ Mrs. Mary R. Stearns Pasco (Asst.) ____ James B. Smith ___________ Dade City _________ _ Pinellas _______________________ .J. H. Logan ____ Clearwater __________ Mrs. Charlotte M. Lattimer Pinellas (Asst.) ____________ L, E. Cunningham _____ Clearwater ______________ Miss Muriel G. Thomas Polk __________ \V. P. Hayman _____________ Bartow ______ Mrs. Minnie M. Carlton Polk (Asst.) ____ Wilson H. Kendrick ______ Bartow __________ Miss Doris E. Frazier Putnam ______ H. E. Maltby _____________ Palatka ___ Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird Putnam (Asst.) __________ Ralph T. Clay _____________ Palatka Saint Johns _____ P. R. McMullen ___________ St. Augustine ____ Miss Anna E. Heist Saint Lucie ____ Charles D. Kime _________ Fort Pierce ____ Miss Sammie J. Kilgore Santa Rosa ----~mmett D. McCall _____ Milton ____ Miss Lora A. Botts Santa Rosa (Asst.) _____ Henry P. Davis ___________ Milton ___________ _ Sarasota _____ Kenneth A. Clark _______ .Sarasota ________ Mrs. Laleah B. Brown Sarasota (Asst.) _________ .Donald W. Lander _____ Sarasota Seminole _____ c. R. Dawson _____________ .Sanford ___ Miss Lila Woodard Sumter ______ O. M. Maines, Jr. _______ .Bushnell ______________ Miss Tillie Roese! Sumter (Asst.) _________ Earl M. Kelly _______________ .Bushnell _____________ _ [5]

PAGE 7

\' .\ COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT Suwannee ___ _ _ Floyd L. Eubanks _______ Live Oak ____ _ ___ Miss Edith.M. Martin Taylor ______ S, C. Kierce ___ _ ____ _ _ _______ Perry Mrs. Ruth McKeown Elkins Union ___ _ __________ William J. Cowen ________ Lake Butler _______ _ Volusia _______ William J . Platt, Jr. __ DeLand ___ Mrs.Edna L. Eby Volusia (Asst.) _ _ ___ _ _____ Thomas R. Townsend. DeLand -----------------------Wakulla -----"' S. Laird --------------Crawfordville Walton _ _______________ _ ______ Mitch e ll Wilkins __ _ ______ DeFuniak Springs ____ Mrs. Marguerite R. Brock Washington ___ _ ______ _ _____ H. 0 . Harrison ___ _ _ _ _ _ __ . _ Chipley ______ _ _ Mrs. Mary L. Minchin ?, / NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS . COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT Alachua _______ __ _ _ _____ _ _____ English M. Gre e ne ______ Gain e sville _ _ _____ Leontine Williams Columbia ____ _ __ __ ______ _ _ McKinley Jeffer s _ _ _____ Lake City ______ _ ___________ _ __ _ Dade ------------------------------------------------------Miami ________ _ ___ Victoria M. Simpson Duval ------------------------------Jacksonville ___ _ __ _ ____ Ethel M. Powell Gadsden ---------------Russell Stephens _ _ _______ _ Quincy ______ _ _____ _ _______ Gladys Wilkins Hamilton _____ N, H. Bennett _____________ White Springs--------------Hillsboro _____________ Tampa ________ Sudella J. Ford Jackson _____ Virgil Elkins . Marianna ____ _ ___ Annie Doris Preston Jefferson ____ _ _____ M, E. Groover ______________ Monticello __ _ __ _ _ _ ________ _ Leon ___ _ ________ Richard A. Hartsfield ___ Tallahassee _______________ Irie Mae Clark Madison ------------James C . Miller ______ Madison ______ Althea Ayer Marion -----~ugene P. Smith ____________ Qcala Marion _____ _ ___ Reddick ____ Idella R. Kelly Sumter _____ .Richard L. Bradley _____ Bushnell _____________ _ _________ _ Volusia ___________ _ ___ _ __ _ ______ _ _ _ ______ ___ _____ __ DeLand ________________ Ida T . Pemberton [6]

PAGE 8

I Part I General DIRECTOR'S REPORT H. G. CLAYTON, Director MAHSHALL 0. WATKINS, Assistant Director' Florida Agricultural Extension Service staff members in 1950 contiritied to work-together to serve Florida farm families effectively. Working together in a coordinated program, they reached a total of 89,974 families. Extension served more farm youth ip Florida in 1950. Enrollment in 4-H Clubs in the state increased from 26,095 in 1949 to 26,837 in 1950. Not only did enroll ment increase, but active participation by more farm youth in a wider variety ._of activities was apparent. It was possible to make more additions to the staff during 1950 as a result of the additional funds allocated by the 1949 Florida Legislature. One county agent, 5 assistant county agents, one home demonstration agent, two specialists for men's work, one specialist for women's work, and one negro home ,demonstration agent were added to the staff in 1950. FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1949-50 Federal Funds: Smith-Lever ___ "-------$ 70,994.31 Bankhead-} ones ' 129,651.51 Capper-Ketcham 27i417.72 Bankhead-Flannagan ____ 121,915.18 Clark-McNary 1,620.00 Research & Marketing -------------------------1,500.00 Farm Housing -------------------------------------2,000.00 $355,098.72 State Appropriations: Legislature ______________________ $473, 795.00 $473,795.00 State Trust Funds: ___________________________________________________ $ 16,157.08 $ 16,157:os County Appropriations: ________ c__ $363,396.00 $363,396.00 Grand Total _____ _ ________________________________ $1,208,446.80 FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1950-51 Federal Funds: Smith-Lever ____________________ $ 70,994.31 Bankhead-Jones 129,651.51 Capper-Ketcham 27,417.72 Bankhead-Flannagan _______________________ 121,915.18 Clark-McNary __________ 1,620.00 Research & Marketing _________________________________________ ,___ 1,500.00 Farm Housing ----------<-----------------:_________________ 640.00 $353,738.72 State Appropriations: Legislature ________________________________________________________________ $578,602.44 $578,602.44 State Trust Funds: _________________________ $ 20,000.00 $ 20,000.00 County Appropriations: -------~~----$390,412.60 $390,412.60 Grand Total --------------------------------'-----------------~-----$1,342,753.76 1 0n leave September 1, 1950, to pursue graduate work at Ha-rvard University.

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8 Florida Cooperative Extension During 1950 . the Extension Service had 62 county agents, 35 assistant county agents, 46 home demonstration agents and 12 assistant home demonstration agents. Men on the state staff includ e d 2 administrators, 3 supervisors and 28 specialists. Women included 1 administrator , 3 supervisors an d 6 specialists. The negro staff was composed of 2 supervisors, 10 county agents and 12 home d e monstration agents. Some difficulty is still encountered in locating qualified persons for home demonstration positions, in both white and negro work. TRAINING EXTENSION WORKERS A three weeks' training course for Extension agents was h e ld in the summer of 1950 for the fifth consecutive year. Four courses were offered, each carrying 1 hours of graduate credit. Extension workers were enrolled for one or two courses. Cours es offered were advanced rural lead e rship, advanced agricultural Extension Service youth programs, advanced public speaking and social recreation . Extension workers are kept abreast of new research work by occasional train ing meetings at th e Experiment Stations. On e two-day school was held at the Citrus Experim e nt Station at Lak e Alfred for all agen ts working in citrus prnduc ing counties. A one-day vegetabl e school was held for agents in Central and South Florida at the Everglades Station, Belle Glade. The annual conference for Extension workers was held at the University of Florida Octob er 16-20 and provided in-service training for agents as well as in spiration for the job ahead, Morning sessions were devoted largely to discussions by outstanding speakers on topics of national and international importance. Both men and women atte11ded morning sessions, while most afternoon sessions w ere separate and w ere devoted to new r ese arch information and methods. The annual conference for n egro Extension agents was held at Florida A & M College, Tallahassee, during th e week November 6-10. A committee composed of the Negro District Agents, the Assistant Dire cto r, and a white District Home Demonstration Agent planned this . conference. DEVELOPING STATE PROGRAMS Beginning in 1949 Ext e nsion workers in Florida have spent considerable tim e and effort developing improved methods for evolving Extension programs and . plans. During 1950 all district rnpervisors acted as a continuing committee to attempt to revise and improve the .. framework . ~e t . . 11P in 1949. The revised and improved plan . makes provision for obtaining information, analyzing situations, determining problems, developing objectives and accomplishing solutions. This revised procedure was presented to agents at the Exten s ion Agents' Annual Conference. In addition, the district si.1pervisors n1et jointly in conference in each county with th e entire county staff. The plan has met with approval in every quarter and it is b e lieved that the quality of plans and programs for 1951 will reflect the concert e d efforts exp e nded in this direction. The State Rural Housing Committee, with the Assistant Director as coordinator, continued to function in 1950 as it has each year since its organization in 1946. The following agencies are represented on the committee: Agricultural Extension S e rvice; State Department of Education-Vocational Agriculture, Hotne Economics and Supervision; State Board of Health; Project of Applied Economics, College of Education, University of Florida; School of Home Economics, Florida State Uni versity; Farmers Home Administration; and Rural Electrification Administration. The aims and purposes of th e State Rural H?using Committe e are:

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Annual Report, 1950 9 1. To encourage cooperative action between educational agencies in the State conc erne d with housing, for the purpo se of improving health, home sanitation and beautification through better housing. 2. To compile factual information on housing conditions in Florida and dis tribut e it to state and county committ ee members. 3. To encourage studies on rural housing in Florida. 4 . To secure coop era tion and support of agenci es an d individuals concerned with th e various phases of housing for rural famili es, and in position to assist with this program, or prepared to act as a dvisers of the State Commi~tee. 5. To develop a practical action program for the exe cution of th ese programs. 6. To encourage and assist in establishing training courses on rural housing for profe ssi onal workers , for interested volunteer leaders, and for persons int e rested in improving their own homes and hou s ing facilities. Th e Extension citrus and vegetable advisory committees, composed of state and county workers , serve a very worthwhile purpos e. Thes e committe es determine overall Extension programs for thes e two major commodities at periodic meetings. All agents from citrus counties and all agents from vegetable counties met for separat e two-day refr es her and conference schools during the year to become acquainted with th e lat es t research information and methods in these fields. Club work among boys is advanced by the functioning of 10 4-H Club districts . One agent in each district is elected chairman. Activities for club members and training schools for 4-H Club officers are planned by the districts and carried out with the assistance of the state staff. In practically all counties the county agent serves as secretary to the County PMA Committee and the soil conservation district sup e rvisors, in addition to various crop, poultry and livestock organiz a tions. This k eeps the Extension worker inform e d 11nd also p e rmits him to p a rticipate in the work of these groups. The specialists work very closely with thes e organiz e d agricultural groups. COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES Th e State USDA Council holds r eg ular monthly m ee tings and attendance and interest are good. The Council serves as a medium for promoting und e rstanding of the current programs and activities of the various agencies. The Extension Director is chairman of th e State Council and the State Coordinator of the Soil Conservation Service is secretary. During the past year every other monthly me e ting has been held at some point where some of th e work of one of the agricultural agencies could be seen. Th ese meetings have enabled Council members to become better acquainted with specific work being done by various agencies and this has been helpful. County councils in some instanc e _ s hol _ d regular I!leetings with good programs. In other cases they meet at irregular _ ~ntervals. It is a policy for Extension worker~ in Florida to work harmoniously with the various agricultural committees and organizations in th e state. Som e of the com mitte e assignments and Extension responsibilities are as follows: The Director is act ive in the following organizations: Chairman of the State Seed Certification Technical Advisory Committe e; chairman of th e State P&MA T ec hnical Committe e; chairman of th e State USDA Council; Admini s trator of th e State Soil Conserv a tion Board; vice-chairman of the Agricultural Division, and the chairman of the sub-committee on general agricultural research of the State Chamber of Commer ce; ex-officio member of the State Production and Marketing Administrative Committ ee; member of the Farmers Home Administration State Advisory Committe e.

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Florida Cooperative . Extension The Assistant Director was coordinator of the State Rural Housing Committee and a member of the State Pesticide Special Committee. The Extension Forester is a member of the Florida Forestry Council. The Apiculturist is chairman of the program committee of the State Beekeepers Association. The Economist in Marketing is secretary of the Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives and chairman of the Southeastern Regional Transportation Committee of the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives. He is also secretary of the Watermelon Growers' and Distributors' Association. The Dairyman was chairman of the Extension Section of the American Dairy Science Association. He continues as a member of three committees of the Florida Dairy Industry Association and secretary of the Florida State Long-Range Dairy Committee. He was asked to judge two shows in Cuba for the Cuban National Livestock show. The Poultry Husbandman is secretary of the Florida Poultry Council and the Extension Poultryman is secretary of the Florida Turkey Federation. These two staff members also serve as consultants to the Florida State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Hatchery and Breeders' Association, Record of Performance Association , and Florida Feed Dealers' Association. The Animal Husbandman is chairman of the State Livestock Loss Prevention Committee; and the Assistant Animal Industrialist is superintendent of the Beef Cattle Section of the Florida State Fair. A District Agent serves as consultant to the State Crop Improvement Association. The Florida ~gricultural Council consists of representatives of 14 statewide organizations which are agricultural in nature. The organizations included are the State Horticultural Society, Florida Poultry Producers Association, Florida Beekeepers Association, State Cattlemen's Association, Florida Fruit . and Vegetable Association, Florida Agricultural Research Institute, Florida Seedsmen's Association, Florida Dairy Industry Association, Florida Farm Bureau Federation, Florida Turf and Lawn Conference, Florida Feed Dealers Association, Florida Citrus Research Liaison Committee, Florida Association of Soil Conservation District Supervisors, and Florida and Georgia Cigar Tobacco . Growers Association. The Council takes a keen interest in the agricultural development of the state. CHANGES IN STAFF Appointments and promotions: Joe N. Busby promoted to Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent from Assistant County Agent, December 16, 1949. . . J. S. Moore promoted to Extension Poultryman from Assistant, January 1, 1950. Oliver F. Goen promoted to Animal Husbandman from Assistant Animal Indus trialist, February 1, 1950. James A. McGregor, Assistant Animal Industrialist, February l, 1950. Forrest E. Myers, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist, February l, 1950. Marshall 0. Watkins promoted to Assistant Director from Assistant to the Director, July l, 1950. . W. W. Brown promoted to State Boys' 4-H Club Agent from Assistant, July l, 1950. . H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist, July l, 1950. Ruth S. Lemmcin, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent, July l, 1950. Jasper N. Joiner, Assistant Editor, July l, 1950. Miss Anna Mae Sikes promoted to State Home Demonstration Agent from District Agent, October l, 1950. Leon Odell Griffith, Assistant Editor, November 14, 1950.

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Annual Report, 1950 Deceased: Mary E. Keown, Stat e Home Demonstration Agent , August 11, 1950. Granted Leave: Marshall 0 . Watkins, Sept e mber 16 , 1950. Jasper N. Joiner, November l, 1950. _ S , TA TISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN 11 Data from Whit e County and Home D em onstration Agents' Reports GENERAL ACTIVITIES Months of service (agents and assistants)----------------------------------1,734 Days of Service: In office-19,866; In fi e ld-21,981 ____ __ __ ____ ________ ;_____ _________ 41,847 Farm or home visits made ___________________________________________________ -:j_-: :: _ 67,356 Different farms or homes visited _____________________________________________ 7____ 37,176 Calls relating to Extension work: Office-244,481; Telephone ________ , ____ ;!._ ___ : 207,920 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youths -------------------------13,883 News articles or stories published-----------------------------------------10,924 Bulletins distributed ____ ________ 300,857 Radio talks broadcast or prepar e d --------------------------------------------------2 , 454 Training meetings held for local •leaders or committeemen: Number ____________ _ Total attendance of men and wom e n _ __________________________________________________ _ Method demonstration meetings: Number Total attendance -----------------------------------------------------------Meetings held af result demonstrations: Number ---------------------------Attendance --------------------------------------------------Tours-------------------------Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ___ _ Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ...c ______ _ SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE Total number of farms _______________ _ Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program -------------------------------------Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home demonstration program --------------------------~-------Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural program for the first time this year ----------------------------------Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home demonstration programs for first time this y ea r ___________ _ Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled _________ _ Non-farm families making changes in practices as result of the agricultural program -------------------------, Non~farm families making changes in practices as a result of home demonstration program __ _ __________________________ _ _______________ _____ ____ ,, _ ____ _ Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled---Different farm families influenced by some phase of Extension program __ _ Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program ---995 ' 13,784 11,033 245,905 1,458 29;136 640 653 9,800 64,235 32,390 17,231 4;756 3,448 10,906 21,785 19,293 7,382 43,876 39,395

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12 Florida Cooperative Extension COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING Members in agricultural planning group -----------------------------Unpaid ---------------'----------------------------------Paid ______ _ Communities in agricultural planning _______ _ Members in community agricultural planning _____________ _ Planning meetings held _________ _ Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration workers --------------------------------Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen-------------------------------Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen _________ _ CROP PRODUCTION Pays devoted to work -------------------------Communities in which work was conducted ------~------------------------Voluntary leaders and committeemen ________________ _ LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POUL TRY Days devoted to work ----------------------.-------------------Communities in which work was conducted -----------------------------------Voluntary committeemen and leaders-------------------------------------Breeding and improvement organizations Farmers assisted ____ _ CONSERVATION OF .NATURAL RESOURCES Days devoted to work ____________________ _ Communities in which work was conducted _______ _ Voluntary local leaders and committeemen -----------Farmers assisted in soil management ____________ _ Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation _________________________________ _ FARM MANAGEMENT Days devoted to work _______________________ _ Farmers assisted-----~---------------828 565 263 102 431 1,564 3,017 3,292 7,607 9,088 3,233 1,282 6,756 2,383 824 130 45,904 1,944 1,160 606 47,225 13,594 1,640 14,012 GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE Days devoted to work -~. ------~-------~-Communities in which work was conducted ------------------Voluntary leaders and committeemen _____________ _ Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ________ _ MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Days devoted to work . ------------------Communities in which work was conducted __________ _ Established cooperatives assisted New cooperatives assisted in organizing ____________ _ 391 470 313 778 2,960 3,171 lll 15

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Annual Report, 1950 HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT Days devoted fo work ------------------------=--------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was conducted _______ _ ________ _ Voluntary leaders and committeemen ___ _ __ ____ _ __ __ __ ______ _ Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical equipm e nt, rural electrification and farm buildings -----------------------NUTRITION AND HEALTH Days devot e d to work ----------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was done------------------------------------Families assisted: In improving diets-17,751; food preparation19,195; Total --------------------------------------------------Families assist e d with food preservation problems ------------------------------------HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS Days devoted to work ---------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was done ------------------------------------------Voluntary leaders assisting ----------------------------,------------------Families assisted -----------------------------Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, householdsupplies _______ : Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies -'-------"------Families assisted with consumer-buying problems ------'-~~-------------------CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Days devoted to work --------------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was done ------------------------------Voluntary leaders assisting -----------------------------------------Families assisted --------------------------------------------FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT Days devoted to work ---------------------------------------Communities in which work was done --------s ------------------~ Voluntary leaders assisting-----------------RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE Days devoted to work -------------~--------------------------'--------------Communities in which work was done ----------------------~--Voluntary leaders assisting---------------------------------Families assisted in improving home recreation ___________________ _ Communities assisted in improving community recreational facilities _______ _ Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs of activities or meeting programs -----------------------Communities assisted in providing library facilities -------------SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS Projects completed by boys --------------------Projects completed by girls ----------------------Boys comple _ ting corn and peanut projects ------------------------------------•--------Boys completing fruit projects _ __________________ _ 13 2,751 1,724 1,112 44,613 6,057 2,529 36,946 18 , 839 573 417 343 .. 3,878 349 15,342 . 8,038 2,341 602 861 36,972 457 357 355 1,121 594 1,036 6,225 320 467 54 8,426 25,285 960 182

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension Boys completing garden projects ________________ _ Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops _____ _ Boys completing dairy projects -----------------------------Boys completing poultry projects _______________________ _ Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects --~------Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ________________________ _ Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects ---------------------------------------------------------Girls completing fruit projects Girls completing garden projects _____________ _ Girls, completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ___ _ Girls completing dairy projects ________________ _ Girls completing poultry projects ---------------------------------Girls completing food selection and preparation projects _______________ _ (;iris completing health, home nursing and first-aid projects _____ _ Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and room improvement .projects ----------~Girls completing food preservation projects ___________ _ 4-H Membership Boys: Farm-6,580; non-farm-2,418; total ___________ _ Girls: Farm-6,503; non-farm-6,156; total -------------------------------------------4-H. club members having examinations because of participation in Extension program ----------------------------------------------------4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school grounds and conducting local fairs -------------------------------------------1,651 202 672 1,355 90 142 1,663 243 2,159 2 127 767 4,565 2,384 8,931 1,165 8,998 12,659 1,842 538

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Annual Report, 1950 EDITORIAL AND MAILING DEPARTMENT J. FRANCIS CooPER, Editor CLYDE BEALE, Associate Editor JASPEH N. JOINER, Assistant Editor2 L. ODELL GHIFFITH, Assistant Editor 3 15 The amount of information being disseminated by the Editorial Office increased materially near the end of 1950, with the appointment of an additional Assistant Editor. Principal emphasis will be placed on enlarging the output of news and visual aids material, since the bulletin publication and radio fields are more ad e quately covered already. As in the past, Editorial and Mailing Department staff members devote ap proximately half of their time to work for the Agricultural Experiment Station. PRINTED MATERIALS Four new bulletins, about the average number for many years, and four cir culars were printed. One bulletin was reprinted. The new bulletins amounted to 200 pages all told, ranging from 20 to 124 pages. Editions varied from 10,000 to 25,000, totaling 65,000 copies. The circulars ranged in size from four to six pages, in edition from 5,000 to 10,000 copies, and totaled 20 pages and 30,000 copies. A large number of record books and other miscellaneous materials were printed also. Publications and other materials printed during the year ending June 30 include: Bui. 140 Dooryard Citrus Plantings in Florida _______________ _ Bui. 141 Avocado Production in Florida -------------------------------Bui. 142 Camellia Growing --------------------------------------------------Bui. 143 Household Insects and Their Control ____ _ Bui. ll3 Papaya Culture in Florida (revised) ___ _ Circ. 90 Five-Deep Brood Frame Hive ____________ _ Circ. 91 Brucellosis ------------------------------------------------Circ . . 92 Portable Farrow House --------------------------------------------Circ. 93 Planning Farm Wiring -------------------------------------------M. P. 31 Florida Farm Record Book B (reprint) ____ _ _________ _ Final Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Test _______ _ 4-H Club Apiary Record Book -----------------------------------4 H Club Record Book -----------------------------------------4-H Club Poultry Record for Junior Members ___________ _ 4-H Club Garden Record for' Junior Members _ __________ _ 4-H Club Livestock Record for Junior Members _______ _ 4-H Crops Record for Junior Members ---------------------4-H Club Nursery Record for Junior Members _ _ _________ _ 4-H Club Rabbit Record for Junior Members _____________ _ 4-H Club Forestry Record for Junior Members ___________ _ Florida Clothing Program for Junior 4-H Girls ___ _ ____ _ __ _ Florida Food Preparation Record for Junior 4-H Club Girls, Demonstrations I and II ______________ _ Individual Club Member's Record Cards ---------------Pages Edition 24 15,000 124 10 , 000 20 15,000 32 25,000 32 15,000 4 5,000 4 5,000 6 10,000 6 10,000 28 6,000 28 2,000 16 2 , 500 16 25,000 4 15,000 4 15,000 . 4 12000 4 10 , 000 4 3 , 000 4 2 , 000 4 3 , 000 4 20,000 4 12,000 2 20,000 'Appointed February 2~, 1950; called to active military service October 1, 1950. "Appointed November 14, 1950.

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension Other miscellaneous materials printed includ e d e nvelopes, exhibit cards, 4-H coop cards, enrollment cards, postcards, calendar of 4-H events , monthly egg record, cards advertising the Poultry Institute, boys' short course programs and certificates and others. Distribution of the publications is handled from the mailing room, with copies of each new bulletin and circular going to libraries and specialists as well as to county and home demonstration agents. About 15,000 peopl e are notifi e d of new bulletins available. Distribution is largely on request. As in previous years, the Editor served as Distribution Control Officer for U. S. Department of Agriculture publications, and sent thousands of copies of them to county and home demonstration agents and other staff memb e rs. SERVICE TO NEWSPAPERS AND JOURNALS The printed clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, was continued for its 35th year. Containing from 8 to 15 separat e news items each week, it is sent primarily to weekly newspapers, farm papers, county and home agents, vocational agriculture teachers, and agricultural research workers. One ' thousand copies were printed each week, the State Plant Board paying for 10 issues. Ori the average around three stories a we e k were r e leased through the Associated Press or direct to one or more daily newspapers. The number materially increased near the end of the year, with the employment of an additional Assistant Editor. County arid home derhonstration agents report 10,924 news articles released in their local newspapers. Fafm journals and periodicals continued generous use of copy supplied by the Florida Extension Editors , one national, two Southern and two state journals printing 17 articles, amounting to 377 column inches of space. ON THE AIR During 1950 the Florida Agricultural Extension Servic e was represented on television for the first time. The home demonstration agents in Duval County appeared on television shows in Jacksonville near the end of the year. Radio broadcasting, long an important and e ffective m ea ns of disseminating information, expanded slightly during the year. Twenty-seven home demonstration and 35 county agents in 37 counties reported making 2,454 broadcasts. In at least one county the agents broadcast daily. In a number of others they appear weekly on the radio. Radio service from this office blankets the entire state. The Editors supplied seven 30-minute tapes to one station, each tape containing from four to six recorded features, and three 15-minute tapes to another station. They also cut two platters which were used on three stations each. During the year the Editors sent 268 Farm Flashes to 31 radio stations and county agents. Each was approximately seven minutes long. Of these , 123 were based on material by Experiment Station workers , 93 by Extension Service staff memb e rs, 37 from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 7 from the Editors and 8 from others. Separate flashes were prepared for north and south Florida stations six times. The Associate Editor prepared a weekly Florida Farm R e view and a monthly Home Demonstration Review which were released by the Associated Press to 23 stations. He sent a bi-weekly roundup to 24 stations not receiving the AP service. The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, in its 22nd year of continuous broadcast, remained an important radio outlet. It was 30 minutes on each of five days a

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Annual Report, 1950 17 week, 15 minutes on Saturday. It included 852 separate talks and interviews on 312 days , one program being cancelled because of a national broadcast and four being reduced to 15 minutes each by other national features. Regular features prepared in this office included farm news highlights for 298 days, the farm question box weekly for 48 w ee ks, home economics notes we e kly for 50 weeks, and the editorial of the week 50 times. The Editors prepared and made eight additional talks. Other features included 130 talks by Experiment Station work e rs, 85 by other members of the Extension staff, 124 Farm Flashes from the USDA, 13 talks by teachers in th e Colleg e of Agriculture, 11 by members of the State Production and Marketing Administration staff, and four by State Plant Board workers. Once a month for 10 months veterans and their train e rs in the on-farm training program w e re intervi e wed, 31 veterans and trainers appearing. Four remote broadcasts were staged from the Florida State Fair in Tampa, one from the College of Agriculture Fair on the campus and one from the Lake County Fair at Eustis. Recordings broadcast included features from the State 4-H Dairy Show in Orlando, the Alachua County 4-H Fair and an interview with a Census official. MISCELLANEOUS The filmstrip library was maintained and increased, the accessions being from the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Strips were loaned on request to county and home demonstration agents and others. Agents were assisted in obtaining motion picture films and those in two counties were aided in purchasing motion picture projection equipment. Two motion picture projectors, two strip projectors and four public address systems were maintained. Food and Home Notes from the USDA were sent weekly to all home demon stration agents, many of whom used them in radio broadcasts and in news stories. Organizations and agencies extended cooperation in the release of news and radio materials during the year included the College of Agriculture, State Plant Board, Production and Marketing Administration, Farmers' Home Administration, Rural Electrification Administration and vocational agriculture department. The Editors spoke to eight groups on various phases of information work, with 185 people present:

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION BONNIE J. CARTER AND L. T. NIELAND National Farm Safety W ee k and National Fir e Prevention Week w e r e observed by th e Florida Agricultural Extension Service. Through th e Exten s ion Editor's offic e packets of material on safety, pr e pared by the Nation a l Safety Council, and on fir e prevention by the USDA Coun c il and the National Fire Prot e ction Associa tion were provided to help agents organize and conduct saf e ty and fir e prevention progr a ms. Entomologists from the Florida Agricultural Experiment St at ion brought up to date information on precautions to follow when using some of the new and old pesticides and this information w as sent to th e agents also. Th e Extension editorial staff prepared radio scripts and spot announcements and helped publicize the program over Station WRUF, G a inesville, through news articles , feature stories and editorials. The Home Improvem e nt Specialist, who direct s the safety and lire prevention activities for women ' and girls, prepared suggested activities , including outlines for simple demonstrations, us e d by volunteer local leaders and 4-H Club girls in developing the 4-H Club safety and fire prevention program. During the annual Short Course for 4-H Club Girls at Florida Stat e University in June, two county home demonstration agents and a University 4-H Club girl assist e d with instruction in the two subjects. Th e y used motion pictures, posters, exhibits , demonstrations, lectures and mimeograph e d material to present the subject to 250 gir~s, volunteer leaders and home demonstration agents from all parts of the state. Reports from county home demonstration agents show that they carried out organized progr a ms in safety and fire prevention in each of the 35 counties . Through the efforts of th ese agents, 3,566 women and 3 , 798 girls were enrolled for demonstrations in safety and fire prevention ; 488 volunteer loc a l lead e rs assist e d with th e program and 887 m e thod demonstrations were given at 1,148 meetings. Approximately 8 , 000 families were assisted and encouraged to remove fire and safety hazards and 5 , 610 young peopl e in 31 counties rec e i ve d definit e training along th e se lines. Ag e nts, volunteer lead e rs, 4-H Club girls, home demonstration women and specialists presented radio programs and spot announcements over radio, showed motion pictures and filmstrips, plac e d posters and exhibits, wrote news articles, held meetings , made surveys and gave method demonstrations, and conducted clean-up campaigns to focus attention of people on the need for adopting good practices in safety and fire prevention. Sp eci alists in Clothing and Textil es, Hem e Improvem e nt, Food Conservation , and Home Industries and Marketing included safety and fire prevention in their programs. Again this ye a r, water safety was e mphasiz e d in the 4-H Club camp program at thre e district camps for white and one for n eg ro boys and girls, as well as in several county camps. Over 5,000 girls and boys learned the fundamentals of water safety, some learned to swim, oth e rs increased their swimming ability, whil e still others prepared thems e lves for life saving. Camp programs also included environmental safety. Girls and boys made surveys of camp areas to find and remedy hazards.

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Annual Report, 1950 19 Part II --Men's W orli. SUPERVISORY ACTIVITIES H. G. CLAYTON, Director J. LEE SMITH, Di s trict Agent F. S. PERRY, District Agent K. S. McMULLEN, District Ag e nt , 'W ith the assistance and close cooperation of boards of county commissioners, the Extension program was strengthened in th e counties by additions to the staff and by some incre ases in salaries. District Agents continued to work clos e ly with boards of county commissioners to see that Extension programs in the counties were designed to fill the specific needs of th e particular counties. There w e r e a large number of changes in county Extension personn e l and the District Ag e nts played an important rol e in seeing that the new personnel were placed so as to fill the specific needs of the counties concerned. The county agents and new assistant agents were given ne e ded assistance and training for their new positions by the District Agents. District Agents served on many committees d esig ned to improve and expand the work of the Extension Service. The more important of these committees were: 4-H Club Camp Finance Committee , Florida State Fair 4-H Club Exhibit Committee, Extension -Program Planning Committ ee, Ext e nsion Citrus Advisory Committee, Extension Vegetable Advisory Committee, and Ext e nsion Training Committ ee. District Agents assisted in every way possible to maint ' ain and promote good relations between agencies, organizations, commodity groups and county agents, which are so necessary for good Extension work. The support of, these groups has been very evi dent during the year and has made it possible to reach additional people. District Agents continued their efforts to strengthen the new system of program developm e nt and integration. In county planning meetings, attended by all county Extension personn e l , the District Agents brought a high degree of uniformity into the county programs. Much tim e was spent by District Agents in correlating the work of specialists within the districts, thus facilitating and making more effective the work of th e specialists. The District Agents spent some time working with the Citrus Institute, the Poultry Institut e and the Farm and Hom e Institute. They also assisted county workers with local, district and state shows and fairs. Four-H club work within the distric;ts and on a state-wide basis was a major responsibility of th e three District Agents. They attended 10 group meetings of county agents to discuss and plan 4-H activities. The scheduling of counties to 4-H camps was also their responsibility.

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS H. G. HAMILTON, Agricultural Economist FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES C. M. HAMPSON, Economist in Farm Management F. W. PARVIN, Associate Economist The Economist's time was divided about equally between farm management extension projects and the teaching of methods in Agricultural Extension. The Associate Economist gave full time to farm management work. Farm and Home Planning.-The farm and home planning project with indi viduals, now in its tenth year, was conducted on the same plan as in past years with only slight expansion. Plans for 271 farm families were made by the Economist, the county agent, the farmer and his wife. About 1,600 changes in practices were agreed upon, about 70 percent of which were carried out in a creditable manner, resulting in an average increase in net farm income of about $220, or 10 percent over the previous year. The work is carried on in nine counties. Assistance to Veterans.-The Economist is consultant to the veterans' supervisor of vocational agriculture; and as such supplies standards for measuring size of farm business, assists with the state annual meeting and various district meetings of veterans' teachers, conducts discussions with local classes, and in answer to written requests gives much information and some advice. Assistance to Negroes.-Approximately one half of the work done in farm and home planning is conducted with negro agents and farmers. Two of the district meetings for veterans' teachers were with negro teachers and three 4-H leader training meetings were for negro leaders. Two or more days were given to each of.the following: 4-H camp, 4-H short course, Resources Committee and Annual Conference of Extension Agents. Teaching Methods in Agricultural Extension.-Two regularly scheduled under graduate courses are offered each fall semester, four courses are offered during a three-week summer school for in-service workers, and two problems courses are offered each term of school. Twenty students were enrolled in the summer school, 56 in the fall classes and 12 in problems courses. The classroom teaching is followed by assistance in the field. Aid was given in conducting training meetings for 4-H leaders and officers of 21 counties. Economic Considerations in Florida's Pasture Development Program.-Con tinuing the preliminary work started in 1949 the Associate Economist asked county agents in a large number of Florida's important beef-producing counties to collect certain information pertaining to the pasture development program. Preliminary analysis of the data collected by those agents indicates that there is the widest possible range in methods and types of pasture development. The cost of development ranged between $10 per acre and $84 per acre. The cost of maintenance ranged between $0 and $16 per acre in the cases reported. While no research has yet been initiated in the field of costs and returns in Florida's vast pasture development program, it is ,hoped that such will be forth coming in the not-too-distant future. Farm Management for Florida's Agricultural Credit Sources.-During 1950 the Associate Economist made a concerted drive to impress upon all major sources of agricultural credit the fact that good farm management principles and practices are important. Rural bankers; Production Credit Association officers and Farmers' Home Ad

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Annual Report, 1950 21 ministration officials were told that the adoption of good farm management principl es should be made a part of th e loan requirem e nts. In this connection the Associate Economist addressed the director's conference of the Production Credit Association, the agricultural short course of the Florida Bankers ' Association, a nd the annual conference of th e Farm ers' Home Adminis tration. Economic Outlook for Florida Farmers.-A mimeographed sheet summarizing economic information important to Florida agriculture adapted from reports from USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics was prepared monthly for us e of county agents, vocational agriculture t eac hers, veterans' teachers, rural bankers and Ext e sion staff memb e rs. Florida Agricultural Outlook.-Following the national outlook conference in \Vashington, October 30 to Novemb e r 3, the Associate Economist prepared a general report entitled The Outlook for Florida Farmers in 1951. This r e port was distributed to 1 , 200 people who serve Florida farmers. During the year the Associate Economist appeared before 17 farmer meetings in 11 counties and discus se d the general subject of agricultural outlook for Florida farmers. Th e combined attendance at these meetings was approximately 1,925 farmers. Thirt e en radio talks were prepared and deliv e red on the subj ec t of out look for various commodities and supplies for Florida farmers. 4-H Club Work.-Assistanc e was given at 35 4-H club ev e nts, including short course and camps and seven district and county fairs, and in th e selection of state prize winners for national contests. Help was given in conducting training meetings with 4-H lead ers from 21 counties and 4-H officers from six counties. Miscellaneous Activities.-Assistanc e was giv e n in conducting 4-H camps, short course, rally days , and achievement days and in judging exhibits and r e cord books. Coop era tion was extended to 10 different farmer and civic organizations and to college teachers . Assistance was also given in the preparation of manuscripts by memb e rs of th e Florida Agricultural Experiment Station staff. MARKETING D. E. T1Ml\10NS, Economist, Marketing There were a number of crop hazards in 1950, including fr ee zes, hurrican es, droughts, etc., a nd as has been the case before, some crops brought much bett e r prices than others. On the whole, prices for vegetables were not consid e red satis factory. Citrus and liv es tock prices were good . Hon ey, syrup and some poultry products were unsatisfactory in price . Citrus Fruits.-It was not n eces sary to spend as much time with these products in 1950 as in 1949 because: Prices were better, the citru s code that required more time in 1949 is in effect and th e lime r ese arch project that took a lot of time in planning in 1949 is in progress. Special effort was made to comply with requests to attend me e tings of trade ass ociations and take part in various educational meetings. Trade associations worked with include: Florida Citrus Mutual, Pro ducers Trade Association, United Grow e rs and Shippers, Florida Cann e r Associa tion, Florida Express Fruit Shippers Association, C an ners L ea gue of Florida, Federal Marketing Agreement Committees (lime-avocado-mango); Extension Citrus Committee and Citrus Institutes. The Extension Economist cooperated with lime, avocado and mango commit tees in an effort to develop better and more practical maturity standards, more satisfactory containers and improved grade . standards.

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension Vegetables.-The Extension Economist spent more time with vegetables in 1950 than in any other recent year. Vegetable prices were relatively low and it seemed advisable that he make a special effort to assist growers and marketing agencies in finding ways to economize. Much emphasis was given to technological improve ments, especially those designed to save labor. There is a definite trend, and the Extension Economist has cooperated in it, to p~ckage vegetables more nearly at the point of growing. It is estimated that machinery has already b ee n developed that will cut harvesting and packing costs of some vege~able crops as much as 20 %. Quite noticeable are developments in sweet com and in celery. Th e re are other efforts being made in such crops as cauliflower and leafy winter vegetables . Transportation.-Transportation was a major project in 1950. The Extension Econom/st in Marketing is Chairman of the Southeastern Cooperative Transporta tion Committee. This committee has concerned itself with cooperating with the railroads in improving equipment, increasing certain types of equipment, better use . of equipment, and doing educational work all along the line in conserving as well as making better use of available equipment. In connection with this project, stress has been given to the importance of simplifying freight tariffs and to stand ardize motor-truck weight and equipment regulations. Cooperative Marketing.-A long-time project of the Extension Marketing Spe cialist is encouraging farmers who need to organize themselves to take advantage of the provisions of the cooperative laws. Small farmers are handicapped in both selling and buying. , By performing these functions collectively, it has been possible to reduce costs and thereby make small growers better able to compete . with larger farmers. Watermelon Growers and Distributors Association.-The Extension Economist is secretary of this association. This organization is primarily an educational group whose purpose is to assist in production, packing, transportation and distribution of watermelons. One meeting is held annually. The Marketing Specialist is pri marily responsible for arranging the program for this meeting. Livestock.-Rapid increase in the production of cattle has necessitated con siderable attention to the needs brought about by this increase. Assistance has been given a number of livestock auctions in improving their facilities to handle the increased volume and to oth~r groups in determining needs for additional markets. Possibly the warning against building a market where one could hardly succeed is as important as to help to build one that is needed. Miscellaneous . -There are a number of miscellaneous jobs that the Marketing Sp e cialist is called on to do, such as outlook meetings, which are in cooperation with Mr. Parvin; attending the Southeast Shippers Advisory Board meetings when practi cal (information obtained at these meetings is of value in connection with the trans portation projects); livestock shows, which are helpful in working with farmers in an effort to increase quality; Poultry Institutes; 4-H Club camps; vocational agriculture teachers' annual meetings; Gov e rnor's Safety Council; meetings of the Citrus Products Research Council; and meetings of civic organizations. It is estimated that these miscellaneous projects take up about 10 to 15% of the time of the Extension Economist in Marketing. CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT ZACH SAVAGE, Associate Agricultural Economist , Experiment Station Tabulated results of this project began in 1931 and the project has been under way continually since that time. The number of records included varied from 70 in 1931-32 to 326 in 1936-37 and has averaged 251 per season. The acreage included varied from 2 , 036 acres in 1931-32 to 10,479 acres in 1940-41. The

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Annual Report, 1950 23 average for the 18 seasons was 8,630 acres_ per season. In the 1948-49 season there were 223 records representing 7,883 acres of grove. Data completed to date for the 1949-50 season do not include returns from fruit on 239 groves of 8,119 acres. Production costs per acre decreased each successive season since the 1946-47 season through 1949-50 on groves over 10 years of age. Labor, power and equipment, fertilizer materials, and spray and dust materials usually constitute 89 percent of the operating costs. Each of these items decreased during the 1946-50 period on a per-acre basis. Money spent for fertilizer materials decreased most at 35 percent. Spray and dust material costs per acre decreased 17 percent, and labor, power and equipment costs 12 percent. Operating costs per acre decreased 19 percent over this period. Operating costs and the three items of labor, power and equipment, fertilizer materials, and spray and dust materials all were higher per acre in the 1946-47 season than for any other of the 19 seasons of these cost records. One of the chief reasons for this was that the 1946-47 season followed five seasons of good fruit prices-varying from $1.02 per box in 1941-42 to $2.02 in 1944-45 and averaging $1.68. Good fruit prices accompanying rising costs of production labor and materials seem to accelerate the increase of production costs with each passing season. Then when fruit prices decline, as was the case in 1946-47 and 1947-48, production costs tend to remain high for some time. Also, data calculated on a crop-year basis tend to prolong these high costs one year longer than if on a fiscal-year basis. These data are on the crop-year basis, which means that the designation for the season was for the season in which the fruit was marketed and the production costs were incurred the previous season-the season in which the bloom occurred. The number of boxes of fruit harvested per acre increased each season since 1944-45, when it was 225 boxes. Hurricane damage in some sections lowered the average that season . Boxes harvested increased to 342 boxes per acre in 1948-49 and averaged 319 boxes for the three seasons of 1946-49. There was some increase in age of trees during this period. Also, there wer e good weather conditions generally with little damage from low temperatures. Fruit harvested per acre during the 18-year period, 1931-49, averaged 206 boxes from trees that averaged 21 years of age-four years younger than the age for the 1946-49 period. The decreases in per-acre costs accompanied by increases in boxes harvested accelerated the decreases in per-box costs. The season of 1946-47 had the highest per-box costs for labor, power and equipment, fertilizer materials, spray and dust materials, and total operating costs of the three seasons, 1946-49. The per-box costs for the 1946-47 season were highest of the 18 seasons, 1931-49, for labor, . power and equipment, spray and dust materials, and total operating costs. There were two seasons, 1931-32 and 1944-45, with higher costs per box in fertilizer materials. The cost of fertilizer materials per box was 12 cents in 1948-49, the lowest since 1941-42 season, when such was also 12 cents. There were only two seasons of this 18-year period when fertilizer material costs were less than for the 1948-49 season. These two seasons were 1939-40 and 1940-41, when they were 11 cents per box. Total operating costs per box were 40 cents in 1948-49, the lowest since the 1943-44 season and 1 cent under the 18-year average. There were eight seasons when such costs averaged less than 40 cents. Returns per acre from fruit were $136.41 in 1947-48-the lowest of any season since 1940-41. The price received for fruit averaged 43 cents in 1947-48, which was the lowest since 1938-39. There was one other season of this period, 1932-33, when the fruit price was less than in 1947-48. There were 15 seasons when the average fruit price was higher than this season and nine seasons when the price was more than twice the 1947-48 price. The price received for fruit in 1948-49 of

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension $1.14 was two and two-thirds times the price the preceding season. The returns from fruit per acre in 1948-49 were almost three times the returns in 1947-48. Returns from fruit per acre in 1947-48 lacked $21.97 of refunding operating costs. There was one other season-1932-33-of the 18 when there was an oper ating loss, but this loss was less than in 1947-48. The average return above operating cost for the last three seasons, 1946-49, were $96.14 per acre or 30 cents per box. There were 12 individual seasons of this period when return above operating costs per acre were less than _j:he average of these three seasons of 194649, and nine seasons when the per-box figure was less than the 30-cent average. The 1948-49 results greatly improved the averages for the three 0 year period, 1946-49. Returns abov~ operating costs in 1948-49 amounted to $254.31 per acre or 74 cents per box. There were only four seasons of the 18, 1942-46, when more returns above operating costs were realized. It is generally considered that good yields and high production lower prices received for the product. In the case of citrus this was not so much the case during the five seasons of 1941-46. During this period there were high production and high prices received for citrus-two favorable factors seldom occurring at the same time. The results were that the Florida citrus grower enjoyed great pros perity when compared to the 10 .seasons of 1931-41. Citrus yields were good during the thre~ seasons of 1946-49. The average yield of 321. boxes on the groves of these records for 1947-48 was the highest of the 17 seasons up to that time. The following season, 1948-49, the yield averaged 342 boxes-2i boxes higher. The price received for fruit was low for two of these seasons, 1946-48, but improved to $1.14 in 1948-49. The yield per acre of all groves in Florida during each of these three seasons was not exceeded in any prior season, but in each season the state average was lower than the corresponding average of these records. The price received for all fruit in the state during this three-year period was 83 cents per box. This was 5 cents per box or 6 percent higher than the average price received during the, same period by the growers of these records. Total operating costs for the 1949-50 season were $30.87 per acre,. or 19 per cent, less than in the 1946-47 season. The yield for 1949-50 was good, with a considerably higher price received for fruit than in 1948-49. When the receipts are all accounted fen: in the 1949-_50 season, with the help of the decreased operating costs, it is expected that the returns above operating costs will equal or exceed any previous season for the groves included in these records. . The individual report for each grove was increased to two pages. For the first time, labor, power and equipment costs for irrigation were separated from such costs used for otJ.er purposes. It was thought advisable to begin a more ddailed cost analysis of irrigation, as many growers are purchasing rather elaborate irrigation equipn'ient and are spending liberally otherwise in irrigation. Six additional items were added to the list, making 13 in all, of items ranked for the 200 groves over 10 years of age. Comparisons of quantities of available plant foods acfded during the season were included. Quantities of each of 10 fertilizer clements were given on per-box, per-acre, .and ratio-to-nitrogen bases for the in::lividual grove, average of all groves, and average recommendations by produc tion authorities. It was hoped that this type of information would stimulate grower thinking sufficiently for him to correlate the poundage of plant foods added with anticipated and actual yields for the. purpose of lowering fertilizer costs where feasible, A bound copy of individual grove reports was supplied county agents in Lake, Orange, Polk, and Highlands counties. These are used by these agents for reference when advising with the grower concerned for making recommendations concerning grove management.

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Annual Report, 1950 25 A copy of the Citrus Grove Record Book was sent each cooperator using this book in keeping his record. Assistance was given the Citriculturist by supplying information for publication in "Citrus Notes for County Agents in Citrus Pro ducing Counties." Manuscripts were prepared for two issues of The Citrus Indus try and nine for Citrus magazine. The article that appeared in the July issue of Citrus also appeared in the September issue of The California Citrograph. Citrus cost accounts were discussed before college classes in h~rticulture and agricultural economics. Published material in this work was distributed to each member of each class. A total of 1,572 copies of publications was used for this purpose. A short statement relative to the rental of citrus groves was prepared for the Agricultural Experiment Station to be published in a forthcoming bulletin. The tabulation and presentation of this work was expedited by the issuance of nine different forms, or a total of 5,100 copies. Four form letters were written totaling 1,725 copies. Fifteen publications were issued representing a total of 10,925 copies of publications. A total of 28 different publications, letters, and forms were issued representing 17,750 copies, or a total of 73,800 pages of material.

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26 Flo ri da C oop ern tiv e E x te n sio n AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRIFICATION AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Jo :c:N M . J o~ I NSON, Ag ri c ultttral En g in ee r Th e Ex t e n sio n ag r ic ult ura l e n n ee r ing pr og ram includ es fa rm h o u s in g, fa rm buildin gs fa m m:i r ket n 6 fac : lit : es . i rri ga ti o n . fa rm d rai n age, a nd p e r so n a l se rv ice w o rk. R e ~ ul ts a n J m et h od dem : m , b ti c n s , illu s tr a t e d l ec tur es a t fmm e r m ee tin gs, w o rk g roup b a:n.i n g , ex'.1i bit s , n ew:; a n d ra di o a rt i cl es w e r e e mpl oye d. Th e E n gi n eer a n s w ere J 1 l e tt e r s req u es tin g inf mma t io n o n va ri o u s ph ase s of t he p rogram, partic:pa t ed in 9 1 farme r mee tin gs and d e m o n s trnti ons a n d 2 1 t ra i nin g sc h oo l s, a n d visited 111 fa r mers in answer t o reques t s fo r onth e spo t ass i s t a n ce. Farm Structures.-Th e p r ima r y a im of th e fa r m s tru c tur es pr og r a m i s t o improv e th e s t a ndard o f li v in g a nd in co m e throu g h prop e rl y pl a nn e d , b e tt e r c on s truct e d , a nd m o r e e ffi c i e ntl y a n a n ge d fa rm buildin gs . On e of th e m os t va lu a bl e co ntributi ons t o th e s u ccess of thi s pro g ram i s t h e Fl o rid a F a rm Buildin g Pl a n S e r v i ce, w h e r e b y a ppro ved pl a n s for dw e llin gs a nd oth e r farm buildin gs a r e pro v id e d fr ee t o F l o rid a fa r me r s. Fo r r e produ c in g print s, t o b e m a il e d in r es p o n se t o r eq u es t s b y fa r me r s, 28 6 diff e r e nt buildin g pl a n s a r e on fil e. Two m im eog raph e d p u b li ca ti ons , Fa rm Buildin g P l a n s a nd Plan s fo r F a r m Dw e llin gs a nd App urt e n ances, lis t severa l o f t he mos t po pul a r p l a n s of eac h ty p e a nd d esc ri be eac h p l a n . T h ese pub li cations are supp li ed fm" coun t y Exte n s i o n o ffi ce bull e tin rac k s, vocat i ona l ag r ic ul t ur e and ve t era n s teache r s. In a d d i t i o n to th ese d esc ripti ve bull e tin s, 2, 000 se t s of buildi ng p l a n s a r e furni s h e d co unt y work e rs for th e ir r efe r e n ce fil es. Fi g . 1-Th e s t a t e 4 -I I C lub ac t o r d r i v in g con t es t , s t age d a t Sh o rt C o ur se c huin g 1950 fo r th e fir s t t ime, s h owed t h e s kill of th e boys a nd a ttra c t ed m u c h a tt e ntion .

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Annual Report, 1.950 27 During the year 5,801 plans for various farm buildings were mailed to farmers in answer to requ e sts. To always have modern, up-to-date plans for distribution, new plans are constantly being added. The En g in ee r maintains a drafting office with two graduat e student assistants, from which has come 38 of the most popular plans which include 6 dwellings , 2 dairy calf barns, a portable farrowing house, and a multiple outdoor fireplace. The dairy calf barns and farrowing house wer e d e veloped in cooperation with memb e rs of the Animal Husbandry Department. Scale models of the low-cost dw e lling house and the calf barn wer e made alfd have b ee n used in t eac hing and in ex hibits. The dairy ca lf barn has b e come very popular with dairym e n who are m e mbers of an a rtificial breeding association. In cooperation with the Extension Home Improv e ment Specialist and the Farm El e ctrification Sp e cialist, nine regional training m ee tings (two for n e gro and seven for white) were conducted for professional workers in the field. The training cla sses covered pl a nning, construction , use of mat e rials , and use of electricity, with special emphasis on methods to b e used in pres e nting homing information to rural p eo pl e . The Agricultural Engineer spent 57 days in th e fi ~ IJ as : istin 6 county and home d emo nstration ag e nts in conducting th e ir educational prcg-am, in farm structures. Th e agents devot e d 2,446 days to this phase cf the agricultural engineering program. Farm Machinery.-No farm can b e consider e d m e c 1 1anz~:l t~ its practical economic limits so long as any operation that can be acc : mpl:shed thr -: ugh the use of power equipm e nt is being p e rformed at a high e r c c st or wit!1 hm efficiency through hand labor or animal power. The aim of th e Extension farm machin~,y program is tJ teac!1 t11e farmer, his son, his hired labor, and the county a g e nt the im7 c rtan ce cf wi ~e s e l e ction, proper us e, and constant maint e nance of th e many useful pi ece s of mJ.:::hin e ry employed in mod e rn farming operations. Th e r e are now a n estimated 121 , 200 pieces of automotive equipment, including 25 , 000 farm tra c tors , operating on Florida farms. Th e number of tractors has increas e d 67% since July 1946. The exhibit-d e monstration has b ee n used primarily in the phase of the program concerned with se l ec tion and operation. One hundr e d farm equipm e nt dealers in th e state have coop e rated in providing machin e ry for 72 exhibit-d e monstrations h e ld at various farm e r gathering s this year. Ari es timated 22 , 000 farmers in s pe c ted or operat e d th e machin e ry a t gatherings which included farm machinery fi e ld days, farm tours, county fairs , and county 4-H tractor operators' contests. Pr e ventive maintenance is an important factor in the effici e nt operation of mec:l'lnical equipm e nt. The 4-H tractor maintenanc e project is _ based upon this premise. Two thr ee -day tractor m a int e nance training schools, for 22 volunte e r local l e ad e rs from 16 counties, w e r e h e ld this y ea r for the purpos e of giving th e l ea d e r subject . matt e r which he in turn uses in conducting his county schools for 1-H boys enroll e d in the tractor maintenance project. To coincide with th e m a intenance program, a tractor op e rators' cont es t has been organiz e d and last y ea r was conduct e d in 17 counti e s for the selection of Jhe champion 4-H tractor op e rator to repr ese nt the county at the state operators' contest held at annual 4-H s hort course. Th e engin~er devot e d 51 fi e ld days and 22 office days to the machin~ry program. This tim e was spent answ e ring llO l e tt e rs requesting information on machinery, preparin g news items, and planning d e monstrations and schools. Sixte e n days wer e sp e nt in personal s e rvice visits to 28 farms in answer to requests for assistance, 18 days were spent conducting school s and contests; and 5 days were . sp e nt with manufactur e rs in work on new equipment.

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28 Florida Coope_rative Extension County agents devoted 385 days to assisting 4,711 farmers with machinery problems. This work was conducted with the assistance of 169 volunteer local leaders in 418 communities in 57 counties. Marketing Facilities.-It is important for farmers to go beyond the production stage to obtain the most possible return for their labor and investment in their product. Preparation of a commodity quite often determines the grade in which the commodity is sold. Therefore, if proper preparation is lacking the profit will be reaucea. The aim of the marketing facilities program is to furnish all available informa tion to the farmer and packer on preparing his products for both market and home use in the most efficient manner to obtain quality and sustain price. The major activities of this program center around crop drying and fence post treatment. At the beginning of the Extension agricultural engineering program in 1945, a study revealed that there were no mechanical hay driers in the state. Also, there was very little hay being produced, for long had the farmer known that the excessive rains and high humidities that existed during the haying seasons made this practice a risky one. As a result, millions of dollars were being spent yearly by farmers and dairymen on inferior imported hays. The Engineering Specialist designed the first successful mechanical farm hay drier constructed in the state and last year designed and assisted in the construction of the largest farm-type seed drier in the state. The seed drier has been operated two seasons, during which time 527,000 pounds of blue lupine, 140,000 pounds of Bahia grass, 11,000 pounds of hairy indigo, 1,000 pounds of carpet grass, and small quantities of various other seeds have been dried. In the fertile lands of South Florida corn can be grown at a yield many times larger than in other areas of the South. The difficulty encountered in the southern area is in high moisture and insect damage. Last year several ranchers grew. corn for finishing beef animals. These progressive ranchers employed mechanical driers and were able to produce home-grown corn for feed on a large scale for the first time. As a result of the successful drying operations of the drier installed during the past two years, the interest in this activity among farmers and ranchers has risen greatly. There are now over 50 mechanical driers operating on farms in the state. Due to the sustained and increased interest in livestock production, the activity on fence post treatment, in cooperation with the Extension Forester, has been continued. A farm method, which consists of a shallow tank suitable for day-to-day operations, has been devised by the two specialists. The treatment recommended, now used extensively throughout the state for treating posts and timber, employs a 5% solution of copper naphthenate or pentchlorophenol in the cold soak method. A two-page mimeographed leaflet describing the operation is provided for bulletin racks. A total of 30 days were spent making personal service calls and conducting demonstrations. Ninety-five letters were answered and nine groups totaling 405 farmers and 250 individual farmers and ranchers were met for the purpose of discussing various phases of the marketing facilities program, which included crop drying, fence post and lumber treating, tobacco curing, and washing and precooling vegetables. . Drainage and Irrigation.-The activity in these phases of agricultural engineer ing has been confined to personal service calls and demonstrations .. Twenty-six days were devoted to answering letters requesting information on drainage or irrigation, planning or conducting demonstrations, and in visiting 11 farms to inspect and make recommendations regarding drainage problems. Five irrigation demonstrations were conducted, attended by 1,850 farmers and ranchers. Agents assisted 1,445 farmers with irrigation and 2,274 farmers with farm drainage problems.

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Annual Report, 1 95fJ 29 FARM ELECTRIFICATION A. M. PETTIS , Farm Electrification Sp ecia li s t Safe, Adequate Wiring . -The farm e l ec trifi ca tion p rogra m i n Flor id a is ba se d on safe, adequate wiring. E l ectrica l farm and h o m e eq uipm ent will n o t operate prop e rl y and may b e a hazard , if th e wir in g is no t adequate fo r the l oad . Thi s s p ecia list wrot e a l ea fl e t e ntitl ed, "P l anning Farm vVi ri n g." Copies o f thi s l e afl et have been m a iled to every co unty Extension worke r for distribution to int c re o t e d farmers. In addit i o n many copies h ave been personally distributed at m(•eti n g, by thi s Specialist. To dem ons tr a t e th e e ff ec ts of poor wiring, the writer built a vo lt age drop pa n e l which has been r evised and e nl arged t o give m ore effect i ve demonstra tions. D emo n s tration s with thi s e quipm e nt a nd wirin g talks ha ve b een give n 56 tim es this year to 8 , 500 ru ra l p eo pl e, including farmers, Extension agents , 4H m P mb crs, a nd o t hers . Proper Lighting.-Th e Farm E l ectri fi catio n Specialist pl anne d and eq uipped a li g htin g p ane l to s h o w Ext e nsion work e r s and rural p eo pl e the differences in ki nd s of li g ht ing and th e n ee d for good li g htin g . This pan e l i s 7 feet high , 8 f ee t lon g, anJ 3 feet d ee p. It contai n s pin-up lamp s, a fluor esce nt fixtur e, a poor drop li gh t a nd an improved drop li g ht , a poor ceiling fixtur e a nd an improv ed cei lin g fixtur e, a ni ght li ght, and wa ll outlets. Many Extension workers and farme r s ha ve b ee n taught facts of good li g hting a t two farm and h ome in :; titutes and th e Extensio n annua l confer e n ce. In promoting good l ighti n g, this Sp ec iali st ha s had ve r y c l os e cooperation of th e Extens i on H o m e Impro ve m e nt Sp ec iali s t. Electr i ca l Equ ipm ent. Throughout th e ye ar ass i stance ha s been g i ve n t o Extens i on workers, farm e rs , and 4 -H m e mber s o n the se l ec ti o n , care, and us e of F i g. 2 . -Thi s li g htin g pan e l h e lp e d t e ll th e story of better li g hts in th e h ome t o num e r o u s groups. r Ill 1111\t, I . \\II' \II II I f lfll i.1:11111 I llfll'l\t, fl.! .. I H I: toll•! I tflll 1,111 t ttiol 1 Ill 11, 11 1 II\\ I II I Id Uth J \J. I \Ill ' '" 11.1, 1 1111

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension electrical farm and home equipment; made chick brooders, electric motors, supplied to farm leaders and farmers. Bulletins on electric water systems, home and other electrical equipment have been 4-H Farm and Home Electric Contest.-A survey was conducted by this Specialist to stimulate interest among county Extension workers and to determine their need for contest material. . Helpful material was obtained for 40 agents desiring it. Assistance has been given to 40 agents and local leaders. Four dis cussions with 230 4-H members have helped to stimulate interest in this contest. At the summer 4-H camps this specialist supervised 4-H members in practical wiring work. Outdoor floodlights were installed and permanent wiring was installed to an exhaust fan. The state winner in the Farm and Home Electric Contest this year was Roy Heathcoe of Hillsborough County. Co-ordination of County Work.-On numerous occasions this Specialist has promoted better relations between county agricultural workers and power suppliers. Specifically, he has urged rural electric cooperatives to mail Extension workers copies of newsletters sent regularly to their members. Electrification advisers hired by the cooperatives have been assisted in their work with county agricultural workers . The writer has encouraged electric cooperatives to place Extension workers on the programs of their annual meetings and to publicize the activities of Extension workers. County Extension workers have been urged to attend annual meetings of electric cooperatives and have been informed of the organization and operation of these cooperatives. Training Program.-This Specialist, in cooperation with the Extension Engineer and the Home Improvement Specialist, organized a training program for home demonstration agents in 1949. This year six additional advanced training schools, attended by 82 home demonstration agents, were held to teach housing informa ti
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Annual Report, 1950 31 Electrification Administration to furth e r t e l e phon e service dir ec tly affects Florida farmers . Th e Florala T e l e phon e Compan y, Florala, Alabam a, received this loan , and additional ljn es will b e buj]t in Walton and Ok a loo sa counties in Florida , as well as a co unty in Al abama. Six ex istin g sma ll commercial t e l e ph o n e compan i es in F l or ida hav e a ppli e d for l oans. Three gro up s of rural p eo pl e, in e v e r y case assist e d by cou nty Extension workers , are at t e mpting to obtain rural t e l e phon e se rvi ce for their a r eas. This Sp ec ialist pr ese nt ed th e l a t est inform a tion on rural t e l e phon es to Extension age nt s at th e ir a nnu a l conference. H e supervised a rural t e l e phon e s urv ey covering part of four co unti es for th e REA. Th e writ e r has co ntril ut e d information at four t e l e phon e m ee tin gs a nd h as co ordinated th e e fforts of th e three int e r es t e d gro up s in th e s t a t e so th at a maximum e ffort may b e made to ob t a in t e l ephone se rvi ce for rural p eo pl e in F l orida. Additional Uses of E l ectricity.-This Sp ec i a li st i s on th e a l e rt to l arn of mor e practical u ses of e l ec tri c itv on th e farm. At th e request of a county age nt and an e l ec tri c coo p e rativ e manag e r , assistance was given tow a rd pr e p a ring a d e mon stra tion. This d e monstration us e d infr ar e d heat l amps to limit th e e ff ec ts of blu e mold in a toba cco b ed . Thi s Sp ecialis t a l so assis t ed tJ 1e Experiment Station Engin ee r in preparing a t es t tobac co b e d . This b e d us e d infra -r e d l a mps over o n e -h alf of th e b e d to d e t e rmin e tJ1 e ex t e nt of blu e mold control b y tJi e l amps. Re s ult s of thjs one t es t h ave be e n e n co uragin g. Furth e r eA l) e rim e ntation is n ee d e d to d e t e rmin e tJ 1e cost and e ff ec ti ve n ess of this m e thod of con trol as compa r ed witJ1 o th er m e tJ 10ds. Fig. 3.-Infra-red li g ht us e d on thi s tobac co plant bed s how e d a degr ee of co trol of blu e mo ld , but more inform a ti o n i s n eeded about cos ts and m e tJiods of using th e rays.

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRONOMY J. R. HENDERSON, Extension Agronomist Major activities of the project leader in agronomy Extension included: 1. Preparing and distributing to county agents recommendations for produc tion of the major field crops and the various kinds of pasture and specific sugges tions for county Extension activities in agronomy. 2. Conferences with county agents, in groups and individually, for presenta tion of subject-matter information and discussion of Extension methods. 3. Meetings with seed, fertilizer, and pesticide dealers and with groups of farmers to better acquaint them with Extension recommendations for the production and management of field crops and pastures. 4. Assisting county agents with specific Extension projects in soils, field crops and pastures. The project leader has continued to assist agents in all sections of the state -in gaining an appreciation of soil conditions in their respective counties and in determining lime and fertilizer requirements of different soils when used for pro duction of various field crop and pasture plants. As an aid to county workers the project leader developed and distributed to them a mimeographed set of recommendations for the production of the major field crops and the various kinds of pastures. These recommendations are developed in such a way that each agent can lift from them recommendations applicable to his county. Suggestions for project activities were outlined at the beginning of the crop year and again, particularly from the standpoint of desirable result demonstrations, at the annual conference in October. Meetings.-In cooperation with district supervisors, county agents and other specialists, and with assistance of personnel of the Experiment Station and the Production and Marketing AdministraUon, community meetings were held during January in 20 counties in the general farming area. At these meetings, information on outlook, price supports, marketing quotas and conservation payments and recommendations on production and management of livestock, pastures and field crops were presented. These meetings were attended by approximately 3,500 farmers. Two meetings for seed, fertilizer and pesticide dealers were held, one at DeFuniak Springs and one at Madison, in early December. Research information on varieties, fertilization and pest control was reviewed and Extension recommen dations were outlined. In each case county agents secured attendance of dealers and accompanied them to the meetings. In cooperation with the Extension Vegetable Specialist and officers of the Florida Seedsmen's Association, the Extension Agronomist gave instruction on soils, fertilizers and field crop varieties at a seedsmen' s school held at Gainesville in January. Also, he was a member of a panel that reviewed research information and presented Extension recommendations on varieties and fertilization of field crops and pastures at the annual meeting of the Association in June. The project leader, in cooperation with other specialists and research workers, planned and made all arrangements for a meeting of seed producers at Tallahassee in November. This meeting was well attended and was followed by the organiza tion of the Florida Seed Producers' Association. The project leader assisted with three pasture field days for bankers and professional agricultural workers.

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Annual Report, 1950 33 Assistance was given agents in planning and conducting farm tours and in presenting subject-matter information at special farm meetings and at meetings of farm organizations and civic clubs. Again this year the Extension Agronomist cooperated with county agents and 4-H Club leaders in carrying out production projects with field crops, with special emphasis on corn production, using seed of the best hybrid available and heavier than usual rates of fertilization. An excellent State 4-H Corn Show, described by many as the best to date, was staged at Tallahassee in October. In cooperation with the Tobacco Branch of the Production and Marketing Administration, tobacco sorting and grading demonstrations were held in mid-July in each of the counties where flue-cured tobacco is produced. Permanent Pastures.-Activities during the year were designed to secure the establishment of more pastures and the improvement of the carrying capacities of those already established. Recommended practices for pasture establishment and management emphasized during the year are generally as follows: (1) Choose varieties to fit soil conditions and grow legumes with grasses wherever possible and profitable; (2) prepare a firm, fertile seedbed; (3) lime in accordance with soil conditions and the require ments of plants to be grown; (4) fertilize adequately, including minor elements where they are needed, keeping in mind the kind of soil and the nutrient require ments of the grasses or grass-legume combinations to be grown; (5) seed or sod at proper rates and when soil moisture and temperature are favorable for germina tion and growth; (6) inoculate legumes at rates above those recommended by the manufacturers of inoculants, increasing the rates as the size of seed decreases; (7) cover seed or vegetative material, by appropriate means, immediately after sowing or scattering and make seedbed firm by rolling with suitable equipment; (8) when seeding legumes on established grass sod, first remove excess grass by mowing or close grazing and disk sod lightly; (9) mow or chop as often as necessary for control of weeds; (10) refertilize grass or grass-summer legume pastures each spring and grass-winter legume pastures each fall, using a complete fertilizer for grass pastures on mineral soils and phosphate and potash fertilizers for grass pastures on organic soils and for grass-legume pastures; (11) relime every four or five years to bring calcium supply or soil pH values back to desired levels; and (12) practice rotational grazing or control cattle numbers so that succulence is main tained, maximum production of forage is secured, and natural reseeding of legumes is permitted. Detailed recommendations, based on these general principles, were furnished all county agents, who were confronted with the greatest demand ever for this type of information. Throughout the year the county agents assisted farmers with their pasture . problems . In addition to furnishing production recommendations, they held meetings, staged demonstrations, conducted tours, and assisted in locating supplies of seed, limestone and other materials. The project leader assisted several agents in holding meetings and conducting tours. These tours and meetings, no doubt, did much to increase interest in the development of better pastures. Indications are that more pastures were established on Florida farms this year than in any other year in history. The increase in acreage of winter pasture legumes would have been much larger if weather conditions had been more favor able. Particularly noteworthy was the increase in pasture acreage on smaller farms. Research work on pasture varieties and fertilization was reviewed and detailed recommendations for result demonstrations, involving promising new varieties and rates, dates, and kind of fertilization, were outlined at the a _ gents' conference in October. Temporary Grazing Crops.-In addition to furnishing county agents with

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34 'Florida Cooperative Extension production recommendations the Agronomist assisted them in locating seed supplies of recommended varieties of sweet lupines, reseeding Crimson clover, oats and rye. Due to the prevalence of Victoria biight and a new race of crown rust during the last four growing seasons, acreage devoted to oats has d ecl ined. All Victoria strains of oats, formerly widely used, are highly susceptible to Victoria blight, and all Red Rustproof types are moderately susceptible to new races of crown rust. Camellia oats and Florida Black rye are resistant to both diseases. Again this year the Extension Agronomist located seed supplies of these vari e ties, furnished this information to seed dealers and county agents, and urged them to secure th e widest possibl e use of these varieties. Southland , a new variety of oats superior to Camellia in both grain and forage production, was selected at th e North Florida Experiment Station and seed suppli es were increased through Experiment Station plantings at Gainesville, Quincy and Jay. The project leader accepted applications and otherwise assisted with the distribution of approximately 10,000 bushels of seed of this new variety . . Corn.-Workers at the Florida Experiment Station have shown that corn yields can be increased economically by improving the soil fertility with leguminous crops, using seed of adapted hybrids, applying fertilizers at h eav ier rates, and spacing plants properly. Recommendations based on these findings were furnished to county agents who brought them to the attention of farmers by appropriate means. Production projects by 4-H Club members were used to demonstrate the soundness of recommended practices and also to demonstrate that round seed produce as well as Hat seed. Very successful contests among adults were staged in several counties, under financial sponsorship of local Farm Bureau and local business men. Particular emphasis was placed on the use of Dixie 18, a hybrid developed at the Georgia Coastal Plain Exp e riment Station from four inbred lines, two of which were develop ed at the Florida Station. High yield, good resistance to weevil and high resistance to lodging are all combined in it. It is estimated that 32 percent of the corn acreage was plant e d with hybrid seed. The Agronomist assisted farmers in securing foundation seed for planting 600 acres of Dixi e 18 and other adapted hybrids. Although the us e of Dixie 18, a yellow corn, has become wid es pr ea d, there is still a demand for a white hybrid with the superior qualities possess e d by Dixi e 18. Through cooperation of the Georgia Coastal Plain Station, a small quantity of seed of Ga. 281, a white hybrid formerly known as GCP 8100, was distribut e d among agents in 28 counties for demonstration plantings. Agents' reports and research data indicate that this hybrid is equal to Dixie 18 in yield and resistance to weevils and to lodging. Peanuts.-The Agronomist, . cooperating with county agents, and the agents working alone in their respective counties, continued to emphasize Extension recommendations as regards varieties, seed treatment, spacing, rates and kind of fertilization, placement of fertilizers, and dusting for control of disease and insect pests. Special emphasis was _ plac e d on further development of certified seed of Dixie Runner, a high-yielding variety that is relatively free of concealed damage. At the suggestion of the Agronomist, the Experiment Station produced approximately 20 tons of found a tion seed in 1949 , which were distributed to seed producers last spring. Seventeen farmers produced certifieo ~eed on 1,485 acres in 1950. In contrast, nine farmers produced certified seed on 432 acres in 1949. Flue-Cured Tobacco.-As a result of widespread adoption of Extension recom mendations for control of weeds, insects and diseases, and for correlation of soil type, fertilization and spacing, the average yi e ld of flue-cured tobacco increased from 721 pourids per acre in 1941 to 1,079 pounds per acre in 1949.

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Annual Report, 1950 35 Control of insects during 1950 was simplified by adequate supplies . of the newer insecticides and the widespread adoption of the sled-row method of planting, which permitted the use of tractor-drawn dusters and sprayers. Dry weather during the early part of the growing season, combined with wide spread damage by nematodes and use of excessive rates of fertilization by many farmers, resulted in lowering of yields and quality on many farms . . Because ~f the interest in nematode control, latest information on soil fumiga tion was brought to the attention of the county agents and seven test demonstra tions on the use of soil fumigants for nematode control were conducted in five of the more important tobacco counties. Through cooperation of a friend of tobacco farmers, the Extension Service again sponsored an area-wide contest in which awards to growers were made on basis of quality. This contest is doing much to increase interest in methods of producing tobacco of higher quality. Cotton.-Experimental plantings of Sealand 542, a long staple cotton that resembles upland cotton in growth habit, have been made for several years. Up to date information on yields, prices, staple length and cultural practices were furnished to county agents in central and northern Florida for their guidance in making recommendations to farmers interested in growing this variety. The project leader assisted with a Sealand cotton production contest, in which prize money made available by the Florida Department of Agriculture was awarded to three growers in each of four different areas. The Extension Agronomist spent 101 days in the field, of which 46 were spent on area or statewide activities and 55 were spent in assisting county agents indi vidually. Reports from the county agents show that they spent a total of 5,218 days on field crops and pastures.

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension ANIMAL HUSBANDRY OLIVER F. GoEN, Animal Husbandman J. A. McGREGOR, Assistant Animal Industrialist Many dollars are lost each year to Florida livestock raisers due to lack of proper regard for herd sanitation and the health of their livestock by livestock raisers. Through talks to farmer groups, comity agents, and cattlemen's association meet ings, radio talks, news articles, and exhibits, the importance of good livestock sanitation practices and their relation to the control and prevention of animal diseases and parasites have been pointed out. . Loss of many dollars to Florida livestock producers from crippling, bruising, and killing of livestock due to improper handling from farm to market and at live stock markets continues to be a problem. The State Livestock Loss Prevention Committee endeavors through education to promote prevention of livestock losses. The Extension Animal Husbandman is chairman of this committee. One meeting was held in Quincy, attended by more than 200 persons. Through news articles and talks to various farmer groups . and other groups connected with the livestock industry, the Extension Animal Husbandman has pointed out these losses and emphasized how they affect all members of the industry. Beef Cattle.-Beef cattle are playing a more important part in the agricultural economy of the state. Gross income from beef cattle during 1949 was better than $21,000,000. The total number of cows and calves reported on Florida farms January 1, 1950, was 1,392,000, an increase of 127,000 head. The clearing and planting of unimproved rangeland into pasture has continued at a very rapid rate. The beefiness and quality of Florida cattle have not kept pace with the improve ment in the feed supply. Since the advent of citrus by-product feeds, the production of Big Joe corn in the Okeechobee muckland area, and the production of more corn in the west Florida area, the feeding of concentrated feeds to cattle has become more profitable. There are approximately 380 purebred herds in the state. Extension specialists have worked closely with purebred breeders individually and through their associa tions in organizing sales and field days. They have promoted the use of purebred bulls in improving the beefiness and quality of commercial herds and in the pro duction of high grade cattle that are of sufficient quality to be suitable for the feed lot. County agents have reported assisting 665 cattlemen to secure purebred bulls and 629 to secure purebred or high grade heifers. Reports also show 3,763 farmers controlling external parasites affecting beef cattle, while 3,139 farmers used control measures on internal parasites and diseases of beef cattle. County agents, assisted by 253 local leaders, spent 2,152 days in 577 communities working on beef cattle problems. They assisted 3,093 farmers in improving methods of feeding beef cattle. Hogs.-There were reported 619,000 head of hogs on Florida farms January 1, 1950. There were 524,000 head of hogs marketed in the state during 1949. The gross income from hogs to farmers of the state during 1949 was $17,514,000. By talks to farmer groups, consultations with county agents, circular letters, radio talks, personal contacts, and work with 4-H club members, problems of Florida hog producers, as recognized by the Extension Animal Husbandry Specialists, were discussed and their solutions pointed out. Reports show that county agents helped 488 farmers to secure purebred boars and 484 to secure purebred or high grade gilts. They assisted 3,979 farmers in controlling external parasites of hogs and 5,697 in controlling internal parasites and diseases affecting hogs. County agents assisted 2,600 farmers in improving

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Annual Report, 1950 37 methods of feeding hogs. County agents, assisted by 85 local leaders, devoted 1,468 work days on swine production. 4-H Club Activities.-Expansion of 4-H Club livestock work has been a major project stressed in the animal husbandry program. Three separate beef projects have been suggested to cover three different phases of the field. First, a commer cial calf project was designed to utilize Florida-produced calves and as much Florida-produced feed as possible, the ultimate product being a calf suitable to go into the commercial feed lots of Florida or one suitable for marketing as a good slaughter calf. Second, a cow and calf project to give the club member a complete education in all phases of cattle production, to produce high quality calves for feeder calf sales, and to start the 4-H club member in the cow business with a small herd of commercial cattle. Third, the 4-H club fat steer project to enable the individual club member to gain experience in handling good cattle and in producing a superior product at the end of the project. A fat steer project gives the 4-H club member invaluable experience for use in later work in raising or handling cattle where purebred or high quality cattle are involved. A fat barrow project and a sow and pig project are the two swine projects that have been stressed. The Extension Animal Husbandry Specialists attended four 4-H club camps at which various subjects relating to animal husbandry were taught.

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38 Florida Coop erati ve Extension APICULTURE JoHN D. HAYNIE, Apiculturist Hon ey production in Florida reach e d its highest r eco rd in 1950 with over 15 .6 million pounds, in spite of th e partial crop failure in the tup e l o section, th e second largest honey-producing area. This is the second time-the first was in 1946that Florida beek eepe rs hav e . produced ove r 15 million pound s of hone y . The citrus bloom ex tend e d over a much longer p er iod this year, being somew hat similar to 1949, but honey production was heavi e r. Other nectar flows were from weak to good. Florida again ranked fifth in hon ey production, led by Minnesota, California, Iowa and Texa s. Thi s 1950 crop of honey was produced by an estimated 208 , 000 colonies. The estimated average yield of honey per colon y was 75 pounds this year and 56 pounds last year. , Thr ee new packing plants were established thi s year, indicating an increased demand for Florida honey. There was an unexpect e d increas e in the number of colonies. But with this increas e and the large crop of honey, th e re prov ed to be no unusual marketing problem . So far, only two carloads of h o ney hav e b ee n bought by the government under th e support-price program . This honey purchased by the government is to be distributed to school lunchrooms throughout th e state. Th e Extension Apiculturist's appro ac h to a pro g ram in b ee keeping is carried out through the county and home agents, district beekeep e rs' associ a tions, th e State Beekeepers' Association, the Florid a State F a ir , horticultural societies and any group interest e d in the activities of the honey bee. The radio, news letters and special circulars on beekeeping enable th e Apicul turist to recommend better m et hods and practices in the field of beeke e ping. Many personal service trips are made to th e fi e ld to analyze beek eepi ng prob lems in cooperation with county agents. Pollination.-Demands for l e gume seed are incr eas ing each year. North Florida countfes are planting more pastures and legum . es furnish a l a rge amount of the forage when grown either separately or with grasses. Sinc e l eg umes fertilize the grass and also furnish pasture for grazing, legume seed production i s steadily increasing. Hon ey bees incr ea se the seed yields tremendou s ly when sufficient numbers of colonies are uniformly distributed in the legume fi e lds. The County Agent in Jeff ers on was assisted in the selection of 65 colonies of honey bees for seed grow e rs in that county. The colonies were mov e d to th e legum e fields to assist the natural insects in the pollination of Crimson clover, Annual Sweet (Hubam) clover , Whit e Dutch clov e r and watermelons. An ex hibit of l eg ume pollination, h o n ey bees a nd bulletin information on polli nation was set up at the Jefferson County Fair in October 1950. The legume polli nation exhibit was shown at the Jackson County Fair, where the farmers are be ginning to increas e their legum es for pasture purpo ses and seed production. Work With 4-H Club Members.-Th e main project for 4-H Club b ee k ee ping is carried on at C amp McQu arrie . This apiary site is proving to be economically sound in honey production and providing an excellent laboratory for the instruction of agents and 4-H Club . boys and girls. While the boys are u s ually mor e interested in be e ke e ping proj ects than th e girls, yet a . few girls keep bees. , C a rey Robbins , Thomas Townsend a nd Ralph T . Clay assisted the Apiculturist in moving . the bees to the citrus bloom and then back to th e honey flow around

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Annual Report, 1950 39 Camp M c Qu a rri e . Th ese a ssistant age nt s a ll h ave d e m o n s tration c oloni e s a nd b oys with a piar y proj ec t s. B e in g l oca t e d n ea r th e 4-H Club a piar y a t Camp M c Qu a rri e, th e age nts h ave ass i s t e d th e Api c ulturi s t in a ll th e o p era ti o ns o f th e a pi a r y, pr e p a rin g th e co l o n y for th e s prin g h o n ey H o w , m ov in g co l o ni es , s up e rin g, t a kin g o ff hon ey, e xtr ac tin g a nd pr e p a rin g c oloni es For th e wint e r. Th e A ss istant A ge nt in P o lk Count y c ondu c t s a d e m o n s t ra ti o n a piar y a nd th e 4-H Club b oys put o n a b ee a nd hon ey ex hibit eac h ye ar a t th e co unt y fair. Th e A ss i tant Ag e nt in Oran ge County ha s us e d vi s ual aid s in c onn ec tion with Api c ul tmist in d e v e lopin g inter e st in 4-H Club b ee k ee ping . Th e Assi s tant Hom e Ag e nt in e ast e rn Hillsborou g h Count y se t up a d e monstr a tion api a r y to t e a c h 4-H Club g irl s who w e r e int e r es t e d in hon ey b ees . Th e a pi a r y has b ee n v e r y produ c ti ve a nd g i ves th e g irl s a n o th e r oppmtunity t o d ec id e if th ey w o uld lik e b ees for a proj ec t. Oth e r a i s t an t h o m e age nt s h ave b ee proj ec t s plann e d fo r th e ir 4 -H C lub g irl s . Beekeepers ' Associations. Th e Api c ulturi s t plan s th e pro g r a m o f th e Florid a Stat e B ee k ee p e r s ' A ssoc i a tion eac h yea r. Th e m ee tin g i s a s hort c our se or in s titut e for b ee k ee p e r s fr o m a ll o v e r th e s tat e. Probl e m s a r e di sc u sse d a nd plan s m a d e to stud y s uch pr o bl e m s with th e hop e th a t a s olution ma y b e found . Th e re ar e nin e distri c t b ee k ee p e rs ' asso c iations , but not all of them ar e a c tiv e . Som e of th e s e as s ociation s m ee t o n ce a month , s om e e v e ry two months and s om e e v ery quart e r. Th e Api c ulturist m ee t s with a s m a n y of th e di s bict b ee k ee p e r s' asso c i a tion s as i s pra c ti c al. Florida S t ate Fair. Th e bee k ee p e r s d i s pl ay o , r 2, 000 s qu a r e f ee t in b ee a nd h o n ey ex hibit s a t th e St a t e F a ir in T a mp a eac h yea r. P . T . Sbi e d e r , f ai r m a n age r , sa y s thi s is th e lar ges t h o n ey sh o w in th e co untr y. B ee k ee p e r s in Fl o rid a produ c m a n y va ri e ti es o f h o n ey w hich a re di s pl aye d F ig . 4 .Th e hon ey displa y at th e F l orida Stat e F a ir c ov e r e d a larg e ar e a , was o f top qu a l it y, and r ece i ve d hi g h prais e.

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension each year at the State Fair. Ea . ch beekeeper plans his booth so as to tell the story best, where his honey is produced and from what plant source. Cooperative Research Programs.-The Extension Apiculturist continued experi mental work with Dr. G. K. Parris, Plant Pathologist at the Experiment Station's Leesburg field laboratory, studying the activities of honey bees in the pollination of watermelon fields, and with Dr. G. B. Killinger, agronomist at the Main Station, in the seed set of clovers with and without honey bees. The setting of melons has been increased by the activities of honey bees and clover seed yields appear to increase with the increase of colonies up to a certain point. More work will have to be done before definite recommendation can be made on the number of colonies per acre necessary for good pollination of clover and watermelon fields. The Extension Apiculturist cooperates further with Lillian E. Arnold, assistant botanist at the Main Station, in collecting and identifying honey plants for publica tion and with Frank Robinson, Assistant Apiculturist, in setting up field test plots and the growing of honey plants that will fit into the beekeepers' program.

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Annual Report, 1950 41 BOYS ' 4-H CLUB WORK W. W. BROW , State Boys' Club Agent JoE N. BusBY, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent As usual, the club agents received full cooperation of all Extension staff mem bers and many from th e Experiment Station in conducting the various phases of the 4-H program with boys during the year. Participation in 4-H activities throu ghout Florida incr ease d substantia ll y during 1950, particularly in judging contests, livestock and poultry shows, method demon strations and th e awards program. During th e year, 8 , 998 4-H Club boys were enro ll ed, with 5,961 of th e m com pl e ting one or more projects. An over-all total of 12 , 367 projects were carried; of this numb e r 8 , 426 were completed . This is a higher percentage of comp l e tions than in previous years and indicates that effo rt s by Florida Agricultural Extension workers to improve basic 4-H Club phases are bearing fruit. A few of the activi ti es which helped, and are conti nuing to help, th e 4-H Club program includ ed 11 l eaders' haining meetings , 15 d emo nstration teams, 24 4-H judging con t es ts , attendance by boys at summer cam ps , 224 4-H tours, 37 educa tion a l trips , 1 , 938 recr ea tion and social meetings , 52 achievement days and activi ti es of 83 dubs on a community basis. An increase in the quality of club projects and activities was noted during the year by both local and state leaders. District Programs.-Th e district program for boys' 4-H Club work was con tinued, since apparently it contributes more than any other one thing to 4-H Club achievements. Th e counties are divided into 10 districts. County agents and assistants hold distri ct meetings , genera ll y in December , to formulate sound and constructive programs for the coming year. Results from these district meetings have be e n tremendou s. Plans are now being made to hold a seco nd meet in g in each district during th e summer in order that goals estab lish ed for each area may be pursued more completely. Camps.-Camping continued to be an inte gra l part of club activities. The new camp in Highlands County was used for the first time. vVhile it is only partially completed, it was emp lo yed for thr ee weeks of camping by boys. Construction is con tinuin g and th.is camp will b used more fully in 1951. Fig. 5.-The newest 4-H cam p , near Lak e Placid in Hi g hlands County, was b eg un this year and was us ed for thr ee weeks, although on l y partially comp l ete. t

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42 Florida Cooperativ e Extension This gives a total of fiv e p erma nent 4-H Club camps in Florida operated by the Agricultural Extension S ervice. Three others for white members are at Tim poochce, . Ch e rry Lake and McQuarrie. Th e Negro 4-H camp, Doe Lak e, was operated for its second summer during 1950. White 4-H members camped for a total of 35 weeks at four camps, Negroes for seven we eks at Doe Lake. More than 4,500 members att ended during th e 42 weeks. In addition to providing recreation, th e camps gave opportunity for instruction, l ea dership training and citizenship d eve lopment. Citrus and poultrr institutes were held at McQuarrie as usual, and farm and home institutes were staged at Timpoochee and Cherry Lak e. Th ese were attended by several hundr e d farm men a nd women and members of their families. Because of the growing int e r e st in thes e institutes, attendance has made. handling difficult with presently available camp facilities. Short Course.-The largest short course in th e history of Florida boys' 4-H Club work was held during the summer of 1950 with a total of 342 m em bers in att e nd ance. Held for the first time , a tractor driving contest provided competitive par ticipation for champion driv e rs of 17 counties. Operation of farm machinery adds stimulus to boys' club work. Demonstrations.-Encourag e d during the y ea r was the giving of demonstra tions, such as the 25 to 30 teams r e presenting various counties at the Florida Stat e Fair in Tampa. The demonstration is a prim e asse t in individual developm ent, since it acquaints th e general public with curr en t information on agricultural prac tices and provides training for the participants . Several comm e rcial concerns cooperated in helping to stag e the demonstrations given throughout Florida upon various occasions . Studies.-The Florida part of the South e rn region study, sponsored by the USDA Extension Ser v ice, was completed during th e year. This is an effort to learn what makes a 4-H Club program successful in an above-average county. Th e study was made in Marion County, with assistance from club and district agents and county personnel. The workers interviewed 127 4-H memb ers, parents, lead e rs, business men, farmers, bank e rs and others int e rested to obtain their views on the things con tributing to the success of the 4-H Club program. The Florida study will b e combined with material from other states in th e Southern region to present results which can be us e d by all states. Awards.-Th e 4-H awards program is vital in the administration of effectiv e club activities; at present, Florida 4-H boys hav e more than 20 awards contests in which they may participat e. These includ e fr ee trips to the National Club Congress, gold watches, scholarships, cash awards , statues and county medals . Th e outstanding award eac h year is the trip to th e National 4-H Club Camp in Wash ington for two outstanding boys and two girls. A third boy i s selected to attend the Danforth Lead e rship C1tmp at Shelby, Mich. , annually.

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Annual Report, 1950 43 CITRUS CULTURE FRED P. LA WREN CE, Citriculturist In addition to the Citriculturist, the Extension Marketing Economist and an Experiment Station economist worked in the field of citrus. The Citriculturist spent 136 days in the office and 125 days in the field. H'e prepared eight pamphlets (mimeographed) giving recommendations in various phases of citrus production, eight radio talks, seven news stories, four newsletters and two scientific papers for delivery at citrus institutes, in addition to 13 other talks. He also planned two training schools for county agents and conducted one training school for Farmers' Home Administration field personnel. He assisted in planning the programs for three citrus institutes, four citrus clinics, two orna mentals institutes and one transportation school. He also served on the State Citrus Advisory Committee, Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee, state committee on arrangements for the Southeastern Regional Horticultural Society meeting, and the committee that develops and publishes the Florida Better Fruit Spray and Dust Program. Profitable Season.-Florida citrus growers reaped one of the richest harvests in the history of the industry during the 1949-50 season. Following a slow and dismal beginning, with pre-holiday prices at relatively low levels, growers were soon in the enviable position of having the fresh, canned and frozen fruit buyers actively bidding against each other for raw fruit. Prices at all levels (on tree, auction and f.o.b.) skyrocketed far above the most optimistic pre-season predictions. This unprecedented prosperity was due to a number of factors: California and Texas had not recovered from their freezes; the continued phenomenal growth of frozen concentrate; the stabilizing effect of minimum prices established by Florida Citrus Mutual; the enactment of the 1949 Florida citrus code, which raised the maturity standards on all citrus; a hurricane the preceding August which reduced the Florida crop by some 15 million boxes; the improved advertising program of the Florida Citrus Commission; and the restrictions of the Federal Marketing Agreement Committee. More capital, especially out-of-state capital, was invested in the Florida citrus industry this season than in any other single season. Many large and well estab lished groves, packing and processing plants changed hands. Frequent individual sales ran well into the millions of dollars. Thousands of acres of new groves were and are still being planted. Modern concentrating plants, representing investments of millions of dollars, were constructed, while still other plants are being modern ized and expanded. Florida citrus growers have certainly been on the long end of natural and arti ficial conditions this season. They experienced one of the warmest and driest years in the state's history this year. In fact, last January was the warmest for that month in 35 years. The rains were so limited the past spring that many groves bloomed several times before finally setting a crop. Many groves continued to bloom through July and August. All in all, nature has been extremely kind to Florida citrus growers this year. vVith hurricanes screaming around our shores from mid-August to late October, growers were on the "anxious seat." Only one of these winds did us damage and, taking the industry as a whole, the rains the storm brought were worth far more than the damage it did. Following the hurricane season, the growers relaxed. But then came the sudden threat of a freeze the like of which has not been known in many years. Here, too, a benevolent dame nature stepped in, in the form of high, warm, dry winds to drive out the icy blasts that were being swept in from Canada. This late November cold wave brought tern

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Fig. 6.-Larg e c rowds a tt ended citrus, poultry and farm and hom e institut es s tag e d at the thr ee 4-H c amps. This is th e group at th e Citrus Institut e.

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Annual Report, 1950 45 peratures over most of the citrus belt that in extreme low locations wer e down to from 22 to 25 d eg rees. Although som e scattered fruit was lost , the sudden cold snap killed many insects and improved the quality (color and solids) of the fruit. The Citrus Institute was h e ld at Camp McQuarrie as usual. Citrus Clinics.-In addition to the customary methods and teaching devices, such as grower demonstrations, actual individual d e monstrations, tours, fairs, flannel board, slides, movies, charts and the lik e, a new device was us e d this ye a r with very gratifying success . Because practically every home owner in central and southern Florida has citrus trees planted in his yard, and because citrus must have proper care and attention to survive, county , agents and th e Citriculturist are const a ntly getting requests for help from thes e small growers. This year the demand for this type service was ex tremely high, especially in urban areas . It was ev ident that the county age nt staff could not handl e thes e many r e quests through individual calls. The East Florida District Agent , the Broward County Agent and the Citri c ulturist decided that p er haps if a ll the se peopl e were given an opportunity to bring their problems in for discussion on a certain day many more growers could be help ed and th e requests for service lessen e d. A time was set and through the use of radio, newspapers and circular letters, the public was invited to bring specimens and their problems to an "open house" on a specified day. This met with so much success that other agents have tri e d it and all h ave been successful. The idea has been improved upon to the extent that now extensive exhibits of live specimens are prepared before the meeting. Exhibits of insects, diseases and nutritional deficiencies are properly identified with labels that also carry the recommended cures or controls. The county agents act ,is receptionists and direct the people who come-at their convenience during the day-to the proper person to identify their specimen a nd answer their questions. Then they are permitted to pass among the exhibits, study them and ask any additional questions they would like. So far, four of these "clinics" have been held and, although no record of attend ance has been k ep t, it is estimated that up to 400 individuals h ave b ee n serviced in a day through this program. Citrus Advisory Committee . -The Citrus Advisory Committee continued its policy of meeting with various citrus industry organizations to have their programs thoroughly discussed in order th a t this information could be passed on to the grow ers through the county agent. Among those to appear before th e committee during the past year were: Th e chairman of the Florida Citrus Commission, the secretary manag e r and the president of Florida Citrus Mutual, the advertising manager of the Florida Citrus Commission, the res ea rch dir e ctor of Florida Canners Coopera tive, the presiden t and general manager of Waverly Growers Cooperative , the secre tary-manager of Florida Express Fruit Shippers a_nd representatives of the Florida Feed Dealers Association . The committ ee has visited th e USDA Sub-Tropical Fruits Fi e ld Station, Florida Citrus Experim e nt Station, Florida Citrus Commission, Florida Canners Coopera tive, Waverly Growers Cooperative Association and the Soil Science Foundation. Through its many contacts with every phase of the citrus industry, the commit tee is in a favorable position to develop a long-range citrus program for county agent use. Realizing that the county agent must be able to advise intelligently his growers on all phases . of agriculture and further realizing that the citrus industry is so highly technical , the Citriculturist, through the Citrus Advisory Committee, has arranged for an annual two-day training school at the Citrus Experiment Station.

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension Various Exp e rim e nt Station workers bring the Agents up-to-date on new insects, ins ec t control, disea se s, disease control, new chemicals and their value and all other current research that has been conducted during the year. In addition to this intensive training, the agents spend the eve ning visiting with th e Citrus Commission, Florida Citrus Mutual and any other agency-that has tim e ly information or new programs th a t n ee d to be explained to th e county agent.

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Annual Report, 1950 47 DAIRY HUSBANDRY C. W. REAVES, Extension Dairy Husbandman The dairy Extension program was carried out through the county agents in their respective counties . Better dairy herd replacements and improved feeding, pasture production, and herd health, were the major objectives during 1950. Dairy Herd Improvement Association Program.-The DHIA project provided basic information and demonstrations for the ov e rall dairy Extension program in many counties. DHIA herds provid e result demonstration of better methods of fe e ding, utilization of pasture, culling , breeding, and other phases of herd manage ment. Herds developed to high production capacitythrough a continuous dairy herd improvement program provid e a source of br ee ding stock for other herds. Twelve bulls were proved in DHIA herds, some with a high level of production, by the DHIA records of their daughters. Three Florida-proved bulls are in use in a regional artificial breeding program providing bull semen to eight states . The following summary gives the yearly per cow averages of the Duval DHIA for th e 1949-50 year, compared to the previous year: Value of Feed Cost of Total Product Above Producing Year Lbs. Milk Lbs. Fat Feed Cost Feed Cost 100 lbs. Milk 1949-50 7,006 332 $200 $303 $2.85 1948-49 6,786 32 _ 1 229 269 3.38 1949-50 compared to 1948-49 + 220 + 11 29 + 34 0.53 The above results show the improvement attained by those m e mbers who are carrying out DHIA methods of developing higher producing and more profitabl e herds. The table below shows the growth of DHIA work in the state: 1948 1949 Number DHIA's ----------------------------3 5 Number counties carrying on DHIA work 9 16 Cows on DHIA test-----------------2,600 4,887 1950 6 20 6,469 The . Dairy Herd Improvement Associations are the Jackson County, North Florida (Quincy), Duval County, Pioneer (DeLand), Orange, and the West Coast DHIA (Largo). The Jackson County DHIA was organize d in March 1950. The Duval County DHIA was expanded and added th e second full-tim e test supervisor in March 1950 . Th e Pioneer DHIA with herds along the East Coast is ready to emp loy a second test supervisor as soon as a qualified person can be secured. The cows on dairy herd improvement test represent 4.3 percent of all milk cows in the state, which is the second highest percentage among the 13 Southern states. Herd Management, Feed and Pasture Program .-The checking of production and provision of feed recommendations by the DHIA supervisors give the most effective help on feeding and other herd managem e nt problems. Results of feed ing and herd management methods of DHIA herds were carried to other dairymen by reports, news l etters, dairy me e tings, radio, and pasture tours. The seven DHIA supervisors and 13 artificial breeding technicians make up a total of 20 trained dairy workers in daily contact with dairymen of the state . The summary of county agents' reports showed 1,863 farmers assiste d in improved methods of feeding dairy herds or family milk cows. Feed and pasture analyses were made on selecte d herds

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension on which DHIA records are available to s how r es ults secured in incr ease d produc tion and decreased feed costs from improv ed pastures. Pastur e establishment and management have been emphasized on dairy field days and pasture tours. County, district and state winners in an efficient dairy production contest were selected on the basis of utilization of efficient dairy practic es, and honored at th e annual dairy field day banquet. Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is superintendent of official cow testing in the state. Fourteen Gu e rnsey herds are on Advanced Registry test, nine Jersey herds on Register of M e rit and one Ayrshire, one Gu e rnsey and 10 Jersey h er ds on Herd Improvement Registry test. This work is carried out through the national breed associations as a part of our state dairy herd improvement pro gram and shows the nation that good r ecor ds are made by Florida dairy cows. Six Florida herds qualified for the National H e rd Honor Roll by achievement of a yearly per cow production in excess of 350 pounds butterfat on DHIA t e st. Better Sire Service for Better Herd Replacements.-The expansion of the arti ficial bre e ding program has been one of the far-reaching developments of th e dairy industry during 1950. The following figur es show the expansion: 1949 Number breeding associations ___________ _ ___ 7 Cows in artificial breeding unit s ___ __ _________ _ ____ ____ 9,292 1950 13 16,500 The artificial breeding program provid es a method by which dairymen secure the services of outstanding production prov ed bulls at a cost comparable to that of maintaining bulls on their own farms. Th e local associations secure semen from regional bull studs which maintain production proved bulls ranking in th e top l p e rcent of all bulls proved in the Unit e d States. Thus, artificial breeding pro vides the service of some of the best bulls in the nation to large and small dairymen and the family cow owners in those areas of the state in which an artificial breeding association is organized. The Escambia, Duval, Volusia, Orange, Polk, Pinellas and Palm Beach Artificial Breeding Associ a tions were operating at the beginning . of the year and have continued. The Alachua, Hillsborough, Manasota, Central Florida, North Florida, and Broward Breeding Associations were organized during 1950 . The Broward group maintains its own bull stud. A few large herds are carrying out artificial breeding by private arrangements. The average rate of conception on first services of the approved artificial breed ing associations was approximately 61 percent during 1950 , which compares favor ably with that obtained by natural breeding. Placement of Bulls.-Assistance has been given also in the selection and place ment of bulls for natural service where n ee d e d. County agents reports show a total of 288 farmers assisted in locating purebred dairy bulls and 605 farmers assisted in obtaining purebred or high grade females. Raising Herd Replacements and Calf Barn Plans.-Emphasis on proper develop ment of dairy heifers has been made in each area with an artificial breeding associa tion. Because cows in the artificial breeding program are bred to outstanding bulls there is increased interest in raising dairy heifers. To assist dairymen in properly caring for the calves, calf barn plans were pre pared by the Extension Agricultural Engineer and made available to dairymen. Many calf barns have been built in Duval , Orange, and Dade counties, especially. 4-H Dairy Club Work.-A total of 1 , 120-932 boys and 188 girls-enrolled in the 4-H dairy project with 1 ,2 57 animals in ' completed projects. Two production contests provided additional incentives for good work with the animals, the dairy

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Annual Report, 1950 49 achievement contest and the efficient dairy production contest. The former was sponsored by the National 4-H Club committee, the latter by the National Dairy Products Corporation. Polk County won the plaque for the outstanding county 4-H dairy program. A series of county and district shows and a state 4-H show have been estab lished. Five district 4-H dairy shows were held during 1950-the West Florida Dairy Show at Chipley, the 4-H District VII Sears Dairy Show at Orlando, the Florida West Coast Dairy Show in up-town Tampa, the Southeast Florida Livestock Show at Belle Glade, and the 4-H District V Livestock Show at Jacksonville. The State Department of Agriculture contributed to the premiums. The third annual State ~-H Dairy Show, held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition, had an even 100 animals ex hibited and keen enthusiasm was shown by the 4-H members in the various 4-H dairy contests. Fifte e n counties exhibited animals and 18 counties participated in the stat judging contest. Home Milk Supply.-The home milk supply for farm families is b e n e fited by the raising and care of dairy animals in the 4-H program. County agents in many counties arranged for Bang's and T.B . tests of all family milk cows by the Bureau of Anim a l Industry. Artificial breeding organizations have made the service of good bulls av a ilable to family cow owners in 16 counties. work on the care and use of milk is carried out by home demonstration agents as a part of their nutrition program. The summary of their reports show 3,837 families assisted in improving their food supply by making changes in home milk supply. Cooperation with Other Organizations.-Assistance was given th e Florida Guernsey Cattle Club and th e Florida Jersey Cattle Club in planning and carrying out constructive programs of work, including two field days, two state sales, and two promotional sales . Cooperation has been given to and received from tlae Florida Dairy Industry Association, the State Department of Agriculture, State Livestock Sanitary Board and its mastitis division, State Fair, vocational agricul tural department, State Bankers' Association, and federal agencies. Special Activities.-The Extension Dairyman served as a member of the milk production, field day, and advisory committees of the Florida Dairy Industry Association, secretary of the State Long-Range Dairy Committee, and on the Dairy Advisory Committee of the State Fair. He assisted in planning and conducting the one-w ee k herdsmen's short course at the University in December. He judged dairy cattle at Sancti Spiritus, Cuba, and at the Cuban National Livestock Show in Havana in May 1950 . He served as chairman of th e Extension Section of the American Dairy Science Association for the 1949-50 fiscal year.

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension FORESTRY L. T . NIELAND, Forester The Ext ensio n program for farm forestry was actively promoted during the year in 62 of Florid a's 67 counti e s. The main features in the farm forestry program are fire prevention, forest planting, marketing forest products, producing forest products for home use, combining timb e r growing with grazing, and 4-H forestry club work. County agents and farmers were assisted in estab lishing d emons trations in each of . these improved forestry practic es . Clo se cooperative relations in es tablishing bett e r forestry practices were also maintained with the State For es t Service, U. S. For es t Service, Florida Forestry Council, Agricultural Experim e nt Stations, six Florida pulp mills, n ava l stores conservation program, Turpentine Farmers' Association, Forest Farm e r s Association and American Forest Products Industries. Progress was made all along the line in th e adoption of good forest management practices. Farmers showed increasing inter es t, particularly in forest planting, fir e protection and b e tter harvesting and mark eti ng of farm timb er. There were, a l so, more farm boys e nrolled in 4-H forestry proj ec t work than ever before. Forest Fire Prevention.-Since forest fires continue to be the principal obstad e to successful and profitable forestry in Florida , this part of th e program demand ed a large share of the Extension Forester's tim e. Most fires are man-caused and are therefore preventable. Som e forest fires are due to carelessness but the majority are intentionally set, either to "green up the woods" so that early spring grazing may be improv e d or just because woods burning is an old custom in Florida. It is our belief that the woods burning problem can eventually be solved largely through educational programs. Furthermore, it is believed that the best way to get rid of a bad practice is to suggest a better one. Since most woods fires are the result of intentional burning to improve grazing, the combined timber-grazing-game program has been consistently advocated as a bett e r and more constructive grazing procedure. This thr ee -point program is also considered the most effective, economical and acceptable means of solving the woods burning problem in Florida. The program appears to be gaining steadily in favor but should be more widely advocated by forest e rs , conservationists and agricultural workers. The need for protecting forest lands from fir e was included as an important feature of all e ducational and demonstrational work with 4-H club members. County agents in 41 counties reported that 11 , 146 farmers cooperated in pro tecting their timber lands from fire. Forest Planting.-Forest pl a nting on Florid a farms was one of the principal farm forestry programs promot e d during th e year. The four . pulp mills which made free slash pine seedlings available la s t year cooperated again in the fr ee tree distribution program and two more join ed. Six million forest seedlings were purchased by these six pulp mills for free distribution by county agents to 1,429 farmers and other forest landowners. Th e forest seedlings were grown by the State Forest . S e rvice in their nurseries and Forest Service personnel cooperat e d closely in the distribution program. The larg e number of forest trees planted this year by farmers and other small woodland owners will help m a terially in making these landowners more conscious of the importance of their forest holdings and of the need for preventing for{,lst fires. In addition to the forest plantings on farms, the Extension Forester developed and distributed to county agents and farmers instructions on th e establishment of

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Annual Report, 1950 51 fence post plantings, shade and shelter plantings for livestock and windbreak plantings, using native spe cies of forest trees. Because nurs e ry planting stock of some of the important tree species need e d for establishing these demonstration plantings is not now obtainable, the Extension Forest er collected forest tree seeds and wilding seedlings from the woods and hopes , with th e help of the Agricultural Experiment Stations, to provide at least a part of the forest seedlings n ee ded for demonstrations next y ear . Timber Marketing.-Through close cooperation with Norris-Doxey woodland marketing proj ec ts, county ag en ts in 25 Florida counties were able to provide farmers with much ne ede d advi ce and assistance in proper cutting and marketing of their timber stands. In other counties where Norri s -Dox ey foresters were not available, the Extension Forest e r provid e d county agents and farmers with infor mation and advic e on good mark e ting practices whenever called upon. However, becaus e of the magnitude of this job , it was, of course, not possible to prevent many of our farmers, who did not request assistance, from making unsatisfactory or destructive timber sales. It is true , on the other hand , that a large number of farm ers were aided in making a good timber sale and in prev en ting d es tructiv e cutting in their woods by the distribution of thousands of government bulletins ori timber marketing through county agents' offices. Since a profitable timber sal e, leaving plenty of young trees for futur e harvests, is one of the most effective ways of convincing farmers that timb e r is an i mportant farm crop, much attention was given to the marketing problem . Forest Products for Home Use.-B eca use th e farm itself is the best market for home-grown for es t products, such as lumber, fence posts , fuel wood, stack pol es, stakes and handl e material, county agents and farmers were again urged to include this feature in developing farm woodlands. Enough tr ees should be r ese rved or, wherever practical, new species of trees planted to take c a re of farm needs for wood products. The Extension Forest e r al s o suggested that this important idea be included in the over-all plans for the "farm forestry 40 acres" d e monstr a tion areas now b eing developed by the Southern Forest Experiment Stations. It is believ ed that this would a dd con si derably to th e value of such demonstrations. Thi s new id ea was promoted furth e r through radio t a lks , p e rsonal visits with county agents, farm foresters and farm e rs, during instruction p e riods at 4-H club camps and by displaying exhibit materials at 4-H club fairs, county fairs , farm e rs' institut es and at other meetings. 4-H Forestry Club \Vork.-The Extension Forester gave instruction in farm forestry to 215 4-H club memb e rs during a week of instruction at 4-H summer camps and at the annual 4-H short course. In addition, instruction was given to e ight different 4-H club s in for es t planting, fir e protection, timb e r estimating and tree id e ntification. According to county agents' r e ports , 2 37 boy s _ e nroll e d in 4-H forestry project s and pl an ted a total of 966 acres of for es t trees. Proj ect.wo rk outlines were pr e pared and county ag e nts and 4-H club members given other assistance in carrying on project work under the state and r eg ional 4-H forestry awards program. Club members in 10 counties won co unty medals for carrying out th e best 4-H for es try proj ect in th e ir counties. A state medal and free trip to the National 4-H Club Congress was awarded to Ralph Carter of Washington County for the best 4-H forestry project for 1950. Thr ee 4-H club for es ts are now being developed in three diff e rent counties by 4-H club members working as groups. The total acreage in the se thr ee forests is

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension 1 , 160 acres. The club boys carry on the planting and most of the other improve ment work. Income from the forest will revert to the participating clubs and will be used in furthering 4-H club work. The boys are "learning by doing" and are getting valuable experience in forest management. A fourth 4-H club forest of this type is now being acquired _ in Orange County. The Extension Forester serves as consultant in planning and executing all development work. Work with rural boys in developing both individual and group 4-H forestry projects is considered one of the most important programs in for es try education in the state.

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Annual Report, 1950 POULTRY ACTIVITIES N. R. MEHRHOF, Poultry Husbandman J. S. MooRE, Extension Poultryman A. W. O'STEEN, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test 53 Florida's Poultry Industry has made substantial growth and development dur ing recent years, and is now in fifth place of importance of agricultural enterprises of the state. This development has been accompanied by some changes. The trend is toward larger flocks of layers and larger units of birds for broilers. Florida farmers had 2,431,000 layers on hand January l, 1950. Broiler growing is rapidly expanding in Putnam, Walton and Hillsborough Counties. Ten million broilers were grown in Florida in 1950. The hatchery industry has over 4,000,000 egg capacity and produced approxi mately 20,000,000 chicks during the year. Approximately 131,000 turkeys were raised in 1950. This is a slight increase over the number raised in 1949. Efficient Management of the Laying Flock.-Commercial egg producers have found the following management practices to be helpful in securing higher returns from their flocks: 1. Keep all-pullet flocks or at least 60 to 100%. Pullets lay more eggs than hens in the fall and winter, when egg prices are best. 2. Artificial lights. It has been found profitable to use artificial lights during the shorter days of the fall and winter on hens and pullets to increase the rate of lay when egg prices are relatively high. Morning and all-night lights are the two systems used primarily in the state. 3. The use of special feeding methods during fall and winter, such as moist mash, pellets, grain soaked in milk, to stimulate feed consumption and to help maintain the bird's body weight during heavy production. 4. Culling unprofitable birds from the flock results in more efficient feed utilization; reduced depreciation cost on birds, and increased returns per bird. 5. Prevention of diseases and parasites._ Mortality is expensive and poultry men realize the importance of adopting a program of sanitation to prevent or reduce losses due to either disease or parasites, while birds are in the laying house. Extension workers stressed the importance of sanitation, including the vaccination of birds against such diseases as chicken pox and newcastle, rotation of land to help prevent internal parasites, and treating birds for lice and poultry _ houses for mites each spring and fall to keep these parasites under control. 6. Records. The commercial egg producer was urged to keep a record of his operations. Broiler Management.-The broiler industry continued to expand in 1950, even with rather low prices prevailing a part of the year. These low prices tended to force the small producer and the inefficient producer out of broiler production. The larger producers, by efficient management and volume production, have con tinued to expand. Broiler producers have been urged to purchase and grow quality chicks bred for meat production; to keep complete records and study these records to deter mine methods of improving their operations. Farm and Home Flocks.-Since poultry meat and eggs are so very important in the diet for every family, the poultry Extension workers felt that every effort

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension should be made to promote th e growing of small flocks in backyards and on small farms to supply these products. Hecommendations were made that purebred dual-purpose birds be used; that the chicks and pullets be raised according to the grow healthy chick program; that a continuous culling program be carried on; that the flock be replac e d each year; feed some mash to the birds and use at all times as much home-grown feeds as possible. Egg Quality Program.-The egg quality program sponsored jointly by the Florida Poultry Council and t~e several educational agenci es has resulted in a better quality egg and poultry meat for the consumer. In cooperation with the Poultry and Egg Inspection Division of the , D e partment of Agriculture, candling and grading d e monstrations wer e given. Information was furnished th e industry concerning the specifications and requir e ments of Florida's egg and poultry law. An exhibit showing the grades and specifications for each grade of egg s was prepared and used at two farm and hom e institutes and at th e poultry institute. Egg candling and grading demonstrations were given at each of the places where the exhibit was used. Home-Grown Feeds and Green Feed.-Feed cost makes up around 50 to 60 % of the cost of producing poultry. , The Extension workers have urged that wherever possible home-grown feeds b e utilized , especially green feed. This program has been stressed with the small farm flocks that are used primarily for poultry and eggs for home consumption. With the commercial flocks for layers, a system of rotation to provid e green feed for the growing pullets and for the laying birds has been recommended. Junior Poultry Work.-\.York with 4 H club m e mbers was one of the major projects of Extension workers in 1950. These club members were assisted and encouraged in their program of supplying eggs and poultry meat for hom e consumption. A district 4-H poultry show and judging cont es t was held in Jacksonville on January 14. Th e following counties participat e d: Bradford, Bak e r , Duval , Nassau, St. Johns and Putnam. There were 200 pullets, 17 cockerels, 19 pens of broilers with six birds to the p e n and 60 dozen eggs exhibited. The Extension Poultryman judged poultry shows made up primarily of exhibits of 4-H club members in Pin e llas, Lak e; Dade, L eo n, Nassau , Hillsborough and Gadsd e n counties. The annual State 4-H Club Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest was held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition at Orlando, February 20-25, 1950. One hundr e d eighty-five club members from 13 counties participated in the show and 54 judges entered the judging contest. Th e high point judge was Phillip Ball of St. Johns County. The Duval County boys had high point team in the contest. A total of 1,999 birds and 218 dozen eggs were e ntered in the show. Poultry class es were taught at 4-H boys' and girls' camps a nd also at the girls' short course and the boys' short course. Approximat e ly 300 4-H Club boys and girls attended these classes. The special 4-H Club girls' demonstration project, sponsored by Sears Hoebuck Foundation, was continued during the year with the following counties participating in the program: Alachua, Orange, Marion , Santa Rosa , Hillsborough, Leon, Washington, Manatee, Escambia and Columbia.

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Annual Report, 1950 55 Turkey Management.-It is estimated that only 131,000 turkeys were raised in Florida in 1950. The Extension workers did some s urvey work to determine why more turkeys were not being grown in Florida. Some of the disadvantages found were: lack of financing, shortage of quality local poults, feed prices higher than in grain belt, lack of dressing facilities and in some cases a lack of knowledge of turkey growing . . The advantages found were excellent: near-by markets, low housing cost, mild winter for breeders and well drained sandy soils. The fact that we have near-by excellent markets outweighed most of the disadvantages. During the annual poultry institute a part of the program was devoted to turk e ys. A temporary state turkey organization was formed. Egg-Laying Test.-The 24th Florida National Egg-Laying Test was concluded September 22, 1950, with the 1,352 pullets entered averaging 214 eggs per bird (60 % rate of lay) during the 357 day period. These eggs averaged slightly over 24 ounces to the dozen. The average feed consumption per bird was 101.1 pounds (mash and grain). Five and one-half pounds of feed were required for each dozen eggs produced. Mortality was 12.2 percent during the year. A pen of S. C. White Leghorns owned by the Capital Breeding Farm, St. Paul, Minn., was high pen, producing 3,667 eggs valued at 3,792.55 points. A S. C. White Leghorn pullet owned by Rusk Poultry Farm and Hatchery, Windsor, Missouri, laid 328 eggs for a value of 359.10 points and was high bird . The high Florida entry was a pen of S. C. White Leghorns owned by the Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan. These 13 pullets produced 3,405 eggs valued at 3,435.15 points. A pen of New Hampshires entered by Loga Vista, Box 66, Rt. 2, DeLand, was the high heavy breed entry from Florida. These pullets produced 3,124 eggs for a value of 3,276.85 points. In the 24th Test there were five "Golden Egg" birds (birds producing at least 330 eggs averaging 24 or more ounces to the dozen). The birds were all S. C. White Leghorns and were entered by J. 0. Hanson and Sons, Corvallis, Oregon (337 eggs, 356.45 paints); Capital Breeding Farm, St. Paul, Minn. (332 eggs, 355.05 paints); Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan, Florida (331 eggs, 340.60 paints); Pinebreeze Farm (331 eggs, 348.50 points); and Capital ' Breeding Farm (330 eggs, 338.20 points). ' Chicken-of-Tomorrow Contest.-The 1950 Florida Chicken-of-Tomorrow Con test started March 8, 1950, with 24 entries of chicks. The growing period was for a period of 12 weeks .. The state show and judging of the birds was held in Jacksonville May 31. Winners were J. D. Tindall, St. Augustine, 1st and 4th places; Pine-Air Poultry Acres, Jacksonville, 2nd place; and Oak Crest Poultry Farm, Inc., Jacksonville, 3rd and 5th places. / Brooks Herman, Oak Crest Farm, Jacksonville, was selected as one of the 40 breeders in the United States to enter the National Contest in 1951. J. D. Tindall was selected as one of the alternates. Annual Breeders Conference.-The annual Poultry Breeders' Conference was held in Gainesville, December 7 and 8. The program included discussions on the following topics: Fundamentals of poultry breeding, breeding for egg production, pullorum testing, inbreds-hybrids, production of hatching eggs, and hatchery problems. About 50 paultrymen w~re in attendance.

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56 Fl ori d a Coo per ati ve E x t en s i o n Poultry Institute.T h e ninth an nu a l P o ultr y In s titut e was h e ld a t C a mp M c Qu a rri e, Au g u s t 212 6 , 1 9 50 , with ove r 4 00 o n h a nd durin g th e w ee k . All s t a t e age n c i es co op era t e d w ith th e Ag ri c ul tura l Ex t e n s i o n S e r v i ce t o m a k e th e w ee k a s u ccess . Annu a l m ee tin gs of th e F l o rid a St a t e P o ultr y Pr o du ce r s' As soc i a tion and th e Hatch e r y and Br ee d e r s' A ss o c i a ti o n w e r e h e ld durin g th e w ee k. Pr e limin a r y st e p s w e r e t a k e n t o fo r m a s t a t e turk ey o r ga ni za ti o n. Cooperation with Other Agenci es.P o ultr y a nd a lli e d assoc i a ti o n s w hi c h h a v e ass i s t e d in th e d eve l opme n t of th e Exte n s i on p o ultr y p rogram in cl ud e: St a t e Li ve St oc k S a nit ary B oard, D epar t men t of Agric ultu re, F l o rid a Po ultr y C o un c il , F l o rid a St a t e P o ultr y Prod u ce r s' Assoc i a ti on, F l o rid a H a t che r y a n d Br eede r s' Assoc i a ti on, Fl o rid a R . 0 . P . Federatio n , Flo ri da Feed D ea l ers' Associa ti o n , p o ultr y a nd egg d ea l e r s of F l orida w ith membe r s h i p i n th e S o uth easte rn Po ultr y a nd Egg Assoc ia tion , a nd th e F l o rid a Turk ey Asso i a ti o n. Th e St a t e Li ve St oc k Sa nit a r y B oa rd i s th e o ffi c i a ll y d es i g n a t e d s t a t e age n cy t o admini s t e r th e Na ti o n a l Po ultr y Imp rove m e nt Pl a n in F l o rid a . Th e pl a n as ca rri e d out in F l o rid a h as r es ul te d i n b e tt e r c hi c k s fo r th e indu s tr y . Impro ve m e nt in br ee din g a nd r e du c t io n of pull orum b y t es t i n g h as mea nt m u c h t o F l o rid a's g row i n g p o ultr y i nd us tr y. Some of t h e r esults of the pu ll orum testing program du ri ng 195 0 a r e as fo ll ows: 90 % of a ll b i rds tes t ed were pu ll orum clean; 10% were pu ll o ru m p assed (o n e t es t with o ut a n y r eac t o r s) . The p erce nt of r eacto r s i n a ll H oc k s t es t e d w as . 02 3%. in e t y o n e h a t c h e ri es wi th a t o t a l ca p aci t y o f 3,878, 0 9 1 eggs a r e c o o p e ratin g in thi s pl a n . Thi s i s a pp rox im a t e l y 85% o f a ll h a t c h e r y m e n in th e s t a t e. Fi g . 7.Turk eys are a ttr ac ti ng mo r e atte nti o n a n d an o r ga ni za ti o n o f pr o du ce r s w as fo rm e d on a te nt ative bas i s a t t h e P o ultr y In s titut e.

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Annual Report, 1950 57 SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION H. S. McLENDON , Soil Conservationist Activities in Districts.-Information given is pr e pared from Soil Conservation Service records, which are compiled at six-month p e riods of the calendar year. The last report for 1950 will not be available until January, 1951. This statistical report covers information on 49 districts. However, several of thes e districts are new and work is just getting started or soon will be under way. Combined Report of Soil Conservation Districts-Activities From the Date of Organization to June 30, 1950. Practice Planned Crop rotations -------------:------. ..... .. 584,143 acres Contour farming ----251,735 acres Cover cropping 371,166 acres Crop residue managemenL_----373,143 acres Strip cropping 25,259 acres Range improvement ______ 356,320 acres Pasture improvem e nt _______ 1,299,417 acres Seeding of range 15,903 acres Seeding of pastures ---1,110,541 acres Wildlife area improv eme nt . . 259,443 acres Woodland management --1,091,689 acres Tree 47,426 acres Farm and ranch ponds_______ 538 Terraces ___ ____ ___ 22,634.4 miles Field diversions 208.1 miles Farm drainage 1,195,340 acres Closed drains -1,143,260 L. feet Open drains 6 ,5 18.4 miles Irrigation land preparation____ 57,355 acres Improved water applications-131,709 acres Field wind breaks -~------124.6 miles Water disposal areas ... 7,135 acres Kud z u . . 24,715 acres Sericea 4 , 590 acres Alfalfa and perenni a l grass 39,817 acres Firebreaks -----9,128.4 miles I:ish ponds ... 827 Farm
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58 Florida Cooperative Extension 8,018,079 were coveted by soil conservation surveys as of June 30, 1950. There were 4,244,366 acres cov ere d by 12 ,25 5 farm plans for th e same period. Organization of Districts.-The Director of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service is Administrator for the Stat e Soil Cons e rvation Board and is respon si bl e for administering the Soil Conserv a tion Distri cts Act. Th e Extensi o n Soil C on servationist is responsibl e for organizational work in forming new districts in th e state and the county agent assumes s imilar responsibility in the county. Four new districts, Bradford, Nassau, Martin and Wakulla soil conservation districts, were organized during 1950. Chart ers have be e n issued to two oth e rs, Osceola and St. Luci e. Howev e r , all th e organization work h as not b een completed. Ok ee chobe e Soil Cons e rvation District is now ready to a pply for a charte1. Area of the L ee and Chipola River soil conservation districts ha s been in creased. Two islands, C apti va and Sanibel, were . included within th e boundary of Lee Soil Conservation District, increasing the a rea by approximately 12,696 acr es . The area of Chipola Riv e r Soil Conservation District wa s changed to include all land lying within the legal boundaries of Calhoun County, Florida, an increase of approximately 87,920 acres. The Extension Soil Conservationist has met with a number of district boards of sup er visors and made suggestions for getting a broad er conservation progr am applied to farms in their districts. The records of the secretary-treasurer have been inspected and suggestions given as to how he could keep th ese up-to-dat e and accurate a~ all times. A number of field and pastur e tours were attend ed , staged ~ooperatively by district supervisors, county agents, and technicians of the Soil Conservation Service. The Extension Soil Conservationist works with the county agents and their assistants and the conservationists assigned to individual districts in carrying on 4-H Club conservation projects. He also met with groups of boys at 4-H Club camp and discussed soil and wat e r problems with them. At a meeting of local 4-H leaders from 10 counties he discussed how th ese leaders might assist the club members in carrying out their projects. The Extension Soil Conservationist prepared and showed an exhibit at two farm and home institutes and three county fairs . This showed soil conservation practices appli e d to farms in organized districts . SUMMARY OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES BY WHITE COUNTY AGENTS IN FLORIDA, 1950 Days devoted to work in soil and water _____ __ _________ __ __ _ Days devoted to work with wildlife _______ _ Number of communities in which work was conducted (a) Soil and water _______ _ __ _ _ _ ______ __ ___ _ __ _ _____ _ ___ __ ____________ __ ________ _ _ (b) Wildlife --------------------------------------------------------Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen (a) Soil and water _____________ _ (b) Wildlife -----------------------------------------------------------------Number of farmers assisted (a) With problems of land use _____________________ _ ___ _____ _________ __ _ _ _ (b) In the use of crop rotations _____ _ __________________ _ (c) With strip cropping _______ _ _____ __________ _ (d) In constructing terraces ________ _______ _ (e) In grassing waterways or preventing or controlling gullies ----------------------1,230 in 61 counties 193 in 48 counti es 573 in 61 counti es 215 in 49 counties 289 in 61 counti es 134 in 20 counti es 8,406 in 59 counties 4,716 in 53 counties 324 in 13 counties 235 in 18 counti es 534 in 32 counti . es

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Annual Report, 1950 (f) With contour fa~ming of cropland .... .. .... . .. ... ... ... . . . ...... . (g) In contouring pasture or range .... .. . ........ . .. . ... . . . (h) In th e use of cover or green-manure crops . ... . .. ... ..... . (i) In controlling wind or water erosion . . . .. ...................... . (j) In summer fallowing ...................... .... ........................... . (k) In making depth-of-moisture tests ................. ....... . ... . . (1) With drainage .......... ......... ......... .. ........ .... .. . ...... .. ...... . . (m) With irri gation ......... ......... ................................ .. ....... . (n) With l and-clearing ----Number of farmers in soil conservation districts which were assisted with educa ti on for organization or operation ....... . Number of farmers assisted in arranging for farm conserva tion plans Number of farmers assisted in doin g work based on definite farm conservation plans ..... ... ...................... .. ....... . ............. . .... . Numb e r of farme rs assisted in construction or management of ponds for fish Number of farme r s assisted in protection of wildlife areas, such as stream banks, odd areas, fi eld bord ers, marshes and ponds from fire or livestock Number of farmers assiste d in planting of edible wild fruits and nuts in hedges, stream banks, odd areas and field borders Number of farmers assisted with other pl a ntings for food and protection in wildlife a reas ............ . ............. . .................. . Number of boys enrolled in 4-H soil and water conserva tio n projects ....... . ....... . .................. .............................. . Number of boys comple ti ng ... ... .......... .................. ........... . Number of boys enrolled in wildlife and n a ture study (game and fur anima l s) projects .............................. . ..... . ...... . Numb e r o f boys completing .............. . ...................... . ...... . Numb e r of diff e rent 4-H Club members , including those in corresponding projects, who receiv ed definite training in (a) Wildlife conserva tion .............. . . . . ..... . .. . .... . ........... ... . (b) Soil and water conservation .......................... . ..... .. ..... . 59 293 in 1 6 counties 169 in 12 counties 14,598 in 59 counties 1,040 in 34 counties 1,078 in 9 counties 132 in 6 coun ti es 2,205 in 49 counties 1,405 in 43 coun ti ei 1,620 in 56 countie~ 6,529 in 45 counties 2,204 in 44 countie:; 1,737 in 42 coun ti es 281 in 42 coun t ies 400 in 35 counties 201 in 22 counties 285 in 35 counties 103 in 13 counties 69 in 11 counties 63 in 9 counties 42 in 9 counties 1,596 in 31 counties 2,104 in 31 counties

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60 Florida Cooperative Extension VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND MERCHANDISING F. S. JAMISON, Truck Horticulturist VEGETABLE PRODUCTION F. E. MYERS, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist Continued efforts were directed toward supplying the subject-matter fi e ld with information and guidance on commercial production of high yields of superior quality vegetables, better methods of handling the product, and the value and limitations of the home garden. This was accomplished in part through seven area grower meetings, four county grower meetings, three area seed dealer meetings , one county agent training school, an annual conference of n eg ro and another for white county and home demonstration agents, one boys' and one girls' 4-H Club short course, one boys' 4-H Club summer camp, six home demonstration club meetings , participation at four field days, four radio talks, variety demonstrations at five locations, and answering 1,050 inquiries by letter or person a l visits. Vegetable information also was presented at the annual and two commodity meetings of the Florida Fruit and Veg e table Association, and papers for publication were reviewed from the vegetable section of the Florida State Horticultural Society. Two short courses, the Second Annual Seedsmen's and the Third Annual South eastern Short Course on Prevention of Transit Losses in Florida Fruits and Vegetables, were conducted in cooperation with the Florida Agricultural Experi ment Station, Florida Seedsmen's Association and the Southeastern Railway Claims and Development Association, respectively. The Vegetable Specialist served on the state production adjustments committee and the certified seed advisory committee. Publications included eight completed manuscripts on production of individual crops, eight draft manuscripts of proposed publications on additional crops, and seven county agents' newsletters, including state-wide recommendations on fertili zation, insect and disease control, varieties, and current pertinent research results. VEGETABLE MERCHANDISING s. E. ROSENBERGER, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist In e ff ect ive and inefficient methods of handling and displaying vegetables in many r e tail stores prevent maximum sales and use of fresh produce. The purpose of this project is to encourage increased consumption and prevent excessive losses of vegetables through proper handling and display methods in r e tail stor es. During th e year the Specialist worked with 16 independent retail stores, 25 chain food stores, one farmers' retail vegetable market, and one wholesale co~pany. He met with county agents in . one state-wide meeting, three area meetings and eight private conferences. Produetion and service people were also assisted in three state wide groups, two area meetings and two local gatherings. Altogether the Specialist held 23 training classes with a total attendance of 243 retailers. Marketing and merchandising talks were given before five different groups with a total of 348 people. One radio talk was given during the year. The teaching methods are centered around "learn to do by doing." Actual practice in proper vegetable handling, preparation, displaying and pricing is given in class wherever possible. Visual aids and films are used as well. A very effective teaching aid is a personal visit to each store after completion of the training course. Thfa visit is to discuss individual problems and to make recommendations. Work through outside organizations and individuals is an important part of this

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Annual Report, 1950 61 activity. They play a large part in establishing contacts with an industry that, until last year, the Extension Service had hardly touched. For instance, a newspaper food advertising salesman, a vegetable producer, and a wholesale produce company, each with good contacts in the food selling industry, played a large part in bringing retailers into the Extension program. Commercial and industrial associations in some cases supply subject matter and training materials. Other Extension activities entered into by this Specialist were such things as judging 4-H Club fair exhibits, discussing the marketing problems with home demonstration clubs, presenting the problems of vegetable losses, etc., field day for producers, serving on the vegetable advisory committee, participating in depart mental seminars, helping with horticultural short courses and conferring with home demonstration specialists. As a measurement of effectiveness of the vegetable merchandising project, records have been kept on most of the stores that received the training course. In well ov.er one-half the stores, dollar volume of sales has increased and the im portance of the produce department has increased in percent of total store sales. Such things as cleaner, neater surroundings and improved displays are hard to measure except by photographs, but the better quality and more appealing appear ance of the produce can be measured, and very often is, by customer acceptance and retailers' satisfaction.

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62 Florida Cooperativ e Extension Part III --W orl~ With Women and Girls HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK MARY E. KEOWN, State Home Demonstration Agent ( to August 11) ANNA MAE SIKES, State Home Demonstration Agent ( beginning October 1 ) ETHYL HOLLOWAY, District Agent EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent Home demonstration work e rs in Florida are responsible for the development and supervision of coordinated programs of work for both whit e and negro home demonstration women and 4-H girls and share responsibility for the general Agri cultural Extension program. Miss Mary E. Keown died August 11, 1950 . Miss Ethyl Holloway was Acting State Home Demonstration Agent from August 12 to September 30. The present State Home Demonstration Agent was named on October 1. The Home Industries and Marketing Specialist, in addition to her regular responsibilities, served as the Acting District Agent for Northwest Flori9a from October 1. Organization and Personnel.-The 80 hom e demonstration workers exclusive of clerical assistants, employed in state and county offices during 1950 included 46 county home demonstration agents, 12 assistants, 11 negro home demonstration agents, 7 specialists, 4 district home demonstration agents, and the state home demonstration agents. Ten changes were made in county positions during the year. Four home demon stration agents resigned; one to teach in college , two because of ill health, and one to marry. . One white and one negro home d e monstration agent were transferred to counties where they had larger responsibilities and increased salaries, while on e assistant agent resigned. Hom e demonstration work was rees tablished in one county and established in one n e w county. Ten home d em onstration agents attended th e three weeks' short course at the University of Florida for Ext e nsion Servic e personnel. Six on e -day conferences on home improvement and housing were conducted by the Stat e Home Improvement Specialist, Agricultural Engin ee r, and Rural El e ctrification Sp ecia list. Seven one day conferences and work m ee tings on 4-H Club plans and programs were con ducted by the district agents and 4-H Club agents. Leadership training meetings were held in all counties by all specialists and district agents. Recreation institutes were held in Northwest Florida for men and women agents . The annual 4-H Club Short Course for girls was held at Florida State University, and the Annual Agents' Conference was held at the University of Florida. The Negro 4-H Club Short Cours e and Agents' Confer e nce were held at Florida A & M College. Two positions were maintained to give pre-service training to prospect.ive home demonstration agents. Two, both former 4-H Club girls, received this training and one became a fulltime home demonstration agent. Separate but coordinated state-wide programs were developed for both women and 4-H girls in organized clubs and councils. Home demonstration work was included in the regular Agriculturnl Extension Service Budget. Florida State University provided housing for the state offic e and a financial budget which permitted additional personn e l and a pre-service training program for prospectiv e home demonstration agents.

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Annual R eport, 1950 . 63 Forty-five boards of coun t y commiss i oners and e i g ht county schoo l boards co opera t e d in emp l oying co unty home demonstration agents. In a ma j o ri ty of the co unti es, co ntiibuti ons w e r e mad e by bo th boards for 4-H Short Co ur se an d ca mp sc holar s hip s, d e mon s tr a ti o n , and offic e su ppli es, for r e pairs and additions to work rooms , e quipm e nt and co mmunity a nd work ce nt e r s . In c r e ments for sa l a ri es and trav e l w e r e appropri a t ed i n a lar ge m a j o rit y of th e co unti es. N eg ro hom e d emons tration wo r k was supervis e d by a 1 egro Di s t r i ct Hom e D e monstration Agent , who worked under the dir ec tion of th e State H ome D e mon stration Ag e nt. H ea dqu ar t ers were maintained at Florida A & M College. Negro co un ty h ome d emo nshation agents served in 12 co unti es. Leadership. -Two Stat e Councils of Horn e D erno nsbation Vi ' ork , w ith member s hips of women a nd g irl s, ass i s t e d in d eve l op in g a state-w id e program b ased on th e n ee d s and int eres t s of th e p eo pl e . The 36 cotmty cou n c il s of senior wo rk for wom e n and 3 1 juni o r county counc il s for 4-H Club gi rl s w e r e made up of re pr sentativ e wom e n a nd gir l s, and provid ed valuab l e ass istan ce to th e hom e demon s tration agen t s in det e rminin g and ca rrying out county programs. The s t a t e c ouncil for wom e n contin u ed to maintain its scho l a r sh ip fond for 4-H Club g irl s. Th e d eve l opment of train ed vo l unteer l ea d e r s, capab l e of ex t en ding us e ful in formation t o th ei r n e i ghbo r s a nd applying it t o the benefit of th e com munity, co tinu e d to be an important objective of hom e demonstration work and 6 , 992 vo lun t ee r l oca l l eaders or c h a irm e n of specia l activities ass ist ed in commu nity work and were tr ai n ed for their duti es. Also , 2,077 4-H Club g irl s were train ed in l ea dership in 4-H Club cam p s a nd at s h ort course. In 46 co unti es 3 , 547 women se r ved e ither as l oca l l eade r s o r n e i g hb orhood l ea d e r s, in addition to the 837 wome n a nd 1 , 0 99 older 4-H Club g irl s se r ving as l eade r s fo r th e work with yout h. This did not includ e th e 267 n egro women in 11 count i es serv in g as l oca l and neighborhood F i g. 8 . -T h e Stat e Council of Senior Hom e Demonsbation Wo rk ass ist s materi a ll y in formulating programs and cooperates with 4-H Club wo rk . L e ft t o ri gh t : Mrs. Andrew Potter, Pin e ll as, presid e nt ; Mrs. Cecil Sp e n cer, Santa H.os a, first v i ce-p r es id e n t; Mrs. Frank W e ll ner , Duval , second vice-president; Mrs. \ Va lt e r Duden, Levy , secreta r y; and Mrs . Cec il l i cho l son , Br eva rd , tr eas m e r.

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension leaders and the 150 negro women and 24 older negro 4-H Club girls serving as leaders in the development of the n eg ro 4-H Club program. Objectives.-Objectives of home d e monstration work during 1950 included: 1. D eve lopment of sound, long-tim e program in each county and state-wide, to m ee t n eeds and interests of the peopl e, with the people determining specific goals to be reached during the year. 2. Improvement of organization and better use of facilities to extend services of home d e monstration work to a larg e r numb e r of people. 3. Emphasis on well-balanced county programs and the establishment of well planned result demonstrations in the home, carried on by women and girls who s e rved as d e monstrators. 4. D eve lopment of activities for both girls and women which had economic value in the home. 5. S ec uring more adequate housing and home improvement , inside the home and in home surroundings, so that the steadily growing population of Florida could be cared for in satisfactory homes, conducive to a happy home life for all the family. 6. Improvement of health of Florida people by better use of home resources, bett e r hom e health practices, and by acquiring facilities and services for health and m e dical care in the home and community. 7. Consumer education among both rural and urban homemakers , with em pha sis on mor e intelligent and wid espread us e of Florida-produced food products for eco nomy and to insure better nutrition for all family members. 8. S e rvice to girls 10 to 20 years of age through 4-H Club work, with em phasis on training the girls in skills and l eade rship and on receiving cooperation of adults in m ee ting the needs of young p eop le. Emphasis was placed also on the importance of expanded work with girls and boys to keep them busy , learning pro ficiency in useful activities, and in good citizenship. 9. Development of trained rural l ea d e rs who understand their responsibiliti es and opportunities to serve their communities and their state, and who have a clear und e rstanding of the far-reaching values to all members of the family of a satisfying family life . 10. Understanding by the wom en and girls of national and international rela tions, in order that they may function more usefully as informed American citizens. Activities and Accomplishments.-Som e evidences of the accomplishment of th ese objectives were found in th e 15,536 girls enrolled in 4-H Club work and 21,988 women who received direct assistance in home demonstration clubs and as individual s; th e 6 ,922 volunteer local lead ers assisting with community work and rec eiving training for their duties; th e 46,567 rural and farm families a nd 40,600 non-farm families given direct service by home demonstration work; and th e 483 hom e demonstration clubs and 718 4-H Clubs in Florida. Oth e r ev id e nces were found in the 15 ,25 0 home gardens grown by women and girls; th e 1 ,833 family cows purchas ed; the 542,799 pints of fruits, vegetables and meats, cann e d or stored; the 573,709 pints of j e llies, preserves, marmalades, pickles, and r e lish es prepared and stored; th e 538 ,8 34 pounds of beef cured; the 371,142 chickens in home poultry flocks; th e 4,475 women and 11,135 girls enrolled in clothing demonstrations in which 175 ,425 garments were made and 44,701 garments were remodeled. In addition, 2,706 families stored canned foods in cooler storag e; 4,070 home freez ers were u se d ; 19 ,232 families improved their diets; 2,509 beautifi e d their home grounds; 608 families were assisted in construction of dwellings ; and 2,996 were assisted with remodeling or r epa iring the home; 2,810 kitchens were improved

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Annual Report, 1950 65 and 1 , 203 hom es were supplied with electricity; 638 sanitary privies and bathrooms were installed; 972 community recreation programs were conducted ; and ll,013 famili es r eceived help on renovation and remod e ling of clothes. Forty-seven hom e demonstration agents spent a combined total of 8,172 days , working with adults and 7,648 days working with 4-H Club and older youth, mak ing 18,724 home visits, visiting 10,449 diff ere nt farms. They received 62,970 p e sonal calls at the office and 64,447 telephone calls for information; they made 12,781 farm and home visits; and they distributed 158,799 bulletins. Home demonstration agents held 138 ad ult achievement days, attended by 88,571 persons, and 475 4-H Club achievement days, aUended by 38,823 girls. Fifty-thre e 4-H camps, each of one-we ek duration, were held with 2,728 girls at tending. M ee tings -as results of demonstrations numb e red 1,189, attended by 19,036 p e rsons. The Ext e nsion Editorial Department materially assisted home demonstration workers in making more effective use of the radio and the press. Home demonstra tion agents wrote 5,135 news articles, distributed 193,427 bulletins, and 27 county home demonstration agents made 1,153 radio broadcasts in 42 counties. Community Work.-There were 1,201 organized community clubs for white and negro women and girls. There were 15,536 4-H Club girls enrolled in 4-H Clubs and 21,998 enrolled in adult clubs. Th e y h e ld 13,331 meetings, attended by 310,238 persons. Home demonstration clubs cooperated with other organizations in varied com munity activities. These included 262 clubs cooperating with the March of Dim e s campaign, 317 clubs cooperating in tuberculo s is seal sales, the 279 clubs working on the cancer drive, and the 450 clubs cooperating with other health sales and cam paigns . Sixty-nin e white and 13 negro hom e d emo nstration clubs made h ea lth surveys and 77 white and 11 negro clubs planned programs based on situations shown by health surveys. Similar work on community problems included cooperation in the Rural Housing Committ ee. Home demonstration workers d evo ted approximately 400 days to cooperation with other federal, state and county groups on various and timely community problems in 46 counties. 4-H Club Activities and Awards.-Each m e mb e r of the State Home Demon stration Staff assisted with the short course for 4-H Club girls. Members of this staff assisted with the negro 4-H Club short course for boys and girls. Fourte e n records were considered for the most outstanding award in 4-H Club work, representing Florida at the National 4-H Club Camp. Girls from Escambia and Manate e were selected. The Broward County girl who was the third high est girl was awarded the scholarship to the Danforth Foundation Christian L ea d e rship Training Camp n ea r Shelby, :Michigan. Four negro 4-H Club girls were selected to attend the n eg ro 4-H Hegional Camp at Nashvill e . They were from Columbia , Leon, Ja ckson, and Volusia counties. Six 4-H Club girls were selected to attend th e National 4-H Club Congress from the 269 completed records submitted from 35 counties. They were from Orange, Gadsd e n, M a rion, Volusia and Hardee counties. State awards were giv e n to 4-1-I Club girls from Brevard, Madison and Sant a Rosa counties for work in lead e rship, home b ea utification, and.frozen foods. Home demonstration workers participat ed in the 4-1-I Club case study of a typical county-Marion. The College 4-1-I Club , organized 32 years ago by the State Home D e mon s tra tion Agent, has a club room in the Student Alumni Building at Florida State University. Members meet regularly with an adviser from the state demonstration

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66 Flo rida Cooperative E xtension staff to pl a n a nd d eve l o p programs for participation in leadership ac tiviti es. Among th ese activities i s assistance a t the a nnu a l 4-H Club short co ur se. Oth e r activities of th e 4-H C l ub s arc cooperation and l e ad e r ship within th e Rura l Youth Confer e n ce, ex hibit s at s tat e, and co unty a nd d i strict fairs. Na tion a l H ome Demonshatio n Week In pr e paration for th e ce l e brat i on of th e fifth ational H o m e D emo nshati o n , \ Vcck , a pack e t of tim e l y and us e ful mat e ria l was pr e par e d a nd distributed t o eac h home dcmonshation age nt. In ad dition to the stat e s t a ff , many o ut stand in g l eade r s a nd k ey p eo pl e co ntribut e d to th e material in thi s packet. Certificates of recognition fo r ac hi evemen t , fa ithful se r v i ce a nd active particip a tion for 10 yea r s or mo r e in home d emonstra ti o n wo rk in F l o rida hav e b ee n pr ese nt e d t o 615 l eade r s by 1 6 co unt y h ome d e m o n stra tion age nt s a nd 1 n eg ro hom e d c monshati o n age nt . In a dditi o n to these ce rtifi ca t es, thr ee co un ty co unci l s pr ese nt e d 25 club members with th e official hom e d e mon s tration pin in r ecog n i t i on of 25 or mor e yea r s o f ac ti ve se rvi ce as h o m e d e monstr a tion club m e mb e rs and l ea d e rs. Farm a nd Home Inst itu te. -Two farm a nd hom e in s titut es w e r e plann e d , arranged for an d co nduct e d und e r th e direction of th e district agents, m e n a nd Fig. 9.-Home demonstration and 4H Club members m ade hundr eds of Unit e d Nations fl ag and presented th em to schoo l s a nd o th e r publi c in s tituti o n s a s an ev id e n ce of their world pahfotism .

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Annual Report, 1950 67 women, of northwest Florida at Camps Timpoochee and Cherry Lake. Outstand ing speakers at these institutes were made available through the cooperation of the University of Florida, Florida State University, State Departments of Education and Health, Florida Children's Commission, the Attorney General's Office and local churches. Exhibits of timely and up-to-date information and equipment were planned and arranged by the Extension specialists. United Nations Project.-Home demonstration agents devoted a total of 98~~ days in promoting the idea and helping leaders to reach this goal of having a United Nations Flag in each county by United Nations Day. Approximately 600 United Nations flags were made in Florida by 4-H Club girls and home demon stration club members.

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension CLOTHING AND TEXTILES JOYCE BEVIS, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles During 1950, the Specialist spent 175 days doing office work which included (1) general planning and evaluating in joint staff conference, necessary procedures for developing the total Extension program; (2) planning for special events and programs and specific plans for a well rounded, useful clothing program that would best fit the needs of the homemakers of Florida; (3) planning exhibits, preparing outlook material, preparing useful instruction leaflets and other teaching aids for 4-H and adult groups; (4) planning for travel, making reports (both monthly and annual) and keeping up-to-date on the new developments in the field of clothing and textiles. She spent 122 days with county home demonstration agents and club ~embers. She helped with the training of leaders, gave method demonstrations, assisted at county achievement days and county council meetings, attended and helped with regularly scheduled 4-H and home demonstration meetings, helped with camp activ ities and county fairs. The Specialist contacted and served in some way approxi mately 5,000 people in addition to the state and county Extension workers. The Specialist also helped the agents with training of leaders for 4-H groups and cloth ing chairmen for the adult work; judging achievement exhibits in record keeping and story writing; method demonstrations of various phases of clothing work, such as selection, construction and care; and encouraged the establishment of more result demonstrations by adult club members. The following statements from county reports show to some extent the influence of the time spent in the counties by the Specialist: Fifty'-seven home demonstration agents (46 whit; and 11 negro) report 2,663 days developing the clothing program in the various counties. These agents gave 736 less method demonstrations on clothing this year than last, but volunteer project leaders were more active in giving demonstrations. There was an increase of 19 communities this year where clothing work was carried on. A better leader ship program may help to account for this increase. Fifty-four agents report a total increase of 273 leaders or chairmen assisting with the clothing program this ym~ . The reports also show an increase of 333 families receiving help with clothing construction work; 56 more families receiving help with clothing selection prob lems; 61 more families receiving help in care, renovation and remodeling of clothes this year; and 86 less families receiving help with clothing accounts and expendi tures. During 1950 there were 33,903 more new garments made by Florida families than in 1949, 7,892 more articles made for the house, and approximately 900 more families who received help for better laundry practice. There was a small increase of 34 more white 4-H girls taking clothing as a demonstration this year, and a decrease of857in the number of negro girls carrying on clothing demonstrations. Although the number taking clothing as a demon stration decreased 813 during 1950, the quality of work and percentage of girls completing their clothing demonstrations increased by 6 percent. Almost every Extension method of reaching people was used by the Specialist, agents and leaders in developing a clothing program in the state. Of course, some were used more than others. Method demonstrations, home visits, office calls, let ters, leaflets and the telephone were the ones used to reach individuals.

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To help agents and l eaders to reach the peo ple, the Specialist at t ende d various types of m ee ting s, workin g with a g e n t s, l ea d e r s, club members , civ ic g roup s, etc. At these meetings s h e gave talk , method demonstrations, and job in s tru c ti on trainin g, set up ex hibits , u sed cha rt s, posters and bulletins and h e lp ed with the tr aining of l eaders in the use of th e Extension methods. This yea r in addit i o n to th e two achievement s tyl e shows put on at th e state short co urs es for white and n egro gi rls , tb e State Counci l of Hom e Demon strat i on \V ork sponso r ed a sta t e sty l e show for adu lt hom e demonstration c l ub m e mbers . This was the first attempt at thi s type act ivit y but was quite s u ccess ful and 25 of th e 46 coun ti es had r ep r ese ntativ es in th e s how. It was very inspirational for the c lub members and will probably becom e an annua l affair that will grow fast. Durin g th e year the Specialist camped with eig ht co unti es in two dis tri c t camps and gave dail y assistance with th e camp program during the two weeks. Exhibits were pl anned, provid ed a nd set up at the two farm and hom e insti tutes held at two of the district ca mps during the summer months by th e Sp ec iali s t with the belp of th e co unty hom e demon stration agents. Annual Report, 1950 69 Fig . 10.-State 4-H Dress r evue was an important feature at Short Course. J oyce \\ ' hite, Escambia Coun ty , won a blu e ribbon on her "schoo l dress."

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK LmlENE STEVENS , State Girls' 4-H Club Agent Runr LEl\IMON , Assistant State Girls' 4-I I Club Ag e nt Florida's 14 , 865 4-H Club girls conducted 49 , 619 demonstrations in foods and nutrition, clothing , interior and exte rior hom e improv eme nt , food co ns erva tion , safety and fir e prevention, c hild care, hom e dairying , hom e gardening, poultry , and li vestock this year. Tl1ey co mpl e t ed 32,221 of th e d e monstrations, meeting the requirements of the specilc projects , tmning in records , including stories on th e ir accomplishments , and ex hibitin g as required for comp l etio n. In the East Coast Fig. 11.-0ffi ce r s of th e State Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work djr ec t th e Council and cooperate with th e sta t e home demonstration staff. L ef t to right , lrst row: Tally Coleman, Sarasota County, vice-president; Salli e \ Nilson, Madison , pr es id ent; Wylene Mayneld, Volusia , historian ; s e cond row: J ac kie Cummings , Lak e, assis tant secre tmy ; Barbara J ea n Dame , Broward, secretary; and Gay Rob e rt s, Hardee , treasurer.

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Annual Report, 1950 71 District, 4-H girls also had to give a method demonstration related to the project before claiming completion. Organization and Leadership.-Each girls' 4-H Club has officers and committees and approximately 75 percent of them had local leaders who met with the clubs and assisted the county home demonstration agents with the community 4-H pro gram. Other adults, many of whom were members of home demonstration clubs, provided leadership in special activities .such as rallies, camps, achievement events and fairs. Four-H clubs met at schools once or twice per month with the county home demonstration agent and local leader. A few of the organizations had work meet ings with the local leader in the homes of the girls. The majority of the girls' 4-H Clubs did not meet during the summer months but the county home demonstration agents encouraged and assisted individual girls in the development of result demon strations in their homes. In 26 counties there were county girls' 4-H councils, composed of two represen tatives from ea~h of the local clubs. Two county councils met once per month and 24 met three or four times during the year. The major responsibilities of the county group included planning and directing the county-wide activities, correlating the 4-H program for girls with adult home demonstration work and to plan, with the 4-H boys, joint county activities. The State Girls' 4-H Council was composed of two representatives from each of the county councils. The annual meeting was held in Tallahassee as a part of the State Girls' 4-H Short Course. Its function was to strengthen county councils through a planned state program that met the needs of the county groups. Included in the program were: 1. That 4-H girls cooperate with State Boys' 4-H Council, adult home demon stration clubs, and other community organizations. 2. That 4-H girls give information on 4-H to more communities. 3. That 4-H girls publicize 4-H work in the counties that people may have a better understanding of 4-H. 4. That 4-H girls sponsor, with the 4-H boys, such county-wide activities as achievement events, rallies, fairs, community recreation, 4-H Sunday, National 4-H Week, National 4-H Achievement Week, and local campaigns and drives for the good of the community. 5. That 4-H girls take more responsibility in leadership activities in the program. These 4-H organizations, local, county and state, provided many opportunities for the growth of individual 4-H Club girls and leaders through leadership respon sibilities. Though 4-H Club work for boys and girls was organized separately, there were many meetings and activities that were jointly planned and directed by the local and county groups such as rallies, camps, regular 4-H meetings, fairs, achievement events, livestock shows, and the observances of National 4-H Week, National 4-H Achievement Week, and Rural Life Sunday. The value of leadership development in the 4-H program was emphasized by state staff members in their respective fields of work throughout the year and assistance was given by them to county home demonstration agents on securing, training and recognizing leaders. A valuable contribution in 4-H leadership was made by local home demonstra tion clubs as a result of the recommendations made by the State Senior Council of

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72 Florida Cooperative Extension Horne D emons tr ation Work at its annual meeting. Includ e d were such basi c goa ls as: 1. To a pp o int a 4-H chairman in ac h home demonstration c lub to give a 4-H r e port at eve ry m ee ting, to work closely with lo ca l l ea d e r s of 4 H Clubs , and to arrange for 4-H g irl s to appear o n hom e demonstration programs . 2. To enco ura ge more activities for older 4-H g irl s. 3. To work t oward continued improvement of quality of work. 4. To promote and maintain a better und e rstanding of th e 4-H program in the cou nt y. 5. To h e lp increase th e number of trained vo lunt ee r l ea d e r s. &k4Af!~ 4 H CLUB Gillis jJR(JlNT! DE MOII STII.ATIONS fVERY DAY,;/ 11 3 . . Jf-.,,,J,l,t-!_IOtl IO~Y CO NWA Y ----------~--~ 4 ~ ----------~ Fig. 12.-Team d e monstration s a t fairs gave 4-H Club girls and boys an oppor tunity t o tell th e public abou t interesting topi cs and to train th emse lves .

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Annual Report, 1950 73 Th e 754 women who served as 4-H leader s gave time, effort and encourage ment to the d eve lopment of the progr a m with the girls. The training of adults in 4-H lead e rship w a s provided by county home demon stration ag e nt s through individual confer e nc e, l e tters, bulletins and training meetings. Special Activities.-Florida 4-H girls p a rticipat e d in such special activities as National 4-H W ee k, National 4-H Achi e v e m e nt W e ek, Rural Life Sunday, local and county a chi eve m e nt events, county and s t a te c a mps, rallies, fairs and livestock shows. Approximat e ly 600 4-H girls, lead e rs and county home demonstration agents att e nd e d th e annu a l Stat e Girls' 4-H Short Cours e in Tallahassee. Ten 4-H girls r e c e iv e d s t a t e aw a rd s in the national awards program, two girls repres e nt e d Florida at th e N a tional 4-H Camp in Washington , and on e 4-H girl wa s award e d the Am e ri ca n Y o uth F o undation Christian L e ad e r s hip Training Camp Scholarship. S e v e nt ee n 4-H girls' teams g a ve demon s tration s at the Florida Stat e Fair and 19 rec e iv e d th e St a te Fair 4~H Award for outst a nding accomplishments in th e county 4-H program. Elev e n t e ams of negro 4-H girls also gav e d e monstrations at the State Fair and participated in the State Fair 4-H award program. Approximat e ly 150 negro 4-H girls att e nd e d the joint boys and girls State Negro 4-H Short Course held in Tallahas see, a nd four n e gro 4-H girls repres e nted the stat e 's 4-H n eg ro girls membership at th e R e gional 4-H Camp held in Virgini a . Signs of Progress.-Though they ar e inform a l me as uring devices and may to a c e rtain ex t e nt b e in ac curate , the tr e nd s b e low indic a t e som e of the str e ngths and weakn esses in th e girls' 4-H program: 1. Incr ease d m e mbership in 4-H Club . 2. In c r e a se d number of demonstration completions in counti e s with trained leaders. 3. ln c r e;se d interest in the 4-H program by local people. 4. In c r e as e d interest of 4-H memb e rs i n th e program. 5. Incr ease d interest and assistance fr o m hom e demonstration clubs. 6. Incr ease d requests for assistanc e with d eve lopment of 4-H lead e r s hip program . 7. Incr e a se d number of local leaders . 8 . Improv e d qualit y and numb e r of e xhibits. 9 . In c r ease d interest of parents in th e 4-H program. 10. Incr e as e d number of girls particip a ti n g in the 4 H program .

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME IMPROVEMENT BoNNIE J. CARTER, Home Improvement Specialist The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 47 counties with the help of the Home Improvement Specialist, county home demonstration agents, volunteer local leaders, senior and junior councils of home demonstration work, county rural housing committees, 4-H and women's club meetings, tours, achievement days and home visits and through work with other organiz~tions and persons. Assistance to negroes was given by the Specialist through the district agent, conferences, training meetings, bulletins, posters and loan exhibits. Major home improvement opportunities and problems lie in the fields of housing, family living and consumer education. Housing.-Florida needs more rural homes built for comfort, convenience, health and beauty so that rural people may live more satisfying lives and become better citizens. The home demonstration agents' 1950 reports showed that 2,690 families re ceived help with problems relating to building and remodeling homes; 2,028 with kitchen; and 2,796 with other room improvement. Better storage facilities for food, clothing and household equipment and supplies were provided by 1,408 families and better laundry space and equipment by 990. For comfort, convenience and better health, families installed 706 sewage disposal units , 571 sanitary toilets, 936 water systems and 263 heating systems; 2,679 families improved screens and adopted better pest control methods; and 10,317 followed b e tter practic e s of handling and disposing of garbage. The extension of electric lines by rural electric cooperatives made electricity available to more homes and Extension workers assisted 1,120 families in obtaining electricity. Help was given with lighting and electrical equipment problems to 4,010 families, with 11,660 pieces of electrical equipment being bought. Over 7,703 improved their home grounds, with 2,507 of them using plans for complete improvement. Of these, 885 started new lawns, 5,672 maintained or im proved lawns already established; 9,548 made foundation plantings, and 14,396 pruned, fertilized and otherwise cared for foundation and border plantings already started. Some planted trees, shrubs and flowers; 871 maintained propagating beds for ornam e ntals and 752 for fruit producing plants. Others built fences and gates, while still others removed them and some provided recreation areas with outdoor living rooms and stoves. Houses and out-buildings numbering 2,747 received coats of paint to improve their looks and to make them last longer. In 30 counties 257 home demonstration and 4-H clubs carried out organized clean-up campaigns. Family Living.-Family living becom es more complicated daily and families find it difficult to make income, ability and time meet the needs and wants of family members. Some of the problems agents and volunteer local leaders helped solve r e lated to increasing the income, spending wisely to make the money go further, producing food and feed when practicable, practicing orderly work habits, using time and effort to the best advantage; providing medical and dental care; security in old age; opportunities for r e ligious , civic, educational and recreational activities for all family members. Through the Extension program 5,272 homemakers were helped to become better housekeepers; 1,339 to make bett e r use of their time; 564 with home ac counts; 925 with financial planning and 104 with making better use of credit

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Annual R e po1 t, 1950 75 for family living. In add iti on, 5 , 439 4-H C l ub members received h e lp with l ear n in g to k ee p p e r so nal accounts. To pr e par e th e m se l ves to b e better parents and guides for yo un g people, 208 m e n and 2,130 w ome n p a rticip a t e d in chi ld-d eve l opmen t and parent-education programs ; 3 , 039 families so u g ht a nd r eceived help with c hild development a nd guidance probl e m s; and 2 , 295 in impro v in g fa mil y r e l at ion s hip s. Hom e d e monstration agents , vo lunt ee r l oca l l ea d ers, and h o m e d e monstration an d 4-H Club m e mb e r s assumed r es pon s ibilit y for h e lpin g with r ec r ea tion in th e ir r e sp e ctive communities. In 40 co unti es, 320 co mmuniti es were assisted with im proving r ecrea tional facilities. The 11 4 club hou ses a nd club rooms owned or controll e d by hom e d e m ons trati on gro up s in 36 coun ti es were u se d for r eg ular club me e ting s, work m ee tin gs and r ec r ea ti on activities fo r both a dult a nd yo uth gro up s. In 36 counti es 912 e nt e rt a inm e nt s were h e ld for soc i a l pmpos es a nd 454 to mak e mon ey for worthy ventures und e rt ake n o r s upp or t e d by the club members. To offer facilities for r eading, 45 communit i es in 26 co unti es were ass i s t e d in providing library facilities. In 40 co unti es 516 gro up s r eceive d help with organi za tional probl e m s, program ac tiviti c or me e tin g programs. Additional community se rvi ce was provid e d in several counties where hom e demonstration and 4-I I Club groups h e lp e d impr ove church buildings and gro und s, ceme t e ri es, and cour thou se and school grounds. Th ey c oop era t e d with h e alth units . by providing plac e s for and sponsoring h ea lth c linic s, h e lp e d with mobil e X-ra y Fig . 13 .Hom e d e monstrati o n c lub members l ear n e d to s li p cove r c hairs a t club m ee tin gs throu g h ou t th e s t a t e.

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension units, hookworm drives and diab e tic clinics . They took active parts in tuberculosis seal sal e _ s, polio drives and oth e r county-wide activities through their councils of home demonstration and 4-H Club work. Consumer Education.-Ilome demonstration agents reported that 4 , 457 families were assist e d with the purchase of food; 4,667 with clothing and household textiles; 3,112 with household furnishings and equipment; and 3,096 with household supplies. In addition, 2,954 received help with repairing, refinishing and remodel ing household furnishings. A total of 7,800 families were assisted with consumer buying, 6,194 with "making versus buying" decisions, and 5,633 in using timely economic information to make adjustments in family living. Volunt ee r local leaders numbering 750 gave 2,075 demonstrations in the various phases of the program to women and girls and attended 209 training meetings. 4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club home improvement program is designed to stimulate the girl's interest in learning to do simple home tasks well, to make her home mor e beautiful, comfortable and convenient both inside and out, and to be come a well adjusted member of her family and her community. Records of home demonstration agents showed that 1,917 girls enrolled for homemaking, with 822 compl e ting; 2,737 enrolled for room improvement and home furnishings, with 1,475 completing their demonstrations, thereby improving 1,608 rooms and making 5,745 articles to adorn their homes. Of the 1,362 enrolled for home grounds beautifica tion, 822 completed their work of starting or maintaining lawns, making foundation plantings and doing other things to improve their homesites. Special training in several phases of 4-H Club home improvement was given to approximately 600 4-H girls, volunteer local leaders and home demonstration agents at short courses. Others were helped through leader-training m ee tings, 4-H Club meetings, camps, and home visits. Necessary subject matter was prepared for use in this program.

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Annual Report, 1950 77 HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING GLADYS KENDALL, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist The home industries and marketing project was established on November 16, 1949, because of a long-time and continued increase in demand for assistance with problems concerning ways and means to increase the family income, to use the family income wisely, and to use all available resources of the farm and home to best advantage. The major problems with which the Specialist was concerned during 1950 were (1) to define and establish the project; and (2) to provide ways and means of developing it. All objectives for 1950 and work undertaken during the year were planned to help solve these major problems and to meet the needs of people who wanted to increase or extend their cash income. The Specialist determined state-wide needs by studying and appraising the work in home industries and in marketing of home products already under way in -the counties. She established a reference file of timely, useful information and illustrative and source materials, and supplied home demonstration agents and others with this information; secured equipment and supplies necessary to develop this phase of work; assisted the agents with training voluntary local leaders and others in skills and techniques; aided in developing home industries that utilize materials native to Florida and in securing wider distribution, better production and marketing practices and wider use of agricultural products such as citrus, vegetables, poultry and dairy products, and tropical fruits; assisted result demonstrators in establishing and maintaining high standards of quality in products offered for sale; studied laws and regulations that govern marketing and interpreted them to the agents and others; became acquaint e d with personnel, marketing programs under way, methods used and accomplishments in such programs of other agencies, commodity groups and business concerns in Florida and in other states; and proposed a money-making and money-management demonstration for 4-H Club girls. Home demonstration agents, white and negro, in 39 counties reported working in 1,609 different communities with 6,225 families on problems concerning market ing and home industries. They were assisted by 1,148 volunteer local leaders. The agents, assisted by the Specialist, reported training lead e rs in 31 counties. While in the field the Specialist contacted, worked with or served in some way approximately 3,000 people, in addition to state and county Agricultural Ex tension Service personnel. Standardizing Products.-In 22 counties 1,256 different club members standard ized products for market. These women and girls reported receiving a total of $555,062.59 in cash from farm and home products sold. Of the total cash received, more than nine-tenths, or $512,792.00, was from the sale of food products which included eggs, poultry, fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products, baked and canned products, nuts, syrup, honey and meat; the remainder was from the sale of flowers , plants, handicraft articles and services. An analysis of the records for 1949 and a study of home demonstration agents' reparts for more than 25 y ea rs show that the sale of food products-fresh, canned, cured and cooked-has been the principal means women and girls have used to add cash to the family income. The Specialist emphasized this fact in talks given to clubs, county councils and other groups, in special activities planned for state wide groups and when training leaders to give demonstrations related to home industries and marketing. Agents reported giving 118 less demonstrations in making handicraft articles.

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78 F lo1icla Cooperative E xtension Th e d e m o n s tr a tion s u s u a ll y we r e g i ven b y tr a in ed l ea d e r s a nd th e c raft s t a u g ht w e r e u se ful and ma r ke t ab l e. Most of th e 4-I I a nd h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n club s a nd co unt y c ouncils h e ld mon ey -m a kin g ac ti v iti es durin g th e yea r. D e finit e a mount s o f m o n ey e arn e d w e r e not report e d b y th e age nt s . H oweve r , th ey re p o rt e d th a t c ommunit y improv e m e nt s, s u c h as buil di n g, r e m ode lin g a n d furni s hin g club h o u ses o r co mmunit y ce nt e r s, m ai nt a inin g h ea lth c lini cs a nd librari es, impro v in g c hur c h buildin g s a nd g rounds a roun d c hur c h es and ot h e r com munit y buildin gs, a nd c ontributin g to tub e r c ul os i s sea l sa l es, M a r c h of D i mes a nd o th e r simil a r dri ves w e r e m a d e b y h o m e d e m o n s tr a ti o n gro up s w it h money earne d b y th ese gro up s . Thi s typ e of mark e tin g a dd e d t o fam il y i ncomes ind ir ec tl y b eca u se fa mili es we r e ab l e t o m a k e c ontribution s of h o m e grow n o r h a nd m ade p ro du c t s a nd se r v i ce rath e r th a n cas h to w o rtl 1 w hil e co mmuni ty p ro j ects. As s ist a n ce in plannin g, o r g ani z in g a nd co n d u c tin g a c ount y pro g ram in hom e indu s tri es a nd m a rk e tin g h as been give n to h o m e d e m o n s t ra tion a ge nt s, l e ad e r s, a du l t a nd 4-H Club m e mb e r s a nd o th e r s a t 4H Sh o rt Cours e s for Girl s, annua l E x t e nsi o n A ge nt s' Con fe r e n ces, farm a nd h o m e in s titut es, 4 -H ca mp s, annua l m ee tin g of St a t e S e ni o r Co un c il o f H o m e D e m o n s t ra ti o n W o rk , s ubj ec t-m a tt e r tr a inin g m ee t ings an d wo r ks h ops an d o t he r s t a t e -wi de a nd co u n t y ac ti v iti e s a nd s p ec i a l even t s. Results Obtain e d. B o t11 t a n g i b l e a nd in ta n g ibl e r es ult s we r e eva luat e d wh e n m e a s urin g th e effec ti, eness of t h e home in du st ri es an d ma rk e ti ng pro g r a m. Int a nF i g. 1 4 . -Craf t s d i sp l ays and b azaa r s s u c h as thi s n o t o nl y brou g ht cas h to h o m e d e mon s trati o n c lu b m e m b e r s b ut a l s o s h owe d th e m a n y thin gs th e s e ca pabl e w o m e n m ade .

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Annual Report, 1950 79 gible results were evaluated by observing changes in attitude toward the program of the Extension workers and other individuals, by noting the interest. shown by women in producing better quality products for the market, by tabulating the needs and desires expressed by home demonstration agents, club members and others and by observing home products that are offered for sale in markets and stores. Methods and devices used to measure tangible results were: visits to result demonstrations; records kept by result demonstrators; number and kind of requests received by the Specialist for assistance from individuals and from county home demonstration agents; study of the annual report of the State Council of Senior Horne Demonstration Work; number of people contacted and assisted in the home industries and marketing program by the Specialist, home demonstration agents and leaders; conferences with state staff members and others; and observa tions made by the Specialist on field trips to counties and at state-wide and county special events and activities.

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension NUTRITION AND FOODS GRACE I. NEELY, Food Conservation Specialist The home foods program was planned and varied to serve the needs of all groups. Emphasis was placed on providing an adequate daily food supply for the family. Improved practices in production, preservation and storage of foods have been developed, insuring a more nearly optimum nutrition for all groups and at all age levels. Methods used varied. However, extra emphasis was placed on the develop ment of local leadership and on the establishment of individual and family result demonstrations. The work was organized around two programs-adult and 4-H Club. The world situation today has emphasized the importance of the "live-at-home" program. Home-produced and conserved foods, wherever possible, are one proven way to aid in cutting the cost of living. Planned home-conserved foods make available at a minimum cost food for nutritious, well-balanced meals during every season of the year. Nutrition and Health.-Emphasis was placed on improvement of health through an appreciation of what good nutrition can contribute to health, a working knowl edge of what constitutes a healthful diet at the different stages of life and economic ability to provide a nutritional diet. Reports showed that 12,835 families in 45 counties were trained to recognize the difference between good and poor nutrition. Also, 4,150 more young home makers and mothers were assisted with the study of nutrition. Principles of a good diet were accepted by 9,359 families and they served balanced meals to include the seven basic food groups. Also, 12,989 families reported preparing foods by methods recommended to conserve more of the nutritive value. Local and seasonal foods were used to best advantage by 14,009 families. The number of families using better methods in preparing dairy products were 7,714; meat cookery, 10,539; poultry products, 9,352; vegetables and fruits, 15,019; _and baked products, 10,396. Home Food Production.-The home gardens and orchards program showed good progress in better preparation of soil, use of compost and fertilizers where needed, better selection of varieties for the area and better pest control. The 47 counties with home demonstration agents reported 15,250 families with home gardens and 4,679 families having home orchards. This was a good increase over last year. The number of fa~ilies assisted in making changes in home food production were: Vegetables, 11,263; fruits, 6,785; meats, 5,361; milk, 4,487; and poultry and eggs, 7,119. In 36 counties 4,350 were reported producing and preserving the home food supply according to an annual food budget. Food Conservation.-A sound program on food conservation has aided in improving the nutritional status of Florida families. Food conserved at home or in community centers can be varieties found best for canning or freezing. These foods can be conserved when at their best to retain the maximum amount of their vital nutrients and flavor. The State Home Demonstration Council for the past two years has sponsored a state-wide 5-jar quality canned exhibit of canned fruits, vegetables and meats. Each year at their annual conference the exhibit is set up and judged. The women

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Anni(al Report, 1950 81 enjoy their exhibit and it has helped them to appreciate better quality canned foods. In the one year much progr ess was made in better .selection of the maturity of vegetables bestto can. They plan-to have this exhibit another year. . Summaries from reports show that 2 , 132,915 pints of food were canned; 982,111 pounds were frozen; 1,538 , 832 pounds cured meats; and 12 , 555,888 pounds potatoes, dried peas and beans were stored for the home food supply. Based on poundag e of canned, frozen, cured, and stored fruits, vegetables and meats conserved by Florida's 12,399 home demonstration club families for 1950, each family conserved enough fruit to supply a family of four for four months, in addition to the citrus fr~t eaten fresh; enough vegetables for one month and enough meat for four months. This would emphasize the need for more year-around home gardens or more conserved vegetables, if better balanced meals are to be served in many homes. Storage.-Facilities for cooler storage of canned and fresh foods are needed in most areas of Florida, as cellars are not advisable due to the water table being so . near the surface. The ventilated pantry has been promoted as one means of securing cooler temperatures. Home demonstration agents in 30 counties reported 2,706 families storing their canned foods in cooler storage (ventilated pantries), an increase of 1,577 over last year. Miscellaneous.-This year 6,973 famili e s were reported using county canning centers, a 45 percent increase. Most of this increase was in negro home demon stration club families, which was encouraging. The number of home freezer owners has jumped from 1,000 report e d in 1949 to 4,070 this year. This increase in freezing foods at home is in line with the increased number of Florida farmers h a ving access to electric power. The rural electrification program now enables 82 percent of the farm homes to use electricity. This was an increase of 6 percent over last year.

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82 Florida Cooperative Extension Part IV --~ Negro W or _ l~ NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK JosEPH A. GRESHAM, Negro District Agent Farm demonstration work with negroes was carried on in 10 counties. No changes in personnel occurred nor was th e re any increase in staff during the year. The biggest concentration of negro farmers is found 'in the northern section of the state where seven negro county agents are located; the other three are in central Florida counties. All 10 agents worked for the most part through community and neighborhood leaders , enabling them to reach maximum number of farm people . As a result of efforts of the Negro District Agent, five county agents received financial assistance from their counties and three had salaries increased. County offices are well located for the convenience of farmers. Four counties provide the necessary equipment to carry on a sound program and also provide part-time clerical help for negro county agents. Two county agents attended the special three weeks' summer school for Exten sion workers held at Prairie View State College in Texas during August. All county agents attended the annual conference for negro Extension workers at Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, November 6-10. Panel discussions on county programs and plans were presented by state Extension personnel and repre sentatives of the USDA. Representatives of the Soil Conservation Service , Produc tion Credit Association and the Farmers' Home Administration explained the func tion s , provisions and uses of the various services. _ Negro county agents reported holding 77 training meetings with adults. Fifty 4-H Club leaders received training. Supervisory Responsibilities.-For the first time in the history of Florida Exten sion work, county programs and plans were made jointly in a few counties by white and colored _ work{lrs. County and district Extension Service workers, negro and white, cooperated to advantage in determining methods of arriving at county pro grams and plans. Negro county agents report working with all agencies in the field of agriculture which are beneficial to farm people. The Negro District Agent assisted in making local county plans for adult and 4-H Club work, arranged for the annual 4-H Club short course and summer camps, and visited county agents to help with livestock, field crop and soil problems, give demonstrations and talks on Extension work. Negro Agents,-:Negro County agents made 5,203 farm or home visits to 2,661 different farms or homes last year . They devoted 1,688 days to work with adults and 1,147 days to work with 4-H Clubs and older youth. The year's activities included 86 method demonstrations to 1,215 farmers and 113 demonstrations to 1,787 4-H Club boys. Fifty-nine result demonstrations were conducted with farm people to show the value of improved practices. Also, 62 meetings with 451 adults were held and 22 meetings with 663 4-H Club members were conducted during the year. _ Working with voluntary leaders in the counties, the 10 agents assisted negro farmers in Florida to iricr _ ease crop and livestock production _ on their farms, in structed them in the conservation of natural resources, assisted in planning farm activities and improving farms, homes and equipment as well as health conditions.

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Annual Report, 1950 83 They carried on programs of recreation, community life and family relationships and worked with farmers on general economic problems related to agriculture and to marketing and distribution. 4-H Club Work.-There were 2,303 negro boys enrolled in 4-H Club work and they completed 2,844 projects. With the idea of creating more interest and to give training and recreation to boys and girls, a State 4-H Short Course was held at Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, early in June. A total of 319 boys and girls, with outstanding records of project achievement from counties where negro county and home demonstration agents are employed, attended the short course. Two hundred sixty-six 4-H Club boys and 10 leaders attended three camping periods at the Doe Lake 4-H Club camp in the Ocala National Forest. This was the second year of conducting the state camp. The permanent camp is considered one of the most beautiful camps for boys and girls in the state. Four 4-H Club boys who were outstanding in leadership and project work at tended the third annual 4-H Club Camp at Virginia State College, Petersourg, Virginia, August 8-15. Four 4-H Club girls and two state leaders were also in the group representing Florida. Ten achievement days were held with an attendance of 6,178 persons. Fairs.-Three negro county agents assisted with exhibits at' county fairs. Other. agents helped with displays at the Florida State Fair, Tampa. The Negro District Agent assisted the negro agent in Gadsden County in conducting the 4-H fat cattle show and sale.

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84 Floriclci Cooperntive E xtension NEGRO HOME DEMO STRATION WORK FLOY Bnrrr , Districl Hom e Demonstration Agent During 1950 negro home demonslration work was ex p a nd ed to include Dad e County. Twelve negro horn demonstration age nts were e mploy e d . Vacancies occurred in Columbia and Putnam co unti es, and th e l atter vaca n cy has b ee n .filled. Two hom e demonstration agents took advantage of an opportunity for furth e r s tudy last s wnm e r by a tt e ndin g a three weeks' co ur se in Extension work held in Texas during August. Negro home demonstration age nts a r e especially aware of their responsibilities in informing , inspiring and motivating people through th e "live-at-home program" to help themselves. All 12 counties where home demonstration work is conducted provide offices for th e agents. ine counties supp l ement funds for travel a nd ex pen ses, while three co unti es provide demonstration material. During th e year office equipment was improved in evera l counties. Seven negro home demonstration agents shared offices with n eg ro co unty agents, while th e r e maining five agents maintained separa t e offices. Four offices had part-tim e clerical h e lp. On e full-tim e stenographer is sha r e d by th e Negro District Agents. In several co unti es co unty staff members , together w ith th e dis trict agents, have held successful program-planning meetings which have prov e d effec tiv e in working out a more unified program. Assistance in Carrying Out Extension Program.-Th e Negro D i strict Hom e Demonstration Agent has been concerned with b tter organization of th e work in lhe offices and in the field, keeping informed of the situations , problem and needs Fig. 15.-Thc ncgro 4-11 Club camp , Do c Lake , was us ed for 1ls seco nd summer dLu-ing 1950 , and provided a ve r y satisfactory place for the girls and boys lo camp.

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Annual Report, 1950 85 in the district and making suggestions for their improvement or solution, and pro moting good relationships with other agencies and organizations. During the year, the Negro District Home Deionstration Agent made 46 visits to agents, visited 41 result demonstrations and 32 homes and attended 62 club, council and other meetings, achievement fairs and exhibits, planned for camps, short Course and annual conference and s e cured help of Extension home demonstration specialists. State 4-H Short Course, Camps.-The annual short course for negro 4-H Club boys and girls was held at Florida A. & M . College in Tallahassee, the first week in June. A total of 203 4-H Club girls and 11 leaders attended the short course. Four girls, selected on the basis of outstanding records in 4-H project achieve ment and leadership, attended the third regional 4-H camp at Petersburg, Virginia. The district 4-H Club camp at Doe Lake received many improvements over last year. Attending camping periods this year were 301 girls, 9 leaders and 11 home demonstration agents. The girls were given training in swimming, nature study, crafts, group singing and recreation. Agents' Annual Conference.-The annual conference for Negro Farm and Home Demonstration Agents was held at Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, November 6-10. The theme for the meeting was "Better Living for a Better World." Home Demonstration and 4-H Organizations.-A total of 495 women served as local leaders of home demonstration clubs and girls' 4-H Clubs last year. Negro home demonstration agents reported 115 training meetings, attended by 1,043 adults and 930 4-H girls. In all 12 counties where home demonstration work is established, county coun cils have been organized. Composed of club officers, council members assist the agent in planning and determining the needs of the people in the counties and in promoting programs to meet the needs. Records show 1,969 women enrolled in 98 home demonstration clubs. A total of 2,875 girls are members of 137 4-H clubs throughout the state. Food and Nutrition.-Reports from agents show that 2,705 gardens and 1,012 orchards w~e started by negro families under the home demonstration program. A total of 2,112 poultry flocks and 2 , 264 dairy cows were raised. In the field of nutrition, 2,676 families improved their food habits , 3,511 families made irnproveinents in food preparation, 1,646 families increased their planned food supply and 1,283 families improved their storage facilities and care. . Agents report also that 3,715 Florida negro families participated in conserving food by canning, 485 by freezing and 193 by drying. One thousand eighty-four families stored foods thus conserved. Clothing and Textiles:-Negro home demonstration agents were assisted by local leaders in conducting clothing and textiles work with farm families. A total of 1,018 families were helped with clothing construction problems, 1,149 with care and remodeling of clothing, 1,207 with clothing selection and buying and 370 with laundering problems. Home Improvement.-Negro home demonstration agents reported 1;248 ho . uses repaired in their counties last year. Chief activities were the repair of furniture with 1,484 families participating and beautification of home grounds with 1,140 families improving their lawns. Also, 1,207 families improved their kitchens and 371 families were aided with the selection of furniture. A total of 3,273 families improved home safety conditions. Health and Recreation.-Negro home demonstration agents reported health

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension improvement activities in their counties as including 3,167 physical examinations, 3,900 families taking advantage of improved methods of home sanitation, 666 negro women and girls participating in the home nursing program, and 1,471 families in community health programs. Five hundred forty-nine families took advantage of recreational activities. Evaluation of Accomplishments.-There is favorable sentiment towards Exten sion work and Extension workers in all 12 counties. Home demonstration agents are highly respected by agencies and people of the counties and this respect is shown by the progress made by women and girls in the various counties. Rural people are thinking more about family welfare, proper food, better health, adequate clothes, better education, improved housing conditions, more sanitation in the home, and in general they are interested in more wholesome living for their families. STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK (Men and Women) GENERAL ACTIVITIES Months of service (agents and assistants) ------------------250 Days of service: In office-2,030; in fleld-3,969 ______________ 5,999 Farm or home visits made---------------------9,087 Different farms or homes visited ----------'------4,804 Calls relating to Extension Work: Office-13,394; Telephone ____ 5,907 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth __ 2,700 News articles or stories published 368 Bulletins distributed _______ 15,566 Radio talks broadcast or prepared 79 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen 242 Total attendance of men and women ________________ 3,356 Method demonstration meetings 1,090 Total attendance 15,957 Meetings held at result demonstrations 279 Attendance ______ 2,934 Tours conducted 83 Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work 64 Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ________ 523 SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE Total number of farms in counties worked ---------------------------------------Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program this year . Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration and agricultural programs ------------------------------------Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the home demonstration program -----------------------------------Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration and agricultural program this year --------------------------------------------------------------Different farm families influenced by some phases of the Extension program ------------------------------------Other families influenced by some phases of the Extension program -----------COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING Members in agricultural planning group __________ _ Unpaid 7,435 2,708 1,240 1,701 4,409 4,894 1,631 31 19

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Annual Report, 1950 Paid ------------------------------------------------------------Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration workers ______ _ Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeem e n--------------------------------Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen ____________ _ CROP PRODUCTION 87 12 306 343 606 Days devot e d to work --------------------------------------------------------------889 Communities in which work was conducted------------------------------751 Voluntary leaders and committeemen _________________________ 719 LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY Days d evo t e d to work ------------------------------------------------Communiti e s in which work was conducted ----------------------Voluntary committ ee men and lead e rs ----------------------------------------------------Farmers assisted -----------------------------------------------------------CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Days devoted to work -------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was co nducted __ _ ________ _ Voluntary local l ea ders and committeem e n ____________ _ Farmers assisted in soil managem e nt ----------------------------------------------Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation ________ _ ___ __ ______ _ FARM MANAGEMENT Days devot e d to work -------------------------------------------------------------Farmers ass isted --------------------------------------------------621 526 357 5,415 152 150 90 2,808 1,384 265 3,345 GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE Days d e voted to work ___________ _ Communiti e s in which work was conducted ------------------Voluntary leaders and c o mmitt ee m e n ---------------------------------------------Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted _____________ _ MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Days devot e d to work ___ _ Communities in which work was conducted _________________ _ HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT Days devoted to work -----------------------------------------Communities in which work was conducted ------------------Voluntary leaders and committ ee men -----------------------Families assisted in house furnishings, farm buildings, surroundings, mechanical equipment, rural e lectrification ______ _ NUTRITION AND HEALTH Days d evo ted to work ---------------------------------------------------------Communities in which work was done ______________ _ Families assisted: Improving diets-1 , 648; food preparation-1,664 Total_ _________________________ _ Families assisted with food-pres e rvation problems __ _ _____ _ HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS D a ys devoted to work ____ _ Communities in which work was done -------------------Voluntary leaders assisting -----------------------------------------------------102 92 73 99 891 915 532 308 278 6,580 1,158 620 3,312 1,929 186 117 93

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension Families assisted ---------------------------------------------------Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies _______ _ Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies ____ _ Families assisted with consumer-buying problems ________ _ CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Days devoted to work -------------------------------Communities in which work was done __________ _ Voluntary leaders assisting----------------------------------Families assisted -----------------------------------__________________________ _ FAMILY RELATIONSHIP-CHILD DEVELOPMENT Days devoted to work ----------------------------------------------Communities in which work was done _____________ _ Voluntary leaders assisting --------------------------RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE Days devoted to work _____________________ _ Communities in which work was done -------------~--Voluntary leaders assisting __________________ _ Families assisted in improving home recreation __________ _ Communities assisted in improving recreation facilities _______ _ Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs of activities or meeting programs ____________ _ Communities assisted in providing library facilities _________ _ SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS Projects completed by boys --------------------------Projects completed by girls ----------------------------------------------------------Boys completing corn and peanut projects ------------------------------------------------------Boys completing fruit projects -----------------------------Boys completing garden projects ---------------------------------Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ___________________________ _ Boys completing dairy projects ________________ _ Boys completing poultry projects ___________________ _ Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ___________ _ Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects _________________ _ Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects _________________________ _ Girls completing dairy projects ________________ _ Girls completing poultry projects ---------------------------Girls completing home gardens ----~---'---------Girls completing fruit projects Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ______ _ Girls completing food selection and preparation projects -------------------------------Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid ________ _ Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and room improvement projects ----------------Girls completing food preservation projects -----------------------~4-H Membership: Boys: Fann-2,031; non-farm-272; total ___________ _ Girls: Farm-2,105; non-farm-772; total _________ _ 4-H members having health examinations because of participation in Extension program ______________________ _ 4-H clubs engaged in community activities such as improving school grounds and conducting local fairs ___________________ _ 926 130 1,3 )7 710 339 133 146 3,669 157 116 82 182 138 152 355 98 121 29 2,844 9,151 539 57 612 23 51 343 172 165 373 28 525 686 154 12 1,033 430 2,682 982 2,303 2,877 1,720 136

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Annual Report, 1950 89 INDEX Agents, list of, 4 Agricultural economics, 20 Agricultural engineering, 26 Agricultural outlook, 21 Agronomy, 32 Animal husbandry, 36 Annual conference, 8 Apiculture, 38 Barrus, Edith Y., 62 Beale, Clyde, 15 Beef cattle, 36 Beekeeping, 38 Bevis, Joyce, 68 Boys' club work, 41 Britt, Floy, 84 Broadcasting activities, 16 Broiler management, 53 Brown, W. W., 41 Buildings, farm, 26 Bulletins, 15 Busby, Joe N., 41 Camps, 18, 38, 41, 83, 85 Carter, Bonnie J., 18, 74 Cattle, 36 Changes in staff, 10 Chicken-of-Tomorrow contest, 55 Child development, 13 Citrus, 22, 43 acreage returns, 23 advisory committee, 45 culture, 43 clinics, 45 grove management, 22 institute, 44 marketing, 21 Clayton, H. G., 7, 19 Clothing and textiles, 13, 68, 85 Community life, 14 Conservation, food, 80 natural resources, 13 Consumer education, 76 Community work, 65, 75 Cooper, J. Francis, 15 Cooneration with other agencies, 9, 49, 56 Cooperative planning, 10 research, 40 Corn, 34 Cotton, 35 Councils, 4-H, 63, 71 home demonstration, 63, 69 Cow testing, 48 Credit, 20 Crop production, 12 Dairying, 12, 47 herd management, 47 feed and pasture program, 47 sire service, 48 DHIA, 47 Director's report, 7 Drainage and irrigation, 28 Driers, mechanical, 28 Economics, agricultural, 20 Editorial report, 15 Egg-laying test, 55 Egg quality program, 54 Electricity, uses of, 31 Electrical equipmen1, 29 Engineering, agricultural, 26 Extension organization, 7 Fairs, 39, 42, 54, 73, 83 Family living, 74 relationship, 13 Farm and home planning, 20 Farm conservation plans, 57 electrification, 29 forestry, 50 home improvement, 13 home institute, 66 journals, 16 machinery, 27 management, 20 structures, 26 Farmer cooperatives, 22 Feeds, 54 Filmstrip, library, 17 Financial statement, 7 Fire prevention, 18 Florida Citrus Commission, 45 Florida Citrus Mutual, 45 Food and nutrition, 85 Food conservation, 80 production , 80 storage, 81 Forestry, 50 Forest fire prevention, 50 planting, 50 4-H club . activities, 37, 65 awards, 42,65 beekeeping , 38 camps, 41 dairy work, 48 events, 21 farm and home electric contest, 30 forestry , 51 poultry projects, 54 short courses, 42 work, 14, 21, 37, 41, 42, 65, 83 work for girls, 70, 71, 72, 76 , 85

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension Goen, Oliver F., 36 Grazing crops, 33 Gresham, Joseph A., 82 Griffith, L. Odell, 15 Grove management, 22 Hamilton, H. G,, 20 Hampson, C. M., 20 Hatcheries , chick, 56 Hay drier, 28 Haynie, John D., 38 Health, 80, 85 Henderson, J. R., 32 Hogs, 36 Holloway, Ethyl, 62 Home demonstration work, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 84 food production, 80 forest products, 51 improvement, 13, 74, 85 industries and marketing, 77 institutes, 66 milk supply, 49 planning, 20 Housing, 13, 74 Housing Committee, 8 Irrigation, 28 Jamison, F. S., 60 Johnson, John M., 26 Joiner, Jasper N., 15 Journal articles, 16 Kendall, Gladys, 77 Keown, Mary E., 62 Lawrence, F . P., 43 Laying flock, 53 Leaders, 63 Lemmon, Ruth, 70 Lighting, 29 Livestock, 12, 22 Livestock Sanitary Board, 56 Machinery, farm, 27 Management, broiler, 53 farm, 20 laying stock, 53 turkey, 55 Marketing activities, 21, 77 facilities, 28 timber, 51 McGregor, J. A., 36 McLendon, H. S. , 57 McMullen, K. S., 19 Mehrhof, N. R., 53 Men's work, 19 Myers, F. E., 60 Moore , J. S ., 53 National Home Demonstration Week, 66 Neely, Grace I., 80 Negro agents, 6 assistance, 20 farm demonstration work, 82 farm planning, 20 home demonstration work, 84 Neiland, L. T., 18, 50 News releases, 16 Nutrition and food, 80 Nutrition and health, 13, 80 Oats, 34 O'Steen, A. w. ; 53 Outlook, 21 Parvin, F. W., 20 Pastures, 20, 33 Peanuts, 34 Perry, F. S., 19 personnel training, 8 Pettis, A. M., 29 Pollination, 38 Poultry, 12, 53 breeders' conference, 55 broiler management, 53 egg quality program, 54 instjtute, 56 management, 53 Products standardization, 77 Publications, 15 Radio, 16 Reaves, C. W ., 47 Recreation, 14, 75, 85 Rosenberger, S. E., 60 Rural housing, 8 telephones, 30 Safety, 18 Savage , Zach, 22 Short courses, 4-H, 18, 42 , 73, 83, 85 Sikes , Anna Mae, 62 Smith, J. Lee, 19 Soil, water conservation, 57 Staff changes, 10 Statistics, 11, 86 Stevens , Lorene, 70 Swine, 36 Teaching methods, 20 Telephones, rural, 30 Textiles, 13, 68, 85 Timber marketing, 51 Timmons, D. E., 21 Tobacco, flue-cured, 31, 34 Tractor maintenance, 27 Training , 8, 30, 62

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Annuctl Report, 19.50 HI Transportation , 22 Turkey management, 55 United Nations flag proj e ct, 67 Vegetables, 22 merchandising, 60 production, 60 Veterans' assistance, 20 Visual aids, 17 Water conservation . 57 Watermelon Growers and Distributors Association, 22 \Vatkins . Marshall 0., 7 Wiring, 29 \Vork with women and girls, 62