Citation
Report Florida agricultural extension service

Material Information

Title:
Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title:
Annual report
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla. The Service
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Creation Date:
1948
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1939-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note:
At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46387223 ( OCLC )
2001229382 ( LCCN )

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Full Text






COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service. University of Florida
Florida State University
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director

. V, OPAR I MEN1 O! AWtIt~LIURI . IA RY

JUL 281949 -O

ATLANTA BRANCH ATLANTA, QEORGIA

1948 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE










REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1948 with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1948












COOPERATIVE, EXTENSION WORK LN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMCS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director













1948 REPORT



FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL



EXTENSION SERVICE













REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1948 with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE -30, 1948








BOARD OF CONTROL J. THos. GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando HOLLIS RINEHART, Miami J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy THOS. W. BRYANT, Lakeland W. F. POWERS, Secretary, Tallahassee
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE J. HILLIS MILLER, Ph.D., President of the University' H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture' H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Director of Extension MARSHALL 0. WATKINS, M.Agr., Assistant to the Director
Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor' CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor' RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager' J. LEE SMITH, District Agent K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., District Agent H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Soil Conservationist R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.' R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist' C. W. REAVES, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman' WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman F. S. PERRY, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husbandman A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist' CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing F. W. PARVIN, B.S.A., Assistant Economist JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer FRED P. LAWRENCE, B.S.A., Acting Citriculturist W. W. BROWN, B.S.A., Asst. Boys' Club Agent A. M. PETTIS, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist2 JOTIN D. HAYNIE, B.S.A., Apiculturist V. L. JOHNSON, Rodent Control SpecialistJ. RUSSELL HENDERSON, M.S.A., Agronomist' F. S. JAMISON, Ph.D., Vegetable Crop Specialist'
Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, B.S.H.E., District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist BONNIE J. CARTER, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist GRACE I. NEELY, M.S., Asso. Economist in Food Conservation LUCILLE RusS, M.S.P., Rural Health Improvement Specialist LORENE H. STEVENS, B.S., 4-H Club Specialist for Girls
Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent J. A. GRESHAM, B.S.A., Negro District Agent

'Cooperative other divisions, U. of F. 2In cooperation with U. S.













Page

7 10 13 17 19
20 20 22 23 27 27 31


Director's Report
Statistical Report
Publications, News, Radio Safety and Fire Prevention Work of County Agents Agricultural Economics
Farm Management Activities
Citrus Grove Management
Marketing Activities
Agricultural Engineering and Electrification
Agricultural Engineering
Farm Electrification


Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Poultry
Animal Husbandry
Dairying
Poultry Activities Beekeeping
Boy's 4-H Club Work Farm Crops, Soils and Conservation
Soils and Farm Crops
Soil and Water Conservation Farm Forestry Horticulture
Vegetable Crops
Citrus Culture
Home Demonstration Work Clothing and Textiles Food and Nutrition 4-H Club Work for Girls Gardening and Food Conservation Home Improvement Rural Health Improvement Negro Farm Demonstration Work Negro Home Demonstration Work
Statistical Report, Negro Work


CONTENTS








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS (As of December 31, 1948)
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT HOME DEMONSTRATION
ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua Loonis Blitch . Gainesville.Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua (Asst.) . T. H. McRorie, Jr. Gainesville Baker J. Raymond Mills. Macclenny
Bay J. A. Sorensen . Panama City
Bradford . T. K. McClane, Jr.Starke -------------- Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Brevard J. T. Oxford . Cocoa ------------------- Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward . B. E. Lawton . Ft. Lauderdale .Miss Louise Taylor Broward (Asst.) . Robert S. Pryor.Ft. Lauderdale Calhoun Thomas B. Jones.Blountstown . Miss LaMitticc
Pearson
Charlotte .N. H. McQueen . Punta Gorda Citrus 0. M. Maines . Inverness . Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Citrus (Asst.) . Quentin Medlin . Inverness Columbia . John M. Kennedy-.Lake City . Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell Columbia (Asst.) .F. A. Stenholm, Jr.Lake City Dade . C. H. Steffani . Miami . Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.) . J. L. Edwards . Miami Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.) .J. D. Campbell . Miami Miss Ruth Taylor
DeSoto W. L. Woods . Arcadia
Dixie C. L. Dickinson -. .Cross City
Duval A. S. Lawton . Jacksonville . Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) . G. T. Huggins . Jacksonville .Mrs. Lucille Colsen Escambia R H. Finlayson.Pensacola . Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia (Asst.)-.Albert H. Odom. .Pensacola . Miss Ouida J. Webb Gadsden A. G. Driggers.Quincy . Miss Elise Laffitte
Gadsden (Asst.) . Bernard H. Clark.-Quincy . Mrs. Ivan S. Woodbery Gilchrist . A. S. Laird . Trenton Glades A. G. Hutchinson. Moore Haven
Gulf C. R. Laird .-------_.Wewahitchka.Mrs. Wilma A. Revell
Hamilton . A. E. Nesmith .Jasper Hardee R H. Vance . Wauchula
Hendry H. L. Johnson.-.LaBelle
Hernando . Harry J. Brinkley. Brooksville Highlands .V. T. Oxer . Sebring . Miss Catherine Brabson Highlands (Asst.).Bert J. Harris, Jr.Sebring Hillsboro . Alec White . Tampa Miss Lora Kiser Hillsboro (Asst.) . Edwin Booth .--------- Tampa
Hillsboro (Asst.) . Frank Neff . Tampa Hillsboro (Asst.) . J. 0. Armor . Plant City . Miss Emily King Holmes Stuart C. Bell . Bonifay . Miss Laurena Croom
Indian River . Marcel A. Boudet-Vero Beach Jackson J. W. Malone . Marianna . Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson (Asst.) . Fred C. Sumners-.Marianna Jackson (Asst.) . Oliver T. Burgess.:.Marianna Jefferson R N. Stephens . Monticello . Miss Mary A. Curtis
Lafayette . S. L. Brothers . Mayo Lake R. E. Norris .------- Tavares . Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lake (Asst.). James N. Watson.Tavares Lee C. P. Heuck .---------- Fort Myers
Leon James L. Rhoden. Tallahassee . Miss Nellie M.
Daughtry
Leon (Asst.). A. H. Clemmons.Tallahassee Levy T. D. Rickenbaker.Bronson
Liberty Bristol . Mrs. Camilla R. Radney
Madison W. W. Glenn . Madison . Miss Bennie F. Wilder

[4]







COUNTY COUNTY AGENT HOME DEMONSTRATION
ADDRESS AGENT
Manatee Ed. L. Ayers . Bradenton . Mrs. Anne D. Davis
Manatee (Asst.) . Joe N. Busby . Bradenton Marion Carl Hendricks . Ocala . Miss Allie Lee Rush
Marion (Asst.) . Sidney B. Parnell.Ocala. . Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry Martin L. M. Johnson . Stuart . Miss Lucile Inscoe
Nassau Gordon B. Ellis . Hilliard . Mrs. Julia P. Jernagan
Okaloosa . Fred W. Barber. Crestview Okeechobee . C. R. Boyles . Okeechobee Orange F. E. Baetzman.Orlando.Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
Orange (Asst.) . Henry F. Swanson Orlando . Miss'Sammie J. Killgore Osceola J. R. Gunn . Kissimmee .
Palm Beach . M. U. Mounts . West Palm Beach.Miss Sara Horton Palm Beach (Asst.).H. L. Speer . Belle Glade .Mrs. Mildred J. Micnaua Pasco J. F. Higgins . Dade City . Miss Ruby Brant
Pinellas J. H. Logan . Largo . Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Pinellas (Asst.) . L. E. Cunningham.Largo --------- Miss Frances E. Johnson
Polk W. P. Hayman . Bartow . Miss Elma B. Willis
Polk (Asst.) . W. H. Kendrick.Bartow ---. Miss Emma Stevenson Putnam H. E. Maltby .Palatka.Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam (Asst.) . James W. Bailey.- Palatka Saint Johns . Ross V. Swartsel.St. Augustine . Miss Anna E. Heist Saint Lucie . Charles D. Kime.Fort Pierce.-Mrs. Irene Roberts Santa Rosa . Emmett D. McCall.Milton . Miss Lora A. Botts Santa Rosa (Asst.).Johnnie E. Davis.Milton Sarasota . W. E. Evans .----------- Sarasota . Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Seminole . C. R. Dawson . Sanford . Miss Lila Woodard Sumter Kenneth A. Clark.Bushnell . Miss Tillie Roesel
Suwannee . S. C. Kierce . Live Oak . Miss Doris A. Cahoon Taylor D. D. McCloud . Perry.Mrs. Ruth McKeown Elkins
Union . William J. Cowen.Lake Butler Volusia W. J. Platt, Jr . DeLand. Miss Edna L. Sims
Volusia (Asst.) . T. R. Townsend . DeLand Wakulla Harry E. George.Crawfordville
Walton Mitchell Wilkins.DeFuniak Springs.Mrs. Marguerite
R. Brock
Washington . H. 0. Harrison. Chipley . Miss Mary L. Brownlee

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY NEGRO COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua Otha W. Nealy Gainesville
Columbia IMcKinley Jeffers Lake City
Gadsden � Russel Stephens Quincy
Hamilton N. H. Bennett White Springs
Jefferson M. E. Groover Monticello
Leon Richard A. Hartsfield . Tallahassee
Madison James C. Miller Madison
Marion Eugene P. Smith Ocala
Sumter Richard L. Bradley Bushnell
COUNTY NEGRO HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua Leontine Williams Gainesville
Duval Ethel M. Powell Jacksonville
Hillsboro Sudella J. Ford Tampa
Jackson Annie Doris Preston Marianna
Leon Irie Mae Clark Tallahassee
Madison Althea Ayer Madison
Marion Idella R. Kelly Reddick
Putnam Lee Ella Gamble Asia Palatka
Volusia Ida T. Pemberton DeLand

[5]








At


I A.


Fig. 1. The State Home Demonstration Council assists the state staff in planning and conducting home demonstration work.










Part I -- General

DIRECTOR'S REPORT H. G. Clayton, Director
Marshall 0. Watkins, Assistant to the Director

The people of Florida made increasing demands upon the services rendered by Florida Agricultural Extension workers during 1948. To meet these demands some additional county and state workers were employed. Some increase in federal, state and county funds made it possible to add to the staff nine assistant county agents, one home demonstration agent, two assistant home demonstration agents and four specialists. The specialists added include workers with vegetable crops, rural health improvement, 4-H club girls and food conservation.
The increased funds and personnel made it possible to reach some 450 more families in 1948 than were influenced by the Extension program in 1947. The increase also provided for more efficient service to the 79,331 families who received assistance during the year.

FINANCING EXTENSION WORK
Financial Statement 1947-48
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever, Bankhead-Jones $200,645.82
Capper-Ketcham 27,417.72
Bankhead-Flannagan 92,910.28
Clark-McNary 1,620.00
Research & Marketing 3,000.00
State Appropriations: $325,593.82
Legislature (Annual) $222,574.56
Continuing, Chapter 6141 5,000.00
Continuing, Chapter 19216 80,400.00
Sales Fund (Incidental) 19,822.90

$327,797.46
County Appropriations: $291,234.00 291,234.00
Grand Total $944,625.28

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION
Personnel employed on the staff of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service in 1948 was as follows:
Number of County Agents (62 counties) 61
Number of Assistant County Agents 28
Number of Home Demonstration Agents (44 counties) 44
Number of Assistant Home Demonstration Agents 12
State Staff
Administrative Men 2
Supervisory 2
Specialists 22
Administrative Women 1
Supervisory 3
Specialists 6
Negro: Supervisory 2
Negro County Agents (11 counties) 9
Negro Home Demonstration Agents . (10 counties) 9
[ 7 ]








Florida Cooperative Extension


TRAINING EXTENSION WORKERS
For the past three years a three-week training course for Extension workers has been offered by the University of Florida during the first term of the regular summer session. A similar course is planned for the summer of 1949. Four courses will be offered from which the student may select two. Each course carries 1% hours of credit. The courses are offered on a graduate level.
The Annual Conference for Extension workers was held at the University of Florida, October 4-8, 1948. Morning sessions during the conference were devoted to discussions by well-known authorities on topics of a general nature affecting agriculture. Afternoon sessions were devoted to discussions on improved methods and techniques of doing Extension work and on recently developed research information.
A plan was developed by the State Home Demonstration Agent, in cooperation with Florida State University, for providing "on-the-job" training for prospective home demonstration agents. Students were placed in counties to work under the direction of the home demonstration agent during a part of their summer vacation period. This plan was first tried the past summer with seven students and was very successful. Such a program provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the work of the prospective employee, gave the student a chance to decide whether or not she wished to make Extension work a career and also provided the home demonstration agents in counties to which they were assigned some good assistance during this period of "on-the-job" training.
During the annual 4-H Club Wildlife Camp at Camp McQuariie, a special recreation course for assistant county agents was held. All the assistant county agents attended and were given a special intensive short course in practical recreational activities which they can apply in their work back in the counties. Results of this course will be reflected in the counties during the coming years.

DEVELOPING STATE PROGRAMS
Rural Housing Prograrn.-The State Rural Housing Committee established in 1946 continues to serve a very worth while purpose. This is a cooperative project and serves to coordinate the work of several Extension specialists in related fields. The Assistant to the Director is coordinator and the State Home Demonstration Agent and Agricultural Engineer are members. The Farm Electrification Specialist, Home Improvement Specialist, Rural Health Improvement Specialist and Rodent Control Specialist all contribute to the work of this committee.
Coordinating Work of Specialists. In developing Extension programs for the major commodities, a Citrus Advisory Committee and a Vegetable Advisory Committee consisting of county agents and specialists have been established. These committees hold quarterly meetings at various points over the state and research workers, industry organization representatives and others attend upon invitation. The committee members and others obtain a clearer conception of the problems and programs of the research and industry people who in turn become better acquainted with the Extension objectives and plans. The advisory committees are helpful in shaping the Extension program and influencing county agents' programs of work. The Citrus Advisory Committee has operated long enough to begin to see results and the Vegetable Advisory Committee, only recently organized, is getting off to a good start.
Boys 4-H club work has been materially strengthened by dividing the state into 10 4-H club districts with some five to eight counties in each








Annual Report, 1948 9

district. The agents develop their club programs in their respective districts, assisted as necessary by the state 4-H staff. The addition of a girls' 4-H club agent to the home demonstration staff is strengthening the program for girls.
In practically all counties the county agent serves as secretary to the county PMA committee and the soil conservation district supervisors, in addition to various crop, poultry and livestock organizations. This keeps the Extension worker informed and also permits him to participate in the work of these groups in an active as well as an advisory capacity. The specialists work very closely with these organized agricultural groups. The recently employed apiculturist is getting a good program for beekeepers into operation.
Some Broad Extension Programs Which Have Helped Solve Major Rural Problems.-The 4-H club boys have carried out demonstrations with crops and livestock for the purpose of introducing new varieties of field crops and better methods of production with both crops, livestock and poultry.
The Dairy Specialist has been able to strengthen the dairy calf 4-H club program and to improve the dairy herd improvement association work. He is also getting organizations of dairymen to establish artificial insemination associations.
In tobacco production, Extension programs have been largely responsible for the upward trends in yields per acre and in maintaining and improving quality.
The poultry program has been able to tie together the industry which includes the feed dealers, hatcherymen, poultry dealers and producers into a group that works together on all phases of improvement of the industry. Leadership by the Extension Poultry Specialists and county agents has been a potent influence in securing the results obtained.
During the past year, the district agents, Extension Agronomist and county agents have sponsored a series of meetings with fertilizer, seed and machinery dealers to give timely information on the Extension agronomy program. This program includes information on the varieties and kinds of fertilizer, disease and insect control methods and materials that will be recommended for the principal field crops. It has met with good ,response and enables dealers to stock the recommended seeds and supplies. Assistance of research people has been used in these meetings.
In the vegetable and citrus area, the Extension program has been largely with productive problems to meet the changing demand and price situations.
In livestock, the improvement in Florida beef cattle production has been outstanding and the Extension program has continued to play an important part in the establishment of improved pastures, improved management and breeding practices. Agents have had an active part in obtaining the participation of cattlemen in the P & MA pasture improvement programs, and use of other soil-building practices available under this program.
In home demonstration work through organized home demonstration clubs and 4-H clubs, Extension programs in nutrition, health and housing, conservation, clothing and home beautification have made a definite and substantial contribution to the welfare of rural and urban families. A newly employed Rural Health Improvement Specialist is getting a solid program into operation which is enabling the home demonstration agents to initiate improved programs affecting the health of rural people. The State Health Department and the State Improvement Commission are participating actively in the Extension health program.








Florida Cooperative Extension


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home'Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) 1,618
Days of service: In office-17,999; In field-21,238 39,237
Farm or home visits made 63,224
Different farms or homes visited 33,810
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-259,057; Telephone -------- 168,788 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth 12,419
News articles or stories published 9,219
Bulletins distributed 254,015
Radio talks broadcast or prepared 1,957
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
Number 1,133
Total attendance of men and women 10,431
Method demonstration meetings:
Number 10,259
Total attendance 208,415
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
Number 1,231
Attendance 21,871
Tours 444
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ------------ 548
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings 8,206

SUMIVIARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms 60,604
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program 30,524
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home
demonstration program 14,137
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year 5,531
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration program for first time this year 3,208
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled 10,443
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the
agricultural program 16,690
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
demonstration program 12,356
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled 6,175
Different farm families influenced by some phase of Extension
program 40,202
Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program . 32,778

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group 574
Unpaid 324
Paid 250
Communities in agricultural planning 73
Members in community agricultural planning 221
Planning meetings held 1,434
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
workers 2,980
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen 3,060
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 7,507










Annual Report, 1948

CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work 8,205
Communities in which work was conducted 3,241
Voluntary leaders and committeemen 1,451

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work 6,623
Communities in which work was conducted 2,329
Voluntary committeemen and leaders 952
Breeding and improvement organizations 72
Farmers assisted 41,705

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work 1,874
Communities in which work was conducted 1,119
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen 1,151
Farmers assisted in soil management 50,702
Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation . ----- 11,519

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work 1,348
Farmers assisted 27,304
GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE Days devoted to work 355
Communities in which work was conducted 408
Voluntary leaders and committeemen 759
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted 973

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTIGN
Days devoted to work 2,745
Communities in which work was conducted 2,915
Established cooperatives assisted 110
New cooperatives assisted in organizing 29
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during
the year (established and new) $22,257,286
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year . $16,923,303

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work 2,427
Communities in which work was conducted 1,471
Voluntary leaders and committeemen 1,448
lamU .q assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification and farm buildings 39,782
NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work 5,488
Communities in which work was done 2,007
Families assisted: In improving diets-16,767; food preparation12,624;
Total 29,391
Families assisted with food preservation problems 17,543

HOME MANAGEMENT-FA1%111LY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work 409
Communities in which work was done 380









12 Florida Cooperative Extension

Voluntary leaders assisting 234
Families assisted 4,381
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 367 Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies . 10,285 Families assisted with consumer-buying problems 15,609

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work 2,120
Communities in which work was done 551
Voluntary leaders assisting 580
Families assisted 26,731

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work 348
Communities in which work was done 300
Voluntary leaders assisting 199

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work 918
Communities in which work was done 503
Voluntary leaders assisting 645
Families assisted in improving home recreation 3,884
Communities assisted in improving community recreational facilities 267 Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities or meeting programs 455
Communities assisted in providing library facilities 34

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys 6,458
Projects completed by girls 19,17.5
Boys completing corn and peanut projects 887
Boys completing fruit projects 92
Boys completing garden projects 1,294
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops . 96 Boys completing dairy projects 503
Boys completing poultry projects 1,052
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects 56
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects 181
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects 1,440
Girls completing fruit projects 315
Girls completing garden projects 1,911
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops . 4 Girls completing dairy projects 143
Girls completing poultry projects 1,066
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects . 3,442 Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects . 777 Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings
and room improvement projects 6,600
Girls completing food preservation projects 1,279
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-6,029; non-farm-1,928; total 7,957
Girls: Farm-6,083; non-farin--4,016; total 10,099
4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in Extension program 3,962
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs, 458









Annual Report, 1948


PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Associate Editor

Publication of bulletins, circulars, record books and other materials continued at about the usual rate, but is considerably short of actual needs. Demand for most bulletins is so heavy that supplies are quickly exhausted. There is need also for a mapped plan of publication to assure the bulletins and circulars needed.
The Editors are doing more visual aids work than formerly, but the need for expansion in this field is great.

PUBLICATIONS AiND PRINTED MATERIALS
The Extension Service printed three new bulletins and three new circulars during the year ending June 30, 1948, and reprinted two bulletins and one circular. The new bulletins amounted to a total of 108 pages, with 55,000 copies being printed. The new circulars covered a total of 36 pages, the total issue being 37,000 copies. Following is a list of materials published during the year.


Bul. 133 Annual Flowers .Bul. 134 The Fruitful Papaya Bul. 135 The Goodly Guava Bul. 124 The Cultivated Persimmon in Florida (reprint) Bul. 131 The Florida Home Garden Circ. 82 A Simple Farm Brooder and Finisher-----Cire. 83 Portable All-Purpose Poultry House. Circ. 84 Pullorum Disease in Chickens Cire. 65 Planting Charts for Home Gardens (revised) .
Announcement and Rules, Florida National
Egg-Laying Test
Final Report, 21st National Egg-Laying Test MP 31 Florida Farm Record Book B
Florida Clothing Program for Junior 4-H Club
Girls
What Did You Eat Yesterday?
Florida 4-H Club Songs Poultry Institute Cards
4-H Club Short Course Diplomas
4-H Exhibit Cards
Cards for 4-H Camps
Cards-Rules for 4-H Camps
Form 7-Agents' Monthly Report Blank .
4-H Club Record Book
Coop Cards, 4-H Poultry Club


Pages
52
20 36 32 16
12 8 16
4


Edition 25,000 15,000 15,000 10,000 30,000 15,000 10,000
12,000 30,000


300
24 2,500
28 7,500

4 10,000 1 2,000
16 20,000 1 250
1 500
1 5,000
1 ~ 75 1 75
2 15,000 16 20,000 1 1,000


The mailing room distributed close to 100,000 copies of bulletins and over 50,000 copies of circulars, principally on request. Each new publication was sent to libraries and specialists in the field, as well as to county agents. About 5,000 were notified that the publication was available. Subsequent distribution was on request only.
As in the past, the Editor served as publication distribution control officer for the USDA Extension Service and placed orders for thousands









Florida Cooperative Extension


of USDA publications to be distributed to county and home demonstration agents.

NEWS STORIES AND FARM PAPER ARTICLES
Practically all Florida dailies and most weeklies used generously of news and information supplied by the Extension Editors, either direct or through press associations. The Editors sent 19 special stories to one to 35 daily newspapers and filed 87 special stories over press association wires.
Agents in 61 counties report having 9,461 news stories published by their local newspapers during the year. This is more than double the number reported the year before.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, continued to be a principal means of disseminating information to weekly newspapers and was sent also to a few dailies that especially requested it. It carried from 8 to 18 different items each week relating to progress in the counties, news of state-wide interest, and suggestions from Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension Service specialists and the USDA.
Florida, Southern and national farm journals used widely of material of interest and value to farm families from the Extension Editors and other staff members. Of material supplied by Extension Editors, two Florida journals printed five articles totaling 77 column inches in length; one Southern periodical printed 17 articles totaling 232 column inches; and three national magazines printed four articles totaling 215 column inches. One Florida journal printed numerous articles by other members of the staff.
BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES
Radio broadcasting activities expanded during the year, as more radio stations throughout the state received service. The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, occupying 30 minutes each week day except Saturday and 15 minutes then, continued to be a principal radio outlet. The Editors prepared and presented a summary of farm news highlights each day, the farm question box once a week, and the editorial of the week each Saturday. In addition, they prepared seven other special talks.
A review for the year shows that Experiment Station workers made 126 talks, Extension Service staff members other than Editors made 75, the College of Agriculture staff made seven, State Plant Board staff four, and PMA staff seven.
Home economics notes, mostly from USDA, were presented weekly. Yarm flashes, principally from USDA, were presented on 127 occasions.
The Farm Hour presented four remote control programs, four transcriptions and 51 interviews during the year. Those interviewed included home demonstration agents and 4-H club members, two visitors from Sweden, one from the Dutch West Indies, one from Egypt who represented his country on the Food and Agriculture Organization, the managing editor of Progressive Farmer, and a representative of the Rural Electrification Administration.
Agencies and countries represented by speakers included the U. S. Wildlife Service, Soil Conservation Service, PMA, REA, vocational agriculture, State Marketing Bureau, Federal-State Frost Warning Service, USDA tung laboratory, Alachua County Health Department, State Livestock Sanitary Board, and Costa Rica.
The Farm Hour was canceled on March 5 for the inauguration of University President J. Hillis Miller and was reduced to 15 minutes on March 17 to make way for a message by President Harry Truman.










Annual RQIJOIt, 1948


In addition, the Editor staged three 15 minute radio broadcasts over two Tallahassee stations during the annual 4-H girls short course in June. The girls not only did the talking but also furnished music for the broadcasts.
The Editors also wrote four interviews which were transcribed and used on one or more other stations, and had two transcriptions made at the first annual Regional Negro 4-H Club Camip in Baton Rouge.
Farm flashes, each approximately seven minutes in length, were sent to 25 Florida stations for five days each week. A number of flashes, adapted only to the area of one or two stations, were sent to these stations in addition to the regular allotment.
The Editors prepared 24 flashes, while 107 came from other Extension Service staff members, 121 from the Experiment Station, 69 from the USDA Radio Service, and nine from others.
The Associate Editor supplied a hi-weekly roundup of approximately 700 words to 12 stations and also sent a weekly Florida farm review to the Associated Press, which placed it on its radio station wire.
Agents in 36 counties reported making 1.971 radio broadcasts during the year.
VISUAL MATERIALS AND MI1SCELLANEOITS
This office maintains a filmstrip library and the strips are being used somewhat more widely by the agents. The Editors also assist agents

Fig. 2. The microphone is carried to chick and egg shows and other events outside the studio








16 Florida Cooperative Extension

in obtaining motion pictures and projectors. The office maintains two 16 nun sound projectors and a public address system.
We had duplicates made of 17 slides and hope to add to the slide and strip collection as it becomes possible to obtain someone to handle the work.
Additional shots were made for the color motion picture depicting activities at 4-H club camps, and it is hoped to complete that picture before the next camping season.
The Editor served as assistant secretary of the State Horticultural Society during the year and helped this group obtain some news releases.
Materials needed by county and home agents were distributed from the mailing room, where the employees are on a cooperative basis with the Experiment Station, as are the Editors.
The Editor spoke to the negro agents at their annual conference, outlining some things they might do to make better use of available materials.








Annual Report, 1948


SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION
L. T. Nieland and Bonnie J. Carter

National Farm Safety Week, July 25-31, 1948, was observed by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service.
The State Farm Safety Committee provided each agent with a farm safety packet prepared by the National Safety Council and containing much material of help to the agents in organizing and conducting their county farm safety campaigns.
In addition, further suggestions and instructions were furnished agents, and all were urged to conduct county-wide farm safety campaigns.
To stimulate interest in 4-H safety programs, county and home demonstration agents were supplied with a total of 1,162 free copies of a farm safety booklet prepared by a leading oil company. These booklets were distributed to 4-H club members by the county and home demonstration agents.
With the cooperation of the State 4-H Club Agent, agents were supplied with copies of the Florida 4-H club farm safety record book prepared by the state farm safety committee. This record book was used in conducting the 4-H farm safety contest in Florida. The state winner in this contest was awarded a free trip to the National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago.
The Extension editorial staff contributed substantially towards preparing materials and publicizing farm safety throughout the state by both newspapers and radio.
Reports from agents show the following activities in this field: 20 county agents and 39 home demonstration agents carried out an organized county-wide safety campaign.
Through the efforts of agents 2,370 4-H girls and 2,350 women carried out safety programs; 1,251 4-H club boys participated in Farm Safety Week; and 3,052 boys received training in farm safety during the year. Home demonstration agents and leaders gave 471 method demonstrations to show how accidents and fires could be prevented in the home. Demonstrations were given at 618 meetings for girls and women.
County agents sent out circular letters on farm safety and had safety articles publishedin county papers. They displayed farm safety posters and discussed safety at farmers' meetings.
Radio talks were given by both men and women agents.
Home demonstration agents reported that 5,404 families carried out better practices to make their homes and surroundings safe from accidents and fire hazards, and 4,942 families actually removed such hazards.
A special program on fire prevention was planned by the Agricultural Extension Service for people attending the West Florida Farm and Home Institute at Camp Timpoochee in July. Approximately 250 farm men and women, Extension workers and others were present.
During the annual short course for 4-H club girls, the education director of the Florida Forest Service, the chief examiner for drivers licenses for the Florida Department of Public Safety and the Director of the local Red Cross chapter assisted with instruction in safety and fire prevention. They used posters, motion pictures and mimeographed material, along with lectures and demonstrations, to present the subject to approximately 300 girls, volunteer leaders, and home demonstration agents from all parts of the state.









18 Florida Cooperative Extension

Specialists included safety and fire prevention Jn their programs.
In health education the program has emphasized the development of desirable habits and attitudes growing out of the acquiring of fundamental knowledge of safety relating to home, recreation and the farm. Special stress was placed on safety in the home and on the farm-pure milk and water supplies, proper sewage and garbage disposal and the elimination of breeding places of flies and mosquitoes.
The Nutrition Specialist continued to use her mimeographed leaflet listing safety practices in the kitchen. She followed these practices when giving demonstrations and emphasized them when training volunteer leaders.
This year the Food Conservation Specialist taught home demonstration agents and volunteer leaders to test gauges for safe use of pressure cookers.
When training clothing chairmen or leaders in different methods of presenting information to club groups and community residents, the Specialist in Clothing and Textiles stressed safety and fire prevention in several ways. She suggested the use of demonstrations to show women and girls how to flame-proof household articles such as ironing board covers, pot holders and window curtains, and how to present and encourage the use of the U.S.D.A. bulletin on home methods of fire-proofing. She also showed these leaders how they, as consumers, could keep themselves and others informed as to what commercial agencies are doing toward using and giving to the public the results of flame-proofing research promoted for war purposes. She encouraged them to watch labels and study the trade names used for flame-proofing fabrics and to keep up with the legislation on standardization of such finishes. She encouraged selection of materials suitable for children's clothing from the standpoint of safety.
Through the 4-11 club program, emphasis has been placed on water safety. Qualified instructors for water-front duty were employed in each of the three district 4-H camps for white children and two camps for negro children.









Annual Report, 1948


Part 11 -- Men's Work

WORK OF COUNTY AGENTS
H. G. Clayton, Director
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
K. S. McMullen, District Agent

A favorable situation exists in the counties for successful Extension work. Financial support has been fairly adequate. Demand for services of county agents has been unusually large, but Extension programs and methods have been reshaped and readjusted to meet the demands most effectively. Additional federal, state and county funds made it possible to place nine new assistant agents in counties during the year.
A new agent employed must be a graduate of an agricultural college. .In addition, he must be practical, adaptable, energetic and possessed with high moral standards and a good personality.
Assistants are employed primarily to do 4-H club work, with time budgeted about 80 percent for 4-H club work and the other 20 percent on such general Extension work as might be found advisable by the county agent.
District Agents provided on-the-job training for both old and new agents insofar as possible. Efforts were made to see that assistant agents received the proper induction training and both the county agent and the assistant had a proper understanding of their duties and responsibilities. The three weeks' short course at the University of Florida in June and July provided valuable training for those agents enrolled. The annual Extension conference held October 4-9, 1948, emphasized methods of getting the job done and provided valuable training for ali agents.
Efforts were made by District Agents to increase the efficiency of county agents' offices by assisting in training office personnel, improving inadequate filing systems and office records and assisting agents to secure adequate office equipment.
Several conferences for agents were held at Experiment Stations during the year. A series of such conferences in December and January helped the agents to formulate their plans of work for the new year. Emphasis was placed on meeting the needs of the people and in doing an effective job.
District Agents worked with county agents insofar as time would permit in the execution of plans of work. Assistance was rendered with county fairs, livestock shows, field days, grower meetings and training of leaders. Assistance was given county agents in evaluating results of their activities.
A District Agent was chairman of the State Extension Citrus Advisory Committee and a member of the Extension Vegetable Advisory Committee.
District Agents were responsible for determining 4-11 camping schedules for counties in their districts and for assisting with the camping organization during the week at camp. Assistance was also given in carrying out the Citrus Institute, Poultry Institue and two Farm and Home Institutes.
District Agents served as the direct contact between the county agent and the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, in a public relations capacity. A number of talks- were given before civic clubs, farmers' organizations and other public gatherings.









Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
C. M. Hami3son, Economist in Farm management F. W. Parvin, Associate Economist

During the year covered by this report, about half of the Economist's time was given to regular Extension work and about half to teaching methods in agricultural Extension. The Associate Economist gave full time to farm management work after his appointment on February 1, 1948.
Farm and Home Planning.-Farm and home planning with individuals was carried through its eighth year. This project is primarily an experiment in Extension methods with low-income farm families, Methods used include, first, a refresher school of one day for the cooperating county agents. This is followed by the Economist spending a day or two with each agent, during which time visits are made to about a dozen farmers whose businesses are analyzed and recommendations are made for improvements that will secure larger income or will improve the standard of living. The Economist and the agents alternate in conducting interviews and making recommendations. After each farm visit, a few minutes are spent in constructive criticism of the interview. Following the Economist's visit to the county agent, each agent continues the process with a limited number of farmers. Also, a letter containing a list of recommendations made is sent to each farmer.
A total of 245 farm families were served in this way and 1,390 recommendations were made, of which 72 percent were carried out in a creditable manner. Conservative estimates of the value of additional production on the farms range from $50 to $700, with an average of $220 per farm. This is an average increase of about 10 percent over their 1947 income and about 50 percent over their 1939 income.
Nine groups are now organized so that follow-up contacts can be made with the cooperators at meetings instead of through farm visits. The initial contact each year is made at the farm. Timely circular letters and printed publications are mailed to all cooperators. One tour is made annually by a class in agricultural policy to one community, and this class has used data from the cooperators' records and annually makes field trips to some of the farms.
Assistance to Veterans.-Upon request, a table was provided for determining size of farm business based on income using current prices. The method used minimizes the discrepancies which exist between one-horse farms and farms which operate with teams or tractors. The table must be revised annually.
Record books were supplied to more than 4,000 farmer veterans attending training classes.
Record Books.-The simplified record forms for 4-H club members were received with enthusiasm by young club members. The new forms are easier, to keep than the old forms which are now used only by older club members.
Assistance to Negroes.-Approximately 50 percent of the work done in the farm-and-home-planning project is done with negroes; one of the training meetings for veterans' teachers was for negro teachers; one day was









Annual Report, 1948


given to farm management instruction at a negro 4-H camp and one day to assisting in the annual conference of Extension agents.
Teaching Methods in Agricultural Extension.-In the fall term of school, two regularly scheduled undergraduate courses in Extension methods were offered and taught by the Economist. Two problem courses, one graduate and one undergraduate, were available throughout the year. A three-week summer school for in-service Extension workers included courses in general Extension methods, 4-H club work, home gardening and speech for Extension workers. Three courses were taught by local staff members, including the Economist, and a field worker from the Extension Service in Washington taught the fourth. Each course provided 11/2 hours of credit toward a master's degree.
Twenty-two students were enrolled in the summer school and 39 were in the fall classes. There were 10 enrolled in the problems courses.
An Analysis of Beef Production Practices on 69 Florida Ranches.-In the spring the farm management staff with the assistance of the Animal Husbandman, prepared a ranch questionnaire, after consultation with 11 county agents in beef cattle counties. The questionnaire was sent to cooperating county agents who contacted representative cattlemen in order to assemble facts relative to practices in breeding, feeding, pasture preparation and marketing.
The 69 cattlemen who cooperated in the survey operated a combined acreage of 1,275,000 acres. Sizes of operations ranged from a few hundred to almost a quarter million acres.
The analysis was made in two parts-one for smaller operators and one for the larger ranches. County agents have made use of the study with cattlemen.
A Study of Dairying Possibilities In Hardee County.-In an effort to Improve the economic status of farmers in Hardee county, where approxiniately one-half the farms produced farm products for sale with an average total value less than $900, the county agent contacted Extension specialists to propose alternate agricultural enterprises.
The Farm Management staff prepared a report with the possibility of starting a dairy industry in the area. The District Agent, Dairyman and Agricultural Engineer assisted with preparation of the report.
Extension Outlook-A mimeographed sheet, summarizing economic information important to Florida agriculture adapted from reports from the Bureau of Agricultural Economics in Washington, was prepared monthly for county agents and staff members for use in farm radio talks, newspaper articles and circular letters.
The Associate Economist represented the State Extension Service at the National Outlook Conference in Washington, D. C., October 11-16. Methods used in presenting information obtained at this conference to Florida farmers included a report for county agents' use, four radio talks and an article prepared for the December issue of Florida Cattleman.
Farm Management Exhibits-Enlargement of nine black and white photographs, 14" x 18", of "farm management.in action," were shown to 760 farm people at farm and home institutes held at camps Timpoochee and Cherry Lake.
4-H Club Work-The Farm Management Staff assisted in conducting seven one-day leader-training meetings and one such meeting for club officers. These meetings were the result of courses in extension methods given during the past two summers. Four counties are in the process of establishing community clubs to replace in-school clubs.
The farm management staff assisted in training 21 assistant agents in









Florida Cooperative Extension


local leadership at Wildlife camp; in holding five achievement day programs and one club rally; and in selecting a state prize winner for a national contest.

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
Zach Savage, Associate Agricultural Economist

There were 235 citrus grove records obtained for the 1946-47 season from 13 counties. These records are the basis for the information presented regarding costs and returns for the 1946-47 production year. The number now in process of keeping these records for 1948-49 is 306, which is an increase of 12 percent over the 1947-48 season. The acreage represented in the 1948-49 records is approximately 10,000 acres, or 2.4 percent of the bearing citrus acreage of the state.
Cooperators averaged $1.23 less per box for their fruit in 1946-47 than for the preceding season. This was a reduction of 62 percent in price. According to the figures of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA, there was a reduction of 56 percent in the on-tree price between these two seasons for the state as a whole. The price of 74 cents was the lowest received by cooperators since the 1940-41 season.
There was a further reduction of 41 percent in the on-tree price of fruit in 1947-48 as compared to 1946-47 for the state as a whole. Figures on returns from fruit received by cooperators are not complete at present but the price received by cooperators representing 80 percent of the acreage of all cooperators was lower by 42 percent. This means that the price received by these cooperators in 1947-48 was only 22 percent of the price all cooperators received two years earlier. This was a reduction in price of 78 percent. The reduction in price received by all growers of the state between these two seasons was 74 percent.
In the face of these reductions in price received for fruit, the costs of items of production have increased, some of them to considerable extent. According to figures of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, the prices paid by farmers in the United States for commodities increased 22 percent in 1947 over 1946. There was another increase of 7 percent during the first 11 months of 1948. Fertilizer constitutes from 30 to 50 percent of the operating cost of producing Florida citrus and the United States price for this item increased 10 percent between 1946 and 1947.
While production and marketing costs have continued to increase, prices received by the grower for fruit have continued to decrease. Production costs are 21/2 times prewar costs on a per-acre basis and double on a per-box basis. Operating costs of cooperators increased 16 percent on a per-acre basis in 1946-47 over 1945-46. Such costs in 1947-48 decreased I percent.
Returns above operating costs on a per-acre basis were the lowest in 1946-47 since the 1.940-41 season, and the lowest on a per-box basis since the 1939-40 season. Four of the past 16 seasons had returns above operating costs lower-per-box than in 1946-47. The consistently large number of boxes of fruit harvested during recent seasons has aided in lowering perbox cost, tending to increase the net above operating cost.
Some growers had low production costs while others had high costs in 1946-47. Operating costs ranged from 21 cents to $2.32 per box. Fiftyfive of the highest yielding groves had an average operating cost of 40 cents per box, while the 55 with the lowest yields had an average cost of 91 cents per box.
Each cooperator was given a summary of the information on his own grove for 1946-47 and costs for 1947-48. Assistance was given him by the









Annual Report, 1948


Associate Economist, the Citriculturist or the county agent in his county in an effort to reduce production costs where such were out of line with efficient production. Comparative figures were supplied each cooperator. These included the 5-year average figures for all cooperators, a table showing cost and return data by seasons from 1931-32 through 1946-47, and cost data for 1947-48, together with a summary of costs and returns by age groups of 10 and under and over 10 years of age.
County agents in each of four counties received a bound copy containing a report of each grove within their counties.
Prior to sending out the regular report, preliminary figures for 194647 were supplied each cooperator.
Four large cloth charts of State and Lake County data were prepared for an exhibit in cooperation with the Citriculturist and Lake County agent for the fair at Eustis. The Associate Agricultural Economist and the Critriculturist remained at the exhibit throughout the week. Data were prepared and presented to interested growers.
A group of non-cooperating growers, individuals and firms of the citrus industry, were mailed copies of all regular reports issued.
Papers were presented at the annual meeting of the Florida Citrus Production Credit Association in Orlando in February; the annual meeting 'of the Florida Express Fruit Shippers Association in Miami Beach in May; the Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie in September; and the Florida Citrus . Production Managers' Association at Lake Alfred in October.
In September, citrus record books were sent cooperators using the books of the Agricultural Extension Service for keeping their records. The fiscal year for these records is September 1 through August 31.
Considerable material was supplied for vocational high school, vocational G.I. training and college classes in farm management and agricultural marketing. Special arrangements were made by the Associate Economist for a field trip to the groves of two cooperators by a professor and his class in farm management. Permission was obtained from these cooperators for using their grove data by members of this class.
A request was received for cost and return data on orange and grapefruit groves separately by the Production and Marketing Administration, Washington. These data were available from this project for 16 seasons for each of the two kinds of citrus.
Articles relating to citrus record work were prepared, including three for newspaper release, two in the Florida Farm Bureau Bulletin, two in The Citrus Industry, one for Florida Grower, one for the Journal of Farm Economics and one for the Florida Bankers' Association Magazine.
Two radio talks on fertilizer costs were given on the Florida Farm Hour program of Radio Station WRUF.

MARKETING ACTIVITIES
D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing

With regard to farm income, livestock producers enjoyed a good year but orange growers and most vegetable producers suffered great losses.
Despite storms, hurricanes and freezes, Florida produced a record crop during the 1947-48 season. Almost 300,000 carloads of produce moved from the state, as compared to 263,000 for the season before.
Cash receipts from farm marketing for the first nine months of 1948 were about 10 million dollars less than for.a similar period in 1947. Cash receipts from livestock and livestock products were higher in 1948 by threefourths million dollars, but crops were down about 11 million.









Florida Cooperative Extension


Florida farm prices for the past two years for fruits and vegetables have tended downward. Compared with last year, prices of fall vegetables are much lower; livestock prices, except cattle, considerably lower; citrus fruits about the same; and pecans, honey, corn and other farm crops generally lower.
Farm labor, marketing costs and material costs are increasing in the face of lower prices to farm producers.
Citrus.-Demand for fresh Florida citrus throughout the 1947-48 season was slow. With a combined total drop at record-breaking volume, fresh orange consumption showed a sharp decrease from recent seasons, while the processed output increased sensationally, accounting for over one-half of the total orange disposition for the first time in the history of the industry. Prices at all levels were lower than a year ago. When consideration is given to increased production, packing and transportation costs, actual returns figure even lower.
Florida's citrus production in 1947-48 was placed at 95.1 million boxes, of which 58.2 million were oranges, 33 million were grapefruit and 3.9 million were tangerines. The tangerine total has been exceeded in previous seasons but both orange and grapefruit totals are record highs.
Prices for the 1947-48 season averaged $3.27 for oranges, as compared to $3.50 the year before and a high of $4.58 in the 1944-45 season. Grapefruit prices during 1947-48 averaged $3.07, as compared to $3.29 the season before and a high of $4.24 during 1944-45 season. Tangerines averaged $1.98, as compared with $2.17 the season before and $2.51 for the 1945-46 season. Since more than half of Florida citrus went into cans, returns were not as good as these prices indicate. The canning prices during 194748 season averaged less than 40 cents delivered to the canner for grapefruit and about 83 cents for oranges. This includes an advertising tax of 3 cents a box on grapefruit and 2 cents a box for oranges and 1/5 cent for inspection tax. Since more than half of the fruit brought these low prices, it is evident that net returns on all citrus was less than cost of production.
The Florida Citrus Commission is the state agency charged with stimulating demand for citrus. With funds derived from an advertising tax, the Citrus Commission does an almost two-million-dollar advertising and dealer service job for the citrus industry. The Economist in Marketing met with the commission regularly and conferred with their manager with reference to the educational part of their program, in order to acquaint county agents with programs of the commission. Officers of the commission met with county agents from citrus-producing counties at two meetings and discussed with them in detail the entire program of the Citrus Commission.
The Economist in Marketing has been appointed by the governor-elect to work with his advisory committee in developing maturity standards and other proposed legislation designed to improve the citrus situation. A number of meetings have been held and a recommendation has been made to the governor-elect which outlines the production trends, the need for increasing quality standards and improving marketing facilities.
The Economist in Marketing has given assistance to trade groups, including Producers Trade Association and United Growers and Shippers Association, representing fresh fruit; Florida Canners' Association and Canners League, representing canners; the Indian River Citrus League, representing the Indian River district; and the Farm Bureau, representing growers in all districts.
Vegetables.-Florida produced almost 48,000 carloads of vegetables, strawberries and watermelons during the 1947-48 season-a little over









Annual Report, 1948 25

11,000 cars more than was produced the year before. The 1947-48 crop grossed not quite a hundred million dollars, as compared with $102 million for the 1946-47 season. Average price for the current season was about 15 percent lower than last season. The 1948 fall crop, not included in the above figures, was extremely large but prices were even lower. Cucumber growers hardly made fertilizer cost and bean growers abandoned large acreages because they would not pay cost of harvesting. The fall tomato crop started off the best of any fall crop but prices were not satisfactory and only number one tomatoes were shipped.
Bean growers expressed their desire for a Federal Marketing Agreement, so discussions were held with a number of growers to try to develop a marketing agreement.
Close cooperation has been given the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association in their program of trying to find less expensive and improved methods of marketing vegetables. The Economist in Marketing has kept in contact with pre-packaging studies being made under the Research and Marketing Act in cooperation with various state agencies. A number of tours by county agents and farmers have been sponsored to make observations on this pre-packaging project.
Transportation.-Railroad cars are inadequate in number, aged and in poor condition. This means that produce arrives in the market in bad condition, with a consequent marketing cost increase. In addition-to poor service, freight rates have continually gone up and have reached a point beyond growers' ability to pay.
In addition to these complaints, the Southeast has long been discriminated against by the whole transportation rate structure. Because of these conditions, it has been necessary to organize a Regional Transportation Committee in an effort to see if something can be done to relieve the situation. The Economist in Marketing was chosen as chairman of this committee for the first year. Three important meetings have been held, at which these problems were discussed and committees appointed to see what can be done.
Farm Labor.-A number of meetings have been held with the Labor Committee of the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Committee in an effort to develop a labor association to take over the government labor camps. Progress is being made on this project.
Farm Training for Veterans.-A number of farmer veterans studying agriculture have organized local cooperatives for purchasing farm supplies and selling farm products. Ten meetings were held to assist in the formation of three cooperatives.
Cooperatives-The Economist in Marketing continued with assistance to the Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives. The council's program is educational. Its main purpose is to keep members informed with items of special interest to cooperatives. Three district meetings and one annual meeting of the council were held. The proceedings were made available to cooperatives through the cooperation of the Economist in Marketing. The Marketing Economist attended the meeting of the American Institute of Cooperation in Amherst, Mass., and made use of materials presented through circular letters.
Low farm income stimulated interest in cooperatives and resulted in an unusual number of requests to the Marketing Economist for assistance in setting up farmer cooperatives.
Watermelons.-In cooperation with the Lake County agent, a bulletin has been prepared on harvesting and loading watermelons. This material









Florida Cooperative Extension


was mimeographed and made available to county agents in watermelonproducing counties and for interested growers and shippers.
The 1948 annual meeting of the Watermelon Growers' and Distributors' Association was held in Jacksonville. The Economist in Marketing acted as secretary and guided the program committee. Two meetings, one in Washington, D. C., and the other in Gainesville, were held on transportation problems.
Honey and Pecans.-During the year, backed up supplies of honey and a record pecan crop resulted in low prices to producers. A number of meetings were held with producers to assist them in getting as much as possible out of these products.
Assistance was given in establishing a number of pecan auction markets. Information on grades and varieties was supplied and growers were urged to grade and package in a more acceptable manner.
The Economist in Marketing represented the Florida Pecan Industry at a meeting in Washington, D. C., where a support price program was requested. This request was denied, so Florida growers had to do the best they could in a grading and auction sale program.
1%lliseellaneous.-A circular letter entitled "Market Briefs" was sent to over 500 persons. This letter consists of topic sentences and occasionally a very short summary of current topics of special interest to Florida farmers. The general outlook, credit situation, trends in price level and other topics of direct concern to Florida farmers are included.
County agents in watermelon-producing counties are kept currently advised of Watermelon Association activities by means of circular letters. In addition all members of the Watermelon Association are sent circulars at regular intervals on items of concern to the watermelon industry.
County agricultural agents and farmer cooperatives are sent circulars on items concerning farm cooperatives, both purchasing and selling organizations. Information coming from the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives considered of interest to Florida cooperatives was summarized and made available. This was also true with reference to materials that came from the American Institute of Cooperation and from state councils in other states.
I The Economist in Marketing sent out reports from time to time on cannery prices, volume going to canners and the use made of cannery fruit. This was a cooperative project with the Florida Canners' Association.








Annual Report, 1948


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND
ELECTRIFICATION


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
John M. Johnson, Agricultural Engineer

The Extension agricultural engineering program is designed to reduce human effort and costs in the production of essential and desirable commodities needed by man and animal.
Eighty-five percent of all agricultural problems have engineering implications.
The Agricultural Engineer spent 30 percent of his time on farm buildings, 25 percent on farm machinery, 20 percent with 4-H club projects, 15 percent on marketing facilities, and 10 percent on special services, such as drawing plans for buildings for use as canning centers or livestock shows and sales.
Farm Buildings.-The need for new housing and repair of old buildings has remained the first problem for agricultural engineering action. Labor and material costs have remained high; however, there has been a gradual leveling-off in material costs and few items remain in short supply.
Florida Farm Building Plan Service-The Florida farm building plan service is maintained to aid the Florida farmer to plan and properly construct farm buildings. Van Dyke prints of all building plans from Farmers Bulletin 1738 and Miscellaneous Publication 360 are maintained for the purpose of reproducing prints for distribution upon request. In addition to these, plans have been developed or adopted for use in the state by the Agricultural Engineer and are on file for distribution.
Leaflet 9 of the agricultural engineering series on house planning, "Plans of Farm Dwellings and Appurtenances," lists the 30 dwelling plans most suited for Florida. In addition to the dwelling plans, there is included a description of 26 sheets of plans of structural and interior details and 14 separate miscellaneous plans for cattle guards, garages, outdoor fireplices and other appurtenances.
All plans are mailed upon request either to the county Extension offices or direct to the individual. In order to reduce costs of mailing and reproducing, 30 of the most popular plans have been printed on letter size paper.
During the past year 4,883 sheets of building plans have been mailed. An additional 1,930 plans have been furnished for reference files of all county Extension offices, vocational agriculture and veterans' teachers. There were 5,381, other leaflets on house plans, painting and home sanitation distributed.
To aid the agents in conducting educational programs on housing, a file of visual aid material was maintained. This material consists of four sets of color slides on various phases of housing, a set of drawings on construction for use in opaque slide projectors, a model house and shrubbery and a set of five enlarged floor plans, useful in discussion groups.
State Rural Housing Committee.-This cooperative program was started in 1946 to coordinate the housing activities of all educational agencies in the state. Representatives of the agencies were appointed to serve on a general committee known as the State Rural Housing Committee.









28 Florida Cooperative Extension

During the year two additional counties were organized and standard surveys made.
County and Home Demonstration Agents' Surnmary.-County Extension workers spent a total of 1,620 days assisting farm families with housing problems. The work was done with the aid of 711 volunteer local leaders in 683 farm communities.
The agents devoted 410 days to working with farmers on construction and remodeling of farm buildings. They were aided by 229 volunteer local leaders in carrying information to farmers residing in 336 communities.

Statistical Summary - Housing and Farm Building Activities By Agents

WHITE NEGRO
Families assisted Families assisted Constructing dwellings ----------------- 921 131
Remodeling dwellings ------------------------ 1,630 340
Sewage system s -------------------------------- 664 85
W ater systems ---------------- - --------- - 739 201
Heating systems . --------- ---- - -- -- - 260 23
Improving kitchens, storage space,
laundry and other rooms -------- - 6,054 1,680
Sanitary privies ---- --------------- - -- -- 816 223
Screening ----------------- - -------- ---------- 2,270 1,140
Construction of farm buildings . 648 56
Remodeling or repairing
farm buildings ---------------------------- 532 61


Fig. 3-This 4-H club class pays close attention an ngine.


to a cutaway model of








Annual Report, 1948 29

Farm Machinery.-The aim of the farm machinery program is to teach the farmer, his family and his hired labor the importance of wise selection, proper use and constant maintenance of the many pieces of machinery now being used in the home and on the farm.
No other change is taking place faster on the farms of Florida than inechanization. As of July, 1948, there were 17,467 tractors operating on farms of the state.
Thirty-one farm visits were made in which farm machinery received attention. Farm machinery demonstrations were held at two farm and home institutes. At Camp Cherry Lake, 30 pieces of equipment were displayed for 425 attending farmers. All of the equipment, including tractors, field implements, stationary engines, garden tractors, spray equipment and a small electric welding machine, was operated for interested farmers. A welding demonstration was held at which a tank made from a 55-gallon drum was used in a demonstration on treating fence posts.
The Agricultural Engineer aided in planning a series of meetings for the state distributors of one equipment line, at which motion pictures on operation, maintenance and safety were shown to over 6,000 farmers.

Summary of Extension Activities in Farm Machinery
The Agricultural Engineer spent 126 days in the field, of which, 47 were devoted to farm machinery and equipment. County agents' reports on farm machinery show:
White Negro
Days devoted to machinery 331 37
Number of communities work conducted ------------------ 339 39
Number of volunteer local leaders 209 26
Number of volunteer leaders attending tractor
schools 44 0
Number of counties represented at tractor schools 25 0
Number of machinery maintenance schools ------------ 2 0
Farmers assisted this year in:
Selection of machinery equipment . _--__ 1,143 59
Making more efficient use of mechanical equipment 1,304 153
Number of farmers following instructions in
repair and maintenance 1,521 102

-Seed and Hay Drying-For the purpose of promoting mechanical seed drying, a scale model was made and displayed at a livestock show, farm and home institutes and other farmer meetings. Nine groups of farmers interested in hay and seed 'drying have been conducted through the drying barn on the Experiment'Station farm. The Agricultural Engineer conducted a seed and hay drying discussion for the county agents during the Annual Extension conference, at which time the model was displayed and a tour conducted to the Station drier. As a result of this activity, there are now 21 similar driers being used to dry various seeds, grains and hays throughout the state.
Pence Post Treating.-The recommendation for treating fence posts with a preservative to prevent decay and insect damage is tar creosote. There are 15 open-vat post treating plants operating throughout the state. However, the combined capacity is not adequate to meet the farmers' demands.
A cooperative program was started with the ]EIxtension Forester to study preservatives and treatment methods. The leaflet on the treatment of fence posts has been distributed to all county offices. Supplies on the








30 Florida Cooperative Extension

agents' bulletin racks are quickly exhausted and more than 1,500 leaflets have been furnished to individuals upon request.
At the annual Extension conference, a demonstration was held for county agents in the cold-soak method of fence post treatment. The Agricultural Engineer conducted the same demonstration at two farm and home institutes attended by 600 people and at a pine tree festival attended by 500 people.
Mechanical Burners for Syrup Making.-Cane sirup is a highly important cash crop for western Florida farmers. Labor and wood for fuel have been expensive and hard to obtain.
An oil burner adapted to heat the evaporators is still proving successful. Coal in automatic stokers was used at various points in the sirup area and showed a very low operating cost.
Of the 126 days spent in the field, 17 were devoted to marketing facilities. County agents assisted 1,202 farmers in selecting mechanical equipment and 1,457 farmers were reported as making more efficient use of mechanical equipment.
Power Spray Equipment.-Farmers and agents in the flue-cured tobacco area requested information on power spray and dusting equipment to combat a leaf aphid attacking the tobacco. The problem was to find, or develop, a machine that would operate in tobacco, planted in conventional rows. The search was made for equipment and none was found suitable. Several manufacturers were called in and the problem explained. This resulted in, one Florida concern developing a small narrow gage sprayer. The Extension Engineer cooperated in the design and testing of the spray unit.
A demonstration of power spray and dusting equipment was provided for two farm and home institutes and for several counties. I Irrigation and Drainage.-Requests for assistance on ' drainage and irrigation problems are usually from farmers or agents in need of information for draining a small area or for small plot irrigation. This year, nine irrigation systems have been designed and 11 farmers assisted with drainage. Twenty days were devoted to field work in these problems. Four demonstrations in irrigations and three demonstrations in drainage by ditching with explosives, were held. The agents report assistance was given 1,992 farmers on drainage and 732 on irrigation problems.
Fruit Washer.-The price of citrus fruit has been at a low level and several requests for a machine to wash and clean tree-ripened fruit were received. The Agricultural Engineer developed a small fruit washer for use in roadside stands and small operations.
4-H Club Work-Classes in farm machinery were held for an advanced group attending the boys' 4-H short course. The classes were conducted as a laboratory period, at which basic principles of operation, safety and maintenance were presented.
At two 4-H club summer camps two groups of 30 boys were given daily instruction on safety and basic principles of farm engine operation.
Two three-day schools were held to train 4-H club leaders in tractor maintenance and club leadership. A school for northern and western Florida was held at Marianna in January, with 21 leaders from 13 counties attending. The second school, at which 23 leaders from 12 counties were trained, was held at Plant City in July, for southern Florida leaders. Twelve counties participated in the Tractor Maintenance Contest and a club member from Santa Rosa county won a trip to the National Club Congress.








annual Report, 1948


The Agricultural Engineer attended three 4-H camps where housing demonstrations were given for girls and boys.

FARM ELECTRIFICATION
A. M. Pettis, Farm Electrification Specialist

Situation.-At the beginning of 1948, power suppliers in Florida were optimistic about procuring line-building materials to extend their lines to unelectrified farms. Electrical farm equipment was rapidly becoming available, and the supply of some items was catching up with demand.
More, than 4,000 farrrs in this state were connected to electric lines during the past year. At present 39,975 Florida farms have electricity, 65.4 percent of the fa=, in the state. They receive power from 15 REA cooperatives, three major utilities and several minor utilities and municipalities with rural lines. Approximately two-thirds of the electrified farms are served by REA cooperatives.
With the exception of refrigerators, electrical equipment is generally available for immediate delivery in almost every section of the state. Some appliances, such as radios, appear in abundance.
Safe, Adequate Wiring.-The basis of a farm electrification program is the promotion of proper wiring. Farmers should be advised about wiring just prior to having thfir farms wired. Copies of the USDA bulletin, "Planning Your Farmstead Wiring and Lighting," were sent to all Extension personnel in the st ate, and agents were encouraged to assist farmers in planning their wiring. During the latter part of 1947 demonstration material was assembled to promote good wiring. This material has been added to and used successfully in wiring meetings. Seventeen demonstrations on proper wiring were given to more than 1,000 people, including 4-H members, farmers, county agents and home demonstration agents.
Motor Table.-A home-made motor table to show farmers some ways electricity could save their time and labor was demonstrated. This motor table has one small electric motor which operates several pieces of household equipment usually turned by hand. This equipment consists of a churn, a sausage mill, an emery wheel and an ice-cream freezer. Plans for making the motor table were distributed at 10 meetings, attended by approximately 5,000 farmers.
Converting Treadle Sewing Machines to Electric 1VI[odels.-The Farm Electrification Specialist realized the need of many farm women for help in using electricity economically. One of the best time and labor savers is the electric sewing machine. Many farms have a satisfactory treadle machine which could be converted to an electric model. New electric sewing machines are costly and hard to obtain, so dealers who sell motors which could be attached to treadle machines were located. The Extension Service published a bulletin titled, "Convert Your Treadle Model To An Electric Sewing Machine." Demonstrations on the conversion of a treadle machine were given at 12 meetings, attended by approximately 3,800 people.
4-H Club Work.-The Farm Electrification Specialist devoted approximately one month to 4-H club work. Emphasis was placed on the importance of proper wiring and agents were encouraged to promote the better methods contest. Assistance was given to agents in holding six meetings with 4-H members. During the Short Course at the University o. Florida, the better methods contest was explained to 4-H members. Results were disappointing, as age limitations prevented selection of a winner.







32 Florida Cooperative Extension

Proper wiring was demonstrated during the Short Course to 175 4-H boys. At two summer camps 4-H boys and girls improved existing wiring, under supervision of the specialist, by mounting 29 switches and installing 500 feet of non-metallic, sheathed cable. In addition to teaching 4-H members, this helped to improve the safety and conveniences of the camps.
Additional Help.-Additional help was given to agents and farmers by answering inquiries about wiring and electrical farm equipment. Assistance in obtaining proper wiring for a negro county agent's new office building was given in one county.
Demonstration equipment has been shown at county fairs, agricultural shows and 4-H club gatherings.
This year, Extension personnel assisted 2,494 farmers in obtaining electricity, helped 2,915 farm families with the selection and use of lights and electrical equipment in the home and advised 614 farmers about electrical equipment used on the farm for producing additional income.








Annual Report, 1948


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING, POULTRY

A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman

BEEF CATTLE
The Situation-In December 1947, west Florida county agents, district agents and specialists met at the North Florida Experiment Station with the Experiment Station staff. Central Florida agents met in Gainesville with the Experiment Station staff. At these conferences they heard reports on experimental work with cattle, hogs, feed and pasture. The discussions were for the purpose of aiding in working out a unified program based on factual information in meeting local situations and using local associations and organizations in putting over a program.
Efforts have been made through demonstrations, correspondence, circular letters, news articles, tours, meetings, radio talks and home visits to furnish cattlemen with proven methods of successful beef cattle production, including selection, breeding, culling, disease and parasite control, feeding and pasture development. Forty-five thousand copies of a monthly circular letter, "Of Things That Concern Florida Cattlemen," containing timely articles, were issued to county agents and approximately 4,000 cattlemen.
Since the annual calf crop is the foundation of the beef cattle work and the annual Florida calf crop has been low for the last five years, 57 to 65 percent, special attention was directed to the calf crop and its importance.
In a recent survey, 40 agents reported the average calf crop was 56 percent, while the better managed ranches averaged 74 percent. A survey of 69 ranches in 15 counties showed a 1940 calf crop of 50 to 59 percent and a 1947 calf crop of 75 percent.
Developing heifers for herd replacement paid off in reduced death losses and in heavier weights of calv(,s. Forty agents report 1,706 cattlemen developing heifers for herd replacement.
According to mar ket reports, the average weight of market calves for September 1948 was 245 pounds. Many county agents reported market calf weights from 250 to 400 pounds from the best herds.
Having cows calve in early spring, developing pasture and feed production and practicing good herd management has produced the heaviest calves at weaning age. The Animal Husbandman encouraged culling shy breeders and inferior heifers, using scales to get calf weights and keeping records of cows producing the heaviest calves.
A survey of 69 cattlemen in central and south Florida showed that these cattlemen selected from 52 to 62 percent of their heifers for herd replacement and bred the heifers to drop first calves at about 2% years, with a low death rate of 3 to 4.4 percent and calf weights as follows:
Grade bulls x native cows-calf weight 230 pounds.,
Purebred bull x native cow-calf weight 261-264 pounds.
Purebred bull x grade cow-calf weight 312-327 pounds.
Purebred bull x purebred cow-calf weight 342 pounds.
Cattle numbers over the nation have been on the decrease since 1944. Florida cattle numbers show an increase since 1938.








34 Florida Cooperative Extension

The following report shows the ' number of Florida cattle and calves moving to local markets from November 1 to October 31 for the last three years.
1948 1947 1946 1945
Cattle 148,527 145,903 130,859 106,104
Calves 83,044 81,961 76,190 55,237
Purebred Herds and Breeder's Shows-The Angus, Brahman and Hereford breeders have local breed associations.
The Extension Service has cooperated with the local breed associations in putting on four purebred shows and sales. South Americans have attended the Brahman sales and shows, and as a result many Florida cattle have gone to Latin American islands and countries.
The third annual Angus sale, held in March, included 27 animals which averaged $282 per head.
At the second annual Hereford show and sale in February, 35 animals averaged $321 per head.
The fourth annual Brahman show and sale, held in January, included 37 animals which averaged $889 per head.
At the second annual south Florida Brahman sale in March, 35 animals brought an average of $996.
A recent survey showed that 50 out of 69 cattlemen used purebred bulls exclusively, while 10 used grades and purebreds.
County agents report that 623 farmers were assisted in securing purebred bulls and 647 farmers were assisted in securing purebred and high grade females. Of 4,518 bulls placed in Florida herds, 3,000 were Florida raised.
Pasture and Feed.-In cooperation with the Agronomist, county agents and the PMA, the Animal Husbandman has encouraged pasture development and maintenance and advised against over-stocking. The Animal Husbandman advocated fencing of vegetable lands and grazing them with cattle, thus obtaining two returns for the fertilizer applied to the vegetables.
Cattlemen and county agents have been advised on minerals essential to annual production. Agents report cattlemen have increased use of minerals by mineral boxes and fertilizing pastures and that in all, 1,771 farmers were assisted in improving methods of feeding.
Sugarcane plus a protein supplement and sugarcane in the field has gained attention as a winter feed. Deferred grazing in summer and letting the grass grow for winter pasture has proved practical in some sections.
Many cattlemen in the citrus area are using wet citrus pulp from the canneries. Others are using dried pulp and citrus molasses supplemented with a protein feed pasture or hay. Some cattlemen are using feed pellets manufactured by feed mills, while others are using mixed feed and pellets put up by canning companies. Two citrus canning companies are making special efforts to get cattlemen to use citrus molasses by offering special prices per ton.
The State Cattlemen's Association is a strong force for good in beef cattle work and in working for a coordinated water control system. This association took the initial steps October 6, 1948, in bringing together all sections in working for a Florida water control rather than a sectional one. Thirty-seven local county livestock associations are affiliated with the state association.
Parasite Control.-With the advent of DDT and other materials, external parasite control has progressed. County agents report 3,235 farms using controlled methods. Cattle free of flies, lice and other pests make








Annual Report, 1948


maximum gains on grass and feed. The Animal Husbandman has cooperated with the livestock men and the Entomologist in keeping county agents and cattlemen advised on sprays, dips and dusts in parasite control.
The use of DDT in controlling lice and horn flies has reduced the screw-worm infestation. Also ' where tick eradication is in process, very few screw-worms are found.
4-H Club WorkDuring the year 4-H district livestock judging contests were held in five counties. Typing demonstrations were held in three counties. Three different 4-H judging contests were held at Ocala at the Brahma breed show, Hereford breed show and annual fat stock show.
A 4-H club girl at the fourth annual west Florida fat cattle show and sale in Quincy won grand champion with her Hereford steer. The Animal Husbandman served as judge in the junior showmanship contest at the fat stock show in Ocala.
Two purebred Hereford field days, one in Escambia county and the other in Leon, were held for 4-H club members.

HOG PROGRAM
During the period November 1, 1947, to October 31, 1948, 145,491 hogs were marketed, compared with 107,539 a year earlier, an increase of 37,952 head.
Since demand exhausted the supply of the bulletin, "Swine Production in Florida," considerable time was devoted to revising it.
The Animal Husbandman urged farmers to grow a succession of crops so hogs could avoid the spring starving period and be finished'for early market. Attention has been given to the use of mineral and protein supplements in hog production. Reports show that county agents assisted 3,043 farmers in improving methods of feeding hogs.
County agents aided 3,161 farmers in controlling external parasites and 5,812 farmers in controlling internal parasites.
Purebred Hogs.-Purebred hog breeders enjoyed a good season, for demand was brisk.
In september the Duroc breeders promoted their fourth annual sale, at which 45 head were sold. There were 115 barrows in the tenth annual hog (breeding and fat animal) show. At an all purebred 4-H hog show held in one county, 50 animals were exhibited. At one fat hog and breeders show, 110 animals were exhibited.
A Hampshire breeder reported selling 1,000 head, 107 of which went to Cuba and Latin American countries.
Reports show that county agents aided 585 farmers in securing purebred males and 885 farmers in securing purebred and high grade females.
Meat Cured by Cold Storage Curing Plants.-During the season, September 1, 1947, to April 1, 1948, there were 6,798,121 pounds of meat cured for farmers compared to 9,718,515 pounds a year earlier. This is a decrease of 2,929,394 pounds. This decrease was attributed to high price of hogs, increase in freezer locker plant patrons and increase in the use of home freezers. Figures available on meat cured and meat handled by locker plants show that of the 60 meat curing plants, 44 reported meat cured.
4-H Club Work.-During the 4-H short course for boys, the Animal Husbandman assisted with instruction in beef cattle selection and typing.
In six counties 4-H judging contests and typing demonstrations were held.
The Animal Husbandman helped obtain prizes and eight scholarships








Florida Cooperative Extension


for 4-11 livestock members from the purebred breeders and livestock associations.
Civic clubs throughout the state are showing interest in sponsoring 4-H activities in livestock.
County agents' reports show that 1,440 club members with 3,481 animals were enrolled this year, compared with 1,358 club members with 3,271 animals in 1947.
DAIRYING
C. W. Reaves, Extension Dairyman

Two district meetings, one at Quincy for west Florida county agents and one in Gainesville for central Florida agents, were held in December IL947 at which the 1948 dairy program was presented.
Feed Program.-The feed conservation program, formulated in the fall of 1947, was continued through the winter months while feedstuffs were expensive and scarce.
A citrus feed study was made in early May as a. result of the large amount of citrus and citrus by-products available for cattle feed. Following a meeting with the Extension Citrus Advisory Committee, the Extension Dairyman prepared a brief report on citrus and citrus products as feed for dairy cattle. Demonstrations of cafeteria style feeding of citrus molasses to dairy cattle were set up in several counties.
A report was prepared on dehydrated Irish potatoes as a potential feed for dairy cows just before surplus potatoes became available for feeding.
County agents' reports showed :1,202 dairymen were aided in improving their methods of feeding dairy cows.
Development of Dairying in New Areas Many south Florida cities import a part of their milk during the winter months. In dairy areas near these cities, many dairymen have large numbers of cows on small acreages so they must buy practically all feed. The purchase of replacement cows is a big cost item for these herds.
The farm dairy program in west Florida is in the process of expansion. A meeting, attended by 250 people, was beld in Marianna in January. A questionnaire filled out at the meeting indicated that 1,250 cows would be milked by those present by the end of the year. Local business men formed the Jackson County Development Corporation, which built a dairy plant and leased it, with option to buy, to a large commercial dairy. This concern will operate the plant as a receiving station for supplying milk to deficit cities in the winter. In the summer, the milk will be used for icecream mix and other outlets for quality milk products. A grade A milk receiving station is in operation at Chipley.
The Extension Dairyman arranged a conference in October for developing a west Florida pasture program in order to enable representatives of the milk plants and educational and action agencies to make the same recommendations in their work with farmers.
The Extension plan for developing the dairy program is on a farmsized basis, with plans for sufficient pasture and a large percent of the feed for each dairy established. All producers are building barns and getting equipment to produce grade A milk
Better Sire Program-The year 1948 has marked the beginning of an organized artificial breeding program in Florida. The Extension Dairyman initiated a survey in one county to determine the status of present sire service and the interest in attempting to provide artificial breeding service. The survey showed the average annual cost of feeding and caring for a









Annual Report, 1948


bull was $195.75, with 34 cows served per serviceable age bull and an average annual bull cost per cow of $5.75.
' The survey indicated a need to provide artificial breeding service. The Extension Dairyman prepared a list of responsibilities assumed by different groups, which included the State Agricultural Extension Service, the local county agent's office and the county association, in developing county artificial breeding programs. As a result of the survey, two counties have organized artificial breeding services and two others have made initial plans to form like associations.
Placement of privately owned bulls has been continued in most counties. Herds on dairy herd improvement association test provide sources of seed stock with known production ancestry. County agents report 210 farmt-rs were assisted in purchasing pure-bred dairy sires.
Dairy Herd Improvement Association Program.-The West Coast, Pioneer and Duval dairy herd improvement associations completed a year's operation which showed progress over 1947. The three associations now have more than 2,500 cows on test in 10 counties.
The West Coast DHIA increased in membership from five to nine. The Pioneer DHIA completed its eleventh year of continuous operation with an annual meeting in the county agent's office at DeLand. The number of cows on test had doubled during the year. The Duval DHIA greatly expanded its work during the year also.
The annual herd summaries are made out by the DHIA supervisor and sent to the Extension Dairyman's office, where they are checked, totaled and, averaged. Results are sent back to association members.
A dairy herd improvement association furnishes excellent result demonstrations of improved feeding and management practices and is of basic importance in a progressive county dairy program.
Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is superintendent of official cow testing for the state. Twenty of the state's better breeding Guernsey, Jersey and Ayrshire herds are carrying on official testing. One Jersey dairyman carrying on testing had three Jersey bulls to qualify for the superior sire award of the breed in the last two years. Another cooperating dairyman had a bull qualify for the senior superior sire award, the highest sire award made by the American Jersey Cattle Club.
Work With Dairy Cattle Breed Associations.-The Extension Dairyman has worked with the Florida Guernsey and Jersey cattle clubs in helping plan and carry out their programs. These associations have cooperated by supporting 4-H dairy activities, the testing program, artificial breeding projects, providing for expense of state 4-H dairy winner to National 4-H Congress and by making heifers available at reasonable prices to 4-H club members.
The Extension Dairyman gave assistance in planning and holding the two breed sales and the Guernsey field day.
4-H Dairy Club Work.-To stimulate interest in dairy club work, a state 4-H dairy show, two district dairy shows and several county shows were held. The first state-wide show was held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition in February.
The 4-H boys and girls had the animals well-fitted and showed them in a manner that impressed attending breeders and dairymen. A sample check made at the fair exit gate one day showed the 4-H dairy show to be the most popular attraction of the fair.
The central Florida five-county area show was continued for the second year. Following a county show in each county, the area show was held the









Florida Cooperative Extension


morning of the state Jersey sale. A registered dairy heifer was awarded the winning boy in each of the five counties.
The second amiual west Florida 4-H and FFA dairy show was staged in Chipley in August, with an attendance of approximately 200 farmers.
The Tampa Chamber of Commerce sponsored a dairy calf show for Hillsborough County 4-H members in the center of Tampa. Plans were made for expanding this show into the Florida West Coast Dairy Show and making it an annual event.
Florida participated in the national 4-H dairy production contest. Eight savings bonds were awarded and the state winner's report was entered for sectional competition.
The Extension Dairyman conducted a dairy class during the State 4-H Short Course, helped with 4-H camps and arranged for club members to be included in educational events at the Guernsey judging school. The judging school was an opportunity for selected club members to learn finer points in judging, with practice on animals of correct dairy type.
There were 974 members enrolled in 4-H dairy projects with a total of 2,524 animals in completed projects.
Home Milk Supply.-Because of the relatively small number of commercial dairies in Florida, a large portion of 4-H dairy club work directs

Fig. 4.-Three of the 4-H boys who won registered dairy heifers for being tops in dairy club work in their counties, together with Jersey breeders who cooperated in the program.









Annual Report, 1948


attention to an adequate home milk supply. The. county agents in a number of counties have cooperated with the district Bureau of Animal Industry veterinarians in listing family cows to be tested for Bang's disease to the extent that all family cows in certain counties were tested.
General Activities.-The Extension Dairyman and the dairy department of the College of Agriculture jointly planned and conducted a one-week dairy herdsmen's short course at the University in September. Forty people, representing 10,000 dairy cows, attended.
The University dairy field day, beld in July, was sponsored jointly by the Florida Dairy Industry Association, the University of Florida dairy husbandry and dairy products departments and the Extension dairy department.
The Extension Dairyman served as judge at several dairy shows, including the State Fair, and was named an "Approved Jersey Judge" by the American Jersey Cattle Club in their 1948 list.
Radio, News Articles, Circular Letters and Illustrative MaterialsThe Extension Dairyman presented 11 radio talks on the Florida Farm Hour program of Radio Station WRUF. Approximately 25 articles on improved practices and publicizing objectives of Extension dairy projects being carried out with 4-H members and adults were prepared for the Agricultural News Service, which goes to about 200 weekly and daily newspapers over the state.
Some results of the 1948 Extension dairy program as reported by county agents:
Cows on DHIA Test 2,600
Cows on official test 550
Purebred sires placed 210
Artificial breeding associations formed ' 2
Farmers aided on feed problems 1,202
Farmers aided in treating for external parasites 1,666
Farmers aided in controlling disease and internal parasites . 2,126 4-H club members completing dairy projects 646
Animals in completed 4-H dairy projects 2,524
4-H animals in state or area shows 190

POULTRY ACTIVITIES
N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman F. S. Perry, Assistant Extension Poultryman

A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test
Florida's poultry industry has been expanding gradually for the past 30 years. Today it is otne of our most important agricultural enterprises.
Florida farmers began the current year with 1,924,000 layers on hand. This was a slight increase over the 1947 figure of 1,901,000. Leading egg producing counties are Hillsborough, Pasco, Nassau, Duval, Polk and Jackson, in the order named.
Leading broiler producing counties in order are Dade, Hillsborough, Duval, Palm Beach and Polk. Two new commercial areas are developing
-one in Walton County and another in Putnam. It is reported that commercial producers raise between six and seven million birds annually. This is in addition to a yearly production of, five million farm-raised broilers.
This yield is far short of the eggs and poultry consumed each year by Florida residents.
Florida's hatcheries operate on a 12-month basis and chicks are pro-









40 Florida Coopeiretive Extension

duced more uniformly throughout the year than in almost any other state. A total of 11,572,000 chicks were produced during the period January through October, 1948. This was slightly more than the 11,323,000 chicks produced during the same period in 1947. It is estimated that chicks hatched for the period December 1, 1947, to November 30, 1948, would total 14,000,000--an increase of 12(, over the same period a year ago.
Growing Healthy Pullets.-Extension recommendations were followed by 1,260 families in obtaining better strains of baby chicks and by 3,139 families in improving methods of feeding. These recommendations were carried on in 506 communities throughout the state.
Egg-Laying Test-The Twenty-Second Florida National Egg-Laying Test was completed Septemnber 21, 1948. Each test is conducted for a period of 357 days, starting October 1. Competing pens numbered 95, each including 13 pullets. In this test there were 42 pens of S. C. White Leghorns, 25 of New Hampshires, 11 of S. C. Rhode Island Reds, 12 of White Plymouth Rocks and 5 of Barred Plymouth Rocks.
Average egg production for the 51 weeks was 210.8 per bird, with a credit of 215.6 points. Average egg production for the heavy breeds was 204.4 eggs per bird, and for the light breeds 218.9 eggs per bird.
Average feed consumption was 104.4 pounds per bird per year. Each dozen eggs produced required 5.7 pounds of feed. Mortality during the year averaged 11.2 percent.
High pen consisted of S. C. White Leghorns owned by J. A. Hanson, Corvallis, Oregon. These 13 pullets produced 3,715 eggs for a value of 3,764.70 points.
High individual was a S. C. White Leghorn owned by the Dryden Poultry Breeding Farm, Modesto, California. This pullet produced 327 eggs and was credited with 344.65 points.
The high Florida entry was a pen of S. C. White Leghorns owned by Pinebroeze Farm, Callahan. These 13 pullets produced a total of 3,393 eggs for a value of 3,313.20 points.

Fig. 5. The broiler industry has expanded rapidly in Florida.








If I








Annual Report, 1948


A pen of New Hampshires was the second high Florida pen. These pullets laid 3,096 eggs for a total of 3,201.05 points.
The 23rd test was started October 1, 1948, with 88 competing pens.
Culling Demonstrations.-Poultrymen must obtain a high rate of lay from their flocks if they are to make a profit. Methods used to diffuse culling information to poultry producers throughout the state were: culling demonstrations, bulletins, exhibits, culling charts, radio programs, leaflets and circular letters. In addition, local leaders, 4-H club members and county and home agents were schooled in the principles of selecting and culling poultry.
4-H Club Poultry Work.-Poultry club members were encouraged and assisted in their program of supplying poultry meat and eggs for home consumption and for market.
Poultry classes were held regularly at the 4-H boys' and girls' summer camps and also at the boys' and girls' short courses at Gainesville and Tallahassee. Flock management, proper housing, feeding, sanitation, culling, killing, dressing, marketing and judging were some of the more important demonstrations given. During short course, blue awards were given to 4-H club boys from Duval County who presented a flannel demons ' traction on "The Fundamentals of Broiler Production" and Dade County boys who presented a demonstration on "Poultry Housing."
The special 4-H club girls' poultry demonstration project sponsored by the Sears-Roebuck Foundation in 17 counties was continued again this year. In this project alone, during the 1947-48 season, there have been 17 poultry shows and 17 egg shows. The program accounts for 17,000 baby chicks started, approximately 20,000 pounds of poultry meat sold, over 5,000 hens on farms and more than 60,000 dozens of eggs produced in the participating counties.
The west Florida district 4-H club poultry and egg show and judging contest was held at Chipley with all of the 10 west Florida counties participating. Entries included 210 birds and 43 dozen eggs. The state 4-H club poultry and egg show and judging contest was held again in connection with the Central Florida Exposition at Orlando, with more than 105,000 people attending. A total of 1,045 birds and 160 dozen eggs were entered. Twenty-one judging teams from 14 counties competed in the judging contest.
During the year 1,774 boys and 1,542 girls were enrolled in poultry club work. Of this number 1,052 boys'and 1,006 girls completed their projects with a total of 126,032 birds.
Prevention of Disease and Parasites-Extension workers have continued to stress the importance of clean land, range rotation, use of litter, chicken pox vaccination, control of internal and.external parasites and the use of sanitary poultry houses and equipment.
Sporadic outbreaks of Newcastle disease have been of much concern to Florida poultrymen. .
There were 5,190 families assisted in controlling various types of poultry parasites and diseases.
Poultry Institute-The seventh annual Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie August 23-28. Over 300 persons registered during the week, with about 100 spending the entire week. Full programs on poultry management, incubation, nutrition, disease, breeding, egg quality and marketing were presented.
West florida Broiler and Egg Institute-The first annual broiler and egg institute was held at DeFuniak Springs, July 8, 1948. Poultrymen from west Florida, south Alabama and southwest Georgia attended the one-day









Florida Cooperative Extension


meeting, which included tours to broiler farms, feed manufacturing establishments and processing plants. Attendance from these three areas totaled 830.
The Egg Quality Program.-The Florida Poultry Council, composed of representatives from all segments of the poultry industry, sponsored the egg quality program again.
The program includes producing and handling eggs on the farm, and grading and candling eggs on the farm or at marketing centers according to standards specified in the Florida egg law. It also includes furnishing information to consumers on size and quality standards, in addition to consumer information.
Egg candling and grading demonstrations were given by poultry workers. Twenty-six egg shows were held at county and state fairs. A detailed egg grading exhibit was prepared and demonstrated at two farm and home institutes.
Marketing Eggs and Poultry Meat.-Few serious difficulties have been experienced this year in marketing of poultry products. Prices have been satisfactory and usually cost items have been in a favorable relationship. When temporary surpluses did develop, however, the Extension organiza-, tion and State Marketing Bureau cooperated in developing suitable market outlets for this commodity.
Killing and dressing demonstrations were given at home demonstration club meetings, 4-H club meetings and short courses, and classes were held at the University Poultry Laboratory for Florida's poultry and egg inspectors.
According to estimates by inspection bureau officials, approximately 13,000,000 dozen graded eggs were marketed in cartons in 1948, contrasted with 4,500,000 dozensin 1947 and 4,000,000 in 1946. In addition, there were more than 40,000,000 pounds of graded poultry meat inspected this year by the poultry and egg division of the State Marketing Bureau.
Assistance in marketing poultry products was given in 431 communities to 2,384 farmers or families. Four new cooperatives were assisted in organizing during the year. Thirteen established cooperatives were assisted during the year. There were 208 members in these 17 organizations. Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives totalled $238,050.00 and by non-members $531,485.00.
RMA Project-Egg Phase.-Florida is a deficit poultry producing area; however, there is a temporary surplus of eggs during the spring months. There are difficulties in handling these surplus spring eggs produced on the general farms in north and northwest Florida, where the size of flock is relatively small. The Research and Marketing Act of 1946 has made possible Extension activity on this problem. The territory in north and northwest Florida was selected for initial work.
The two principal objectives in the project have been: (1) To study methods of improving the quality and merchandising of eggs, and (2) to study trends in marketing poultry meat.
The initial survey period is well underway because of the excellent cooperation of participating groups, and soon will be completed.
Broiler Production-It is estimated that the annual consumption of poultry meat in Florida is around 75,000,000 pounds; two-thirds of this is broilers. Broiler plants produce about 6,500,000 head of chickens and general farms and commercial egg farms produce about 5,000,000 birds. This probably results in a production of about 30,000,000 pounds of poultry meat annually. This falls far short of total consumption, so for the past several years Extension poultry workers have been active in fostering approved practices and economy of production.









Annual Report, 1948


The annual nutrition conference was held November 11 and 12, in Gainesville. The poultry theme at this conference was broiler production, including investment,' costs and returns, methods and disease control.
The National Poultry Improvement Plan-The National Poultry Improvement Plan was created by an act of Congress in 1935. It authorizes the Bureau of Animal Industry, USDA, to cooperate with one official agency in each state in the administration of the plan. In Florida, the State Livestock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee, has been designated as the official state agency. The Agricultural Extension Service, the poultry department of the University of Florida, the Florida State Poultry Producers Association, and the Florida R.O.P. Association endorse and assist in furthering the plan.
This plan assumes greater value as breeders and hatcherymen expand operations to supply the demand for quality baby chicks in Latin and South American countries and the islands of the West Indies. Airline traffic officials estimate that Florida's annual export of baby chicks exceeds 31/2 million.
Results of the pullorum testing program during the past season have been very satisfactory. Of all birds tested 77.1 percent were pullorum clean; 14.5 percent were pullorum passed and 8.3 percent were pullorum. controlled. While a 2 percent tolerance is permitted in the pullorum controlled class, Florida controlled flocks had only 0.52 percent of reactors. The percent of reactors in all flocks tested was 0.043.
During the season it was necessary to reject 11 flocks containing 5,106 birds and to retest 30 flocks containing 19,712 birds.
Seventy-six hatcheries with a total capacity of 3,257,038 are now participating in the National Poultry Improvement Plan. Of these, 59 with a total capacity of 2,778,710 are in the pullorum clean or pullorum passed classes.
Assistance was given poultrymen in selecting and breeding birds and also in developing breeding programs. During December, 1947, a one-day breeders' school was held at the University poultry laboratory in Gainesville. Four hundred thirty farmers were assisted during -the year in securing purebred males and 528 farmers obtained purebred females.
Turkeys.-When considered together with other poultry products, turkeys represent a relatively small percentage return to Florida farmers. This enterprise, however, is important to the general farming section of north and west Florida. Turkey production has declined slightly during the past few years. Florida farmers raised 115,000 turkeys in 1946. This was an increase over the 1939-43 average of 108,000. A 5 percent reduction was reported in 1947 when 109,000 turkeys were produced. Estimates fol 1948 indicate a further reduction of about 5 percent to 104,000 birds.
A practical turkey management program was fostered, giving particular emphasis to separation of chickens and turkeys, portable coops used on clean land, good breeding stock, proper feeding and approved marketing procedure. Eight counties have been active in turkey work during the year.
Chicken-of-Tomorrow Contest-The chicken-of-Tomorrow contest has as a goal the development of meatier chickens that will grow faster on less feed and the breeding of strains of meat-type chickens of superior merit through a program of progeny testing. Florida has held a state contest for the third year. In the 1948 Florida contest the winning entry in the adult class weighed 4.06 pounds at 12 weeks of age and was owned by W. A. Belote of Pine Air Poultry Acres, Jacksonville. This high award in the junior class averaged 3.67 pounds at 12 weeks of age and was owned by Michael Blocker, a 4-H club boy from Jacksonville.









Flo ridla Cooperaotivec Extension


BEEKEEPING
John D. Haynie, Apiculturist

The Apiculturist was appointed in December 1947. His duties are to promote beekeeping in the state by instructing and assisting county agents, home demonstration agents and district and state beekeeper associations in scientific methods of beekeeping and the marketing of honey.
Organized activity among the beekeepers of Florida began in 1919 when a state association was formed. The original purpose of the Florida State Beekeepers' Association was to secure apiary inspection for the beekeepers of Florida.
Some Beekeepers in the state are still lacking information concerning problems in their respective localities. The Apiculturist, working with county agents, organized six district beekeepers' associations, in addition to the three associations already formed. These district beekeepers' as-


Fig. 6. The Extension Apiarist demonstrates the five-deep brood frame hive.









Annual Report, 1948


association, which are scattered throughout the state, work closely with the State Beekeepers' Association on all problems in beekeeping.
Cooperating with State Organization.-The Apiculturist supervises honey exhibits at the Florida State Fair each year. This year, beekeepers put on four individual exhibits, the Ladies' Auxiliary had a booth and the State Association had one exhibit. Three of the beekeepers exhibiting sold almost $2,000 worth of honey, in addition to premiums received. The most popular booth among the honey exhibits was the Ladies' Auxiliary booth, where foods made with honey were exhibited., Bulletin information on use of honey in the daily diet was distributed at the booth.
The Apiculturist organized a three-day educational program for the Florida State Beekeepers' Association. Speakers were selected from the USDA, State Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Extension Service, Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture and federal and state representatives and beekeepers in the field. The beekeepers were informed that a research program in honey plants was in the State Agricultural Experiment'Station's budget for 1949.
This year in the nine district beekeepers' associations in the state, most of the work has been centered around organization. Visual aids have been used and beekeepers have brought them to the public for use in an educational manner. One of the sound motion picture films on the life history of the honeybee was shown to several thousand children in one of the larger cities by a beekeeper.
Teaching Aids-Three circular letters on (1) methods of beekeeping,
(2) condition of honey plants and (3) remarks on marketing honey were sent the beekeepers during the year. Four radio talks were given over WRUF on the importance of bees in the pollination of crops, notes on the history of beekeeping, importance of the bee industry in Florida and recommendations on how to winter bees.
The Apiculturist and the county agent of Gulf County took an entomology class on a tour to study honey production in the tupelo river swamps, which is the only region in the world where tupelo honey is produced in quantity.
4-H Club Activities.-During the summer four colonies of bees were brought to Camp McQuarrie, regional 4-H camp, for bee-handling demonstrations. It was not certain that the area around Camp McQuarrie would maintain colonies but it proved to be a fair location and nine gallons of honey were produced from two colonies. The other two colonies were secured later in the summer and they will be in condition to produce a crop of honey in 1949. The honey was taken from the hives and extracted by the 4-H club boys. At camp, groups of boys were given instruction in beginning beekeeping. The subject matter included a brief outline of the history of beekeeping in this country, the most important honey plants of Florida, removing honey from the bees and re-queening, extracting and handling honey.
At district 4-11 Camp Timpoochee a large commercial beekeeper located at Freeport invited the 4-H club group to visit his beeyard and extracting plant. The beekeeper conducted the group through the colonies and explained how the bees are handled and showed how the colonies are worked when shipping package bees. The group was taken through the extracting plant where each operation in handling the honey from the hives to the settling tank was demonstrated.
An outline on beginning beekeeping was written for use by 4-11 club members. A mimeographed circular of 20 pages, "First Lessons in Bee-








Florida Cooperative Extension


keeping," was written to fill the need for printed information on beekeeping. A bulleting on beekeeping will be published later.
Cooperation with Research Workers.-Since there is not a published bulletin on honey plants by the State Experiment Station, the Apiculturist wished to help publish a bulletin on honey plants in Florida which would serve the beekeepers and the science field.
Dr. G. J. Stout, horticultural department, food preservation, College of Agriculture, became interested in working with honey in the granulated form. Canada markets 95 percent of her honey crop in this spread form and co-ops in the Northern states are beginning to put up clover honey in a cream form. Dr. Stout found that by processing darker and stronger flavored honey, the color becomes much lighter and the flavor milder. He has demonstrated his processed honey samples to two large groups of beekeepers who are anxious that he continue with this work. While most of his results are encouraging, he is not ready yet to give out definite information on the formula. The honey processing requires a large amount of equipment and should be undertaken only by a large honey packer or organization.
The Apiculturist and officials of the State Beekeepers Association worked out a research project on plants. There is need for more honey plants that will fit into the beekeeping season in order that beekeepers will not have to move their bees to different localities to maintain them. At the present, there is no information available to assist a beekeeper in de-, termining whether or not a section of the state is a good beekeeping area.
Exhibts.-A beekeeping exhibit was set up at the Farm and Home Institute at Cherry Lake and Camp Timpoochee. The purpose of the exhibit was to show the elementary steps in manipulating a colony, taking honey from' the colony, equipment necessary to extract honey and the process of extracting. The point stressed in connection with the 'exhibit was that a few colonies of bees can be kept to produce honey for home use and help insure pollination of crops. There were over 200 people who attended the Cherry.Lake Farm and Home Institute, with a lesser number attending the Timpoochee Farm and Home Institute.









Annual Report, 19,148


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
W. W. Brown, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent

The state is divided into 10 4-H districts with one county agent in each district elected as district chairman to develop more effectively the 4-H program. One-day meetings devoted solely to 4-H subject matter were held in each district in January and February.
In October the 10 district chairmen, meeting with the state club staff, decided upon features of 4-H to be emphasized in next year's program.
By combining a training course for assistant agents with the 4-H conservation camp, 21 assistant county agents received a week of practical training in organizing and carrying on a 4-H program.
In two counties most of the 4-H members come from urban areas. Boys from urban areas and smaller towns usually enroll in poultry and garden projects and do excellent work. There are 12 4-H boys who have registered in the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, from one urban county.
For the past year there has not been a Negro District Agent in charge of the Extension program for negroes. The state club staff assisted in planning for the negro 4-H short course and the negro Extension conference.
A location has been secured for a negro 4-H camp. A donation for 4-H conservation camps was used to help finance two negro camps. A regional

Fig. 7-This dairy show attracted widespread attention among adults and juniors.








Florida Cooperative Extension


camp for negro 4-H members was started this summer at Baton Rouge, La.
At least one discussion on 4-H club work was given each month over Radio Station WRUF. Twice during the year 4-H programs from local 4-H clubs out in the state have been broadcast. Florida was represented in the National Geographic's 4-H story last November.
'Volunteer Leaders.-Progress was made in training local leaders. The Economist in Farm Management assisted with eight local leader training meetings and the state 4-H club staff assisted with 13. Many agents have taken 4-H club meetings out of the schools and placed them on a community basis in order to have the assistance of local leaders.
The training school for local 4-H club officers has proven successful in eight clubs.
Materials.-The state 4-H club department prepared an individual report card for use in building a permanent file for the county agents' offices. This card is being used in about half the counties.
The state 4-11 club staff prepared material which was used in organization, project work, recreation and demonstrations. A different type of card for livestock judging was developed by the state club office, working with the Animal Husbandman and Dairyman.
The state 4-11 club staff obtained som ' e equipment which was loaned to counties and helped plan county 4-H exhibits which were designed to interest and inform the public.
Enrollment and Completions.-County agents' reports show a decrease of 84 boys enrolled in 4-H club work. This decrease was attributed to the fact that agents decided to work with fewer boys in order to improve quality of work.
A decided improvement in number of members reporting was noted. Percent completions went up from 57.7 percent in 1947 to 63 percent in 1948. This is the first time completions have averaged as high as 60 percent. The quality of project work also improved. Five counties did outstanding work with a special corn,,contest. Two counties had excellent poultry projects. The work with beef breeding animals in three counties was unusually good. The number and quality of dairy animals in six counties improved considerably.
Tours and Short Courses-A large number of 4-H tours and educational trips were held. In Florida, boys' 4-H work is completely separate from girls' work. A departure from precedent this year was the organization of five clubs of boys and girls on a community basis. Enrollment and interest increased in these clubs.
The 1948 annual 4-H short course was held for the 29th year, with 250 boys attending. Crowded conditions at the University of Florida made it increasingly difficult to house and feed the boys, but with better facilities being built on the campus less difficulty is anticipated for future short courses.
Council-The state boys' 4-H council was revived. In addition to helping promote 4-11 work, the council collected $200.00 in donations from the boys at 4-H short course to send to a W.A.C. officer in charge of German youth activities in the Wurzburg area. A report from the W.A.C. officer related that the money was used to purchase equipment for German youth camps. Letters received from German youth groups expressed appreciation. At the National 4-H Camp, the Florida group supplied a package of concentrated citrus products, which was shipped abroad.
Camps.-The administration of all 4-H camps became the responsibility of the Boys' Club Agent this year. This includes maintenance, new buildings, operation of kitchens at camp and securing caretakers and camp








Annual Report, 1948


staffs. This year needed repairs were made and some new equipment was added to the three 4-H camps.
Plans for 1949 include rebuilding two buildings at Cherry Lake and finishing the apiary at McQuarrie. Four colonies of bees were started at McQuarrie and plans have been made to enlarge the apiary until enough honey can be produced to supply all camps. This will necessitate building a honey extracting house, which should be completed by the summer of 1949.
Increased efficiency and better service was obtained after all camp dining rooms and kitchens were placed under one head. Three kitchen managers supervised preparing and serving over 45,000 meals at 4-11 camp and at four farmers' institutes held at the camps during the summer. The meals at camp were served at a cost of 32c per meal.
Three directors and two life guards were employed for the summer. Four were former 4-H boys and one a school teacher.
This year 3,233 4-H members attended camp. Accommodations were available for a maximum of 425 people at a time, at the three camps. The length of the camping period for each group was four and two-thirds days. With the camp open for 12 weeks 5,000 could have been accommodated. Because of the shape of the state and the distance from end to end, there is need for another camp in the southern part of the state. Thirty acres of land on an excellent lake have been donated for a fourth camp.
Group insurance was secured to protect the 4,000 4-H members attending camps and short courses against the hazard of accidents and sickness.
Awards-Eight college scholarships were awarded in 1948. Seven boys attended National 4-H Congress and two the National 4-H Camp. Two banks in Tallahassee sponsored a trip for the champion 4-H corn boy.
The 4-H staff contacted 30 individuals and organizations who contribute annually to awards for 4-H boys. In 1948, the following were secured: seven college scholarships, trips for two to the National 4-H Camp, for white and for six to the Negro Regional Camp, trips for seven to Chicago and donations for short course and camp scholarships.








50 Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM CROPS, SOILS AND CONSERVATION

SOILS AND FARM CROPS
J. R. Henderson, Agronomist

The Extension Agronomist was employed December 1, 1947, jointly by the Agricultural Extension Service and the Agricutural Experiment Station. Two-thirds time is devoted to Extension activities and one-third to Station duties.
Major activities of Extension agronomy included:
1. Conferences with county agents, in groups, for presentation of subject matter information based on new research findings.
2. Meetings with seed, fertilizer, insecticide and fungicide dealers to better acquaint them with Extension recommendations for production of field crops and pastures.
3. Close study of research on soils, field crops and pastures at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and its branches and at nearby stations in Georgia and Alabama.
4. Carrying out specific projects in soils, fiel(f crops and pastures as need and opportunity arise.
Help was given agents in all sections of the state in recognizing the major soils groups in counties, in working out pasture programs to fit soil conditions and in determining lime and fertilizer requirements for various soils when used for the production of the adapted pasture plants.
Two group conferences were held in December, 1947, at which research information on all phases of field crop and pasture production was reviewed. One was held at the North Florida Experiment Station at Quincy and the other at the Main Station at Gainesville.
Four meetings were held during the year, at which Extension recommendations for production of field crops and pasture, fertilization and liming, and insect and disease control were outlined.
As the 1948 production season advanced, special projects with several crops and with pastures received attention. Crops concerned included lupines, Dixie Wonder pea, hairy indigo, peanuts, corn, flue-cured tobacco and small grains. Assistance was given in the development of a dairy pasture program for northwestern Florida.
Lupines.-Bitter blue lupine has become well established as the favorite leguminous winter cover crop in the general farming area of Florida. Weather conditions during the past growing season were unfavorable for lupine growth but highly favorable for the development of diseases. Agents were encouraged to survey plantings in their respective counties and locate disease-free fields for seed production. As a result of their efforts, a fair supply of good seed was obtained.
Seed of sweet yellow lupine had been increased by the Experiment Station. Through cooperation with them, several lots of these seed were placed with farmers in strategically located counties for further observation.
Dixie Wonder Pea.-This variety, a selection out of the Austrian winter pea, had been under observation at the Experiment Station for two years. It was found to grow off earlier and produce larger yields of forage than its parent. Agents throughout the general farming area were asked to secure plantings for further study of its possibilities as a grazing and green manure crop.









Annual Report, 1948


Hairy Indigo.-There is need for a summer cover crop to replace Crotalaria spectabilis. Hairy indigo seems to meet these requirements and has possibilities as a grazing and hay crop. This year, a small quantity of the seed of an early-maturing strain was released to the Agronomist by the Experiment Station. Six lots of this seed were placed in as many counties for the beginning of a seed production program.
Peanuts.-Seed of a new strain, the Dixie Runner, were released to a few growers in 1943. This variety has outyicided the common Southeastern Runner by as much as 25 percent and the nuts are almost free of "concealed damage." The seed supply after five years was sufficient to plant only 15 percent of the acreage devoted to peanuts. The Agronomist is assisting agents in strategically located counties throughout the peanutgrowing area in finding growers interested in becoming producers of certified Dixie Runner seed. Small lots of foundation stock were released to growers in three counties this year.
Corn.-In 1947 the average yield on approximately 700,000 acres of corn was 12.5 bushels per acre. Experiment Station workers have shown that the yield of corn can be increased considerably through the use of


Fig. 8. Before they could put good quality tobacco in the barns, both shade and flue-cured tobacco growers had to control the green peach aphid this year.

X"r I c AM It ?N& -7S CeAA


LK~
K


~'1


N


/


V -









Florida Cooperative Extension


adapted hybrids, closer spacing of plants and heavier fertilization. Hybrids which appeared suitable for use under Florida conditions included Florida W-1, Florida W-2 and Dixie 18. Seed of Florida W-1 has been available to farmers for several years but this was the first year that seed of the other two were available.
All 4-H club boys having corn production projects were urged to use one of the three adapted hybrids, space plants according to soil conditions and fertilize in accordance with soil fertility and spacing. Demonstrations were carried out in all counties where corn is an important crop. Results were outstanding and did much to further the Extension program for corn production. The following are typical of yields obtained. In Escambia County, where the 1945 reported average yield was 18.2 bushels per acre, the boys produced 55 bushels per acre. In Suwannee County, with a 1945 average yield of 9.3 bushels, average yield obtained under this project was 33 bushels per acre.
Flue-Cured Tobacco.-As a result of wide adoption of Extension recommendations for weed control, blue mold control and correlations of soil type, fertilization and spacing, the average yield of flue-cured tobacco was increased from 860 pounds per acre in 1943 to 1,039 pounds in 1947. To further the Extension program with tobacco, an area-wide meeting was held in January. The program presented included research information and Extension recommendations on all phases of production and processing.
The green peach aphid became a serious pest in the shade tobacco fields of Gadsden County in 1947, but only minor outbreaks were noted in the flue-cured section. In May, when this aphid appeared in numerous fields throughout the area, the Agronomist spent considerable time and effort in compiling and publicizing the latest information on control measures, arranging for and staging demonstrations and keeping dealers posted on sources of the materials required for control. In carrying out this program the inadequacy of spraying and dusting equipment was found to be a limiting factor. This was brought to the attention of spray machine manufacturers, who are redesigning their equipment for better application of the insecticides.
Small Grains.-The annual acreage in small grains, especially that in oats, increased tremendously in the 10-year period prior to 1946. Due to prevalence of Victoria blight and a new race of crown rust during the last two growing seasons the acreage devoted to oats has declined. Camellia oats are resistant to both diseases. The Agronomist located seed supplies of this variety, furnished this information to seedsmen and county agents and urged them to secure the widest possible use of this variety in 1948 fall plantings. In several counties certified seed of the Camellia oat was used with the idea of developing local seed supplies.
Pastures.-Assistance was given in planning and conducting several pasture tours throughout the state.
A pasture exhibit was set up at farm and home institutes at Camps Timpoochee and Cherry Lake. This exhibit consisted of actual samples of pasture grasses and legumes and a series of charts showing: (1) the value of pasture, (2) adaptations of pasture plants, (3) fertilizing and liming for establishment of different kinds of pasture, (4) effect of fertilization and liming on the growth and composition of pasture herbage, and (5) steer gains on different kinds of pasture. A small card, outlining its uses and management, accompanied each plant sample.








Annual Report, 1948


Established 366,386 acres 151,508 acres 147,224 acres 156,654 acres 13,515 acres 31,403 acres 183,340 acres 3,155 acres 120,395 acres 170,911 acres 537,280 acres 8,265 acres
175
9,529 miles
85 miles 287,894 acres 150,020 feet 574 miles
7,856 acres
42,977 acres
1 mile
2,496 acres 7,888 acres
953 acres
12,390 acres
1,975 miles
196
6,020,457 acres
149,656 acres 1,305,202 acres

S
1,197,785 5,585,060 2,323,033 6 612,838
2,949,719 2,803,836
386,311
1,293,706


Practice Planned
Crop rotations 472,467 acres
Cover crops 219,755 acres
Contour farming 214,772 acres
Crop residue management 224,366 acres
Strip cropping 68,173 acres
Range improvement 152,030 acres
Pasture improvement 868,239 acres
Seeding of range 10,989 acres
Seeding of pasture 662,859 acres
Wildlife areas 185,002 acres
Woodland management 716,017 acres
Tree planting 31,481 acres
Farm and ranch ponds 340
Terracing 21,398 miles
Field diversions 106 miles
Farm drainage 816,870 acres
Closed drains 150,020 feet
Open drains 1,460 miles
Irrigation 15,654 acres
Improved water application 75,565 acres
Field windbreaks 25 miles
Water disposal areas 6,132 acres
Kudzu 24,692 acres
Sericea 3,317 acres
Alfalfa and permanent grass _------------------ 46,827 acres
Firebreaks 5,511 miles
Fish ponds 482
Farm planning surveys 942,842 acres
Basic surveys 111,471 acres
Reconnaissance 0 acres
FARM AND RANCH CONSERVATION PLAI Applications received this period 2,601
Applications received to date 11,759
Active applications to date 3,181
Plans prepared and signed this period 1,99
Plans prepared and signed to date 8,679
Active conservation plans to date 8,153
Combined treatment this period Combined treatment to date


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
. H. S. McLendon, Soil Conservationist

The Soil Conservationist devoted full time to the work from February 1, 1948, to the close of the period covered by this report.
Charters were issued to two new districts, Union and Lafayette, in 1948, bringing the total number in the state to 44.
Activities in Organized Districts.-The information given here is prepared from Soil Conservation Service records. The report for the last six months of 1948 will not be available until January of 1949 and this report is a summary of results up to June 30, 1948. This statistical report covers information on 40 districts. However, five of these districts show only work done during the last six months of the period covered. There are four new districts for which no work is shown.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Annual elections of supervisors were held in 37 of the 44 districts in 1948. According to the State Office of the U. S. Soil Conservation Service, there is a total of 22,158,298 acres now covered by soil conservation districts, of which 7,476,132 were covered by soil conservation surveys as of June 30, 1948. There were 2,949,054 acres covered by 8,668 farm plans for the same period.
Organization of Soil Conservation Districts.-The Director of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service is administrator of the State Soil Conservation Board and is responsible for administering the Soil Conservation Districts Act. Based on this authority, the Extension Soil Conservationist is responsible for organizational work in forming new districts in the state, and the county agent assumes similar responsibilities in the county.

SUMMARY OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES
BY WHITE COUNTY AGENTS IN FLORIDA, 1948 Number of communities in which work was conducted this year:
(a) Soil and water 562 in 51 counties
(b) Wildlife 199 in 38 counties
Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting
this year:
(a) Soil and water 508 in 32 counties
(b) Wildlife 250 in 13 counties
Number of farmers assisted this year:
(a) With problems of land use 8,420 in 59 counties
(b) In the use of crop rotations 4,036 in 50 counties
(c) With strip cropping 441 in 12 counties
(d) In constructing terraces 376 in 19 counties
(e) In grassing waterways or otherwise preventing
or -controlling gullies 435 in 28 counties
(f) With contour farming of cropland . 251 in 16 counties (g) In contouring pasture or range 135 in 8 counties
(h) In the use of cover or green-manure crops . 15,696 in 56 counties
(i) In otherwise controlling wind or
water erosion 894 in 30 counties
(j) In summer fallowing 596 in 9 counties
(k) In making depth-of-moisture tests . . 191 in 7 counties (1) With drainage 1,931 in 46 counties
(m) With irrigation 718 in 35 counties
(n) With land clearing 1,174 in 57 counties
Number of farmers:
(a) In soil-conservation districts which were assisted with education for organization or
operations this year 11,479 in 39 counties
(b) Assisted in arranging for farm-conservation
plans this year ' 2,435 in 35 counties
(c) Assisted in doing work based on definite
farm conservation plans this year -------------- 1,594 in 37 counties
Number of farmers assisted this year:
(a) In construction or management of ponds for
fish 187 in 34 counties
(b) In protection of wildlife areas, such as
stream banks, odd areas, field borders,
marshes and ponds, from fire or livestock 392 in 30 counties








Annual Report, 1948


(c) In planting of edible wild fruits and nuts in
hedges, stream banks, odd areas and field
borders
(d) With other plantings for food and protection
in wildlife areas
4-H club projects in soil and water conservation:
(a) Number of boys enrolled
(b) Number of boys completing Days devoted to line of work by:
Home demonstration agents County agricultural agents
Number of communities in which work was conducted
this year
Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen
assisting this year
Number of meetings participated in this year by Extension workers


145 in 18 counties 223 in 26 counties 61 in 14 counties 34 in 13 counties

6 in 4 counties 590 in 47 counties 381 in 41 counties 171 in 21 counties 273 in 37 counties








Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester

Forest Fire Prevention.-Although progress in forest fire prevention is being made, woods fires still constitute the main obstacle to successful reforestation in Florida.
County agents were assisted in meeting the problem of forest fire prevention through distribution of bulletins, charts, radio talks, posters, circular letters, news releases, pictures, motion picture films, book markers and illustrated blotters which point out how fires damage timber stands. In 20 counties agents were assisted in establishing or continuing the forest fire prevention campaigns along the lines of the Extension timber-grazing-game program. Under this procedure, grazing on wide improved pasture firebreaks produces more beef from the forest range in a given area than is possible under a woods burning program, and, at the same time, safeguards the timber stands from fire. ,
In promoting forest fire protection on farms and cattle ranches, Bulletin 127, Timber-Grazing-Game, written by the Extension Forester, was widely used by county agents and veteran's teachers. Recently the Florida Bankers' Association requested 400 copies of this bulletin for distribution to all of its member banks.
In Lake County the Extension Forester spent three days assisting regional, state and local SCS workers and state foresters in planning, preparing and executing an all-day forestry field meeting. Proper timber harvesting, thinning, estimating, planting and fire protection methods were discussed and demonstrated.
During the year, the Extension Forester conducted five training meetings in forest fire prevention attended by 42 county agents. There were 3,057 farmers cooperating in forest fire prevention for the first time.
Forest PIanting.-County agents were supplied with circular letters advising of the availability of forest planting stock, procedures for obtaining it, time for making applications for forest seedlings and methods of planting forest trees.
Through the generosity of five Florida pulp mills, more than 21/2 million slash pine seedlings were made available, free of charge, to Florida farmers, 4-H.club members and others.
For the past 10 years the Extension Forester has suggested the planting of native red cedar on farms to help meet the growing need for fence posts and other high value uses of cedar, such as pencil wood, cabinet wood and Christmas trees. The State Forest Service produced about 30,000 cedar seedlings, but they were infected with cedar blight in the nurseries and poor survival resulted in most farm plantings. A few farmers arrested the diseases and saved their seedlings by spraying them with Bordeaux spray as suggested by the Extension Forester.
Small demonstration plantings of hardwoods, such as white oak, black cherry, yellow poplar, wild mulberry, catalpa and swamp chestnut oak, were continued. One small planting of native mahogany was made in one county, using seedlings grown in a greenhouse by the Extension Forester.
In Lafayette County a fence post demonstration planting of 800 yearling catalpa seedlings was made. The Extension Forester planted 100 red cedar seedlings, as an under-story planting to the catalpa trees, to demonstrate the practicability of growing these two species of native forest trees as companion crops.
The Extension Forester continued work on two demonstration forest









Annual Report, 1948


plantings made five years ago. Fairly complete records on these two plantings, using 12 species -four conifers and eight hardwoods -were kept.
Average height of red cedar trees five years after planting, on the Gainesville plot, 7 feet 2 inches; Chipley plot, 7 feet 4 inches. The average height of slash pine, five years after planting, on the Gainesville plot was 12 feet
6 inches.
Windbreak plantings of Australian pines for south Florida and three
rows of slash pine interplanted with red cedar for north Florida were
recommended for protecting croplands and buildings.
Four training meetings for county agents were held. Thirty other
county agents received training in forest planting. There'were 159 additional demonstrations established.
Timber Marketing.-County agents, Norris-Doxey foresters and SCS
workers were assisted in conducting demonstrations in sound timber harvesting practices and in helping farmers adopt better cutting methods. Ten thousand copies of the new farmers bulletin, No. 1989, "Managing the Small Forest," were secured and distributed to county agents for redistribution to farmers.
Instruction in timber marketing was given by the Extension Forester
before 326 4-H club members in 18 different demonstration meetings.


Fig. 9.-An interested class learned about timber and forestry at the 4-H wildlife camp.






MB ERAN IMPORTANT
BER . FARM CROP


LUM.ER 7 FOREST PRODUCTS VS S'd
FEnCE POS- , SAW LOGS
FIRE 6z)D PULP WOOO
HANDLE VENEER K(1s
HInLS CROSS TEs
SHTGRPltES {piuwe
STAKES UM
STACK HOLES lAEkSWONTINOG TO C"RNThAS TIES
SELL EVEV YEAR 4W








Florida Cooperative Extension


Two training meetings for county agents were held and 14 other county agents received training in timber marketing. Improved practices were adopted by 257 farmers.
Forest Products For Home Use.-To help focus attention on the necessity for helping farmers provide for farm needs for lumber, fence posts, fuelwood, stakes, sills, shingles and handle material, the Extension Forester prepared a miniature display of seven forest products for home use and seven for market. This exhibit was displayed at fairs, farmers' institutes, forestry meetings, schools and in one large bank.
The Extension Forester was concerned with the development of better and more acceptable methods for treating non-durable sapling pine posts with wood preservative on the farm.
In cooperation with the Extension Engineer, a two-page illustrated mimeographed release on how farmers can treat their sapling posts with pentachlorphenol preservative was prepared to meet the need. The Extension Engineer demonstrated this method before all county agents during the annual Extension Conference. Two other demonstrations of this method were staged during farmers' institute meetings, with the cooperation of county agents, the Extension Engineer and Extension Forester. The idea is to convert non-durable saplings, of which there is usually a plentiful supply on farms, into durable posts, thus effecting savings of timber, time, labor and money.
The Extension Forester collected 37 fence posts, representing 20 species of Florida trees of known durability, from the woods and delivered them to the Experiment Station at Gainesville for a fence post durability test. Some were treated with preservative.
He cooperated with the foresters of the Lake City branch of the Southern Forest Experiment Station in developing the 58 acres set aside in the Osceola National Forest as a farm forestry demonstration area.
In this phase, three training meetings were held for county agents and 18 other county agents received training. Twenty-five demonstrations were established.
4-H Club Forestry Programs.-Emphasis was placed on a 4-H catalpa project. In 20 counties, county agents were furnished 1,000 catalpa seeds each by the Extension Forester. One 4-H club member in each of these counties planted these seeds in nursery rows which produced several hundred catalpa seedlings for later fence post planting. The object was to stimulate interest in forestry, give rural boys training and experience in producing forest nursery stock and help meet the serious shortage of durable fence post material.
This year several thousand additional forest trees were planted and about 10 acres of new improved pasture grass fire lines established on the 4-H club owned 400-acre timber tract in Escambia. County. With the help of the county forester, 1,000 catalpa seeds were planted on the project and several hundred nice catalpa seedlings were grown for transplanting into a fence post plot on the project this winter.
Additional plantings were made at 4-H demonstration forest in Marion County.
The Extension Forester taught forestry at five 4-H summer camps, and during the 4-H short course held at Gainesville to 374 club members. Demonstrations presented included tree identification, forest planting, timber cruising and harvesting, fire protection, game and wildlife, production of forest products for home use, thinning, improvement cutting and pruning.
Thirty county agents received assistance in organizing and conducting project work. There were 12 training meetings for 4-H members and 36








Annual Report, 1948


other 4-H members received assistance. Fifty 4-11 demonstrations were established.
In addition, nine training meetings in forest fire prevention, eight in forest planting, six in timber marketing and nine in forest products for home use were held.
Teaching Aids.-As teaching aids, the Extension Forester has prepared additional mounted specimens of leaves and twigs of native Florida trees and 26 wood samples mounted on a panel showing bark, sapwood and heartwood.
Eleven radio talks on various phases of forestry work were made and furnished to 15 other radio stations for re-broadcast by county agents.
Summary of Extension Activity in Farm Forestry.-Examples of increased farmer interest in forestry during 1948 as compared with 1947 are shown in county agents' annual reports.
1948 1947
No. of days county agents devoted to forestry 488 406
No. of counties involved in preceding activity 57 56
No. of farmers assisted in forest planting 864 605
No. of counties involved in preceding activity 44 38
No. of farmers cooperating in forest fire protection . 8,583 5,526 No. of counties involved in preceding activity 44 43
No. of 4-H forestry club members enrolled 154 106
No. of counties involved in preceding activity 26 15
No. of acres involved in preceding activity 334 133








Florida Cooperative Extension


HORTICULTURE


VEGETABLE CROPS
F. S. Jamison, Vegetable Crops Specialist

The Vegetable Crops Specialist was employed June 1, 1948, jointly by the Agricultural Extension Service and the Agricultural Experiment Station. One-half time is devoted to Extension activities and one-half time to Station duties.
As Vegetable Crops Specialist of the Extension Service and Horticultu ri st-Vege tables Specialist of Experiment Station, 1,067 letters were written answering inquiries of growers, supply men, county agents and others concerning the adaptation of crops to specific areas, fertilizer requirements of specific crops, control and identification of diseases and insects and other production problems. Approximately 80 percent of the inquiries concerned crop production. Many inquires were addressed to the experimental laboratories and stations in various parts of the state. In addition to inquiries by mail, more than 300 individuals visited the department of horticulture requesting information about vegetables.
The Vegetable Crops Specialist spent considerable time in assisting the organization of annual programs presented by the Florida State HortiFig. 10-The county agent and grocers examine packed tomatoes at a packinghouse.








Annual Report, 1948


cultural Society and Florida Seedsmen's Association, and in preparation of the annual yearbook and meeting of the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association.
At the request of the Provost for Agriculture, the Vegetable Crops Specialist organized a short course for transportation personnel engaged in handling perishable products. The Southeastern Claim Association and Southeastern Railroad Development Association assisted in holding this school at Gainesville, November 9-12 inclusive. Sixty individuals, actively engaged in handling perishable products throughout the Southeast, attended the school and requested that it be made an annual event.
Time has been devoted to organizing a short course for seedsmen to be held in Gainesville, January 11-13.
Through the efforts of county agents, more than 600 growers and agricultural supply men attended field days at the Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Bradenton, the Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, and the Watermelon Laboratory, Leesburg, of the Agricultural Experiment Station.
The Vegetable Crops Specialist made visits to county agents only where there were specific problems, such as growing Honeydew melons and onions in Suwannee County, growing of sweet corn in Marion and Columbia counties and proper fertilization of tomatoes, peppers and other crops in Orange, Marion, Sumter and Lake counties. The most common inquiry from county agents concerned the cultural requirements of crops with which they were unfamiliar or the performance of new varieties.
Information concerning the type of Extension vegetable crops program that would be attempted was presented at the annual meeting of the county and home demonstration agents. This was preceded by a meeting of an advisory committee composed of five county agents and three state staff members, who assisted in formulating a tentative program of work. The work program suggested that area meetings of county agents be held to discuss the most recent research work with varieties, disease and insect control and changes in fertilizer recommendations.
As a member of the Florida Agricultural Production Adjustment Committee, the Vegetable Crops Specialist spent considerable time in developing suggested production programs for 1948-49. After this material was assembled, it and published information pertaining to vegetables were presented to growers through the agricultural press and radio.

CITRUS CULTURE
F. P. Lawrence, Acting Citriculturist

The Acting Citriculturist is the only citrus specialist. However, the Extension Marketing Specialist and an Experiment Station Associate Economist, who works part time with Extension Service, both work in the field of citrus.
In addition to these, there has been organized an Extension Citrus Advisory Committee. This committee is composed of the Acting Citriculturist, the Marketing Specialist, the Associate Economist in Charge of Production Records, the Assistant to the Director, the District Agents in the citrus belt and five county agents from major citrus producing counties.
At a time when the American farmer is enjoying near peak prosperity, Florida citrus growers are not getting sufficient returns to cover cost of production.
In the 1945-46 season, Florida shipped 86 million boxes of citrus which grossed $236,230,700. In 1946-47, 871/2 million boxes were shipped which grossed $146,565,580 and in 1947-48, 91,100,000 boxes were shipped which








62 Florida Cooperative Extension

grossed only a little over 114 million dollars. This means that for the bumper crop shipped last year, growers received only 46 percent as much income as in 1945-46. The estimated total production of 95.29 million boxes of citrus fruit in 1947-48 season is the largest on record. At the same time, production, Iabor,'marketing and material costs were slightly higher than they were in 1945-46.
Developing a Program-A suggested county plan has been developed and placed in the hands of each county agent.
The Acting Citriculturist has recommended a program of minimum cultivation, fertilization and spraying which will reduce operating costs and at the same time maintain tree vigor and yields.
The Acting Citriculturist feels that a great many growers, especially those in the ridge section, spent entirely too much money for cultivation. Demonstration plots, some cultivated too much and others with minimum cultivation, have been set up in Lake County to demonstrate the comparison in yields, maturity, texture, solids and solid-acid ratios between plots and to help growers select the desired extent of cultivation for their own groves.
It is important that adequate cover crops be grown in all Florida groves during the summer to protect the soil.
During the depression in the 30's, many growers attempted to produce fruit with only the nitrogen from leguminous cover crops, but because of infestations of pumpkin bugs and the use of plants not well suited to grove conditions, they were not too successful; however, there were those who did produce good crops of fruit from young groves with little or no commercial fertilizer.
With the introduction of hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsute), the citrus grower finally has a legume that will produce well in citrus groves where the tree canopy does not lap.
In some field studies conducted this fall, groves were planted to indigo which gave green weight yields of 7,872 to 45,921 pounds per acre. The latter yield would be equivalent to about 1,800 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre. It is estimated that average yields in young groves would be about 15,000 pounds green weight per acre.
Good cover crop prospects are often adversely affected by entirely too much cultivation and by cultivating too late in the spring. All citrusproducing counties have at least a few acres planted to demonstration plots of leguminous cover crops and in most of them there are hundreds of acres.
During the year the 29 agents in citrus producing counties visited the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred for a day's schooling in identifying diseases and insects, their control, grove production and management. They also participated in a round-table discussion on citrus processing and by-products. The following day the group met with the executive secretary of the Florida Citrus Commission and his staff of advertising experts, who supplied current information on regulatory programs, their enforcement and plans for advertising Florida citrus for the next 12 months.
The Acting Citriculturist keeps agents posted on research and current events in citrus.
The Acting Citriculturist joined the entomologists and plant pathologists from the State Plant Board, the Citrus Experiment Station, the Main Experiment Station, the State Horticultural Society, the Bureaus of Plant Industry and Entomology and Plant Quarantine of the USDA in preparing a spray schedule for the coming season. The pamphlet is published by the Florida Citrus Commission and made available to Florida citrus growers through offices of the above agencies and county agents.








Annual Report, 1948 63

Due to the large volume of Florida fruit being canned, an economy program, which has as its aim maintaining the tree in reasonably good health with minimum of care to the external appearance of the fruit, is being devised.
Fairs and Institutes-Three citrus institutes were held. The most important was the 15th annual meeting of the Camp McQuarrie Institute August 30 to September 2. Approximately 500 different growers from 20 Florida counties attended one or more sessions of the week-long meeting. Some 85 men, women and children were in residence at the camp for the week. This institute is sponsored by the Lake County Horticultural Society and conducted by the Extension Service in cooperation with the various agricultural agencies in the state.
The second annual Indian River Citrus Seminar was conducted by the Extension Service for two days in October.
The fourth annual Gulf Citrus Growers' Institute was held in Brooksville in April.
The Acting Citriculturist assisted the county agent and Associate Economist in putting up an educational booth at the Lake County Fair and the Camp McQuarrie Citrus Institute. The value of record keeping was stressed in these exhibits. Most citrus county agents are promoting this important phase of citrus production and there was an increase of from 253 to 306 citrus records kept for the Extension Service.
Primary objectives of the Extension Service are making research, survey and demonstration plot results and other related information available to growers. Practically every citrus-producing county has a county fair and most of them cooperate in the State Fair at Tampa each year. These county exhibits are of material value in disseminating research data.
Demonstration Plots and Grove Tours.-The majority of the county agents in citrus-producing counties have many demonstration plots which are used very effectively in furthering the Extension citrus program. Five counties are conducting rootstock demonstrations, eight have fertilizer demonstrations, four have spray programs, three have biological control demonstrations, two have cultivation demonstrations and practically all counties are establishing one or more plots with the idea of conducting county tours to these demonstrations. In addition to tours to the experiment stations, two counties which have demonstration plots conducted tours within their own counties.
All citrus county agents made a tour of the USDA Citrus Station at Orlando and the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred. Twelve of the counties conducted county grower tours to these stations.
Processing and By-products.-The tremendous increase in citrus production during the past two decades has been responsible for the rapid development of the processing and by-products industry.
About 55 percent, or 50 million boxes, of the 1947-48 production was processed. This included 52 percent of the orange crop, 67 percent of the grapefruit crop and 17 percent of the tangerine crop.
Tremendous progress has been made in the so-called by-products field in a comparatively short time and it is believed that the industry can expect more financial relief through this field than through any other. The state now has 60 canning plants, 19 of which are manufacturing feed; 13 molasses; 10 essential oils; 6 frozen concentrates; I alcohol; and there are pilot plants now in operation for the production of methane gas and feed yeast.
Frozen concentrate was unknown to the consuming public until 1946, at which time about a million gallons were marketed. This product has








Florida Cooperative Extension


set phenomenal records in consumer acceptance. This year, six plants will be in operation which will process and market approximately 10 million gallons of frozen concentrate-equivalent to 10 million boxes of fresh fruit.
Research has proven that fresh grapefruit is an excellent cattle feed. Other citrus feeds are citrus molasses, citrus seed cake, wet citrus pulp, pressed citrus pulp and dried citrus pulp. In addition to these products, plants are manufacturing citrus meal, citrus range cattle pellets varying from 12 to 24 percent protein, and pellets for rabbits.
While the majority of the peel and pulp is utilized at present, prospects for new products are promising. Since the crop is grown in a limited area, raw material is concentrated in sufficient quantities for large-scale operation. In the 1946-47 season :1,600,000 tons of citrus were processed. Of this total, about 57 percent, or 910,000 tons, were from peel, pulp and seed, from which about 140 thousand tons of dried pulp and approximately 96 thousand tons of molasses were made. One cooperative was able to return 11 cents per box to its growers this year as a result of. extensive quantities of by-products manufactured.
The Acting Citriculturist gave a summary of research activities in the field of citrus by-products at the Camp McQuarrie Citrus Institute and at four other meetings of growers and processors. This summary was presented as an illustrated lecture.
Other Activities.-One bulletin on the home orchard was prepared and used during a week's teaching at 4-H club camps and additional copies were supplied to county agents.
An old Experiment Station technical bulletin issued in 1905 was mimeographed and supplied those counties interested in obtaining information on the tree snail.
Four radio talks have been given and 10 formal talks were delivered at industry meetings.
A monthly news letter was compiled and mailed to citrus county agents. The Acting Citriculturist is working on a filmstrip and slide hbrary to be used for loans to county agents as.an aid in giving illustrated lectures.
Educational exhibits were prepared and exhibited at two county fairs, one citrus school and two citrus institutes.
Budding and grafting demonstrations were given before two women's club groups and 4-H clubs were assisted in similar work.
Two talks were given before the Lake County Citrus School and one to a group of growers in Hendry County. In addition, one talk was made to a veteran's vocational agriculture group.
The Acting Citriculturist taught general horticulture to all 4-H club members registered at the six-day 4-H club short course at Gainesville in June and taught one week each in three county camps. There are three clubs working on citrus projects exclusively.









Annual Report, 1948


Part III -- Work with Women and Girls


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent

Home demonstration workers were responsible for the development and supervision of organized programs of work for both adult white and negro women and girls and also shared in responsibility for the general program for Extension work. Service to farm families takes precedence in all plans of work, but the scope of services rendered to non-farm families has expanded considerably.
ORGANIZATION
A state home demonstration agent, three district agents, six specialists, 43 home demonstration agents, 11 assistant home demonstration agents, 11 negro, home demonstration agents and a negro district agent made up the personnel directly responsible for guiding the program of home demonstration work in Florida.
District home demonstration agents were assigned responsibilities for the development of the general program, for maintenance of a wellplanned, functioning program of work in the counties, for lining up suitable personnel for county positions, for direct supervision of their activities, for securing and maintaining budgets for home demonstration agents and for direct contacts with cooperating county boards and people in order to maintain effective programs suited to county needs.
Specialists of the state office were responsible for giving needed assistance and training to the county workers in their specific fields of work, for supplying them with authentic subject matter information and for maintaining a satisfactory cooperative relationship with other workers to insure a sound, well-rounded program to meet the needs of Florida people.
In addition to its status as part of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Universty of Florida, home demonstration work functions as the Home Demonstration-Extension Department of Florida State University, under an agreement made more than 30 years ago. Florida State University provides housing for the state offices of home demonstration work and a financial budget, which permits additional personnel and a preservice training program for prospective home demonstration agents. Forty-three boards of county commissioners and nine county school boards cooperated in maintaining work in their counties. Fine cooperation was given by 34 counties in increasing their appropriations for expenses or salaries. Eighteen counties made substantial improvements in facilities provided for both office and field work.
Two new positions were established in the state office. A Health Improvement Specialist was appointed June 1, 1948, under a cooperative agreement with the State Board of Health and the State Improvement Commission. The Specialist in 4-11 Girls' Work began work October 1, :1948.
Appropriations were provided for the first time in two additional counties this year, Washington and Dixie, with the position in Dixie still








66 Florida Cooperative Extension

unfilled due to scarcity of qualified workers. Assistant agents have been provided in two additional counties, Orange and Escambia.

PERSONNEL SELECTION AND TRAINING
At no other time in the history of home demonstration work has such difficulty been experienced in securing qualified personnel. The enrollment of students for professional training in home economics courses in the colleges of this state and elsewhere has not increased in proportion to the growing interest in homemaking education on the part of the people, as shown in their requests for expanded services through home demonstration work.
The fact that salaries of home demonstration agents have not increased in the same ratio as those for teachers and administrators in the public school system and in other fields. Marriage has taken its toll of agents. The limited availability and high cost of automobiles has caused many prospective home demonstration agents to go into other fields. Of the white home demonstration agents, seven left the service and one transferred to the state home demonstration office as home improvement specialist. Of the seven leaving the work, two resigned because of illness, two for marriage, one for added family responsibilities, one re-entered teaching and one entered military service. To fill these vacancies two home demonstration agents were transferred to other counties, two assistant home demonstration agents were transferred to other counties as home demonstration agents, five appointments as home demonstration agents and five appointments as assistants were made. Because of the scarcity of qualified workers in Florida, personnel has been secured from other states, which has some advantages in that new workers bring varied resources, different ideas and stimulation to the work here.
The importance of pre-service training for prospective home demonstration agents became increasingly evident this year. The plan established five years ago, in cooperation with Florida State University, has proved of value in securing qualified workers. Under this plan graduates of college home economics courses are employed on an assistant or interne basis to work in a county under an experienced agent. Nine of 17 such workers who have been trained under this plan are employed as home demonstration agents. This year a plan was set up which included selection of seven students in their junior year in college for assignment to a county for a period of 21/2 months. Five of the students selected were former 4-H club members.
Further training of home demonstratioA agents now employed was given at a four-day training course on 4-H club work at the annual state short course for 4-H girls and at two annual Extension conferences, one for white agents and one for negro agents. Twenty-three home demonstration agents enrolled for the three-week course ' in Extension work at the University of Florida. Each member of the state staff, with one exception, had training in national or regional workshops planned to meet the needs of Extension personnel.
Lack of full-time, well qualified clerical assistance in county offices proved one of the greatest handicaps. Only 25 home demonstration agents had full-time clerical help, 13 had assistance half-time or less, while six counties did not have any clerical help. Progress was made this year with the addition of six clerical helpers.

PROGRAM OF WORK
Local Leadership.-For many years emphasis has been placed on securing and training volunteer local leaders who would have the two-fold








Annual Report, 1948


duty of assisting with the program and developing capable community leadership. Home demonstration agents reported holding 278 training meetings on adult work attended by 3,400 leaders.
Community Clubs.-There were 9,816 women enrolled in 395 home demonstration clubs. Agents reported 16,103 farm families and 14,269 nonfarm families adopted practices resulting from home demonstration program.
County and State Councils.-County council members served as advisers to the home demonstration agent and met at least quarterly to discuss work to be done in the county and state. One hundred thirty-nine home demonstration clubs made health surveys of homes and communities of their members and planned home and health improvement programs.
The Senior Council of Home Demonstration Work met in Gainesville, July 13-16. The theme of the meeting was "Today's Home Builds Tomorrow's World." The members were divided into committee groups on resolutions, executive, finance, scholarship, 4-H clubs and youth, food and nutrition, health, food production, food conservation, clothing, home and farm safety, fire prevention, home improvement housing,, child care and family life. Staff members or home demonstration agents served as advisers to each committee.
County and state councils have given a fine service to education and tangible proof of their interest in young people through their continuance of the state scholarship loan fund. That fund, available for loans without interest to worthy 4-H girls in their junior or senior year of college, has made more than $3,000 available to 20 students in the 18 years it has been established by the council. Every dollar borrowed has been repaid in full, a remarkable record, according to administrators of similar funds.
The State Council closed its first quarter century of service and guidance to home demonstration work, having been organized during the annual farmers' week in 1923.

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
County home demonstration agents have been busy serving people, as the following additional facts in dictate:
Visited 11,796 different homes and farms.
Answered 55,223 telephone calls.
Gave 525 radio talks.
Gave help to 64,910 persons calling at their offices.
Had 4,290 news articles published.
Distributed 135,581 bulletins.
Recreation-School consolidation has affected life in rural communities. 'Recognizing the importance of maintaining the interest of people within the community in their mutual problems and providing community centers for recreation as well as education, home demonstration clubs own 113 club houses or rooms. Five hundred seventy-five community recreation programs wereheld for the families. One example of this development of community-wide interest in needed community improvements can be found in the fact that 186 home demonstration clubs assisted schools by serving as sponsors of school lunch rooms, serving 39,360 school children, which program is directed by the State Department of Education and financed under the general provision of legislation administered through the USDA.
Libraries.-Forty-seven home demonstration clubs maintained rural libraries.
Canning Centers.-There were 38 canning centers in operation, serving 5,207 families.












CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Joyce Bevis, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles

At the annual Extension conference suggestions were given to home demonstration agents for organizing, planning and conducting the clothing program in their counties. An illustrated lecture was used on "Trends and Developments in Clothing and Textiles" with an exhibit of educational materials suitable for use as teaching devices in promoting a good clothing program. The Clothing Specialist served as consultant to a group of home demonstration agents who worked out a clothing program as a phase of over-all program planning.' This program served as a model for others.
In July, at the meeting of the State Home Demonstration Council, the Clothing Specialist served as consultant to the clothing committee whose members studied a plan showing situations, needs and objectives which should be considered in a state-wide program. There were 53 official delegates, 30 unofficial delegates, 15 home demonstration agents and the staff from the state home demonstration office at the meeting.
In addition to the assistance given by the Clothing Specialist at the two state-wide meetings, 77 days were spent in various counties helping the agents with duties such as conducting leader training meetings for clothing chairmen in 10 counties, judging achievement day exhibits and dress revues in seven counties, holding two-day meetings in 12 counties, training 104 home improvement chairmen to learn to make slipcovers and helping 10 home demonstration agents to obtain sewing machines for demonstration purposes. The time spent in the field on program planning was with the newly appointed agents who needed help on integrating and correlating the clothing program with the other phases of homemaking.
In November the Clothing Specialist served as co-chairman in putting on a style show at the annual meeting of the Florida Home Economics Association. The style show was for showing the home economists of the state-home demonstration agents and home economics teachers-the latest trends in fashion designs, colors and lines, as well as the latest trends in fabric developments, combinations and finishes. The home economists expressed their appreciation for this show, which did a good job of showing fashion trends.
In February a 4-H club stylist for a well known pattern company spent four days in the state working with the Clothing Specialist, agents, leaders and 4-H club girls on selection of clothing and accessories suitable for the teen-age wardrobe. In presenting her wardrobe the stylist gave tips to agents and girls on modeling their own clothes for dress revues. During the four days the stylist worked with about 15 home demonstration agents, 20 leaders, 150 4-H club members and 25 college 4-H club members. The Clothing Specialist also arranged for the 4-H stylist to work with the home economics teachers and future homemakers in two high schools.
During the week of the State 4-H Short Course in June the Clothing Specialist worked with 442 girls, 25 leaders and 47 home demonstration agents in small groups to help them devise ways of making the clothing program more interesting in their clubs. In the dress revue 103 girls from 34 counties modeled dresses which they made.


Fig. 11-This 4-H club girl, and thousands of others, learned to make and model their own attractive clothing.


Florida Cooperative Extension











70 Florida Cooperative Extension

Six articles on clothing and textiles were prepared for the Agricultural News Service, which is sent to county newspapers.
New clothing record books were prepared according to recommendations submittedby the committee on improving Florida 4-H club programs for girls. A mimeographed leaflet, "Make Your Draperies at Home-It Is Fun," was prepared.
Reports submitted by home demonstration agents show that 580 local leaders assisted home demonstration agents in carrying on a clothing and textiles program in 551 communities. There were 10,568 families assisted with clothing construction problems; 7,393 families assisted with selection of clothing and textiles; 7,015 families assisted in care and remodeling of clothing and 1,755 families assisted with clothing budgets.
Of 7,433 girls enrolled in 4-H clothing projects there were 4,374 who completed their projects, which included making 19,797 garments and remodeling 8,122 other garments.









Annual Report, 1948


FOOD AND NUTRITION
Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist

Prior to 1948, interest in foods and nutrition was stimulated by war activities and food shortages. The transition to peace time presented new food problems and raised more nutrition questions. Adjustments were made in the food and nutrition program to meet post-war situations. Greater emphasis was placed on planning, producing, conserving and utilizing the family food supply wisely, not only to have adequate nutrition in Florida but also to assist with the world food situation and thereby promote peace.
Nutrition and Health Reports from the counties showed 6,314 families were trained to recognize the difference between good and poor nutrition; 16,767 families were assisted in improving diets; 17 nutrition or health clinics were organized; 226 food and nutrition exhibits were arranged by 29 home demonstration agents; 222 exhibits were arranged by women; and 264 women served as food and nutrition chairmen.
Reports of the agents showed that 1,638 4-H club members were enrolled in some phase of the health program, with 777 completing; 1,371 4-H members had physical examinations because of participation in the Extension program and 378 nutrition exhibits were arranged by 4-H club members. Home demonstration agents reported that they devoted 503 days to the development of the nutrition and health program, assisted by 338 local leaders.
Food Selection, Preparation and Meal Planning.-Agents reported devoting 1,750 days to the development of the food selection and preparation phase of the work and 423 volunteer local leaders in 330 communities assisted. The reports showed that 12,624 families were assisted with food preparation; 16,767 families were assisted in improving diets; 6,004 with baking problems; 3,670 in use of dairy products; 3,824 in the use of fats; 4,423 in meat cookery; 4,886 in use of poultry products; 5,242 in vegetable and meat cookery and 7,440 families prepared food for home use, using methods to conserve the most food value.
In 28 counties 3,776 families budgeted and bought food wisely through quality, quantity and cooperative buying; 6,668 families planned three well-balanced meals to include daily the "basic seven" food groups and 7,044 families were trained to use local and seasonal foods to their best advantage.
County reports showed that 3,061 young homemakers and mothers were assisted with food preparation, 1,263 with money management and 1,748 with chi Id feeding. Young homemakers were encouraged to take advantage of prenatal and well-baby clinics. The reports showed that 699 mothers took this advantage.
The Nutritionist served as consultant at a school lunch workshop, where a bulletin was prepared to serve as a guide to making the school lunch program a functional part of the total school curriculum, thus providing better nutrition information for all the children.
Many of the community home demonstration clubs assumed responsibilities in connection with the school lunch program and in 33 counties 3,454 families were assisted with well-balanced lunches for school children. In 13 other counties 35 home demonstration groups assisted with the establishing of school lunch rooms and 174 communities helped with school lunch programs with 38,650 children involved in the program.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Reports showed that in 28 counties 257 4-H club girls served as leaders by assisting in planning and serving meals for community activities. and entertaining family guests.
The reports showed that 5,945 4-H club girls were enrolled in food selection and preparation and/or baking projects, with 3,442 completing; 67,649 meals were planned and 81,983 meals were served; 951 food preparation demonstrations were given by 4-H club girls and 378 food and nutrition exhibits were arranged by 4-H girls.
Some of the demonstrations and work meetings that were given by the Nutritionist in counties were "Money Saving Main Dishes," "Use of Citrus Products and Locally Produced Foods Such as Honey and Peanuts," "Food for School Children," "Food for All Ages . . Food for Families with Young Children," "Yeast Bread and Variations," "Meal Planning Made Easier," "Plan Your Meals by the Basic Seven," "Planning and Preparing Low Cost Meals," "Stretching the Food Dollar," "Oven Meals," "Meals for the Family" and "Meals Prepared in the Electric Roaster." These meetings were all conducted as leader training meetings for food and nutrition chairmen.
Home Production of the Family Food Supply.-Reports of agents indicated progress in home production of food. During theyear 11,610 families in 45 counties improved their food supply by making changes in home production; 6,295 families had more vegetables; 3,063 families more fruits; 3,421 families more meats; 3,942 families more poultry and eggs; 2,842 families more milk; 683 families made butter or cheese; 3,268 families in 33 counties produced and preserved their home food supply according to an annual food supply budget; and 2,195 families practiced home butchering, meat cutting or curing.
Reports showed that families planned their family food supply. There were 13,692 home gardens grown by girls and women. There were 2,735 fruit orchards; 5,511 poultry flocks; 2,111 families with one cow; 1,073 families with two cows; 486 families with more than two cows; and 2,482 families produced their home meat supply.
The Extension agents devoted 1,491 days to developing the program of home production of family food supply. This work was conducted in 597 communities, with 433 voluntary local leaders assisting.
Reports showed that 1,362 4-H club girls served as leaders or chairmen in gardening or fruit planting; 2,848 gardens were grown by 4-H club members; 454 members were enrolled in fruit plantings, with 315 completing; 1,542 enrolled in poultry, with 1,006 completing projects which included 42,423 -birds; 206 members enrolled in dairying, with 143 completing projects with 224 animals involved; .93 were enrolled in beef cattle demonstrations, with 56 completing projects with 102 animals; and 74 were enrolled in pig club demonstrations, with 52 completions with 82 animals.
One hundred seventy-six method demonstrations were given by 4-H club members on poultry raising; 54 poultry exhibits were arranged by 4-H club girls and 47 method demonstrations showing productive phases of the program were given at county-wide meetings.









Annual Report, 1948 73


4-11 CLUB WORK FOR GIRLS
A 4-H club specialist for girls, Miss Lorene Stevens, was employed October 1, 1948, to handle activities relating to organization, adult and junior leadership and program planning and to encourage wider participation in such events as county rallies, National 4-H Week, National 4-H Achievement Week and Rural Life Sunday to further expand and strengthen the 4-H club program of Florida.
There were 13,162 girls (10,009 white and 3,063 negroes) enrolled in 647 girls' 4-H clubs (505 white and 142 negro) in 1948.
Enrollment by ages in 1948 of all 4-H club girls:
10 years of age 3,337
11 years of age 2,652
12 years of age 2,242
13 years of age 1,668
14 years of age 1,313
15 years of age 813
16 years of age 535
17 years of age 315
18 to 20 years of age 287
The girls enrolled in 48,494 demonstrations, completing 32,590 of them. Demonstrations in either foods, home improvement, child care and training, poultry, gardens, orchards or clothing were selected by each 4-H girl according to her home needs and interests. To be an active 4-H member each girl enrolled was expected to have at least two established demonstrations in her home, one of which was on productive work.
Five hundred fifty-nine adult leaders assisted 486 white 4-H clubs and 150 women leaders assisted 107 4-H clubs for negro girls. One thousand sixty-five older 4-H girls also assisted as local leaders.
County Councils.-County junior home demonstration councils, made up of two representatives from each 4-H club in a county, usually met quarterly. Organized in 40 counties with 1,670 representatives of the community 4-H clubs, they helped plan and direct county-wide activities and worked closely with the women in senior home demonstration councils. There are 30 white junior home demonstration councils and 10 negro councils. Through the councils, state and county home demonstration agents advised with volunteer leaders and 4-H girls in developing county plans of work to meet the needs of families.
State Council.-The State Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work is composed of the presidents of county junior home demonstration councils and one elected delegate from each county. The council held its annual meeting June 11, during the annual state 4-H girls' short' course at Florida State University, Tallahassee. The ultimate goal of the state council is to develop a program which will help girls to become finer women, who can serve as worthy members of their families and be better prepared homemakers of the future. Council committees on resolutions, reports, programs of work, overseas gifts and finance met daily, with home demonstration agents serving as advisers.
State Short Course for 4-11 Girls.-The annual state short course for Florida 4-H club girls, held in Tallahassee June 7-12, 1948, was attended by 440 girls, 25 leaders and all but two of the home demonstration agents. Club girls who met the necessary requirements of age, years in 4-H work and general excellence of achievement in their records, were awarded scholarships to the short course. These scholarships, totaling $7,178, were









Florida Cooperative Extension


provided by interested individuals and organizations in the counties, such as county commissioners, women's clubs, parent-teacher associations, men's civic clubs and horne demonstration clubs.
Training meetings for the girls, leaders and home demonstration agents were conducted in many phases of the 4-H club program, with opportunities for participation in the various activities.
Tours were arranged to give the girls pride in their Florida citizenship and to acquaint them with interesting facts about the capital city, Tallahassee. The group visited the state capitol, where they were received by the Governor, Secretary of State, Commissioner of Agriculture and other state officials.
District and County 4-H Camps.-The three district 4-H camps located at Timpoochee, Cherry Lake and McQuarrie, were open during the camping season of June, July and August. Counties were scheduled and attendance limited to accommodate the county groups. One thousand six hundred five 4-H club girls attended 54 4-H county and district camps in 1948. Each 4-H club girl was required to reach certain goals of achievement before she was eligible to attend the 4-H camps. Camps were planned to develop leadership, provide practical instruction and offer recreation, At Camp McQuarrie, 104 girls learned to swim and of 1,104 girls participating in a swimming program under the direction of a Red Cross official, 783 received Red Cross swimming certificates.
National 4-H Club Camp.-Two girls, along with two boys, represented Florida at the National 4-H Club Camp in June in Washington, D.C. The theme was "Creating Better Homes Today for a More Responsible Citizenship Tomorrow." Upon their return to the state both girls made reports to


Fig. 12.-Girls at camp learn to stencil and do many kinds of crafts work.








Annual Report, 1948


their local 4-H clubs and community groups, civic clubs, home demonstration clubs and farm and home institutes. The scholarship trips were awarded by the Florida Department of Agriculture and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad.
National 4-H Club Congress.-Eight 4-H club girls received trips to the National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago in November. The awards were made for general excellence in all-around records, clothing achievement, clothing-dress revue, food preparation, food preservation, farm and home safety, gardening and home improvement.
National 4-H Weeks-Florida 4-H club girls annually observe National 4-H Week in March and National 4-H Achievement Week in October through planned and conducted special activities, such as window exhibits, fairs, radio programs, newspaper stories, personal appearances of 4-H club members at PTA, civic clubs, church groups and school assemblies. Four hundred thirty six local and county achievement days in 44 counties attracted 34,702 persons. Sixty-two conducted tours gave 1,047 girls, not enrolled in 4-H club work, opportunities to see demonstrations of 441 club girls.
Other Activities.-The theme of the 25th anniversary meeting of the State Congress of Parents and Teachers in West Palm Beach, November 9-11, was "Rediscovering the Family." To better acquaint the 753 women attending with the 4-H club program for white and negro girls in the state, an exhibit of posters, enlarged pictures, products grown and preserved and articles made by 4-H girls was set up.
The State Farm Bureau Federation arranged a program on youth activities as part of their annual meeting held in Gainesville in November. The president of the State Council of Junior Home Demonstration work represented the 4-H girls in a report on progress made. Twelve Alachua County 4-H club girls assisted by serving at a banquet for approximately 200 persons.









Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Grace I. Neely, Economist in Food Conservation

Home Gardens, Fruit Plantings.-The Food Conservationist was concerned with encouraging home gardens and fruit plantings to insure a good home supply. Vegetable crop production was reduced in some areas by floods and winds. Replanting and extra expense for labor reduced the total income, so that some vegetable farmers realized only a small margin on their investment. There were 13,692 good home gardens despite floods and hurricanes, however.
There were 5,561 home orchards started with 18,841 fruit trees set out and 48,673 berry and grape vines started. Nine counties reported 37 women pooling orders for fruit plantings.
Food Conservation.-The Food Conservationist re-emphasized to agents the need for encouraging better quality food, regardless of the method used for preserving it. Method demonstrations were given on scoring canned foods, comparison of home canned and commercially graded foods and on how to can foods the family can enjoy.
Local leaders were trained to give method demonstrations such as checking pressure gauges or making a conserved product. There were 389 adult food preservation chairmen.
I At a two-day Farmers Institute held at 4-11 Camp at Cherry Lake the Food Conservationist set up exhibits and presented the food preservation program to more than 200 men and women.
Two food preservation workshops were held for newly appointed home demonstration. agents to demonstrate methods of conserving meat and poultry. The Extension Poultryman and Animal Husbandman assisted in conducting the workshops. Two days each were required for the workshops, which were held in September at Quincy and in October at Plant City.
Extension agents report 1,234,984 quarts of vegetables and fruits were canned, 4,631 gallons of vegetables and fruit brined and 464,457 pounds of vegetables and fruits stored as dried, fresh stored and frozen.
A shift from curing to freezing was noted in the preservation of meat. In the conservation of meat, fish and poultry, there were 248,747 quarts canned, 34,150 gallons brined, 1,000,151 pounds cured, 996,651 pounds stored, 766,729 pounds frozen and 4,028 pounds of fish smoked.
There were 38 canning centers, serving 5,207 families, in operation.
The Food Conservationist and home demonstration agents received many requests for demonstrations and information on preparing and packaging foods for freezing. Reports show there were 986 families in 39 counties with home freezers and 320 freezer locker plants in 22 counties. The Food Conservationist cooperated with home demonstration agents and freezer locker operators in four counties by giving demonstrations on preparing and packaging foods for freezing at meetings held in freezer locker plants.
4-H Gardening, Fruit Plantings, Food Conservation.-Home demonstration agents report that of 3,267 girls enrolled in gardening, 1,911 completed their projects. There were 454 girls enrolled for fruit planting demonstrations, with 315 completing. This home orchard work consisted of setting out 2,922 fruit trees and 4,175 berry and grape vines. The 4-H girls reported selling 134,519 pounds of fresh fruits and vegetables from their gardens and orchards, besides canning for their families.






















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Fig. 13.-Demonstrations in freezing foods always attracted attention.


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78 Florida Cooperative Extension

Of 1,910 girls enrolled in food preservation, IL,279 completed projects, canning 43,100 quarts of fruit, 75,401 quarts of vegetables and 18,858 quarts of meat. There were 3,848 pounds of fruit, 5,905 pounds of vegetables and 47,410 pounds of meat, which were frozen, stored or cured.
Twenty-three records and stories of 4-H club girls were entered in the state gardening contest. The winning girl's record was then judged with the winning boy's record and this year, a 4-H girl from Madison County received first state honors and the trip to the National 4-H Congress in Chicago. Sixteen counties submitted records and stories of their achievements in canning and a Palm , Beach County girl received the trip to the National 4-H Congress.









Annual Report, 1948


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist

There was an 181/2 months lapse between the retirement of the Home Improvement Specialist, June 30, 1946, and employment of the present Home Improvement Specialist, January 16, 1948.
The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 45 counties through agents, groups of volunteer leaders, senior councils, club meetings, county rural housing committees, 4-H club achievement days, tours, home visits and work with other organizations and persons.
Assistance was given the negroes through the Negro District Home Demonstration Agent, through conferences, bulletins, records, posters and other material provided for her use and the negro agents.
Major home improvement problems include housing, family living and consumer education.
Housing-Florida needs more farm homes built for comfort, convenience, health and beauty, that rural people may live more satisfying lives and become better citizens.
The home demonstration agents report that 1,904 kitchens and 1,787 rooms other than kitchens were improved during 1948. Improved storage facilities for food, clothing and household supplies were provided by 1,627 families. There were 789 families who arranged for better laundry space and equipment. For comfort and convenience, families installed 664 sewage disposal units, 817 sanitary toilets, 743 water systems and 271 heating systems, and 2,273 improved screens and ways of controlling insects.
Extension of electric lines by rural electric cooperatives made electricity available to more homes. As a result, Extension agents assisted 2,494. families in obtaining electricity. Of these, 1,918 used it for the first time. Assistance with lighting and electrical equipment problems was given to 2,697 families with 1,130 new pieces of electrical equipment being bought and over 2,400 pieces repaired and put back into use. Extension agents helped 554 families use electricity to increase income.
Over 3,987 families improved their home grounds, with 818 of them using plans for complete improvement. Eight hundred and sixty-six started lawns; others improved lawns; some planted trees, shrubs and flowers; and others built fences, outdoor living rooms and stoves. In addition, 1,767 houses were painted and 75 whitewashed.
Family Living.-Family living became more complicated daily. Some of the problems that agents helped solve related to increasing income; spending wisely; producing food and feed when practicable; practicing orderly work habits; needed medical and dental care; educational, recreational and religious opportunities; and security for old age.
Agents helped 6,907 families to become better housekeepers; 2,512 families received help with time management; 602 with home accounts, 1,161 with financial planning; and 619 with better use of credit for family living. Also, 562 4-H club girls learned to keep personal accounts.
To prepare themselves to be better parents and guides for young people, 2,132 families took advantage of assistance in child development and guidance offered through the home demonstration program, 2,525 sought to improve family relationships and 2,020 adults participated in child development and parent education programs. These families and individuals represented 4,437 children.
The desire for educational advancement was evidenced by enrollment of 9,816 women and 10,099 girls in county home demonstration programs.









80 Florida Cooperative Extension

Home demonstration agents, volunteer leaders and 4-H club girls assumed responsibility for recreation in their respective counties. Seventynine community houses and 23 club rooms owned or controlled by home demonstration groups were used for club meetings, work meetings and recreational activities for both young and old. Thirty-six counties reported 575 entertainments held for social purposes. This number did not include fund-raising, benefit socials.
Home demonstration agents helped 276 communities improve recreational facilities. In addition, 1,741 club girls received training in recreation al leadership and 1,953 in music appreciation. 4-H club girls in 484 groups engaged in the community activities such as school-ground improvement and fairs. Since community recreation does not meet the needs of all, 3,966 families were helped to improve recreation at home.
To offer facilities.for reading, 54 libraries in 20 counties were assisted or maintained by home demonstration groups.
Consumer Education.-Home Demonstration agents report that 2,778 families were assisted with food problems, 3,190 with clothing and house. hold textiles, 2,673 with household furnishings and 2,011 with household supplies, The total number of families assisted with consumer buying was 5,544, while 4,793 families were assisted in decisions to make rather than to buy and 5,142 in using timely economic information.
Some 2,465 families received assistance in selecting furnishings. In 45 counties 189 girls and 317 women serving as volunteer leaders assisted home demonstration agents in giving 757 home improvement demonstrations to girls and 819 to women.
A total of 10,302 families utilized feed and flour sacks, mill-ends and remnants in making over and repairing household articles. Farm women made 25 cotton mattresses, renovated 345 mattresses and made 1,729 rugs
To encourage thrift practices home demonstration agents and volun, teer leaders gave 452 method demonstrations before women and 486 be fore girls.
4-H Club Work.-Four leaflets, "Let's Set the Table," "Let's Wash Dishes," "Let's Arrange Flowers" and "Demonstration in Home Improvement" were prepared for use at state short course for 4-H club girls.
Training in exterior and interior home improvement was offered to approximately 300 girls, volunteer leaders and home demonstration agents attending the short course.
State honors for achievement in home improvement were awarded to an Orange County 4-1-1 girl, who attended the National Club Congress.
The 4-H club home improvement program is designed to stimulate the club member's interest in learning to do simple home tasks well, to make interior and exterior home improvements and to become a well-adjusted member of her family and her community. Home demonstration agents' records show that 2,547 girls enrolled for homemaking or housekeeping, with 1,831 completing; 2,298 enrolled for room improvement and home furnishings, with 1,498 completing their demonstrations by improving 1,319 rooms and making 5,203 articles to adorn these rooms and their homes in general; and 2,160 enrolled for beautification of home grounds and 1,222 completed their work.
Home industries, arts and crafts appealed to 4-H club girls and reports show that 1,337 were enrolled in this phase of work, with 955 completing 1,961 articles. Under the guidance of home demonstration agents and volunteer leaders they made 2,166 articles such as trays, etched glass, palmetto products, cloth dolls and other toys, pictures, wastebaskets, rugs and other articles to beautify their homes, to use for gifts and for younger members of their families.









Annual Report, 1948


RURAL HEALTH IMPROVEMENT
Lucille Russ, Health Improvement Specialist

Effective July 1, 1948, a plan for a program of rural health education was established with the Agricultural Extension Service, the State Board of Health and the hospital division of the State Improvement Commission cooperating. The State Health Improvement Specialist is responsible for developing a program to meet needs of rural people of the state and. to coordinate such joint activities of the three agencies as may be advisable.
For at least 15 years a definite rural health program has been guided by the Nutrition Specialist, who combined health education with nutrition work.
Health education is the sum of all experiences through which a person's habits, attitudes and knowledge in the field of individual, community or racial health are improved.
Health education cuts across the program of the clothing, nutrition, home improvement and food conservation specialists.
Since the Health Improvement Specialist has been on the program only six months, much of this time has been spent in orientation, planning and interpreting the program to the public, with a minimum of activity in the field.
The Health Improvement Specialist has served as a coordinator and consultant with all State Extension workers to:
I. Appraise the health and medical needs of communities and of Florida as a whole, and to endeavor to establish realizable goals for the program.
2. Appraise existing health services, state and local, in terms of desirable standards to meet health needs of Florida people.
3. Determine how existing health resources can be better used or expanded and what new health services and facilities are needed.
4. Develop a plan of action with short-time and long-time goals which will lead to the realization of comprehensive health services for rural people. To direct groups of people to resources, local, state and national, to which they may turn for technical advice in planning health education programs.
5. Undertake specific projects, ranging from such simple measures as, immunization clinics and better health services to more complex programs of procuring personnel, expanding public health services, constructing hospital and health centers and evaluating prepayment plans for medical care.
Objectives for the state-wide Extension Service health education program for 1948-49 were set up by the health committee of the Senior Home Demonstration Council.
In most communities there are many agencies, such as the health department, the public schools, private agencies working with youth, and a host of associations interested in specific diseases or health needs.
The aim of the Extension health education program is to develop coordination between the organizations in order to achieve more complete coverage of rural health by presenting the task as a whole so each group can undertake those activities which it can best carry out.
Since the health department is the center of public health activities, the Extension Service personnel urges rural people to avail themselves of the educational services in personal and public health provided by the health unit. The local health units have provided technical information and materials for developing county programs, as well as personnel to interpret services and functions to the home demonstration and 4-H clubs.









Florida Cooperative Extension


Local chapters of the American Red Cross, Tuberculosis and Health Association. American Cancer Society and National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis have been assisted by home demonstration agents in carrying out educational programs.
Reports of home demonstration agents showed that 5,104 families in 39 counties had physical examinations last year; 8,380 families in 37 counties had proper screening in homes; 9,671 families in 38 counties had water supplies tested and improved; 216 home demonstration clubs in 39 counties sponsored clean-up campaigns; 29 health chairmen in 29 counties were appointed; 2,448 families in 37 counties had cows tested for Bang's disease and tuberculosis; 6 counties with 47 4-H girls reported attendance at Red Cross home nursing courses; 48 women in 15 counties enrolled in this course; 135 health surveys were made in 29 counties; 93 home demonstration clubs in 22 counties planned health action programs on the basis of the health survey; 133 clubs cooperated with the hospital survey and construction program; 13 senior council presidents or senior council health chairmen were represented on county-wide health boards; 16 home demonstration clubs in eight counties made health exhibits and 204 women in 29 counties were health chairmen.
The Health Improvement Specialist taught two classes each day to the girls attending 4-H short course. The theme of the week's work was, "All 4-H Roads Lead to Good Health."
Two 4-H club camps were attended where three classes each day were held on personal grooming. Demonstrations were given on simple manicuring, shampooing and the making of tooth paste, deodorant and hand lotions.
Visits were made to six counties, where assistance was given in organizing clubs, teaching parliamentary procedure and presenting health information. In two counties assistance was given in planning a year's program 6f 4-H club work.
Securing, maintaining and effectively utilizing health services and facilities are major problems facing rural *people in this post-war era. Many doctors, nurses and dentists did not return to rural practice at the end of the war, but rather established themselves in urban areas. Before the war there was an average of 1.5 general hospital beds per 1,000 people in rural communities. A recognized yardstick for reasonably adequate service is four beds per 1,000 population. The Florida Extension Service, in cooperation with the State Improvement Commission, is endeavoring to interpret these needs to rural people and to further the educational program in connection with the hospital survey and construction act.









Annual Report, 1948


Part IV -- Negro Work


Negro Farm Demonstration Work

.A. A. Turner, Negro District Agent, retired February 29, 1948. J. A. Gresham was appointed Negro District Agent November 15, 1948.
Farm demonstration work was carried on in 10 counties. One resignation and two transfers took place. One agent returned to duty after having been away for one year working toward an advanced degree.
Most counties have givenfinancial assistance for the promotion of farm demonstration work among negroes.
At the annual 4-11 short course for negro boys and girls at the Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, May 31-June 4, county agents were given training, which assisted them in improving their work in the counties.
The. annual conference for negro Extension workers held at Florida A. & M. College November 16-19, served as a training meeting for all agents.
There were 101 leader training meetings held for 817 volunteer local leaders. Dependable persons, who are good demonstrators, were selected to assist the agents in carrying or. the county-wide program.
Increasing Crop Production.-A summary of county agents' reports shows that they assisted 503 farmers to obtain improved varieties of seed corn, 568 with vegetable problems, :130 with fruit production, 330 with legumes, 367 with cotton production, 378 with tobacco and 249 with pastures.
Increasing Livestock Production.-Agents assisted 60 farmers in obtaining purebred or high grade female dairy cattle, 10 farmers in obtaining purebred male dairy cattle and 40 in obtaining purebred beef cattle. They assisted 56 farmers in obtaining purebred male swine and 79 in obtaining purebred or high grade female swine. Fifty-nine farmers were assisted in obtaining purebred roosters, 113 in obtaining purebred or high grade pullets and 1,003 in obtaining better strains of baby chicks. Nine hundred sixty-seven farmers were assisted in improving methods of feeding poultry and 1,203 in controlling diseases and external and internal parasites of poultry.
Five hundred thirty-four farmers were assisted in controlling diseases and external and internal parasites of swine, while 75 were helped with these same problems with dairy and beef cattle, horses and mules.
Conserving Natural Resources.-Agents assisted 556 farmers in the use of crop rotations, 241 in the use of cover or green-manure crops, 35 in controlling wind or water erosion and 157 in arranging for farm-conservation plans during the year. Two hundred eighteen farmers cooperated in prevention of forest fires, 168 farmers with problems of land use and 57 with strip cropping.
Planning Farm Activities.-Agents assisted 299 farmers in developing a farm plan and 183 in developing a farm and home plan. Two hundred eight farmers were assisted with credit problems, while 407 were assisted in developing supplemental sources of income. Four hundred thirty-eight farmers were shown how to keep general farm records and 293 were assisted with inventory and enterprise records.
Improving Farm Homes, Farms and Equipment-Agents assisted 340 farm families in remodeling their homes and 131 with plans for new








Florida Cooperative Extension


dwellings. 1,140 families screened their dwellings or used other recommended methods of controlling flies and other insects.
Agents also assisted 297 farm families in obtaining electricity through the rural electrification program. There were 60 families who used electricity for income-producing purposes.
Two hundred three farmers were assisted with construction, remodeling, repairing and selection or construction of farm buildings and equipment. One hundred two farmers followed instructions in maintenance and repair of mechanical equipment and 153 were assisted in securing efficient use of mechanical equipment.
Improving Health Conditions.-Agents assisted 1,294 farm families in the prevention of colds and other common diseases, while 2,003 were encouraged to take positive preventive measures to improve health through immunization for contagious diseases. The importance of taking advantage of county health units and county doctors and nurses was stressed to these families.
There were 1,471 families assisted in removing fire and accident hazards in and around the farm and home.
Recreation, Community Life and Family Relationships-Two hundred fourteen men participated in child-development and parent-education programs, while 737 families improved family recreation. Forty-eight school or other community grounds were improved during the year and 13 communities were assisted in providing library facilities.
Marketing-Agents assisted with the marketingof general farm products worth $547,202, grain and hay worth $27,040, livestock worth $194,071 and fruits and vegetables valued at $66,669.
4-H Club Work.-In May, the state 4-H short course for boys and girls was held at Florida A. & M. College in Tallahassee. Eighty-two 4-H club boys, whose project activities were outstanding, were selected to attend.
Three boys and three girls, selected on the basis of outstanding records in project work and leadership, attended the first regional negro 4-H camp at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in August. The negro county agent of Gadsden County and the women's Negro District Agent accompanied the group.
Two 4-H club camps were held for boys during the summer. One at East Lake in Marion County and the other at Lost Lake in Leon County. Approximately 125 boys attended the two camps.
There were 2,077 negro boys enrolled in 4-H clubs who completed 3,350 projects.
Achievement Days.-Thirteen achievement days were held in six counties, attracting 6,816 people.
Florida State Fair.-Four counties exhibited at the Florida State Fair in Tampa during the month of February.









Annual Report, 1948


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Floy Britt, Negro District Home Demonstration Agent

The IL945 agricultural census shows there are 10,435 negro farm operators in Florida, of which 5,528 are land owners and managers. Many of them have little or no education, live in over-crowded houses with unsanitary conditions and are under-nourished. In some sections, medical facilities are limited and educational advantages inadequate. With these problems, the home demonstration agents have great responsibilities in encouraging a higher standard of living,
There were 11 negro home demonstration agents in Florida during 1948. Two vacancies occurred, which will be filled as soon as qualified persons can be obtained. One agent studied at Bethune Cookman College and another took a course in extension methods at Cornell University during her summer vacation.
Six of the counties supplemented funds for travel and expenses. Two other counties provided funds for demonstration and exhibit materials.
Seven negro home demonstration agents shared offices with negro county agents. Three negro home demonstration agents had separate offices and one agent shared the office with a white home demonstration agent. Six county offices had telephones and 10 offices had typewriters. One full-time stenographer was employed in the Negro District Agent's office and four part-time stenographers were employed in county offices. There are four agents who do not have clerical help. The good relationship which exists among home demonstration agents, county agents and clerical workers is conducive to carrying on a cooperative program.
Assistance in Carrying Out Extension Program.-The Negro District Agent assisted negro home demonstration agents in carrying out the Extension program through visits, result demonstrations, home visits, council and club meetings, fairs, achievement days, preparing materials, obtaining and analyzing local data, planning for camps, county short courses and securing help of specialists.
Selection, Training and Use of Local Leaders.-There were 313 men, 225 women, 68 older club boys and 90 older club girls serving as voluntary leaders. They aided the agents in promoting county-wide 4-H programs. Training meetings for leaders were conducted in the counties to enable the leaders to serve more efficiently.
State 4-H Short Course, Camps-The annual short course for negro 4-H club boys and girls was held at Florida A. and M. College in Tallahassee, May 31-June 4. A total of 213 girls, 82 boys and 7 local leaders from 14 counties attended the short course. These representative boys and girls were selected from 5,140 enrolled in 258 4-H clubs.
Three girls and three bo3 s, selected on the basis of outstanding records in project work and leadership, attended the first regional negro 4-H camp at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The Negro District Home Demonstration Agent and negro county agent of Gadsden County accompanied the group.
At one county and two district 4-H camps 144 girls and 12 leaders received instruction in grooming, first aid, nature study, water safety, handicraft, recreation, visual aids and 4-11 organization. The Negro District Home Demonstration Agent attended these three camps and 10 home demonstration agents attended one of the camps. The county camp was held by Hillsborough County at the 4-H club youth center on Spring Head Creek. District camps were held at Lost Lake in Leon County in the National Forest and at East Lake Weir in Marion County.









Florida Coope)-atice Extension


Agents' Annual Conference.-The annual conference for 21 negro county and home demonstration agents, representing 13 counties, was held at Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee, November 16-19.
General theme of the conference was "Better Living for Florida Families." Out-of-state speakers included T. M. Campbell, field agent, Agricultural Extension Service, Washington, D. C., and J. P, Davis, Production and Marketing Administration, Little Rock. Arkansas.
H. G. Clayton, director, State Agricultural Extension Service, and Miss Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent, made outstanding contributions to the conference.
Evaluation of Accomplishments.-There is a favorable sentiment toward negro home demonstration work in all counties. This favorable sentiment is enhanced by demonstrators, who are grateful for results achieved and give credit to the assistance of the home demonstration agent.
Accomplishments of negro home demonstration agents have been outstanding. In each county, there are signs of the development of finer groups of negroes. Rural people are thinking more about feeding the family well, promoting better health, better education, and making the homes more comfortable, convenient and attractive.
Records show that a total of 1,851 members were enrolled in 116 home demonstration clubs during the year.
Foods and Nutrition.-Reports from agents show that 2,619 gardens were grown, 3,222 calendar fruit plantings were started this year, 25,628 berry plants and vines other than grape were planted, 117,390 hens and cockerels were owned by demonstrators, 106,541 chickens were raised,


Fig. 14-These negro 4-H girls are learning dressmaking, with the help
of their negro home demonstration agent and local leader.









Annual Report, 1948 87

118,492 dozen eggs were produced, 1,799 family milk cows were owned by demonstrators and 233 milk cows were added this year.
Agents reported that there were 270 local leaders assisting with food preservation and storage problems. In food conservation, agents reported that 2,583 families canned 205,981 quarts of vegetables, fruits and meats and 8,944 quarts of pickles and relishes, cured 67,900 pounds of meat and made 12,229 pounds of soap.
In the field of nutrition and health, 2,173 families improved their diets, 1,877 families made improvements in food preparation, 2,689 families improved the family food supply, 1,001 families canned according to a family budget and 1,471 families removed fire and accident hazards from their homes.
Home Improvement.-Agents report on home improvement in their counties as follows: 1,908 families improved housekeeping methods, 471 families constructed new homes or remodeled old ones, 297 families obtained electricity for the first time and 249 families added new electrical appliances to their homes. Also, 309 families installed heating, sewage and water systems in their homes, 340 families provided needed storage space, 342 improved laundry arrangement and 223 installed sanitary closets or outhouses. Records further show that 1,140 homes were screened and 1,373 home grounds improved.
Agents reported that farm families did much to improve and conserve their clothing and home furnishings. Records indicate 10,526 new garments made, 21,510 garments mended, 2,382 remodeled and 1,300 home-made costume accessories made. Also, 14,218 household articles were made. A total of 903 rugs were made and 180 mattresses made or renovated. There were 1,469 families assisted with clothing-construction problems, 1,326 families assisted in selection of clothing and textiles and 1,718 families aided in care, renovation and remodeling of clothing.
Recreation and Community Life.-Reports from agents show that 737 families improved their recreation facilities and 93 communities were assisted by agents with organizational problems, programs of activities or meeting problems.


STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK (Men and Women)

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) 222%
Days of service: In office-1,908; in field-3,523 5,431
Farm or home visits made 9,306
Different farms or homes visited 4,622
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-15,226; telephone . 3,895 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth 2,566
News articles or stories published 265
Bulletins distributed 12,950
Radio talks broadcast or prepared 15
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen . 228
Total attendance of men and women 2,508
Method demonstration meetings 1,400
Total attendance 15,759
Meetings held at result demonstrations 267
Attendance 4,301
Tours conducted 91









88 Florida Cooperative Extension

Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work . 77 Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings 618
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms in counties worked 7,439
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year and in past 2,524
Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration
and agricultural programs 2,734
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the
home demonstration program 1,966
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration and agricultural program this year 4,490
Different farm families influenced by some phase of the Extension
program 3,980
Other families influenced by some phase of the Extension program. 2,639
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group 25
Unpaid 21
Paid 4
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
workers 367
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen 392
Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen 478
CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work 855
Communities in which work was conducted 781
Voluntary leaders and committeemen 775
LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work 512
Communities in which work was conducted 441
Voluntary committeemen and leaders 293
Farmers assisted 5,324

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work 145
Communities in which work was conducted 172
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen 129
Farmers assisted in soil management 1,663
Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation 483
FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work 180
Farmers assisted 3,165

GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE Days devoted to work 61
Communities in which work was conducted 116
Voluntary leaders and committeemen 94
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted 84

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work 690
Communities in which work was conducted 896









Annual Report, 1948 89

Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during
the year (established and new) $51,500
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year . $14,487,767

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work 413
Communities in which work was conducted 354
Voluntary leaders and committeemen 325
Families assisted in house furnishings, farm buildings, surroundings,
mechanical equipment, rural electrification 8,890

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work 1,126
Communities in which work was done 723
Families assisted: Improving diets-2,173; food preparation-1,877;
Total 4,050
Families assisted with food-preservation problems 2,574

HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work 179
Communities in which work was done 148
Voluntary leaders assisting IL61
Families assisted 1,986
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 222 Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies ----- . 1,095 Families assisted with consumer-buying problems 1,454

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work 278
Communities in which work was done 156
Voluntary leaders assisting 193
Families assisted 4,741

FAMILY RELATIONSHIP-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work 148
Communities in which work was done 146
Voluntary leaders assisting 147

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work 166
Communities in which work was done 167
Voluntary leaders assisting 179
Families assisted in improving home recreation 737
Communities assisted in improving recreational facilities 93
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities or meeting programs 108
Communities assisted in providing library facilities 13

SUMMARY OF 4-11 CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys 3,350
Projects completed by girls 11,509
Boys completing corn and peanut projects 632
Boys completing fruit projects 49
Boys completing garden projects 749
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops . 87









90 Florida Cooperative Extension

Boys completing dairy projects 109
Boys completing poultry projects 443
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects 161
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects 272
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects 237
Girls completing dairy projects 160
Girls completing poultry projects 696
Girls completing home gardens 1,279
Girls completing fruit projects 477
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops---------.159 Girls completing food selection and preparation projects---------.1,200 Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid 928
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and
room improvement projects 3,185
Girls completing food preservation projects 1,200
4-H Membership:
Boys: Farm-1,919; non-farm-SS; total 2,077
Girls: Farm-2,617; non-farm--446; total 3,063
4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in Extension program 1,908
4-H clubs engaged in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs 148








INDEX


Farm building plan service, 27 Farm buildings, 27
electrification, 27, 31
forestry, 56
labor, 25
machinery, 29
management, 11, 20, 21
training for veterans, 25 Fence post treating, 29 Financial statement, 7 Fire prevention, 17 Florida Farm Hour, 14 Flue-cured tobacco, 52 Food conservation, 76 Food and nutrition, 71 Forest fire prevention, 56 Forest planting, 56 4-11 club beekeeping activities, 45
dairy work, 37
forestry program, 58
gardening, 76
poultry work, 41 work, 21, 30, 31, 35, 80
work for girls, 73 Fruit washer, 30

Gardening, 76

Hairy indigo, 51 Hampson, C. M., 20 Hay drying, 29 Haynie, John D., 44 Health, 81 Henderson, J. R., 50 Hog program, 35 Holloway, Ethyl, 65 Home demonstration work, 65 Home improvement, 79 Home management, 11 Honey, 26
Horticulture, 60 Housing, 27, 79

Irrigation and drainage, 30

Jamison, F. S., 60 Johnson, John M., 27

Keown, Mary E., 65

Lawrence, F. P., 61 Livestock, 11, 33
Lupines, 50


Agents, list of, 4 Agricultural economics, 20 Agricultural engineering, 27 Animal husbandry, 33

Barrus, Edith Y., 65 Beale, Clyde, 13 Beef cattle, 21, 33 Beekeeping, 44 Better sire program, 36 Bevis, Joyce, 68 Blacklock, R. W., 47 Boy's 4-H club work, 47 Britt, Floy, 85 Broadcasting activities, 14 Broiler production, 42 Brown, W. W., 47

Camps, 4-H, 74 Carter, Bonnie J., 17, 79 Chicken-of -tomorrow contest, 43 Citrus, 24
culture, 61
grove management, 22 Clayton, H. G., 7, 19 Clothing and textiles, 12, 68 Community life, 12 Conservation of natural resources,
11
Cooper, J. Francis, 13 Cooperatives, 25 Cooperative planning, 10 Corn, 51
County agents, work of, 19 County and home demonstration
agents, 4
summary, 28 Cow testing, 37 Crop production, 11

DHIA program, 37 Dairying, 11, 36 Dairying possibilities in Hardee
County, 21
Director's report, 7 Dixie wonder pea, 50

Egg-laying test, 40 Egg quality program, 42

Family living, 79 Family relationships-child development, 12
Farm and home planning, 20








ii In

Marketing, 11, 23, 42 MeDavid, Ruby, 65 McLendon, H. S., 53 McMullen, K. S., 19 Meats, 35 Mechanical burners for sirup making, 30
Mehrhof, N. ft., 39 Men's work, 19

National poultry improvement plan,
43
Neely, Grace L., 76 Negro agents, 5 Negro farm demonstration work, 83 Negro home demonstration work, 85 News stories, 14 Nieland, L. T., 17, 56 Noble, C. V., 20 Nutrition and health, 11, 71

Outlook, 21

Parasite control, 34 Pastures, 34, 52 Pasture and feed, 34 Parvin, F. W., 20 Peanuts, 51 Pecans, 26 Perry, F. S., 39 Personnel selection and training, 66 Pettis, A. M., 31 Poultry, 11, 39 Publications, 13 Purebred shows, 34 Radio, 13


dex


Reaves, C. W., 36 Record books, 20 Recreation, 12 Russ, Lucille, 81

Safety, 17 Savage, Zach, 22 Seed drying, 29 Shealy, A. L., 33 Sheely, W. J., 33 Sikes, Anna Mae, 71 Sirup making, 30 Small grains, 52 Smith, J. Lee, 19 Soil and water conservation, 53 Soils and farm crops, 50 Spray equipment, 30 Statistical report, 10, 87 Stevens, Lorene, 73

Teaching methods, 21 Timber marketing, 57 Timmons, D. Et., 23 Training, 8 Transportation, 25 Turkeys, 43 Turner, A. A., 83

Vegetables, 24, 60 Visual materials, 15

Watermelons, 25 Watkins, Marshall 0., 7 Work of county agents, 19 Work with women and girls, 65




Full Text

PAGE 1

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS (Acts of !llay 8 o.nd June 30, 1914) Agri cultural Extension Service, Univers ity of Florida Florida State University And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating H. G. Clayton, Director J a, U(i"Alt I P;ff Nl O! A1,
PAGE 2

COOPERATIVE, EXTENSION WORK L', AGRICULTURE AND HOllE ECONO:IIICS (Acts of May 8 and June 30, 19U) Agricultural E xtension S e r vice . Univer si ty of Florid a Florida Stat e University And United States Department of Agri c ulture Cooper a tin g H . G. Clayton , Dire c tor 1948 REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1948 with FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1948

PAGE 3

BOARD OF CONTROL J. THOS. GURNEY , Chairman, Orlando HOLLIS RINEH A RT, Miami J . HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy THOS. w. BRYANT, Lakeland w. F . POWERS, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE J. HILLIS MILLER, Ph.D . , President of the University' H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture' H . G. CLAYTON, M.S.A . , Director of Extension MARSHALL 0. WATKINS, M.Agr., Assistant to the Director Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville J . FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor' CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor' RUBY NEWHALL , Administrative Manager' J. LEE SMITH, District Agent K. s. McMULLEN, B.S.A., District Agent H. s. MCLENDON, B:A., Soil Conservationist R . S. DENNIS , B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.' R. W. BLACKLOCK , A.B. , Boys' Club .Agent A . L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist ' C. W. REAVES, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman' WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman F. S. PERRY , B . S.A . , Asst. Poultry Husbandman A. W. O ' STEEN, B.S . A . , Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley L . T. NIEL A ND, Farm Forester C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D . , Agricultural Economist ' CHARLES M. HAMPSON , M . S . , .Agricultural Economist , Farm Management D: E. TIMMONS, M . S.A., Economist in Marketing F. w. PARVIN, B.S.A., Assistant Economist JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer FRED P. LAWRENCE, B.S.A ., Acting Citriculturist W. W. BROWN, B.S . A., Asst . Boys' Club Agent A. M. PETTIS, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist' JOHN D. HAYNIE, B.S . A., Apiculturist V. L. JOHNSON, Rod e nt Control Specialist ' J. RUSSELL HENDERSON , M . S . A., Agronomist 1 F. S. JAMISON, Ph.D. , Vegetabl e Crop Specialist' Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee M A RY E. KEOWN, M.S . , State Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, B.S.H.E . , District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition JOYCE BEVIS , M.A., Clothing Specialist BONNIE J. CARTER , B.S., Home Improvement Speciali:lt GRACE I. NEELY, M.S., Asso. Economist in Food Conservation LUCILLE Russ , M.S.P . , Rural Health Improvement Specialist LORENE H. STEVENS, B.S ., 4-H Club Specialist for Girls Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee FLOY BRITT , B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent J. A. GRESHAM, B.S.A . , Negro District Agent >Cooperative oth e r div i sio ns , U. of F . 2 In cooperation with U. S. [ 2 1

PAGE 4

CONTENTS Page Director's Rep ort 7 Statistical Report ........... . ... . . ........ .......... .... . . . . . ....... ............ ... .. ...... . ..... ... . ........ 10 Publications, News, Radio ......... . . . ....... ........ ....... . .. . .. . .. . .............. . . .. . . .. . . ........ ....... .. 1 3 Safety and Fire Prevention . .. . ... .. ........ .. . . ..... .. . .... .. . .. .... .... ....... .. ...... ... ....... . ....... 17 Work of County Agents ..... ..... .... . ............... . .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . ............ . . . ... . ... . ... . . .. ... . . ..... 19 Agricultural Economics ......... . .............. ...... . . .. . ....... .. ..... ....... ...... . .. . . .... ....... . . : .... ... 20 Farm Man age ment Activiti es ............ . . .... . . . .. ... . .... .......... ........ .. . . . . .... ........... 20 Citrus Grov e Management . . . ......... ...... ............. . ... . .... ... ...... . . .. . . .. .. ..... . ........... 22 Marketing Activities ............ .. . . .. , ... ... ..... .. .. . .. . . ... . .. . ................ .. .. .. . . ... ... . . .. . ... . ... 23 A gric ultural Engineering and El ec trificati o n . .. ................... .. ... . ..... . .............. 27 Agricultural Engineering ... . ........................ . .. . . . ... .. .. .......... ..... . .. . . ..... ........... . .. 27 Farm Electrification ...... , . ... . .. . .. .............. ... . .. . ............. ....... ....... .. . .. .............. : ... 31 Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Poultry . . ... .. .................... .. ...... ... ..... ........ .. . 33 Animal Hu sba ndry ... . .... . ... ..... ..... . ....... .. ... ......... .. .... . .. ... . : .... .. . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . ....... . . 33 Dairying ............................ .. .. . . . .. .. ...... .... ....... .. .. .. ... . . . .. .... ... ... . .. ... ..... . . .. . . ... .... .. . . .. 36 Poultry Activities ........ .. .. ... . .. . . . ... ........... ... ... ... .. . ....... .............. ... . .. . ...... ......... .. 39 Beekeeping .... ..... .... .... ........ .. . ... .. . . . ..... ............. ... ... .. . .......... ......... ... : . .. . . . .. .. ...... ........ .. 44 Boy's 4-H Club Work ....... . . ... . ... . .. .. ........ . ....... ... .. . .. . .. ........... . ...... ... .... ... ................ 47 Farm Cr ops, Soils and Con servat ion .. . ..... .... .. ..... ... ........... .. ....... .. . . . ... ............ . . .. 50 Soils and Farm Crops .. ... ...... . ....... ...... ..... .. .. .. . .. . . .. . ................ . . .. ... . . ....... ... ..... 50 Soil and Water Conservation ................ ..... . . . ... .. .............. . : ... .. . . ... ................. 53 Farm Forestry : ' 56 Horticulture ... . .. .. .. . . ... ............ . . .. . . . . .... ........... . . . .... . '. .... ... ......... . .. : . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ 60 Vegeta b le Cro'ps ...... ........ . . . .... . . .... . ............ . . . ....... .... ...... .. , . .... .... . .. . . . . . . . . ............. 60 Citrus Cultur e ... ... ......... ..... .. . .. .. ........ ........ ... .. . . . . . . . ....... .......... . . ........ . ....... .......... 61 Home Demonstration Work . ..... . . .... ........... .... . .. ... . . .................. . ....... ... .... ... : ........ 65 Clothing and Textiles ............... . . . ... . ........... ...... . . . . . . .... .. ............ . .. . . . . . ... . .. .... ..... . .. . 68 Food and Nutrition .. ..... . .. .... . . . . . .. .... ......... . .. . . . . ..... . . . . . .. .............. ....... . .. ....... . .. .... . . . .. 71 4-H Club Work for Girls ... . . . . .... .. .. . .. ......... . .. . . ... . .. . . .. ....... ....... ... ... . . ... . . .. . .............. 73 Gardening and Food Cons erva tion ........... .. .... ..... .. .... ........... . ..... .. . . . ....... .. : ...... .. 76 Home Improvem en t ......................................... .. ... . 79 Rural Health Improvement .. . . .. .................... . . . ... . .. . ....... .... .... . . .. . . . .. ........... . ........ 81 Negro Farm Demonstration Work . . ......... . .. . .. : .. : . . ... .. ... ..... . .. . .. . . . ... .. . . ........ .. . .. . .. 83 Negro Home Demonstration Work ...... , ............. ... . . ...... ...... ..... . .. . .. . . _. ... ... : ........ . . 85 Statistical Report, Negro Work ............ ... .. .. . ...... ............. .. .. ..... . ..... ............ 87 [3]

PAGE 5

COUNTY COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS (As of December 31, 1948) COUNTY. AGENT HOME DEMONSTRATION ADDRESS AGENT Alachua ..................... .Loonis Blitch .......... Gainesville .. Mrs. Josephine McSwine Alachua (Asst.) ....... T. H. McRorie, Jr ... Gainesville .............................................. . Baker .......................... J. Raymond Mills ... Macclenny .............................................. . Bay .............................. J. A. Sorensen ....... Panama City ......................................... . Bradford ..................... T. K. McClane, Jr ... Starke .............. Miss Dorothy P. Ross Brevard ...................... J. T. Oxford ........... Cocoa .................... Mrs. Eunice F. Gay Broward ..................... B. E. Lawton .......... Ft. Lauderdale., .. Miss Louise Taylor Broward (Asst.) ...... Robert S. Pryor .... Ft. Lauderdale ...................................... . Calhoun ...................... Thomas B. Jones .. Blountstown ................ Miss LaMitticE: Pearson Charlotte .................... N. H. McQueen ...... Punta Gorda .......................................... . Citrus .......................... O. M. Maines ......... Inverness .......... Mrs. Doris R. Turner Citrus (Asst.) .......... .Quentin Medlin ...... Inverness ................................................ . Columbia .................... John M. Kennedy.Lake City ........ Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell Columbia (Asst.) ..... F. A. Stenholm, Jr.Lake City ............................................... . Dade ...................... _. ..... C. H. Steffani... ..... Miami... ................. Miss Eunice Grady Dade (Asst.) ............. J. L. Edwards ......... Miami... ....................... Miss Olga Kent Dade (Asst.) ............. J. D. CampbelL. ...... Miami... ................... Miss Ruth Taylor DeSoto ........................ W. L. Woods ........... Arcadia ................................................... . Dixie ........................... C. L. Dickinson ..... Cross City .............................................. . DuvaL ........................ A. S. Lawton ........... Jacksonville ........ Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) ........... G. T. Huggins ........ Jacksonville ........ Mrs. Lucille Colsen Escambia ................... E. H. Finlayson ..... Pensacola .......... Miss Ethel Atkinson Escambia (Asst.), ... Albert H. Odom .... Pensacola ............ Miss Ouida J. Webb Gadsden ...................... A. G. Driggers ...... Quincy ................... ,Miss Elise Laffitte Gadsden (Asst.) ....... Bernard H. Clark .. Quincy ............ Mrs. Ivan S. Woodbery Gilchrist ..................... A. S. Laird ............. Trenton ........................................ : .......... . Glades ......................... A. G. Hutchinson .. Moore Haven ......................................... . Gulf ............................. C. R. Laird ............. Wewahitchka .. Mrs. Wilma A. Revell Hamilton .................... A. E. Nesmith ....... Jasper ...................................................... . Hardee ........................ E. H. Vance ........... Wauchula ................................................ . Hendry ........................ H. L. Johnson ........ LaBelle .................................................... . Hernando .................... Harry J. Brinkley .. Brooksville ............................................. . Highlands ................... V. T. Oxer .............. .Sebring ........ M~ss Catherine Brabson Highlands (Asst.) .... .Bert J. Harris, Jr.Sebring .................................................... . Hillsboro ..................... Alec White ... , .......... Tampa ........................ Miss Lora Kiser Hillsboro (Asst.) ....... Edwin Booth ........... Tampa ..................................................... . Hillsboro (Asst.) ...... Frank Neff ............. Tampa ..................................................... . Hillsboro (Asst.) ...... J. 0. Armor ............ Plant City .............. Miss Emily King Holmes ........................ Stuart C. Bell ........ Bonifay .............. Miss Laurena Croom Indian River .............. Marcel A. Boudet. Vero Beach ............................................ . Jackson ....................... J. W. Malone .......... Marianna .......... Mrs. Alyne C. Heath Jackson (Asst.) ...... '..Fred C. Sumners .. Marianna ................................................ . Jackson (Asst.) ........ OliverT. Burgess.,.Marianna ................................................ . Jefferson .................... E. N. Stephens ...... Monticello .......... Miss Mary A. Curtis Lafayette .................... S. L. Brothers ........ Mayo ........................................................ . Lake ............................ R. E. Norris ........... Tavares .............. Mrs. Lucie K. Miller Lake (Asst.) .............. James N. Watson .. Tavares ................................................... . Lee .............................. C. P. Heuck. ........... Fort Myers ............................................ . Leon ............................ James L. Rhoden .. Tallahassee .................... Miss Nellie M. Daughtry Leon (Asst.) .............. A. H. Clemmons .... Tallahasilee ....................... , ..................... . Levy ............................ T. D. Rickenbaker.Bronson ................................................... . Liberty ...... , .................................................... Bristol. ......... Mrs. Camilla R. Radney Madison ................. : .... W. W. Glenn ............ Madison .......... Miss Bennie F. Wilder [ 4]

PAGE 6

COUNTY COUNTY AGENT HOME DEMONSTRATION ADDRESS AGENT Manatee ...................... Ed. L. Ayers .......... Bradenton ............ Mrs. Anne D. Davis Manatee (Asst.) ....... Joe N. Busby ......... Bradenton ............................................... . Marion ............ . . . .. .. . .... Carl Hendricks ...... Ocala .................... Miss Allie Lee Rush Marion (Asst.) ..... ..... Sidney B. Parnell..Ocala '. .. . .. . . Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry Martin . ..... ........ .. ... ..... .L. M. Johnson ........ Stuart ..... . .. ......... . .. Miss Lucile Inscoe Nassau ....... ....... .......... Gordon B. Ellis ..... .Hilliard .......... Mrs. Julia P . Jernagan Okaloosa ............ .. ....... Fred W. Barber .... Crestview ................... ..... ........................ . Okeechobee ........ .. ...... C. R. Boyles ........... Okeechobee ..................... . ....................... . Orange ........... . .. . .. . ...... F. E. Baetzman ..... Orlando .... Miss Elizabeth Dickenson Orange (Asst.) .. . ...... .Henry F. Swanson Orlando ...... Miss sammie J. Killgore Osceola .......... ....... . .. . . . .J. R. Gunri . ...... .. . .. . . . Kissimmee ... ... . .. . ... .... ... .... ..... .. ... ... .. .. .... . . Palm Beach ....... . ....... M. U. Mounts ........ West Palm Beach .. Miss Sara Horton Palm Beach (Asst.) . .H. L. Speer ............. Belle Glade .. Mrs. Mildred J. Micnauu Pasco ........... ........ ........ J. F. Higgins ......... Dade City ................ Miss Ruby Brant Pinellas ............ .. ......... J. H. Logan ........... .Largo . . . ... ............ Mrs . Gladys Kendall Pinellas (Asst.) .. .. .... L. E. Cunningham .. Largo . ......... Miss Frances E. Johnson Polk . ........ . ....... . ... .. ... ... W. P . Hayman ...... Bartow .. .. .. . ..... . .. . Miss Elma B. Willis Polk (Asst.) .. .... . .. .. . .. . W. H. Kendrick ... .. Bartow ......... . .. Miss Emma Stevenson Putnam ....... . : .. ....... ..... H. E. Maltby ......... Palatka . . Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird Putnam (Asst.) . . . .. ... .James W . Bailey ... Palatka . . ... ............... .... . .. . . ................... . .. . . Saint Johns ............... Ross V. Swartsel..St. Augustine ...... Miss Anna E. Heist Saint Lucie .. . .. . . ... ...... Charles D. Kime .... Fort Pierce .......... Mrs. Irene Roberts Santa Rosa ..... . . .... . . .. . Emmett D. McCall.Milton . .. . ................ Miss Lora A. Botts Santa Rosa (Asst . ) .. .Johnnie E. Davis .. Milton . . ...... . ................ . ... ...... ........ . .. . ..... . . . Sarasota ... . ....... . . .. .. . ... W . E. Evans . .. .. . ..... . Sarasota .......... Mrs. Laleah B. Brown Seminole ............ .... ..... C. R. Dawson ... ...... Sanford .. . .......... . .... Miss Lila Woodard Sumter ............... . . .. ..... Kenneth A. Clark.Bushnell.. ................ Miss Tillie Roesel Suwannee ....... . . . .. . ...... S. C. Kierce ........... .Live Oak. ....... Miss Doris A. Cahoon Taylor ............. ........... . D. D. McCloud ....... .Perry . .. . Mrs. Ruth McKeown Elkins Union ....... . .. . .. . . .. .. .. . .... William J . Cowen.Lake Butler . ......... ..... .. ... ... ...... ............. . . Volusia ... . .. . ......... .. ..... . W. J. Platt, Jr ........ DeLand . . .. .............. Miss Edna L. Sims Volusia (Asst.) .. .. .. ... . T. R. Townsend ..... DeLand . ..... ................ .. . . . ... . . .. . ........... .. .. .. . Wakulla ........... .. ......... Harry E. George ..... Crawfordville .......... .. . .... . .. .................. . .. . Walton ........... . .. . ......... Mitchell Wilkins ..... DeFuniak Springs .... Mrs. Marguerite R. Brock Washington ............... H. 0. Harrison ....... Chipley . . . ....... Miss Mary L. Brownlee NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEM~NSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY NEGRO COUNTY AGENT ADDRES S Alachua ........... .... ... . .................... . . . .. Otha W. Nealy .. . . . .................. ... ...... Gainesville Columbia ....... ....... ........................ . . . McKinley Jeffers .................. .. ... . ...... Lake City Gadsden .. , ......... .... . . ......................... Russel Stephens .................................... Quincy Hamilton ...... ... . ..... ....................... . . . . N. H. Bennett ........ ................ .... White Springs Jefferson .. .. ... ....... ..... ... . . .. . ...... ......... M. E. Groover . ............................. . .. . Monticello Leon ........ . ..... . .. . ........ . ... . . ..... ... .. .... .... Richard A. Hartsfield . . . ...... ...... ... Tallahassee Madison .. . .. ....... . . . . ....................... ... . . James C. Miller . . .. .. .......... .. . .... . .... ...... . . Madison Marion ......... .. ...... .. . .... .. ......... ........ . .. Eugene P. Smith .............. ...... . . .. . ............. Ocala Sumter .............. . . ...... ............... . ... .... Richard L. Bradley ............. . .. . ........... Bushnell COUNTY NEGRO HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS Alachua ........... ..... .. . ........................ Leontine Williams . .. ..... .. .... . .. . . .. ..... Gainesville Duval ...... . ........... . . ..... . . ....... ...... . ....... Ethel M . Powell . .. ... ... .... , ... . ... . ... ... Jacksonville Hillsboro ............. . . ..... .. . .......... ........ . Sudella J. Ford .. . . . ......... . ... .. . .. . ... ........... Tampa Jackson ..... . ... . . : .. . ... . . . ................ ... . .. . Annie Doris Preston ........ .... . ... ........ Marianna Leon ................. . .. . ............................ . Irie Mae Clark ...... .................. ... ... . . Tallahassee Madison .............. ... ........................... Althea Ayer . .. ............................. . ......... Madison Marion ..................................... .... .... . Idella R. Kelly .. .................................... Reddick Putnam ............. ..... . ..... ............ .. . . .. . . Lee Ella Gamble Asia ........... . . ........... Palatka Volusia ... . . .. . .. . .. ...... .... ........... . ..... . . .. . Ida T. Pemberton .. ................ . .. . .......... DeLand [ 5]

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a, ....., Fig. 1.-The State Home D emons tration Council assists the state staff in planning and co ndu cting home demonstration work.

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Part I -General DIRECTOR'S REPORT H. G. Clayton, Director Marshall 0. Watkins, Assistant to the Director The people of Florida made increasing demands upon the services rendered by Florida Agricultural Extension workers during 1948. To meet these demands some additional county and state workers were employed. Some increase in federal, state and county funds made it possible to add to the staff nine assistant county agents, one home demonstration agent, two assistant home demonstration agents and four specialists. The spe cialists added include workers with vegetable crops, rural health improve ment, 4-H club girls and food conservation. The increased funds and personnel made it possible to reach some 450 more families in 1948 than were influenced by the Extension program in 1947. The increase also provided for more efficient service to the 79,331 families who received assistance during the year. Federal Funds: FINANCING EXTENSION WORK Financial Statement 1947-48 Smith-Lever, Bankhead-Jones ............................ $200,645.82 Capper-Ketcham ...................................................... 27,417.72 Bankhead-Flannagan .............................................. 92,910.28 Clark-McNary .......................................................... 1,620.00 Research & Marketing .......................................... 3,000.00 State Appropriations: $325,593.82 Legislature (Annual) ............................................ $222,57 4.56 Continuing, Chapter 6141. ...................................... 5,000.00 Continuing, Chapter 19216 .................................... 80,400.00 Sales Fund (Incidental) ........................................ 19,822.90 $327,797.46 County Appropriations: ................................................ $291,234.00 291,234.00 Grand Total ...................................................................... $944,625.28 EXTENSION ORGANIZATION Personnel employed on the staff of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service in 1948 was as follows: Number of County Agents ................................................ (62 counties) 61 Number of Assistant County Agents ...................................................... 28 Number of Home Demonstration Agents ........................ (44 counties) 44 Number of Assistant Home Demonstration Agents ............................ 12 State Staff Administrative Men .............................................................................. 2 Supervisory ................................................................................. :............ 2 Specialists .............. ................................................................................... 22 Administrative Women ........................................................................ 1 Supervisory ............................................................................................... . Specialists .......................................... ............................... ...................... . Negro: Supervisory ............................................................................... . Negro County Agents .................................... (11 counties) Negro Home Demonstration Agents ............ (10 counties) [ 7] 3 6 2 9 9

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8 Florida Cooperative Extension TRAINING EXTENSION WORKERS For the past three years a three-week training course for Extension workers has been offered by the University of Florida during the first term of the regular summer session. A similar course is planned for the sum mer of 1949. Four courses will be offered from which the student may select two. Each course carries 1 hours of credit. The courses are of fered on a graduate level. The Annual Conference for Extension workers was held at the Uni versity of Florida, October 4-8, 1948. Morning sessions during the con ference were devoted to discussions by well-known authorities on topics of a general nature affecting agriculture. Afternoon sessions were devoted to discussions on improved methods and techniques of doing Extension work and on recently developed research information. A plan was developed by the State Home Demonstration Agent, in co operation with Florida State University, for providing "on-the-job" train ing for prospective home demonstration agents. Students were placed in counties to work under the direction of the home demonstration agent during a part of their summer vacation period. This plan was first tried the past summer with seven students and was very successful. Such a program provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the work of the prospective employee, gave the student a chance to decide whether or not she wished to make Extension work a career and also provided the home demonstration agents in counties to which they were assigned some good assistance during this period of "on-the-job" training. During the annual 4-H Club Wildlife Camp at Camp McQuarrie, a special recreation course for assistant county agents was held. All the assistant county agents attended and were given a special intensive short course in practical recreational activities which they can apply in their work back in the counties. Results of this course will be reflected in the counties during the coming years. DEVELOPING STATE PROGRAMS Rural Housing Program.-The State Rural Housing Committee estab lished in 1946 continues to serve a very worth while purpose. This is a cooperative project and serves to coordinate the work of several Exten sion specialists in related fields. The Assistant to the Director is co ordinator and the State Home Demonstration Agent and Agricultural Engineer are members. The Farm Electrification Specialist, Home Im provement Specialist, Rural Health Improvement Specialist and Rodent Control Specialist all, contribute to the work of this committee. Coordinating Work of Specialists . ..:...In developing Extension programs for the major commodities, a Citrus Advisory Committee and a Vegetable Advisory Committee consisting of county agents and specialists have been established. These committees hold quarterly meetings at various points over the state and research workers, industry organization representatives and others attend upon invitation. The committee members and others obtain a clearer conception of the problems and programs of the research and industry people who in turn become better acquainted with the Ex tension objectives and plans. The advisory committees are helpful in shap ing the Extension program and influencing county agents' programs of work. The Citrus Advisory Committee has operated long enough to begin to see results and the Vegetable Advisory Committee, only recently or ganized, is getting off to a good start. Boys 4-H club work has been materially strengthened by dividing the state into 10 4-H club districts with some five to eight counties in each

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Annual Report, 1948 9 district. The agents develop their club programs in their respective dis tricts, assisted as necessary by the state 4-H staff. The addition of a girls' 4-H club agent to the home demonstration staff is strengthening the pro gram for girls. In practically all counties the county agent serves as secretary to the county PMA committee and the soil conservation district supervisors, in addition to various crop, poultry and livestock organizations. This keeps the Extension worker informed and also permits him to participate in the work of these groups in an active as well as an advisory capacity. The specialists work very closely with these organized agricultural groups. The recently employed apiculturist is getting a good program for bee keepers into operation. Some Broad Extension Programs Which Have Helped Solve Major Rural Problems.-The 4-H club boys have carried out demonstrations with crops and livestock for the purpose of introducing new varieties of field crops and better methods of production with both crops, livestock and poultry. The Dairy Specialist has been able to strengthen the dairy calf 4-H club program and to improve the dairy herd improvement association work. He is also getting organizations of dairymen to establish artificial ins e mination associations. In tobacco production, Extension programs have been largely respon sible for the upward trends in yields per acre and in maintaining and improving quality. The poultry program has been able to tie together the industry which includes the feed dealers, hatcherymen, poultry dealers and producers in to a group that works together on all phases of improvement of the in dustry. Leadership by the Extension Poultry Specialists and county agents has been a potent influence in securing the results obtained. During the past year, the district agents, Extension Agronomist and county agents have sponsored a series of meetings with fertilizer, seed and machinery dealers to give timely information on the Extension agron omy program. This program includes information on the varieties and kinds of fertilizer, disease and insect control methods and materials that will be recommended for the principal field crops. It has met with good r e sponse and enables dealers to stock the recommended seeds and supplies. Assistance of research people has been used in these meetings. In the vegetable and citrus area, the Extension program has been largely with productive problems to meet the changing d e mand and price situations. In livestock, the improvem e nt in Florida beef cattle production has b e en outstanding and the Extension program has continued to play an important part in the establishment of improved pastures, improved man agement and breeding practices. Agents have had an active part in ob taining the participation of cattlemen in the P & MA pasture improve ment programs, and use of other soil-building practices available under this program. In home demonstration work through organized home demonstration clubs and 4-H clubs, Extension programs in nutrition, health and housing, conservation, clothing and home beautification have made a definite and substantial contribution to the welfare of rural and urban families. A newly employed Rural Health Improvement Specialist is getting a solid program into operation which is enabling th e home demonstration agents to initiate improved programs affecting the health of rural people. The State Health Department and the State Improvement Commission are participating actively in the Extension health program.

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10 Florida Cooperative Extension STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN Data from County and Homenemonstration Agents' Reports GENERAL ACTIVITIES Months of service (agents and assistants) .............................................. 1,618 Days of service: In office-17,999; In field-21,238 ............................ 39,237 Farm or home visits made ................................................................... , ...... 63,224 Different farms or homes visited .............................................................. 33,810 Calls relating to Extension work: Office-259,057; Telephone ........ 168,788 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth ........................ 12,419 News articles or stories published .............................................................. 9,219 Bulletins distributed .................................................................................... 254,015 Radio talks broadcast or prepared .......................................................... 1,957 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen: Number .............................................................................. ..................... 1,133 Total attendance of men and women .............................................. 10,431 Method demonstration meetings: Number .................................................................................................... 10,259 Total attendance .................................................................................... 208,415 Meetings held at result demonstrations: . Number ............................................................................................ ...... . Attendance ..................................... : ....................................................... . Tours ............................................................................................................... . Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ........... . Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ........................... . SUMMARY OF E:•.::TENSION INFLUENCE 1,231 21,871 444 548 8,206 Total number of farms .................................................................................. 60,604 Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program ......................................................................................... . Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home demonstration program ....................................................................... . Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural program for the first time this year ............................................. . Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home demonstration program for first time this year ....................... . Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled ..................................... . Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the agricultural program ......................................................................... . Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home demonstration program ....................................................................... . Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ........................... . Different farm families influenced by some phase of Extension program .................................................................................................. . Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program ..... . COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING Members in agricultural planning group ............................................... . Unpaid ..................................................................................................... . Paid ........................................................................................................... . Communities in agricultural planning ..................................................... . Members in community agricultural planning ....................................... . Planning meetings held ............................................................................... . Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration workers ................................................................................................... . Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ......................................... . Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 30,524 14,137 5,531 3,208 10,443 16,690 12,356 6,175 40,202 32,778 574 324 250 73 221 1,434 2,980 3,060 7,507

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Annual Report, 1948 CROP PRODUCTION Days devoted to work ........ . . .. . .. ...... ... ... . ............... . ..................................... . Communities in which work was conducted ...... ... ................................ . Voluntary leaders and commit~eemen .. ............. .. ............. .. ...... .. ........ ..... . LIVESTOCK,DAIRYING,POULTRY Days devoted to work . ... . ........... ....... .. ................ . . . ................................... . Communities in which work was conducted .... ...... . ..... ... . . . .. ...... .. .. .... .. . . Voluntary committeemen and leaders ..................................................... . Breeding and improvement organizations ......... ... ............... .. ................ . Farmers assisted ......................................................................................... . CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Days devoted to work .... ........... ......... .... ................. ..... ............ . ................ . Communities in which work was conducted ....................... . . . ............... . Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ................... ...................... . Farmers assisted in soil management .............................. .' ...................... . Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation . .................. . FARM MANAGE1\IE1'"T 11 8,205 3,241 1,451 6,623 2,329 952 72 41,705 1,874 1,119 1,151 50,702 11,519 Days devoted to work .......... ..... ......... ....... .... . ........ .. . .... ......... .... . ................. 1,348 Farmers assisted .................................. . ....................................................... 27,304 GENERAL ECONOl\lIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE Days devoted to work ..... .... ... .. .......... . .. . . .. .... ... .'......................... .. .................. 355 Communities in which work was conducted . . ....... .. . .... .'.. .. ......... . .... ..... . .. ... 408 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . ... ... .......................... ....... .......... .... 759 Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted .......... ....... ............ . 973 MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Days devoted to work ....... . .. .... ......... ... . . ..................................................... . Communities in which work was conducted .... ..... ............ . . ......... ......... . Establish e d cooperatives assisted ..... . ................ ...... ............... . ............... . New cooperatives assisted in organizing ............................................... . Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during 2,745 2,915 110 29 the year ( established and new) . ... .............................................. $22,257,286 Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not members of cooperatives) assisted during the year .............. $16,923,303 HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT Days devoted to work ....... ...... .............. . .................. . ..................... . ........ . .. . . Communities in which work was conducted ........................ . .............. . Voluntary leaders and committeemen ................................................... . ::."amiliP.s assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical equipment, rural electrification and farm buildings .... , ................ . NUTRITION AND HEALTH 2,427 1,471 1,448 39,782 Days devoted to work ....... . ............... .... ............. . .. . .. . ................................... 5,488 Communities in which work was done ................................. . .................. 2,007 Families assisted: In improving diets-16,767; food preparation12,624; Total .... .......................... .. .. . ............... ... .............. . ...................... . ............... 29,391 Families assisted with food preservation problems . .. ..... . .... . ................. . 17,543 HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS Days devoted to work ........ ......... ............................ .... ................ . ................ 409 Communities in which work was done ............... . . . ................ .... .............. 380

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12 Florida Coop e rati ve E x ten s ion Voluntary l e aders ass i sting .. . .. . . . .... .. ... . ... . . ... ..... .... ...... . ........ ... ...... . ....... . . .. . Families assisted .... . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. .. . . ..... . . ...... . . .. . . ... .. . .. . .. . . .. . .... . . . .... ... ....... . .. . . .. .. . . Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies Famili e s assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies ..... .. . Families assisted with con s um e r-buy i ng pr.oblems . .. ..... ... ... . . .... ... . .... . . CLOTHING AND TEXTlLES Days devoted to work ...... . ........ ... .............. ... ....... . Communiti e s in which work was done . ...... .... ..... . .. . ..... .. . ....... . . . . ... . . .. . ... . . Volunt a ry leaders assisting ... ... ........ . ....... ... ...... ... ...... .. ....... . . . ....... .. . . ..... ... . Families assisted .. . .. .... ..... .. .. . .. ...... . .... . .. ....... ... . . .... .. .. . ... . . . ..... . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT 234 4,381 367 10 , 285 15 , 609 2,120 551 580 26,731 Days d e voted to work .... ... ....... . .... ... ... .. ..... ........ ... .. ... ...... ..... .... ...... .. ........ . .. 348 Communiti e s in which work was done .. . ............ . ... . . .. ...... . . . ........ .. ...... . ... 300 Voluntary leaders a s sisting ..... ... . .... .. .. ... .... .... . .. .. .. . . .. .. . . . .. .. . .. . ... .... ... . . .. . . .... 199 RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE Days d e voted to work ...... .. ........ . ..... . .................... . . . ...... . . . ..... .. ................... . Communiti e s in which work was don e ... .. . .. .. ....... .... ..... .. . ........ . .. .. . . ... . . .. . Voluntary leaders assistin g ..... . ...... . . . ....... .. . . ....... ... ... . . .. . . ..... .. .. . ... . . .. . . .... ... . Famili e s assisted in improving home recr e ation . . . . . .. . .. .. . . .. .. . ..... ..... .. ... . . Communiti e s assisted in improving community recreational faciliti e s Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs of activities or meeting programs .. .... . . ..... . . .. . ..... . ... . . . .. . ... . .. . . ...... . . .. . Communiti es assisted in providing library facilities ....... . ...... . .. . ....... .. . SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS Projects compl e t e d by boys .. . .. ..... . .. . . . . ... .. . ... . ... .. .. . ........ . . ... .. . ... . . . . . ..... . . .. . . . . Project s completed by girls . . . .. ....... .. ..... ... . . ........ . ........ .. .... ... ....... . .. .. ....... . Boys completing corn and peanut projects . .. .. . . .. . .. ............. ... .... . .. .. ...... . . . Boys compl e ting fruit projects ............... . . . .. .. ... .... . . .. . : . .. . . ... . .. . . . ... . ......... . . . . Boys compl e ting gard e n projects .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . ..... ..... .. . ... .. ......... .. ..... . . .. ...... .. . Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops . ... . ..... . . Boys compl e ting dairy projects ..... . . . ...... . . .. ...... .. ........ . ....... ... ......... . ....... . . Boys compl e ting poultry projects ...... . .. .. . .. ....... .... ... .. . . . . ... ..... .... ..... .... ... . . Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ........ . . . ...... ..... ............... .. . Boys compl e ting potato (Irish and sweet) projects ... . ... . . ... .. ..... . . ... .. . . Boys compl e ting beef cattle and swine projects .............. . . .. .... . .. ... ... . . .. . Girls compl e ting fruit projects . ... . . .. ... . . .. . . ... .... . .. .. ... . . ..... .... ... .. . ..... .... . . . . . .. . Girls compl e ting garden projects .... . ........ .. ...... . ......... . . . ...... . .... . .............. . . Girls compl e ting market gardens, truck and canning crops . . . . .. . . ... . Girls compl e ting dairy projects ... ...... .... . ......... . . . . . .... . ........ .. . .. . .. . .. ....... .... . Girls compl e ting poultry projects ............ .. .... .. ........................... .... ...... . . . Girls completing food selection and preparation projects . .. .. .. .. .. .. ... . . Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects ..... .. . Girls completing clothing, hom e management , home furnishings and room improv e ment proj e cts ......... . ....... . ....... . ........ .. .. . ...... . ..... . . .. . Girls compl e ting food preservation proj e cts . ..... .... ..... .. . . . . .. . . . ... . ..... . .. . . . . 4-H Membership Boys: Farm-6,029; non-farm-1,928; total , . .... .. ...... .. , ... . . ... . . . .. .. . . . Gi r ls: Farm-6,083; non-fann--4,016 ; total .. .. ; .... .. .... ......... . ..... ... . 4 H club members having health examinations because of participation in Extension program . ....... .. ........ . ...... . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . ....... . .. . . .. .. . . .. . ... . 4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school grounds and conducting local fairs . .... ... .. , ...... ... ... . .... . ... .. .. .. . 918 503 645 3,884 267 455 34 6,458 19,171; 887 92 1,294 96 503 1 , 052 56 181 1 , 440 315 1,911 4 143 1,066 3 , 442 777 6,600 1 , 279 7,957 10 , 099 3 , 962 458

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Annual Report, 1948 PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO J. Francis Cooper, Editor Clyde Beale, Associate Editor 13 Publication of bulletins, circulars, record books and other materials continued at about the usual rate, but is considerably short of actual needs. Demand for most bulletins is so heavy that supplies are quickly exhausted. There is need also for a mapped plan of publication to assure the bulletins and circulars needed. The Editors are doing more visual aids work than formerly, but the need for expansion in this field is great. PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTED l\lATERIALS The Extension Service printed three new bulletins and three new circulars during the year ending June 30, 1948, and reprinted two bul letins and one circular. The new bulletins amounted to a total of 108 pages, with 55,000 copies being printed. The new circulars covered a total of 36 pages, the total issue being 37,000 copies. Following is a list of ma terials published during the year. Pages Edition Bul. 133 Annual Flowers ....................................... .. .... . 52 25,000 Bul. 134 The Fruitful Papaya ........... . .... .. ............ .. .......... .. .. .. 20 15,000 Bul. 135 The Goodly Guava ................................................ .. 36 15,000 Bul. 124 The Cultivated Persimmon in Florid~. (reprint) 32 10,000 Bul. 131 The Florida Home Garden ..... .. ........... .. ............ ... .. . 16 30,000 Circ. 82 A Simple Farm Brooder and Finisher ......... .. .... . 12 15,000 Circ. 83 Portable All-Purpose Poultry House .................. .. 8 10,000 Circ. 84 Pullorum Disease in Chickens .... .. ................. .. .... . 16 12,000 Circ. 65 Planting Charts for Home Gardens (revised) .. .. 4 30,000 Announcement and Rules, Florida National Egg-Laying Test ............ .. ....................... . .... .. 300 Final Report, 21st National Egg-Laying Test 24 2,500 MP 31 Florida Farm Record Book B ................... ... ...... .. 28 7,500 Florida Clothing Program for Junior 4-H Club Girls ........... .. .......... .... ..... .. ... . . .. ............ .. .......... . ... . 4 10,000 What Did You Eat Yesterday? ............................. . 1 2,000 Florida 4-H Club Songs ......... .. ........................... . .. . 16 20,000 Poultry Institute Cards ......... ..... ........ .. ................ .. 1 250 4-H Club Short Course Diplomas ....................... . 1 500 4-H Exhibit Cards .... ............................. . ............ . .... . 1 5,000 Cards for 4-H Camps .................. . ....... .. ................ .. 1 75 Cards-Rules for 4-H Camps ............................... . 1 75 Form 7-Agents' Monthly Report Blank ..... ...... . 2 15,000 4-H Club Record Book ........... . ............ .. .............. .. 16 20,000 Coop Cards, 4-H Poultry Club ........................... . ... . 1 1,000 The mailing room distributed close to 100,000 copies of bulletins and over 50,000 copies of circulars, principally on request. Each new publica tion was sent to libraries and specialists in the field, as well as to county agents. About 5,000 were notified that the publication was available. Sub sequent distribution was on request only. As in the past, the Editor served as publication distribution control officer for the USDA Extension Service and placed orders for thousands

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension of USDA publications to be distributed to county and home demonstra tion agents . NEWS STORIES AND FARM PAPER ARTICLES Practically all Florida dailies and most weekli e s used generously of news and i•nformation supplied by . the Extension Editors, either direct or through press associations. The Editors sent 19 special stories to one to 35 daily newspapers and filed 87 special stories over press association wires. Agents in 61 counties report having 9,461 news stories published by their local newspap e rs during the year. This is more than double the number reported the year before. The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, continued to be a principal means of diss e minating information to we e kly newspapers and was s e nt also to a few dailies that especially requested it. It carried from 8 to 18 different items each week relating to progress in the counties , news of state-wide inter e st, and suggestions from Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension Service specialists and the USDA. F'lorida, Southern and national farm journals used widely of material of interest and value to farm families from the Extension Editors and other staff members. Of material supplied by Extension Editors, two Florida journals printed five articles totaling 77 column inches in length; one Southern periodical printed 17 articles totaling 232 column inches; and three national magazines printed four articles totaling 215 column inches. One Florida journal printed numerous articles by other members of the staff. BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES Radio broadcasting activities expanded during th e year, as more radio stations throughout the state received service. Th e Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, occupying 30 minutes each week day except Saturday and 15 minutes then, continued to be a principal radio outlet. The Ed i tors pre pared and presented a summary of farm news highlights each day, the farm question box once a week, and the editorial of the week each Satur day . In addition, they prepared seven other special talks. A reView for the year shows that Experiment Station workers made 126 talks, Extension Service staff members other than Editors made 75, the Colleg e of Agriculture staff made seven, State Plant Board staff four, and PMA staff seven. Home economics notes, mostly from USDA, were presented weekly . . Farm flashes, principally from USDA, were presented on 127 occasions. The Farm Hour pr e sented four remote control programs, four tran scriptions and 51 interviews during the year. Those interviewed included home demonstration agents and 4-H club members, two visitors from Sweden, one from the Dutch West Indies, one from Egypt who repre sented his country on the Food and Agriculture Organization, the man aging editor of Progressive Farmer, and a representative of the Rural Electrification Administration. Agenci e s and countries represented by speakers included the U. S. Wildlife Service, Soil Conservation Service, PMA, REA, vocational ag ricultur e , State Marketing Bureau , Federal-State Frost Warning Service, USDA tung laboratory, Alachua County Health Department, State Live stock Sanitary Board, and Costa Rica. The Farm Hour was canceled on March 5 for the inauguration of University President J. Hillis Miller and was reduced to 15 minutes on March 17 to make way for a message by President Harry Truman .

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Annual R epo1 t, 1948 15 In addition, th e Editor staged three 15-minute radio broadcasts over two Tallahassee stations during th e annual 4-H gir l s short course in June. The girls not on l y did the talking but also furnished music for the broadcasts. The Edit ors also wrote four interviews whic h were transcribed and used on one or more other stations , and had two transcriptions made at the first annual R eg ional N egro 4 H Club Camp in Baton Rouge. Farm flashes, each approximately seven minutes in l eng th , were sent to 25 Florida stations for five days each week. A number of flashes, adapted only to the area of one or two stations, were sent to these stations in addition to the regular allotment. The Editors prepared 24 flashes, while 107 came from other Extension Service staff members, 121 from the Experiment Station, 69 from the USDA Radio Service, and nine from ot h ers. Th e Associate Editor supplied a bi-weekly roundup of approximately 700 words to 12 stations and also sent a weekly Florida farm review to the Associated Press, which placed it on its radio station wire. Agents in 36 counties reported making 1 , 971 radio broadcasts during the year. VISUAL MATERIALS AND l\'IISCELLANEOUS This office maintains a filmstrip library and the strips are being used somewhat more widely by the agents . The Editors also assist agents Fig. 2. The microphone is carried to chick and egg shows and other events outside the studio.

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension in obtaining motion pictures and projectors. The office maintains two 16 mm sound projectors and a public address system. We had duplicates made of 17 slides and hope to add to the slide and strip collection as it becomes possible to obtain someone to handle the work. Additional shots were made for the color motion picture depicting activities at 4-H club camps, and it is hoped to complete that picture be fore the next camping season. The Editor served as assistant secretary of the State Horticultural Society during the year and helped this group obtain some news releases. Materials needed by county and home agents were distributed from the mailing room, where the employees are on a cooperative basis with the Experiment Station, as are the Editors. The Editor spoke to the negro agents at their annual conference, out lining some things they might do to make better use of available materials.

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Annual Report, 1948 17 SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION L. T . Nieland and Bonnie J . Carter National Farm Safety Week, July 25-31, 1948, was observ e d by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service. The State Farm Safety Committee provided each agent with a farm safety packet prepared by the National Safety Council and containing much material of help to the agents in organizing and conducting their county farm safety campaigns. In addition, further suggestions and instructions wer e furnished agents, and all were urged to conduct county-wide farm safety campaigns . To stimulat e interest in 4-H safety programs, county and home demon stration agents were supplied with a total of 1,162 fre e copies of a farm safety booklet prepared by a leading oil company. These bookl e ts were distributed to 4-H club members by the county and home demonstration agents. With the cooperation of the State 4-H Club Ag e nt, agents w e re sup plied with copies of the Florida 4-H club farm safety record book pre pared by the state farm safety committee. This record book was used in conducting the 4-H farm safety contest in Florida. The stat e winner in this contest was awarded a free trip to the National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago. Th e Extension editorial staff contributed substantially to,vards pre paring materials and publicizing farm saf e ty throughout the state by both newspapers and radio . Reports from agents show the following activiti e s in this field: 20 county agents and 39 home demonstration agents carried out an organ ized county-wide safety campaign. Through the efforts of agents 2,370 4-H girls and 2 , 350 women carried out safety pro g rams; 1,251 4-H club boys participat e d in Farm Safety Week; and 3,052 boys rec e ived training in farm safety during the year. Home demonstration agents and leaders gave 471 method demonstrations to show how accidents and fires could be prevented in the home . Demon strations were given at 618 meetings for girls and women. County ag e nts sent out circular letters on farm saf e ty and had safety articl e s published . in county papers. They displayed farm safety posters and discussed safety at farmers' me e tings . Radio talks were given by both men and women ag e nts. Home demonstration agents reported that 5,404 families carried out better practices to make their homes and surroundings safe from accidents and fire hazards, and 4,942 families actually removed such hazards. A special program on fire pr e vention was planned by the Agricultural Extension Service for people atte,nding the West Florida Farm and Home Institute at Camp Timpoochee in July. Approximately 250 farm men and women , Extension workers and others were present. During the annual short course for 4-H club girls, the education direct or of the Florida Forest Service, the chief examiner for drivers licenses for the Florida Department of Public Safety and the Director of the local Red Cross chapter assisted with instruction in safety and fire prevention. They used posters, motion pictures and mimeographed material, along with lectures and demonstrations, to present the subject to approximately 300 girls, volunteer leaders , and home demonstration agents from all parts of the state.

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension Specialists included safety and fire prevention in their programs . In health education the program has emphasized the development of desirable habits and attitudes growing out of the acquiring of funda mental knowledge of safety relating to home, recreation and the farm. Special stress was placed on safety in the home and on the farm-pure milk and water supplies, proper sewage and garbage disposal and the elimination of breeding places of flies and mosquitoes. The Nutrition Specialist continued to use her mimeographed leaflet listing safety practices in the kitchen. She followed these practices when giving demonstrations and emphasized them when training volunteer leaders. This year the Food Conservation Specialist taught home demonstra tion agents and volunteer leaders to test gauges for safe use of pressure cookers. When training clothing chairmen or leaders in different methods of presenting information to club groups and community residents, the Specialist in Clothing and Textiles stressed safety and fire prevention in several ways. She suggested the use of demonstrations to show women and girls how to flame-proof household articles such as ironing board covers, pot holders and window curtains, and how to present and encour age the use of the U.S.D.A. bulletin on home methods of fire-proofing. She also showed these leaders how they, as consumers, could keep them selves and others informed as to what commercial agencies are doing to ward using and giving to the public the results of flame-proofing re search promoted for war purposes. She encouraged them to watch labels and study the trade names used for flame-proofing fabrics and to keep up with the legislation on standardization of such finishes. She encouraged selection of materials suitable for children's clothing from the standpoint of safety. Through the 4-H club program, emphasis has been placed on water safety. Qualified instructors for water front duty were employed in each of the three district 4-H camps for white children and two camps for negro children.

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Annual Report, 1948 Part 11-Men's Work WORK OF COUNTY AGENTS H. G. Clayton, Director J. Lee Smith, District Agent K. S. McMullen, District Agent 19 A favorable situation exists in the counties for successful Extension work. Financial support has been fairly adequate. Demand for services of county agents has been unusually large, but Extension programs and methods have been reshaped and readjusted to meet the demands most effectively. Additional federal, state and county funds made it possible to place nine new assistant agents in counties during the year. A new agent employed must be a graduate of an agricultural college. In addition, he must be practical, adaptable, energetic and possessed with high moral standards and a good personality. Assistants are employed primarily to do 4-H club work, with time budgeted about 80 percent for 4-H club work and the other 20 percent on such general Extension work as might be found advisable by the county agent. District Agents provided on-the-.;job training for both old and new agents insofar as possible. Efforts were made to see that assistant agents received the proper induction training and both the county agent and tlle assistant had a proper understanding of their duties and responsibilties. The three weeks' short course at the University of Florida in June and July provided valuable training for those agents enrolled. The annual Ex tension conference held October 4-9, 1948, emphasized methods of getting the job done and provided valuable training for ali agents. Efforts were made by District Agents to increase the efficiency of county agents' offices by assisting in training office personnel, improv ing inadequate filing systems and office records and assisting agents to secure adequate office equipment. Several conferences for agents were held at Experiment Stations dur ing the year. A series of such conferences in December and January helped the agents to formulate their plans of work for the new year. Emphasis was placed on meeting the needs of the people and in doing an effective job. ' District Agents worked with county agents insofar as time would per mit in the execution of plans of work. Assistance was rendered with county fairs, livestock shows, field days, grower meetings and training of leaders. Assistance was given county agents in evaluating results of their activities. A District Agent was chairman of the State Extension Citrus Advisory Committee and a member of the Extension Vegetable Advisory Committee. District Agents were responsible for determining 4-H camping sched ules for counties in their districts and for assisting with the camping organization during the week at camp. Assistance was also given in carrying out the Citrus Institute, Poultry Institue and two Farm and Home Institutes. District Agents served as the direct contact between the county agent and the College of Agricutture, University of Florida, in a public relations capacity. A number of talks were given before civic clubs, farmers' or ganizations and other public gatherings.

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20 Florida Coop e rative Extension AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS C . V . Noble, Agricultural Economist FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management F. W. Parvin, Associate Economist During the year covered by thi~ report, about half of the Economist's time was given to regular Extension work and about half to t e aching methods in agricultural Extension. The Associate Economist gave full time to farm management work after his appointment on February 1, 1948. Farm and Home Planning,-Farm and home planning with individuals was carried through its eighth year. This project is primarily an exp e ri ment in Extension m e thods with low-income farm families. Methods used include, first, a refr e sh e r school of one day for the cooperating county agents. This is followed by the Economist spending a day or two with each agent, during which time visits are made to about a dozen farmers whose businesses are analyzed and recommendations are made for im provements that will secure larger income or will improve the standard of living. The Economist and th e agents alternate in conducting inter views and making recommendations. After each farm visit, a few minutes are spent in constructiv e criticism of th e interview . Following th e Econo mist's visit to the county agent, each agent continues the process with a limited number of farm e rs. Also, a l e tter containing a list of recommenda tions made is sent to e ach farmer. A total of 245 farm families were served in this way and 1,390 r e com mendations were made, of which 72 percent w e r e carried out in a cr e dit able manner. Cons e rvative estimates of the value of additional production on the farms range from $50 to $700, with an av e rage of $220 per farm. This is an average incr e ase of about 10 percent ov e r their 1947 income and about 50 percent over their 1939 income. Nin e groups are now organized so th a t follow-up contacts can b e made with th e cooperators at meetings inst e ad of through farm visits. The initial contact each year is made at the farm. Tim e ly circular letters and printed publications are mailed to all cooperators. One tour is made an nually by a class in agricultural policy to one community, and this class has used data from th e cooperators' r e cords and annually makes field trips to some of the farms. Assistance to Vet e rans.-Upon request, a table was provided for de termining size of farm business based on income using current prices. The method used minimizes the discr e pancies which exist between one-horse farms and farms which operate with teams or tractors. The table must be revised annually. Record books were supplied to more than 4,000 farmer veterans at tending training classes. Record Books.-The simplified record forms for 4-H club members were received with enthusiasm by young club members . The new forms are easier _ to keep than the old forms which are now us e d only by older club members. Assistance to Negroes.-Approximately 50 percent of the work done in the farm-and-home-planning project is done with negroes; one of the train ing meetings for veterans' teachers was for negro teachers; one day was

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Annual Report, 1948 21 given to farm management instruction at a negro 4-H camp and one day to assisting in the annual conference of Extension agents. Teaching Methods in Agricultural Extension.-In the fall term of school, two regularly scheduled undergraduate courses in Extension methods were offered and taught by the Economist. Two problem courses, one graduate and one undergraduate, were available throughout the year. A three-week summer school for in-service Extension workers included courses in gen eral Extension methods, 4-H club work, home gardening and speech for Extension workers. Three courses were taught by local staff members, including the Economist, and a field worker from the Extension Service in Washington taught the fourth. Each course provided 1 hours of credit toward a master's degree. Twenty-two students were enrolled in the summer school and 39 were in the fall classes. There were 10 enrolled in the problems courses. An Analysis of Beef Production Practices on 69 Florida Ranches.-In the spring the farm management staff with the assistance of the Animal Husbandman, prepared a ranch questionnaire, after consultation with 11 county agents in beef cattle counties. The questionnaire was sent to co operating county agents who contacted representative cattlemen in order to assemble facts relative to practices in breeding, feeding, pasture prep aration and marketing. The 69 cattlemen who cooperated in the survey operated a combined acreage of 1,275,000 acres. Sizes of operations ranged from a few hundred to almost a quarter million acres. The analysis was made in two parts-one for smaller operators and one for the larger ranches. County agents have made use of the study with cattlemen. A Study of Dairying Possibilities in Hardee County.-In an effort to Improve the economic status of farmers in Hardee county, where approxi mately one-half the farms produced farm products for sale with . an average total value less than $900, the county agent contacted Extension specialists to propose alternate agricultural enterprises. The Farm Management staff prepared a report with the possibility of starting a dairy industry in the area . The District Agent, Dairyman and A.gricutural Engineer assisted with preparation of the report. Extension Outlook.-A mimeographed sheet, summarizng economic in formation important to Florida agriculture adapted from reports from the Bureau of Agricultural Economics in Washington, was prepared monthly for county agents and staff members for use in farm radio talks, news paper articles and circular letters. The Associate Economist represented the State Extension Service at the National Outlook Conference in Washington, D. C., October 11-16. Methods used in presenting information obtained at this conference to Florida farmers included a report for county agents' use, four radio talks and an article prepared for the December issue of Florida Cattleman. Farm Management Exhibits.-Enlargement of nine black and white photographs, . 14" x 18", of "farm management.in action," were shown to 760 farm people at farm and home institutes held at camps Timpoochee and Cherry Lake. 4-H Club Work.-The Farm Management Staff assisted in conducting seven one-day leader-training meetings and one such meeting for club of ficers. These meetings were the result of courses in extension methods given during the past two summers. Four counties are in the process of establishing community clubs to replace in-school clubs. The farm management staff assisted in training 21 assistant agents in

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension local leadership at Wildlife camp; in holding five achievement day pro grams and one club rally; and in selecting a state prize winner for a national contest. CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT Zach Savage, Associate Agricultural Economist There were 235 citrus grove records obtained for the W46-47 season from 13 counties. These records are the basis for the information pre sented regarding costs and returns for the 1946-47 production year. The number now in process of keeping these records for 1948-49 is 306, which is an increase of 12 percent over the 1947-48 season. The acreage repre sented in the 1948-49 records is approximately 10,000 acres, or 2.4 percent of the bearing citrus acreage of the state. Cooperators averaged $1.23 less per box for their fruit in 1946-47 than for the preceding season. This was a reduction of 62 percent in price. According to the figures of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics , USDA, there was a reduction of 56 percent in the on-tree price between these two seasons for the state as a whole. The price of 74 cents was the lowest re ceived by cooperators since the 1940-41 season. There was a further reduction of 41 perc e nt in the on-tree price of fruit in 1947-48 as compared to 1946-47 for the state as a whole. Figures on returns from fruit received by cooperators are not complete at present but the price received by cooperators repres e nting 80 percent of the acreage of all coop e rators was lower by 42 percent. This means that the price received by these cooperators in 1947-48 was only 22 percent of the price all cooperators received two years earlier. This was a reduction in price of 78 percent. The reduction in price received by all growers of the state between these two seasons was 74 percent . In the face of these reductions in price received for fruit, the costs of items of production have increased, some of them to considerable extent. According to figur e s of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, the prices paid by farmers in the United States for commodities increased 22 percent in 194 7 over 1946 . There was another increase of 7 percent during the first 11 months of 1948. Fertilizer constitutes from 30 to 50 percent of the operating cost of producing Florida citrus and the United States price for this item increased 10 percent between 1946 and 1947. While production and marketing costs have continued to increase, prices received by the grower for fruit have continued to decrease . Pro duction costs are 2 times prewar costs on a per-acre basis and double on a per-box basis. Operating costs of cooperators increased 16 percent on a per-acre basis in 1946-4 7 over 1945-46. Such costs in 194 7-48 decreased 1 percent. Returns above operating costs on a per-acre basis were the lowest in 1946-47 since the 1940-41 season, and the lowest on a per-box basis since the 1939-40 season. Four of the past 16 seasons had returns above operat ing costs lower-per-box than in 1946-47. The consistently large number of boxes of fruit harvested during recent seasons has aided in lowering per box cost, tending to increase the net above operating cost. Some growers . had low production costs while others had high costs in 1946-47. Operating costs ranged from 21 cents to $2.32 per box. Fifty five of the highest yielding groves had an average operating cost of 40 cents per box, while the 55 with the lowest yields had an average cost of 91 cents per box. Each cooperator was given a summary of the information on his own gtove for 1946-47 and costs for 1947-48 . AssistP.nce was given him by the

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Annual Report, 1948 23 Associate Economist, the Citriculturist or the county agent in his county in an effort to reduce production costs where such were out of line with efficient production. Comparative figures were supplied each cooperator. These included the 5-year average figures for all cooperators, a table showing cost and return data by seasons from 1931-32 through 1946-47, and cost data for 1947-48, together with a summary of costs and returns by age groups of 10 and under and over 10 years of age. County agents in each of four counties received a bound copy contain ing a report of each grove within their counties. Prior to sending out the regular report, preliminary figures for 19464 7 were supplied each cooperator. Four large cloth charts of State and Lake County data were prepared for an exhibit in cooperation with the Citriculturist and Lake County agent for the fair at Eustis. The Associate Agricultural Economist and the Critriculturist remained at the exhibit throughout the week. Data were prepared and presented to interested growers. A group of non-cooperating growers, individuals and firms of the citrus industry, were mailed copies of all regular reports issued. Papers were presented at the annual meeting of the Florida Citrus Production Credit Association in Orlando in February; the annual meet ing of the Florida Express Fruit Shippers Association in Miami Beach in May; the Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie in September; and the Flori da Citrus . Production Managers' Association at Lake Alfred in October. In September, citrus record books were sent cooperators using the books of the Agricultural Extension Service for keeping their records. The fiscal year for these records is September 1 through August 31. Considerable material was supplied for vocational high school, vocation al G.I. training and college classes in farm management and agricultural marketing. Special arrangements were made by the Associate Economist for a field trip to the groves of two cooperators by a professor and his class in farm ma,nagement. Permission was obtained from these co operators for using their grove data by members of this class. A request was received for cost and return data on orange and grape fruit groves separately by the Production and Marketing Administration, Washington. These data were available from this project for 16 seasons for each of the two kinds of citrus. Articles relating to citrus record work were prepared, including three for newspaper release, two in the Florida Farm Bureau Bulletin, two in The Citrus Industry, one for Florida Grower, one for the Journal of Farm Economics and one for the F1orida Bankers ' Association Magazine. Two radio talks on fertilizer costs were given on the Florida Farm Hour program of Radio Station WRUF. MARKETING ACTIVITIES D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing With regard to farm income, livestock producers enjoyed a good year but orange growers and most vegetable producers suffered great losses. Despite storms, hurricanes and freezes, Florida produced a record crop during the 1947-48 season. Almost 300,000 carloads of produce moved from the state, as compared to 263,000 for the season before. Cash receipts from farm marketings for the first nine months of 1948 were about 10 million dollars less than for . a similar period in 1947. Cash receipts from livestock and livestock products were higher in 1948 by three fourths million dollars, but crops were down about 11 million.

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension Florida farm prices for the past two years for fruits and vegetables have tended downward. Compared with last year, prices of fall vegetables are much ldwer; livestock prices, except cattle, considerably lower; citrus fruits about the same; and pecans, honey, corn and other farm crops gen erally lower. Farm labor, marketing costs and material costs are increasing in the face of lower prices to farm producers. Citrus.-Demand for fresh Florida citrus throughout the 1947-48 season was slow. With a combined total drop at record-breaking volume , fresh orange consumption showed a sharp decrease from recent seasons, while the processed output increased sensationally, accounting for over one-half of the total orange disposition for the first time in the history of the in dustry. Prices at all levels were lower than a year ago. When considera tion is given to increased production, packing and transportation costs, actual returns figure even lower. Florida's citrus production in 1947-48 was placed at 95.1 .million boxes, of which 58 . 2 million were oranges , 33 million were grapefruit and 3.9 million were tangerines. The tangerine total has been exceed e d in previous seasons but both orange and grapefruit totals are record highs. Prices for the 1947-48 season averaged $3.27 for oranges, as compared to $3 . 50 the year before and a high of $4.58 in th e 1944-45 season. Grape fruit prices during 1947-48 averaged $3.07, as compared to $3.29 the season before and a high of $4.24 during 1944-45 sseason. Tangerines averaged $1.98, as compared with $2.17 the season before and $2.51 for the 1945-46 season. Since more than half of Florida citrus went into cans, returns were not as good as these prices indicate. The canning prices during 194748 season averaged less than 40 cents delivered to the canner for grape fruit and about 83 cents for oranges. This includes an advertising tax of 3 cents a box on grapefruit and 2 cents a box for oranges and 1/5 cent for inspection tax. Since more than half of the fruit brought these low prices, it is evident that net returns on all citrus was Jess than cost of production. The Florida Citrus Commission is the state agency charg e d with stimu lating demand for citrus. With funds d e rived from an advertising tax, the Citrus Commission does an almost two-m i llion-dollar advertising and dealer service job for the citrus industry . The Economist in Marketing met with the commission regularly and conferred with their manager with reference to the educational part of their program, in order to acquaint county agents with programs of the commission. Officers of the commission met with county agents from citrus-producing counties at two meetings and discussed with them in detail the entire program of the Citrus Commis sion. The Economist in Marketing has been appointed by the governor-elect to work with his advisory committee in developing maturity standards and other proposed legislation designed to improve the citrus situation. A number of meetings have been held and a recommendation has been made to the governor-elect which outlines the production trends, the need for increasing quality standards and improving marketing facilities. The Economist in Marketing has given assistance to trade groups, in cluding Producers Trade Association and United Growers and Shippers Association, representing fresh fruit; Florida Canners' Association and Canners League, representing canners; the Indian River Citrus League, representing the Indian River district ; and the Farm Bureau, representing growers in all districts . Vegetables.-Florida produced almost 48,000 carloads of vegetables, strawberries and watermelons during the 1947-48 season-a little over

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Annual Report, 1948 25 11,000 cars more than was produced the year before. The 1947-48 crop grossed not quite a hundred million dollars, as compared with $102 million for the ' 1946-47 season. Average price for the current season was about 15 percent lower than last season. The 1948 fall crop, not included in the above figures, was extremely large but prices were even lower. Cucumber growers hardly made fertilizer cost and bean growers abandoned large acreages because they would not pay cost of harvesting. The fall tomato crop started off the best of any fall crop but prices were not satisfactory and only number one tomatoes were shipped. Bean growers expressed their desire for a Federal Marketing Agr e ment, so discussions were held with a number of growers to try to develop a marketing agreement . Close cooperation has been given the Florida Fruit and Vegetable As sociation in their program of trying to find less expensive and improved methods of marketing vegetables. The Economist in Marketing has kept in contact with pre-packaging studies being made under the Research and Marketing Act in cooperation with various state agencies. A number of tours by county agents and farmers have been sponsored to make observa tions on this pre-packaging project. Transportation.-Railroad cars are inadequate in .number, aged and in poor condition. This means that produce arrives in the market in bad condition, with a consequent marketing cost increase. In addition '. to poor service, freight rates have continually gone up and have reached a point beyond growers' ability to pay. In addition to these complaints, the Southeast has long been discrim inated against by the whole transportation rate structure. Because of these conditions, it has been necessary to organize a Regional Transporta tion Committee in an effort to see if something can be done to relieve the situation. The Economist in Marketing was chosen as chairman of this committee for the first year. Three important meetings have been held, at which these problems were discussed and committees appointed to see what can be done. Fann Labor.-A number of meetings have been held with the Labor Committee of the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Committee in an effort to develop a labor association to take over the government labor camps. Progress is being made on this project. Farm Training for Veterans.-A number of farmer veterans studying agriculture have organized local cooperatives for purchasing farm supplies and selling farm products. Ten meetings were held to assist in the forma tion of three cooperatives. Cooperatives.-The Economist in Marketing continued with assistance to th e Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives. The council's program is educational. Its main purpose is to k e ep members informed with items of special interest to cooperatives. Three district meetings and one an nual meeting of the council were held . The proceedings were made avail able to cooperatives through the cooperation of the Economist in Market ing. The Marketing Economist att e nded the meeting of the Am e rican Institute of Cooperation in Amherst, Mass., and made use of materials presented through circular letters. Low farm income stimulated interest in cooperatives and resulted in an unusual number of requests to the Marketing Economist for assistance in setting up farmer cooperativ e s. Waterm e lons.-In cooperation with the Lake County agent, a bulletin has been prepared on harvesting and loading watermelons . This material

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26 Florida Cooperative Extension was mimeographed and made available to county agents in watermelon producing counties and for interested growers and shippers. The 1948 annual meeting of the Watermelon Growers' and Distributors' Association was held in Jacksonville. The Economist in Marketing acted as secretary and guided the program committee. Two meetings, one in Washington, D. C., and the other in Gainesville, were held on transporta tion problems. Honey and Pecans.-During the year, backed up supplies of honey and a record pecan crop resulted in low prices to producers. A number of meetings were held with producers to assist them in getting as much as possible out of these products. Assistance was given in establishing a number of pecan auction markets. Information on grades and varieties was supplied and growers were urged to grade and package in a more acceptable manner. The Economist in Marketing represented the Florida Pecan Industry at a meeting in Washington, D. C., where a support price program was re quested. This request was denied, so Florida growers had to do the best they could in a grading and auction sale program . l\liscellaneous.-A circular letter entitled "Market Briefs" was sent to over 500 persons. This letter consists of topic sentences and occasionally a very short summary of current topics of special interest to Florida farmers. The general outlook, credit situation, trends in price level and other topics of direct concern to Florida farmers are included. County agents in watermelon-producing counties are kept currently advised of Watermelon Association activities by means of circular letters. In addition all members of the Watermelon Association are sent circulars at regular intervals on items of concern to the watermelon industry. County agricultural agents and farmer cooperatives are sent circulars on items concerning farm cooperatives, both purchasing and selling or ganizations. Information coming from the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives considered of interest to Florida cooperatives was sum marized and made available. This was also true with reference to ma terials that came from the American Institute of Cooperation and from state councils in other states. The Economist in Marketing sent out reports from time to time on cannery prices, volume going to canners and the use made of cannery fruit. This was a cooperative project with the Florida Canners' Associa tion.

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Annual Report, 1948 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRIFICATION AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING John M. Johnson, Agricultural Engineer 27 The Extension agricultural engine e rtng program is designed to reduc e human effort and costs in th e production of essential and desirable com modities needed by man and animal. Eighty-five percent of all agricultural problems hav e e ngineering im . plications . The Agricultural Engin ee r spent 30 per ce nt of his time on farm build ings, 25 perc e nt on farm machinery, 20 percent with 4-H club proj e cts, 15 perc e nt on marketing facilities, and 10 p e rc e nt on special servic e s, such as drawing plans for buildings for use as canning centers or liv e stock shows and sales. Farm Buildings.-The need for new housing and repair of old build ings has remained the first problem for agricultural engineering action. Labor and material costs have remained high; howev e r, there has been a gradual le v eling-off in material co s ts and f e w it e ms r e main in s hort supply . Florida. Farm Building Plan Service.-The Florida farm building plan service is maintained to aid the Florida farmer to plan and properly con struct farm buildings. Van Dyke prints of all building plans from Farmers Bulletin 1738 and Miscellaneous Publication 360 are maintained for th e purpose of reproducing prints for distribution upon request . In addition to these , plans h a ve been developed or adopted for us e in the state by the Agricultural Engineer and are on fil e for distribution. Leaflet 9 of the agr i cultural engin e ering series on house planning, "Plans of Farm Dwellings and Appurtenances," lists the 30 dwelling plans most suited for Florida. In addition to the dwelling plans, there is includ e d a description of 26 sheets of plans of structural and interior details and 14 separate miscellaneou s plans for cattle guards, garages, outdoor fire plices and other appurtenances. All plans are mailed upon request eith e r to the county Extension offices or direct to the individual. In order to r e duce costs of mailing and re producing, 30 of the most popular plans have been printed on letter size paper. During the past year 4,883 sheets of building plans have been mailed . An additional 1,930 plans have been furnished for r e f e rence files of all county Extension offices , vocational agriculture and veterans' teachers. There were 5,381 other leaflets on house plans, painting and home sani tation distributed. To aid the agents in conducting educational programs on housing , a file of visual aid material was maintained. This material consists of four sets of color slides on various phases of housing, a set of drawings on con struction for use in opaque slide projectors , a model house and shrubbery and a set of five enlarged floor plans , useful in discussion groups. State Rural Housing Committee.-This cooperative program was started in 1946 to coordinate th e housing activities of all educational agenci e s in the state. Representativ e s of the agencies were appoint e d to serve on a general committee known as the State Rural Housing Committee.

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28 Flo rida Cooperati ve E x t ension During th e year two additional counties were organized and standard surveys made. County and Home Demonstration Agents' Summary.-County Extension work ers spent a total of 1 ,6 20 days assisting farm families with housing probl e ms. The work was don e with th e aid of 711 volunteer local l e aders in 683 farm co mmuniti es. Th e ag e nts devoted 410 days to working with farmers on construction and r e mod e li , ng of f arm buildings. They were aid e d by 229 volunteer local l ea d ers in carr ying information t o farm e rs r e siding in 336 co mmuniti es. Statistic&! Summary Housing and Farm Building Activities By Agents Constructing dw e llings --------------R e modeling dw e llings _______________________ _ S e wag e systems -----------------------Water systems H ea ting systems Improving kitch e ns , storag e space, laundry and other room s ------Sanitary privies -----------------Scre e ning ---------------------------------------Construction of farm buildin gs ---Remod e ling or r e pairin g farm buildings -------------------------WHITE Families assisted 921 1,630 664 739 260 6,054 816 2 , 270 648 532 NEGRO Famili es assist e d 131 340 85 201 23 1,680 223 1,140 56 61 Fig. 3 . This 4 H club c lass pays c los e attention to a cutaway moctel of an .E ngine .

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Annual Report, 1948 29 Farm l\lachinery.-The aim of the farm machinery program is to teach the farmer, his family and his hired labor the importance of wise selection, proper use and constant maintenance of the many pieces of machinery now being used in the home and on the farm. No other change is taking place faster on the farms of Florida than .mechanization. As of July, 1948, there were 17,467 tractors operating on farms of the state. Thirty-one farm visits were made in which farm machinery received . attention. Farm machinery demonstrations were held at two farm and home institutes. At Camp Cherry Lake, 30 pieces of equipment were dis~ played for 425 attending farmers. All of the equipment, including tractors, field implements, stationary engines, garden tractors, spray equipment and a small electric welding machine, was operated for interested farmers. A welding demonstration was held at which a tank made from a 55-gallon drum was used in a demonstration on treating fence posts. The Agricultural Engineer aided in planning a series of meetings for the state distributors of one equipment line, at which motion pictures on operation, maintenance and safety were shown to over 6,000 farmers. Summary of Extension Activities in Fann Machinery The Agricultural Engineer spent 126 days in the field, of which, 47 were devoted to farm machinery and equipment. County agents' reports on farm machinery show: White Negro Days devoted to machinery ........ .. ............. . ..... . ........... . 331 37 Number of communities work conducted ................. . 339 39 Number of volunteer local leaders . . . . . ........................ . 209 26 Number of volunteer leaders attending tractor schools ................................................... . ..... . ............. . 44 0 Number of counties represented at tractor schools 25 0 Number of machinery maintenance schools ........... . 2 0 Farmers assisted this year in: Selection of machinery equipment ................... . 1,143 59 Making more efficient use of mechanical equipment ................................................................... . 1,304 153 Number of farmers 1 following instructions in repair and maintenance . . ............................. . 1,521 102 Seed and Hay Drying.LFor the purpose of promoting mechanical seed drying, a scale model was made and displayed at a livestock show, farm and home institutes and other farmer meetings. Nine groups of farmers in terested in hay and seed 1 drying have been conducted through the drying barn on the Experiment : Station farm. The Agricultural Engineer con ducted a seed and hay dr;ying discussion for the county agents during the Annual Extension confere):ice, at which time the model was displayed and a tour conducted to the $tation drier. As a result of this activity, there are now 21 similar driers being used to dry various seeds, grains and hays throughout the state. i Fence Post Treating . ..!...The recommendation for treating fence posts with a preservative to prevent decay and insect damage is tar creosote. There are 15 open-vat post treating plants operating throughout the state. However, the combined capacity is not adequate to meet the farmers' demands. I . A cooperative program was started with the Extension Forester to study preservatives and treatment methods. The leaflet on the treatment of fence posts has been distributed to all county offices. Supplies on the I

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension agents' bulletin racks are quickly exhausted and more than 1,500 leaflets have been furnished to individuals upon request. At the annual Extension conference, a demonstration was held for county agents in the cold-soak method of fence post treatment. The Ag ricultural Engineer conducted the same demonstration at two farm and home institutes attended by 600 people and at a pine tree festival attended by 500 people. Mechanical Burners for Syrup Making.-Cane sirup is a highly im portant cash crop for western Florida farmers. Labor and wood for fuel have been expensive and hard to obtain. An oil burner adapted to heat the evaporators is still proving success ful. Coal in automatic stokers was used at various points in the sirup area and showed a very low operating cost. Of the 126 days spent in the field, 17 were devoted to marketing fa cilities. County agents assisted 1,202 farmers in selecting mechanical equipment and 1,457 farmers were reported as making more efficient use of mechanical equipment. Power Spray Equipment.-Farmers and agents in the flue-cured tobacco area requested information on power spray and dusting equipment to combat a leaf aphid attacking the tobacco. The problem was to find, or develop, a machine that would operate in tobacco, planted in conventional rows. The search was made for equipment and none was found suitable. Several manufacturers were called in and the problem explained. This ' resulted in one Florida concern developing a small narrow gage sprayer. The Extension Engineer cooperated in the design and testing of the spray unit. A demonstration of power spray and dusting equipment was provided for two farm and home institutes and for several counties. Irrigation and Drainage.-Requests for assistance on_ drainage and ir rigation problems are usually from farmers or agents in need of informa tion for draining a small area or for small plot irrigation. This year, nine irrigation systems have been designed and 11 farmers assisted with drain age. Twenty days were devoted to field work in these problems. Four demonstrations in irrigations and three demonstrations in drainage by ditching with explosives, were held. The agents report assistance was given 1,992 farmers on drainage and 732 on irrigation problems. Fruit Washer.-The price of citrus fruit has been at a low level and several requests for a machine to wash and clean tree-ripened fruit were received. The Agricultural Engineer developed a small fruit washer for use in roadside stands and small operations. 4-H Club Work.-Classes in farm machinery were held for an advanced group attending the boys' 4-H short course. The classes were conducted as a laboratory period, at which basic principles of operation, safety and maintenance were presented. At two 4-H club summer camps two groups of 30 boys were given daily instruction on safety and basic principles of farm engine operation. Two three-day schools were held to train 4-H club leaders in tractor maintenance and club leadership. A school for northern and western Florida was held at Marianna in January, with 21 leaders from 13 counties attending. The second school, at which 23 leaders from 12 counties were trained, was held at Plant City in July, for southern Florida leaders. Twelve counties participated in the Tractor Maintenance Contest and a club member from Santa Rosa county won a trip to the National Club Congress.

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nnual Report, 1948 31 The Agricultural En ineer attended three 4-H camps where housing demonstrations were give for girls and boys. FA M ELECTRIFICATION A. M. Pet is, Farm Electrification Specialist Situation.-At the be nnning of 1948, power suppliers in Florida were optimistic about procurin~ line-building materials to extend their lines to unelectrified farms. El 8 ectrical farm equipment was rapidly becoming available, and the supply of some items was catching up with demand. More. than 4,000 far s in this state were connected to electric lines during the past year. t present 39,975 Florida farms have electricity, 65.4 percent of the farm in the state. They receive power from 15 REA cooperatives, three majo utilities and several minor utilities and munici palities with rural line Approximately two-thirds of the electrified farms are served by RE cooperatives. With the exception o refrigerators, electrical equipment is generally available for immediate delivery in almost every section of the state. Some appliances, such radios, appear in abundance. Safe, Adequate Wirin .-The basis of a farm electrification program is the promotion of proper "ring. Farmers should be advised about wiring just prior to having th ir farms wired. Copies of the USDA bulletin, "Planning Your Farmstead Wiring and Lighting," were sent to all Ex tension personnel in the stla.te, and agents were encouraged to assist farmers in planning their wiring. During the latter part of 1947 demonstration material was assembled to promote good wiring. This material has been added to and used successfully in wiring meetings. Seventeen demonstra tions on proper wiring were given to more than 1,000 people, including 4-H members, farmers, county agents and home demonstration agents. Motor Table.-A home-made motor table to show farmers some ways electricity could save their time and labor was demonstrated. This motor table has one small electric motor which operates several pieces of house hold equipment usually turned by hand. This equipment consists of a churn, a sausage mill, an emery wheel and an ice-cream freezer. Plans for making the motor table were distributed at 10 meetings, attended by ap proximately 5,000 farmers. Converting Treadle Sewing Machines to Electric l\fodels.-The Farm Electrification Specialist realized the need of many farm women for help in using electricity economically. One of the best time and labor savers is the electric sewing machine. Many farms have a satisfactory treadle machine which could be converted to an electric model. New electric sew ing machines are costly and hard to obtain, so dealers who sell motors which could be attached to treadle machines were located. The Extension Service published a bulletin titled, "Convert Your Treadle Model To An Electric Sewing Machine." Demonstrations on the conversion of a treadle machine were given at 12 meetings, attended by approximately 3,800 people. 4-H Club \Vork.-The Farm Electrification Specialist devoted approxi mately one month to 4-H club work. Emphasis was placed on the im portance of proper wiring and agents were encouraged to promote the better methods contest. Assistance was given to agents i•n holding six meetings with 4-H members. During the Short Course at the University o Florida, the better methods contest was explained to 4-H members. Results were disappointing, as age limitations prevented selection of a winner.

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32 Florida Cooper(Ltive Extension Proper wiring was demonstrated during the Short Course to 175 4-H boys. At two summer camps 4-H boys and girls improved existing wiring, Under supervision of the specialist, by mounting 29 switches and installing 500 feet of non-metallic, sheathed cable. In addition to teaching 4-H mem bers, this helped to improve the safety and conveniences of the camps. Additional Help.-Additional help was given to agents and farmers by answering inquiries about wiring and electrical farm equipment. Assistance in obtaining proper wiring for a negro county agent's new office building was given in one county. Demonstration equipment has been shown at county fairs, agricultural shows and 4-H club gatherings. This year, Extension personnel assisted 2,494 farmers in obtaining electricity, helped 2,915 farm families with the selection and use of lights and electrical equipment in the home and advised 614 farmers about electrical equipment used on the farm for producing additional income.

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Annual Report, 1948 33 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING, POULTRY A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist ANIMAL HUSBANDRY W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman BEEF CATTLE The Situation.-In December 1947, west Florida county agents, district agents and specialists met at the North Florida Experiment Station with the Experiment Station staff. Central Florida agents met in Gainesville with the Experiment Station staff. At these conferences they heard re ports on experimental work with cattle, hogs, feed and pasture. The dis. cussions were for the purpose of aiding in working out a unified program based on factual information in meeting local situations and using local associations and organizations in putting over a program. Efforts have been made through demonstrations, correspondence, cir cular letters, news articles, tours, meetings, radio talks and home visits to furnish cattlemen with proven methods of successful beef cattle pro duction, including selection, breeding, culling, disease and parasite con trol, feeding and pasture development. Forty-five thousand copies of a monthly circular letter, "Of Things That Concern Florida Cattlemen," containing timely articles, were issued to county agents and approximately 4,000 cattl e men. Since the annual calf crop is the foundation of the beef cattle work and the annual Florida calf crop has been low for the last five years, 57 to 65 percent , special attention was direct e d to the calf crop and its im portance . In a recent survey, 40 ag e nts reported the average calf crop was 56 percent, while the better managed ranches av e raged 74 percent. A survey of 69 ranches in 15 counties showed a 1940 calf crop of 50 to 59 percent and a 1947 calf crop of 75 percent. Developing heifers for herd replacement paid off in reduced death losses and in heavier weights of calv~s. Forty agents report 1,706 cattle men developing heifers for herd replacement. According to market reports, the average weight of market calves for September 1948 was 245 pounds. Many county agents reported market calf weights from 250 to 400 pounds from the best herds. Having cows calve in early spring, developing pasture and feed pro duction and practicing good herd management has produced the heaviest calves at weaning age. The Animal Husbandman encouraged culling shy breeders and inferior heifers, using scales to get calf weights and keeping records of cows producing the heaviest calves. A survey of 69 cattlemen in central and south Florida showed that these cattlemen selected from 52 to 62 percent of their heifers for herd replacement and bred the heifers to drop first calves at about 2 years , with a low death rate of 3 to 4.4 percent and calf weights as follows: Grade bulls x native cows-calf weight 230 pounds . . Purebred bull x native cow-calf weight 261-264 pounds. Purebred bull x grade cow-calf weight 312-327 pounds. Purebred bull x purebred cow-calf weight 342 pounds . Cattle numbers over the nation have be e n on the decr e ase since 1944. Florida cattle numbers show an increase sinc e 1938.

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension The following report shows the number of Florida cattle and calves moving to local markets from November 1 to October 31 for the last three years. Cattle Calves 1948 148,527 83,044 1947 145,903 81,961 1946 130,859 76,190 1945 106,104 55,237 Purebred Herds and Breeder's Shows.-The Angus, Brahman and Here ford breeders have local breed associations. The Extension Service has cooperated with the local breed associations in putting on four purebred shows and sales. South Americans have at tended the Brahman sales and shows, and as a result many Florida cattle have gone to Latin American islands and countries. The third annual Angus sale, held in March, included 27 animals which averaged $282 per head. At the second annual Hereford show and sale in February, 35 animals avei:aged $321 per head. The fourth annual Brahman show and sale, held in January, included 37 animals which averaged $889 per head. At the second annual south Florida Brahman sale in March, 35 animals brought an average of $996. A recent survey showe!i that 50 out of 69 cattlemen used purebred bulls exclusively, while 10 used grades and purebreds. County agents report that 623 farmers were assisted in securing pure bred bulls and 647 farmers were assisted in securing purebred and high grade females. Of 4,518 bulls placed in Florida herds, 3,000 were Florida raised. Pasture and Feed.-In cooperation with the Agronomist, county agents and the PMA, the Animal Husbandman has encouraged pasture develop ment and maintenance and advised against over-stocking. The Animal Husbandman advocated fencing of vegetable lands and grazing them with cattle, thus obtaining two returns for the fertilizer applied to the vegetables. . Cattlemen and county agents have been advised on minerals essential to annual production. Agents report cattlemen have increased use of min erals by mineral boxes and fertilizing pastures and that in all, 1,771 farmers were assisted in improving methods of feeding. Sugarcane plus a protein supplement and sugarcane in the field has gained attention as a winter feed. Deferred grazing in summer and letting the grass grow for winter pasture has proved practical in some sections. Many cattlemen in the citrus area are using wet citrus pulp from the canneries. Others are using dried pulp and citrus molasses supplemented with a protein feed pasture or hay . Some cattlemen are using feed pel lets manufactured by feed mills, while others are using mixed feed and pellets put up by canning companies. Two citrus canning companies are making special efforts to get cattlemen to use citrus molasses by offering special prices per ton. The State Cattlemen's Association is a strong force for good in beef cattle work and in working for a coordinated water control system. This association took the initial steps October 6, 1948, in bringing together all sections in working for a Florida water control rather than a sectional one. Thirty-seven local county livestock associations are affiliated with the state association. Parasite Control.-With the advent of DDT and other materials, ex ternal parasite control has progressed. County agents report 3,235 farms using controlled methods. Cattle free of flies, lice and other pests make

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Annual Report, 1948 35 maximum gains on grass and feed. The Animal Husbandman has co operated with the livestock men and the Entomologist in keeping county agents and cattlemen advised on sprays, dips and dusts in parasite control. The use of DDT in controlling lice and horn flies has reduced the screw-worm infestation. Also_ where tick eradication is in process, very few screw-worms are found. 4-H Club Work.-During the year 4-H district livestock judging con tests were held in five counties. Typing demonstrations were held in three counties. Three different 4-H judging cont e sts were held at Ocala at the Brahma br e ed show, Hereford breed show and annual fat stock show. A 4-H club girl at the fourth annual west Florida fat cattle show and sale in Quincy won grand champion with her Hereford steer . The Animal Husbandman served as judge in the junior showmanship contest at the fat stock show in Ocala. Two purebred Hereford field days, one in Escambia county and the other in Leon, were held for 4-H club members. HOG PROGRAM During the period November 1, 1947 , to October 31, 1948, 145,491 hogs were marketed, compared with 107,539 a year earlier, an increase of 37,952 head . Since demand exhausted the supply of the bulletin, "Swine Production in Florida," considerable time was devoted to revising it. The Animal Husbandman urged farmers to grow a succession of crops so hogs could avoid the spring starving period and be finished for early market. Attention has been given to the use of mineral and protein sup plements in hog production. Reports show that county agents assisted 3,043 farm e rs in improving methods of feeding hogs. County agents aided 3,161 farmers in controlling external prarasites and 5,812 farmers in controlling internal parasites. Purebred Hogs.-Purebred hog breeders enjoyed a good season; for demand was brisk. In september the Duroc breeders promoted their fourth annual sale, at which 45 head were sold. There were 115 barrows in the tenth annual hog (breeding and fat animal) show. At an all purebred 4-H hog show held in one county, 50 animals were exhibited. At one fat hog and breeders show, 110 animals were exhibited. A Hampshire breeder reported selling 1,000 head, 107 of which went to Cuba and Latin American countries. Reports show that county agents aided 585 farmers in securing pure bred males and 885 farmers in securing purebred and high grade females. Meat Cured by Cold Storage Curing Plants.-During the season, Sep tember 1, 1947, to April 1, 1948, ther e were 6,798,121 pounds of meat cured for farmers compared to 9,718,515 pounds a year earlier. This is a de crease of 2,929,394 pounds. This decrease was attributed to high price of hogs, increase in freezer locker plant patrons and increase in the use of home freezers. Figures available on meat cured and meat handled by locker plants show that of the 60 meat curing plants, 44 reported _ meat cured. 4-H Club Work.-During the 4-H short course for boys, the Animal Husbandman assisted with instruction in beef cattle selection and typing. In six counties 4-H judging contests and typing demonstrations were held. The Animal Husbandman helped obtain prizes and eight scholarships

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension for 4-H livestock members from the purebred breeders and livestock as sociations . Civic clubs throughout the state are showing interest in sponsoring 4-H activities in livestock. County agents' reports show that 1,440 club members with 3,481 animals were enrolled this year, compared with i,358 club members with 3,271 animals in 1947. DAIRYING C . W. Reaves, Extension Dairyman Two district meetings, one at Quincy for west Florida county agents and one in Gainesville for central Florida agents, were held in December 1947 at which the 1948 dairy program was presented. Feed Program.-The feed conservation program, formulated in th e fall of 1947 , was continued through the winter months while feedstuffs were expensive and scarce. A citrus feed study was made in early May as a result of the large amount of citrus and citrus by-products available for cattle feed. Follow ing a meeting with the Extension Citrus Advisory Committee, the Exten sion Dairyman prepared a brief report on citrus and citrus products as feed for dairy cattle . Demonstrations of cafeteria style feeding of citrus molasses to dairy cattle were set up in several counties. A report was pr e pared on dehydrated Irish potatoes as a potential feed for dairy cows just before surplus potatoes became available for fe e ding. County agents' reports showed 1 , 202 dairymen were aided in improving their methods of feeding dairy cows. Development of Dairying in New Areas.-Many south Florida cities im port a part of their milk during the winter months . In dairy areas near these cities, many dairymen have large numbers of cows on small acr e ages so they must buy practically all feed. The purchase of replacement cows is a big cost it e m for these herds. The farm dairy program in west Florida is in the process of expansion. A meeting, attended by 250 people, was held in Marianna in January. A questionnaire filled out at the meeting indicated that 1,250 cows would be milked by those present by the end of the year. Local business men formed the Jackson County Development Corporation, which built a dairy plant and l e ased it, with option to buy, to a large commercial dairy. This con cern will operate the plant as a receiving station for supplying milk to deficit cities in the winter. In the summer, the milk will be us e d for ice cream mix and other outlets for quality milk products. A grade A milk receiving station is in operation at Chipley. The Extension Dairyman arrang e d a conference in October for develop ing a west Florida pasture program in order to enable representatives of the milk plants and educational and action agencies to make the same recommendations in their work with farmers. The Extension plan for developing the dairy program is on a farm sized basis, with plans for sufficient pasture and a large percent of th e feed for each dairy established. All producers are building barns and g e tting equipment to produce grade A milk Better Sire Program-The year 1948 has marked the beginning of an organized artificial breeding program in Florida. The Extension Dairyma!ll initiated a survey in one county to determine th e status of pr e sent sire servic e and the interest in attempting to provide artificial breeding s e rvice. The survey showed th e average annual cost of feeding and caring for a

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Annual Report, 1948 37 bull was $195.75, with 34 cows served per serviceable age bull and an aver age annual bull cost per cow of $5.75. The survey indicated a need to provide artificial breeding service. The Extension Dairyman prepared a list of responsibilities assumed by differ ent groups, which included the State Agricultural Extension Service, the local county agent's office and the county association, in developing county artificial breeding programs. As a result of the survey, two counties have organized artificial breeding services and two others have made initial plans to form like associations. Placement of privately owned bulls has been continued in most counties. Herds on dairy herd improvement association test provide sources of seed stock with known production ancestry. County agents report 210 farmtrs were assisted in purchasing pure-bred dairy sires. Dairy Herd Improvement Association Program.-The West Coast, Pioneer and Duval dairy herd improvement associations completed a year's operation which showed progress over 1947. The three associations now have more than 2,500 cows on test in 10 counties. The West Coast DHIA increased in membership from five to nine. The Pioneer DHIA completed its eleventh year of continuous operation with an annual meeting in the county agent's office at DeLand. The number of cows on test had doubled during the year. The Duval DHIA greatly ex panded its work during the year also. The annual herd summaries are made out by the DHIA supervisor and sent to the Extension Dairyman's office, where they are checked, totaled and,averaged. Results are sent back to association members. A dairy herd improvement association furnishes excellent result demon strations of improved feeding and manageme[lt practices and is of basic importance in a progressive county dairy program. Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is superintendent of official cow testing for the state. Twenty of the state's better breedi1:1g Guernsey, Jersey and Ayrshire herds are carrying on official testing. One Jersey dairyman carrying on testing had three Jersey bulls to qualify for the superior sire award of the breed in the last two years. Another co operating dairyman had a bull qualify for the senior superior sire award, the highest sire award made by the American Jersey Cattle Club. Work With Dairy Cattle Breed Associations.-The Extension Dairyma1:1 has worked with the Florida Guernsey and Jersey cattle clubs in helping plan and carry out their programs. These associations have cooperated by supporting 4-H dairy activities, the testing program, artificial breeding projects, providing for expense of state 4-H dairy winner to National 4-H Congress and by making heifers available at reasonable prices to 4-H club members. The Extension Dairyman gave assistance in planning and holding the two breed sales and the Guernsey field day. 4-H Dairy Club Work.-To stimulate interest in dairy club work, a state 4-H dairy show, two district dairy shows and several county shows were held. The first state-wide show was held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition in February. The 4-H boys and girls had the animals well-fitted and showed them in a manner that impressed attending breeders and dairymen. A sample check made at the fair exit gate one day showed the 4-H dairy show to be the most popular attraction of the fair. The central Florida five-county area show was continued for the secOl:l.d year. Following a county show in each county, the area show was held the

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38 Florida Cooperati ve E x tension morning of the state J ersey sale. A registered dairy heifer was awarded the winning boy in eac h of the five collil1ties. The second an,.'l.ual w e st Florida 4-H and FF A dairy show was staged in Chipley in August , with a n attendance of approximately 200 farmers. The Tampa Chamber of Commerce sponsored a dairy ca l f show for Hillsborough County 4-H members in th e center of Tampa. Plans were made for e xpandin g this show into the Florida West Coast Dairy Show and making it an annual event . Florida participated in the national 4 -H dairy production contest. Eight savings bonds were awarded and the state winner's report was entered for sectional competition. The Ext e nsion Dairyman conducted a dairy class during the State 4-H Short Course, helped with 4-H camps and arranged for c lub members to be included in educational events at the Guernsey sc ho ol. Th e judging school was an opportunity for se l ec ted club members to l earn fin er points in judging, with practice on animals of correct dairy type. There were 974 members e n rolled in 4-H dairy pro j ects with a total of 2,524 animals in completed projects . Hom e Milk Supply .B ec aus e of the relatively sma ll numb er of com mercial dairies in Florida, a large portio::i. of 4-H dairy club work dtrects Fig. 4. Three of the 4-H boys who won registered dairy heifers for being tops in dairy club work in their cou nti es, together with J ersey breeders who cooperated in the program.

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Annual Report, 1948 39 attention to an adequate home milk supply. The county agents i,n a num ber of counties have cooperated with the district Bureau of Animal In dustry veterinarians in listing family cows to be tested for Bang's disease to the . extent that all family cows in certain counties were tested . General Activities.-The Extension Dairyman and the dairy department of the College of Agriculture jointly planned and conducted a one-week dairy herdsmen's short course at the University in September. Forty peo ple, repr e senting 10,000 dairy cows, attended. The University dairy field day, held in July, was sponsored jointly by the Florida Dairy Industry Association, the University of Florida dairy husbandry and dairy products departments and the Extension dairy depart ment. The Extension Dairyman served as judge at several dairy shows , includ ing the State Fair, and was named a n "Approved Jersey Judge" by the American Jersey Cattle Club in their 1948 list. Radio, News Articles, Circular Letters and Illustrative Materials. The Extension Dairyman pres e nted 11 radio talks on the Florida Farm Hour program of Radio Station WRUF. Approximately 25 articles on im proved practices and publicizing objectives of Extension dairy projects being carried out with 4-H members and adults were prepared for the Agricultural News Service, which goes to about 200 weekly and daily news papers over the state. Some results of the 1948 Extension dairy program as reported by county agents: Cows on DHIA Test .... . .. . .. . ....... . .. .. ... . .. . .. , ..... . .. . .. . ................ .. ..... . .. . ... . .. . . . . Cows on official test .......... ..... .. . . .. . . . ... ........... . ..... . ............... . .............. . .. . . . . Purebred sires placed ................ .. ... . . . .. . . . ... . ............ . . . ................... . ...... .. .. . . Artificial breeding associations formed . ............................ . ... . . . ... . ....... . . . Farmers aided on feed problems ... . . .. . . . ... .. . . ........................ . .. .. . . .. . ... .. . . Farmers aided in treating for external parasites ............... .... . ... ... . . Farmers aided in controlli,ng disease and internal parasites ......... . 4-H club members completing dairy projects ................................... . 2,600 550 210 ' 2 1,202 1,666 2,126 646 Animals in completed 4-H dairy . projects .................................... . ...... . 2,524 4-H animals in state or area shows .. ..... . ............................................. ... 190 POULTRY ACTIVITIES N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman F. S. Perry, Assistant Extension Poultryman A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test Florida's poultry industry has been expanding gradually for the past 30 years. Today it is one of our most important agricultural enterprises. Florida farmers began the current year with 1,924,000 layers on hand. This was a slight increase over the 1947 figure of 1,901,000. Leading egg producing counties are Hillsborough, Pasco, Nassau, Duval, Polk and Jack son, in the order named. Leading broiler producing counties in order are Dade, Hillsborough, Duval, Palm Beach and Polk. Two new commercial areas are developing -one in Walton County and another in Putnam. It is reported that com mercial producers raise between six and seven million birds annually. This is in addition to a yearly production of five million farm-raised broilers. This yield is far short of the eggs and poultry consumed each year by Florida residents. Florida's hatcheries operate on a 12-month basis and chicks are pro

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40 Floricla Cooperative Extension duced more uniformly throughout the year than in almost any other state. A total of 11 , 572,000 chicks were produced during the period Januar y through October, 1948. This was slightly more than the 11,323,000 chicks produced during the same period in 1947. It is estimated that c hicks hatched for the period Decemb e r 1, 1947 , to November 30, 1948, would total 14,000,000 an increase of 12 % over the same period a year ago. Growing Healthy Pullets .Extension recommendations were followed by 1,260 families in obtaining better strains of baby chicks and by 3,139 families in improving methods of feeding. These recommendations were carried on in 506 communities throughout the state. Egg-Laying Test.-The Tw e nty-Second Florida National Egg-Laying Test was completed S eptem b er 21, 1948. Each test is conducted for a period of 357 days, starting October 1. Competing pens numbered 95, each including 13 pullets. In this t est there were 42 pens of S . C . White Leg homs, 25 of New Hampshires, 11 of S. C. Rhode Island Reds, 12 of White Plymouth Rocks and 5 of Barred Plymouth Rocks. Average egg production for the 51 weeks was 210.8 per bird, with a credit of 215.6 points. Average egg production for the heavy breeds was 204.4 eggs per bird, and for the light breeds 218.9 eggs per bird. Average feed consumption was 104.4 pounds per bird per year . Each dozen eggs produced required 5.7 pounds of feed. Mortality during the year averaged 11.2 percent. High pen consisted of S. C. White Leghorns owned by J. A. Hanson, Corvallis, Oregon. These 13 pullets produced 3,715 eggs for a value of 3,764.70 points. High individual was a S. C. White L eg hom owned by the Dryd en Poultry Br eeding Farm, Modesto, California. This pullet produced 327 eggs and was credited with 344.65 points. The high Florida entry was a pen of S. C. White Leghorns owned by Pinebreeze Farm , Callahan. These 13 pullets produced a total of 3,393 eggs for a value of 3,313.20 points. Fig. 5.-The broiler industry has exp and ed rapid l y in Florida.

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Annual Report, 1948 41 A pen of New Hampshires was the second high Florida pen. These pul lets laid 3,096 eggs for a total of 3,201.05 points. The 23rd test was started October 1, 1948, with 88 competing pe,ns. Culling Demonstrations.-Poultrymen must obtain a high rate of lay from their flocks if they are to make a profit. Methods used to diffuse culling information to poultry producers throughout the state were: culling demonstrations, bulletins, exhibits, culling charts, radio programs, leaflets and circular letters. In addition, local leaders, 4-H club members and county and home agents were schooled in the principles of selecting and culli,ng poultry, 4-H Club Poultry Work.-Poultry club members were encouraged and assisted in their program of supplying poultry meat and eggs for home consumption and for market. Poultry classes were held regularly at the 4-H boys' and girls' summer camps and also at the boys' and girls' short courses at Gainesville and Tallahassee. Flock management, proper housing, feeding, sanitation, cull ing, killing, dressi,ng, marketing and judging were some of the more im portant demonstrations given. During short course, blue awards were given to 4-H club boys from Duval County who presented a flannel dem onstration on "The Fundamentals of Broiler Production" and Dade County boys who presented a demonstration on "Poultry Housing." The special 4-H club girls' poultry demonstration project sponsored by the Sears-Roebuck Foundation in 17 counties was continued again this year. In this project alone, during the 1947-48 season, there have been 17 poultry shows and 17 egg shows. The program accounts for 17,000 baby chicks started, approximately 20,000 pounds of poultry meat sold, .over 5,000 hens on farms a,nd more than 60,000 dozens of eggs produced in the participating counties. t'he west Florida district 4-H club poultry and egg show and judging contest was held at Chipley with all of the 10 west Florida counties par ticipating. Entries included 210 birds and 43 dozen eggs. The state 4-H club poultry and egg show and judging contest was held again in con nection with the Central Florida Exposition at Orlando, with more than 105,000 people attending. A total of 1,045 birds and 160 dozen eggs were entered. Twenty-one judging teams from 14 counties competed in the judging ~ontest. During the year 1,774 boys and 1,542 girls were enrolled in poultry club work. Of this number 1,052 boys and 1,006 girls completed their projects with a total of 126,032 birds. Prevention of Disease and Parasites.-Extension workers have con tinued to stress the importance of clean land, range rotation, use of litter, chicken pox vaccination, control of internal and.external parasites and the use of sanitary poultry houses and equipment. Sporadic outbreaks of Newcastle disease have been of much concern to Florida poultrymen. . There were 5,190 families assisted in controlling various types of poul try parasites and diseases. Poultry Institute.-The seventh annual Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie August 23-28. Over 300 persons registered during the week, with about 100 spending the entire week. Full programs on poultry management, incubation, nutrition, disease, breeding, egg quality and marketing were presented. West Florida Broiler and Egg Institute.-The first annual broiler and egg institute was held at DeFuniak Springs, July 8, 1948. Poultrymen from west Florida, south Alabama and southwest Georgia attended the one-day

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension meeting, which included tours to broiler farms, feed manufacturing estab lishments rund processing plants. Attendance from these three areas totaled 830. . The Egg Quality Program.-The Florida Poultry Council, composed of representatives from all segments of the poultry industry, sponsored the egg quality program again. The program includes producing and handling eggs on the farm, and grading and candling eggs on the farm or at marketing centers according to standards specified in the Florida egg law. It also includes furnishing in formation to consumers on size, and quality standards, in addition to con sumer information. Egg candling and grading demonstrations were given by poultry work ers. Twenty-six egg shows were held at county and state fairs. A detailed egg grading exhibit was prepared and demonstrated at two farm and home institutes. Marketing Eggs and Poultry Meat.-Few serious difficulties have been experienced this year in marketing of poultry products. Prices have been satisfactory and usually cost items have been in a favorable relationship. When temporary surpluses did develop, however, the Extension organiza-, tion and State Marketing Bureau cooperated in developing suitable market outlets for this commodity. Killing and dressi!llg demonstrations were given at home demonstration club meetings, 4-H club meetings and short courses, and classes were held at the University Poultry Laboratory for Florida's poultry and egg in spectors. According to estimates by inspection bureau officials, approximately 13,000,000 dozen graded eggs were marketed in cartons in 1948, contrasted with 4,500,000 dozensdn 1947 and 4,000,000 in 1946. I•n addition, there were more than 40,000,000 pounds of graded poultry meat inspected this year by the poultry and egg division of the State Marketing Bureau. Assistance in marketing poultry products was given in 431 communities to 2,384 farmers or families. Four new cooperatives were assisted in or ganizing during the year. Thirteen established cooperatives were assisted during the year. There were 208 members in these 17 organizations. Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives totalled $238,050.00 and by non-members $531,485.00. RMA Project--Egg Phase.-Florida is a deficit poultry producing area; however, there is a temporary surplus of eggs during the spring months. There are difficulties in handling these surplus spring eggs produced on the general farms in north and northwest Florida, where the size of flock is relatively small. The Research and Marketing Act of 1946 has made pos sible Extension activity on this problem. The territory in north and north west Florida was selected for initial work. The two principal objectives in the project have been: (1) To study methods of improving the quality and merchandising of eggs, and (2) to study trends in marketing poultry meat. The initial survey period is well underway because of the excellent co operation of participating groups, and soon will be completed. Broiler Production.-It is estimated that the annual consumption of poultry meat in Florida is around 75,000,000 pounds; two-thirds of this is broilers. Broiler plants produce about 6,500,000 head of chickens and gen eral farms and commercial egg farms produce about 5,000,000 birds. This probably results in a production of about 30,000,000 pounds of poultry meat annually. This falls far short of total consumption, so for the past several years Extension poultry workers have been active in fostering approved practices and economy of production.

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Annual Report, 1948 43 The annual nutrition conference was held November 11 and 12, in Gainesville. The poultry theme at this conference was broiler production, including investment, costs and returns, methods and disease control. The National Poultry Improvement Plan.-The National Poultry Im provement Plan was created by an act of Congress in 1935. It authorizes the Bureau of Animal Industry, USDA, to cooperate with one official agency in each state in the administration of the plan. In Florida, the State Livestock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee, has been designated as the official state agency. The Agricultural Extension Service, the poultry de partment of the University of Florida, the Florida State Poultry Producers Association, and the Florida R.O.P. Association endorse and assist in furthering the plan. This plan assumes greater value as breeders and hatcherymen expand operations to supply the demand for quality baby chicks in Latin and South American countries and the islands of the West Indies. Airline traf fic officials estimate that Florida's annual export of baby chicks exceeds 3 million. Results of the pullorum testing program during the past season have been very satisfactory. Of all birds tested 77.1 percent were pullorum clean; 14.5 percent were pullorum passed and 8.3 percent were pullorum controlled. While a 2 percent tolerance is permitted in the pullorum con trolled class, Florida controlled flocks had only 0.52 percent of reactors. The percent of reactors in all flocks tested was 0.043. During the season it was necessary to reject 11 flocks containing 5,106 birds and to retest 30 flocks containing 19,712 birds. Seventy-six hatcheries with a total capacity of 3,257,038 are now par ticipating in the National Poultry Improvement Plan. Of these, 59 with a total capacity of 2,778,710 are in the pullorum clean or pullorum passed classes. Assistance was given poultrymen in selecting and breeding birds and also in developing breeding programs. During December, 1947, a one-day breeders' school was held at the University poultry laboratory in Gainei,. ville. Four hundred thirty farmers were assisted during the year in se curing purebred males and 528 farmers obtained purebred females. Turkeys.-When considered together with other poultry products, tur keys represent a relatively small percentage return to Florida farmers. This enterprise, however, is important to the general farming section of north and west Florida. Turkey production has declined slightly during the past few years. Florida farmers raised 115,000 turkeys in 1946. Thi:,, was an increase over the 1939-43 average of 108,000. A 5 percent reduction was reported in 1947 when 109,000 turkeys were produced. Estimates fo1 1948 indicate a further reduction of about 5 percent to 104,000 birds . . A practical turkey management program was fostered, giving particu lar emphasis to separation of chickens and turkeys, portable coops used on clean land, good breeding stock, proper feeding and approved marketing procedure. Eight counties have been active in turkey work during the year. Chicken-of-Tomorrow Contest.-T.he chicken-of-Tomorrow contest has as a goal the development of meatier chickens that will grow faster on less feed and the breeding of strains of meat-type chickens of superior merit through a program of progeny testing. Florida has held a state con test for the third year. In the 1948 Florida contest the winning entry in the adult class weighed 4.06 pounds at 12 weeks of age and was owned by W. A. Belote of Pine Air Poultry Acres, Jacksonville. This high award in the junior class averaged 3.67 pounds at 12 weeks of age and was owned by Michael Blocker, a 4-H club boy from Jacksonville.

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension BE E K EE PI NG John D. Haynie, Apiculturist The Apiculturist was appointed in December 1947. His duties are to promote beekeeping in the state by instructing and assisting county agents, home demonstration agents and district and state beekeeper associations in sci e ntific methods of beekeeping and the marketing of honey. Organiz e d activity among the beekeepers of Florida began in 1919 when a state association was formed. The original purpose of the Florida State Beekeepers' Association was to secure apiary inspection for the beekeepers of Florida. Some Beekeepers in the state are still lacking information concerning problems in their respective localities . The Apiculturist, worki n g with county agents, organized six district beekeepers' associations, in addition to the three associations already formed. These district beekeepers' asF ig. 6 . Th e E xtension Apiarist demonstrates t h e five-d e ep brood fra m e hi ve .

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Annual Report, 1948 45 sociations, which are scattered throughout the state, work closely with the State Beekeepers' Association on all problems in beekeeping. Cooperating with State Organlzation.-The Apiculturist supervises honey exhibits at the Florida State Fair each year. This year, beekeepers put on four individual exhibits, the Ladies' Auxiliary had a booth and the State Association had one exhibit. Three of the beekeepers exhibiting sold almost $2,000 worth of honey, in addition to premiums received. The most popular booth among the honey exhibrts was the Ladies' Auxiliary booth, where foods made with honey were exhibited .• Bulletin information on use of honey in the daily diet was distributed at the booth. The Apiculturist organized a three-day educational program for the Florida State Beekeepers' Association. Speakers were selected from the USDA, State Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Extension Service, Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture and federal and state representatives a!Ild beekeepers in the field. The beekeepers were in formed that a research program in honey plants was in the State Ag ricultural Experiment Station's budget for 1949. This year in the nine district beekeepers' associations in the state, most of the work has been centered around organization. Visual aids have been used and beekeepers have brought them to the public for use in an educa tional manner. One of the sound motion picture films on the life history of the honeybee was shown to several thousand children in one of the larger cities by a beekeeper. Teaching Aids.-Three circular letters on (1) methods of beekeeping, (2) condition of honey plants and (3) remarks on marketing honey were sent th e beekeepers during the year. Four radio talks were given over WRUF on the importance of bees in the pollination of crops, notes on the history of beekeeping, importance of the bee industry in Florida and recom mendations on how to winter bees. The Apiculturist and the county agent of Gulf County took an ento mology class on a tour to study honey production in the tupelo river swamps, which is the only region in the world where tupelo honey is pro duced in quantity. 4-H Club Activities.-During the summer four colonies of bees were brought to Camp McQuarrie, regional 4-H camp, for bee-handling demon strations. It was not certain that the area around Camp McQuarrie would maintain colonies but it proved to be a fair location and nine gallons of honey were produced from two colonies. The other two colonies were secured later in the summer and they will be in condition to produce a crop of honey in 1949. The honey was taken from the hives and extracted by the 4-H club boys. At camp, groups of boys were given instruction in beginning beekeeping. The subject matter included a brief outline of the history of beekeeping i~ this country, the most important honey plants of Florida, removing honey from the bees and re-queening, extracting and handling honey. At district 4-H Camp Timpoochee a large commercial beekeeper lo cated at Freeport invited the 4-H club group to visit his beeyard and ex tracting plant. The beekeeper conducted the group through the colonies and explained how the bees are handled and showed how the colonies are worked when shipping package bees. The group was taken through the extracting plant where each operation in handling the honey from the hives to the settling tank was demonstrated. An outline on beginning beekeeping was written for use by 4-H club members. A mimeographed circular of 20 pages, ''First Lessons in Bee

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension keeping," was written to fill the need . for printed information on beekeep ing. A bulleting on beekeeping will be published later. Cooperation with Research Workers.-Since there is not a published bulletin on honey plants by the State Experiment Station, the Apiculturist wished to help publish a bulletin on honey plants in Florida which would serve the beekeepers and the science field. Dr. G. J. Stout, horticultural department, food preservation, College of Agriculture, became interested in working with honey in the granulated form. Canada markets 95 P,ercent of her honey crop in this spread form and co-ops in the Northern states are beginning to put up clover honey in a cream form. Dr. Stout found that by processing darker and stronger flavored honey, the color becomes much lighter and the flavor milder. He has demonstrated his processed honey samples to two large groups of bee keepers who are anxious that he continue with this work. While most of his results are encouraging, he is not ready yet to give out definite infor mation on the formula. The honey processing requires a large amount of equipment and should be undertaken only by a large honey packer or or ganization. Tbe Apiculturist and officials of the State Beekeepers Association worked out a research project on plants. There is need for more honey plants that will fit into the beekeeping season in order that beekeepers will not have to move their bees to different localities to maintain them. At the present, there is no information available to assist a beekeeper in de. termining whether or not a section of the state is a good beekeeping area. Exhibits.-A beekeeping exhibit was set up at the Farm and Home In stitute at Cherry Lake and Camp Timpoochee. The purpose of the exhibit was to show the elementary steps in manipulating a colony, taking honey from the colony, equipment necessary to extract honey and the process of extracting. The point stressed in connection with the exhibit was that a few colonies of bees can be kept to produce honey for home use and help insure pollination of crops. There were over 200 people who attended the Cherry _ Lake Farm'. and Home Institute, with a lesser number attending the Timpoochee Farm and Home Institute.

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Annual R eport, 19 48 47 BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK R. W. Blacklo ck, State Boy s' Club Agent W . W . Brown , Assist a nt Stat e Boys' Club Agent Th e state is divided into 10 4-H districts with one co unty agent in each district e l ec ted as district chairman to d eve lop mor e effect iv e ly the 4 -H program. One-day meetings devoted so l e l y to 4-H subject matter were h e ld in eac h district in January and February . In October th e 10 district chairme n , meeting with the state club staff, decided upon features of 4-H to be emphasized in n ext year ' s program. By combining a training co urs e for assistant ag e nts with th e 4-H con servation camp , 21 assistant county agents received a week of practical training in organiz ing a nd carryi ng on a 4-H program. In two counties most of th e 4-H members come from urb a n areas . Boy s from urban areas and smaller towns usually e nroll in poultry and garden proj ects and do e xc e ll e nt work. Th e r e are 12 4-H boys wllo hav e register ed in th e College of Agriculture, University of Florida, from on e urban county . For th e past year th e r e has not be e n a Negro District Agent in charge of th e Extension program for negro es. Th e stat e club staff assisted in planning for the n eg ro 4-H short course and th e n eg ro Extension confer e nce . A location has be e n secured for a n eg ro 4-H camp. A donation for 4 H conservation ca mps was us e d to help finance two n eg ro camps. A r e gional Fig. 7 . This dairy show attracted wid es pr ea d atte nti on among adults and juniors .

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension camp for negro 4-H members was started this summer at Baton Rouge, La . At least one discussion on 4-H club work was given each month over Radio Station WRUF. Twice during the year 4-H programs from local 4-H clubs out in the state have been broadcast. Florida was represented in the National Geographic's 4-H story last November. Volunteer Leaders.-Progress was made in training local leaders. The Economist in Farm Management assisted with eight local leader training meetings and the state 4-H club staff assisted with 11. Many agents have taken 4-H club meetings out of the schools and placed them on a com munity basis in order to have the assistance of local leaders. The training school for local 4-H club officers has proven successful in eight clubs. Materials.-The state 4-H club department prepared an individual re port card for use in building a permanent file for the county agents' of fices. This card is being used in about half the counties. The state 4-H club staff prepared material which was used in organiza tion, project work, recreation and demonstrations. A different type of card for livestock judging was developed by the state club office, working with the Animal Husbandman and Dairyman. The state 4-H club staff obtained som~ equipment which was loaned to counties and helped plan county 4-H exhibits which were designed to in terest and inform the public. Enrollment and Completions.-County. agents' reports show a decrease of 84 boys enrolled in 4-H club work. This decrease was attributed to the fact that agents decided to work with fewer boys in order to improve quali ty of work. A decided improvement in number of members reporting was noted . Percent completions went up from 57.7 percent in 1947 to 63 percent in 1948. This is the first time completions have averaged as high as 60 per cent. The quality of project work also improved. Five counties did out standing work , with a special corn contest. Two counties had excellent poultry projects. The work with beef,breeding animals in three counties was unusually good. The number and quality of dairy animals in six counties improved considerably. Tours and Short Courses.-A large number of 4-H tours and education al trips were.held. In Florida, boys' 4-H work is completely separate from girls' work. A departure from precedent this year was the organization of five clubs of boys and girls on a community basis. Enrollment and interest increased in these clubs. The 1948 annual 4-H short course was held for the 29th year, with 250 boys attending , Crowded conditions at the University of Florida made it increasingly difficult to house and feed the boys, but with better facilities being built on the campus less difficulty is anticipated for future short courses. Council.-The state boys' 4-H council was revived. In addition to help ing promote 4-H work, the council collected $200.00 in donations from the boys at 4-H short course to send to a W.A.C. officer in charge of German youth activities in the Wurzburg area. A report from t . he W.A.C. officer related that the money was used to purchase equipment for German youth camps. Letters received from German youth groups expressed apprecia tion. At the National 4-H Camp, the Florida group supplied a package of concentrated citrus products, which was shipped abroad. Camps.-The administration of all 4-H camps became the responsibility of the Boys' Club Agent this year. This includes maintenance, new build ings, operation of kitchens at camp and securing caretakers and camp

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Annual Report, 1948 49 staffs. This year needed repairs were made and some new equipment was added to the three 4-H camps. Plans for 1949 include rebuilding two buildings at Cherry Lake and finishing the apiary at McQuarrie. Four colonies of bees were started at McQuarrie a,nd plans have been made to enlarge the apiary until enough honey can be produced to supply all camps. This will necessitate building a honey extracting house, which should be completed by the summer of 1949. Increased efficiency and better service was obtained after all camp dining rooms and kitchens were placed under one head. Three kitchen managers supervised preparing and serving over 45,000 meals at 4-H camp and at four farmers' institutes held at the camps during the summer. The meals at camp were served at a cost of 32c per meal. Three directors and two life guards were employed for the summer. Four were former 4-H boys and one a schiool teacher. This year 3,233 4-H members attended camp. Accommodations were available for a maximum of 425 people at a time, at the three camps. The length of the camping period for each group was four and two-thirds days. With the camp open for 12 weeks 5,000 could have been accommodated. Because of the shape of the state and the distance from end to end, there is need for another camp in the southern part of the state. Thirty acres of land on an excellent lake have been donated for a fourth camp. Group insurance was secured to protect the 4,000 4-H members attend ing camps and short courses against the hazard of accidents and sickness. Awards.-Eight college scholarships were awarded in 1948. Seven boys attended National 4-H Congress and two the National 4-H Camp. Two banks in Tallahassee sponsored a trip for the champion 4-H'. corn boy. 'fhe 4-H staff contacted 30 individuals and organizations who con tribute annually to awards for 4-H boys. In 1948, the following were se cured: seven college scholarships, trips for two to the National 4-H Camp . for white and for six to the Negro Regional Camp, trips for seven to Chicago and donations for short course and camp scholarships.

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension FARM CROPS, SOILS AND CONSERVATION SOILS AND FARM CROPS J. R. Henderson, Agronomist The Extension Agronomist was employed Deceiliber 1, 1947, jointly by the Agricultural Extension Service and the Agrictural Experiment Sta tion. Two-thirds time is devoted to Extension activities and one-third to Station duties. i Major activities of Extension agronomy include : d: 1. Conferences with county agents, in groups, for presentation of sub ject matter information based on new research findings. 2. Meetings with seed, fertilizer, insecticide and fungicide dealers to better acquaint them with Extension recommendations for production of field crops and pastures. i 3. Close study of research on soils, field cro:\')s and pastures at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station a,nd its branches and at nearby stations in Georgia .and Alabama. i 4. Carrying out specific projects in soils, field 1 crops and pastures as need and opportunity arise. 1 i Help was given agents in all sections of the state in recognizing the major soils groups in counties, in working out pasture programs to fit soil conditions and in determining lime and fertilizer requirements for various soils when used for the production of the adapted pasture plants. Two group conferences were held in December, ; 1947, at which research information on all phases of field crop and pasture production was re viewed. One was held at the North Florida Experiment Station at Quincy and the other at the Main Station at Gainesville. f Four meetings were held during the year, at Which Extension recom mendations for production of field crops and pasture, fertilization and liming, and insect and disease control were outlin~d. As the 1948 production season advanced, special projects with several crops and with pastures received attention. Crops concerned included lupines, Dixie Wonder pea, hairy indigo, peanuts, corn, flue-cured tobacco and . small grains. Assistance was given in the developme-nt of a dairy pasture program for northwestern Florida. ; Lupines.-Bitter blue lupine has become well established as the favorite leguminous winter cover crop in the general farming area of Florida. Weather conditions during the past growing seasoo were unfavorable for lupine growth but highly favorable for the developihent of diseases. Agents were encouraged to survey plantings in their respetive counties and locate disease-free fields for seed production. As a result of their efforts, a fair supply of good seed was obtained. Seed of sweet yellow lupine had been increased by the Experiment Station. Through cooperation with them, several lots of these seed were placed with farmers in strategically located counties for further observation. ,, I Dixie Wonder Pea.-This variety, a selection out of the Austrian winter pea, had been under observation at the Experiment Station for two years. It was found to grow off earlier and produce larger yields of forage than its parent. Agents throughout the general farming area were asked to secl,lre plantings for further study of its possibilitie~ as a grazing and green manure crop.

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Annital Report, 1948 51 Hairy Indigo .T,h ere is need for a summer cover crop to rep l ac e Crotalaria spectabilis. Hairy indigo seems to m ee t these requirements and has possibilities as a grazing and hay crop. This year, a small quantity of the seed of an early maturing strain was released to the Agronomist by the Experiment Station. Six lots of this seed were placed in as many counties for the beginning of a seed production program . Peanuts .Se ed of a new strain, the Dixie Runn er, were released to a few growers in 1943. This variety h as outyielded the common Southeastern Runner by as much as 25 percent and the nuts are almost free of "co cealed damage." Th e seed supply after five years was sufficient to p l ant only 15 percent of the acreage devoted to peanuts. The Agronomist is as sisting agents in strategically locat ed counties throughout th e peanut growing area in finding growers interested in b ec om i ng prod u cers of ce rtified Dixi e Runn e r seed. Small lots of foundation stock wer e re l eased to growers in three counties this year. Co rn . In 1947 the average yield on approximately 700,000 acres of cor n was 12.5 bushels per acre. Exp e rim e nt Station workers hav e shown that the yield of corn can be increased considerably through the use of Fig . 8.-Before they could put good quality tobacco in the barns , both shade and flue-cured tobacco growers had to control the green peach aphid this year.

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension adapted hybrids, closer spacing of plants and heavier fertilization. Hy brids whic . h appeared suitable for use under Florida conditions included Florida W-1, Florida W-2 and Dixie 18. Seed of Florida W-1 has been avail able to farmers for several years but this was the first year that seed of the other two were available. All 4-H club boys having corn production projects were urged to use one of the three adapted hybrids, space plants according to soil conditions and fertilize in accordance with soil fertility and spacing. Demonstrations were carried out in all counties where corn is an important crop. Results were outstanding and did much to further the Extension program for corn production. The following are typical of yields obtained. In Escambia County, where the 1945 reported average yield was 18.2 bushels per acre, the boys produced 55 bushels per acre. In Suwannee County, with a 1945 average yield of 9.3 bushels, average yield obtained under this project was 33 bushels per acre. Flue-Cured Tobacco.-As a result of wide adoption of Extension recom mendations for weed control, blue mold control and correlations of soil type, fertilization and spacing, the average yield of flue-cured tobacco was increased from 860 pounds per acre in 1943 to 1,039 pounds in 1947. To further the Extension program with tobacco, an area-wide meeting was held in January. The program presented included research information and Extension recommendations on all phases of production ancl process ing. The green peach aphid became a serious pest in the shade tobacco fields of Gadsden County in 1947, but only minor outbreaks were noted in the flue-cured section. In May, when this aphid appeared in numerous fields throughout the area, the Agronomist spent considerable time and effort in compiling and publicizing the latest information on control measures, ar ranging for and staging demonstrations and keeping dealers posted on sources of the materials required for control. In carrying out this program the inadequacy of spraying and dusting equipment was found to be a lim iting factor. This was brought to the attention of spray machine manufacturers, who are redesigning their equipment for better application of the insecticides. Small Grains.-The annual acreage in small grains, especially that in oats, increased tremendously in the 10-year period prior to 1946. Due to prevalence of Victoria blight and a new race of crown rust during the last two growing seasons the acreage devoted to oats has declined. Camellia oats are resistant to both diseases. The Agronomist located seed supplies of this variety, furnished this information to seedsmen and county . agents and urged them to secure the widest posi,ible use of this variety in 1948 fall plantings. In several counties certified seed of the Camellia oat was used with the idea of developing local seed supplies. Pastures.-Assistance was given in planning and conducting several pasture tours throughout the state. A pasture exhibit was set up at farm and home institutes at Camps Timpoochee and Cherry Lake. This exhibit consisted of actual samples of pasture grasses and legumes and a series of charts showing: (1) the value of pasture, (2) adaptations of pasture plants, (3) fertilizing and liming for establishment of different kinds of pasture, ( 4) effect of fertilization and liming on the growth and composition of pasture herbage, and (5) steer gains on different kinds of pasture. A small card, outlining its uses and management, accompanied each plant sample.

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Annual Report, 1948 53 SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION H. S . McLendon, Soil Conservationist The Soil Conservationist devoted full time to the work from February 1, 1948, to the close of the period covered by this report. Charters were issued to two new districts, Union and Lafayette, in 1948, bringing the total number in the state to 44. Activities in Organized Districts.-The information given here is pre par e d from Soil Conservation Service records. The report for the last six months of 1948 will not be available until January of 1949 and this report is a summary of results up to June 30, 1948. This statistical r epo rt covers information on 40 districts. However, five of these districts show only work done during the last six months of th e period covered. There are four new districts for which no work is shown. Practice Planned Crop rotations acres Cover crops .................................................. 219,755 acres Contour farming .......................................... 214,772 acres Crop residue management .......................... 224,366 acres Strip cropping .............................................. 68,173 acres Range improvement ........ ..... ...... ............. . . .. 152,030 acres Pasture improvement ... ...... ........... . ........ .. ... 868,239 acres Seeding of range ............. ...... ....... ..... ...... . .... 10,989 acres Seeding of pasture ..... .. .... . .... ... .... .. ......... . . . . .. 662,859 acres Wildlife areas ................................................ 185,002 acres Woodland management ....... ........ ....... .......... 716,017 acres Tree planting . .... ........ . .... ... : .... . . .... .. .. .. .......... 31,481 acres Farm and ranch ponds ......... . ... .... ............ .. . 340 T e rracing ............. . ............ . . ... ......... .. .............. 21,398 miles Field diversions ...... ........... ............ .... ........ ... 106 miles Farm drainage . .. . .. ... .. .. ........ ..... . . .................. 816,870 acres Closed drains .................................. . . .. ........ . . 150,020 feet Open drains .................................................... 1,460 miles Irrigation ...... . . .. . . ...... ....... .. .......... . .................. 15,654 acres Improved water application .... .... .. ..... .. . .... 75,565 acres Field windbreaks ............. .... ......... .. ......... . .... 25 miles Water disposal areas ........ .... .. . ... ...... .... ... ... 6,132 acres Kudzu .............................................................. 24,692 acres Sericea ............................................ . . .... ........ . . 3,317 acres Alfalfa and permanent grass .................... 46,827 acres Fir e breaks ....... . .. . .. ..... ......... ..... ...... .... ...... ...... 5,511 miles Fish ponds ...................... . .. . ............ .... ............ 482 Farm planning surveys . . ..... ........ ........ ...... ... 942,842 acres Basic surveys . . ... ...... .. ..... .... .. ........................ 111,471 acres Reconnaissance ................ ....... ....... .. ........ .. .... 0 acres Established 366,386 acres 151,508 acres 147,224 acres 156,654 acres 13,515 acres 31,403 acres 183,340 acres 3,155 acres 120,395 acres 170,911 acres 537,280 acres 8,265 acres 175 9,529 miles 85 miles 287,894 acres 150,020 feet 574 miles 7,856 acres 42,977 acres 1 mile 2,496 acres 7,888 acres 953 acres 12,390 acres 1,975 miles 196 6,020,457 acres 149,656 acres 1,305,202 acres FARM AND RANCH CONSERVATION PLANS Applications received this period .................................... 2,601 Applications received to date ............................................ 11,759 Active applications to date ...... .. ......... . ...... .... ........ .. .......... 3,181 Plans prepared and signed this period .. . .......... ........ .... ... 1 , 996 Plans prepared and signed to date ....... . .............. . ........... 8,679 Active conservation plans to date ........... ... ........ .... .......... 8,153 Combined treatment this period ...... .................... ...... ....... . Combined treatm e nt to date ........................................... . 1,197,785 5,585,060 2,323,033 612 ,8 38 2,949,719 2,803,836 386,311 1,293,706

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension Annual elections of supervisors were held in 37 of the 44 districts in 1948. According to the Stat e Office of the U. S. Soil Conservation Service, there is a total of 22,158,298 acres now covered by soil conservation dis tricts, of which 7,476,132 were covered by soil conservation surveys as of June 30, i948. There were 2,949,054 acres covered by 8,668 farm plans for the same period. Organization of Soil Conservation Dlstrlcts.-The Director of the Flor ida Agricultural Extension Service is administrator of the State Soil Con servation Board and is responsible for administering the Soil Conservation Districts Act . Based on this authority, the Extension Soil Conservationist is responsibl e for organizational work in forming new districts in the state, and the county agent assumes similar responsibilities in the county. SUMMARY OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES BY WHITE COUNTY AGENTS IN FLORIDA, 1948 Number of communities in which work was conducted this year: (a) Soil and water .. . . .. ....................... . ......... . ............ 562 in 51 counties (b) Wildlife ............. . ........................... . . . .. .. . . .................. 199 in 38 counties Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting this year: (a) Soil and water . .. ...... . ............ . ..... . . .. ... . ...... . ........ . . . 508 in 32 counties (b) Wildlife ............... . .. . . ... . . . .. ..... . .. . . .. . :.... ... . . .. ....... .. . ... 250 in 13 counties Number of farmers assisted this year: (a) With problems of land use ........ .. ...................... 8,420 in 59 counties (b) In the use of crop rotations ..... . ........................ 4,036 in 50 counties (c) With strip cropping ................................. : .......... 441 in 12 counties (d) In constructing terraces .......... . ........ . .... . ........ . .. 376 in 19 counties (e) In grassing waterways or otherwise preventing or . controlling gullies .............. . ... .. ... . ........ :.. . .. . . 435 in 28 counties (f) With contour farming of cropland .. .. ................ 251 in 16 counties (g) In contouring pasture or range ........................ 135 in 8 counties (h) In the use of cover or green-manure crops .... 15,696 in 56 counties (i) In otherwise controlling wind or water erosion ...................... . ... . .. .. ..... .. .. . ....... . .. . (j) In summer fallowing .......... .. .. . .. . . . .. .. ........... ... .. . . (k) In making dept:h-of-moisture tests ............... . . . (1) With drainage .. .. . . .......................... .. .. . .................. . (m) With irrigation . . . .. . ..................... . ....................... . (n) With land clearing ............... . ..... . ....................... . Number of farmers: (a) In soil-conservation districts which were as sisted with education for organization or 894 in 30 counties 596 in 9 counties 191 in 7 counties 1,931 in 46 counties 718 in 35 counties 1,174 in 57 counties operations this year .............. . ........................... 11,479 in 39 counties (b) Assisted in arranging for farm-conservation plans this year ... : ......................... . .................... 2,435 in 35 counties (c) Assisted in doing work based on definite farm conservation plans this year ........... . .. 1,594 in 37 counties Number of farmers assisted this year: (a) In construction or management of ponds for fish ...................... . ...................... . .. . ........... ......... 187 in 34 counties (b) In protection of wildlife areas, such as str e am banks, odd areas, field borders, marshes and ponds , from fire or livestock 392 in 30 counties

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Annual Report, 1948 (c) In planting of edible wild fruits and nuts in hedges, stream banks, odd areas and field 55 borders ....................................... .. ....................... 145 in 18 counties (d) With other plantings for food and protection in wildlife areas ....... ...... . . .. .... . ... . ... .... .. . ... ......... 223 in 26 counties 4-H club projects in soil and water conservation : (a) Number of boys enrolled ..... . ... . . .. ...... . .. ... . .. ..... . 61 in 14 counties (b) Number of boys completing .. . ........... . .. ..... .... . . 34 in 13 counties Days devoted to line of work by: Home demonstration agents ............ .. . .. .......... ... . . ..... . 6 in 4 counties County agricultural agents ........ . . . . . .. ... .... . . . . . .. . . ..... . . 590 in 47 counties Number of communities in which work was conducted this year ....... . ......................... .. ............. .. ......... . 381 in 41 counties Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting this year .... ... .... . ..... . .......... ....... ..... . . 171 in 21 counties Number of meetings participated in this year by Extension workers ....... ....... . . . .. . ... . .... .... . .. .. . ..... .. .. . 273 i•n 37 counties

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56 Florida Cooperative Extension FARM FORESTRY L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester Forest Fire Prevention.-Although progress in forest fire prevention is being made, woods fires still constitute the main obstacle to successful reforestation in Florida. County agents were assisted in meeting the problem of forest fire pre vention through distribution of bulletins, charts, radio talks, posters, circular letters, news releases, pictures, motion picture films, book mark ers and illustrated blotters which point out how fires damage timber stands. In 20 counties agents were assisted in establishing or continuing the forest fire prevention campaigns along the lines of the Extension timber-grazing-game program. Under this procedure, grazing on wide improv e d pasture firebreaks produces more beef from the forest range in a given area than is possible under a woods burning program, and, at the same time, safeguards the timber stands from fire. In promoting forest fir e protection on farms and cattle ranches, Bul letin 127, Timber-Grazing-Game, written by the Extension For e ster, was widely used by county agents and veteran's teachers. Recently the Florida Bankers ' Association requested 400 copies of this bulletin for distribution to all of its memb e r banks. In Lake County the Extension Forester spent three days assisting re gional, state and local SCS workers and state foresters in planning, pr e paring and executing an all-day forestry field meeting. Proper timber harvesting, thinning, estimating, planting and fire protection methods were discussed and demonstrated. During the y e ar, the Extension Forester conducted five training meet ings in forest fire prevention attended by 42 county agents. There were 3,057 farmers cooperating in forest fire prevention for the first time. Forest Planting.-County agents were supplied with circular letters ad vising of the availability of forest planting stock, procedures for obtaining it, time for making applications for forest seedlings and methods of plant ing for e st trees. Through the generosity of fiv e Florida pulp mills, more than 2 mil lion slash pine seedlings were made available, free of charge, to Florida farmers, 4-H .club members and oth e rs. For the past 10 years the Extension Forester has suggested the plant ing of native red cedar on farms to help meet the growing need for fence posts and other high value uses of cedar, such as pencil wood, cabinet wood and Christmas trees . The State Forest Service produced about 30 , 000 c e dar seedlings, but they were infected with cedar blight in the nurs eries and poor survival resulted in most farm plantings. A few farmers arr e sted the diseases and saved their s e edlings by spraying them with Bordeaux spray as suggested by the Extension Forester. Small demonstration plantings of hardwoods, such as white oak, black cherry, yellow poplar, wild mulberry, catalpa and swamp chestnut oak, were continued . One small planting of native mahogany was made in one county, using seedlings grown in a greenhouse by the Exten~ion Forester. In Lafayette County a fence post demonstration planting of 800 year ling catalpa seedlings was made. The Extension Forester planted 100 red cedar seedlings, as an under-story planting to the catalpa trees, to demon strate the practicabilty of growing these two species of native for e st trees as companion crops. The Extension Forest e r continued work on two demonstration forest

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Annual Report, 1948 57 plantings made five years ago. Fairly complete records on these two plant ings, using 12 species four conifers and eig ht hardwoods were kept. Average height of red cedar trees five years after planting, on the Gaines ville plot, 7 feet 2 inches; Chipley plot, 7 feet 4 inches. The average height of slash pine , five years after planting, on the Gainesville plot was 12 feet 6 inches. Windbreak plantings of Australian pines for south Florida and three rows of slash pine int e rplanted with red cedar for north Florida were r ecomme nd ed for protecting croplands and buildings. Four training meetings for county ag e nts were held. Thirty other county agents received training in forest planting . There were 159 addi tional demonstrations established. Timber Marketing . -Count y agents, Norris-Doxey foresters and SCS workers were assisted in conducting demonstrations in sound timber har vesting practices and in helping farmers adopt b ette r c utting methods. Ten thousand copies of the new farmers bull e tin, No. 1989 , "Managing the Small For est," were secured and distributed to county agents for re distribution to farmers . Instruction in timber marketing was given by th e Extension For es ter b efore 326 4-H club members in 18 different demonstration meetings. Fig. 9. An interested class l ear n ed about timber and forestry at the 4-H wildlife camp . FARM FOREST PRODUCTS S4 l'ULP ENE CROSS POI.ES GUM C•RIST

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension Two training meetings for county agents were held and 14 other county agents received training in timber marketing. Improved practices were adopted by 257 farmers. Forest Products For Home Use.-To help focus attention on the neces sity for helping farmers provide for farm needs for lumber, fence posts, fuelwood, stakes, sills, shingles and handle material, the Extension For ester prepared a miniature display of seven forest products for home use and seven for market. This exhibit was displayed at fairs, farmers' in stitutes, forestry meetings, schools and in one large bank. The Extension Forester was concerned with the development of better and more acceptable methods for treating non-durable sapling pine posts with wood preservative on the farm. In cooperation with the Extension Engineer, a two-page illustrated mimeographed release on how farmers can treat their sapling posts with pentachlorphenol preservative was prepared to meet the need. The Ex tension Engineer demonstrated this method before all county agents dur ing the annual Extension Conference. Two other demonstrations of this method were staged during farmers' institute meetings, with the coopera tion of county agents, the Extension Engineer and Extension Forester. The idea is to convert non-durable saplings, of which there is usually a plentiful supply on farms, into durable posts, thus effecting savings of timber; time, labor and money. The Extension Forester collected 37 fence posts, representing 20 species of Florida trees of known durability, from the woods and delivered them to the Experiment Station at Gainesville for a fence post durability test. Some were treated with preservative. He cooperated with the foresters of the Lake City branch of the Southern Forest Experiment Station in developing the 58 acres set aside in the Osceola National Forest as a farm forestry demonstration area. In this phase, three training meetings were held for county agents and 18 other county agents received training. Twenty-five demonstrations were established. 4-H Club Forestry Programs.-Emphasis was placed on a 4-H catalpa project. In 20 counties, county agents were furnished 1,000 catalpa seeds each by the Extension Forester. One 4-H club member in each of these counties planted these seeds in nursery rows which produced several hundred catalpa seedlings for later fence post planting. The object was to stimulate interest in forestry, give rural boys training and experience in producing forest nursery stock and help meet the serious shortage of dur able fence post material. This year several thousand additional forest trees were planted and about 10 acres of new improved pasture grass fire lines established on the 4-H club owned 400-acre timber tract in Escambia County. With the help of the county forester, 1,000 catalpa seeds were planted on the project and several hundred nice catalpa seedlings were grown for transplanting into a fence post plot on the project this Winter. Additional pla,ntings were made at 4-H demonstration forest in Marion County. The Extension Forester taught forestry at five 4-H summer camps, and during the 4-H short course held at Gainesville to 374 club members. Dem onstrations presented included tree identification, forest planting, timber cruising and harvesting, fire protection, game and wildlife, production of forest products for home use, thinning, improvement cutting and pruning. Thirty county agents received assistance in organizing and conducting project work. There were 12 training meetings for 4-H members and 36

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Annual Report, 1948 59 other 4-H members received assistance. Fifty 4-H demonstrations were established. In addition, nine training meetings in for e st fire prevention, eight in forest planting, six in timber mark e ting and nine in forest produ c ts for hom e use were h e ld. Teaching Aids.-As teaching aids , the Ext e nsion For e ster has prepared additional mounted specimens of leav e s and twigs of native Florida trees and 26 wood samples mounted on a panel showing bark, sapwood and heartwood. El e v e n radio talks on various phases of forestry work were mad e and furnished to 15 other radio stations for re-broadcast by county agents. Summary of Extension Activity in Farm Forestry.-Examples of in crea se d farmer int e rest in forestry during 1948 as compared with 1947 ar e sho w n in county ag e nts' annual reports . 1948 No. of d a ys county agents devoted to forestry .... ...... . .. . . ... . ... ...... 48 8 No. of counties involved in preceding activity .... . ... . . .. . . ....... .. .. ..... 57 No . of farmers assisted in forest planting . . . . .. ....... . . .. . .. ... ... .... . .. .. . . . 864 No. of counties involved in preceding activity ... . ........ . . .. .. .. .. . ....... 44 No. of farmers cooperating in forest fire protection ... . .. . .. ... ...... 8,583 No. of counties involved in preceding activity . .... . .. .... . .. . . .. .. . .. . ..... 44 No. of 4-H for e stry club members e nrolled ....... . .. ....... . . . . ... . . . .. ..... . . 154 No. of counties involved in precedin g activity .. .... . .... ... . .. ... . . . . .. . .. . 26 No. of acres involved in preceding activity . ..... . . ........... .... . . ........... 334 1947 406 56 605 38 5,526 43 106 15 133

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60 Florida Cooperative E xtension HORTICULTURE VEGETABLE CROPS F . S. J amiso n, Vegetable Crops Specialist The Vegetable Crops Specialist was e mployed June 1, 1948, jointly by the Agricultural Extension Service and the Agricultural Experim e nt Sta tion. One-half time is devoted to Ext ensio n activities and one -h alf time to Station duties. As V egetab l e Crops Specialist of th e Ext ensio n Service and Horti c ul turist-Vegetables Specialist of Experiment Station, 1,067 letters were writ ten answering inquiries of growers, supply men, county agents and others concerning the adaptation of crops to specific areas, fertilizer requirements of specific crops, contro l and identification of diseases and insects and other production problems. Approximately 80 percent of the inquiries con cerned crop production. Many inquires were addressed to the experime ntal laboratories amd stations in various parts of the state. In addition to in quiries by mail, more than 300 individuals visited the department of horti cu ltur e requesting information about vegetables. The Vegetable Crops Specialist spent considerable time in assisting the organization of annual programs presented by the Florida State HortiFig. 10. The county agent and growers examine packed tomatoes at. a packinghouse.

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Annual Report, 1948 61 cultural Society and Florida Seedsmen's Association, and in preparation of the annual yearbook and meeting of the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association. At the request of the Provost for Agriculture, the Vegetable Crops Specialist organized a short course for transportation personnel engaged in handling perishable products. The Southeastern Claim Association and Southeastern Railroad Development Association assisted in holding this school at Gainesville, November 9-12 inclusive. Sixty individuals, actively engaged in handling perishable products throughout the Southeast, at tended the school and requested that it be made an annual event. Time has been devoted to organizing a short course for seedsmen to be held in Gainesville, January 11-13. Through the efforts of county agents, more than 600 growers and ag ricultural supply men attended field days at the Vegetable Crops Labora tory, Bradenton, the Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, and the Watermelon Laboratory, Leesburg, of the Agricultural Experiment Station. The Vegetable Crops Specialist made visits to county agents only where there were specific problems, such as growing Honeydew melons and onions in Suwannee County, growing of sweet corn in Marion and Colum bia counties and proper fertilization of tomatoes, peppers and other crops in Orange, Marion, Sumter and Lake counties. The most common inquiry from county agents concerned the cultural requirements of crops with which they were unfamiliar or the performance of new varieties. Information concerning the type of Extension vegetable crops program that would be attempted was presented at the annual meeting of the county and home demonstration agents. This was preceded by a meeting of an advisory committee composed of five county agents and three state staff members, who assisted in formulating a . tentative program of work. The work program suggested that area meetings of county agents be held to discuss the most recent research work with varieties, disease and insect control and changes in fertilizer recommendations. As a member of the Florida Agricultural Production Adjustment Com mittee, the Vegetable Crops Specialist spent considerable time in develop ing suggested production programs for 1948-49. After this material was assembled, it and published information pertaining to vegetables were pre sented to growers through the agricultural press and radio. CITRUS CULTURE F . P. Lawrence, Acting Citriculturist The Acting Citriculturist is the only citrus specialist. However, the Extension Marketing Specialist and an Experiment Station Associate Economist, who works part time with Extension Service, both work in the field of citrus. In addition to these, there has been organized an Extension Citrus Ad visory Committee. This committee is composed of the Acting Citricul turist, the Marketing Specialist, the Associate Economist in ~harge of Production Records, the Assistant to the Director, the District .Agents in the citrus belt and five county agents from major citrus producing coun ties. At a time when the American farmer is enjoying near peak prosperity, Florida citrus growers are not getting sufficient returns to cover cost of production. In the 1945-46 season, Florida shipped 86 million boxes of citrus which grossed $236,230,700. In 1946-47, 87 million boxes were shipped which grossed $146,565,580 and in 1947-48, 91,100,000 boxes were shipped which

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension grossed only a little over 114 million dollars. This means that for the bumper crop shipped last year, growers received only 46 percent as much income as in 1945-46. The estimated total production of 95.29 million boxes of citrus fruit in 1947-48 season is the largest on record. At the same time, production, labor, marketing and material costs were slightly higher than they were in 1945-46. Developing a Program.-A suggested county plan has been developed and placed in the hands of each county agent. T . he Acting Citriculturist has recommended a program of . minimum cultivation, fertilization and , spraying which will reduce operating costs and at the same time maintain tree vigor and yields. The Acting Citriculturist feels that a great many growers, especially those in the ridge section, spent entirely too much money for cultivation. Demonstration ' plots, some cultivated too much and others with minimum cultivation, have been set up in Lake County to demonstrate the compari son in yields, maturity, texture, solids and solid-acid ratios between plots and to help growers select the desired extent of cultivation for their own groves. It is important that adequate cover crops be grown in all Florida groves during the summer to protect the soil. During the depression in the 30's, many growers attempted to produce fruit with only the nitrogen from leguminous cover crops, but because of infestations of pumpkin bugs and the use of plants not well suited to grove conditions , they were not too successful; however, there were those who did produce good crops of fruit from young groves with little or no com mercial fertilizer. With the introduction of hairy indigo (Indigo/era hirsuta), the citrus grower finally has a legume that will produce well in citrus groves where the tree canopy does not lap. In some field studies conducted this fall, groves were planted to indigo which gave green weight yields of 7,872 to 45,921 pounds per acre. The latter yield would be equivalent to about 1,800 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre. It is estimated that average yields in young groves would be about 15,000 pounds green weight per acre. Good cover crop prospects are often adversely affected by entirely too much cultivation and by cultivating too late in the spring. All citrus producing counties have at least a few acres planted to demonstration plots of leguminous cover crops and in most of them there are hundreds of acres. During the year the 29 agents in citrus producing counties visited the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred for a day's schooling in identi fying diseases and insects, their control, grove production and manage ment. They also participated in a round-table discussion on citrus process ing and by-products. The following day the group met with the executive secretary of the Florida Citrus Commission and his staff of advertising ex perts, who supplied current information on regulatory programs, their en forcement and plans for advertising Florida citrus for the next 12 months. The Acting Citriculturist keeps agents posted on research and current events in citrus. The Acting Citriculturist joined the entomologists and plant patholo gists from the State Plant Board, the Citrus Experiment Station , the Main Experiment Station, the State Horticultural Society, the Bureaus of Plant Industry and Entomology and Plant Quarantine of the USDA in preparing a spray schedule for the coming season. The pamphlet is published by the Florida Citrus Commission and made available to Florida citrus growers through offices of the above agencies and county agents.

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Annual Report, 1948 63 Due to the large volume of Florida fruit being canned, an economy program, which has as its aim maintaining the tree in reasonably good h e alth with minimum of care to the external appearance of the fruit, is being devised. Fairs and Institutes.-Three citrus institutes were held. The most im portant was the 15th annual meeting of the Camp McQuarrie Institute August 30 to September 2. Approximately 500 different growers from 20 Florida counties attended one or more sessions of the week-long meeting. Some 85 men, women and children were in residence at the camp for the week. This institut e is sponsored by the Lake County Horticultural So ciety and conducted by the Extension Service in cooperation with the various agricultural agencies in the state. The second annual Indian River Citrus Seminar was conducted by the Extension Service for two days in October. The fourth annual Gulf Citrus Growers' Institute was held in Brooks vill e . in April. The Acting Citriculturist assisted the county agent and Associate Econ omist in putting up an educational booth at the Lake County Fair and the Camp McQuarrie Citrus Institute. The value of record keeping was stressed in these exhibits. Most citrus county agents are promoting this important phase of citrus production and there was an increase of from 253 to 306 citrus records kept for the Extension Service. Primary objectives of the Extension Service are making research, sur vey . and demonstration plot results and other related information available to growers. Practically every citrus-producing county has a county fair and most of them cooperate in the State Fair at Tampa each year. Thes e county exhibits are of material value in disseminating res e arch data. Demonstration Plots a.nd Grove Tours.-The majority of the county agents in citrus-producing counties have many demonstration plots which are used v ery effectively in furthering the Extension citrus program . Five counties are conducting rootstock demonstrations, eight have fertilizer demonstrations , four have spray programs, three have biological control d e monstrations, two have cultivation demonstrations and practically all counties are establishing one or more plots with the idea of conducting county tours to these demonstrations. In addition to tours to the experi ment stations, two counties which have demonstration plots conduct e d tours within their own counties . All citrus county agents made a tour of the USDA Citrus Station at Orlando and the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred . Twelve of the counties conducted county grower tours to these statio;zis. Processing and By-products.-The tremendous increase in citrus pro duction during the past two decades ha s been responsible for the rapid d e velopment of th e processing and by-products industry. About 55 percent, or 50 million boxes , of the 1947-48 production was processed. This included 52 perc e nt of the orange crop, 67 per c ent of th e grapefruit crop and 17 percent of the tangerine crop. Tremendous progress has been made in the so-called by-products fi e ld in a comparativ e ly short time and it is believed that the industry can ex pect more financial relief through this fi e ld than through any other . Th e stat e now has 60 c anning pl a nts , 19 of which ar e manufa c turing feed; 13 molasses; _ 10 ess e ntial oils ; 6 frozen concentrat e s; 1 alcohol; and there are pilot plants now in operation for the production of methane g as and feed yeast. Frozen conc e ntrate was unknow,n to the consuming public until 1946, at which time about a million gallons were marketed. This product has

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension set phenomenal records in consumer acceptance. This year, six plants will be in operation which will process and market approximately 10 million gallons of frozen concentrate-equivalent to 10 million boxes of fresh fruit. Research has proven that fresh grapefruit is an excellent cattle feed. Other citrus feeds are citrus molasses, citrus seed cake, wet citrus pulp, pressed citrus pulp and dried citrus pulp. In addition to these products, plants are manufacturing citrus meal, citrus range cattle pellets varying from 12 to 24 percent protein, and pellets for rabbits. While the majority of the peel and pulp is utilized at present, prospects for new products are promising. Since the crop is grown in a limited area , raw material is concentrated in sufficient quantities for large-scale opera tion. In the 1946-47 season 1,600,000 tons of citrus were processed. Of this total, about 57 percent, or 910,000 tons, were from peel, pulp and seed, from which about 140 thousand tons of dried pulp and approximately 96 thou sand tons of molasses were made. One cooperative was able to return 11 cents per box to its growers this year as a result of extensive quantities of by-products manufactured. The Acting Citriculturist gave a summary of research activities in the field of citrus by-products at the Camp McQuarrie Citrus Institute and at four other meetings of growers and processors. This summary was pre sented as an illustrated lecture. Other Activities.-One bulletin on the home orchard was prepared and used during a week's teaching at 4-H club camps and additional copies were supplied to county agents. An old Experiment Station technical bulletin issued in 1905 was mimeo graphed and supplied those counties interested in obtaining information on the tree snail. Four radio talks have been given and 10 formal talks were delivered at industry meetings. A monthly news letter was compiled and mailed to citrus county agents. The Acting Citriculturist is working on a filmstrip and slide li brary to be used for loans to county agents as an aid in giving illustrated lectures. Educational exhibits were prepared and exhibited at two county fairs, one citrus school and two citrus institutes. Budding and grafting demonstrations were given before two women's club groups and 4-H clubs were assisted in similar work. _ Two talks were given before the Lake County Citrus School and one to a group of growers in Hendry County . In addition, one talk was made to a veteran's vocational agriculture group. The Acting Citriculturist taught general horticulture to all 4-H club members registered at the six-day 4-H club short course at Gainesville i•n June and taught one week each in three county camps. There are three clubs working on citrus projects exclusively.

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Annual Report, 1948 Part 111-Work with Women and Girls HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Agent Ethyl Holloway, District Agent Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent 65 Home demonstration workers were responsible for the development and supervision of organized programs of work for both adult white and negro women and girls and also shared in responsibility for the general program for Extension work. Service to farm families takes precedence in all plans of work, but the scope of services rendered to non-farm families has ex panded considerably. ORGANIZATION A state home demonstration agent, three district agents, six special ists, 43 home demonstration agents, 11 assistant home demonstration agents, 11 negro home demonstration agents and a negro district agent made up the personnel directly responsible for guiding the program of home demonstration work in Florida. District home demonstration agents were assigned responsibilities for the development of the general program, for maintenance of a well planned, functioning program of work in the counties, for lining up suitable personnel for county positions, for direct supervision of their activities, for securing and maintaining budgets for home demonstration agents and for direct contacts with cooperating county boards and people in order to maintain effective programs suited to county needs. Specialists of the state office were responsible for giving needed as sistance and training to the county workers in their specific fields of work, for supplying them with authentic subject matter information and for maintaining a satisfactory cooperative relationship with other workers to insure a sound, well-rounded program to meet t . he needs of Florida people. In addition to its status as part of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Universty of Florida, home demonstration work functions as the Home Demonstration-Extension Department of Florida State University, under an agreement made more than 30 years ago. Florida State Uni versity provides housing for the state offices of home demonstration work and a financial budget, which permits additional personnel and a pre service training program for prospective home demonstration agents. Forty-three boards of county commissioners and nine county school boards cooperated in maintaining work in their counties. Fine cooperation was given by 34 counties in increasing their appropriations for expenses or salaries. Eighteen counties made substantial improvements in facilities provided for both office and field work. Two new positions were established in the state office. A Health Im provement Specialist was appointed June 1, 1948, under a cooperative agreement with the State Board of Health and the State Improveme,nt Commission. The Specialist in 4-H Girls' Work began work October 1, 1948. Appropriations were provided for the first time in two additional counties this year, Washington and Dixie, with the position in Dixie still

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66 Florida Cooperative Ext en sion unfilled due to scarcity of qualified workers. Assistant agents hav e been provided in two additional counties, Orange and Escambia. PERSONNEL SELECTION AND TRAINING At no other time in the history of home demonstration work has such difficulty been experienced in securing qualified personnel. The enrollment of students for professional training in home economics courses in the col leges of this state and elsewhere has not increased in proportion to the growing interest in homemaking education on the part of the people, as shown in their requests for expanded services through home demonstration work. The fact that salaries of home demonstration agents have not increased in the same ratio as those for teachers and administrators in the public school system and in other fields. Marriage has taken its toll of agents. The limited availibility and high cost of automobiles has caused many prospective home demonstration agents to go into other fields. Of the white home demonstration agents , seven left the service and one trans ferr e d to the state home demonstration offic e as home improvement sp ec ialist. Of the seven leaving the work, two resigned because of illness, two for marriage, one for added family responsibilities, one re-entered teaching and one entered military service. To fill th ese vacancies two home demonstration agents were transferr e d to other counties, two assistant home demonstration agents were transferred to other counties as home demonstration agents, five appointments as home demonstration agents and fiv e appointm e nts as assistants were mad e . Because of th e scarcity of qualified workers in Florida , personnel has been secured from other stat es, which has some advantages in that new workers bring varied re sourc es, different ideas and stimulation to the work here. The importance of pre-service training for prospective home demon stration agents became increasingly evident this year. The plan established five years ago, in cooperation with Florida State University, has proved of value in securing qualified workers . Under this plan graduates of college home economics courses are employed on an assistant or interne basis to work in a county under an experienced agent. Nine of 17 such workers who hav e been trained under this plan are employ e d as home demonstra tion agents. This year a plan was set up which included selection of seven students in their junior year in college for assignment to a county for a period of 2 months. Five of the students selected were former 4-H club members. Further training of home demonstration agents now employed was given at a four-day training course on 4-H club work at the annual state short course for 4-H girls and at two annual Extension conferences, one for white agents and one for negro agents. Twenty-three home demon stration agents enrolled for the three-week course. in Extension work at the University of Florida. Each member of the ~tate staff, with one ex ception, had training in national or regional workshops planned to meet the needs of Extension personnel. Lack of full-time, well qualified clerical assistance in county offices proved one of the greatest handicaps. Only 25 home demonstration agents had full-time clerical help, 13 had assistance half-time or less, while six counties did not have any clerical help. Progress was made this year with the addition of six clerical helpers. PROGRAM OF WORK Local Leadership.-For many years emphasis has been placed on se curing and training volunteer local leaders who would have the two-fold

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Annual Report, 1948 67 duty of assisting with the program and developing capable community leadership. Home demonstration agents reported holding 278 training meetings on adult work attended by 3 , 400 leaders. Community Clubs.-There were 9 , 816 women enrolled in 395 home dem onstration clubs. Agents reported 16,103 farm families and 14,269 non farm families adopted practices resulting from home demonstration pro gram. County and State Councils.-County council members served as ad visers to the home demonstration agent and met at least quarterly to dis cuss work to be done in the county and state. One hundred thirty-nine home demonstration clubs made health surveys of homes and communities of their members and planned home and h e alth improvement programs. The Senior Council of Home Demonstration Work met in Gainesville, July 13-16 . The theme of the meeting was "Today's Home Builds Tomor row's World." The members were divided into committee groups on reso lutions, executive, finance, scholarship, 4-H clubs and youth, food and nutrition, health, food production, food conservation, clothing, home and farm safety, fire prevention, home improvement housing,child care and family life. Staff members or home demonstration agents served as ad visers to each committee. County and state councils have given a fine service to education and tangible proof of their interest in young people through their continuance of the state scholarship loan fund. That fund, available for loans without interest to worthy 4-H girls in their junior or senior year of college, has made more than $3,000 available to 20 students in the 18 years it has been established by the council. Every dollar borrowed has been repaid in full, a remarkable record, according to administrators of similar funds. The State Council closed its first quarter century of service and guid ance to home demonstration work, having been organized during the an nual farmers' week in 1923. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES County home demonstration agents .have been busy serving people, as the following additional facts indicate: Visited 11,796 different homes and farms. Answered 55,223 telephone calls. Gave 525 radio talks. Gav e help to 64,910 persons calling at their offices. Had 4,290 news articles published. Distributed 135,581 bulletins . Recreation.-School consolidation has affected life in rural communities . Recognizing the importance of maintaining the interest of people within the community in their mutual problems and providing community centers for recreation as well as education, home demonstration clubs own 113 club houses or rooms . Five hundred seventy-five community recreation programs were lteld for the families. One example of this development of community-wide interest in needed community improvements can be found in the fact that 186 home demonstration clubs assisted schools by serving as sponsors of school lunch rooms, serving 39,360 school children, which program is directed by the State Department of Education and financed under the general provision of legislation administered through the USDA. Libraries.-Forty-seven home demonstration clubs maintained rural libraries. Canning Centers.-There were 38 canning centers in operation, serving 5,207 families.

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Joyce Bevis, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles At the annual Extension conference suggestions were given to home demonstration agents for organizing, planning and conducting the cloth ing program in their counties. An illustrated lecture was used on "Trends and Developments in Clothi,ng and Textiles" with an exhibit of educational materials suitable for use as teaching devices in promoting a good cloth ing program. The Clothing Specialist served as consultant to a group of home demonstration agents who worked out a clothing program as a phase of over-all program planning: This program served as a model for others. In July, at the meeting of the State Home Demonstration Council, the Clothing Specialist served as consultant to the clothing committee whose members studied a plan showing situations, needs and objectives which should be considered in a state-wide program. There were 53 official dele gates, 30 unofficial delegates, 15 home demonstration agents and the staff from the state home demonstration office at the meeting. In addition to the assistance given by the Clothing Specialist at the two state-wide meetings, 77 days were spent in various counties helping the agents with duties such as conducting leader training meetings for clothing chairmen in 10 counties, judging achievement day exhibits and dress re vues in seven counties, holding two-day meetings in 12 counties, training 104 home improvement chairmen to learn to make slipcovers and helping 10 home demonstration agents to obtain sewing machines for demonstra tion purposes. The time spent in the field on program planning was with the newly appointed agents who needed help on integrating and correlat ing the clothing program with the other phases of homemaking . In November the Clothing Specialist served as co-chairman in putting on a style show at the annual meeting of the Florida Home Economics As sociation. The style show was for showing the home economists of the state~home demonstration agents and home economics teachers-the lat est trends in fashion designs, colors and lines, as well as the latest trends in fabric developments, combinations and finishes. The home economists expressed their appreciation for this show, which did a good job of show ing fashion trends. In February a 4-H club stylist for a well known pattern company spent four days in the state working with the Clothing Specialist, agents, lead ers and 4-H club girls on selection of clothing and accessories suitable for the teen-age wardrobe. In presenting her wardrobe the stylist gave tips to agents and girls on modeling their own clothes for dress revues . During the four days the stylist worked with about 15 home demonstration agents, 20 leaders, 150 4-H club members and 25 college 4-H club members. The Clothing Specialist also arranged for the 4-H stylist to work with the home economics teachers and future homemakers in two high schools. During the week of the State 4-H Short Course in June the Clothing Specialist worked with 442 girls, 25 leaders and 47 home demonstration agents in small groups to help them devise ways of making the clothing program more interesting in their clubs. In the dress revue 103 girls from 34 counties modeled dresses which they made. Fig. 11.-This 4-H club girl, and thousands of others, learned to make and model their own attractive clothing. _

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension Six articles on clothing and textiles were prepared for the Agricultural News Service, whic . h is sent to county newspapers. New clothing record books were prepared according to recommenda tions submitteci , . by the committee on improving Florida 4-H club programs for girls . A mimeographed leaflet, "Make Your Draperies at Home-It Is Fun," was prepared. Reports submitted by home demonstration agents show that 580 local leaders assisted home demonstration agents in carrying on a clothing and textiles program in 551 communities. There were 10,568 families assisted with clothing construction problems; 7,393 families assisted with selection of clothing and textiles; 7,015 families assisted in care and remodeling of clothing and 1,755 families assisted with clothing budgets. Of 7,433 girls enrolled in 4-H clothing projects there were 4,374 who completed their projects, which included making 19,797 garments and re modeling 8,122 other garments.

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Annual Report, 1948 71 FOOD AND NUTRITION Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist Prior to 1948, interest in foods and nutrition was stimulated by war activities and food shortages. The transition to peace time presented new food problems and raised more nutrition questions . Adjustments were made in the food and nutrition program to meet post-war situations. Greater emphasis was placed on planning, producing, conserving and utilizing the family food supply wisely, not only to have adequate nutrition in Florida but also to assist with the world food situation and thereby pro mote peace. Nutrition and Health.-Reports from the counties showed 6,314 families were trained to recognize the difference between good and poor nutrition; 16,767 families were assisted in improving diets; 17 nutrition or health clinics were organized; 226 food and nutrition exhibits were arranged by 29 home demonstration agents; 222 exhibits were arranged by women; and 264 women served as food and nutrition chairmen. Reports of the agents showed that 1,638 4-H club members were en rolled in some phase of the health program, with 777 completing; 1,371 4-H members had physical examinations because of participation in the Extension program and 378 nutrition exhibits were arranged by 4-H club members . Home demonstration agents reported that they devoted 503 days to the development of the nutrition and health program, assisted by 338 local leaders. Food Selection, Preparation and Meal Planning.-Agents reported de voting 1,750 days to the development of the . food selection and preparation phase of the work and 423 volunteer local leaders in 330 communities as sisted. The reports showed that 12,624 families were assisted with food preparation; 16,767 families were assisted in improving diets; 6,004 with baking problems; 3,670 in use of dairy products; 3,824 in the use of fats; 4,423 in meat cookery; 4,886 in use of poultry products; 5,242 in vegetable and meat cookery and 7,440 families prepared food for home use, using methods to conserve the most food value. In 28 counties 3,776 families budgeted and bought food wisely through quality, quantity and cooperative buying; 6,668 families planned three well-balanced meals to include daily the "basic seven" food groups and 7,044 families were trained to use local and seasonal foods to their best advantage. County reports showed that 3,061 young homemakers and mothers were assisted with food preparation, 1,263 with money management and 1,748 with child feeding. Young bomemakers were encouraged to take advan tage of prenatal and well-baby clinics. The reports showed that 699 moth ers took this advantage. The Nutritionist served as consultant at a school lunch workshop, where a bulletin was prepared to serve as a guide to making the school lunch program a functional part of the total school curriculum, thus providing better nutrition information for all the children. Many of the community home demonstration clubs assumed responsi bilities in connection with the school lunch program and in 33 counties 3,454 families were assisted with well-balanced lunches for school children. In 13 other counties 35 home demonstration groups assisted with the estab lishing of school lunch rooms and 17 4 communities helped with school lunch programs with 38,650 children involved in the program.

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72 Florida Cooperative Extension Reports showed that in 28 counties 257 4-H club girls served as leaders by assisting in planning and serving meals for community activities and entertaining family guests. The reports showed that 5,945 4-H club girls were enrolled in food selection and preparation and/or baking projects, with 3,442 completing; 67,649 meals were planned and 81,983 meals were served; 951 food prep aration demonstrations were given by 4-H club girls and 378 food and nutrition exhibits were arranged by 4-H girls. Some of ' the demonstrations and work meetings that were given by the Nutritionist in counties were "Money Saving Main Dishes," "Use of Citrus Products and Locally Produced Foods Such as Honey and Peanuts," "Food for School Children," "Food for All Ages," "Food for Families with Young Children," "Yeast Bread and Variations," "Meal Planning Made Easier," "Plan Your Meals by the Basic Seven," "Planning and Preparing Low Cost Meals," "Stretching the Food Dollar," "Oven Meals," "Meals for the Family" and "Meals Prepared in the Electric Roaster." These meetings were all conducted as leader training meetings for food and nutrition chairmen. Home Production of the Family Food Supply.-Reports of agents in dicated progress in home production of food. During the year 11,610 fami lies in 45 counties improved their food supply by making changes in home production; 6,295 families had more vegetables; 3,063 families more fruits; 3,421 families more meats; 3,942 families more poultry and eggs; 2,842 families more milk; 683 families made butter or cheese; 3,268 fami lies in 33 counties produced and preserved their home food supply accord ing to an annual food supply budget; and 2,195 families practiced home butchering, meat cutting or curing. Reports showed that families planned their family food supply. There were 13,692 home gardens grown by girls and women. There were 2,735 fruit orchards; 5,511 poultry flocks; 2,111 families with one cow; 1,073 families with two cows; 486 families with more than two cows; and 2,482 families produced their home meat supply. The Extension agents devoted 1,491 days to developing the program of home production of family food supply. This work was conducted in 597 communities, with 433 voluntary local leaders assisting. Reports showed that 1,362 4-H club girls served as leaders or chair men in gardening or fruit planting; 2,848 gardens were grown by 4-H club members; 454 members were enrolled in fruit plantings, with 315 complet ing; 1,542 enrolled in poultry, with 1,006 completing projects which in cluded 42,423 ' birds; 206 members enrolled in dairying, with 143 complet ing projects with 224 animals involved; 93 were enrolled in beef cattle demonstrations, with 56 completing projects with 102 animals; and 74 were enrolled in pig club demonstrations, with 52 completions with 82 animals. One hundred seventy-six method demonstrations were given by 4-H club members on poultry raising; 54 poultry exhibits were arranged by 4-H club girls and 47 method demonstrations showing productive phases of the pro gram were given at county-wide meetings.

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Annual Report, 1948 73 4-H CLUB WORK FOR GIRLS A 4-H club specialist for girls, Miss Lorene Stevens, was employed October 1, 1948, to handle activities relating to organization, adult and junior leadership and program planning and to encourage wider participa tion in such events as county rallies, National 4-H Week, National 4-H Achievement Week and Rural Life Sunday to further expand and strength en the 4-H club program of Florida. There were 13 , 162 girls (10,009 white and 3,063 negroes) enrolled in 647 girls' 4-H clubs (505 white and 142 negro) in 1948. Enrollment by ages in 1948 of all 4-H club girls: 10 years of age ..................................................................................... . 11 years of age ....... . . .. . .. .......................... ..... ...................... .. . ... ............ . 12 years of age ...... ... . ..... ..................... ...... .. ........ ...... .... .... ........ ........... . 13 years of . age ... ........... . ... ... . .... . ...... ....... . ........ ...... ... . .. . ... : .... .. ............. . 14 years of age ..................................................................... . ............... . 15 years of age ............. .. ........................ ..... ................. ........ . .. ............. . 16 years of age ........ . ........................... . ... . ............................................ . 17 years of age ......... .. .. . ...................... . ................................................ . 18 to 20 years of age ... ...................... . . ............ .................................... . 3,337 2,652 2,242 1,668 1,313 813 535 315 287 The girls enrolled in 48,494 demonstrations, completing 32,590 of them. Demonstrations in either foods, home improvement, child care and train ing, poultry, gardens, orchards or colthing were selected by each 4-H girl according to her home needs and interests. To be an active 4-H member each girl enrolled was expected to have at least two established demon strations in her home, one of which was on productive work. Five hundred fifty-nine adult leaders assisted 486 white 4-H clubs and 150 women leaders assisted 107 4-H clubs for negro girls . One thousand sixty-five older 4-H girls also assisted as local leaders. County Councils.-County junior home demonstration councils, made up of two representatives from each 4-H club in a county, usually met quar terly. Organized in 40 counties with 1,670 representatives of the community 4-H clubs, they helped plan and direct county-wide activities and worked closely with the women in senior home demonstration councils. There are 30 white junior home demonstration councils and 10 negro councils . Through the councils, state and county home demonstration agents ad vised with volunteer leaders and 4-H girls in developing county plans of work to meet the needs of families. State Council.-The State Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work is composed of the presidents of county junior home demonstration coun cils and one elected delegate from each county. The council held its an nual meeting June 11, during the annual state 4-H girls' short course at Florida State University, Tallahassee. The ultimate goal of the state coun cil is to develop a program which will help girls to become finer women , who can serve as worthy members of their families and be better prepared homemakers of the future. Council committees on resolutions, reports, programs of work, overseas gifts and finance met daily, with home demon stration agents serving as advisers. state Short Course for 4-H Girls.-The annual state short course for Florida 4-H club girls, held in Tallahassee June 7-12, 1948, was attended by 440 girls, 25 leaders and all but two of the home demonstration agents. Club girls who met the necessary requirements of age, years in 4-H work and general excellence of achievement in their records, were awarded scholarships to the short course. These scholarships, totaling $7,178, were

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'i4 Florida Cooperative E x tension provided by interested individuals a nd organizations in th e counties , s uch as co unty commissio n ers , women's c lub s, parent teacher assoc i a tions , men's c ivic cl ub s and hom e d emo n s trat io n c lubs. Trainin g meetings for the girls, l eaders and hom e demonstration age nt s were co ndu c t ed in m an y phases of th e 4-H club program, wit h opport uni ties for participation in the various activities. Tours w e re arranged to g i ve th e gir ls pr id e in th e ir Florida ci t i z e nship a nd to acquaint th e m wit h interesting fac ts about the capi t a l ci ty, T a lahas see. The group visited th e st at e capitol, where th e y were received by th e Governor, S ec retary of State, Commissioner of Agricultur e and other s tat e officials. District ancl County 4-H Camps. Th e thr ee district 4-H camps lo cated at Timpoo c h ee, Cherry L ake and McQuarrie, were open during th e camping season of Jun e, July and August. Counties were scheduled a nd att e ndan ce limit ed to accommodate th e county groups . On e thousand si x hundr ed five 4-H c lub girls attended 54 4-H cou nt y and district camps in 1948 . Ea ch 4-H club girl was requir e d to reach certai n go als of achi e vement b efore she was e li g ible to attend the 4 -H camps. Camps were planned to develop lead e rship , provide practica l instruction and off e r recr e ation. At Camp McQ u arr i e, 104 girls l e arned to s wim a nd of 1 , 104 g irls participating in a swimming program under th e direction of a R e d Cross official, 783 r e ce iv e d R e d Cross swimming certificates. Nat i o nal 4H C lub Ca mp.Two girls, a l ong with two boys, repres e nt e d Florida at the National 4-H Club Camp in Jun e in Washington , D .C. Th e th eme was " Cr e ating B e tt er Homes Today for a Mor e R es ponsible Citizen ship Tomorrow . " Upon th e ir r et urn to th e state both girls mad e r e ports to Fig . 12 .Girls at ca mp le a rn to ste n c il and do many kinds of c r af ts work.

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Annual Report, 1948 75 their local 4-H clubs and community groups, civic clubs, home demonstra tion clubs and farm and home institutes. The scholarship trips were awarded by the Florida Department of Agriculture and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. National 4-H Club Congress.-Eight 4-H club girls received trips to the National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago in November. The awards were made for general excellence in all-around records, clothing achievement, clothing-dress revue, food preparation, food preservation, farm and home safety, gardening and home improvement. Na.tional 4-H Weeks.-Florida 4-H club girls annually observe National 4-H Week in March and National 4-H Achievement Week in October through planned and conducted special activities, such as window exhibits, fairs, radio programs, newspaper stories, personal appearances of 4-H club members at PTA, civic clubs, church groups and school assemblies. Four hundred thirty six local and county achievement days in 44 counties at tracted 34,702 persons. Sixty-two conducted tours gave 1,047 girls, not enrolled in 4-H club work, opportunities to see demonstrations of 4-H club girls. Other Activities.-The theme of the 25th anniversary meeting of the State Congress of Parents and Teachers in West Palm Beach, November 9-11, was "Rediscovering the Family." To better acquaint the 753 women attending with the 4-H club program for white and negro girls in the state, an exhibit of posters, enlarged pictures, products grown and preserved and articles made by 4-H girls was set up. The State Farm Bureau Federation arranged a program on youth activ ities as part of their annual meeting held in Gainesville in November. The president of the State Council of Junior Home Demonstration work rep resented the 4-H girls in a report on progress made. Twelve Alachua County 4-H club girls assisted by serving at a banquet for approximately 200 persons.

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76 Florida Cooperative Ext e nsion GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION Grace I. Neely, Economist in Food Conservation Home Gardens, Fruit Plantings.-The Food Conservationist was con cerned with encouraging home gardens and fruit plantings to insure a good home supply. Veg e table crop production was reduced in some areas by floods and winds. Replanting and extra exp e nse for labor reduc e d the total income, so that some vegetable farmers realized only a small margin on their investment. There were 13,692 good home gardens despite floods and hurricanes, however. Ther e w e re 5,561 home ore . hards started with 18,841 fruit trees s e t out and 48 , 673 berry and grape vines started. Nine counties reported 37 women pooling orders for fruit plantings. Food Conservation.-The Food Conservationist re-emphasized to agents the need for encouraging better quality food, regardless of the method used for preserving it. Method demonstrations were given on scoring canned foods, comparison of home canned and commercially graded foods and on how to can foods the family can enjoy. Local leaders were train e d to giv e method demonstrations such as checking pressure gauges or making a conserved product. There were 389 adult food preservation chairmen . At a two-day Farmers Institute held at 4-H Camp at Cherry Lake the Food Conservationist set up exhibits and pres e nted the food preservation program to more than 200 men and wom e n . Two food preservation workshops were held for newly appointed home demonstration. ag e nts to demonstrate methods of cons e rving m e at and poultry. The Extension Poultryman and Animal Husbandman assisted in conducting the workshops. Two days e ach were required for the work shops, which were held in Septemb e r at Quincy and in October at Plant City. Extension agents report 1,234,984 quarts of vegetables and fruits were canned, 4,631 gallons of veg e tables and fruit brin e d and 464,457 pounds of vegetabl e s and fruits stored as dried, fresh stored and frozen. A shift from curing to freezing was noted in the preservation of meat. In the conservation of meat, fish and poultry, there were 248,747 quarts canned, 34,150 gallons brined, 1,000,151 pounds cured, 996,651 pounds stored, 766,729 pound , s frozen and 4,028 pounds of fish smoked. Ther e were 38 canning c e nters, s e rving 5,207 families, in operation. The Food Cons e rvationist and home demonstration agents rec e ived many requests for demonstrations and information on preparing and pack aging foods for freezing. R e ports show there were 986 families in 39 counties with home freezers and 320 freezer locker plants in 22 counties. The Food Conservationist cooperated with home demonstration agents and freezer locker operators in four counties by giving demonstrations on pre paring and packaging foods for freezing at meetings held in freezer locker plants . 4-H Gardening, Fruit Pl11;ntlngs, Food Conservation.-Home demonstra tion agents report that of 3,267 girls enrolled in gardening, 1,911 com pleted their projects. There were 454 girls enrolled for fruit planting demonstrations , with 315 completing. This home orchard work consisted of setting out 2,922 fruit trees and 4,175 berry and grape vines. The 4-H girls reported selling 134,519 pounds of fresh fruits and vegetables from their gardens and orchards, b e sides canning for their families.

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Fig . 13. Demonstrations in freezing foods always attracted attention.

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78 Florida Cooperative Extension Of 1,910 girls enrolled in food preservation, 1,279 completed projects, canning 43,100 quarts of fruit, 75,401 quarts of vegetables and 18,858 quarts of meat. There were 3,848 pounds of fruit, 5,905 pounds of vege tables and 47,410 pounds of meat , which were frozen, stored or cured . . Twenty-three records and stories of 4-H club girls were entered in the state gardening contest. Th e winning girl's record was then judged with the winning boy's record and this year, a 4-H girl from Madison County received first state honors and the trip to the National 4-H Congress in Chicago. Sixteen counties submitted records and stori e s of their achieve ments in canning and a Palm Beach County girl received the trip to the National 4-H Congress.

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Annual Report, 1948 79 HOME IMPROVEMENT Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist There was an 18 months lapse between the retirement of the Home Improvement Specialist, June 30, 1946, and employment of the present Home Improvement Specialist, January 16, 1948. The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 45 counties through agents, groups of volunteer eaders, senior councils, club meetings, county rural housing committees, 4-H club achievement days, tours, home visits and work with other organizations and persons. Assistance was given the negroes through the Negro District Home Demonstration Agent, through conferences, bulletins, . records, posters and other material provided for her us e and the negro agents. Major home improvem e nt problems include housing, family living and consumer education. Housing.-Florida needs more farm homes built for comfort, conv e ni ence, health and beauty, that rural people may live more satisfying lives and become better citizens. The home demonstration agents report that 1,904 kitchens and 1,787 rooms other than kitchens were improved during 1948 . Improved storage facilities for food, clothing and household supplies were provided by 1,627 families. There were 789 families who arranged for better laundry space and equipment. For comfort and convenience, families installed 664 sewag e disposal units, 817 sanitary toilets, 743 water systems and 271 heating systems, and 2,273 improved screens and ways of controlling insects. Extension of electric lines by rural electric cooperatives made electricity available to more homes. As a result, Extension agents assisted 2,494. families in obtaining electricity. Of these, 1,918 used it for the first time. Assistance with lighting and electrical equipment problems was given to 2,697 families with 1,130 new pieces of electrical equipment being bought and over 2,400 pieces repaired and put back into use. Extension agents helped 554 families use electricity to increase income. Over 3,987 families improved their home grounds, with 818 of them using plans for complete improvement. Eight hundred and sixty-six started lawns; others improved lawns; some planted trees, shrubs and flowers; and others built fences, outdoor living rooms and stoves. In ad dition, 1,767 houses were painted and 75 wllitewashed. Family Llving.-Family living became more complicated daily. Some of the problems that agents helped solve related to increasing income; spend ing wisely; producing food and feed when practicable; . practicing orderly work habits; needed medical and dental care; educational, recreational and religious opportunities; and security for old age. Agents helped 6,907 families to become better housekeepers; 2 ,5 12 families received help with time management; 602 with home accounts, 1,161 with financial planning; and 619 with better use of credit for family living. Also, 562 4-H club girls learned to keep personal accounts . To prepare themselves to be better parents and guides for young peo ple, 2,132 families took advantage of assistance in child development and guidance offered through the home demonstration program, 2,525 sought to improve family relationships and 2,020 adults participated in child de velopment and parent education programs. These famili.es and individuals represented 4,437 children. T . he desire for educational advancement was evidenced by enrollment of 9,816 women and 10,099 girls in county home demonstration programs.

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension Home demonstration agents, volunteer leaders and 4-H club girls as sumed responsibility for recreation in their respective counties. Seventy nine community houses and 23 club rooms owned or controlled by home demonstration groups were used for club meetings, work meetings and recreational activities for both young and old . Thirty-six counties report e d 575 entertainments held for social purposes. This number did not include fund-raising, benefit socials. Home demonstration agents helped 276 communities improv e recrea tional facilities. In addition, 1,741 club girls received training in recreation, al leadership and 1,953 in music appreciation. 4-H club girls in 484 groups engaged in the community activities such as school-ground improvement and fairs. Since community recreation does not meet the needs of all, 3,966 families were helped to improve recreation at home. To offer facilities . for reading, 54 librari e s in 20 counties were assist e d or maintained by home demonstration groups. Consumer Education.-Home Demonstration agents report that 2,778 families were assisted with food problems, 3,190 with clothing and house, hold textiles, 2,673 with household furnishings and 2,011 with house.hold supplies. The total numb e r of famili e s assisted with consumer buying wa:, 5,544, while 4,793 families were assisted in decisions to make rather than to buy and 5 , 142 in using timely economic information : Some 2,465 families receiv e d assistance in s e lecting furnishings. In 45 counties 189 girls and 317 women s e rving as volunte e r leaders assist e d home demonstration agents in givirig 757 home improvement demonstra tions to girls and 819 to wom e n. A total of 10,302 families utilized feed and flour sacks, mill-ends and r e mnants in making over and repairing household articles. Farm wom e n made 252 cotton mattresses, renovated 345 mattresses and made 1,729 rugs To encourage thrift practices home demonstration agents and volun• t e er leaders gave 452 method demonstrations before women and 486 be, fore girls. 4-H Club \Vork,-Four leaflets, " Let's Set the Table," "Let's Wash Dishes, " "Let's Arrange Flowers" and "Demonstration in Home Improve ment" were prepared for use at state short course for 4-H club girls. Training in exterior and interior hom e improvement was offered to approximately 300 girls, volunteer leaders and home demonstration agents attending the short course. State honors for achievement in home improvem e nt were awarded to an Orange County 4-H girl, who attended the National Club Congress. The 4-H club home improvement program is designed to stimulate t.h e club member's interest in learning to do simple home tasks well, to make interior and exterior home improvements and to become a well-adjusted member of her family and her community. Home d e monstration agents' records show that 2,547 girls enrolled for hom e making or hous e keeping , with 1,831 completing; 2,298 enrolled for room improvement and home fur nishings, with 1,498 completing their demonstrations by improving 1,319 rooms and making 5,203 articl e s to adorn these rooms and their .homes in general; and 2,160 enrolled for beautification of home grounds and 1 , 222 completed their work. Home industries, arts and crafts appealed to 4-H club girls and reports show that 1,337 were enrolled in this phase of work, with 955 completing 1,961 articles. Under the guidance of home demonstration agents and volunteer leaders they made 2,166 articles such as trays, etched glass, palmetto products, cloth dolls and other toys, pictures, wastebaskets, rugs and other articles to beautify their homes, to use for gifts and for younger members of their families.

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Annual Report, 1948 81 RURAL HEALTH IMPROVEMENT Lucille Russ, Health Improvement Specialist Effective July 1, 1948, a plan for a program of rural health education was established with the Agricultural Extension Service, the State Board of Health and the hospital division of the State Improvement Commission cooperating. The State Health Improvement Specialist is responsible for developing a program to meet needs of rural people of the state and . to coordinate such joint activities of the three agencies as may be advisable. For at least 15 years a definite rural health program has been guided by the Nutrition Specialist, who combined health education with nutrition work. Health education is the sum of all experiences through which a person's habits, attitudes and knowledge in the field of individual, community or racial health are improved. Health education cuts across the program of the clothing, nutrition, home improvement and food conservation specialists. Since the Health Improvement Specialist has been on the program only six months, much of this time has been spent in orientation , planning and interpreting the program to the public, with a minimum of activity in the field. The Health Improvement Specialist has served 2.s a coordinator and consultant with all State Extension workers to: 1. Appraise the health and medical needs of communities and of Florida as a whole, and to endeavor to establish realizable goals for the program. 2. Appraise existing health services, state and local, in terms of de sirable standards to meet health needs of Florida people. 3. Determine how existing health resources can be better used or ex panded and what new health services and facilities are needed. 4. Develop a plan of action with short-time and long-time goals which will lead to the realization of comprehensive health services for rural peo ple. To direct groups of people to resources, local, state and national, to which they may turn for technical advice in planning health education programs. 5. Undertake specific projects, ranging from such simple measures as immunization clinics and better health services to more complex programs of procuring personnel, expanding public health services, constructing hos pital and health centers and evaluating prepayment plans for medical care. Objectives for the state-wide Extension Service health education pro gram for 1948-49 were set up by the health committee of the Senior Home Demonstration Council. In most communities there are many agencies, such as the health de partment, the public schools, private agencies working with youth, and a host of associations interested in specific diseases or health needs. The aim of the Extension health education program is to develop co ordination between the organizations in order to achieve more complete coverage of rural health by presenting the task as a whole so each group can undertake those activities which it can best carry out. Since the health department is the center of public health activities, the Extension Service personnel urges rural people to avail themselves of the educational services in personal and public health provided by the health unit. The local health units have provided technical information and ma terials for developing county programs, as well as personnel to interpret services and functions to the home demonstration and 4-H clubs.

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82 Florida Cooperative Extension Local chapters of the American Red Cross, Tuberculosis and Health As sociation. American Cancer Society and National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis have been assisted by home demonstration agents in carrying out educational programs. Reports of home demonstration agents showed that 5,104 families in 39 counties had physical examinations last year; 8,380 families in 37 counties had proper screening in homes; 9,671 families in 38 counties had water sup plies tested and improved; 216 home demonstration clubs in 39 counties sponsored clean-up campaigns; 29 health chairmen in 29 counties were ap pointed; 2,448 families in 37 counties had cows tested for Bang's disease and tuberculosis; 6 counties with 47 4-H girls reported attendance at Red Cross home nursing courses; 48 women in 15 counties enrolled in this course; 135 health surveys were made in 29 counties; 93 home demonstra tion clubs in 22 counties planned health action programs on the basis of the health survey; 133 clubs cooperated with the hospital survey and con struction program; 13 senior council presidents or senior council health chairmen were represented on county-wide health boards; 16 home demon stration clubs in eight counties made health exhibits and 204 women in 29 counties were health chairmen. The Health Improvement Specialist taught two classes each day to the girls attending 4-H short course. The theme of the week's work was, "All 4-H Roads Lead to Good Health." Two 4-H club camps were attended where three classes each day were held on personal grooming. Demonstrations were given on simple mani curing, shampooing and the making of tooth paste, deodorant and hand lotions. Visits were made to six counties, where assistance was given in organ izing clubs, teaching parliamentary procedure and presenting health infor mation. In two counties assistance was given in planning a year's pro gram of 4-H club work. Securing, maintaining and effectively utilizing health services and facilities are major problems facing rural people in this post-war era. Many doctors, nurses and dentists did not return to rural practice at the end of the war, but rather established themselves in urban areas. Before the war there was an average of 1.5 general hospital beds per 1,000 people in rural communities. A recognized yardstick for reasonably adequate service is four beds per 1,000 population. The Florida Extension Service, . in cooperation with the State Improvement Commission, is endeavoring to interpret these needs to rural people and to further the educational pro gram in connection with the hospital survey and construction act.

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Annual Report, 1948 83 Part IV-Negro Work Negro Farm Demonstration Work A. A. Turner, Negro District Agent, retired February 29, 1948. J. A. Gresham was appointed Negro District Agent November 15, 1948. Farm demonstration work was carried on in 10 counties. One resigna tion and two transfers took place. One agent returned to duty after having been away for one year working toward an advanced degree. Most counties have given . financial assistance for the promotion of farm demonstration work among negroes. At the annual 4-H short course for negro boys and girls at the Florida A. & M . College, Tallahassee, May 31-June 4, county agents were given training, which assisted them in improving their work in the counties. The annual conference for negro Extension workers held at Florida A. & M. College November 16-19, served as a training meeting for _ all agents. There were 101 leader training meetings held for 817 volunteer local leaders. Dependable persons, who are good demonstrators, were selected to assist the agents in carrying or. the county-wide program. Increasing Crop Production.-A summary of county agents' reports shows that they assisted 503 farmers to obtain improved varieties of seed corn, 568 with vegetable problems, 130 with fruit production, 330 with legumes, 367 with cotton production, 378 with tobacco and 249 with pas tures. Increasing Livestock Production.-Agents assisted 60 farmers in obtain ing purebred or high grade female dairy cattle, 10 farmers in obtaining purebred male dairy cattle and 40 in obtaining purebred beef cattle. They assisted 56 farmers in obtaining purebred male swine and 79 in obtaining purebred or high grade female swine. Fifty-nine farmers were assisted in obtaining purebred roosters, 113 in obtaining purebred or high grade pul lets and 1,003 in obtaining better strains of baby chicks. Nine hundred sixty-s e ven farmers were assisted in improving methods of feeding poultry and 1 , 203 in controlling diseases and external and internal parasites of poultry. Five hundred thirty-four farmers were assisted in controlling diseases and external and internal parasit e s of swine , while 75 were helped with these sam e problems with dairy and beef cattle, horses and mules. Conserving Natural Resources.-Agents assisted 556 farmers in the use of crop rotations, 241 in the use of cover or green-manure crops, 35 in con trolling wind or water erosion and 157 in arranging for farm-conservation plans during the year. Two hundred eighteen farmers cooperated in pre vention of forest fires, 168 farmers with problems of land use and 57 with strip cropping. Planning Farm Activities.-Agents assisted 299 farmers in developing a farm plan and 183 in developing a farm and home plan. Two hundred eight farmer:, were assisted with credit problems, while 407 were assisted in developing supplemental sources of income. Four hundred thirty-eight farmers were shown how to keep general farm records and 293 were as sist e d with inventory and enterpris e records. Improving Farm Homes, Farms 2nd Equipment.-Agents assisted 340 farm families in remodeling their homes and 131 with plan _ s for new

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension dwellings. 1,140 families screened their dwellings or used other recom mended methods of controlling flies and other insects. Agents also assisted 297 farm families in obtaining electricity through the rural electrification program. There were 60 families who used elec tricity for income-producing purposes. Two hundred three farmers were assisted with construction, remodel ing, repairing and selection or construction of farm buildings and equip ment. One hundred two farmers followed instructions in maintenance and repair of mechanical equipment and 153 were assisted in securing efficient use of mechanical equipment. Improving Health Conclitions.-Agents assisted 1,294 farm families in the prevention of colds and other common diseases, while 2,003 were en couraged to take positive preventive measures to improve health through immunization for contagious diseases. The importance of taking ad vantage of county health units and county doctors and nurses was stressed to these families. There were 1,471 families assisted in removing fire and accident hazards in and around the farm and home. Recreation, Community Life and Family Relationships.-Two hundred fourteen men participated in child-development and parent-education pro grams, while 737 families improved family recreation. Forty-eight school or other community grounds were improved during the year and 13 com munities were assisted in providing library facilities. Marketing-Agents assisted with the marketing. of general farm prod ucts worth $547,202, grain and hay worth $27,040, livestock worth $194,071 and fruits and vegetables valued at $66,669. 4-H Club Work.-In May, the state 4-H short course for boys and girls was held at Florida A. & M. College in Tallahassee. Eighty-two 4-H club boys, whose project activities were outstanding, were selected to attend. Three boys and three girls, selected on the basis of outstanding records in project work and leadership, attended the first regional negro 4-H camp at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in August. The negro county agent of Gadsden County and the women's Negro District Agent accompanied the group. Two 4-H club camps were held for boys during the summer. One at East Lake in Marion County and the other at Lost Lake in Leon County. Ap proximately 125 boys attended the two camps. There were 2,077 negro boys enrolled in 4-H clubs who completed 3,350 projects. Achievement Days.-Thirteen achievement days were held in six coun ties, attracting 6,816 people. Florida State Fair.-Four counties exhibited at the Florida State Fair in Tampa during the month of February.

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Annual Report, 1948 85 NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Floy Britt, Negro District Home Demonstration Agent The 1945 agricultural census shows there are 10,435 negro farm opera tors in Florida , of which 5,528 are land owners and managers. Many of them have little or no education, live in over-crowded houses with unsani tary conditions and are under-nourished. In some sections, medical fa cilities are limited and educational advantages inadequate. With these problems, the home demonstration agents have great responsibilities in en couraging a higher standard of living. There were 11 negro home demonstration agents in Florida during 1948. Two vacancies occurred, which will be filled as soon as qualified persons can b e obtained . One agent studied at Bethune Cookman College and an other took a course in extension methods at Cornell University during her summer vacation. Six of the counties supplemented funds for travel and expenses. Two other counties provided funds for demonstration and exhibit materials. Seven negro home demonstration agents shared offices with negro county agents. Three negro home demonstration agents had s e parate of fices and one ag e nt shared th e office with a white home demonstration agent. Six county offices had telephones and 10 offices had typewriters . On e full-time stenographer was employed in the Negro District Agent ' s office and four part-time stenographers wer e employed in county offic e s. There are four agents who do not have clerical help. The good relation ship which exists among home demonstration agents, county agents and clerical work e rs is conducive to carrying on a cooperative program. Assistance in Carrying Out Extension Program.-The Negro District Agent assisted negro home d e monstration agents in carrying out the Ex tension program through visits, r e sult demonstrations, home visits, council and club meetings, fairs, achievement days, preparing materials, obtain ing and analyzing local data, planning for camps, county short courses and securing help of specialists. Selection, Training and Use of Local Leaders.-There wer e 313 men, 225 women , 68 old e r club boys and 90 older club girls serving as voluntary l e ad e rs. They aided the agents in promoting county wide 4-H programs. Training meetings for leaders were conduct e d in the counties to enable th e leaders to. serv e more efficiently . State 4-H Short Course, Camps.-The annual short cours e for negro 4-H club boys and girls was held at Florida A . and M. Colleg e in Tallahassee, May 31-June 4. A total of 213 girls, 82 boys and 7 local lead e rs from 14 counties attended the short course. These repr e sentative boys and girl s w e re selected from 5,140 enrolled in 258 4-H clubs. Three girls and three boys, s e lected on the basis of outstanding records in project work and leadership , attended the first regional ne g ro 4-H camp at Baton Roug e , Louisiana. The Negro District Home D e monstration Agent and negro county agent of Gadsden County accompani e d the group . At one county and two district 4-H camps 144 girls and 12 leaders re ceived instruction in grooming, first aid, nature study, water safety, handi craft, recreation, visual aids and 4-H organization. Th e Negro District Home Demonstration Agent attended these three camps and 10 home dem onstration ag e nts attended one of the camps . The county camp was held by Hillsborough County at the 4-H club youth center on Spring Head Creek. District camps were h e ld at Lost Lak e in Leon County in the Na tional For e st and at East Lake Weir in Marion County.

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I . 86 Florida Cooperative E xtension Agents' Annu a l Confere n ce .The annu a l confe r e nc e for 21 n egro county and hom e demonstration agents, represe nting 13 counties, was held at Florida A . a nd M. College, Tallahas see, Nov e mb er 16-19 . General them e of the conference was " Bett e r Living for Florida Fami lies." Out-of-stat e speakers included T. M. Campbell, field ag e nt, Ag ricultural Ext e nsion Servic e, Washington, D. C., and J. P. Davis, Produc tion and Mark e ting Administration, Littl e Rock , Arkan sas . H . G. Clayton, di rector, State Agricultural Ext e nsion S erv i ce, a nd Miss Mary E. K eown, Stat e H ome Demonstration Agent, made outstanding co tributions to the conference. Eva lu ation of Accomplishments.-Th ere is a favorab l e sentiment to ward negr o h ome demonstration work in all cou nt ies. This favor~.ble senti me n t is enha n ced by demonstrators, w h o are grateful for results achieved a nd give c redit to the assist an ce of the home demonstration age nt. Accomplishments of negro hom e demonstration agents have b ee n out stan ding. In eac h co unty , ther e are signs of the development of fin er g roup s of negro es. Rural people are thinkin g more about feeding the family well, promoting bett er h ea lth , b e tt er e ducation, and making th e hom es mor e comfortable, co nv e ni e nt and attractiv e. Records show that a total of 1 ,85 1 m e mb e rs w ere e nroll e d in 116 hom e demonstration c lubs during the year. Foods and utrition.-R eports from agents show that 2,61 9 garde n s were grown, 3,222 ca l e nda r fruit plantings were started this year , 25,628 berry plants and vi n es other t han grape were planted, 117,390 h e ns and cockere l s were owned by demonstrators, 106 ,541 c hi cke n s were raised, Fig. 14 .These n egro 4-H girls a r e l ea rning dressmaking, with th e help of th eir n egro hom e demonstration agent and lo ca l l e ad er.

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Annual Report, 1948 87 118,492 dozen eggs were produced, 1,799 family milk cows were owned by demonstrators and 233 milk cows were added this year. Agents reported that there were 270 local leaders assisting with food preservation and storage problems. In food cons erva tion, agents reported that 2,583 families canned 205,981 quarts of vegetables, fruits and meats and 8,944 quarts of pickles and relishes, cured 67,900 pounds of m e at and made 12,229 pounds of soap. In the field of nutrition and health, 2,173 families improved their diets, 1,877 families made improvements in food preparation, 2,689 families im proved the family food supply, 1,001 families canned according to a family budget and 1,471 families removed fire and accident hazards from their homes. Home Improvement.-Agents report on home improvement in their counties as follows: 1,908 families improved housekeeping methods, 471 families constructed new )lomes or remodeled old ones, 297 families ob tained electricity for the first time and 249 families added new electrical appliances to their homes. Also, 309 families installed heating, sewage and water systems in their homes, 340 families provided needed storage space, 342 improved laundry arrangement and 223 installed sanitary closets or outhouses. Records further show that 1,140 homes were screene . d and 1,373 home grounds improved. Agents reported that farm families did much to improve and conserve their clothing and home furnishings. Records indicate 10,526 new garments made, 21,510 garments mended, 2,382 remodeled and 1,300 home-made cos tume accessories made. Also, 14,218 household articles were made. A total of 903 rugs were made and 180 mattresses made or renovated . Ther e were 1,469 families assisted with clothing-construction problems, 1,326 families assisted in selection of clothing and textiles and 1,718 families aided in care, renovation and remodeling of clothing. Recreation and Community Life.-Reports from agents show that 737 families improved their recreation facilities and 93 communities were as sisted by agents with organizational problems, programs of activities or meeting problems. STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK (Men and Women) GENERAL ACTIVITIES Months of service (agents and assistants) ..... . .. .... . ....... ...... . .. . .. ... ............. 222 Days of service: In office-1,908; in field-3,523 .................................... 5,431 Farm or home visits made ......................................................... .. .......... . . , .... 9,306 Different farms or homes visited ............................................. . ............... . .. 4,622 Calls relating to Extension work: Offic e15,226; telephone .......... . ... .. 3,895 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth .......................... 2,566 News articles or stories published..... .......... ....... ...... ... ... ........... ..... .......... .... 265 Bulletins distributed ...................................................................................... .. 12,950 Radio talks broadcast or prepared .............. .......... . .................. .. .. ....... :. .. .... 15 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen. . . .. .............. . 228 Total attendance of men and women........... .. .................. . ................ .. 2,508 Method demonstration meetings ............. . ............... .. ................. . .. ... .......... .... 1,400 Total attendance ...... ............... ........ .... .............. ......... ....... . ...... . ............... .. 15, 759 Meetings held at result demonstrations .. ............. .. .................................... . 267 Attendance ..................... ..... .............................. ... ............... .... .................. 4,301 Tours conducted.... .... ............. .... .............. . . ..... .............................................. ...... 91

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work............. .. . 77 Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings. ... .............. ....... .. ..... 618 SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE Total number of farms in counties worked ............. .... .. . ...................... . ..... 7,439 Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program this year and in past ..... .... ..................... . ..... .. ................... :...... 2,524 Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration and agricultural programs .. ... . ... . .. .. . .............. ... .... ... . .... .............. ..... . ..... . 2,734 Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the home demonstration program ....... . ...... . ....... . . .......... .. . .. . ..... . ............ ..... . 1,966 Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration and agricultural program this year ............. . ........................... .. . 4,490 Different farm families influenced by some phase of the Extension program ..................................................................... . . .. .. ... ........................ 3,980 Other families influenced by some phase of the Extension program . . .. 2,639 COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING Members in agricultural planning group .................... .. . : .................... ... .. ... 25 Unpaid ................ ... ............................................................................... .... .. 21 Paid ....................................... -...................................................................... 4 Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration workers ..... .. .... ..... . . .......................... ... . .. ......... . ........ ....... .. . ................... ... .. 367 Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen . ........ . . ... .. .. ......................... ... 392 Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen .. ................. ... .. '178 CROP PRODUCTION Days devoted to work . . ........................ . ........................... .. ....... 855 Communities in which work was conducted........... . ............................ ... . 781 Voluntary leaders and committeemen. ... . .. ....... . .. . .. . ... . .. .... .. .. . .. ... .. ...... . .. . .. ... 775 LIVESTOCK,DAIRYING,POULTRY Days devoted to work . . . ............................................... . ..... .. . . ................... . . .. .. . Communities in which work was conducted .............. ... .......................... .. . Voluntary committeemen and leaders . . . .................. .. ... : .......................... . ... . Farmers assisted ... .. . . .. ... .. . .. . ........ . ........ ....... ... .. .... . ..... . ..... . . . .................... . . ....... . CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Days devoted to work ..... ................. ... . . . . ..................... . ...... . . . ... ... .............. .. . .. . Communities in which work was conducted .................. .. ......................... . . . Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ................ . ............................ . . . Farmers assisted in soil management . ............................ .. ... .. .................. . .. . Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation . ....... ... ...... . ....... . FARM MANAGEMENT 512 441 293 5,324 145 172 129 1,663 483 Days devoted to work. .. .................. .. ... .... ...... . .................. . ......................... . .... 180 Farmers assisted ......... . ........................ .... . . .. . ............... ,.............................. . ...... 3,165 GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE Days devoted to work ... ... ... ............ . ..... . ....... . ....... . .. . ......... ..... ... . ........ . ..... ... . . .. 61 Communiti~s in which work was conducted.... . . . ........ . . . ..... .. ....... . ..... .... . .. . 116 Voluntary leaders and committeemen .... ..... .......... .. . ... ... .. :...................... . . .. . 94 Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted .. ............................. .. . 84 MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Days devoted to work . ...................... . .... . . . . .. .................. . . . ..... . ............. .. . . .... . . : 690 Communities in which work was conducted . ......... .. ..... .. .................... . .. .. .. 896

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Annual Report, 1948 89 Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during the year (established and new) ............................................................ $51,500 Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not members of cooperatives) assisted during the year ................ $14,487,767 HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT Days devoted to work...................................................................................... 413 Communities in which work was conducted.............................................. 354 Voluntary leaders and committeemen........................................................ 325 Families assisted in house furnishings, farm buildings, surroundings, mechanical equipment, rural electrification ...................................... 8,890 NUTRITION AND HEALTH Days devoted to work...................................................................................... 1,126 Communities in which work was done.......................................................... 723 Families assisted: Improving diets-2,173; food preparation-1,877; Total ............................................................................................................ 4,050 Families assisted with food-preservation problems ............................. , .... 2,574 HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS Days devoted to work ................................................................................... . Communities in which work was done ..................................................... , ... . Voluntary leaders assisting ........................................................................... . Families assisted ............................................................................................... . Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies ......... . Families assisted with consumer-buying problems ................................... . CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Days devoted to work. .................................................................................... . Communities in which work was done ....................................................... . Voluntary leaders assisting ............................................................................. . Families assisted ............................................................................................... . FAMILY RELATIONSHIP-CHILD DEVELOPMENT 179 148 161 1,986 222 1,095 1,454 278 156 193 4,741 Days devoted to work...................................................................................... 148 Communities in which work was done........................................................ 146 Voluntary leaders assisting............................................................................ 147 RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE Days devoted to work........................................................................................ 166 Communities in which work was done.......................................................... 167 Voluntary leaders assisting.......................................................................... 179 Families assisted in improving home recreation...................................... 737 Communities assisted in improving recreational facilities...................... 93 Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs of activities or meeting programs........................................................ 108 Communities assisted in providing library facilities................................ 13 SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS Projects completed by boys.......................................................................... 3,350 Projects completed by girls .......................................................................... 11,509 Boys completing corn and peanut projects.............................................. 632 Boys completing fruit projects...................................................................... 49 Boys completing garden projects.................................................................. 749 Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops.................. 87

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension Boys completing dairy projects ................................................................... . Boys completing poultry projects ................................................................. . Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ........................................... . Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ............................... . Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects ..................................... . Girls completing dairy projects ................................................................... . Girls completing poultry projects ............................................................... . Girls completing home gardens ................................................................... . Girls completing fruit projects ..................................................................... . Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ............... . Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ................... . Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid ............................. . Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and room improvement projects ................................................................... . Girls completing food preservation projects ............................................. . 4-H Membership: Boys: Farm-1,919; non-farm-158; total ....................................... . Girls: Farm-2,617; non-farm-446; total ......................................... . 4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in Extension program ..................................................................... . 4-H clubs engaged in community activities such as improving school grounds and conducting local fairs ....................................................... . 109 443 161 272 237 160 696 1,279 477 159 1,200 928 3,185 1,200 2,077 3,063 1,908 148

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INDEX Agents, list of, 4 Agricultural economics, 20 Agricultural engineering, 27 Animal husbandry, 33 Barrus, Edith Y., 65 Beale, Clyde, 13 Beef cattle, 21, 33 Beekeeping, 44 Better sire program, 36 Bevis, Joyce, 68 Blacklock, R. W., 47 Boy's 4-H club work, 47 Britt, Floy, 85 Broadcasting activities, 14 Broiler production, 42 Brown, W. W., 47 Camps, 4-H, 74 Carter, Bonnie J., 17, 79 Chicken-of-tomorrow contest, 43 Citrus, 24 culture, 61 grove management, 22 Clayton, H. G., 7, 19 Clothing and textiles, 12, 68 Ccmmunity life, 12 Conservation of natural resources, 11 Cooper, J. Francis, 13 Cooperatives, 25 Cooperative planning, 10 Corn, 51 County agents, work of, 19 County and home demonstration agents, 4 summary, 28 Cow testing, 37 Crop production, 11 DHIA program, 37 Dairying, 11, 36 Dairying possibilities in Hardee County, 21 Director's report, 7 Dixie wonder pea, 50 Egg-laying test, 40 Egg quality program, 42 Family living, 79 Family relationships-child develop ment, 12 Farm and home planning, 20 i Farm building plan service, 27 Farm buildings, 27 electrification, 27, 31 forestry, 56 labor, 25 machinery, 29 management, 11, 20, 21 training for veterans, 25 Fence post treating, 29 Financial statement, 7 Fire prevention, 17 Florida Farm Hour, 14 Fhrn-cured tobacco, 52 Food conservation, 76 Food and nutrition, 71 Forest fire prevention, 56 Forest planting, 56 4-H club beekeeping activities, 45 dairy work, 37 forestry program, 58 gardening, 76 poultry work, 41 work, 21, 30, 31, 35, 80 work for girls, 73 Fruit washer, 30 Gardening, 76 Hairy indigo, 51 Hampson, C. M., 20 Hay drying, 29 Haynie, John D., 44 Health, 81 Henderson, J. R., 50 Hog program, 35 Holloway, Ethyl, 65 Home demonstration work, 65 Home improvement, 79 Home management, 11 Honey, 26 Horticulture, 60 Housing, 27, 79 Irrigation and drainage, 30 Jamison, F. S., 60 Johnson, John M., 27 Keown, Mary E., 65 Lawrence, F. P., 61 Livestock, 11, 33 Lupines, 50

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ii Index Marketing, 11, 23, 42 McDavid, Ruby, 65 McLendon, H. S., 53 McMullen, K. S., 19 Meats, 35 Mechanical burners for sirup making, 30 Mehrhof, N. R., 39 Men's work, 19 National poultry improvement plan, 43 Neely, Grace I., 76 Negro agents, 5 Negro farm demonstration work, 83 Negro home demonstration work, 85 News stories, 14 Nieland, L. T., 17, 56 Noble, C. V., 20 Nutrition and health, 11, 71 Outlook, 21 Parasite control, 34 Pastures, 34, 52 Pasture and feed, 34 Parvin, F. W., 20 Peanuts, 51 Pecans, 26 Perry, F. S., 39 Personnel selection and training, 66 Pettfo, A. M., 31 Poultry, 11, 39 Publications, 13 Purebred shows, 34 Radio, 13 Reaves, C. W., 36 Record books, 20 Recreation, 12 Russ, Lucille, 81 Safety, 17 Savage, Zach, 22 Seed drying, 29 Shealy, A. L., 33 Sheely, W. J., 33 Sikes, Anna Mae, 71 Sirup making, 30 Smal! grains, 52 Smith, J. Lee, 19 Soil and water conservation, 5;1 Soils and farm crops, 50 Spray equipment, 30 Statistical report, 10, 87 Stevens, Lorene, 73 Teaching methods, 21 Timber marketing, 57 Timmons, D. E., 23 Training, 8 Transportation, 25 Turkeys, 43 Turner, A. A., 83 Vegetables, 24, 60 Visual materials, 15 Watermelons, 25 Watkins, Marshall 0., 7 Work of county agents, 19 Work with women and girlf, 65