Citation
Report Florida agricultural extension service

Material Information

Title:
Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title:
Annual report
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla. The Service
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Creation Date:
1946
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1939-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note:
At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46387223 ( OCLC )
2001229382 ( LCCN )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text







COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
Acts of May 8 and June 30. 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women
Amd United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating
A. P. Spencer, Director













1946 REPORT



FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL



EXTENSION SERVICE,












REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1946 with
,FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1946











COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women
And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating
A. 11. Spencer, Director













1946 REPORT



FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL



EXTENSION 'SERVICE












REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 19i6 with
-FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1946









BOARD OF CONTROL
J. THOS. GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando M. L. MERSHON, Miami J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy THOS. W. BRYANT, Lakeland J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Director of Extension MARSHALL 0. WATKINS, B.S.A., Assistant to the Director

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor' CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor1 JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor1 RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager' W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Asst. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor HANS 0. ANDERSEN, B.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL P. L. PEADEN, M.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Director, P. & M. Admin. R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Director, P. & M. Admin. R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent W. W. BROWN, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist' N. R. MEHRHOF, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman' FRANK S. PERRY, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husbandman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing' K. S. McMuLLEN, B.S.A., District Agent JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer

Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent RUBY McDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Specialist in Food Conservation JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent
I Part-time.
I On leave.









CONTENTS
Page
Director's Report . . . . . 7

Statistical Report . . __ -------------------------------------- ---------- 9

Publications, N ew s, Radio . -------------------------------------- ---------_ ----- _-----_--------- 13

Agricultural Conservation and Related Programs . . . 16

Em ergency Farm Labor . . 19

Safety and Fire Prevention . 22

W ork of County A gents . __ . _ . . 23

A gricultural E ngineering . . . . . 24

A gricultural Econom ics . . _ . 27

Citrus Grove M anagem ent . . _ . . 27

Farm M anagem ent A ctivities . . . 28

Anim al H usbandry, Dairying, Poultry . _ . 30

A nim al H usbandry . : . . __ . . . 30

D airying . . . . . 33

Poultry . . . _ . . 34

Boys' 4-H Club W ork . 38

Farm Forestry . . . . . . 41

Soil and W ater Conservation . . __ . 44

Soils and Farm Crops . _ . . 47

H om e D em onstration W ork . . ---_-__ - . . 50

Clothing and Textiles . . . . . 56

Food, N utrition and-H ealth . . __ . _ . . . 58

Gardening and Food Conservation . . . . 60

H om e Im provem ent . . . 62

N egro Farm D em onstration W ork . . . 64

N egro H om e D em onstration W ork . . 66

N egro Statistical Report . . 68

131







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS (As of December 81, 1946)
ROME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua-.Loonis Blitch---------.Gainesville_ Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua-. .T. H. MeRorie, Jr.
(Asst.)------------. .Gainesville . .
Baker-------.J. Raymond Mills.-.Macdlenny.
Bay---------. . M. B. Miller----------.Panama City. .
Bradford-. T. K. MeClane, Jr-.Starke . . Brevard-._J. T. Oxford.--.-------.Cocoa ---------- .Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward-.B. E. Lawton---------.Ft. Lauderdale-.Miss Louise Taylor
Broward-.Robert S. Pryor (Asst.) Ft. Lauderdale . Calhoun-.Troy Penton---------.Blountstown-.Mrs. Lucille Clark
Charlotte-.N. H. McQueen-. .Punta Gorda . Citrus-------. 0. M. Maines---------.Inverness-.Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Clay ._.Gn. Cve. Sgs.--Mrs. Read Crow Shettler Columbia-.J. M. Kennedy . --Lake City-.Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Dade.-.-.-.C. H. Steffani--------.Miami---------. .-Miss Eunice Grady
Dade--------.J. Lawrence Edwards
(Asst.)-------------.Miami-.Miss Edna L. Sims (Asst.)
Dade . _.Miami-.Miss Olga Kent (Asst.) DeSoto-.W. L. Woods---------.Arcadia . .
Dixie--------.C. L. Dickinson.-.Cross City-----------------------. .
Duval.---------- A. S. Lawton---------.Jacksonville.-.Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval--------.G. T. Huggins (Asst.),- (Asst.)
Escambia-.E. H. Finlayson-.Pensacola-.Miss Ethel Atkinson Escambia-. .J. B. W alker (Asst.) . Pensacola ._._ _. Gadsden.-. A. G. Driggers-------.Quincy----------.Miss Elise LaffitiLe
Quincy-.Miss Margaret Rish (Asst.)
Gilchrist. A. S. Laird-----------.Trenton . - ._. .
Glades-. .A. G. Hutchinson-.Moore Haven.__. Gulf---------.C. R. Laird-----------.Vewahitchka . Mrs. Wilma A. Revell
Hardee-.E. H. Vance----------.Wauchula .Miss Mildred J. Taylor
Hardee-.Earl G. Rodgers (Asst.)Wnuchula .-----_. . . . -- .
Hendry-. .H. L. Johnson--------.LaBelle ._ . _. .
Hernando-.H. J. Brinkley--------- .Brooksville .
Highlands-.V. T. Oxer-----------.Sebring.-.--Miss Catherine Brabson
Hillsborough --Alec White-----------. .Tampa.-.-----------.Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsborough -. Edwin Booth (Asst.) . Tampa . . Hillsborough. J. 0. Armor (Asst.). . .Plant City -- Miss Emily King (Asst.) Holmes-.Stuart C. Bell--------. . .Bonifay---------.Miss Carolyn Clark
Indian River.-M. A. Boudet.-.--_.----Vero Beach._.
Jackson-._J. W. Malone-----.-.-Marianna-.Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson -.Vacant (Asst.)------. -M arianna --------.
Jefferson-.E. N. Stephens-------.Monticello .--- .Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter
Lafayette-.S. L. Brothers. ---------- Mayo.----. .1.--I~. __.
Lake--------.R. E. Norris----------. .Tavares.---------. _Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lake--------.J. P. Hill (Asst.)-.Tavares.------- --_. ----.
Lee----------C. . P. Heuck. ---------.Fort Myers._---.
Leon--------.James L. Rhoden-.Tallahassee_-.Miss Wilma Smith
Levy--------.T. D. Tickenbaker-.Bronson---------- .Miss Lila Woodard
Liberty-.Vacant . _------ - - Bristol . __ -_.
Madison-.W. W. Glenn---------. Madison-.Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Madison-.Eric R. Mills, Jr. (Asst.) MadisonI. . Manatee-. Ed L. Ayers----------.Bradenton-._--Mrs. Anne D. Davis
Manatee-.A. B. Alford, Jr. (Asst.) .-Bradenton .-.
Marion-.Carl Hendricks---.---Ocala----------.Miss Allie Lee Rush
M arion -.S. B. Parnell (A sst). Ocala.__- _ _ -[41







HOM.%E DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Martin .L. M. Johnson. Stuart . Miss Lucile Inscoe Nassau .Gordon B. Ellis.Hilliard . Okeechobee.--C. R. Boyles----------.Okeechobee.-------Okaloosa._F. W. Barber. Crestview . Orange.F. E. Baetzman .Orlando. .Miss Elizabeth Dickenson Osceola.J. R. Gunn . ---. Kissimmee . ---Miss Ruth Wilder
Palm Beach. ----M. U. Mounts. W. Palm Bch.Miss Bertha Hausman Palm Beach.--.H. L. Speer (Asst.) .Belle Glade . Mrs. Mildred J. Michaud
(Asst.)
Pasco . J. F. Higgins. Dade City. Mrs. Essa D. Gould Pinellas.J. H. Logan . Clearwater .Miss Tillie Roesel Pinellas. Clearwater .Miss Emma Stevenson (Asst.)
Polk . W. P. Hayman . Bartow . Miss Elma B. Willis Polk -- . W. H. Kendrick (Asst.) . Bartow . . . Putnam . .H. E. Maltby . Palatka . Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird Putnam.V. H. Major (Asst.)._Palatka. St. Johns.Ross V. Swartsel.------St. Augustine .Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie.C. D. Kime .Fort Pierce.Vacant Santa Rosa .E. D. McCall .Milton .Vacant Santa Rosa .J. N. Watson (Asst.) . .Milton. Seminole .C. R. Dawson. .Sanford. Mrs. Ouida Wilson Sarasota.W. E. Evans.-----Sarasota. Miss Sara Horton Sumter.Kenneth A. Clark -.-- Bushnell. Suwannee.S. C. Kierce. Live Oak .Miss Geraldine Crawford Suwannee .W. J. Cowen (Asst.) .Live Oak.---_-.-_--.Taylor ._D. D. McCloud.-----.Perry ._.Mrs. Ruth Elkins
Union .J. T. Holloway .Lake Butler .I. Volusia.William J. Platt, Jr.---DeLand . Mrs. Gladys Kendall Wakulla.Harry E. George .Crawfordville.-----------.---.-----Walton .Mitchell Wilkins .----DeFuniak Springs . Washington ---H. 0. Harrison.-----Chipley .

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY NEGRO COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua---. Richard A. Hartsfield (Acting) .Gainesville Columbia . McKinley Jeffers . Lake City Gadsden . Russell Stephens .Quincy Hamilton .N. H. Bennett. White Springs Jackson .Thomas A. Harris . Marianna Jefferson .M. E. Groover. Monticello Leon . English M. Greene. Tallahassee Madison . . James C. Miller .Madison Marion . .Eugene P. Smith .Ocala Sumter ._. Richard L. Bradley . . Bushnell COUNTY NEGRO HOME DEAL AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua. Leontine Williams . Gainesville Columbia . Ozella Sansome . Lake City Duval. Ethel M. Powell . .Jacksonville Gadsden. Diana H. Spencer .Quincy Hillsborough .Sudella J. Ford .Tampa Jackson. Annie Doris Preston.-------Marianna Leon .:. ---Jewel P. McGriff .Tallahassee Madison .Althea Ayer-. . . Madison Marion . Idella R. Kelly._. Reddick Putnam. Lee Ella Gamble .L.Palatka Volusia (Asst.). Ida T. Pemberton.----------DeLand

[5]


































Fig. 1.-Florida cattlemen have improved and fertilized thousands of acres of range pastures during the year.











Part I -- General


DIRECTOR'S REPORT
A. P. Spencer, Director
M. 0. Watkins, Assistant to the Director
Developments affecting the farmers' income must necessarily be taken into consideration in planning an Extension educational program. With conditions approaching normal there are certain farm products now In abundance affecting the prices received by the producers and in turn the consumer's consumption of that production. Extension must be in a position to promote the best interests of agriculture and home economics with accurate information that will guide in production and marketing.
Personnel-The increase in Extension personnel has served to assist
county and home agents in the performance of their regularly assigned responsibilities for educational programs among rural people. Insofar as county funds can be made available, it is the policy of the Extension Service to increase the number of assistant county and home agents to the extent that such services are needed. There is a definite need for an increase in personnel to serve as assistants so that projects of importance to agriculture and home economics may be continued and expanded. Some assignments have been delayed due to difficulty in finding persons who have the professional and personal qualifications. The assignment of assistant agents serves as a training procedure for building up a staff of personnel well qualified to perform Extension duties.
It is the Extension policy that the counties shall maintain their contri4 butions and defray a part of the expenses of Extension work. Through the cooperation of county boards, a number of county budgets provide for assistant agents. The assistants are assigned specific duties with special emphasis on 4-H club work. During the current year 30 percent of Florida i counties were served by assistant agents who are agricultural and home economics graduates.
Retirement System.-Since January 1, 1946, 9 Florida Agricultural Extension Service workers have retired. These workers had a total of over 240 years of service. The shortest period of service was 20 years and 3 months, the longest 30 years and 6 months.
Practically all county and home demonstration agents and part of the State staff are enrolled in the State Teachers' Retirement System. State staff members not participating in the Teachers' Retirement System are eligible to be enrolled in the State Officers' and Employees' Retirement System.
Professional Improvement-To provide refresher training for new men and women Extension workers and those recently returned from military service, a course in agricultural Extension methods was offered during the summer of 1946. The course carried 3 hours University of Florida credit. Details of the course were worked out by a committee. The USDA Extension Service cooperated by sending staff members to give the majority of the lecturers. Other lectures, demonstrations and assistance with workshops were given by the Director of the South Carolina Extension Service, members of the staff of the Florida Agricultural Extension Se rvice, Agricultural Experiment Station workers, and faculty members of the University of Florida. The course was under the supervision of a faculty member of the College of Agriculture.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Thirty-nine extension workers, 1 senior and I graduate student took the course.
The Annual Extension Agents' Conference was held October 21-25, 1946. Morning sessions were joint programs and were devoted to overall discussion of problems. For the afternoon sessions the men and women met separately and discussed subject matter and methods of getting the jobs done.
Housing Program.-Early in 1946 the Agricultural Extension Service invited in for a conference the heads of agencies functioning in the State which were interested in education in the field of rural housing. The group organized for the purpose of working out a coordinated program and asked the Extension Service to act as coordinator.
As a start, the group selected 3 counties in the State to be known as demonstration counties and asked the county workers whose agencies were represented on the State Committee to work together to solve 2 or 3 housing problems most needing attention in the respective counties. This project is now functioning in the 3 counties with assistance from the State Committee in the form of plans, visual aids, reference material, etc. The following agencies are represented on the State Committee: Agricultural Extension Service; State Department of Education; State Board of Health; Project of Applied -Economics of the College of Education, University of Florida; School of Home Economics, Florida State College for Women; Farmers' Home Administration; and Rural Electrification Administration.
The following agencies have been asked to serve as consultants to the State Committee as the need arises: Veterans' Administration, National Farm Loan Associations, Florida Tuberculosis and Health Association, Production Credit Associations, Master Plumbers' Association, Federal Housing Administration.

FINANCING EXTENSION WORK
Financial Statement 1945-46
Federal Funds:.
Smith-Lever, Bankhead-Jones . $200,645.82 Capper-Ketcham . _ . 27,417.72 Bankhead-Flannagan ------------_-------_-- . 77,910.28
Clark-M cN ary . . . 1,620.00

$307,593.82
State Appropriations:
Legislature (Annual) . $108,800.00 Continuing, Chapter 6141 __ ---------------------_-- _ . 5,000.00
Continuing, Chapter 19216 _ . . . I . _ 80,400.00 Sales Fund (Incidental) . 11,000.00

$205,200.00
Grand Total . . $512,793.82

The Federal funds shown above are provided by Congress and are allotted to the Department of Agriculture and in turn to the states as provided in the original Smith-Lever Act. The provisions governing SmithLever funds were made effective in 1914 and govern in a general way the allotment of funds provided by subsequent Congresses in the BankheadJones Act, the Capper-Ketcham Act and the Bankhead-Flannagan Act.
The Smith-Lever Act and subsequent acts have provisions that the 'states must provide offset funds. Federal funds are distributed to respective states on the basis of rural to urban populations. State funds re-







Annual Report, 1946


quired as offset are governed by the same regulations as federal funds.
The Extension program is handled through the project system and Florida is now operating under 19 definite projects. There are 5 main classifications, as follows: Administration, Publications and Information Material, County and Home Demonstration Work in the Counties, Specialists in Farm and Home Projects, and Negro Work. Four-H Club work, which comes under a specialist classification, covers boys' and girls' programs. Specialists' programs cover salaries and expenses of various ,specialists attached to the respective projects. County and home demonstration work takes up the larger part of Extension funds expended, this being the main feature and purpose of agricultural Extension work in the State.
County operations are carried on in 63 counties and each county contributes a proportionate part of the needed expenses for the successful operation of the work. County appropriations are provided by boards of county commissioners and school boards and vary with the needs in the counties.
Work with farm labor and soil conservation and the production and marketing administration has been financed primarily from federal funds and through the cooperation of the Extension Service. The programs operate largely through Extension offices and personnel throughout the State.
Farm Labor.-The emergency farm labor program provides largely for distribution of migrant farm labor and has been handled in cooperation with the Office of Labor of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and administered by a special staff. County agents serve as the main administrators in their respective counties.
Soil Conservation.-Through appointment by the State Soil Conservation Board, the Director of Extension serves as the administrator of the State Soil Conservation Act. The Extension Service is the educational agency for this program and the county agents serve as secretaries to the district boards of supervisors, providing informational material which corresponds with recommendations of the Experiment Station and Extension Service. This policy determines to a large extent the type of soil conservation program carried out in the districts and provides a definite coordination between the Soil Conservation Service, the Extension Service and the Experiment Station.
Production and Marketing Administration.-The Director of Extension is ex-officio member of the State Production and Marketing Administration Committee. This work is carried on in the counties through the county agents' offices. The county agent serves as secretary and ex-officio member of the county committee and is in charge of records and educational programs. By this arrangement Production and Marketing Administration programs are coordinated with the program of the county agent, the Experiment Station, College of Agriculture and U. S.'Department of Agriculture.

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) . - ---------- __ . 1,421
Days of service: In office-16,621; in field-17,876 --- . 34,497 Farm or hom e visits m ade . 56,592 Different farms or homes visited . . __ . . _ 81,390







Florida Cooperative Extension


Calls relating to extension work: Office-261,145; Telephone . 149,727
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth . 9,794
News articles or stories published . ------ ----------------------_ . 6,466
Bulletins distributed -------_------------ ----------------------------------------- _ . 198,630
Radio talks broadcast or prepared . . 738 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber . . _ ------------_- . . 544
Total attendance of men and women _-----_-_---_-_-------- -------_----------- 6,980
Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber . . ----_ ------ - . 7,963
Total attendance ---- _ . . ---_------ . - ---- 154,890
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
N um ber _ . _ . ---- _ . 1,182 A ttendance . --------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------- 18,239
T ou rs . 318 Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work . 452
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings . . . 6,265

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE,

Total num ber of farm s . . ---- _ . __ ---------------------------- ----------- 61,108
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program ------- . . 28,632 Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home
dem onstration program . . 16,785 Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural program for the first time this year . . I--- 5,625 Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration program for first time this year ---- . 3,074
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled-. . 10,278
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the
agricultural program . . . 12,405
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
dem onstration program . . 18,615 Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled --------------------------------- 6,267
Different farm families influenced by some phase of extension
program . -------------------- . 37,909
Other families influenced by*some phase of extension program . 28,874

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group- . __ --------- . I . 483
U npaid . _ . . . ------------- 343
P aid . . -------- --------------- . - --- _ . 140
Communities in agricultural planning . - . . . 45 Members in community agricultural planning . 229 Planning m eetings held . . 1,128 Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w ork ers . ----- 2,285 Unpaid voluntary leaders of committeemen . 2,062 Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 4,320

CROP PRODUCTION
D ays devoted to w ork. . . . . 7,114 Communities in which work was conducted . . 3,005 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 1,355







Annual Report, 1946 11

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
D ays devoted to w ork -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5,519
Communities in which work was conducted --------------------------- ; ----------- ------ 2,320
Voluntary committeemen and leaders -------------------------------------------------------- 939
Breeding and improvement organizations -------------------------------------------------- 30
Farm ers assisted -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30,180

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
D ays devoted to w ork . 1,479 Communities in which work was conducted -------------------------------------- . 977
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen . 474 Farmers assisted in soil management -------------------------------------- -- . 39,221
Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation . 6,550

FARM MANAGEMENT
D ays devoted to w ork -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,245
Farm ers assisted --------------------------------------------- . ----------------------- . 21,223

GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE D ays devoted to w ork . . . 363 Communities in which work was conducted ---------------------------------------------- 399
Voluntary leaders and committeemen . : . ----------- 415
Agricultural and non-agri6ultural groups assisted . . 87 7

IVIARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
D ays devoted to w ork ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------- 2,647
Communities in which work was conducted --------------------------------------- . 2,859
Established cooperatives assisted . 78 New cooperatives assisted in organizing . . 28 Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during
the year (established and new) . $13,624,785 Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year . $42,077,663

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
D ays devoted to w ork . . . . ----- 2,233 Communities in which work was conducted ---------------- ----------------------------- 1,546
Voluntary leaders and committeemen . . 878 Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification, and farm buildings ------------------------- 36,901

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
D ays devoted to w ork ----------------------------------------------------------------------- . 5,172
Communities in which work was done . ------------------------------------ 2,415
Families assisted: In improving diets-18,597; food preparation10,448; total ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ I --- 29,045
Families assisted with food preservation problems . --------- --------------- 22,393

HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
D ays devoted to w ork ----------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------- 466
Communities in which work was done . . 426 Voluntary leaders assisting . --------- - 303
F am ilies assisted . --------------------------------------------- , 3,429








12 Florida Cooperative Extension

Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 382
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies . 10,476 Families assisted with consumer-buying problems . . 12,753

CLOTIIING AND TEXTILES
D ays devoted to w ork . . 1,441 Communities in which work was done . 570 Voluntary leaders assisting . . 421 F am ilies assisted -------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 21,588

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CIIILD DEVELOPMENT
D ays devoted to w ork . 369 Communities in which work was done . . 357 Voluntary leaders assisting . -- . 201

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
D ays devoted to w ork . I . 740 Communities in which work was done . _ . 448 Voluntary leaders assisting . . . 602 Families assisted in improving home recreation . 2,847 Communities assisted in improving community recreational facilities 215
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities, or meeting programs . . . 323 Communities assisted in providing library facilities . 39

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects com pleted by boys . 5,216 Projects com pleted by girls . 17t975 Boys completing corn and peanut projects . . . 671 Boys com pleting fruit projects . 79 Boys completing garden projects . 1,049 Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops . . 107
Boys completing dairy projects . 438 Boys completing poultry projects . 915 Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects . 50 Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects . . 154 Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects . 1,374 Girls com pleting fruit projects . . 577 Girls completing garden projects . 2,593 Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning . . 3
Girls completing dairy projects . . . - 158 Girls completing poultry projects . 1,031 Girls completing food selection and preparation projects . 3t246 Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects . 545
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and
room improvement projects-. . . 5,637 Girls completing food preservation projects . 1,655 4-H MembershipBoys: Farm-5,942; non-farm-1,955; total . 7,897 Girls: Farm-6,114; non-farm-4,295; total . 10,409 4-11 club members having health examinations because of participation in extension program . 1,592 4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs . 417








Annual Report, 1946 13


PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Associate Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
The first full year of peace following World War II brought little change from the war years. Farm production goals were still high, farm people had little new equipment to help them produce more efficiently, labor remained scarce, and the need for information continued unabated. All available information aids were employed to supplement the personal activity of Extension workers in serving rural families.
An outstanding feature of the Editorial Department's work during the year was informational aid rendered in connection with the celebration of the first National Home Demonstration Week in May. News stories, farm journal articles, radio talks and other means were employed to stress the work done by Florida's home demonstration staff, and a number of prominent business and professional leaders issued commendatory statements. The celebration was centered around the theme, "Today's Home Builds Tomorrow's World."
PRINTED MATERIALS
Purchase of printing proved more difficult in 1946 than in any of the war years as printing paper and labor became even more scarce and demand still higher. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, the Extension Service printed 3 new bulletins totaling 168 pages and for a total of 52,500 copies. While no new circulars were issued, 3 comparable publications were printed in an ornamental gardening series. These added up to 28 pages and 3,000 copies. Other materials in almost normal quantities were published. Printed materials issued during the year are included in the following list:


Pages
16
40 108


Edition 15,000 30,000 7,500


Bul. 127 Bul. 128 Bul. 129 Garden


Timber-Grazing-Game . Raising Chicks, Broilers and Pullets . _ . . Avocado Production in Florida . .


Series The M agnolias .
Garden Protection.of Plants from Cold Injury and TreatSeries ment of Trees and Shrubs Injured by Cold .
Garden Garden Soils . - . . __ .
Series Final Report, 19th National Egg-Laying Test .
Announcement and Rules, 21st National Egg. Laying Test ----_ -------- .
Calendar 1946 . . -------Form 7 Agents' Monthly Report Blank . _ .
Veterans' Forms 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, each Veterans' Form 7 . _ ---------- .
Veterans' Form 8. . Veterans' Form 9 . _ . -------Veterans' Form I and 2 (revised) .
Individual 4-H Club Member's Record . .
4-H Club Record Book .
Record Book, Florida Clothing Program for
Junior 4-H Club Girls .
Record Book, Home Improvement for Florida
4-H Club Girls . . _ . _ .


12 1,000

8 1,000 8 1,000 24 1,250

6 300
12 12,000 2 10,000 2 1,000
1 3,000 2 2,500 2 2,500 2 1,000 2 10,000 16 10,000

4 12,000.

12 10,000








Florida Cooperative lExtension


Pages Edition
4-H M embership Card ------------------------------------- I ----------- 2 20,000
Program, Boys' 4-H Short Course _---_------------------- 8 400
Farm Labor Identification Cards ---------------------------- 2 2,000
Poster Farm Help W anted ------------------------------------------------------ 1 150
Poster Avoid Livestock Losses ---------------------------------------------- 1 1,000
Poster Florida Poultry Institute . 1 300 Map Florida Type-of-Farming Areas . 1 10,000
Both new and old bulletins and other'printed materials are distributed to county and home demonstration agents from the Mailing Room and bulletins and circulars are both given out and mailed to individuals on direct request.
The Extension Editor continued to serve as Florida Distribution Officer for the USDA Extension Service and ordered and distributed to agents thousands of copies of'new USDA publications. The Editorial Office, however, does not keep a supply of USDA publications on hand for distribution.
SERVING NEWSPAPERS AND FARM JOURNALS
Ninety-eight white agents in 59 counties report having 6,466 news items published in their local papers during the year. Among the negroes, 21 agents in 14 counties reported 188 news items printed.
Newsprint shortages, which became more acute during the year, continued to limit both daily and weekly newspapers in the amount of material they could publish, and competition in news continued keen. The papers, however, continued to use generously of agricultural news distributed from the Extension Service.
Carrying from 8 to 15 separate news items in each issue, the weekly clip-sheet remained the principal method of distributing news from the Extension Service. It served as a medium of direct releases to weekly newspapers and as the basis for re-writes of the principal stories for press associations serving daily newspapers and for farm papers.
In addition, 93 special stories were sent direct to press associations and 32 to 1 or more daily newspapers. Four skeleton, or fill-in, stories were sent to county and home demonstration agents during the year for localization and release.
Farm journals, as usual, were interested in Florida copy, and used numerous stories from the Extension Editors. Six journals of national circulation printed 9 stories from the Extension Editors, occupying a total of 200 column inches of space. Two Southern farm periodicals carried 18 items for 297 inches of space. Four Florida farm papers published 9 articles which accounted for 150 column inches of space. This gave a total of 647 column inches of space in 12 journals of national, regional and loal circulation.
BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES
With increasing numbers of radio stations being established throughout Florida, broadcasting activities of county and home demonstration agents have stepped up until the State is well blanketed with farm and home information. Forty-six white agents in 32 counties reported making 738 radio broadcasts during the year, while 6 negro agents in 4 counties made 11 broadcasts.
The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, from 12:15 to 12:52 p. m. each week day, continued to serve as a principal means of 'disseminating information by radio from the College of Agriculture.
Regular features of the program included the weekly farm question box and daily farm news highlights, both prepared and delivered by Extension








Annual Report, 1946 15

Editors. Staff members made 105 additional talks on the Farm Hour during the year. Special features of the Farm Hour during the year included remote control broadcasts from the Harry-Anna Crippled Children's Home in Umatilla and from the Poultry and Nutrition Laboratories on the University of Florida campus.
In cooperation with the USDA Radio Service, the Extension Editors sent farm flashes for 5 days each week to 21 Florida radio stations. Most of these were sent first to county agents for approval and forwarding to the stations. The flashes included copies of 104 talks made by Experiment Station workers and 85 talks by Extension Service staff members made during the Farm Hour.
Since homne-m-akers' chats were discontinued by the USDA some time ago, no comparable service wvas supplied to home demonstration agents during most of the year. However, the Editors inaugurated a Florida Home-makers' Chats series of weekly broadcasts on November 11, 1946, supplying copy to 12 agents.

VISUAL AIDS, MEETINGS, MISCELLANEOU-S
Florida agents are increasingly interested in making the best use of all possible visual aids in carrying out their work. They are using motion pictures, slides and filmstrips, as well as pictures and related materials.
The Editorial Office maintains a filmstrip library and is endeavoring to establish a slide library. Motion pictures are deposited in the library of the General Extension Division on the campus.
Through the cooperation and under the leadership of County Agent H. L. Johnson, the Extension Service made a good motion picture film on pasture establishment and maintenance. It is approximately 800 feet in length, colored, silent.
The Editorial Office prepared and mimeographed a daily paper, DAILY DOINGS, for the boys attending 4-H Club Short Course at the University of Florida for 1 week in June.
The Editor made more than 100 photographs for use in various ways.
As in the past, the Editors and mailing clerks devoted approximately half of their time to work for the Agricultural Experiment Station.

Fig. 2-A remote control broadcast from the Harry-Anna Crippled Children's Home, Umatilla, paid tribute to the work of 4-H club boys there.








16 Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION AND RELATED

PROGRAMS

H. G. Clayton, State Director, Production and Marketing Administration R. S. Dennis, Assistant to the State Director

In Florida the agricultural conservation and related programs carried on by the Field Service Branch, PMA, are closely coordinated with the work of the Agricultural Extension Service.

THE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM
During the year 1946 the agricultural conservation program work was in 3 major phases: (1) closing out the 1945 program and completing payments of assistance to farmers; (2) operation of the 1946 program; and
(3) development of 1947 program provisions, practices and rates of assistance.
Closing out the 1945 Program Under this program there were 47,658 farms covered by worksheets. These farms contained 2,213,158 acres of crop land, 388,173 acres of commercial groves and orchards and 8,743,102 acres of fenced non-crop pasture. During the year 23,588 farms participated and the operators of these farms received cash assistance to aid them in carrying out needed soil-building and soil-conserving practices. The total cash assistance value of all practices carried out was $2,856,400. Actual cash payments made to these farm operators (prior to small payment increase) totaled $2,093,075.
The extents of the major practices for which assistance was given are as follows: Superphosphate applied to soil-conserving crops and pastures, 89,785 tons of 20* percent equivalent material; Basic slag, raw rock and colloidal phosphate applied to soil-conserving crops and pastures, 13,945 tons; potash, 60% equivalent applied to winter legumes and pastures, 1,080 tons; ground limestone applied to farm land and pastures, 66,711 tons; winter legumes seeded, 31,707 acres; new pasture established by sodding or seeding approved grasses, 48,041 acres; pastures reseeded, 41,941 acres; pastures mowed or chopped, 192,500 acres; terraces constructed, 1,987,125 linear feet; summer legume cover crops, 115,480 acres; small grains seeded for cover, 106,334 acres; legume and grass seed harvested, 8,575 acres; surface water control ditches on pastures 2,400,316 linear feet.
Operations of the 1946 Program.-Regulations required that all farm operators who desire to participate in the 1946 program indicate their intention. to participate by March 1, 1946. Approximately 31,800 farmers indicated their intention by that cutoff date. Of this number, approximately 22,000 will receive assistance amounting to approximately $3,046,000 for carrying out practices designed further to improve and conserve soil resources. The major practices and the estimated extent of each carried o * ut in 1946 are: Application of phosphate materials to soil-conserving crops and pastures, 102,100 tons of 20 percent equivalent 'superphosphate, 9,385 tons of basic slag, raw rock and colloidal phosphate; application of 60 percent potash to winter legumes and pastures, 1,436 tons; ground limestone applied to farm land and pastures, 85,334 tons; winter legumes seeded 65,135 acres; new pasture prepared and seeded or sodded, 59,700 acres; pasture reseeded, 18,800 acres; pasture mowed or chopped, 241,280 acres; terraces constructed, 2,029,700 linear feet; summer legume cover crops seeded, 120,250 acres; small grains seeded for cover, 119,530 acres; legume and grass seed harvested, 8,437 acres; surface water control ditches constructed on pastures, 1,739,554 linear feet.







Aiinual Report, 1946


To assist farmers in carrying out these practices certain materials and services were furnished by PMA. The costs of the materials or services furnished were deducted from the payments earned by the farmers. In 1946 the kinds and amounts of materials and services furnished were: Alyce clover seed, :1,850 pounds; Austrian winter peas, 22,600 pounds; Bahia grass seed, 500 pounds; basic slag, 654.3 tons; blue lupine seed, 1,071,487 pounds; dolomitic limestone, 3,864.6 tons; high calcium limestone, 79.0 tons; limestone screenings, 746.4 tons; mixed fertilizer, 18 tons; 18% superphosphate, 3,803.8 tons; 19% superphosphate, 772.25 tons,- 20% superphosphate, 181.9 tons; triple superphosphate, 288.3 tons; terracing, 486,393 feet; and vetch seed, 45,500 pounds.
The 1947 Program has been developed substantially along the same general lines as the 1946 program. The amount of $2,497,000 has been tentatively allotted to the State for the purpose of making 1946 practice payments to farmers in Florida.

RELATED PROGRAMS
Marketing Quotas were in effect for flue-cured tobacco. In 1946 the acreage allowed to 6,703 farms was 24,605.6 acres. There were 20,279.95 acres of flue-cured tobacco planted on 6,036 farms. The 1946 production of flue-cured tobacco on Florida farms was approximately 18,917,616 pounds. Marketing quotas were not in effect for any other crop.
Sugar.-Payments made in 1946 on the 1945 crop to Florida sugar producers amounted to $837,102.14. The 1945 acreage harvested for sugar was 31,362 acres and production was 1,041,108 tons of cane. The estimated total commercially recoverable sugar (96, raw) was 206,361,974 pounds. Due to the February 1947 freeze and other factors, the acreage that will be harvested from the 1946 crop cannot be estimated at this time with any degree, of accuracy.
Cotton Crop Insurance was in effect in Walton and Leon counties in 1946. In Walton there were 58, in Leon 82 contracts. A requirement of this program is that before insurance contracts can be effective in the county at least the smaller of 50 farms or one-third of the cotton farms in the county must apply for insurance. A number of applications were made in other counties but could not be accepted because the minimum number was not secured.
Irish Potato Goals.-Irish potato goals amounting to 23,926 acres were established on 673 potato farms. Farms planting within the established goals are eligible for the price support offered by the government in connection with the 1947 potato crop.
Under the Dairy Feed Payment Program dairy subsidy payments were made during the first 6 months of 1946 to 932 Florida dairymen. These payments amounted to $1,737,667.77 and were made on the sale of 204,882,900 pounds of whole milk and 19,734 pounds of butterfat. This program was discontinued June 30, 1946.
Farm building applications under the Veterans' Emergency Housing Orders were filed in the county offices, processed by county committees and transmitted to the State office for disposition. A total of 1,969 farm building applications of all types were processed from April 23, 1946, to the end of this program on December 23, 1946. Applications for building permits and priorities totaled 698 veteran's farm dwellings; 1,139 non-veteran's farm dwellings; 20 veterans' farm buildings other than dwellings; 112 nonveterans' farm buildings other than dwellings.,








18 Florida Cooperative Extension

Veterans' preference applications for farm machinery also were made in the county offices and processed by county committees under instructions from the State office. If approved, the county committee issued a preference certificate to the veteran for the item or items of farm machinery applied for and covered by the order. This certificate when presented to a dealer entitled the veteran to preference over non-veteran purchasers. During the year 1946 county committees issued preference certificates for 2,393 items of farm equipment. The program ended in December 1946.
Agricultural production goals calling again for a relatively high level of production were established for 1946. The State USDA Council, representatives of the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station, Extension Service, farm organizations and State agencies all cooperated in working out these goals. The 1946 goals for the major crops and livestock were: Peanuts picked and threshed 90,000 acres; sugar cane for sugar 39,000 acres; Irish potatoes 31,000 acres; sweet potatoes 18,000 acres; cotton 25,000 acres; all tobacco 24,800 acres; corn 700,000 acres; oats 130,000 acres; milk cows 120,000; hens and pullets 1,711,000; eggs 17.1 -million dozen; chickens raised 4,217,000; turkeys raised 126,000; sows to farrow in the spring 93,000; cattle and calves on farms 1,159,000 head; truck and vegetable crops; 253,700 acres.







Annual Report, 1946


EMERGENCY FARM LABOR

E. F. DeBusk, State Supervisor
H. S. McLendon, Assistant State Supervisor H. 0. Anderson, Assistant State Supervisor
P. L. Peaden, Assistant State Supervisor

The 1946 labor program in Florida was carried on in a general way along the same lines as for the past 3 years. In winter and early spring a large supply of labor is needed for harvesting vegetables, fruit and sugarcane for sugar in the southern part of the State. It was necessary to use considerable foreign labor for this purpose, as not enough local domestic migrants were available to do -all the work. When the central and northern part of the State was ready to harvest vegetables, the peak need for labor had passed in the southern area, making it possible to transfer some of this labor north. This applied to both foreign and domestic migrants. Part of the domestic migrants move from southern Florida direct to states north and east. The Farm Labor Office, assisted by Emergency Farm Labor personnel, helped to a larger extent in directing this migratory movement in 1946 than in any previous year.
In the western part of the State where labor is needed to harvest peanuts, corn, sugarcane and tung nuts, and where in the past prisoners of war have been used, it was possible to get enough local labor to harvest thesecrops this year. Some of the county agents were assisted to recruit and get this local labor on the job. Part of the needs were taken care of in this area by the exchange of work. This applied especially to the small grower, both negro and white.
In several cases equipment was loaned to growers to help house both foreign and domestic migratory labor. A representative of the State Office visited some of the growers and inspected their quarters where labor was to be housed.
One negro was added to the State staff in the spring. His duties were to work mostly with the domestic migratory labor. His appointment was cooperative with the Washington office. Another member of the State staff was also placed on a cooperative appointment, his duties being mostly with domestic migratory workers also. Both of these followed the domestic migrants up the coast from state to state, remaining out of Florida for several months in the summer. These changes have put Florida in closer touch with domestic migratory workers.
There were 31 farm labor supply centers operated in Florida during 1946, 2 by grower organizations and the other 29 by the Office of Labor. Total capacity of these supply centers was 18,859 and they had an average of 9,885 in them during the time they were operated. A number of laborers are housed in quarters on individual farms and this type of housing is increasing each year. Three of the supply centers were for white domestic laborers, 3 for colored domestic, 2 for both domestic and foreign colored, and 23 for foreign labor.
The State Advisory Committee of 1945 continued to serve the program, subject to call when conditions justified.
New workers were given proper supervision and assistance until they became familiar with their jobs.
Up to the present, farm labor associations in Florida have used mainly foreign labor or prisoners of war. The principal service they have rendered has been the assignment of this labor, keeping a record of their services, making out the payrolls and paying the labor.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Determining the needs for labor in a county, or area of a county, was Jone through the assistance of the county agent.
Recruitment and Placement.-Efforts are made to channel both interstate and domestic labor where it is most needed. Since there is a negro on the staff who devotes all his time to migratory workers, it is easier to stay in closer contact with them and this will build up confidence with leaders. It has been necessary to keep a number of placement men on the payroll to handle the placing of the foreign labor which was housed in labor centers operated by the Office of Labor.
During 1946 there were 43,278 farm workers, both domestic and foreign, placed in 28 counties. These placements were made by county agents, labor assistants and placement men. In these 28 counties 2,297 orders for workers were received. Labor was placed with 1,407 different farmers. Of this total number placed, 6,500 were placed for a period of 1 to 3 days, 8,546 for a period of 4 days to 1 month, 26,409 for a period of I to 5 months, and 1,823 for year-round work, or longer than 5 months. The number of different individuals placed is estimated at 39,664. Of this number 31,017 were men, 7,223 women and 1,424 youth 16 to 18 years of age. Included in the total number of placements were some 600 high school children who went to Connecticut to work with shade tobacco during their school vacaFig. 3.-Bahama labor continued to be relied upon principally for relieving a tight labor situation in the State.







Annual Report, 1946


tions; also some 125 adult tobacco workers who went to Canada after their crops were made and marketed here in Florida.
During 1946 no prisoner of war camps were operated exclusively for agriculture; however, some growers did use prisoners from a camp operated by the Army and Navy.
Florida supervisors cooperated with the Washington Farm Labor Office by assisting in the recruiting of migratory farm workers in the spring of 1946. Farm workers were needed for summer and fall harvest in States north. The recruitment was done to comply with the Florida recruitment law of 1943. Seven farm labor supervisors came to Florida in May and June and were personally introduced into counties having a surplus of labor available for out-of-state recruitment.
Farm workers and crew leaders were given an identification card which was recognized by local law enforcement officers.
In the migratory movement 431 groups or crews with 10,998 workers were assisted. This movement has increased in size since 1945 and represents the largest supply of harvest workers on the eastern seaboard. Job information was offered in labor surplus counties and an information station at the State line gave the time of the movement.
County agents' records of workers issued identification cards showed that about 10,000 workers from 13 counties migrated to 10 states.
Domestic workers were directed within the State. Workers were given job information on potato and bean harvest in the northern part of Florida. Domestic workers were supplied to 2 concerns requesting 125 foreign workers to harvest tung nuts. Five employers and 4 negro crew leaders were brought together and a work agreement developed.
Victory Farm Volunteers It has been very difficult to operate an active program for children, due to the fact that school terms conflict with harvesting seasons. There is considerable work done by teen-age children in Florida on their parents' farms.
Health and Medical Service.-During the fall of 1945, Florida sent a representative of the State Farm Labor Staff to Alabama to assist in recruiting some workers to help with the harvest of beans and sugarcane. The transportation of these workers was paid from Extension farm labor. funds. In cooperation with the Migratory Labor Health Association our office furnished medical service for these workers as long as they remained in Florida. A number of these did not return to Alabama until April or May of 1946.
An agreement between the Florida State Board of Health, the Office of Labor and the Agricultural Extension Service provided for joint inspection of sanitary housing requirements. The State Board of Health issued 101 permits for approved housing of 9,372 foreign and domestic workers.
Employers received aid in laying out housing and labor camp sites where these services were requested. County agents received notice of sale of surplus Army buildings. Assistance was given to employers to obtain priorities for purchase and to locate materials.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION

Joyce Bevis and L. T. Nieland

County reports show that 30 counties provided definite training in, safety and fire prevention for 3,740 club girls and 1,956 girls and 1,396 women were enrolled in home and farm safety. As a result, 5,219 families carried on better practices in home safety throughout the year. Home and farm safety was discussed at 230 meetings with 4-H club groups. There were 153 meetings of this type held with home demonstration club women. At these meetings a total of 209 method demonstrations were given before the groups.
A safety recor d book has been prepared to assist in the development of the home and farm safety program among 4-H club members. It is planned to have 20,000 copies of this record book printed for use in conducting 4-H farm safety programs.
All county and home agents were supplied with "Farm Safety Packets" by the National Safety Council. These packets contained news stories, posters, safety stickers, proclamations, radio spot announcements and statistics useful in helping county and home agents conduct farm safety campaigns in observance of National Safety Week.
A mimeographed outline was prepared for use of county agents in developing farm safety programs in their counties.







Annual Report, 1946


Part 11 =-Men's Work


WORK OF COUNTY AGENTS
A. P. Spencer, Director
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
K. S. McMullen, District Agent,

Probably more changes in county personnel occurred during 1946 than in any other period in the history of Extension work in the State. With the war over, 4 county agents and I assistant county agent returned from the service to be placed back in the counties. Two new county agents who had been in service and I other new county agent were employed. Fourteen new assistant county agents, 13 of whom had been members of the armed services, were employed. One county agent resigned to take a position on the State -staff and 2 other county agents resigned to enter private employment. Five assistant county agents resigned to enter other work. Four county agents were transferred to other counties.
With the large number of new agents and assistants employed and the necessity for bringing up to date in subject matter those agents returning from service, much emphasis has been placed on training during the past year. Supervisory agents through personal visits provided as much training on the job as possible. Many of the new agents attended the 3 weeks training course in agricultural Extension methods offered at the University of Florida during the period June 17 to July 3. This course proved to be of much value in indoctrinating these men in Extension work.
Although there was a large number of applicants to select from during the past year, it has not always been easy to fill positions vacated. . All agents appointed must have a degree from an agricultural college. They must have a good personality and be able to work with people. They must have a genuine interest in farm problems and be able to plan constructively and carry out definite programs in the counties.
Local boards of county commissioners cooperate in making available funds for employment of county agents' and assistants. Supervisory agents maintain a very close and, cordial working relationship with these boards.
During the year many activities which had been suspended during the war were revived. The South Florida Fair at Tampa was held for the first time since 1942 and a number of agents placed county exhibits there. A number of other fairs over the State were resumed. Such activities as 4-H club camps, institutes and short courses received renewed emphasis from Extension workers.
Supervisory agents have stressed the necessity for careful planning and execution of all programs in the counties and have aided the county Extension workers in every way possible in carrying out these programs. Such programs usually require the assistance of 1 or more specialists, and efforts are made to coordinate the activities of specialists in the Extension Service as well as those outside the service who are in position to contribute to these programs.
Supervisory agents make every effort to keep abreast with office and clerical needs in the counties. Efforts are made to assist county agents with the organization of their offices and the training of clerical personnel.
'Appointed February 1, 1946.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

John M. Johnson, Agricultural Engineer

Housing-The Extension housing program had for its purpose raising the standard of living, health and income through better farm houses.
Plans and recommendations for a housing program were made by 5 committees composed of county and home demonstration agents and staff members. Copies of the recommendations were mailed to each county and home agent for guidance in setting up an Extension housing program. Considerable activity in this field exists in all counties and agents are being confronted with inquiries concerning all phases of housing.
State Housing Committee.-The Extension Engineer, Assistant to the Director and State Home Demonstration Agent were appointed by the Director to represent the Extension Service on the State Housing Committee. This committee introduced the program on an experimental basis in 3 demonstration counties. Organization meetings were held by the county groups and sub-committees were appointed to work on specific problems. A survey was conducted in each county to determine the needs for specific projects to be undertaken by the group. As far as the surveys have been completed, the committees have selected remodeling, grounds beautification, rural electrification, sanitation and water supply as projects.
The Extension Engineer and other committee members visited 2 families selected by the county committees for a demonstration in remodeling and building in 2 of the demonstration counties. Plans, working drawings and specifications have been furnished and work has been started on the 2 projects.
Farm Building Plan Service.-The building service was started by securing from the USDA plan exchange service Van Dyke printings for all plans shown in Miscellaneous Publication 360 and Farmers Bulletin 1738. In addition to the 198 Van Dykes from the bulletins, the following plans and information have been prepared by the Extension Engineer:
Three dwelling house plans.
One vat creosote plant plan.
One concrete water tank plan.
One potato-curing barn plan.
One canning kitchen plan.
One brooder plan.
One septic tank plan (mimeographed).
One model kitchen assembled (for use in talks and schools).
Six mimeographed series on house planning (general distribution).
Five charts for "better planning" lectures.
Two kitchen planning charts.
Two furniture arrangement charts.
Three statistical charts on housing conditions (for use in talks
and schools).
Three farmstead plans, landscaped (for use in talks and schools).
Information on the following subjects is being assembled to be published in bulletin form for state-wide distribution:
Plans for Florida farm buildings.
Farmstead planning and beautification.
Bibliography of Housing (information for county workers).
Housing Activities by Agents.-County and home agents assisted farm families and 4-H club members in housing, sanitation and farmstead planning in 561 communities and were aided by 401 voluntary local leaders. Agents assisted in planning farm buildings, remodeling and repairing in







Annual Report, 1946


337 communities, with 182 voluntary local leaders assisting in this activity. Six radio talks and several news items were contributed by individual committee members.

STATISTICAL SUMMARY ON HOUSING AND FARM BUILDING ACTIVITIES

(County and Home Agents-White)

Families
Assisted Counties
DWELLINGS
C onstruction . ------------- --- --------- ---------- 1,005 50
R em odeling --------------------- ------ . 1,322 48
Storage space ----------- ----- ----------------------------- --------- 1,217 40
Kitchen im provem ent ---- --------------------------------------- 1,268 37
Room arrangem ent --------- -- --------------------- ----- 1,847 36
H eating system s ------------------ -- ------ ----------------------- 207 32
Laundry and utility rooms --------- ---------------------- 604 33
SANITATION
Sewage system s -------------- - -- ------------- 491 40
W ater system s ------- ---------------- -------------------- . . 723 46
Sanitary privies . . - _ - - ----------------- -_ __ 501 27
Screening --- ------------- ------------ . ---------- ------ - .2,247 38
FARMSTEAD PLANNING
Farm and hom e plans ------------- --- - ------------------------ 364 21
Home grounds improvements ------------------------------ 3,862 47
W indbreak planting ----------------------------------------- 181 19
FARM BUILDINGS
C onstruction ------------- - ---------------- - ------------- ------ 973 50
Remodeling and repairing 1,338 46
Construction of farm building equipment - ---- . 382 27

Farm Machinery.-All machinery requires proper maintenance and efforts have been concentrated on this phase of the program.
Two classes in internal combustion engines were conducted daily for boys at 2 summer camps. A cut-away 4-stroke cycle engine, charts, drawFig. 4.-A tractor maintenance short course trained 23 voluntary leaders from 12 counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ings and an automobile engine were employed as teaching aids. Two farm machinery classes were held each day during the 4-H Short Course at the University.
Tractor Maintenance Short Course.-A 3-day short course on tractor maintenance was conducted in cooperation with the State 4-H Club Agent for voluntary 4-H leaders. Twenty-three leaders from 12 counties attended the course on the University campus.
Terracing Equipment Demonstration Two demonstrations of terracing equipment were held in cooperation with the Extension Soil Conservationist and the county agents, and over 300 interested farmers attended.
Development of New Machinery.-The continuing farm labor shortage has forced the farmer to design and build machines and labor-saving devices. All possible assistance was given in designing and building these machines.
County agents report 1,469 farmers assisted in selection of mechanical equipment; 1,500 farmers assisted in making more efficient use of mechanical equipment; 1,560 farmers following instructions in the maintenance and repair of mechanical equipment; and 6 farm machinery demonstrations.
4-H Club Girls' Training Classes Training classes on house planning and remodeling were conducted for 4-H club girls, home agents and local leaders at the Annual Girls' 4-H Club Short Course. Classes were also conducted at a 4-H giris' summer camp.
Rural Electrification.-County and home agents worked on this project in 255 communities, assisted by voluntary leaders. Assistance was given in 23 counties in organizing associations for the purpose of obtaining electricity. Farm families assisted in obtaining electricity this year total 2,848 in 47 counties. Seventeen hundred and thirty-eight families in 32 counties were assisted in selection of electrical equipment, in lighting and in using electricity for income-producing purposes.
Seed Drying-In the absence of research information on the storage of lupine seed, all available information possible was gathered from farmers who had gotten favorable germination from seed saved. Conclusions and recommendations drawn from the study were made in a circular letter furnished each agent in the counties in which lupine is grown.
Drainage.-County agents, soil conservation technicians and county foresters have cooperated in the immediate action taken to regain ample moisture for successfully growing trees and pasture grasses. Assistance was given 1,126 farmers in 41 counties in working out drainage problems this year by agents and the Specialist.
Citrus groves and truck farms in certain areas of the State need supplemental irrigation I or 2 times during the year. Several grove irrigation systems have been designed and a project in cooperation with a grove owner is under way to demonstrate the possibility of the addition of liquid fertilizer with irrigation water.
Eight hundred and ninety-three farmers in 33 counties were assisted by agents and the Specialist on irrigation problems during the year.
Oil as Fuel in Syrup Cooking-Labor and wood for fuel have been critically short for the farmer who produces sugarcane and sweet sorghum syrup on a commercial basis. This situation was greatly improved by the introduction of a mechanical pot-type oil burner for use in making syrup in the widely used shallow, baffle-type, continuous evaporators. The Extension Engineer made 12 farm visits in rendering aid in the installation and adjustment of the burners. Seven county agents were instructed in the use of the burners.







Annual Report, 1946


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Dr. C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist


CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT

Zach Savage, Agricultural Economist

There were 243 citrus records obtained for the 1944-45 season from 13 counties. These records are the basis for the information presented in this report.
Florida citrus growers received the highest prices for their fruit during the 1944-45 season that they received during the entire period of this grove management project which was begun in 1931. The price received for the average box of citrus, including grapefruit, was $2.02. This was 31 cents higher than the price received the previous season.
Fruit harvested per acre in 1944-45 was 26 percent less than the previous season but ranked third in the past 14 seasons. This drop in fruit harvested was largely due to the storm of October 1944. The fruit harvested in the entire State was 25 percent less than the estimated production prior to the storm.
Operating costs per acre have increased each season for the past 7 years. Operating costs per box increased from 31 cents in 1943-44 to 52 cents in 1944-45, or 68 percent. Per-acre costs increased 25 percent between these seasons and the remainder of the increase, 43 percent, was due to the increase in the number of boxes of fruit harvested per acre.
Per-acre returns above operating costs decreased 20 percent from the previous season, whereas the per-box net returns increased 7 percent due to the increased sale price of fruit.
Preliminary returns from fruit for the 1945-46 season indicate the following: A slight decrease from 1944-45 in the price received for fruit, considerable increase in fruit harvested per acre, very little change in net returns above operating costs per box, but the largest net returns above operating costs per acre of any season during the past 15 seasons.
Citrus grove prices continued to increase during the year. An effort was made to disseminate information by magazine articles and radio showing the productive history of all groves on which the Extension Service has records and the resulting values this production would justify. ,
Trees of the same age produced more during the past 6 seasons than during the previous 7 seasons. The cumulative effects of applying socalled fertilizer amendments, applying increased quantities of fertilizer, favorable weather conditions, an increasing proportion of grove acreage being irrigated, and other factors resulted in increasing the productiveness oforange and tangerine trees of the same ages to such an extent that orange production in the State was increased at least 30 percent and grapefruit at least 12 percent during the past 2 seasons.
The Extension Citriculturist has had access to and used fertilizer, spray and other information from the growers' records in our files. To obtain more complete information from growers who keep records on our books, the Citrus Grove Record Book was revised to include additional information, particularly on fertilizers and sprays. Likewise, blanks used in connection with personal visits to growers who do not keep records were revised to include this same additional information.
Summary figures for each of the 243 records kept in the 1944-45 season were returned to the cooperators. Each cooperator was sent costs and returns for the 2 age groupings for 1944-45 and costs for 1945-46, a







'Florida Cooperative Extension


copy of costs and returns of the older grouping for the county in which the grove was located, and a summary of costs and returns for the older grouping by seasons for the 14-year period, 1931-45, together with costs for 1945-46.
County agents in each of 4 counties received a bound copy containing a report of each individual grove within their counties.


FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management

Assistance to Veterans.-The Farm Management Specialist is a member of the State Veterans' Advisory Committee and has contributed to the program in the following ways:
Visited 12 counties and assisted county advisory committees in setting up minimum standards for various types of farms, below which a veteran could not operate and be recommended for on-the-job training.
Florida's farm record book, Miscellaneous Publication 31, was selected for general use among the veteran trainees. Those choosing to keep any other creditable set of records were permitted to do so. A manual for teaching Publication 31 was prepared and use of the manual was demonstrated at a school for trainers.
Four district meetings of Extension agents and county advisers have been held to present and discuss benefits for veterans employed in agriculture, and a round table discussion of the subject was conducted at the Extension Anriual Conference.
During the period May 1945 through June 1946 the Farm Management Specialist was visiting instructor in farm management at the Welch Comvalescent Hospital at Daytona Beach, making 25 trips. He met 90 classes, with an attendance of about 3,500 enlisted men and 700 officers.
Throughout the year veterans have made many requests for information on how to get started in farming, the possibilities for homesteading and other farm management problems. To supply this demand, articles weresupplied to the press and mimeographed material w s prepared.
Farm and Home Planning.-Farm and home planning with individuals was carried through its sixth year. This project is primarily an experiment in Extension methods with low-income farm families.
Methods used include first, a 1-day refresher school for the cooperating county agents. Then the Farm Management Specialist spends 2 days with each agent, visiting about 12 farmers, analyzing their businesses and making recommendations for improvements that will secure higher income or will improve the standard of living. Following the Specialist's visit, each agent continues the process with a limited number of farmers.
A total of 202 farm families were served in this way and 1,320 recommendations were made, of which 72 percent were carried out in a creditable manner. Conservative estimates of the value of the additional production on the farms as a result of following these recommendations range from $50 to $650, with an average of $190 per farm. This is an average increase of about 10 percent over 1945 income and about 300 percent over 1939 income for these farms.
Nine groups are now organized so that follow-up contacts can be made with the cooperators at meetings. However, the initial contact each year is made at the farm. Timely circular letters and printed publications are mailed to all cooperators.
Record Books.-In addition to the 1,500 farm record books supplied to veteran trainees and the demonstration on how to teach records presented









Annual Report, 1946 29

to the trainers, about 1,600 farm record books have been supplied to farmers through county agents. Assistance has been given in meetings and personally in entering inventories and otherwise keeping books. Many farmers now keep better record books than formerly because they find that well-kept books save them money in making income tax returns.
Four Extension record books were revised during the year.
4-H Club Work-Classes in farm management were conducted for a total of 210 4-H club boys and girls at 2 summer camps.
A class in better methods was conducted for older boys at the summer Short Course. Four teams were trained to demonstrate greater labor efficiency, assistance was rendered at 5 achievement day programs, and IL5 club meetings were attended.
Extension Methods Teaching.-In August the Farm Management Specialist was appointed Professor of Extension Methods in addition to his present title. Beginning in February 1947 he will teach all Extension methods courses offered in the regular sessions at the University and will teach and supervise such courses in the summer sessions.









Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING, POULTRY
A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman

Throughout the year 1946 the Extension Service has endeavored to steer the livestock industry on a sound, economical basis to meet postwar conditions.
, Information on the livestock situation and meat animal goals was furnished to all county agents and to 2,700 livestock men. However, unsettled market conditions and a questionable outlook somewhat interfered with meeting these goals.
A joint livestock field day and junior livestock judging contest was staged in Escambia County in February. Four-H members and Future Farmers from 2 Florida and 2 Alabama counties were represented by 14 judging teams of 6 members each.

BEEF CATTLE
According to a BAE report, there is an annual 5.8 percent death loss in calves in Florida with a 3 percent death loss in cattle, amounting to 57,000 deaths each year. With average prices, this loss amounts to almost a million and a quarter dollars each year.
The monthly letter, "Of Things That Concern Florida Cattlemen," which was sent to all county agents and 2,550 'cattlemen, attempted to prevent this loss. Circular letters, radio talks, visits and news articles have been ,used to keep before the producers the necessity of producing feed and preventing the. loss. The monthly letter handled all phases of the cattle business including breeding, selection, feeding and disease and parasite control.
County agents report many cattlemen culling their herds and reducing cattle numbers to fit the feed and pasture supply. Their reports further show that there are now 770,062 cattle now on fenced pasture.
As a result of Extension work with beef cattle, it is now a common practice for cattlemen to select their bulls more carefully and have them in better condition during the breeding season. County agents report 1,052 farmers assisted in improving methods of feeding.
Auction market managers, breeders and dealers have cooperated in bringing in carloads of purebred bulls which were sold at public auction. The Extension Service has encouraged cattlemen to produce and grow out home-raised bulls. County agents' reports show that 5,957 bulls were raised in the State and that 3,047 bulls were sold for breeding purposes. County agents assisted 559 cattlemen to obtain purebred bulls and 384 cattlemen to obtain high grade cows.
In practically every county in the State there is at least I herd of purebred cattle. Brahmas, Herefords, Angus, Devons and Shorthorns lead in the order named. County agents report a total of 215 of these purebred herds in the State.
Many cattlemen have improved the quality of their breeding herds and have increased the percentage of the annual "calf crop," following recommendations of the Extension Service. County agents report that 719 cattlemen are practicing controlled breeding, that 1,028 cattlemen are selecting heifers for herd replacement and that the percentage calf crop in the best herds is 81% compared with 573/ in the average herd.







Ammal Report, 1946


County agents report also that the average age of market calves is 5 to
9 months and the average weight is 225 to 400 pounds.
To reduce the death loss of cows and calves in the spring, the Extension Service points out the recommendations of Experiment Stations on wintering beef animals on sugarcane with cottonseed meal, protein feeds, hay, pasture and oats.
The scarcity of protein feeds has interfered with winter feeding, consequently, cattlemen have turned to sugarcane, oats, rye and rye grass.
Approximately 150,000 acres of oats were sown last fall. Much of this was for grazing and wintering animals.
County agents have made recommendations regarding land preparation for pasture, planting seed, fertilizing pasture, and maintaining pastures already established.
DDT has been used very extensively in the State for the control of parasites. Information on the use of this material was supplied through the monthly news letter. Reports show that 2,802 farmers have been assisted in treating more than 20,000 cattle for grubs and approximately 200,000 cattle for lice. This does not represent all of the cattle that have been treated for parasites, grubs and lice, nor the number that have been treated for internal parasites. Also, 1,482 farmers have been assisted in their efforts to control worms and flukes in cattle.

Fig. 5.-Betty Simmons and her grand champion Hereford steer-as good
beef as to be found anywhere in the country.








Florida Cooperative Extension


In December 1945, cattle fever ticks were re-discovered in Okeechobee County. The Director of Extension called a meeting of county agents in southern Florida with members of the State Livestock Sanitary Board and the State Veterinarian at Sebring in January 1946. After receiving instructions and getting an understanding of the necessary steps for tick eradication, the Extension Service put on an educational campaign to help eradicate and prevent the spread of ticks.
Marketing information was sent to nearly 3,000 cattlemen. Government reports show the following number of cattle and calves marketed in Florida during the 11 months, November 1945 to October 1, 1946, as compared with 1945: 1946 1945 Increase of
Cattle . 110,533 106,104 3,329 Calves . . 64,266 55,237 9,029
Three fat stock shows and sales were held in Florida this year. At Ocala 281 fat animals were shown, including 28 4-H club calves and 30 FFA calves. At Quincy there were 258 fat cattle, including 13 4-H and 44 FFA calves. In Pensacola the show and sale included 36 4-H calves.
Betty Simmons, 12-year old 4-11 girl of Alachua County, topped the show and sale at Ocala (and the State) with her 873-pound yearling Hereford steer by winning grand champion of the show and 4-11 grand champion and selling her calf for $1.15 per pound. The champion steer at Quincy brought $1.15. The Pensacola 4-H champion brought 46 cents per pound.
One range cattle show was held this year at Wssimmee, where 155 representative cattle from the surrounding counties made a very creditable exhibit.
There have been 2 purebred shows and sales, I by the Florida Brahma Association and 1 by the Florida Angus Association.

HOG WORK
The Nation's and the State's 1946 goals in swine production were brought to the attention of the county agents in their annual meeting and discussed with reference to their plans of work. This matter was also brought to the attention of the negro agents at Tallahassee in the discussion of their plans of work.
Hog marketing were affected by quotas. However, records show hog sales in May, June, July and August 1946 were 34,624 head, compared with 18,101 during the same period in 1945. Yet, for the 11 months, November 1, 1945, to October 1, 1946, there was a decrease in hog sales of 13,253 head, compared with the year before. County agents reported having aided 1,271 farmers to improve their feeding methods.
The Extension Service motto for swine raisers is "Raise Healthy Pigs on Grazing and Fattening Crops in Fields Free of Parasites." County agents report having aided 2,760 farmers in controlling, external parasites of hogs and 4,497'farmers to control internal parasites.
The Florida Duroc Swine Association held its second annual sale in Ocala on October 17. Forty-five purebred hogs-the top, a gilt bringing $155.00-were sold. During the year county agents assisted 440 farmers to obtain purebred boars and 386 farmers to secure purebred or high grade sows and gilts.
The managers of cold-storage meat-curing plants have been given information on methods of handling meats and helped to solve troubles In curing operations.
Information has been furnished on handling meats through cold-storage locker plants. In addition, information was furnished on construction, location and management of these plants.








Annual Report, 1946


A picture on operating and handling meat through freezer locker plants was shown to 26 county agents.
At the county and home demonstration agents' annual conference, methods of packaging meat and poultry for freezer locker plants were demonstrated.
There has been a growing interest in locker plants throughout the State.
4-H CLUB WORK
Four-H club members have been instructed in feeding and finishing out calves for market and for show, and how to handle steers in the show-ring.
At the short course in Gainesville, 161 4-H boys were given demonstrations on how to select breeding animals and how to judge beef cattle.
At Camp McQuarrie, 108 boys were taught how to select beef cattle. and hogs for meat production and how to handle animals in the show-ring.
There were 3 county 4-H calf shows.
Two 4-H boys staged an educational demonstration on raising healthy pigs free of parasites on grazing and fattening crops. They used a chart listing the crops, time of planting, when to graze, and when and where for pigs to be farrowed. They had samples of the crops and feeds, showing the feed saved on healthy pigs.
Nine county 4-H judging teams competed at the Ocala show.


DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman 2

Dairy Extension work for 1946, the first postwar year, underwent some changes. The critical shortages of good dairy feed, price advances, uncertainties about OPA, dairy subsidies, labor problems and shortages of essential materials were obstacles that caused a reduction in milk production.
Feed and labor shortages and mastitis resulted in the sale of a large number of dairies. Fortunately, most of these dairy properties were taken over by other dairymen who, in many cases, expanded their operations. The result was very few dairy farms left vacant. Florida dairymen probably received I I/i million dollars for their products in the first part of 1946.
Florida dairies have not recovered from wartime conditions sufficiently for dairymen to give individual care to cows.
County agents in 42 counties participated in a program to improve pastures with 25 percent of the market milk dairy farms on 8,000 acres. County agents made use of the Soil Conservation Service in handling, terracing and draining 3,500 acres of pasture lands. Seven county agents, in cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service and powder companies, removed stumps from 2,800 acres of grasslands in the 1946 pasture improvement program.
On 525 farms 13,417 acres of forage crops for dairy cows were fertilized in 1946.
During the very unfavorable weather conditions that prevailed in 1946, cattail millet was the 1 annual crop that gave milk cows continuous grazing for some 120 days.
Oats-Oats are the number I winter grazing crop bver a wide area of Florida. More dairy farms seeded oats in 1945 than in any other year. Junior dairy club boys made wide use of fall-seeded oats for grazing and as a hay crop for the family cow.

2Retired October 31, 1946.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Rye.-Rye is more suitable as a winter grazing crop on rolling sandy soils. Rye is also more capable of withstanding unfavorable grazing conditions than oats.
Rye Grass.-English and Italian rye grasses have been seeded extensively on 22,000 acres of the more fertile muck lands in southern Florida.
Feed Production and Conservation.-County agents in 5 counties are working with small dairy farmers in the construction of trench silos. Dairymen planted 7,450 acres to sorghum to use as silage crops in Florida in 1946. There was a great reduction in the amount of silage crops of all kinds because of labor conditions.
Sugarcane as a forage crop has been given recognition in the dairy program for some 15 years. This year 105 farmers throughout Florida have been using forage cane as a supplementary roughage feed.
Hybrid varieties of corn developed at the Main Experiment Station at Gainesville and used at the Belle Glade and Quincy stations have proved to be a very valuable silage crop when grown on fertile, moist land.
The dairy subsidy program caused the 900 market milk dairy farmers of the State to give attention to feeding the better cows in proportion to their production. During the period of food rationing, most market milk dairy farmers have greatly increased the number of cows on their farms.
On large dairy farms it is not practical to feed each cow according to her production. However, on Penney Farms in Clay County 240 dairy cows are fed according to the DHIA program. We estimate that 120 dairy farms in Florida are feeding according to production.
Sanitation and Nlanajgernent.-Bang's and mastitis in herds handled by untrained milkers using milking machines have resulted in an increase in herd replacements using grade cows. Herd replacements imported from other states have probably exceeded 20,000 in 1946. Importations before the war ran from 5,000 to 10,000 cows per year.
The records show that something over 10 million gallons of milk were imported from other states to Florida during 1945. There is probably as much as 7 million gallons coming to Florida in 1946. Some 95 percent of this milk is number 3 milk, less than 5 percent of it is grade A milk.
Progress is being made in 10 counties in the building of the small dairy units with the dairy house, dairy barn and feed room under the same roof.
The family cow program, promoted principally through 4-H club members, has been a great aid in building a farm dairy program in a number of counties.
With the ending of World War II, 4-H club work was back to normal again. The annual short course in late May had a special dairy class of 18 boys.
The Florida Jersey Cattle Club and the Guernsey Cattle Club have continued under the successful leadership of county agents as secretaries. F. E. Baetzman, agent in Orange County, is Secretary of the Jersey Cattle Club, and John H. Logan, agent in Pinellas, is Secretary of the Guernsey Cattle Club.

POULTRY ACTIVITIES
,N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
F. S: Perry, Assistant Extension Poultryman
Poultry production goals for Florida in 1946 included: (1) 5 percent increase in egg production; (2) 7 percent decrease in chickens raised; and
(3) turkey production the same as 1945.
The 1946 Extension program was developed not only to attain these goals but also to improve the efficiency of poultry management.








Annual Report, 1946


The number of chickens raised during the year as reflected by a comparison of relative numbers of hens and pullets on hand during October 1945 and October 1946, eggs per 100 layers, total egg production, and chicks hatched for the same period are shown below: October October
1945 1946
Number layers on hand . 1,508,000 1,406,000 Eggs per 100 layers . 763 747 Eggs produced in October . 12,000,000 :L1,000,000
Eggs produced JanuaryOctober inclusive --- . 175,000,000 165,000,000
Chicks hatched in October . 660,000 660,000
Chicks hatched JanuaryOctober inclusive . 9,826,000 7,325,000

Eggs of higher quality and more uniformity were marketed by the producers of the State as a result of the egg quality program. The Extension Service has sponsored this program for several years and is assisted materially in its development by the State Inspection and Marketing Bureaus.
The National Poultry Improvement Plan, under the supervision of the State Livestock Sanitary Board, has continued to expand. Extension Service workers have cooperated with this agency in fostering the program, which this year includes more poultry flocks and hatching egg capacity than in 1945.
Estimates obtained from airline officials, foreign departments of agriculture and dealers in baby chicks show that over 21/2 million chicks were exported from Florida during 1946. Puerto Rico alone imports approximately 44,000 baby chicks weekly, the largest portion of which come from Florida flocks and hatcheries.
The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association and the Florida Breeders' and Hatchery Association have assisted Extension poultry workers in developing the State poultry program. Also, 272 local leaders assisted in developing the poultry program.
Quality Chicks.-Importance of starting with quality chicks was emphasized to all producers, handlers and users of baby chicks. The program includes 6 basic points: hatch early, clean chicks and eggs, clean brooder houses, clean land, balanced rations, and separation of pullets and cockereIs.
Extension recommendations were followed by 1,141 families in obtaining better strains of baby chicks, and 1,565 families in improving methods of feeding. These recommendations were carried into 571 communities throughout the State.
Egg-Laying Test-The Florida National Egg-Laying Test completed its 20th year on September 22, 1946. It included 1,248 pullets, or 96 pens of 13 pullets each. Entries consisted of 45 pens of Single Comb White Leghorns, 26 New Hampshires, :13 Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, 7 White Plymouth Rocks and 5 Barred Plymouth Rocks.
Average egg production per bird for the entire test was 224.1 eggs for a value of 230.8 points. This egg production was determined by using the original number of birds and is 8.9 eggs and 13 points higher than the record secured in the 19th Test. It is the best production ever obtained at the Egg-Laying Test.
The high pen for the year (51 weeks) was a pen of S. C. Rhode Island Reds owned by the To-Lani Farms, Stone Mountain, Georgia. These 13 Red pullets laid 3,693 eggs for a total value of 3,865.40 points.








Florida Cooperative Extension


The high individual bird also was a Single Comb Rhode Island Red owned by Wilson's Red Farm, Greenville, South Carolina. This pullet produced 336 eggs for a value of 369.05 points.
The high Florida bird was a New Hampshire owned by the Camphor Tree Farm, DeLand. This pullet laid 331 eggs for a value of 343.55 points.
Mortality averaged 11.1 percent for the year, 4 percent less than during the previous test.
In addition to the Egg-Laying Test, broiler experiments under way at Chipley include studies of floor space requirements.
Culling-With feed scarce and prices high it is necessary for poultry producers to obtain high egg production from their flocks to make a profit. Culling demonstrations were given by Extension workers during the year to 4-H club members, home demonstration clubs and county and home demonstration agents' classes in an effort to diffuse culling information throughout the State.
4-H Work.-Poultry club members were encouraged and assisted in their program of supplying eggs and poultry meat for home consumption and some of their products for market. During the year 1,796 boys and 1,949 girls were enrolled in poultry club projects. Of this number, 915 boys and 1,031 girls completed their projects with a total of 121,341 birds, approximately 7,000 birds less than were carried in 1945.


Fig. 6-These 4-H boys were interested in studying poultry at the University of Florida poultry laboratory during Short Course.








Annual Report, 1946


Poultry classes were held regularly at the 4-H boys' and girls' camps and also at the boys' and girls' short courses at Gainesville and Tallahassee. In addition, classes were held periodically at the University Poultry Laboratory for both girls and boys. Management, feeding, housing, sanitation, culling, killing, dressing, marketing and judging were some of the most important demonstrations given.
The special 4-H girls' poultry demonstration project sponsored by SearsRoebuck Foundation in 1945 was continued and I additional county participated, bringing the total to 15. The girls were very successful in this project, raising a high percentage of the chicks started.
The Statewide 4-11 Club Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest was held again this year in connection with the Central Florida Exposition, Orlando, February 25 - March 2, 1946. Seventy-nine club members from 12 counties participated in the show and 45 members participated in the judging contest. Three hundred and sixty chickens, 131 dozen eggs and various scale models of poultry houses and equipment were shown.
Miscellaneous-Four thousand five hundred and four families were assisted in controlling poultry parasites and diseases. Demonstrations on chickenpox. vaccination were given in 16 counties. Housing and equipment demonstrations were given in 9 counties.
The Fifth Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie August 26-30, 1946, after a lapse during the war period from 1941 to 1946.
All State agencies, Florda State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Poultry Council, Hatchery and Breeders' Association and commercial organizations cooperated in making this institute a success. Over 250 registered during the week, with about 100 spending the entire week.
Egg candling and grading demonstrations were given by Extension workers. Seventeen egg shows were held at county and State fairs.
According to estimates by Inspection Bureau officials, approximately 4,000,000 dozen eggs will be marketed in cartons in 1946; contrasted with about 3,000,000 dozen in 1945. In addition to this, 13,000 cases of eggs of U. S. Grade AA classification will be marketed in cartons.
Poultry dressing demonstrations were given at 5 home demonstration council meetings and at 4-H camps and short courses.
Better marketing methods were stressed by radio talks, news articles and classes held at the University Poultry Laboratory.
Assistance in marketing poultry and eggs was given in 356 communities to 1,882 farmers or families. The value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives total $79,800, and by non-members $226,783.
In the 1946 official list of hatcheries and poultry breeding flocks, 74 hatcheries with a total capacity of 2,700,000 eggs are listed. This is about 70 percent of the total number of hatcheries and egg capacity in the State. There are 215 flock owners cooperating in the plan, with a total of 166,831 breeding birds.
Three hundred and thirty-one farmers were assisted in obtaining purebred males and 315 farmers secured purebred females.
Radio talks, letters, bulletins and demonstrations have been used to further a practical turkey management program which gave particular emphasis to the separation of chickens and turkeys and portable coops used on clean land. Orange, Broward, Alachua, Leon and Suwannee counties have been active in turkey work during the year.
Turkey production increased from 140 thousand in 1945 to 156 thousand in 1946. This is also an increase over the 1937-41 average of 113 thousand turkeys produced per year.








Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
W. W. Bassett, Asst. State Boys' Club Agent' W. W. Brown, Asst. State Boys' Club Agent'

The year showed a marked improvement in county Extension 4-H club organizations. On January 1, 1946, there were 3 counties employing regular assistant county agents. During the year 14 additional counties employed assistant agents so that more and better club work could be accomplished. Three of these counties report enrollments of over 500 4-H club boys each.
The changing of county agents always disrupts club work and there have been 14 county agent changes during the year.
Eight counties used 4-H club broadcasts to create a better understanding of club work. The Extension Radio Specialist prepared script and furnished material for club programs. The State Club Staff prepared and made 12 broadcasts on club work.
Four-H club activities fit into the programs of civic clubs. Agents were assisted in preparing club programs for presentation to these clubs. The State staff made talks on club work before 15 such groups. In almost every county at least I 4-H program was given before a civic club.
A newsletter has been sent out each month by the Boys' Club Department.
On January 1, 1946, W. W. Bassett, Jr. returned as Assistant Boys' Club Agent after 5 years in the armed services. In the 6 months he worked before resigning to enter business, he helped set up local club organizations and wrote a 4-H leaders' manual, which is now being printed.
On November 1, 1946, W. W. Brown, a former 4-H boy and county agent, became Assistant Boys' Club Agent.
Outstanding Accomplishments-The greatest accomplishment of the year was in codifying the results of 30 years of 4-11 club work in the form of a State 4-H program of work with boys. The district organization has proven the most forward step taken in boys' work in Florida. The State is divided into 10 4-H districts of 5 to 7 counties each. The county agents in each district elect 1 of their number as chairman. The 10 district chairmen met in Gainesville in January for 2 days. They did a conscientious and complete job in preparing a boys' 4-H club, state program.
Decided progress was made in 1946 in determining adjustments and relationships of present programs to long-time objectives. The Florida boys' State 4-11 club program established a definite written policy for boys' club work in the State.
Ten district 4-H conferences were held in January and February, 1946. The ' conferences were called by the district 4-H chairmen. At these meetings the goals for the year were established by the county agents.
During the annual Extension Conference in Gainesville in October 1946 the 10 district chairmen met and decided upon goals on a State basis. Activity and project goals with results are given in the table below: Activity Goals Goal Result

Leader training meetings . 10 64 Dem onstration team s . 35 11 Judging contests -----------_---_------- --------------------------------- 5 6
Short Course -------------------------------------------------------------------- I I
sResigned July 1, 1946.
4Appointed November 1. 1946








Annual Report, 1946


Boys at cam p ----------------------------- ----------------------------------A chievem ent days - _ _ - ----------- -------------------- - ------4-H tours ----------------------- ----------------------------------- ---------Educational trips ----------------------------- --------------- -- ----R ecreational m eetings -------------------------------------------------Older youth organization . ---------------- -----------------


1,500
25 150 50 500
3


1,414
27 78 31 375
0


Project Goals


Goal
-.1,500
__ 200
--2,000
200 25
-1,500 . 225 .1,000
.-1,200
_-1,000
--3,000
__ 100
--- 75
- 25


Results 1,077 acres 542 acres 511 acres 128 acres 38 acres
2,002 enrolled 164 acres 915 completions 1,006 animals 859 animals 2,534 animals 100 acres 14 enrolled 34 enrolled


Corn ---------------------------- - -----Peanuts -------------------- -- -- ---Soil conservation ---------------Potatoes ------------------------------Cotton -------------------------- _ .Hom e gardens - - ----------- ----M arket gardens ----------------Poultry ----------- _ ------- - --
Dairy cattle -- --------Beef cattle --------------------------Swine -----------------------------------Forestry . -------------------------Agricultural engineering. Farm management ------------


acres acres acres acres acres enrolled acres completions animals animals animals acres enrolled enrolled


In the 1,330 4 days spent in the field the 17 assistant county agents made 2,382 visits to club projects. Visiting the boy at his project helps secure better project work.
There was a 35c/ increase in enrollment this year. Enrollment and reports are compared by years as follows:


Enrollment
5,360 5,808
--- 7,897


Reports 3,346 3,164 4,194


62 %
54(,/ 53(,


1944. 19451946-


The Florida Bankers' Association contributes five 4-H $100.00 scholarships to the College of Agriculture each year. The scholarships are Fig. 7.-Flag raising ceremony at the tent city where the 4-H boys at 1946 Short Course camped.












A,







40 Florida Cooperative Extemion

awarded at the annual short course based on an examination given by the Boys' Club Agent.
A large cartridge corporation is continuing its contribution to conservation by sponsoring 4-H conservation camps for white and negro, 4-H club boys.
During April and May the State Club Staff spent I day with all but 4 of the county agents in the State helping with club program.
Camps, Short Course-The Annual 4-11 Club Short Course is the big event of the year. Many boys receive their inspiration to go to college through attendance at the short course. The 1946 course was the 27th held at the University of Florida. It was attended by 215 boys. The theme was "Know Your Government," and all general assembly talks were on phases of this subject.
The summer. 4-H camp is an institution in Florida. . The 3 district camps were repaired as well as possible, considering the shortage of labor and materials.
In 1946 1,483 boys and 835 girls attended 4-H camps. This was the largest number of club members to attend club camps in any year.
The desire of all livestock shows and breed associations to promote club work has given Florida 4-11 boys opportunity to compete in 6 livestock judging contests. Two more poultry contests will be added in 1947.








Annual Report, 1946


FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester

Forest fires are still the greatest obstacle to the development of productive and profitable forests in Florida. County agents report assisting 4,829 farmers to prevent them.
County agents were assisted in visualizing the extent of fire damage by trips through both burned and unburned woods.
They were also given instruction in methods to be followed in influencing farmers and other timberland owners in fire protection.
Largely through discussions during field visits, county agents were assisted in conducting' demonstrational and other educational activities in fire prevention at the most appropriate and strategic times of the year.,
Through cooperative arrangements with the State Forest Service fire protection organization, county agents were able to extend the work of the Forest Service and provide protection for many additional acres of forest land.
The Extension Forester delivered 1 radio talk on the need for protecting woodlands from fire and made 6 other forestry radio talks during the year. These radio talks were made available to county agents in 12 other counties. County agents in 15 counties were given assistance in planning and developing result demonstrations in the Timber-Grazing-Game method of forest fire prevention.
Instruction in forest fire prevention was given to 4-H club boys during the annual short course and at 2 4-H camps. Forest fire prevention was also included as a feature of many talks delivered by the Extension Forester before 4-H club meetings throughout the State.
Forest Planting-Demand by farmers for forest planting stock far exceeded the supply, and hundreds of farmers and 4-H club members could not obtain forest seedlings for plantings during 1946. This is, of course, a severe blow to the Extension forest planting program in Florida. However, agents' reports show that they assisted 353 farmers in planting trees last year.
County agents received assistance in determining suitable species of forest trees for planting under local soil and climatic conditions. They were shown how and when forest-grown wild seedlings of slash pine and red cedar could be taken up from the woods, where they have come in too thickly, and transplanted to other areas where needed.
Through close cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service, county agents were able to assist in the distribution to farmers of more than 40,000 red cedar seedlings which were supplied by SCS nurseries.
Two mimeographed instruction sheets on forest planting were prepared and distributed to all county agents. A number of method demonstrations were given by the Extension Forester before meetings of county agents and farmers showing correct tree planting procedures.
To 443 4-H club boys forest planting methods were taught during the annual short course and at 2 summer camps. In addition, 36 other club boys received instruction and actual experience in tree planting by participating in farm, school and community 4-H club forest plantings. The Extension Forester provided willing red cedar seedlings and assisted county agents and 4-H club boys in making forest plantings of cedar on the grounds of 3 different schools.
Thnber Maxketing.-Efforts were made to stimulate harvesting of all farm timber which is ready for market.








42 Florida Cooperative Extension

To help relieve the pole shortage which was holding up rural electrification construction and other power and telephone service, county agents were assisted in publicizing the need for cutting more pole timber.
Farmers were urged to cut conservatively, keeping always a satisfactory stand of trees growing in their woods. County agents were supplied with market information on forest products.
In 25 counties where the services of woodland marketing project foresters are available, county agents contributed materially to the effectiveness of the project by bringing farmers in need of timber marketing assistance and the project foresters together. Agents' report assisting 329 farmers in selective cutting of lumber and 263 farmers in timber estimating and appraisal. They further report assisting 211 farmers to market and distribute $187,565 worth of forest products, and assisting 178 farmers in thinning, weeding, pruning. and improvement cutting of timber.
Instruction in marketing farm timber was given'to 443 4-H club members during the annual short course at 2 4-H club camps and during 4-H club meetings held throughout the State.
The idea of planting and managing the farm forest so that most, if not all, of the farm requirements for wood can be met was included in the instruction offered 4-H boys.
To meet the problem of fires on farm woodlands the Timber-GrazingGame Program was devised. County agents received assistance in planning, developing and publicizing this program in their counties. During field visits local situations were studied on the ground and recommendations were made for establishment of demonstrations.
Extension Bulletin 127, Timber-Grazing-Game, was made available to county agents in quantities sufficient for distribution to all interested farmers and other forest landowners. News stories and radio talks were prepared to provide publicity for the program, both locally and State-wide.
Mimeographed outlines covering 4 different 4-H club projects were prepared and furnished county agents. Instruction in the field was given 443 club members by the Extension Forester in tree identification, tree planting, timber estimating, pruning, timber utilization and forest fire protection. County agents report 32 club boys completed forestry- projects on 100 acres of forest and 36 club boys completed projects in wildlife and nature study. They further report 1,422 boys receiving training in forestry and 1,362 boys receiving training in wildlife.
Development of Game, Fish and Other Wildlife. - Opportunities for establishment of fish ponds and better management of existing ponds were pointed out to county agents during field visits. Also, conditions favorable to restocking certain areas with desirable game birds and animals were outlined. Establishment and maintenance of suitable food and cover also were given much consideration. . ,
The agents report having assisted 58 farmers in the construction and management of fish ponds, 221 farmers in protection of wildlife areas, 135 farmers to plant wildlife food plants and 108 farmers to plant food and cover plants.
Naval Stores Conservation Program.-County agents were given information on gum farming during the annual conference of Extension workers and at sectional meetings. Printed instructions from the naval stores cooperative agent and itemized cost figures for installation per 1,000 pines of turpentine size were helpful additions to the available list of printed materials useful to farmers. County agents report assisting 76 farmers in gum farming work.
Forest insects and Diseases.-County agents were assisted in recognizing diseases and insect pests during field visits.








Annual Report, 1946 43

Fence Post Problem.-Work was continued in helping county agents and farmers in meeting the growing need for durable fence posts. The planting of an acre or more on each farm to native red cedar has been recommended.
Posts from 3 additional tree species known or said to be durable-red mulberry, catalpa and Casuarina-were secured for'placemeht in the post durability test established ayear previously.
A mimeographed instruction sheet, explaining the South Carolina method for treating non-durable pine and other sapling posts, with chromated zinc chloride by the "tub method" was prepared and furnished county agents.
Farmers within reach of local creosote treating plants were advised to have their posts custom treated by this process whenever possible.
Demonstration Forests.-Additional work was done in carrying forward work begun 3 years ago on 4 forest demonstration plantings in 4 different parts of the State. Two of the plantings are being carried out in cooperation with organized 4-H club groups.
Interest in community forests was stimulated in 4 counties by county and home agents, and in 2 counties plans for improving 20- and 52-acre tracts of community-owned land already have been adopted.








44 Florida Cooperatiice Extension


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
T. K. MeClane, Jr., Extension Soil Conservationist'
K. S. McMullen, Extension Soil Conservationist'

With the organization of 3 new soil conservation districts and completion of organization in 2 others, Florida now has 36 districts covering 39 counties and comprising nearly 65(, of the acreage of the State.
The educational work with organized soil conservation districts was conducted through the respective county agents. Planning and execution of such activities was approached, first, on a State level through officials of the Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service, and second, on a county and district level through the county agent, hoards of supervisors and district and work unit conservationists.
County agents act as secretaries to the boards of supervisors in every district except 1.
Annual elections of supervisors were held in 29 districts in 1946.
The combined annual report of Florida soil conservation district supervisors showed 1945 to be a manner year in conservation of soil and water.
119ei uai Y I to Not etoter %11, I94G.
'De'.inber 1, 145, to Tanni,j 31, 1946.

Fig. S.-Soil-improving cover crops, such as this lupine, are encouraged by
Soil Conservation workers and the Extension Service.







Annual Report, 1946 45

(Annual reports of supervisors for 1946 will not be released until February, 1947, and therefore are not included in this report.) Districts also contributed to war food and feed production. Reports indicated more interest in conservation by both the farmer and the general public.
Supervisors report that conservation surveys as a basis for determining capabilities, management practices and proper land use, have been completed on 287,857 acres during 1945 in the 31 districts operating that year. Contour and topographic information has been developed and used in areas where water control and water management were necessary. This scientific information plus farmer experience has been used in the development of 3,195 farm plans covering 861,001 acres. These plans call for devoting each acre to its best use for maximum production and sufficient soil conservation practices to maintain soil fertility.
For specific practices established, supervisors' reports show a decided increase over the previous year. Report on practices established and planned to date (December 31, 1945):
Practice Established Planned
Crop rotations . . . 139,684 acres 229,521 acres Strip-cropping . . __ . . 4,579 acres 10,493 acres Kudzu . . 6,075 acres 18,739 acres Terracing . . 6,602 m iles 14,465 m iles Pasture improvement . _ . 37,352 acres 172,279 acres Fish ponds . 31 * 65 W ildlife areas . 28,605 acres 35,359 acres Farm drainage ------------------------------------------------ 28,664 acres 71,360 acres
Woodland improvement ----- -----_-----_----------- 135,804 acres 251,103 acres
Contour farming ------ . . 72,693 acres 117,291 acres
(Only practices involving larger acreages shown.)
Reports show that districts expended more than $40,000 during the year and that they now own a considerable amount of machinery and equipment obtained by grants, purchase or other means. Many districts own tractors, terracing equipment and combines in addition to smaller items such as choppers, cultipackers, seed drills, lime spreaders, etc.
Organization of New Soil Conservation Districts.-The Director of Extension is Administrator to the State Soil Conservation Board and is responsible for administering the State Districts Act. Also, in accordance with departmental policy, he is responsible for the educational activities in districts. Based on this authority, the Extension Soil Conservationist, administratively responsible to the Director, heads up the organizational and educational work in districts on a State level and the county agent assumes the same obligation on a county level.
During the period covered by this report 3 districts were organized.
The Extension Conservationist assisted 4 districts in arranging tours of soil conservation work. Two districts were assisted in terracing demonstrations. Twenty-eight meetings of boards of supervisors were attended to assist in either administrative or educational matters. Seven tours were attended. Twenty-six districts were assisted in setting up record keeping and accounting systems. Very little uniformity existed in this respect between districts and for this reason, as well as to provide adequately for preserving of district records, a record system was prepared. This system has been adopted as the official system of records for districts by the State organization of soil conservation district supervisors.
A tour was also arranged for county agents in citrus counties in January at Haines City, Polk County, Florida. The purpose of this tour was to inspect and study field trails on (1) moisture control and (2) prevention of erosion in citrus groves as conducted by the Soil Conservation Servic-.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Plans for the tour were made by the Extension Conservationist, Extension Citriculturist and representatives of the Soil Conservation Service, working cooperatively.
,Soil and Water Conservation Work with 4-H Clubs-The teaching of soil and water conservation to rural and urban youths is of inestimable value, yet I of the most difficult jobs ever attempted. The lack of tangible ownership, as well as the lack of specific remuneration, seems to be the main deterrent to conservation projects. Some 20 counties signed up in a State soil conservation contest (sponsored by Firestone) and 3 counties submitted reports.
The State winner of the 4-H Soil Conservation Contest was guided on a 10-day tour of soil conservation work in the State with the assistance of county agents and SCS personnel.
The Extension Conservationist assisted in the 4-H Club Short Course at the University in early June.
SUMMARY OF SOIL CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES BY COUNTY AGENTS
Information taken from annual statistical reports of county agents is given below, showing totals for Florida: Number of communities in which work was conducted this year(a) Soil m anagem ent . ----------_---- - 540
(b) W ildlife conservation . 151 Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisted this year(a) Soil m anagem ent . 300 (b) W ildlife conservation . 56 Number of farmers assisted this year(a) With problems of land use based on soil types . . 4,416 (b) In the use of recommended crop rotations ------------------------------------ 4,002
(c) W ith strip-cropping ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 128
(d) In constructing terraces . 435 (e) In grassing waterways or otherwise controlling gullies . 393 (f) W ith contour farming of crop land . . 217 (g) In contouring pasture or range . 122 (h) In the use of cover or green manure crops . 14,136 (i) In otherwise controlling wind or water erosion . 375 (j) In sum m er fallow ing . . :124 (k) In making depth of moisture tests . 30 (1) W ith drainage . 1,085 (m ) W ith irrigation . 852 (n) W ith land clearing . 980 Number of farmers(a) In soil conservation districts which were assisted with organization or operations this year . 9,762
(b) Assisted in arranging for farm-conservation plans this year . 1,135
(c) Assisted in doing work based on definite farm-conservation
plans this year . 1,029 Number of farmers assisted this year(a) In construction or management of ponds for fish . 58
(b) In protection of wildlife areas, such as stream banks, odd
areas, field borders, marshes and ponds, from fire or livestock 22JL
(c) In planting of edible wild fruits and nuts in hedges, stream
. banks, odd areas and field borders . 135 (d) With other plantings for food and protection in wildlife areas 108 4-11 club projects in soil conservation and pasture improvement(a) N um ber of boys enrolled . 61 (b) Number of boys completing . 31 (c) Number of units involved in completed projects . 511







Annual Report, 1946


SOILS AND FARM CROPS

J. Lee Smith, Agronomist

Extension agronomy work was aimed at, first, informing Florida farmers on the most economical agronomic production practices known: second, finding, securing, or assisting them in producing supplies of better seeds; third, helping them to make the best use of the fertilizers which they secured; and fourth, assisting them to maintain and improve soil fertility while producing crops.
The county agent, as secretary to the Board of Soil Conservation District Supervisors and secretary to the P & MA Committee, has planned, promoted and executed programs that have resulted in a good many conservation accomplishments during the year.
Green Manure Crops; Since 1940, when the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station distributed to farmers, through. county agents, the first commercial supply of blue lupine seed, the Extension Service has been very active in demonstrating the value of this winter cover, finding the best methods of handling it, and building up a supply of seed. Depth of planting, seedbed preparation, time of planting, rate of seeding and fertilizing methods had to be learned.
There has been a steady growth and interest in this 'new legume. County agents in 33 counties reported 59,405 acres of blue lupine planted on 1,954 farms, using 4,455,398 pounds of seed, in 1946.
Through the efforts of the Agronomist and county agents, a larger supply of planting seed has been secured each year. In 1946, 22 counties reported that 6,405,840 pounds of blue lupine seed were harvested from 8,919 acres.
Other green manure crops which the Extension Service has been promoting and the acreage grown in 1946 are: Indigofera, 1,091 acres; Alyce clover, 6,767 acres; Sesbania, 8,320 acres; others, 5,706 acres.
Because supplies of seed were short and it was profitable to farmers, the county agents during very recent years have promoted the growing and harvesting of manure crop seed. The agents report accomplishments for 1946 as follows: 661,000 pounds of crotalaria seed harvested from 26,804 acres, 62,000 pounds of indigofera seed harvested from 685 acres, 1,258,400 pounds of Alyce clover seed from 5,615 acres, and 12,600 pounds of Sesbania. seed from 63 acres.
To show the value of lupines as a manure crop, demonstrations in growing corn following lupines were conducted in 1946 in approximately 16 counties.
Southeastern experiment stations, in cooperation with IU.S. Department of Agriculture research workers, have discovered a hard-seeded, volunteering Crimson clover named the Dixie Crimson clover. The North Florida Experiment Station has tested its adaptability to the North Florida region. Eight county agents established demonstrations 'in 1945 comprising 358 acres. In 1946 they have established demonstrations on 2,143 acres using 10,400 pounds of seed.
Peanuts-Of the approximately 450,000 acres on which peanuts were grown in 1946, only 110,000 acres were dug. The remainder were used for hog feed.
The seed disinfecting program to control damping-off which was begun 5 years ago has been continued this year. County agents' reports indicate that 85% of the seed used on the 450,000 acres planted to peanuts was treated this year. This practice has been estimated to be worth between
3 and 4 million dollars annually to Florida farmers.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Extension Service supervised the production of Dixie Runner peanuts in 1945 and 1946. The reports show that 356 farmers saved 104,000 bushels of this seed in 1946.
Cotton.-The Extension program for cotton is to maintain the use of varieties having a staple length of I inch or better, improve the quality, if possible, and strive for more economical production.
Approximately 95% of the cotton grown this year was of varieties of I inch staple or longer.
Because of rainy weather during harvesting season, the grade and quality of the lint was poor.
Corn and Oats.-More and more interest has been developed in sweet corn production. Demonstrations were conducted with 4-H boys in 16 counties.
The oats acreage in Florida has grown from 26,000 to 165,000 acres in recent years. The Extension program calls for growing a larger acreage of higher yielding oats of rust-resistant varieties. However, Helminthosporium. leaf spot is lowering the value of many new rust-resistant varieties.
Pastures.-More and better grazing from more and better pastures on Florida farms and ranches is an item in the Extension agronomy program.
Spearheaded by the county agents and other Extension workers and using the helps offered through the P & MA, approximately 718,122 acres


Fig. 9-County agents aided growers with tobacco production problems and acreage allotments.







Annual Report, 1946 49

of improved pasture have been established in this State during the past 11 years. It is estimated that approximately :100,000 acres were in improved pasture at the beginning of that time. This makes a total approximately 800,000 acres of improved pasture in the State at present.
Because of the scarcity of pasture grass seed, Extension workers have made a special effort to get farmers to save what they could. There were 128,655 pounds of seed harvested in the State and used on other pasture lands this year. A total of 514,620 pounds have been purchased and used by the Florida cattlemen and farmers this year, according to reports from 50 counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Part III --Work With Women and Girls


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent

A State home demonstration agent, 3 district agents and 4 specialists, 40 county home demonstration agents, 7 assistant agents, 11 negro home demonstration agents and a negro district agent make up the personnel responsible for guiding the work.
First attention is given to work in rural areas and the interests of farm people. The entire program with the rural family is developed in direct relationship to agricultural problems as they affect the life of rural people. During the past 3 years the interest of non-farm people in home demonstration work has increased greatly and plans have been adapted, as far as facilities permit, to meet this trend.
Community home demonstration clubs for girls and women are organized to serve as a means of reaching more people and to encourage cooperative work locally. Many other women receive direct assistance from the agents.
Organization.-District agents work through county home demonstration agents to strengthen practical programs and to maintain cordial relationships with county appropriating boards. Because of the many changes in personnel and scarcity of suitable prospective workers, district agents have had a busy and perplexing year.
The 4 specialists work in the fields of food preservation; nutrition and health; home improvement; and clothing. They provide reliable information to the workers and assist in determining the most effective methods

Fig. 10.-The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work extends valuable aid to the home demonstration staff in planning and carrying on the work.







Annsial Report, 1946


and programs. Extension specialists in dairying, animal husbandry, poultry and agricultural engineering have given fine assistance through their work with home demonstration agents.
County councils made up of representatives of the community clubs help in determining program and in getting desired results. The 2 State councils, I for 4-H girls and the other for women, serve as advisory boards to the home demonstration agents and develop recommendations for Statewide programs.
The 3 district agents assist with (1) 4-H work, (2) women's programs and (3) negro work, thereby helping in the general guidance of Statewide programs.
Eleven counties have no clerical help and 10 have part-time help only. Fifteen have full-time help financed by either the county alone or the State and county jointly.
County boards of commissioners and school boards cooperate financially in establishing and maintaining home demonstration work in the counties and have given fine understanding and support to the work during the year.
Three counties made appropriations to establish the work for the first time. Two counties provided funds in the budget for 2 assistants and 5 other counties set up funds for employing assistant agents. Almost without exception, increases were made in county budgets this year and additional or improved facilities were provided.
Home demonstration work as a part of the Extension Service is fortunate in its cordial relationships with other agencies at work in the State and organization plans include cooperative work.
The strength of home demonstration work continues to be largely in the vision, ability and devotion of the home demonstration agents in the counties. It is a cause of real concern, therefore, to find a nation-wide scarcity of trained women ready to fill the positions necessary in a rapidly expanding national program.
Seventeen changes have been made in county and State positions this year. Six agents have retired from Extension work after years of fine service. Eight have left home demonstration work for marriage or to give full time to their homes and families. Two have resigned for other reasons, I to return to Extension work in her native state and I proved better suited to other fields. One home demonstration agent died in service. Exclusive of the 5 who served only I year and the 2 who were transferred to other counties, before resignation, the average tenure of the above agents was 21 years.
Thirteen of the new appointees have had no experience in home demonstration work. An undue amount of time of the State and district agents has been taken with personnel problems, selection and training. Specialists have made adjustments in their program to give needed special aid.
Fourteen counties have been provided with part-time clerical help with funds available from the State office. All personnel had salary increases. At least 15 counties made extensive improvement in the offices. Retirement provisions have brought a sense of security to home demonstration workers which is noticeable in its effect on their work.
Eleven home demonstration agents, most of them appointees during the year, attended the 3-weeks course at the University of Florida, June 17 July 3, receiving needed information and 3 hours' graduate credit.
Pre-service training has been developed in cooperation with the Florida State College for Women in the appointment of home demonstration assistants who serve on apprenticeship in at least 2 counties in the 10 months' period of employment.







Florida Cooperative 'Extension


Farm labor continued to offer some perplexing problems. Women and girls continued to help with family duties, according to 18 home demonstration agents who reported they helped women on 951 farms to improve labor-saving methods and in better ways of sharing labor andequipment.
The home demonstration agents looked directly to farm people for facts and made 20,535 home visits to secure as well as give needed information. This was an average of 402 home visits per agent.
Program Planning-Specialists provided the agents with carefully considered suggestions throughout the year as situations changed. State and district home demonstration agents and specialists made a total of 349 visits into counties to aid in determining programs. and to assist in carrying out the plans made.
Seven hundred and thirty-two communities reported their programs had been planned cooperatively by Extension agents and local committees. Leaders named by the clubs and councils assumed responsibility for getting suggestions from the club members about the kind of information needed. Evidence of local participation is shown in the fact that 2,648 women served as voluntary local leaders in furthering adult programs and 642 women and 1,032 older 4-11 girls aided in 4-H club work for girls. These leaders held 1,590 meetings without the agent being present, with an attendance of 25,793 girls and women. At 165 meetings held to train these leaders the attendance was 2,393 women. Also, 222 meetings were held to train 4-H club leaders with an attendance of 3,105 girls.
Meeting Needs of All Farm Familles.-Organized work through clubs was conducted in 953 Florida communities in counties employing home demonstration agents; 296 organized clubs functioned for women and 441 4-H clubs for girls. Reports from 40 counties show the 47 county home demonstration agents and assistants worked with 8,468 women in organized clubs. In addition, 4,789 other women who could not become members of an organized club carried out demonstrations in their homes. Also,. 10,133 girls were members of 4-H clubs directed by the home demonstration agents.
Reports show that 16,785 farm homes have been improved as a result of participation in home demonstration work. Reports of 40 counties show 18,615 non-farm homes received similar direct help. Florida rural families have 189,547 daughters of 4-H club age (1940 census) with a total enrollment of 13,386 girls, white and negro, in 4-11 club work.
.4-H Work for Girls-Four-H club work for girls in 1946 has continued as an important part of the program of home demonstration work in the State. This junior home demonstration work is designed to train young women and 4-H girls from 10 to 20 years of age to become useful, skillful, happy citizens and leaders in their homes and communities.
All members of State staff assist with the 4-H program. Negro home demonstration work for girls is supervised directly by the Negro District Agent and home demonstration agents, working under the direction of the State Home Demonstration Agent.
The total 4-H club enrollment in 1946 of 10,133 white girls is an increase of 563 over 1945, when the total enrollment was 9,570.
Of the 10,139 girls, 4,482 are enrolled for first-year work; 2,693 in second year; 1,432 in third; 881 in fourth; 350 in fifth; 186 in sixth; 68 in seventh; and 39 in eighth and ninth.
The 4-H girls of different ages enrolled this year show an increase in numbers of girls 10, 11, 12 and 14 years of age and approximately the same number of older girls as enrolled last year, as indicated by the accompanying chart:








Annual Report, 1946


1946 1945
10 years of age . . _ . 2,735 2,251 11 years of age . 2,148 1,945 12 years of age ----- . 1,826 1,806 13 years of age -------------------------------------------- 1,358 1,497
14 years of age . 976 948 15 years of age . _ 578 595 16 years of age . . 297 321 17 years of age . 134 134 18 and 20 years of age . 46 60

In 41 counties 441 4-11 clubs for girls are organized, an increase of 18 clubs over the previous year. The total demonstrations carried by club girls in 41 counties numbered 30,869. There were 18,277 completions this year.
The number of 4-11 girls enrolled in 1946 as "out of school" was 522 and "in school" 9,986.
Junior Home Demonstration Councils. - Junior home demonstration councils made up of 2 representatives from each community 4-H club are organized in 23 counties and meet regularly. Older 4-H girls who become council members have participated in community and county-wide events. Committees of girls working within the councils have worked on scrap salvage and bond drives, faniine relief programs, school, church and libraries, and community club houses and recreation projects, and have been responsible for local publicity and recreation programs.
The State Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work was re-organized during the State Short Course in June, when 21 organized counties sent delegates to the State meeting.
Volunteer Leadership-The fine work of volunteers and leaders responsible for the direct leadership of the work with 4-H girls in the 41 counties has been noted with pride. In their own neighborhoods or communities 2,253 women and 916 older girls have served as volunteer local leaders. They have met with clubs at 1,391 meetings. Some parents have volunteered to become new 4-H leaders this year.
Local leaders were trained at club meetings, special leadership meetings and short courses by home demonstration agents, specialists and'district agents. Leadership handbooks were prepared by the State Home Demonstration Office and discussed and given to local leaders in the Short Course program. A total of 222 training meetings for leaders have been held in counties.
Major Accomplishments Through 4-H Club Work.-Reports reveal that 13,386 girls and young women from 10 to 20 years of age (white and negro) are enrolled this year in 600 4-H clubs throughout the State.
Club girls planted hundreds of home gardens to produce food for better family nutrition and are producing beef, dairy cattle, feed, poultry and eggs. This year 4-H girls conserved 239,905 quarts of fruit and vegetables.
War bonds and stamps valued at $725.00 were given by interested Florida citizens for outstanding 4-H achievement.
Agents report that 4,322 girls enrolled in gardening and 2,735 completed this demonstration;. 735 girls enrolled for fruit plantings; 65,153 quarts of fruits, 139,914 quarts of vegetables and 34,838 quarts of meats were canned by these girls, making a grand total of 239,905 containers.
The reports showed that this year in .11 counties 1,106 club girls were enrolled in health, nursing and first aid, and that 545 completed demonstrations in this activity. In 27 counties 1,300 girls enrolled in 4-H work had complete physical examinations.








Florida Cooperative Extemion


Poultry.-The poultry program for 4-H girls had an enrollment in 1945 of 1,873, with 1,180 completing. The poultry raising demonstration in cooperation with Sears, Roebuck and Company, and directed by the home demonstration agents and the Poultry Extension Specialists, helped train 4-H girls for leadership and provided 15,000 to 20,000 pounds of fryers and over 125,000 dozen eggs in 13 counties.
Clothing.-During 1946 41 counties reported 8,990 4-H club girls enrolled as clothing demonstrators, including 1,988 negro girls.
White Negro Total
New garments made -------------- 25,491 14,596 40,087
Garments remodeled -------------- 6,344 3,536 9,880
Household articles made -------- 5,218 3,361 8,579

Food Selection, Preparation and Meal Planning.-Reports from counties showed that this year there were 5,574 girls in 41 counties enrolled in this phase of club work and 3,329 girls in 41 counties completed the demonstrations. These girls in 40 counties planned 79,253 meals and in 41 counties served 85,320 meals.
Home Safety.-Thirty counties in Florida reported having given definite training in safety and fire prevention to 3,740 4-H girls; there were 1,956 4-H girls carrying on a safety demonstration in their homes or communities. During the year 230 meetings for promoting safety in the home were held with groups of 4-H club girls and a total of 209 method demonstrations were given before the groups.

Fig. 11-Florida 4-H girls, at their 1946 Short Course, collected hundreds of clothing items and canned hundreds of containers of food for sending to distressed peoples overseas.








Annual Report, 1946


In 12 counties 946 girls were enrolled in home mbLnagement programs; 2,497 improved 1,300 rooms and made 3,233 articles of home furnishings. Thirty-four counties reported girls and women made :1,774 rugs from waste materials. I
Home yards were beautified by 1,011 girls. Lawns and ornamental shrubbery, including fruit and nut trees, were planted.
Home Industries.-Four-H girls have utilized home resources and money through crafts learned under the direction of home demonstration agents. Four counties report 27 demonstrations given on the standardization of products. Counties report 779 girls making 1,943 articles. Fresh garden, poultry and dairy products sold by 4-H girls totaled approximately $11,713,
Other Community Activities in Which 4-H Girls Coqperate Women and girls representing 12,112 families have worked together in canning centers to conserve 1,780 canned products for famine relief. They have helped with the work of the school lunch program in 237 communities where 44,048 children were involved. Seven communities have had school gardens which 4-11 girls planted for use by the school lunchroom and 4-H club.
Libraries have been maintained or assisted in 38 communities by home demonstration clubs.
Club girls and women planned and held 422 socials in 50 home demonstration club houses. They took part in 204 programs on special days.
State Short Course for 4-H Girls.-The annual State Short Course for Florida Club Girls was held at the State College for Women, June 10-14, attended by 500 4-H girls and leaders.
District and County 4-H Camps.-The summer 4-H camps are events which 4-H girls look forward to with great anticipation. It was necessary to cancel or postpone some camps this year, due to the prevalence of polio in the state. Twenty-nine camps for girls were held with a total attendance of 753.
Achievement Days and Exhibits.-In 39 counties 329 4-H achievement days have been held this year. These community and county-wide events included exhibits of 4-H club work prepared and set-up by the 4-H girls.








CLOTHING AND
TEXTILES

Joyce Bevis, Specialist in
Clothing and Textiles

The Florida clothing program is planned to interest, inspire and teach Florida rural women and girls the selection, construction and care of clothing and household textiles; and to help them to contribute to better family living by understanding the needs and responsibilities of all members of the family and home in supplying clothing for the family and textiles for the home.
The number of clothing leaders in the State has increased from 241 to 493 and the clothing program has been carried into 10 new communities this year.
Clothing Program. - During 1946 there were 2,642 clothing demonstrators among home demonstration clubs and 7,002 among 4-H club members who were working on their clothing problems. These clothing demonstrators were located in 577 communities of the 40 counties of the State where home demonstration work is established.
County reports show that through the help of the Specialist, the county home demonstration agents and 493 leaders, 7,744 families were assisted with clothing construction problems, 5,913 families received assistance with problems in selection of clothing and household textiles, 6,980 families were given help in problems of care, renovation and remodeling, 1,758 families asked for help on clothing budgets and 628 families had help on the care and repair of their sewing machines. The result was that 337 sewing machines were put into good working condition through the aid of the agent and specialist. In addition, 11,192 families used thrift materials such as sacks.



Fig. 12.-Nell Tison, president of the Florida Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work, is typical of the well dressed Florida 4-H club girl.







Annual Repolr.t, 1946


As a result of the assistance received by hese families, the records show that 32,549 garments were remodeled, 108,439 garments were mended or renovated, and 98,341 new garments were made.
There were 493 leaders among the home demonstration and 4-H club groups who helped to carry out a good clothing program this year. These leaders gave :1,229 method demonstrations on phases of clothing work and helped to set up 536 clothing exhibits, besides giving individual help to others in solving various types of clothing problems for women and girls.
During 1946, 41 counties report 7,002 4-H club girls enrolled in clothing demonstrations. Of the 7,002, 3,742 girls completed their demonstrations. These demonstrators made 25,491 new garments, remodeled 6,344 garments, and made 5,218 articles of furnishing for their homes. Some of these clothing and household articles were exhibited at the State Short Course, and a few of the dresses were modeled by the girls at a small dress revue.
Household Textiles-In the field of household furnishings 50,182 new household articles, such as pillowcases, curtains and quilts, were made. Also, 28,588 accessories such as hats, bags, blouses, dickeys, etc., were made. Home demonstration women reported making 165 mattresses, renovating 543 mattresses, and making at home 1,774 rugs.
Clothing Contributions-In addition to the regular clothing work done by the home demonstration and 4-H club members, 27 counties reported having contributed 15,377 clothing articles and 21 counties reported contribifting 923 sewing supplies and 1,233 other articles to the overseas relief program.








Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH

Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist

The food, nutrition and health program of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service was a continuation of a program to assist individuals and families to provide a better food supply through the use of more homegrown and home-conserved foods, and to help individuals and families improve their health and physical ' 1 fitness by assisting them to acquire a better working knowledge of food values and of nutrition generally.
Nutrition and Health.-At present 41 of the 67 counties in Florida have full-time health departments accredited by the State Board of Health. All counties have had provision made for some type of health service from the health departments of adjoining counties if none is available within the county. Home demonstration agents receive fine cooperation from these units.
Reports of county home demonstration agents show that they devoted 476 days to programs on home care and food for the sick. They cooperated in presenting 204 programs to promote Child Health Day. Agents report the following additional activities: 4,720 persons were assisted in prevention of colds and other common diseases; 5,337 individuals were assisted in taking positive preventive measures to improve health; home nursing and first aid courses were given to 1,728 individuals; in 5 counties 18 health clinics were organized through the efforts of Extension workers; and 1,897 individuals were assisted with child-feeding problems.
Campaigns to get people to eat an adequate breakfast were stressed again this year. The Nutritionist and home demonstration agents prepared recipes for nourishing sandwich fillings which were published in local papers. Mimeographed copies were distributed to parents. . Reports show that 342 schools were assisted in establishing or maintaining hot school lunches and that 8,278 families planned and prepared food for home use and for school lunches, using methods to get the most food value.
There were 771 food preparation demonstrations given by home demonstration agents, 429 by adult home demonstration women and 675 by 4-H club girls. Also, 9,065 families in 34 counties report planning meals using food locally produced and 8,127 families report using alternatives made necessary by food shortages; 3,649 families in 29 counties reported budgeting and buying foods weekly through cooperative arrangements; 204 food exhibits were- arranged in 27 counties by home demonstration agents, 346 in 22 counties by home demonstration club women and 657 in 28 counties by 4-H club girls.
The study of food needs showed that in many counties there was a need for more milk, butter and cheese to be used in family meals. Special food preparation demonstrations were given in an effort to correct this situation. In 3.7 counties 6,559 families used home-made butter and 1,644 families in 34 counties made and used 29,407 pounds of cottage cheese.
Food preparation and meal planning continued to be a most popular and interesting demonstration. 'Reports show that improved food practices were adopted in baking by 4,828 families; in meat cookery by 4,451 families; in vegetable and fruit cookery by 5,647 families; in dairy products by 3,268 families; in poultry products by 3,637 families and in fats by 2,735 families.
,A number of counties reported that farm families purchased dairy cows primarily as a result of the nutrition program in which the need for milk in the family diet was discussed and demonstrated. This year in 37 counties, 2,015 family cows were added, bringing the total number of family







Annual Report, 1946


cows owned by home demonstration women to 11,003. Also, 272 milk goats supplied milk for home demonstration club families in 21 counties.
The home demonstration agents in 41 counties devoted 1,283 days to promoting home production of the family food supply, with 571 communities participating and 954 Voluntary local leaders assisting. The reports show that 8,423 families produced their food supply according to needs and 20,272 families reported that they had made changes in their food supply by making changes in home production of vegetables, fruit, meats, milk, poultry and eggs.
4-H Club Work-This year 1,061 4-H club girls were enrolled in health, home nursing and first aid and 545 girls completed demonstrations in this activity. Also, 1,300 4-H girls had complete physical examinations.
This year 5,574 girls in 41 counties enrolled in food preparation and meal planning projects and 3,329 of these girls completed their demonstrations. They planned 79,253 and served 85,320 meals.
Accomplishments in home food production by 4-H club girls were indicated by the following reports: 1,945 girls enrolled in poultry production and 1,004 girls completed with 60,523 birds; 213 girls enrolled in dairy demonstrations with 153 completing with 290 animals; 87 girls enrolled in beef cattle demonstrations with 45 girls completing projects on 124 animals; 57 girls enrolled in beekeeping demonstrations, 47 completing with projects on 298 colonies.
Reports showed that there were 22,746 girls enrolled in the different phases of 4-H club work, with 12,244 completing. Records were submitted in the following national contests: General records, home grounds beautification, food conservation, gardens, clothing achievement, dress revue, food preparation and poultry.
Cooperation With Other Agencies-Current reports showed that the average school lunch attendance in federally reimbursed school lunch departments was approximately 112,000. Last year the average daily attendance ranged from 88,000 to 90,000. The number of schools having lunch rooms increased from 400 to 750. Last year 239 school lunch departments were not federally reimbursed. This year approximately 175 school lunch departments were not federally reimbursed.
In 6 counties 7 home demonstration clubs acted as sponsors of school lunch rooms and in 30 counties 237 communities were helped by home demonstration groups with the school lunch program. Over 44,048 children in 26 counties were involved in these programs. Seven communities in 6 counties report having a school garden program. The State report shows that 1,897 families in 36 counties were assisted with child feeding problems and that 342 schools in 33 counties were assisted in establishing and maintaining hot school lunches.








Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION

Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation

The food situation during 1946 offered a tremendous challenge to every home demonstration worker in the country,
Substantial contributions to famine relief were made in the 10 carloads of food shipped out of the State from 11 counties. In addition, many other donations of food have been made for which we have no record.
Home Gardens, Fruit Plantings.-In gardening activities some 40 counties reported a total of 17,081 gardens grown by women and girls with a cash valuation of $48,471.17 in fresh vegetables sold from them. This year's figures show an increase of 1,981 gardens over those grown in 1945.
Scarcity of some items of food has caused a better appreciation for many home-grown products and has kept food conservation-canning, freezing and curing-at a high peak.
Club members report calendar orchard fruit tree and vine plantings started this year as totaling 7,010.
Food Conservation.-Reports from home demonstration agents show that adult home demonstration club members representing 21,029 different families conserved available foods in 1946 as follows: Fruits and vegetables-canned 2,030,820 quarts, dried 2,533 pounds, stored 386,424 pounds, frozen 19,223 pounds. Meats and fish-canned 401,387 quarts, cured 1,972,323 pounds, stored 649,694 pounds and frozen 226,748 pounds.


Fig. 13-Home demonstration agents throughout the State, like Miss Elise Laffitte of Gadsden, aided their people to conserve vast quantities of food.







Annual Report, 1946 61

There were 63 canning centers reported operating in 1946, 49 of which come under the supervision of home demonstration agents.
Reports from 11 Florida counties show a total of 355,927 No. 2 containers, making over 10 carloads of food, used in canning in 1946.
Quick Freezing-Twenty-two community freezer lockers are reported as being established this year and 100 club members were able to purchase home freezing storage cabinets. Agents gave 84 result demonstrations on handling and packaging fruits, vegetables and meats.
Gardens, Fruit Plantings, Canning.-Gardening drew an enrollment of 4,322 girls, and of that number 2,735 completed the demonstrations. Also, 735 girls enrolled for fruit plantings and 547 were able to make the plantings as outlined. These girls canned 65,153 quarts of fruits, 139,914 quarts of vegetables and 34,838 quarts of meats, making a grand total of 239,905 containers.










HOMEIMPROVEMENT

Virginia P. Moore, Home Improvement Agent'

The Specialist in this program retired in the middle of the year, so the work reported here was done largely as a result of cooperative interest of all home demonstration workers.
Housing.-Crowded conditions made housing one of the state's greatest problems. Inadequacy of houses available for family living as to space, sanitation, convenience or state of repair brought distress to many people. Thanks to better incomes and a great desire for more satisfying homes, many Florida families had cash laid away ready for use in making improvements in their houses or surroundings when building was possible. Shortages of materials and high prices did not prevent
MISS VIRGINIA MOORE realization of the hopes of 544
families who did build new houses. Florida's apostle of home improvement, A house plan service set up for the retired June 30, 1946, after 23 years of first time, under the direction of
noteworthy service to rural families of the State. the Agricultural Engineer, was
useful to those families. With more women doing their own work, and because of greater interest in home management, 5,775 women enrolled in everyday good housekeeping. For efficiency, strength-saving and cleanliness 1,817 kitchens were improved and 299 water systems and 627 sanitary privies or indoor
toilets were installed.
Comfort as well as utility was important for better family living and
624 mattresses were repaired or renovated and 287 new mattresses were
made. All these improvements also contributed to good health.
A committee of Extension agents, men and women, defined the housing
program to be undertaken in all counties to emphasize repair and sanitation in the house and surroundings and yard beautification. All families intending to build later were urged to make plans on paper, using the house plans available. A list of prospective home-builders is being compiled in many county Extension offices to receive timely suggestions.
Electrification.-At least 993 houses of families enrolled in home demonstration work enjoyed the use of electricity for the first time, most of the service coming through the extension of Rural Electrification Administration lines. Generally speaking, our farm women are and have been good everyday housekeepers, but now what a difference! Yes, the farm woman
who has electricity as a servant is fast overcoming kitchen drudgery.
Two special training courses were given all agents on uses of electricity
and selection of equipment, showing trends in appliance manufacture, through the cooperation of business concerns making and distributing
equipment.
71letired Jurie:10. t94e.







Annual Report, 1946


Home Beautification.-Agents report that 6,101 4-11 girls and women 'improved and beautified their home grounds, 573 lawns were started, 1,006 families planted grass and 1,082 started foundation plantings around the homes. A State contest in yard beautification was scheduled for the 4-11 club girls, with 6,354 girls enrolled in home improvement. These families influenced 3,360 other people to paint or whitewash their buildings, or to plant grass or shrubs. Instruction on color in the home and simple decoration in home furnishings was given girls enrolled in 4-H club work.
Management in the Home.-Agents report that 2,851 families asked for help with home account keeping. The number of families producing their family food supply wholly or in part increased appreciably, due to high costs of fresh produce. While the total amount of canning was less this year than last, home pantries were more carefully budgeted with the 11/3 million pints canned or stored. Management of time became increasingly important, as many women were employed outside their homes, and 1,875 families were assisted with time-management problems.
According to reports given to the home demonstration agents, 830 families were helped to use the resources of their homes and farms to develop home industries, which added $666,263.99 to the cash income of the f families.
Consumer Interests.-To make buying decisions or other adjustments in family living, 4,122 families reported they used timely economic information, supplied by the home demonstration agents. Also 7.424 families were assisted with information on how to buy food, clothing and home furnishings,, equipment and supplies to better advantage.








64 Florida Cooperative Extension




Part IV -- Negro Work


NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK

A. A. Turner, Negro District Agent
Negro farm demonstration work, under the supervision of the Negro District Agent, was carried on in 10 counties in 1946. In addition, Extension work was extended to as many counties as could be effectively carried on without agents being employed therein. A number of adjoining counties were reached with information sent through circular letters, newspaper articles and personal contacts with farm families.
A summary of results of the efforts of negro county agents with negro farm families is presented below.
Crop and Livestock Production.-To increase crop production, negro county agents assisted 1,923 farmers to obtain improved and certified varieties or strains of seed. Higher yields of corn, sweet potatoes, fruits, tobacco and other crops were obtained. Twenty two hundred and fiftyeight farmers were assisted with the use of fertilizers.
To increase livestock production, the agents assisted 1,812 farmers in improving methods of feeding livestock and 322 farmers in obtaining purebred males and females.
To conserve our natural resources, agents worked with 341 farmers in the use of crop rotations, 99 in constructing terraces and 480 with the use of cover or green-manure crops. Eight hundred and ninety-one farmers cooperated in prevention of forest fires.
To plan and make adjustments for farming activities, agents assisted 521 farmers with farm-labor problems, 386 with locating supplemental sources of income, 413 in developing farm and home plans, 336 in keeping records, 323 in using outlook information to make adjustments on the farm, and 185 with credit problems.
]improving Farms and Equipment.-To improve farm homes, farms and equipment, agents assisted 220 families in constructing dwellings, 393 in remodeling homes, 917 in screening or using other recommended methods of controlling flies or other insects, and 564 families in improving home grounds. In addition, 166 families were assisted in obtaining electricity and 18 families with using electricity for income-producing purposes. Agents also assisted 94 farmers with the construction of farm buildings

Fig. 14.-Negro 4-H boys received instruction in selecting, feeding and
caring for hogs to obtain best results.








Annual Report, 1946


and 72 with remodeling or repairing farm buildings. One hundred and, sixteen farm families followed instructions in the maintenance and repair of mechanical equipment and 132 farmers were assisted in the selection and more efficient use of mechanical equipment.
Health and Recreation.-To improve health conditions among rural families, the agents assisted 1,119 families in the prevention of colds and other common diseases, 927 families with preventive measures to improve health, and 1,258 families in removing fire and accident hazards. The importance of taking advantage of county health units and county doctors and nurses was stressed to rural families.
To improve recreation and community life as well as family relationships, the agents assisted 504 families in improving home recreation and 115 families in improving community recreational facilities. Twenty-seven communities were assisted in providing library facilities, 308 families were assisted with child development and guidance problems, 230 families in improving family relationships, and 422 individuals participated in child development and parent education.
Leadership-There have been 2 changes in personnel during the year. Financial assistance has been given in promoting farm demonstration work among negroes in the counties. Various counties gave financial assistance for purchase of demonstration materials, and to assist with the 4-11 Club State Short Course and district camps. Boards of commissioners in the counties provide office space for all agents.
There are 741 volunteer local leaders who are of valuable assistance to the agents in determining and promoting the programs in the counties. These leaders are given special training under the supervision of the local agents. Dependable persons who are good demonstrators are selected to assist the agent in promoting and carrying on county programs.
Special Events.-During the latter part of May the Annual State 4-11 Short Course was held at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College. All counties except 1 participated. There was much improvement in this short course over previous years. The NFA boys and 4-H boys and girls had their state meetings at the same time, with an attendance of over 400 rural boys and girls. Many of the programs were held jointly with 4-H boys and girls and NFA boys.
One district camp was held at Lake Hall, Leon County, with boys from
5 counties participating.
The second district camp was held at East Lake Weir, Marion County, during the month of July with boys from 5 counties participating.
Achievement days have been held in each county supervised by the Negro District Agent. '
The Rural Pastors' Institutes at the Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee, and at Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, were held during the months of April and June. These institutes were under the auspices of the Federated Council of Churches of America, with colleges and the Extension Service cooperating.
The Florida State Fair was held February 1-12. Four farm agents were assisted by county boards of commissioners and business men in displaying exhibits in the Negro Exhibit Building at the Fair. This was the first fair since February 1942.
Funds were provided for negro farm demonstration work in 10 counties the past year. Through the cooperation of vocational agriculture teachers and home agents in counties where no farm agents work, the work was carried into 10 additional counties in 1946. The Negro. District Agent closely supervised all agents in order to broaden the scope of Extension work.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Floy Britt, Negro District Home Demonstration Agent

In the supervisory program for 1946, the following goals were stressed: Family food supply, food conservation, nutrition, home improvement, clothing, health, sanitation and community work. These activities were selected because they represented the most urgent needs of the people.
Foods and Nutrition-In the field of food production, reports from agents show that 5,588 gardens were grown, 11,997 calendar fruit plantings started this year, 6,580 berry plants and vines planted, 53,936 chickens raised, 42,565 dozen eggs produced, and 2,768 families owned cows. One hundred ninety-nine milk cows were added this year.
In food conservation agents report 3,081 families canned 396,849 quarts of vegetables, fruits and meats and 124,175 containers of pickles, marmalades, poultry, fish and fruit juices.
In the field of nutrition and health 2,439 farm families improved their diets, 3,178 families made improvements in food preparation, 2,232 families improved family food supply, and 1,320 families made food supply budgets. Three thousand, one hundred ninety families served balanced meals with food locally produced and 969 families made improvement in feeding children. Also, 1,577 families put forth efforts in preventing colds and other common diseases, 759 families gave first aid treatments in their homes, and 1,599 families removed accident hazards from their homes.
Hotme Improvement-Agents report on home improvement in their counties as follows: 1,525 families improved housekeeping methods, 176 families constructed new houses, 281 families remodeled old homes, 1,257 families improved the arrangement of kitchens and other rooms, 113 families obtained electricity, and 429 families bought electrical equipment. Thirty-three families installed water systems, 5,125 farm families installed water heaters and 1,477 homes were screened. Thirty-six families installed indoor toilets and sewage systems and 28 farms families installed outside toilets. Seven hundred and seventeen families repaired homes and 307 families painted homes. Seven hundred and nine families made complete improvement of grounds, 2,169 families utilized sack materials in their homes, and 228 mattresses were made and renovated this year,
On improving the family clothing supply the agents report as follows: 3,556 garments remodeled, 14,596 new garments made for family members, 7,579 garments mended, and 16,890 household articles made. Eight hundred and forty-three families improved methods in laundering.
Community Advaneement.-Under community work agents report that 90 communities improved community recreational facilities, 14 communities provided library facilities this year, 46 communities improved school grounds and 1,039 families made use of canning centers. Forty-four communities assisted with school lunch program and 3,547 children benefited by school lunch program in these 44 schools, and 56 communities provided school gardens. Two hundred and ninety-six articles were contributed to overseas relief, 164 containers of canned products were contributed to famine relief and 670 community volunteer leaders assisted with community activities this year.
Supervision.-There have been 2 changes in negro home demonstration personnel thil year.







Annual Report, 1946 67

Financial aid has been given to help promote home demonstration work among negroes in all counties where home demonstration agents are employed.
There are 670 local leaders and other interested pople who play a very important part in helping the agents to determine programs in the counties. The assistance given by Extension specialists has proven most helpful to the negro agents.
Specialists give helpful demonstrations and assistance to all agents (men and women) at the annual conference for negro farm and home agents.
In the 10 counties supervised by the Local District Agent there are volunteer leaders including women men, boys nd girls who aid the agents in promoting county-wide program; s. Dependable persons who are good demonstrators are selected and given special training by the local agents, preparing them to render valuable assistance in their various counties.
Besides assisting the agents in getting information to the rural families, they help with community and county exhibits, fairs, achievement programs, picnics, camps and short courses. . Twenty-three business firms contributed to the support of the negro 4-H club program in 1946.
The following supervisory goals for 1946 have been reached:
Some improvement of offices and facilities in all counties.
Clerical help added to I county.
Telephone installed in I agent's office.
More financial aid has been given for conducting work in all counties.
Creditable exhibits have been shown in various counties creating a desire in farm people to better their circumstances.
Much has been done to assist in supplying the food, shelter and clothing needs of the people in the counties, but there is much yet to be done.
,Short Courses and Camps.-The Annual 4-11 Short Course for Negro Boys and Girls was held at the Florida A. and M. College in Tallahassee, beginning Tuesday afternoon, May 28, and closing Saturday morning, June 4. Enrollment in 1946 increased over 1945, with 156 girls and 11 local leaders attending.
The program for the short course was designed to help meet the needs of Florida 4-H club boys and girls. Emphasis was placed on gardening, poultry, dairying, food production, canning, home improvement, self-improvement, leadership instruction, nutrition, health, music and citizenship training. Leading girls from the various counties assisted local agents with demonstrations on gardening, canning, home improvement and selfimprovement.
Two very successful district camps for negro 4-H club girls were held in the northern and central sections of Florida, with 60 girls from 7 counties attending. Girls at both camps received training in foods, health, handicrafts, community singing, nature study, first aid, water safety and recreation.
In ' addition, a very successful camp for negro 4-11 club girls was held at the Youth Center, Alafia, Florida, on August 1-4, 1946. Forty 4-11 club girls attended. The Duval County 4-H club girls enjoyed 1 week's camp at Florida Normal College, St. Augustine. Forty-two 4-H club girls attended.
The Ministers' Institute held at Edward Waters College proved most helpful. Over 50 ministers selected a course in home and community improvement.







68 Florida Cooperative Extension


STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK

(Men and Women)

GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Months of service (Agents and Assistants) . 243 Days of service: In office-1,916; in field-4,082 . 5,998
Farm or hom e visits m ade . . 9,547 Different farms or homes visited . 4,657 Calls relating to extension work: Office-18,986; telephone . 4,481
Days devoted to work with. 4-H clubs and older youth . 2,638
News articles or stories published . 188 Bulletins distributed ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15,555
Radio talks broadcast or prepared . 11 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen . 317
Total attendance of men and women. . _ . 3,153 Method demonstration meetings -----_--------_----- . . 1,458
Total attendance . . 18,280 Meetings held at result demonstrations . ----------- 203
A ttendance . 3,302 Tours'conducted . 40
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work . 42
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings . _ . 1,161

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms in counties worked . 7t845 Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year and in past . 3,130 Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration
. and agricultural program s . 2,099 Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the
home demonstration program . 2,316 Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration and agricultural program this year . 5,004,
Different farm families influenced by some phase of the extension
program . 4,853
Other families influenced by some phase of the extension program . 2,361

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group . . . 50
U npaid . 45 P aid . 5 Communities in agricultural planning . . . 20 Members in community agricultural planning . . 129 Planning m eetings held . . 307 Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w orkers . . ---- _ 368 Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen . 427 Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen . . 455

CROP PRODUCTION
D ays devoted to w ork . 989 Communities in which work was conducted . 753 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 1,043








Annual Report, 1946 69

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work . _-__---- . 727 Communities in which work was conducted. . . 587 Voluntary committeemen and leaders -------------------------------------- _ . 466
Farm ers assisted . _ . 6,864

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
D ays devoted to w ork . . . _ . 201 Communities in which work was conducted . . . 210
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen . . . . 170 Farmers assisted in soil management . . 1,836 Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation . 1,126

FARM MANAGEMENT
D ays devoted to w ork . _ . 220 F arm ers assisted . . . 2,902
1
GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE D ays devoted to w ork . . . . 85 Communities in which work was conducted . . 82 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . . 98 Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted . 102

31ARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
D ays devoted to w ork . . . . 821 Communities in which work was conducted _--_----------- . 1,005.
Established cooperatives assisted . . ----------- -------------------------------- . 2
Value, of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during
the year (established and new) . . _ --- . . . $1,000 Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or, families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during year . ___$1,282,170

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
D ays devoted to w ork . . - . . -. 373 Communities in which work was conducted . 352 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . ---_-_---- . 452 Families assisted in house furnishings, farm buildings, surroundings,
mechanical equipment, rural electric i cation. . . 5,911

NUTRITION AND. HEALTH
D ays devoted to w ork . _ . . . 1,316 Communities in which work was done . . . . 814 Families assisted: Improving diets, 2,436; food preparation, 2,162;
total . . . __ --- . ----- _ . . 4,598
Families assisted with food-preservation problems . . 3,415

HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
D ays devoted to w ork . _ . _ . _ . 117 Communities in which work was done . _ ------- . _ . _ . 122
Voluntary leaders assisting . __ . . . 116 F am ilies assisted . . . 1,739 Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 150
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies . 421 Families assisted with consumer-buying problems ----- . _ . . 639








70 Florida Cooperative Extension

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
D ays devoted to W ork . . 234 Communities in which work was done . 156 Voluntary leaders assisting ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 153
F am ilies assisted ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3,585

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHH.,D DEVELOPMENT
D ays devoted to w ork ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 103
Communities in which work was done . . 121 Voluntary leaders assisting ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 109

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
D ays devoted to w ork ------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------- 174
Communities in which work was done . ------------------------ . 192
Voluntary leaders assisting ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 203
Families assisted in improving home recreation . 504 Communities assisted in improving recreational facilities . 115
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities, or meeting programs . ----_-------- 92
Communities assisted in providing library facilities. . . . 27

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects com pleted by boys . . -------------------------------------------- 4,301
Projects com pleted by girls . __ . -_----------------_----- : . 7,290
Boys completing corn and peanut projects . . 861 Boys completing fruit projects . ---_--_---- - ___--------------------- 101
Boys completing garden projects . 917 Boys completing market gardens, truck, and canning crops --------------_---- 120
Boys completing dairy projects . . 108 Boys completing poultry projects ------------------------------------------------------------------ 528
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects . . 98 Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ---------------------------------- 367
-Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects . --------- - . 523
Girls com pleting dairy projects ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 53
Girls completing poultry projects . - . 441 Girls completing home gardens . - . . 1,005 Girls com pleting fruit projects . . . 176 Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops . 23
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects . . 810
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid . . _ 764 Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and
room improvement projects. . . __ . _ . 1,872 Girls completing food preservation projects . . . 1,086 4-H Membership:
Boys: Farm, 2,109; non-farm, 196; total . 2,305 Girls: Farm, 2,399; non-farm, 854; total . . . 3,253 4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in Extension program . . 1,293 4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs . __ . 147






INDEX


Achievement days and exhibits, 55 Agricultural conservation, 16 Agricultural economics, 27 Agricultural engineering, 24 Agricultural Experiment Station, 7,
15, 18
Agricultural production goals, 18 Andersen, H. 0., 19 Animal husbandry, 30
Baetzman, F. E., 34 Bankers' Association, State, 39 Barrus, Edith Y., 50 Bassett, W. W., 38 Beale, Clyde, 13 Beef cattle, 30 Bevis, Joyce, 22, 56 Blacklock, R. W., 38 Boys' 4-H club work, 38 Broadcasting activities, 14 Brown, Hamlin L., 33 Brown, W. W., 38 Buildings, farm, 17, 24 Bulletins, 13
Camps, 40_55, 67 Cattle, beef, 30 Child Health Day, 58 Citrus grove management, 27 Clayton, H. G., 16 Clothing and textiles, 56 Community advancement, 66 Conservation, food, 60
soil, 9, 44
Cooper, J. Francis, 13 Cooperation with other agencies, 59 Corn and oats, 48 Cotton, 48
crop insurance, 17 Councils, junior, 53
senior, 51
County agents' work, 23 County and home agents, 45 Crops, demonstrations, 47, 64
green manure, 47 Culling poultry, 36
Dairy cattle shows and sales, 32, 33 Dairy feed payment program, 17 Dairying, 30, 33 DeBusk, E. F., 19 Dennis, R. S., 16 DDT, 31
Director's report, 7 Drainage, 26 Duroc Swine Association, 32
Editorial work, 13 Egg-Laying Test, 35 Electrification, 62 Emergency farm labor, 19 Engineering, agricultural, 24 Extension methods, 29
Farm and home planning, 28


Farm building service, 24
applications, 17 Farm forestry, 41 Farm labor, 9, 19 Farm machinery, 25 Farm management, 28 Feed production and conservation, 34 Financial statement, 8 Fite prevention, 22 Florida Bankers' Association, 39 Florida Breeders' and Hatchery Association, 35, 37
Florida Duroc Swine Association, 32 Florida Jersey Cattle Club, 34 Florida Poultry Producers' 'Association, 35, 37
Florida State Board of Health, 21 Food conservation, 60 Food, nutrition and health, 58, 66 Food selection, 54 Forest demonstrations, 43 fence post problems, 43 insects and diseases, 42
planting, 41 Freezing, 61 Fruit plantings, 60


4-H club work, 29, 33, boys, 38 camps, 40, 55 girls, 26, 52, 54, 55
short course, 40


36, 46, 51, 59


Game, fish and wildlife development,
42
Gardening and food conservation, 60 Grass, rye, 34 Grove management, citrus, 27 Guernsey Cattle Club, 34
Hampson, C. M., 28 Health and medical service, 21, 58, 65 Hog work, 32 Holloway, Ethyl, 50 Home demonstration work, 50
organization, 50
program planning, 52
meeting needs of farm families, 52
volunteer leaders, 52
Home gardens and fruit plantings, 60
improvement, 62, 66
beautify cation, 63
consumer interests, 63
electrification, 62 management, 63
safety, 22, 54
Household textiles, 57 Housing, 8, 24, 62
state committee, 8
Improvement, professional, 7 Industries, home, 55 Insurance, cotton, 17 Irish potato goals, 17
Jersey Cattle Club, 34







Index


Johnson, John M., 24 Junior home demonstration councils,
53

Keown, Mary E., 50

Labor, farm, 9, 19 Livestock work, 30, 64 Local leaders, 52 Logan, J. 11., 34

Machinery development, 26 Marketing quotas, 17 McClane, T. K., 44 McDavid, Ruby, 50 McLendon, H. S., 19 McMullen, K. S., 23, 44 Meal 'planning, 54 Mehrhof, N. R., 34 Men's work, 23 Moore, Virginia P., 62

National Home Demonstration Week,
13
National Poultry Improvement Plan,
35
National Safety Council, 22 Naval stores, 42 Negro home demonstration work, 66
food and nutrition, 66 home improvement, 66
community advancement, 66
supervision, 66
short course and camps, 67 Negro work, 64
health and recreation, 65
leadership, 65
special events, 65
crop and livestock production, 64
improving farm equipment, 64 Nettles, W. T., 23 Newspapers and farm journals, 14 Nieland, L. T., 22, 41 Noble, C.,V., 27

Oats, 33, 48 Oil, fuel in syrup cooking, 26 Office of Price Administration, 33

Pastures, 48 Peaden, P. L., 19 Peanuts, 47 Perry, F. S., 34 Personnel, 7 Planning, farm and home, 28 Potato goals, Irish, 17 Poultry, 30, 54 activities, 34 culling, 36 miscellaneous, 37
national improvement plan, 35 Poultry Institute, 37 Printed materials, 13 Production and Marketing Administration, 9, 14, 17, 48


Production goals, 18 Publications, news, radio, 13

Radio programs, 13, 38, 41 Record books, 28 Recreation, 65 Retirement system, 7 Rural Electrification Administration,
26, 62
Rye, 34
Rye grass, 34

Safety and fire prevention, 22 Sanitation and management, dairy
herds, 34
Savage, Zach, 27 Seed drying, 26 Shealy, A. L., 30 Sheely, W. J., 30 Sikes, Anna Mae, 58 Smith, J. Lee, 23, 47 Soil and water conservation, 44 Soil conservation, 9, 44
activities by agents, 46
new soil districts, 45
Soil Conservation Service. 33, 44 Soils and farm crops, 47 Spencer, A. P., 7, 23 State Advisory Committee, 19 State Forest Service, 41 State Housing Committee, 24 State Livestock Sanitary Board, 32,
35
State Soil Conservation Board, 9 State Veterans' Advisory Committee, 28
Statistical report, 9
negro work, 68
Statistical summary, housing and
farm buildings, 25 Sugar, 17
Swine work, 32 Syrup, cooking with oil, 26

Textiles, 56 Thomas, Jefferson, 13 Timber marketing, 41 Tractor maintenance short course, 26 Turner, A. A., 64

United States Department of Agriculture, 7, 15, 18, 24

Veterans, assistance to, 18, 28 Victory farm volunteers, 21 Visual aids, 15

Water conservation, 44 Watkins, M. 0., 7 Wildlife development, 42 Work of county agents, 23 Work with women.and girls, 50 WRUF, 14




Full Text

PAGE 1

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS ( Acts of l\lay 8 and Jone 30, 1914) Airrtcultural Extension Service, University of Florida Florida State College for Women And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating A. P. Spencer, Director 1946 REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1946 with •FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1946

PAGE 2

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND IlOME ECONOMICS ( Acts of May 8 and Jnne 30, 1914) Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida Florida State College for Women And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating A. P. Spencer, Director 1946 REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE REPORT OF ,GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1946 with ,FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1946

PAGE 3

BOARD OF CONTROL J. THos. GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando M. L. MERSHON, Miami J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy THOS. W. BRYANT, Lakeland J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Talla~assec STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Director of Extension MARSHALL 0. WATKINS, B.S.A., Assistant to the Director . . Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor' CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor' JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor' RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager' W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist . E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor . H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Asst. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor HANS 0. ANDERSEN, B.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL P. L. PEADEN, M.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Director, P. & M. Admin. R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Director, P. & M. Admin . R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent W. W. BROWN, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist' N. R. MEHRHOF, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman' FRANK S. PERRY, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husbandman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist 1 CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing 2 K. S. McMULLEN, B.S.A., District Agent JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee MARYE. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition ISABELLE s. THURSBY, Specialist in Food Conservation JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent 1 Part-time. 2 On leave. [ 2]

PAGE 4

CONTENTS Page Director's Report .................................................................................................... 7 Statistical Report ............................... ,... ....... ......... ... ... .... . .............. ....... .. . ...... 9 Publications, News, Radio ............... . . ... .................. .. ... ... ...................... ... ............ 13 Agricultural Conservation and Related Programs ........ .. .. .............. ..... . . ....... 16 Emergency _ Farm Labor .................. ... ........................................... : . ... . .. .......... ...... 19 Safety and Fire Prevention ......... .... ........................... ...... ..................... . ............ 22 Work of County Agents ........................................... . .. ....... ...................... .. ........... 23 Agricultural Engineering ... .... ..... ... .................................................................... 24 Agricultural Economics ................ . .. .. ....................... .... .. .. ................. . . . ... ......... .... 27 Citrus Grove Management ....... . :, .................................................................... 27 Farm Management Activities ............... . ........................................................ 28 Animal Husbandry, Dairying, Poultry ....... ....... ............ .. . ......... ............. ........... 30 Animal Husbandry ............ _. .. : ......................................................................... 30 Dairying ........ ......... . .. ................ ...... ... .... ................ ....... ... ................ . ..... .. ........... 33 Poultry ........................................ ... ...................................................... ... . . . . . .. . . ... 34 Boys' 4-H Club Work . . . . ................ .. ......................... . . ..... ... : .................. .. . .... ......... 38 Farm Forestry ...... . . . .......................... .... ............. ........... ... ........................ .... .......... 41 Soil and Water Conservation ........ ......... . .. . . ........ ... . ... . ...... ...... . .......... ....... . .. ......... 44 Soils and Farm Crops . .. ........ .. ..... . ... .. .... .. ............ ... . ....... . . ............ .. ...... . ....... ......... 47 Home Demonstration Work ...... ... .... . ...................... ........... ............... ... .. . ............ 50 Clothing and Textiles ................ . ..... .... .. .................................... ........................... 56 Food, Nutrition and Health . .... .... ... . .... ... . . . ....... ....... ........ ...... .... ............... . ... .. .. .. 58 Gardening and Food Conservation . . .... ....... . ............ ..... ..................................... 60 Home Improvement 62 Negro Farm Demonstration Work .. . ... . .... .. ........................................ ..... . ......... 64 Negro Home Demonstration Work .......................................................... . ......... 66 Negro Statistical Report ........... .. ............ . ........... .... ...................... .. ... . ........... 68 [ 3]

PAGE 5

COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS (As of December 31, l94G) HOME DEMONSTTIATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT Alachua_ .......... Loonis Blitch ..... _ ............ Gainesville_. Mrs. Josephine McSwine Alachua ........... T. H. McRorie, Jr. Gainesville Baker ............. _. J. Raymond Mills--•-Macclenny Bay .................... M. B. Miller ............ -•--Panama City Bradford .......... T. K. McClane, Jr .......... Starke Brevard .......... _.J. T. Oxford .............. .... _._ .......... _ .... Mrs. Eunice F. Gay Broward ........... B. E. Lawton ................ _. Ft. Lauderdale ........ Miss Louise Taylor Broward ........... Robert S. Pryor (Asst.)Ft. Lauderdale Calhoun ......... _ .. Troy Penton ................. __ .Blountstown........... Mrs. Lucille Clark Charlotte .... N. H. McQueen .. Gorda Citrus .............. _ 0. M. Maines .................. Inverness ............ Mrs. Doris R. Turner Clay .... Gn. Cve. Sgs ... Mrs. Read Crow Shettler Columbia .......... J. M. Kennedy ..... --•-----Lake City ............ Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell Dade ...... C. H. Steffani.. .. Miami.. .... Eunice Grady Dade ... .. Lawrence Edwards Miami... ..... Miss Edna L. Sims (Asst.) Dade .. Miami... ........... Miss Olga Kent (Asst.) DeSoto ........... -,.W. L. .. Dixie ... _ ............. C. L. Dickinson .............. Cross City .. S. Lawton ................... Jacksonville ............ Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval... ............. G. T. Huggins (Asst.).. (Asst.) Escambia ......... E. H. Finlayson .............. Pensacola-............ Miss Ethel Atkinson Escambia ......... J. B. Walker (Asst.) ..... Pensacola .. .............. : Gadsden ............ A. G. Driggers ............... Quincy ..... ................ Miss Elise Laffiti:e Quincy ...... Miss Margaret Rish (Asst.) Gilchrist.---A, S. Laird ....................... Trenton .. Glades ........ , ...... A. G. Hutchinson .......... Moore Haven ...................................... .... . Gulf ............ R. Laird ...................... \Vewahitchka .... Mrs. Wilma A. Revell Hardee .............. E. H. Vance ..................... Wauchula ........ Miss Mildred J. Taylor Hardee .............. Earl G. Rodgers (Asst.)Wauchula Hendry ............. H. L. Johnson ................. LaBelle .. . Hernando ......... H. J. BrinkleY-----Brooksville ......... ..................................... . Highlands ........ V. T. Oxer ..................... ___ Sebring .. __ Catherine Brabson Hillsborough ... Alec White .................... .. Tampa ... .. Lora Kiser Hillsborough_._Edwin Booth (Asst.) ..... Tampa Hillsborough .. _J, O. Armor (Asst.) ...... Plant City ___ .Miss Emily King (Asst.) Holmes ............ _Stuart C. Bell .... .... __ ............ Miss Carolyn Clark Indian River .... M. A. Jackson .......... _.J, W. Malone .................. Marianna............. Mrs. Alyne C. Heath Jackson ............ Vacant (Asst.) .............. ............ __ ....... .... . Jefferson ........ --E, N. Stephens ... .......... Monticello ....... _._Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter Lafayette ......... S. L. ... _._ .. _ .. _ ........ ---.. .. Lake ......... E. Norris ................. _ .. .. __ Mrs. Lucie K. Miller Lake .............. _ .. J. P. Hill (Asst.) ............ ..... _ ...... _ .. _._ ............... . Lee .................. -.C, P. Heuck. ....... __ .......... J;~ort Myers ...... .. .. Leon .................. James L. Rhoden_......... Tallahassee............. Miss Wilma Smith Levy .................. T. D. Tickenbaker ....... _._Bronson .............. _ ..... Miss Lila Woodard Liberty ............. Va can L ........... ... --.Bristol ....... ..................................... ..... . Madison ......... --W, W. Glenn ................. Bennie F .. Wilder Madison ........ __ .Eric R. Mills, Jr. (Asst.) .. .. Manatee ........... Ed L. Ayers ........ Bradenton ........... --.Mrs. Anne D. Davis Manatee ........... A. B. Alford, Jr. (Asst.) .. Bradenton ......................... Marion ........... .. Carl Hendricks ............... Ocala ............. _ ........ Miss Allie Lee Rush Marion .............. S. B. Parnell (Asst.) .... _Qcala ..... .......................... , ... . [ 4 l

PAGE 6

HmIE DE MONSTR ATIO N C O UNTY COUNT Y AGENT AD D RESS AGENT Martin .... ...... .. .. L. M. Johnson .... . .. .......... Stuart ...... . . .. .. . ... ... . .. . . Miss Lucile Inscoe Nassau . . ... .. ...... . Gordon B. Ellis ...... ... ..... Rilliard .... . . . .. ...... ............ ... . . ............ . ....... ... . Okeechobee ..... C. R. Boyles ..... . ............... Okeechobee . . .. . ...... . .. . . ... . .. ... . ....... . .. . . ... ....... . Okaloosa . . : : .. .. .. F. W. Barber ..... ... .......... Crestview ...... . . ..... ........ .......... ........ . . . .. . ...... . Orange ... ........ . . F. E. Baetzman ......... ..... Orlando .... .... Miss Elizabeth Dickenson Osceola ............. J. R . Gunn .. . ... .... . . ... ... ... .. Kissimmee .. .. .. . ......... . . Miss Ruth Wilder Palm Beach .. ... M. U. Mounts . ..... .. .... . .... W. Palm Bch ..... Miss Bertha Hausman Palm Beach ... . JI. L . Speer (Asst.) ........ Belle Glade .... Mrs. Mildred J. Michaud (Asst.) Pasco ........... .. ... J. F. Higgins ..... .. ............ Dade City ..... ... .. .. .... Mrs. Essa D. Gould Pinellas . . ... . .. ..... J . H . Logan . . .. . . . ....... .... . .. . Clearwater .. . .... .... . .... Miss Tillie Roese! Pinellas . ..... ..... ...... ... . .. .... . ..... ..... .. .. .. .. . ... ... .. . Clearwater . .... ... Miss Emma Stevenson (Asst.) Polk. ......... .... ..... W. P . Hayman ... . ............ Bartow ......... ..... .... Miss Elma B. Willis Polk ......... ... .. ... .. W. H. ~endrick (Asst.). Bartow ... .. .............. .... .. ... .. . . ............. ... ... . ... . Putnam . ... .. ...... H. E. Maltby .. . .. .. ....... . .... Palatka . ... Mrs . Elizabeth W. Starbird Putnam .... . ... . ... V. H. Major (Asst.) ....... Palatka ......... . .............. ..... ............... .......... . St. Johns ... . ...... Ross V. Swartsel.. .... ...... St. Augustine ........ Miss Anna E. Heist St. Lucie .... .... ... C. D . Kime ...... ....... .. . ....... Fort Pierce . . . .. ... . .. ...... .... : . ............. Vacant Santa Rosa . .. ... E. D. McCall . .. , ..... . .. . . . . ... Milton .. . .. . . .. . ...... . .. .... ... ... .. . . ........... Vacant Santa Rosa ...... J. N. Watson (Asst . ) .... Milton ....... . .. ... ................... .. .............. . .. . .. ... . Seminole ..... . ..... C. R. Dawson ....... . .......... Sanford ......... .... ....... Mrs. Ouida Wilson Sarasota ........... W. E. Evans .. ... .. . . . .......... sarasota ......... . .......... Miss Sara Horton Sumter .... , ... . . .. . Kenneth A . Clark. .. ..... .. Bushnell .... ... ....... . , ..... . .... . ............ .. .. .. . ... .. .. . Suwannee .. . ... .. . S. C . Kierce . . . .. . . . . .. .......... Live Oak. . .... Miss Geraldine Crawford Suwannee ....... :w. J . Cowen (Asst.) ..... .Live Oak ..................... . ... ... ........... ..... . . .... . Taylor ...... .... .... D. D. M;cCloud ... . . . .......... Perry ......... .. . .. .............. Mrs. Ruth Elkins Union .. .. ... ......... J. T. Holloway . ..... .......... .Lake Butler .. . .. . .. .... ....... : .. . ...... . .. . . ... . ... . . .... . Volusia . . .... ...... . William J. Platt, Jr ....... DeLand .. ... ..... .. . . .... Mrs . Gladys Kendall . Wakulla .. . ........ Harry E . George . . .......... Crawfordville . .. . .............. .. ... ....... . ............. . Walton ... . .. ... .. ... Mitchell Wilkins . . . ..... .... .DeFuniak Springs ......... ........ ........ . . . ... . ... . Washington .. . .. H. o. Harrison . . . .... ......... Chipley ....... ........... ......... ...... .............. ........ . NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY NEGRO COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS Alachua .. . ... ..... .......... ... .. .................. Richard A. Hartsfield (Acting) .. Gainesville Columbia . ......... ... ............. ........ ....... . McKinley Jeffers . ..... . .. ................ . ... .Lake City . Gadsden ... . . .. . . ........ .. ...... .. ......... . .. .... Russell Stephens .. ...... ............ .... ........ .. .. Quincy Hamilton .... . . . .......... . ... .. .. . ..... . .......... N. H. Bennett ........ . . .. ............. ... White Springs Jackson .. .. . . . ...... .......... ... ........... .... . ... Thomas A. Harris ......... ......... ... ......... Marianna Jefferson ............. ...... ......... ...... ........ M. E. Groover ..... ... . ... .. . ....... .. . ... ... .. ... Monticello Leon . ..... ............. ... . .. .... . . ... .... .. . . .. ... .. . English M. Greene . .. . ............ ... .. . . . Tallahassee Madison ..... .. ... . . .. . ....... . : .. .......... ....... James C . Miller . . .. .. .. .. . . .. : .... . .. .. . ... . ........ Madison Marion ......................... ... ............ ... . . . Eugene P. Smith ... .. . .............. . .... . .. .. ........ Ocala Sumter ..... .. . . ........... ... . .. ................. .. Richard L. Bradley . ................. . . . ......... Bushnell C O UNTY NEG RO HOME DE1''1. AGENT ADDRESS Alachua .... . ................. .. .... .. . ..... .... .. . .Leontine Williams .. .... .... .. . ........ . .... Gainesville Columbia ............ ... . ....... . .... . ............. Ozella Sansome ... ... . .... . . ..... ..... . . ........ .Lake City Duval ....... . . . . . .............. . .. . .................. Ethel M. PowelL .... ................ .... .. Jacksonville Gadsden . .. . ...... ...... ....... . . ............ ...... . Diana H. Spencer . ... ......... .. . ........ ......... . Quincy Hillsborough . ............ ....... ....... .. .... . . . Sudella J. Ford .. .. .. ... .......... .. . ... . .. . .. ........ . Tampa Jackson .... .. . .. , ........ : .... . . . .. . ............. . . Annie Doris Preston . . ............... .. .. . .. .. Marianna Leon ........... '. ............. ... , .. ..... ............. . Jewel P. McGriff ... ... . .... ......... .... . ... Tallahassee Madison ..... ...... ........ .. . ... ............. .. . . .. Althea Ayer .......... . ................. .. . . .......... Madison Marion ......... . . .... ...... . ..... . ............... ... Idella R. Kelly ... ........................... .. .. . . .. Reddick Putnam ......... ..... .... . ..... . . ...... ......... .. . .Lee Ella Gamble .... : . ... .......... .. . ... .. : ..... .. Palatka Volusia (Asst . ) ...... .. . ..... ........ ..... . . . . lda T. Pemberton .. .. ................. . .... . .. ..... DeLand [ 5]

PAGE 7

Fig . 1. Fl or ida cat tl emen h ave improved and fertiliz e d thousands of acres of range pastures during the year .

PAGE 8

Part 1-General DIRECTOR'S REPORT A. P. Spencer, Director M. 0. Watkins, Assistant to the Director Developments affecting the farmers' income must necessarily be taken into consideration in planning an Extension educational program. With conditions approaching normal there are certain farm products now in abundance affecting the prices received by the producers and in turn the consumer's consumption of that production. Extension must be in a posi tion to promote the best interests of agriculture and home economics with accurate information that will guide in production '• and marketing. Personnel.-The increase in Extension personnel has served to assist county and home agents in the performarice of their regularly assigned responsibilities for educational programs among rural people. Insofar as county funds can be made available, it is the policy of the Extension Service to increase the .number of assistant county and home agents to the extent that such services are needed. There is a definite need for an increase in personnel to serve as assistants so that projects of importanc e to agriculture and home economics may be continued and expanded . Some assignments have been delayed due to difficulty in finding persons who have the professional and personal qualifications. The assignment of assistant agents serves as a training procedure for building up a staff of personnel well qualified to perform Extension duties. It is the Extension policy that the counties shall maintain their contri butions and defray a part of the expenses of Extension work. Through the cooperation of county boards, a riumber of county budgets provide for assistant agents. The assistants are assigned specific duties with special emphasis on 4-H club work. During the current year 30 percent of Florida 1 counties were served by assistant agents who are agricultural and home 1 economics graduates. Retirement System.-Since January 1, 1946, 9 Florida Agricultural Ex tension Service workers have retired. Thes e workers had a total of over 240 years of service. The shortest period of service was 20 years and 3 months, the longest 30 years and 6 months. Practically all county and home demonstration agents and part of the State staff are enrolled in the State Teachers' Retirement System. State staff members not participating in the Teachers' Retirement System are eligible to be enrolled in the State Officers' and Employees' Retirement System . Professional Improvement--To provide refresher training for new men and women Extension workers and those recently returned from military service, a course in agricultural Extension methods was offered during the summer of 1946. The course carried 3 hours University of Florida credit . . Details of the course were worked out by a committee. .The USDA Ex tension Service cooperated by sending staff members to give the majority of the lecturers. Other lectures, demonstrations and assistance with work shops were given by the Director of the South Carolina Extension Service, members of the staff of the Florida Agricultural Extension S~rvice, Agri cultural Experiment Station workers, and faculty members of the Univer sity of Florida. The course was under the supervision of a faculty mem ber of the Coilege of Agriculture. [ 7]

PAGE 9

8 Florida Cooperative E x tension Thirty-nine extension workers, 1 senior and 1 graduat e student took the course. The Annual Extension Agents' Conference was held October 21-25, 1946. Morning sessions were joint programs and w e re devoted to overall discus sion of problems . For the afternoon s e ssions the men and women met separately and discussed subject matter and methods of getting the jobs done. Housing Program.-Early in 1946 the Agricultural Extension Service invited in for a conference the heads of agencies functioning in the State which were interested in education in the field of rural housing. The group organized for the purpose of working out a coordinated program and asked the Extension Service to act as coordinator. As a start , the group sel e cted 3 counties in the State to be known as demonstration c ounties and asked the county workers whose agencies were r e presented on the State Committ~e to work together to solve 2 or 3 housing problems most needing attention in the respective counties. This project is now functioning in the 3 counties with assistanc e from the State Committee in the form of plans, visual aids, referenc e material, etc. The following agencies are represent e d on the State Committe e : Agricultural Extension Service; State Department of Educ a tion; State Board of Health ; Project of Applied Economics of the College of Education, University of Florida; School of Home Economics, Florida State Coll e g e for Women; Farmers' Home Administration; and Rural Electrification Administration . The following ag e ncies have be e n asked to serve as consultants to the State Committee as the need ar i ses: Veterans' Administration, National Farm Loan Associations, Florida Tuberculosis and He a lth Association ; Production Credit Associations, Master Plumbers' Association, Federal Housing Administration. Federal Funds: . FINANCING EXTENSION WORK Financial Statement 1945-46 Smith-Lev e r, Bankhead-Jones ............... . .. . .. . . ... . ... $200,645.82 Capper-Ketcham ......... .. . .... . .. .. . . ...................... .. . .. .... 27,417 . 72 Bankhead-Flannagan 77,910.28 Clark-McNary ... . . ...... .. . . . ..... . . .. . . ....... .. . . .. . .... . ....... .. . . . 1,620 . 00 State Appropriations: Legislatur e (Annual) ... . . ... .. . ................. . . .. . .... . . ..... $108,800.00 Continuing, Chapter 6141 . . . ... . ................. .. .. .. . . ... . . . 5,000 . 00 Continuing, Chapter 19216 . . . . . .. . . .. ..... .. . . .... ... . . , ..... . 80,400 . 00 Sales Fund (Incidental) .. . . ..... .. .. ... . .. ...... . ... . ....... . .. 11,000 . 00 $307,593.82 $205,200.00 Grand Total . .... . . . ... . . . .. ........... . ..... ...... . . ... . ................ . . ... .. .. $512, 793.82 The Federal funds shown above are provided by Congr e ss and are allotted to the Department of Agriculture and in turn to the states as pro vided in the or i ginal Smith-Lever Act. The provisions governing Smith Lever funds w e re made effecti v e in 1914 and govern in a general way the allotment of funds provided by subsequent Congresses in the Bankhead Jones Act, the Capper-Ketcham Act and the Bankhead-Flannagan Act. The Smith-Lever Act _ and subsequent acts have provisions that th e states must provide offset funds. Federal funds are distributed to respec tive states on the basis of rural to urban populations. Stat e funds re

PAGE 10

Annual Report, 1946 9 quired as offset are governed by the same regulations as federal funds . The Extension program is handled through the project system and Florida is now operating under 19 definite projects. There are 5 main classifications, as follows: Administration, Publications and Information Material, County and Home Demonstration Work in the Counties, Specia lists in Farm and Home Projects, and Negro Work. Four-H Club work, which comes under a specialist classification , covers boys' and girls' pro grams. Specialists' programs cover salaries and expenses of various specialists attached to the respective projects. County and home demon stration work takes up the larger part of Extension funds expended, this being the main feature and purpose of agricultural Extension work in the State . County operations are carried on in 63 counties and e . ach county con tributes a proportionate part of the needed expenses for the successful operation of the work. County appropriations are provided by boards of county commissioners and school boards and vary with the ne e ds in the counties. Work with farm labor and soil conservation and the production and marketing administration has been financed primarily from federal funds and through the cooperation of the Extension Service. The programs operate largely through Extension offices and personnel throughout the State . Farm Labor.-The emerg e ncy farm labor program provides largely for distribution of migrant farm l a bor and has been handled in cooperation with the Office of Labor of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and ad ministered by a special staff. County agents serve as the main adminis trators in their respective counties. Soil Conservatlon.-Through appointment p y the State Soil Conservation Board, the Director of Extension serves as the administrator of the State Soil Conservation Act. The E x tension Service is the edu c at i onal agency for this program and the county agents s e rve as secretari e s to the district boards of supervi s ors, providing informational material which corresponds with recommendations of the Experiment Station and Extension Service . This policy determines to a large extent the type of soil conservation pro gram carried out in the districts and provides a definite coordination be tween the Soil Conservation Service , the Extension Service and the Experi ment station. Production and Marketing Administration . -The Director of Extension is ex-officio member of the State Production and Marketing Administra tion Committee. This work is carried on . in the counties through the county agents' offices. The county agent serves as secretary and ex-officio member of the county committee and is in charge of records and educa tional programs . By this arrangement Production and Marketing Admin istration programs are coordinated with the program of the county agent , the Experiment Station, College of Agriculture and U. S. Department of Agriculture. STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN Data from County and Hom e Demonstration Agents' Reports GENERAL ACTIVITIES Months of service (agents and assistants) .... . . ... .. ...... .......... ..... ... ... . . . . .. . . Days of service: In office-16 , 621; in field-17 , 876 ........... . .. ..... .. . ... . . . Farm or home visits made . ..... . . .. . ..... . ............. . . ...... . . . .. ... . ............ .. . ... .. . ... . , .. . Diff e rent farms or homes visited . . ....... ...... . . ... . ... . . , ............ ..... . . . ... . . . ... . . ..... . 1,421 34,497 56,592 31,390

PAGE 11

10 Flo r ida Cooperative E x tension Calls relating to extension work: Office-261,145; Telephone .... ... . 149,727 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth........ .. ... . . . ...... .... 9,794 News a rticles or stories published . . .. ...... . .. . . . . : 6,466 Bulletins distributed . ... .......... .. . . ............ .. . . . . ...... . . . . .. ...... .. ... .... ...... . .. . . .. ......... . 198,630 Radio talks broadcast or prepared... .. . .. .. . ....... ... . .. ..... . .... ..... ... . ..... . ........... . . 738 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen : Number .. . . ... . . ...... . . . . .. : , ...... .. . .. . . . . .... . ... ...... ... . . .... .. . ..... .. . ... .... . ... ... .... . . . ...... .. . 544 Total attendance of men and women..... ... . . ......... . . .... ........ ... .. .. .......... 6,980 Method demonstration meetings: Number . . . ..... . .. ..... ...... .. . .. .... .. . . . .. . .. . .. ..... ... . . .......... ....... .... . .. ...... . . .... . .. .. . .. . .. . 7,963 Total attendance . . ............. . ......... . . . ........... . . .. ............. . .......... ...... ........ .. . 154,890 Meetings held at result d e monstrations: Number . .... .. .. . . ..... ........ .. . . .. . ...... . . ... .. . .. . . .. .. . . . . . ...... ...... . . .... .. .. .. . . . . . . ..... .. . .. ... . Attendance . . ........ .. . . . . ........ ... . ... ..... ..... . .. ....... .. . . . . .......... ..... ...... . . . . . : . ....... ... . Tours . . . . . . ......... . , ............ ... ........ . . . . ... . . ......... . .... . ......... .. . . ........ ... . . ...... .. . .. ............ . Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ... . .. . .. . . . . .. . Encampments , leader meetings and other m e etings . .. ... ....... .. . . ... ... ... . ... . . SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE . 1,182 18,239 318 452 6,265 Total number of farms . .. . ........ .. ........... . . . ... .. ........... .. ........... .. ........ . . .... ....... .... 61,108 Farms on which changes in practic e s have resulted from agricultural program ..... . . ... . .. . .. . .... .. . . . . . .. . .. . . .. ..... .. ..... ..... ... . . . . ... . . . .. ... . . .... .. . . .. . ... . . 28 , 632 Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home demonstration program .... ......... . .. . . . ......... . .. . ........ . ... .. .. . ......... .... ........ .. 16,785 Farms in which chang e s in pr a ctices r e sulted from agricultural program for the first time this year ....... ... . . ... . . . . ...... ..... . . .... .... . .. ... . .. ..... .. 5,625 Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home demonstration program for first time this year. .. .. . . . .... . ... . .... . .... . . . . 3,074 Farm homes with 4-H club members enroll e d .... ... . . .... . .. ..... .. . .. . .... . ... .. .. . 10 , 27 8 Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the agricultural program .... . . . . .. .. . ........ .. ......... .. . ... .......... . .. . ........... .. .. .. ........ . 12,405 Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home demonstration pro g ram . . . . ....... . . . . . .. .. ........ . . .. ........ . .. .... ....... . .. .. ........ . .. . . 18,615 Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled .... .. .......... . . ... ........ . . . 6,267 Different farm families influenced by some phase of extimsion program ........ .... ..... .. . ..... . .. .. . .... ... . . . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . . .. ..... .. ... ....... . .. ... ..... .. . .. . . . . .. . 37,909 Other families influenced by-some phase of extension program ......... . 28,874 COOPERATIVE _ AGRICULTURAL PLANNING Members in agricultural planning group . ....... . ... . ........... .... ......... . ... . ....... .. . Unpaid . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . ..... . . .... . . . . ... . .. .. . . ..... . ..... ... .. . ... . ... . .. . ..... . .... . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. ... . .. . Paid . . ... . . ... . .. .... . ... ... . .. .. . ... ... . .. . . .... . . ...... ........... .... .. .. .. ........... .... ..... . ..... ... .... . Communities in agricultural planning .. . . ......... .... ........ .... ......... . . . .. .. ........ . . . Members in community agricultural pl a nning . . . . ... . ....... ... ... .... . .. .... ..... . .. . . Planning meetings held ... ... . . . , ... .. . . .. .. .... .. . . . . . .. .... . .. .. . . .. . ........ . . . . ... .. .. .... .. .. .. .... . Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration workers . ... ............... . .......... . . . . . ........ . . . . .. ..... .. . .. . .. ....... .. . ... ....... . .. ... . . ........ . . Unpaid voluntary leaders of committeemen . . .. . .. . ... . . . .. . .... .... .. . .. .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen CROP PRODUCTION Days devoted to work. ....... ...... .. . . . . ....... .. .. ... .......... .... ...... .. . . . . . . ..... . . ....... ..... . .. . . Communities in which work was conducted .. .... . .... ... .. .. ....... ... . .. . . .......... . Voluntary leaders and committeemen ... .. ... . .. . ....... . . .. . . . .. .. .. . .. ... ... .. . ... ... . .. .. . 483 343 140 45 229 1 , 128 2,285 2,062 4,320 7,114 3,005 1 , 35 5

PAGE 12

Ann . ual Report, 1946 LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY Days devoted to work . . ...... .. . ..... . . .. . ... ..... .. ... .. . .. ... . .. ...... .... . .... . , ... .... . . .. .... .. .. .... . Communities in which work was conducted . . . .. ..... . . . . ..... ....... . , .. .. . ..... ....... . Voluntary committeemen and leaders ........ . . . .. . .......... . ............ . ... .. ....... . .. .. . Breeding and improvement organizations .. . .......... ... .. . . . .. . . ... . . . . . ..... ........ ... . Farmers assisted . . ... ... . .. .. ... ... .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . ...... .. . . ............ . . . ....... ...... ...... .. ... . ... . CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Days devoted to work ....... . . .. . . .. .. . . .... . ... . ....... .. ... . . ... .... . .. ... . .. . . ... . . .. . .. . ... ....... .. .. . Communities in which work was conducted .. .. . ........ .. . . ........ . .. .... ....... . . . . . . . Voluntary local leaders and comm i tteemen . . .. ...... . . ..... . ... . ... ... .. .. .. .. ... . .... . .. . Farmers assisted in soil management . ......... . ... .. .. . .. .. . .. . . . . ... ... . ...... : . . . ... . . . . . . Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation ... . . .. ............ . . . . . FARM MANAGEMENT 11 5,519 2,320 939 30 30,180 1,479 977 474 39 , 221 6,550 Days devoted to work .... ..... . . ... .. . .......... ... ....... ...... ........ .. . .. . .. ...... ..... . .. ........ .. . .. 1,245 Farmers assisted GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE Days devoted to work . . . . . ... .. . .. .. . ... . .... . . . . . . ..... . . . . .... ..... . . . ... ... . .. .... . . . .. . ....... ....... . . 363 Communities in which work was conducted . .. . . .. . ... . . .. .. .. . .... ... . .. . . . ... ... .. . . . . . 399 Voluntary leaders and committeemen .. .... . . . .. .. ........... .... .... ,..... . .. .. ..... ... .. . .. 415 Agricultural and non .. agriCultural groups assisted . .. .. ........ .. . .. .. . .... . . . .. . .. . 877 1"1:ARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Days devoted to work .... ..... . . .. . .... ..... .... ... .. .... ..... .......... . . ... . . ..... . . . . ... .... .... .. . . ... . Communities i n which work w as conducted .. . ... .... ... . . ... . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .... ........ . Established cooperatives assisted . . .. . .. : . ...... , . . .. . .. .... .. . ... ... .. . . .. . . .. . .. .. ...... . . ... . New cooperatives assisted in organizing .... . ............ .. . .. . . ......... . . ............ . .. . . Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during 2,647 2 , 859 78 28 the year (established and new) . ... . .. .. .. .. . .... .... . . ... .. .... .. . .. .. . . . ....... .. $13,624,785 Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not members of cooperatives) assisted during the year . .. .. .. . .. .... .. $42 , 077,6 6 3 HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT Days devoted to work .. .... ...... . . .. . . ... ........ .. . .. ... .. ... . ... . ... .. . . . ....... .... .... .... ... . .... . . . . Communities in which work was conducted . . ..... ... ... . . . . ..... ..... . ..... .. .. . . . .. . . . . Voluntary leaders and committeem e n .......... .. . . . ......... . . .. ...... . ... .... ....... . ... .. . Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical equipment , rural electrification , and farm buildings . . .... . . : . .. .... . . .. .. . . NUTRITION AND HEALTH 2,233 . 1,546 878 36,901 Days devoted to work . .... . ... .. . ....... .. . ... ... .. .. .... .. . ... . . ....... . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . ... . ... . . .... .. . .. . 5,172 Communities in which work was done..... ... ... .. . . .. ... ... ... . .. .. .. .. .. ... . . . . .. . .... ..... 2,415 Families assisted: In improving diets-18,597; food preparation10,448; total ...... .... ..... . .. .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. ... . . . . .. . ... . .. . . . ..... . . . .. . .. . ..... . . .. ... . . ... .. . . . . .... 29,045 Families assisted with food preservation problems .. . .... . . . ........ . .. . ... . .. . ... 22,393 HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS Days devoted to work . . . .. ....... . .. .. ..... ....... .. .. ...... ....... . .. ... ... . .. . .. . ... .. .... .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . Communities in which work was done . .......... . ......... . .... .. ........... .. ........ . .. . .. . Voluntary leaders assisting . . .. .. .. ......... .. ... . ... . .. . .. . .. .. .. . . . .. '. . . . .. . ..... ... . .... .. .. . . .. . .. . Families assisted ... . . . . . ... .. .... . .... . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. . .. .. . .... . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . , 466 426 303 3,429

PAGE 13

12 Florida Cooperative Extension Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 382 Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies .... .. . .. . .. 10,476 Families assisted with consumer-buying problems .... ..... ... .... .. ........ . ....... 12,753 CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Days devoted to work ... . .... ... ... ............ . . .... . . . ..... .. . .. . . ... .. ....... .. ....... ... ............. . . Communities in which work was done .. .. ....... . .................. . ................ . . . ..... . Voluntary leaders assisting .. .... ..... ....... .. : ....... ... ..... ... ... . . . . ............ . .. . ..... ... ..... . Families assisted . .... ...... .. ..... ...... .... ..... ...... .. ....... . ................. . ....... .. ....... ... ..... . FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT 1,441 570 421 21,588 Days devoted to work. .. .. ..... . !. ...... ... .. .... ..... ......... ... .. . .. . . ...... . ..... .. . .. ...... ..... . ... 369 Communities in which work was done... . ................. . ........ .... ...... . ............... 357 Voluntary leaders assisting .... ... ........... . .. : .. ... ... ...... . .... . ..... .. ..... .. .... ....... . . .... ... 201 RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE Days devoted to work ........................................................ , ............. . .............. . Communities in which work was done .... . . ............ . .. . .................. . ...... . . . .. . .. . Voluntary leaders assisting ..... ... ........................ . ........ ... ..... . ........ .... ..... . . . ..... . Families assisted in improving home recreation .. ..... . .... . . ............ ... . . .. . ... . Communities assisted in improving community recreational facilities Community groups assisted with organizational problems , programs of activities, or meeting programs .................. : ........................... . ...... . Communities assisted in providing library facilities ............... . .......... . .... . SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS Projects completed by boys .... ... ..... .... ................ . .......................... .... .... . .. . .... . Projects completed by girls . ... . . ... .. .. . ..... . . ... .. . ...... .. .... .. ........ ... ..... .. ............. . . Boys completing corn and peanut projects .............. . ....... . ........................ . Boys completing fruit projects .. ...... .. ..... . . . ......... .. ...... .. ...... .... ....... .... .... .. ..... . Boys completing garden projects ....................... . ................. .. ...... ..... .... ....... . Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops . . . ..... ......... . Boys completing dairy projects .................................. . ...... . . . ...... ..... .. ........ .. . Boys completing poultry projects .. ........................... . ......... . ........ . ....... .... ... . Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects .. . . .... ...... . ... . .. ... .... .. ... ..... . . .. . . Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ...... . ........................ . Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects ... . . .. . . .................. . .. ..... .. . Girls completing fruit projects ............. . ........................ .... . ........................ . Girls completing _ garden projects .......... . ....... ............ .......................... ... .... . Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning .. . ....... ... ....... .. ..... . Girls completing dairy projects .... ... .. .... . . . .................. . . . ... .. .......... . .......... . ... . Girls completing poultry projects ........ . . ........ .. . ..... ..... ............... . ....... .. .. . .... . Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ...... . ........ .. .... . Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects ..... ... ..... . Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and room improvement projects .... . .. . ..... . . .. ............... . ....... ...... .... .... ..... . . ... . . Girls completing food preservation projects ....................................... . ..... . 4-H Membership. Boys: Farm-5,942; non-farm-1,955; total... ................ . .......... . .... . Girls: Farm-6,114; non-farm-4,295; total . . ...... ........ .... . ........ .. .... . 4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in extension program ........ . ........ . ................. .. ............... . ................ . 4-H clubs engaging in eommunity activities such as improving school grounds and conducting local fairs .... ... .... ..... ..................... . 740 448 602 2,847 215 323 39 5,216 17,975 671 79 1,049 107 438 915 50 154 1,374 577 2,593 3 158 1,031 3,246 545 5,637 1,655 7,897 10,409 1,592 417

PAGE 14

Annual Report, 1946 PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO J. Francis Cooper, Editor Clyde Beale , Associate Editor Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor 13 The first full year of peace following World War II brought little change from the war years. Farm production goals were . still high , . farm people had little new equipment to help them produce more efficiently, labor remained scarce, and the need for information continued unabated. All available information aids were employed to supplement the personal activity of Extension workers in serving rural families. An outstanding feature of the Editorial Department ' s work during the year was informational aid rendered in connection with the celebration of the first National Home Demonstration Week in May. News stories, farm journal articles, radio talks and other means were employed to stress the work done by Florida's home demonstration staff, and a number of prom inent business and professional leaders issued commendatory statements. The celebration was centered around the theme, "Today's Home Builds Tomorrow's World." PRINTED MATERIALS Purchase of printing proved more difficult in 1946 than in any of the war years as printing paper and labor became even more scarce and de mand still higher. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, the Ex tension Service printed 3 new bulletins totaling 168 pages and for a total of 52,500 copies. While no new circulars were issued, 3 comparable publi cations were printed In an ornamental gardening series. These added up to 28 pages and 3,000 copies. Other materials in almost normal quantities were published . Printed materials issued during the year are included in the following list: Bul. 127 Timber-Grazing-Game ........... . ...... . .. ...... .. . . ......... . Bul. 128 Raising Chicks, Broilers and Pullets ......... ...... . .... ... . Bul. 129 Avocado Production in Florida . . .. ..... .. . ..... ...... . . . .. . .. .. . Garden Series Garden Series Garden Series Form 7 The Magnolias ......... .. . .. . . . . . .. .... ........ . . .. . ...... .. . .... ... . .... . Protection .of Plants from Cold Injury and Treatment of Trees and Shrubs Injur e d by Cold .. ......... . Garden Soils ..... .. .. ... . .... . .. . . .. . . . . . : . . ..... . . . . .... .. .. .. ... . ... ... .. . Final Report, 19th National Egg-Laying Test ... . Announcement and Rules, 21st National EggLaying Test ..... ..... . ..... .......... . .. .... ............ . , ....... ... . Calendar 1946 .. . . .. .. ......... .. . .... . . . ........ . .... .. . .. . .. ... ....... . . . . Agents ' Monthly Report Blank. . ....... . . . .. .... . .. ... ..... . . . Veterans' Forms 1 and 2, 3 and 4 , 5 and 6, each Veterans' Form 7 ........... .. .............. .. .. . .......... . . ...... ....... . Veterans' Form 8 ..... .. . ... ... .. . .. ... ... . . . .. .... . . . ..... . .. ..... ..... . . . Veterans' Form 9 ... .. ...... .. ... . ..... ......... . . . .. .... . . .. ... . ...... . . . . Veterans ' Form 1 and 2 (revis e d) . . . . .. .. .. . . . .. . ... . .. . . . . Individual 4-H Club Member's Record ... . . . .... . . ... .... . 4-H Club Re c ord Book ... .... . ..... .. ..... ... . . ......... .... . . . . .. ... . Record Book , Florida Clothing Program for Junior 4-H Club Girls ... .. . .. .. ....... . . . . .. . .. .... .. ....... . Re c ord Book, Home Improvement for Florida 4-H Club Girls ....... . ............. ... ... .. ............ .. ... . . ..... . Pages 16 4 0 1 0 8 12 8 8 24 6 12 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 16 4 12 Edition 15 , 000 30,000 7,500 1 , 000 1 , 000 1,000 1 , 250 300 12,000 10,000 1 , 000 3,000 2,500 2,500 1,000 10,000 10,000 12,000 10 , 000

PAGE 15

14 Poster Poster Poster Map Florida Coop e rative Extension 4-H Membership Card . . .. . .. . .. .... . .. ... .. . .... .. . . . . . . .. '. ....... . . . Program, Boys ' 4-H Short Course .. ........ ... ........ . ..... . Farm Labor Identification Cards .......... .. . ... ........... . Farm Help Wanted ....... ... . .. ..... . .. . . . .. . ........ . .. ... ............ . Avoid Livestock Losses . . .. .... .. . .... ..... ....... ...... . .. .. . . . . . . . . Florida Poultry Institute . . ............ . .......... . . .. ........... . . . . Florida Type-of-Farming Areas . ... . . . .... ... .... . .. ........ . Pages Edition 2 20,000 8 400 2 2,000 1 150 1 1 , 000 1 300 1 10,000 Both new and old bulletins and otherprinted materials are distributed to county and home demonstration agents from the Mailing Room and bulletins and circulars ar e both given out and mailed to individuals on direct request . The Extension Editor continued to serve as Florida Distribution Officer for the USDA Extension Service and ordered and distributed to agents thousands of copies of new USDA publications . The Editorial Office, however, does not keep a supply of USDA publications on hand for distri bution. SERVING NEWSPAPERS AND FARM JOURNALS Ninety-eight white agents in 59 counties report having 6,466 news items published in their local papers during the year . Among the negroes, 21 agents in 14 counties reported 188 news it e ms print e d. Newsprint shortages, which became more a c ute during the year , con tinued to limit both daily and weekly newspapers in the amount of material they could publish , and competition in news continued keen . The papers, however, continued to use generously of agricultural news distributed from the Extension Service. Carrying from 8 to 15 separat e news items in each issue, the weekly clip-sheet remained the principal method of distributing n e ws from the Ex tension Service. It served as a medium of direct releas e s to weekly n e ws papers and as the basis for re writes of the principal stories for press associations serving daily newspapers and for farm papers . , In addition , 93 special stories were sent direct to press associations and 32 to 1 or more daily newspapers. Four skeleton, or fill-in, stories were sent to county and home demonstration agents during th e year for localiza tion and release. Farm journals, as usual, were interested in Florida copy, and used num erous stories from the Ext e nsion Editors. Six journals of national circula tion print e d 9 stories from th e Extension Editors, occup y ing a total of 200 column inches of space. Two Southern farm periodicals carri e d 18 items for 297 inches of space. Four Florida farm papers published 9 articles which accounted for 150 column in c hes of space. This gave a total of 647 column inches of space in 12 journals of national , regional and loal circulation. BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES With in c reasing numbers of radio stations being established throughout Florida, broadcasting activities of county and home demonstration agents have stepped up until the State is well blanketed with farm and home in formation. Forty-six white agents in 32 counties r e ported making 738 rad i o broadcasts during the year, while 6 negro agents in 4 counties made 11 broadcasts . The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF , from 12 : 15 to 12 : 52 p. m . e ach week day, continued to serve as a principal means of ' disseminating infor mation by radio from the College of Agriculture. Regular featur e s of the program included the weekly farm question box and daily farm news highlights, both prepared and delivered by Extension

PAGE 16

Annual R eport, 1946 15 Editors . Staff members made 105 additional talks on the Farm Hour dur ing the year. Special features of th e Farm Hour during th e year included remot e co ntrol broadcasts from the Harry-Anna Crippled Children's Home in Umatilla and from the Poultry and Nutrition Laboratories on the Uni versity of Florida campus. In cooperation with the USDA Radio Service, the Ext ension Editors sent farm flashes for 5 days each week to 21 Florida radio stations. Most of these were sent first to county agents for approval and forwarding to the stations. The flashes included cop i es of 104 talks made by Experiment Station workers and 85 talks by Extension Service staff members made during the Farm Hour. Since home-makers' chats were discontinued by the USDA some time ago, no comparable service was supplied to home demonstration agents during most of the year. However, the Editors inaugurated a Florida Home-makers' Chats series of weekly broadcasts on November 11, 1946, supplying copy to 12 agents. VIS AL AIDS, MEETINGS, MISCELL EOUS Florida agents are increasingly interested in making the best use of all possible visual aids in carrying out their work. They are using motion pictures , slides and filmstrips, as we ll as pictures and related materials. The Editorial Office maintains a filmstrip library and is endeavoring to es tablish a slide library. Motion pictur es are deposited in the library of the General Extension Division on the cam pus. Through the cooperation and under the leadership of County Agent H . L. Johnson, the Extension Service made a good motion picture film on pasture establishment and maintenance. It is approximately 800 feet in length, colored, silent. The Editorial Office prepared and mimeographed a daily paper, DAILY DOINGS, for the boys attending 4-H Club Short Course at the University of Florida for 1 week in June . The Editor made more than 100 photographs for use in various ways. As in the past, the Editors and mailing clerks devoted approximately half of their time to work for the Agricultural Experiment Station. Fig. 2-A remote control broadcast from the Harry-Anna Crippled Chil dren 's Home, Umatilla, paid tribute to the work of 4 H club boys there.

PAGE 17

16 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION AND RELATED PROGRAMS H. G. Clayton, State Director, Production and Marketing Administration R. S. Dennis, Assistant to the State Director In Florida the agricultural conservation and related programs carried on by the Field Service Branch, PMA, are closely coordinated with the work of the Agricultural Extension Service. THE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM During the year 1946 the agricultural conservation program work was in 3 major phases: (1) closing out the 1945 program and completing pay ments of assistance to farmers; (2) operation of the 1946 program; and (3) development of 1947 program provisions, practices and rates of assistance. Closing out the 1945 Program.-Under this program there were 47,658 farms covered by worksheets. These farms contained 2,213,158 acres of crop land, 388,173 acres of commercial groves and orchards and 8,743,102 acres of fenced non-crop pasture. During the year 23,588 farms partici pated and the operators of these farms received cash assistance to aid them in carrying out needed soil-building and soil-conserving practices. The total cash assistance value of all practices carried out was $2,856,400. Actual cash payments made to these farm operators (prior to small pay ment increase) totaled $2,093,075. The extents of the major practices for which assistance was given are as follows: Superphosphate applied to soil-conserving crops and pastures, 89,785 tons of 20 percent equivalent material; Basic slag, raw rock and colloidal phosphate applied to soil-conserving crops and pastures, 13,945 tons; potash, 60% equivalent applied to winter legumes and pastures, 1,080 tons; ground limestone applied to farm land and pastures, 66,711 tons; winter legumes seeded, 31,707 acres; new pasture established by sodding or seeding approved grasses, 48,041 acres; pastures reseeded, 41,941 acres; pastures mowed or chopped, 192,500 acres; terraces constructed, 1,987,125 linear feet; summer legume cover crops, 115,480 acres; small , grains seeded for cover, 106,334 acres; legume and grass seed harvested, 8,575 acres; surface water control ditches on pastures 2,400,316 linear feet. Operations of the 1946 Program.-Regulations required that all farm operators who desire to participate in the 1946 program indicate their in tention to participate by March 1, 1946. Approximately 31,800 farmers indicated their intention by that cutoff date. Of this number, approxi mately 22,000 will receive assistance amounting to approximately $3,046,000 for carrying out practices designed further to improve and conserve soil resources. The major practices and the estimated extent of each carried o:ut in 1946 are: Application of phosphate materials to soil-con~ serving crops and pastures, 102,100 tons of 20 percent equivalent super phosphate, 9,385 tons of basic slag, raw rock and colloidal phosphate; ap plication of 60 percent potash to winter legumes and pastures, 1,436 tons; ground limestone applied to farm land and pastures, 85,334 tons; winter legumes seeded 65,135 acres; new pasture prepared and seeded or sodded, 59,700 acres; pasture reseeded, 18,800 acres; pasture mowed or chopped, 241,280 acres; terraces constructed, 2,029,700 linear feet; summer legume cover . crops seeded, 120,250 acres; small grains seeded for cover, 119,530 acres; legume and grass seed harvested, 8,437 acres; surface water con trol ditches constructed on pastures, 1,739,554 linear feet:

PAGE 18

Annual Report, 1946 17 To assist farmers in carrying out these practices certain materials and services were furnished by PMA. The costs of the materials or services furnished were deducted from the payments earned by the farmers. In 1946 the kinds and amounts of materials and services furnished were: Alyce clover seed, 1,850 pounds; Austrian winter peas, 22,600 pounds; Bahia grass seed, 500 pounds; basic slag, 654.3 tons; blue lupine seed, 1,071,487 pounds; dolomitic limestone, 3,864.6 tons; high calcium limestone, 79.0 tons; limestone screenings, 746.4 tons; mixed fertilizer, 18 tons; 18% superphosphate, 3,803.8 tons; 19 % superphosphate, 772.25 tons; 20 % super phosphate, 181.9 tons; triple superphosphate, 288.3 tons; terracing, 486,393 feet; and vetch seed, 45,500 pounds. The 194 7 Program has been developed substantially along the same general lines' as the 1946 program . The amount of $2,497,000 has been tentatively allotted! to the State for the purpose of making 1946 practice payments to farmers in Florida. RELATED PROGRAMS Marketing Quotas were in effect for flue-cured tobacco. In 1946 the acreage alloted to 6,703 farms was 24,605.6 acres. There were 20,279.95 acres of flue-cured tobacco planted on 6,036 farms. The 1946 production of flue-cured tobacco on Florida farms was approximately 18,917,616 pounds. Marketing quotas were not in effect for any other crop. Sugar.-Payments made in 1946 on the 1945 crop to Florida sugar pro ducers amounted to $837,102.14. The 1945 acreage harvested for sugar was 31,362 acres and production was 1,041,108 tons of cane. The estimated total commercially recoverable sugar (96 raw) was 206,361,974 pounds: Due to the February 1947 freeze and other factors, the acreage that will be harvested from the 1946 crop cannot be estimated at this time with any degree of accuracy. Cotton Crop Insurance was in effect in Walton and Leon counties in 1946. In Walton there were 58, in Leon 82 contracts. A requirement of this program is that before insurance contracts can be effective in the county at least the smaller of 50 farms or one-third of the cottton farms in the county must apply for insurance. A number of applications were made in other counties but could not be accepted because the minimum number was not secured. Irish Potato Goals.-Irish potato goals amounting to 23,926 acres were established on 673 potato farms. Farms planting within the established goals are eligible for the price support offered by the government in con nection with the 1947 potato crop. Under the Dairy Feed Payment Program dairy subsidy payments were made during the first 6 months of 1946 to 932 Florida dairymen. These payments amounted to $1,737,667.77 and were made on the sale of 204,882,900 pounds of whole milk and 19,734 pounds of butterfat. This program was discontinued June 30, 1946. Fann building applications under the Veterans ' Emergency Housing Orders were filed in the county offi~es, processed by county committees and transmitted to the State office for disposition. A total of 1,969 farm building applications of all types were processed from April 23, 1946, to the end of this program on December 23, 1946 . Applications for building per~ mits and priorities totaled 698 veteran's farm dwellings; 1,139 non-veteran's farm dwellings; 20 veterans' farm buildings other than dwellings; 112 non veterans' farm buildings other than dwellings . .

PAGE 19

18 Florida Cooperative Extension Veterans' preference applications for farm machinery also were made in the county offices and processed by county committees under instruc tions from the State office. If approved, the county committee issued a preference certificate to the veteran for the item or items of farm mach inery applied for and covered by the order. This certificate when pre sented to a dealer entitled the veteran to preference over non-veteran pur '~hasers. During the year 1946 county committees issued preference certi ficates for 2,393 items of farm equipment. The program ended in December 1946. Agricultural production goals calling again for a relatively high level of production were established for 1946. The State USDA Council, repre sentatives of the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station, Extension Service, farm organizations and State agencies all cooperated in working out these goals. The 1946 goals for the major crops and livestock were: Peanuts picked and threshed 90,000 acres; sugar cane for sugar 39,000 acres; Irish potatoes 31,000 acres; sweet potatoes 18,000 acres; cotton 25,000 acres; all tobacco 24,800 acres; corn 700,000 acres; oats 130,000 acres; milk cows 120,000; hens and pullets 1,711,000; eggs 17.1 million dozen; chickens raised 4,217,000; turkeys raised 126,000; sows to farrow in the spring 93,000; cattle and calves on farms 1,159,000 head; truck and vegetable crops; 253,700 acres.

PAGE 20

Annual Report, 1946 EMERGENCY FARM LABOR E. F. DeBusk, State Supervisor H. S. McLendon, Assistant State Supervisor H. 0. Anderson, Assistant State Supervisor P. L. Peaden, Assistant State Supervisor 19 The 1946 labor program in Florida was carried on in a general way along the same lines as for the past 3 years. In winter and early spring a large supply of labor is needed for harvesting vegetables, fruit and sugarcane for sugar in the southern part of the State. It was necessary to use considerable foreign labor for this purpose, as not enough local domestic migrants were available to do aJl the work. When the central and northern part of the State was ready to harvest vegetables, the peak need for labor had passed in the southern area, making it possible to trans fer some of this labor north. This applied to . both foreign and domestic migrants. Part of the domestic migrants move from southern Florida direct to states north and east. The Farm Labor Office, assisted by Emer gency Farm Labor personnel, helped to a larger extent in directing this migratory movement in 1946 than in any previous year. In the western part of the State where labor is needed to harvest pea nuts, corn, sugarcane and tung nuts, and where in the past prisoners of war have been used, it was possible to get enough local labor to harvest these crops this year . Some of the county agents were assisted to recruit and get this local labor on the job. Part of the needs were taken care of iri this area by the exchange of work . This applied especially to the small grower, both negro and white. In several cases equipment was loaned to growers to help house both foreign and domestic migratory labor. A representative of the State Office . visited some of the growers and inspected their quarters where labor was to be housed. One negro was added to the State staff in the spdng. His duties were to work mostly with the domestic migratory labor. His appointment was cooperative with the Washington office. Another member of the State staff was also placed on a cooperative appointment, his duties being mostly with domestic migratory workers also. Both of these followed the domes tic migrants up the coast from state to state, remaining out of Florida for several months in the summer. These changes have put Florida in closer touch with domestic migratory workers . There were 31 farm labor supply centers operated in Florida during 1946, 2 by grower organizations and the other 29 by the Office of Labor. Total capacity of these supply centers was 18,859 and they had an average of 9,885 in them during the time they were operated. A number of labor ers are housed in quarters on individual farms and this type of housing is increasing each year. Three of the supply centers were for white domestic laborers, 3 for colored domestic, 2 for both domestic and foreign colored, and 23 . for foreign labor. The State Advisory Committee of 1945 continued to serve the program, subject to call when conditions justified. New workers were given proper supervision and assistance until they became familiar with their jobs. Up to the present, farm labor associations in Florida have used mainly foreign labor or prisoners of war. The principal service they have rend ered has been the assignment of this labor, keeping a record of their services, making out the payrolls and l?aying the labor.

PAGE 21

Florida Cooperative Extension Determining the needs for labor in a county, or area of a co unt y, was -done through the assistance of the co unty agent. Recruitment and Placem .e n t. Efforts are made to c hann e l both int er state and domestic labor where it is most needed. Since there is a negro on the staff w h o devotes all his ti me to migratory wor kers , it is eas ier t o stay in c l oser contact wit h them and this w ill build up conf id e n ce wi th le ade rs . It ha s b ee n necessary to k ee p a numb er of placement men on the payr o ll to h a ndle the placing of th e fore i g n l a bor whi c h was hous e d in labor ce nt ers operated by th e Office of Lab or . During 1946 th e r e were 43,278 far m wor k ers, both domestic and foreign, placed in 28 counties . These placements were made by co unty agents , labor ass ist ants and placement m e n . In these 28 co unti es 2,297 orders fo r workers were received. L a b or was placed w ith 1,407 different farmers . Of this total num b er placed , 6,50 0 were p l aced for a period of 1 to 3 days, 8,546 for a period of 4 days to 1 mon th , 2 6 , 409 for a period of 1 to 5 months, a nd 1 ,8 23 fo r year-round work, or longer than 5 months . Th e number of different individuals placed is es timat ed at 39,664. Of this number 31,017 were men, 7,223 women a nd 1 ,424 yo uth 16 to 18 years of age . Includ e d in the total n umb er of placements were some 600 hi g h school c hildr e n who went to Connecticut to wo rk with s had e toba cco during th e ir s c hool vacaFig . 3. B a h ama labor con tinu ed to be relied upon principally for relieving a tight labor situation in th e stat e .

PAGE 22

Annual R e port, 1946 21 tions; also some 125 adult tobacco workers who went to Canada after their crops were made and marketed here in Florida. During 1946 no prisoner of war camps were operated exclusively for agriculture ; however, some grow e rs did use prisoners from a camp oper ated by the Army and Navy. Florida supervisors cooperated with the Washington Farm Labor Office by assisting in the recruiting of migratory farm workers in the spring of 1946. Farm workers were need e d for summer and fall harvest in States north . The recruitment was done to comply with the Florida recruitment law of 1943. Seven farm labor supervisors came to Florida in May and June and were personally introduced into counties having a surplus oi labor available for out-of state recruitment. Farm workers and crew leaders were given a n identification card which was recognized by local law enforcement officers . In the migratory movement 431 groups or crews with 10,998 workers were assisted. This movement has increased in size since 1945 and repre sents the largest supply of harv e st workers on the eastern seaboard. Job jnformation was offered in labor surplus . counties and an information sta tion at the State line gave the time of the movement. County agents' records of workers issued identification cards showed that about 10,000 workers from 13 counties migrated to 10 states. Domestic workers were directed within the State. Workers were given job information on potato and bean harvest in the northern part of Florida. Domestic workers were supplied to 2 concerns resuesting 125 foreign work ers to harvest tung nuts. Five employers and 4 negro crew leaders were brought together and a work al?'r e ement developed. Victory Farm Volunteers.-It has been very difficult to op e rate an ac tive program for children, due to the fact that school terms conflict with harvesting seasons. There is considerable work done by teen-age children in Florida on their parents' farms. Health and Medical Service . -During the fall of 1945, Florida sent a representative of the State Farm Labor Staff to Alabama to assist in re cruiting some workers to help with the harvest of beans and sugarcane. The transportation of these work e rs was paid from Extension farm labor . funds . In cooperation with the Migratory Labor Health Association our office furnished medical service for these workers as long as they remained in Florida. A number of these did not return to Alabama until April or May of 1946 . An agreement between the Florida State Board of Health, the Office of Labor and the Agricultural Extension Service provided for joint inspection of sanitary housing requirements. The State Board of Health issued 101 permits for approved housing of 9 , 372 foreign and domestic workers. Employers received aid in laying out housing and labor camp sites where these services were requested . County agents received notice of sale of surplus Army buildings. Assistance was given to employers to ob tain priorities for purchase and to locate materials .

PAGE 23

22 Florida Cooperative Extension SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION Joyce Bevis and L. T . Nieland County reports show that 30 counties provided definite training irr safety and fire prevention for 3,740 club girls and 1,956 girls and 1,396 women were enrolled in home and farm safety. As a result, 5,219 families carried on better practices in home safety throughout the year. Home and farm safety was discussed at 230 meetings with 4-H club groups. There were 153 meetings of this type held with home demonstration club women. At these meetings a total of 209 method demonstrations were given before the groups. A safety record book has been prepared to assist in the development of the home and farm safety program among 4-H club members. It is plan ned to have 20 , 000 copies of this record book printed for use in conducting 4-H farm safety programs. All county and home agents were supplied with "Farm Safety Packets" by the National Safety Council . These packets contained news stories, posters, safety stickers, proclamations, radio spot announcements and statistics useful in helping county and home agents conduct farm safety campaigns in observance of National Safety Week. A mimeographed outline was prepared for use of county agents in deve loping farm safety programs in their counties.

PAGE 24

Annual Report, . 1946 Part 11-Men's Work WORK OF COUNTY AGENTS A. P. Spencer, Director W. T. Nettles, District Agent J. Lee Smith, District Agent K. S. McMul!en, District Agenti 23 Probably more changes in county personnel occurred during 1946 than in any other period in the history of Extension work in the State. With the war over, 4 county agents and 1 assistant county agent returned from the service to be placed back in the counties. Two new county agents who had been in service and 1 other new county agent were employed. Four teen new assistant county agents, 13 of whom had been members of the armed services, were employed . One county agent resigned to take a posi tion on the State 'Staff and 2 other county agents resigned to enter private employment. Five assistant county agents resigned to enter other work. Four county agents were transferred to other counties. With the large number of new agents and assistants employed and the necessity for bringing up to date in subject matter those agents returning from service, much emphasis has been placed on training during the past year. Supervisory agents through personal visits provided as much train ing on the job as possible. Many of the new agents attended th e 3 weeks training course in agricultural Extension methods offered at the University of Florida during the period June 17 to July 3. This course proved to be of much value in indoctrinating these men in Extension work. Although there was a large number of applicants to select from during the past year, it has not always been easy to fill positions vacated . . All agents appointed must have a degree from an agricultural college. They must have a good personality and be able to work with people . They must have a genuine interest in farm problems and be able to plan constructively and carry out definite programs in the counties. Local boards of county commmissioners cooperate in making available funds for employment of county agents and assistants. Supervisory agents maintain a very close and cordial working relationship with these boards. During the year many activities which had been suspended during the war were revived. The South Florida Fair at Tampa was held for the first time since 1942 and a number of agents placed county exhibits there. A number of other fairs over the State were resumed. Such activities as 4-H club camps, institutes and short courses received renewed emphasis from Extension workers. Supervisory agents . have stressed the necessity for careful planning and execution of all programs in the counties and have aided the county Extension workers in every way possible in carrying out these programs. Such programs usually require the assistance of 1 or more specialists, and efforts are made to coordinate the activities of specialists in the Extension Service as well as those outside the service who are in position to contri bute to these programs. Supervisory agents make every effort to keep abreast with office and clerical needs in the counties. Efforts are made to assist county agents with the organization of their offices and the training of clerical personnel. 'App o int e d February 1. 1046 .

PAGE 25

24 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING John M. Johnson, Agricultural Engineer Housing,-The Extension housing program had for its purpose raising the standard of living, health and income through better farm houses. Plans and recommendations for a housing program were made by 5 committees composed of county and home demonstration agents and staff members. Copies of the recommendations were mailed to each county and home agent for guidance in setting up an Extension housing program. Considerable activity in this field exists in all counties and agents are be ing confronted with inquiries concerning all phases of housing. State Housing Committee.-The Extension Engineer, Assistant to tlie ' Director and State Home Demonstration Agent were appointed by the Director to represent the Extension Service on the State Housing Com mittee. This committee introduced the program on an experimental basis in 3 demonstration counties. Organization meetings were held by the county groups and sub-committees were appointed to work on specific ' problems. A survey was conducted in each county to determine the needs for specific projects to be undertaken by the group. As far as the surveys have been completed, the committees have selected remodeling, grounds beautification, rural electrification, sanitation and water supply as projects. The Extension Engineer and other committee members visited 2 families selected by the county committees for a demonstration in remodel ing and building in 2 of the demonstration counties. Plans, working drawings and specifications have been furnished and work has been started on the 2 projects. Farm Building Plan Service.-The building service was started by se curing from the USDA plan exchange service Van Dyke printings for all plans shown in Miscellaneous Publication 360 and Farmers Bulletin 1738. In addition to the 198 Van Dykes from the bulletins, the following plans and information have been prepared by the Extension Engineer: Three dwelling house plans. One vat creosote plant plan. One concrete water tank plan. One potato-curing barn plan . One canning kitchen plan. One brooder plan. One septic tank plan (mimeographed). One model kitchen assembled (for use in talks and schools). Six mimeographed series on house planning (general distribution). Five charts for,.better planning" lectures. Two kitchen planning charts. Two furniture arrangement charts. Three statistical charts on housing conditions (for use in talks and schools). Three farmstead plans, landscaped (for use in talks and schools). Information on the following subjects is being assembled to be published in bulletin form for state-wide distribution: Plans for Florida farm buildings. Farmstead planning and beautification. Bibliography of Housing (information for county workers). Housing Activities by Agents.-County and home agents assisted farm families and 4-H club members in housing, sanitation and farmstead plan ning in 561 communities and were aided by 401 voluntary local leaders . Agents assisted in planning farm buildings, remodeling and repairing in

PAGE 26

Annual Report, 1946 25 33 7 communities, with 182 vo lunt ary l oca l leaders ass isting in this activity . Six radio t a lks and several news items were contrib ut ed by individual commi tt ee members . STATISTICAL SUMMARY ON HOUSING AND FARM BUILDING ACTIVITIES DWELLINGS (Co un ty and Hom e Agents-White) Families Assisted Counties Constr u ction ................................................. 1 , 005 50 Remodeling ....................................... . ... . ........... . ........ 1,322 48 Storage space ............ . .. . .. . . . ............................ . ........ 1,217 40 Kitchen improvement ............................................ 1,268 37 Room arrangement ........ . .................................. . .... 1,847 36 Heating systems ............................ . .... ... . ............... . . 207 32 L aundry and utility rooms ............. ...................... 604 33 SANI T A TION Sewage syst e ms ...................................................... 491 40 Water systems ........................................................ 723 46 Sanitary privi e s ..... .. . . .. . .......................................... 501 27 Screening .................................................................. 2 , 247 38 F ARMSTEAD P L ANNING Farm and home plans .................. ....... . .................. 364 21 H ome grounds improvements .............................. 3,862 47 Windbreak planting ..... . .... ..................................... 181 19 FARM BUILDINGS Construction ............................................................ 973 50 Remodeling and r e p a iring .................................... 1,338 46 Construction of farm building e quipm e nt .......... 382 27 Farm Machin e r y. All machinery requires proper maintenance and ef forts have been concentrated on this phase of the program . Two c la sses in int e rnal combustion engines w e r e conducted daily for boys at 2 summer camps . A cut aw a y 4-stroke cycle engine, charts, draw Fig . 4. A tractor maintenan ce short course train e d 23 vo lunt ary leaders from 12 counti e s .

PAGE 27

26 Florida Cooperativ e Extension ings and an automobile engine were employed as teaching aids . Two farm machinery classes were held each day during the 4-H Short Course at the University . Tractor Maintenance Short Course.-A 3-day short course on tractor maintenance was conducted in cooperation with the State 4-H Club Agent for voluntary 4-H leaders. Twenty-three leaders from 12 counties attended the course on the University campus. Terracing Equipment Demonstration.-Two demonstrations of terrac ing equipment were held in cooperation with the Extension Soil Conserva tionist and the county agents, and over 300 interested farmers attended. Development of New Machln e ry.-The continuing farm labor shortage has forced the farmer to design and build machines and labor-saving de vices . All possible assistance was given in designing and building these machines . County agents report 1,469 farmers assisted in selection of mechanical equipment; 1,500 farmers assisted in making more efficient use of mech anical equipment; 1,560 farmers following instructions in the maintenance and repair of mechanical equipment; and 6 farm machinery demonstra tions. 4-H Club Girls' Training Classes.-Training classes on house planning and remodeling were conducted for 4-H club girls, home agents and local leaders at the Annual Girls' 4-H Club Short Course. Classes .were also conducted at a 4-H girls' summer camp. Rural Electrification.-County and home agents worked on this pro ject in 255 communities, assisted by voluntary leaders. Assistance was given in 23 counties in organizing associations for the purpose of obtaining electricity. Farm families assisted in obtaining electricity this year total 2,848 in 47 counties. Seventeen hundred and thirty eight families in 32 counties were assisted in selection of electrical equipment , in lighting and in using electricity for income-producing purposes. Seed Drying.-In the absence of research information on the storage of lupine seed, all available information possible was gathered from farm ers who had gotten favorable germination from seed saved. Conclusions and recommendations drawn from the study were made in a circular letter furnished each agent in the counties in which lupine is grown. Drainage.~County agents, soil conservation technicians and county foresters have cooperated in the immediate action taken to regain ample moisture for successfully growing trees and pasture grasses. Assistance was given 1,126 farmers in 41 counties in working out drainage problems this year by agents and the Specialist . Citrus groves and truck farms in certain areas of the State need supple mental irrigation 1 or 2 times during the year. Several grove irrigation systems have been designed and a project in cooperation with a grove owner is under way to demonstrate the possibility of the addition of liquid fertilizer with irrigation water. Eight hundred and ninety-three farmers in 33 counties were assisted by agents and the Specialist on irrigation problems during the year . Oil as Fuel in Syrup Cooking.-Labor and wood for fuel have _ been criti cally short for the farmer who produces sugarcane and sweet sorghum syrup on a commercial basis. This situation was greatly improved by. the introduction of a mechanical pot-type oil burner for use in making syrup in the widely used shallow, baffle-type, continuous evaporators. The Ex tension Engineer made 12 farm visits in rendering aid in the installation and adjustment of the burners. Seven county agents were instructed in the use of the burners.

PAGE 28

Annual Report, 1946 27 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Dr. C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT Zach Savage, Agricultural Economist There were 243 citrus records obtained for the 1944-45 season from 13 counties. These records are the basis for the information presented in this report. Florida citrus growers received the highest prices for their fruit during the 1944-45 season that they received during the entire period of this grove management project which was begun in 1931. The price received for the average box of citrus, including grapefruit, was $2.02. This was 31 cents higher than the price received the previous season . Fruit harvested per acre in 1944-45 was 26 percent less than the previ ous season but ranked third in the past 14 seasons. This drop in fruit har vested was largely dlie to the storm of October 1944 . The fruit harvested in the entire State was 25 percent less than the estimated production prior to the storm. Operating costs per acre have increased each season for the past 7 years . Operating costs per box increased from 31 cents in 1943-44 to 52 cents in 1944-45, or 68 percent. Per-acre costs increased 25 percent be• tween these seasons and the remainder of the increase, 43 percent, was due to the increase in the number of boxes of fruit harvested per acre. Per-acre returns above operating costs decreased 20 percent from the previous season, whereas the per-box net returns increased 7 percent due to the increased sale price of fruit . Preliminary returns from fruit for the 1945-46 season indicate the following: A slight decrease from 1944-45 in the price received for fruit, considerable increase in fruit harvested per acre, very little change in net returns above operating costs per box, but the largest net returns above operating costs per acre of any season during the past 15 seasons. Citrus grove prices continued to increase during the year. An effort was made to disseminate information by magazine articles and radio show ing the productive history of all groves on which the Extension Service has records and the resulting values this production would justify. Trees of the same age produced more during the past 6 seasons than during the previous 7 seasons . The cumulative effects of applying so called fertilizer amendments, applying increased quantities of fertilizer, favorable weather conditions, an increasing proportion of grove acreage being irrigated, and other factors resulted in increasing the productiveness of orange and tangerine trees of the same ages to such an extent that orange production in the State was increased at least 30 percent and grapefruit at least 12 percent during the past 2 seasons . The Extension Citriculturist has had access to and used fertilizer, spray and other information from the growers' records in our files. To obtain more complete information from growers who keep records on our books, the Citrus Grove Record Book was revised to include additional informa tion, particularly on fertilizers and sprays. Likewise, blanks used in con nection with personal visits to growers who do not keep records were re vised to include this same additional information . Summary figures for each of the 243 records kept in the 1944-45 sea son were returned to the cooperators. Each cooperator was sent costs and returns for the 2 age groupings for 1944-45 and costs for 1945-46, a

PAGE 29

28 'Florida Cooperative Extension copy of costs and returns of the older grouping for the county in which the grove was located, and a summary of costs and returns for the older grouping by seasons for the 14-year period, 1931-45, together with costs for 1945-46. County agents in each of 4 counties received a bound copy containing a report of each individual grove within their counties. FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management Assistance to Veterans. The Farm Management Specialist is a member of the State Veterans' Advisory Committee and has contributed to the pro gram in the following ways : Visited 12 counties and assisted county advisory committees in setting up minimum standards for various types of farms, below which a veteran could not operate and be r e commended for on-the-job training. Florida's farm record book, Miscellaneous Publication 31, was selected for general use among the veteran trainees. Those choosing to keep any other creditable set of records were permitted to do so. A manual for teaching Publication 31 was prepared and use of the manual was demon strated at a school for trainers. Four district meetings of Extension agents and county advisers have been held to present and discuss benefits for veterans employed in agri culture, and a round table discussion of the subject was conducted at the Extension Anp.ual Conference . During the period May 1945 through June 1946 the Farm Management Specialist was visiting instructor in farm management at the Welch Com valescent Hospital at Daytona Beach, making 25 trips. He met 90 classes, with an attendance of about 3,500 enlisted men and 700 officers. Throughout the year veterans have made many requests for information on how to get started in farming, the possibilities for homesteading and other farm management problems. To supply this .demand, articles were . supplied to the press and mimeographed material was prepared . Farm and Home Planning.-Farm and home planning with individuals was carried through its sixth year. This project is primarily an experi ment in Extension methods with low-income farm families . Methods used include first, a 1-day refresher school for the cooperating county agents. Then the Farm Management Specialist spends 2 days with each agent, visiting about 12 farmers, analyzing their businesses and mak ing recommendations for improvements that will secure higher income or will improve the standard of living. Following the Specialist's visit, each agent continues the process with a limited number of farmers. A total of 202 farm families were served in this way and 1,320 recom mendations were made, of which 72 percent were carried out in a credit able manner. Conservative estimates of the value of the additional pro duction on the farms as a result of following these recommendations range from $50 to $650, with an average of $190 per farm. This is an average increase of about 10 percent over 1945 income and about 300 percent over 1939 income for these farms. Nine groups are now organized so that follow-up contacts can be made with the cooperators at meetings. However, the initial contact each year is made .at the farm. Timely circular letters and printed publications are mailed to all cooperators. Record Books.-In addition to the 1,500 farm record books supplied to veteran trainees and the demonstration on how to teach records presented

PAGE 30

Annual Report, 1946 29 to the trainers, about 1,600 farm record books have been supplied to farm ers through county agents. Assistance has been given in meetings and personally in entering inventories and otherwise keeping books. Many farmers now keep better record books than formerly because they find that well-kept books save them money in making income tax returns. Four Extension record books were revised during the year. 4-H Club Work.-Classes in farm management were conducted for a total of 210 4-H club boys and girls at 2 summer camps . A class in better methods was conducted for older boys at the summer Short Course. Four teams were trained to demonstrate greater labor effi ciency, assistance was rendered at 5 achievement day programs, and 15 club meetings were attended. Extension Methods Teaching.-In August the Farm Management Spec ialist was appointed Professor of Extension Methods in addition to his present title . Beginning in February 1947 he will teach all Extension methods courses offered in the regular sessions at the University and will teach and supervise such courses in the summer sessions.

PAGE 31

30 Florida Cooperative Extension ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING, POULTRY A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist ANIMAL HUSBANDRY W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman Throughout the year 1946 the Extension Service has endeavored to steer the livestock industry on a sound, economical basis to meet postwar condi tions. , Information on the livestock situation and meat animal goals was furn ished to all county agents and to 2,700 livestock men. However, unsettled market conditions and a questionable outlook somewhat interfered with meeting these goals. A joint livestock field day and junior livestock judging contest was staged in Escambia County in February. Four-H members and Future Farmers from 2 Florida and 2 Alabama counties were represented by 14 judging teams of 6 members each. BEEF CATTLE According to a BAE report, there is an annual 5.8 percent death loss in calves in Florida with a 3 percent death loss in cattle, amounting to 57,000 deaths each year. With average prices, this loss amounts to almost a million and al quarter dollars each year. The monthly letter, "Of Things That Concern Florida Cattlemen," which was sent to all county agents and 2,550 cattlemen, attempted to prevent this loss. Circular letters, radio talks, visits and news articles have been used to keep before the producers the necessity of producing feed and pre venting the loss. The monthly letter handled all phases of the cattle business including breeding, selection, feeding and disease and parasite control. County agents report many cattlemen culling their herds and reducing cattle numbers to fit the feed and pasture supply. Their reports further show that there are now 770,062 cattle now on fenced pasture. As a result of Extension work with beef cattle, it is now a common practice for cattlemen to select their bulls more carefully and have them in better condition during the breeding season. County agents report 1,052 farmers assisted in improving methods of feeding. Auction market managers, breeders and dealers. have cooperated in bringing in carloads of purebred bulls which were sold at public auction. The Extension Service has encouraged cattlemen to produce and grow out home-raised bulls. County agents' reports show that 5,957 , bulls were raised in the State and that 3,047 bulls were sold for breeding purposes. County agents assisted 559 cattlemen to obtain purebred bulls and 384 cattlemen to obtain hi~h grade cows. In practically every county in the State there is at least 1 herd of purebred cattle. Brahmas, Herefords, Angus, Devons and Shorthorns lead in the order named. County agents report a total of 215 of these pure bred herds in the State. Many cattlemen have improved the quality of their breeding herds and have increased the percentage of the annual "calf crop," following recom mendations of the Extension Service . County agents report that 719 cattlemen are practicing controlled breeding, that 1,028 cattlemen are selecting heifers for herd replacement and that the percentage calf crop in the best herds is 81 compared with 57 in the average herd.

PAGE 32

Annual R eport, 1946 31 County agents report also that the ave r age age of market calves is 5 t o 9 months and the average w eig ht is 225 t o 400 p o und s. To reduce th e d eat h loss of cows and ca lv es in the spring, the Exten sion Servic e points out the recommendations of Exp e riment Stations on wintering beef animals on sugarcane with cot tons ee d meal, protein feeds, hay , pasture and oats. Th e scarcity of protein feeds has interfered w ith winter feeding, conse quently, ca ttlem en h ave turn ed to sugarcane , oats, rye a nd ry e grass. Approximately 150 , 000 acres of oats were sown l ast fall. Much of this was for grazing and wintering anima l s. County age nts h ave made recom m endations regarding land prepar a tion for p as tur e, pl ant in g seed, fe rtilizin g pastur e , a nd maint a ining pastur es already es t a blish ed. DDT h as been used very extens i ve l y in the State for the con trol of parasit es. Information on the u se of this ma t eria l was supplied th ro ugh th e monthly news l etter. Rep o rt s show that 2,802 farmers h ave been assisted in treating more than 20 , 000 ca ttl e for grubs and approximately 200,000 cattle for l ice. Thi s does not represent all of th e ca ttl e that hav e be en treat ed for parasites, grubs and li ce, nor the number th a t hav e b een treated for internal parasites. Also, 1,482 farmers have been assisted in their efforts to contro l wo rm s and flukes in cattle . Fig . 5. B e tt y Simmons and h er grand champion Hereford steer as good beef as to b e fo u nd anyw h ere in th e co untr y.

PAGE 33

32 Florida Cooperative Extension In December 1945, cattle fever ticks were re-discovered in Okeechobee County. The Director of Extension called a meeting of county agents in southern Florida with members of the State Livestock Sanitary Board and the State Veterinarian at Sebring in January 1946. After receiving instruc tions and getting an understanding of the necessary steps for tick eradica tion, the Extension Service put on an educational campaign to help eradi cate and prevent . the spread of ticks. Marketing information was sent to nearly . 3,000 cattlemen. Govern ment reports show the following number of cattle and calves marketed in Florida during the 11 months, November 1945 to October 1, 1946, as compared with 1945: 1946 1945 Increase of Cattle ... .... ........ ...... ... .. ..... ..... .. 110,533 106,104 3,329 Calves ..... .... ...... .. ....... . ......... . ... 64,266 55,237 9,029 Three fat stock shows and sales were held in Florida this year. At Ocala 281 fat animals were shown, including 28 4-H club calves and 30 FFA calves. At Quincy there were 258 fat cattle, including 13 4-H and 44 FF A calves. In Pensacola the show and sale included 36 4-H calves. Betty Simmons, 12-year old 4-H girl of Alachua County, topped the show and sale at Ocala (and the State) with her 873-pound yearling Here ford steer by winning grand champion of the show and 4-H grand cham pion and selling her . calf for $1.15 per pound. The champion steer at Quincy brought $1.15. The Pensacola 4-H champion brought 46 cents per pound. One range cattle show was held this year at Kissimmee, where 155 representative cattle from the surrounding . counties made a very credit able exhibit. There have been 2 purebred shows and sales, 1 by the Florida Brahma Association and 1 by tlte Florida Angus Association. HOG WORK The Nation's and the State's 1946 goals in swine production were brought to the attention of the county agents in their annual meeting and discussed with reference to their plans of work. This matter was also brought to the attention of the negro agents at Tallahassee in the discus sion of their plans of work. Hog marketings were affected by quotas. However, records show hog sales in May, June, July and August 1946 were 34,624 head, compared with 18,101 during the same period in 1945. Yet, for the 11 months, November 1, 1945, to October 1, 1946, there was a decrease in hog sales of 13,253 head, compared with the year before. County agents reported having aided 1,271 farmers to improve their feeding methods. The Extension Service motto for swine raisers is "Raise Healthy Pigs on Grazing and Fattening Crops in Fields Free of Parasites." County agents report having aided 2,760 farmers in controlling external parasites of hogs and 4,497 ' farmers to control internal parasites. The Florida Duroc Swine Association held its second annual sale in Ocala on October 17. Forty-five purebred hogs-the top, a gilt bringing $155.00-were sold. During the year county agents assisted 440 farmers to obtain purebred boars and 386 farmers to secure purebred or high grade sows and gilts . The managers of cold-storage meat-curing plants have been given in formation on methods of handling meats and helped to solve troubles in curing operations. Information has been furnished on handling meats through cold-storage locker plants. In addition, information was furnished on construction, location and management of these plants.

PAGE 34

Annual Report, 1946 33 A picture on operating and handling meat through freezer locker plants was shown to 26 county agents. At the county and home demonstration agents' annual conference, methods of packaging meat and poultry for freezer locker plants were demonstrated. There has been a growing interest in locker . plants throughout the State. 4-H CLUB WORK Four-H club members have been instructed in feeding and finishing out calves for market and for show, and how to handle steers in the show-ring. At the short course in Gainesville, 161 4-H boys were given demon strations on how to select breeding animals and how to judge beef cattle. At Camp McQuarrie, 108 boys were taught how to select beef cattle _ and hogs for meat production and how to handle animals in the show-ring. There were 3 county 4-H calf shows. Two 4-H boys staged an educational demonstration on raising healthy pigs free of parasites on grazing and fattening crops. They used a chart listing the crops, time of planting, when to graze, and when and where for pigs to be farrowed. They had samples of the crops and feeds, show ing the feed saved on healthy pigs. Nine county 4-H judging teams competed at the Ocala show. DAIRYING Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman' Dairy Extension work for 1946, the first postwar year, underwent some changes. The critical shortages of good dairy feed, price advances, uncer tainties about OP A, dairy subsidies, labor problems and shortages of essential materials were obstacles that caused a reduction in milk pro duction. Feed and labor shortages and mastitis resulted in the sale of a large number of dairies. Fortunately, most of these dairy properties were taken over by other dairymen who, in many cases, expanded their operations. The result was very few dairy farms left vacant . Florida dairymen prob ably received 1 million dollars for their products in the first part of 1946. Florida dairies have not recovered from wartime conditions sufficiently for dairymen to give individual care to cows. County agents in 42 counties participated in a program to improve pastures with 25 percent of the market milk dairy farms on 8,000 acres. County agents made use of the Soil Conservation Service in handling, ter racing and draining 3,500 acres of pasture lands. Seven county agents, in cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service and powder companies, re moved stumps from 2,800 acres of grasslands in the 1946 pasture improve ment program . On 525 farms 13,417 acres of forage crops for dairy cows were fertilized in 1946. During the very unfavorable weather conditions that prevailed in 1946, cattail millet was the 1 annual crop that gave milk cows continuous graz ing for some 120 days; Oats.-Oats are the number 1 winter grazing crop over a: wide area of Florida. More dairy farms seeded oats in 1945 than in any other year. Junior dairy club boys made wide use of fall-seeded oats for grazing and as a hay crop for the family cow. •Retired October 31. 1946.

PAGE 35

34 Florida Cooperative Extension Rye.-Rye is more suitable as a winter grazing crop on rolling sandy soils . Rye is also more capable of withstanding unfavorable grazing conditions than oats. Rye Grass.-English and Italian rye grasses have been seeded exten sively on 22,000 acres of the more fertile muck lands in southern Florida. Feed Production and Conservatlon.-County agents in 5 counties are working with small dairy farmers in the construction of trench silos. Dairymen planted 7,450 acres to sorghum to use as silage crops in Florida in 1946. There was a great reduction in the amount of silage crops of all kinds because of labor conditions. Sugarcane as a forage crop has been given recognition in the dairy program for some 15 years. This year 105 farmers throughout Florida have been using forage cane as a supplementary roughage feed. Hybrid varieties of corn developed at the Main Experiment Station at Gainesville and used at the ~elle Glade and Quincy stations have proved to be a very valuable silage crop when grown on fertile, moist land . The dairy subsidy program caused the 900 market milk dairy farmers of the State to give attention to feeding the better cows in proportion to their production. During the period of food rationing, most market milk dairy farmers have greatly increased the number of cows on their farms. On large dairy farms it is not practical to feed each cow according to her production. However, on Penney Farms in Clay County 240 dairy cows are fed according to the DHIA program. We estimate that 120 dairy farms in Florida are feeding according to production. Sanitation and Management.-Bang's and mastitis in herds handled by untrained milkers using milking machin e s have resulted in an increase in herd replacements using grade cows. Herd replacements imported from other states have probably exceeded 20,000 in 1946. Importations before the war ran from 5,000 to 10 , 000 cows per year. The records show that something over 10 million gallons of milk were imported from other states to Florida during 1945. The're is probably . as much as 7 million gallons coming to Florida in 1946 . Some 95 percent of this milk is number 3 milk, less than 5 percent of it is grade A milk. Progress is being made in 10 counties in the building of the small dairy units with the dairy house, dairy barn and feed room under the same roof. The family cow program, promoted principally through 4-H club mem bers, has been a great aid in building a farm dairy program in a number of counties. ' With the ending of World War II, 4-H club work was back to normal again. Th e annual short course in late May had a special dairy class of 18 boys. The Florida Jersey Cattle Club and the Guernsey Cattle Club have con tinued under the successful leadership of county agents as secretaries. F. E. Baetzman, agent in Orange County, is Secretary of the Jersey Cattle Club, and John H . Logan, agent in Pinellas , is Secretary of the Guernsey Cattle Club. POULTRY ACTIVITIES .N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman F. S , Perry, Assistant Extension Poulfryman Poultry production goals for Florida in 1946 included: (1) 5 percent increase in egg production; (2) 7 percent decrease in chickens raised; and (3) turkey production the same as 1945. The 1946 Extension program was developed not only to attain these goals but also to improve the efficiency of poultry management.

PAGE 36

Annual Report, 1946 35 The number of chickens raised during the year as reflected by a com parison of relative numbers of hens and pullets on hand during October 1945 and October 1946, eggs per 100 layers, total egg production, and chicks hatched for the same period are shown below : Number layers on hand ... .... . . .......... . Eggs per 100 layers ...... . . .. .. .. . . . .. . . .... . Eggs produced in October . . .. . .. . . . . . . . Eggs produced JanuaryOctober 1945 1,508 , 000 763 12,000,000 October inclusive . . ... .. . . . .... .. . .. . .. 175,000 , 000 Chicks hatched in October .. . .. .. ... .... 660,000 Chicks hatched JanuaryOctober inclusive ........ . . . .... . ...... 9,826,000 October 1946 1,406 , 000 747 11,000,000 165,000,000 660,000 7,325,000 Eggs of higher quality and more uniformity were marketed by the producers of the State as a r e sult of the egg quality program . The Ex tension Service has sponsored this program for several years and is assisted materially in its development by the Stat e Inspection and Marketing Bureaus. The National Poultry Improv e ment Plan, under the supervision of the State Livestock Sanitary Board , has continu e d to expand . Extension Service workers have cooperated with this agency in foster i ng the pro gram, which thi s year includes more poultry flocks and hatching egg capacity than in 1945. Estimates obtained from airline officials, foreign departments of agri culture and dealers in baby chicks show that ov e r 2 million chicks were exported from Florida during 1946. Puerto Rico alone imports approxi mately 44,000 baby chicks weekly, the largest portion of which come from Florida flocks and hatcheries. The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association and the Florida Breeders' and Hatchery Association have assisted Extension p o ultry work ers in developing the State poultry program. Also, 272 local leaders assisted in developing the poultry program. Quality Chicks.-Importance of starting with quality chicks was empha sized to all producers, handlers and users of baby chicks. The program includes 6 basic points: hatch early , clean chicks and eggs, clean brooder houses, clean land, balanced rations, and separation of pullets and cock erels. Extension recommendations were followed by 1,141 families in obtain ing better strains of baby chicks, and 1,565 families in improving methods of feeding. These r e commendations were carried into 571 communities throughout the State . Egg-Laying Test.-The Florida National Egg-Laying Te s t completed its 20th year on September 22, 1946. It included 1,248 pullets , or 96 pens of 13 pullets each. Entries consisted of 45 pens of Single Comb White Leg horns, 26 New Hampshires, 13 Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, 7 White Plymouth Rocks and 5 Barred Plymouth Rocks . Average egg production per bird for the entire test was 224 . 1 eggs for a value of 230 . 8 points . This egg production was determined by using the original number of birds and is 8 . 9 eggs and 13 points higher than the record secured in the 19th Test . It is the best production ever obtained at the Egg-Laying Test. The high pen for the year (51 weeks) was a pen of S. C. Rhode Island Reds owned by the To-Lani Farms, Stone Mountain, Georgia . These 13 Red pullets laid 3,693 eggs for a total value of 3,865.40 points.

PAGE 37

36 Fl01 ida Cooperati ve E x t e nsio n The high individual bird a l so was a Single Comb Rhode Island Red owned by Wilson ' s Red Farm, Greenville, South Carolina. This pullet pro duced 336 eggs for a value of 369.05 points. The high F l orida bird was a New Hampshire owned by the Camphor Tree Farm , DeLand. This pullet laid 331 eggs for a value of 343.55 points . Mortality averaged 11.1 percent for the year , 4 percent less than during the previous test. In addition to th e Egg-Laying Test , broiler experiments under way at Chipley includ e studies of floor space requirements . Oulling. With feed scarce and prices high it is necessary for poultry producers to obtain high egg production from their flocks to make a profit. Culling demonstrations were given by Extension workers during the year to 4-H club members, home demonstration clubs and co unt y and home demonstration agents ' classes in an effort to diffuse culling information throughout the State . 4-H Work. Poultry club members were encouraged and assisted in their program of supplying eggs and poultry meat for home co nsumption and some of their products for market. During the year 1 , 796 boys and 1,949 girls were enrolled in poultry club projects. Of this number, 915 boys and 1,031 girls completed their projects with a total of 121,341 birds, approximately 7 , 000 birds less than were carried in 1945 . Fig. 6 .These 4-H boys were interested in st ud ying poultry at the Univer sity of Florida poultry laboratory during Short Course.

PAGE 38

Annual Report, 1946 37 Poultry classes were held regularly at the 4-H boys' and girls' camps and also at the boys' and girls' short courses at Gainesville and Tallahassee. In addition, classes were held periodically at the University Poultry Laboratory for both girls and boys. Management, feeding, housing, sani tation, culling, killing, dressing, marketing and judging were some of the most important demonstrations given. The special 4-H girls' poultry demonstration project sponsored by Sears Roebuck Foundation in 1945 was continued and 1 additional county partici pated, bringing the total to 15. The girls were very successful in this pro ject, raising a high percentage of the chicks started. The Statewide 4-H Club Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest was held again this year in connection with the Central Florida Exposition, Orlando, February 25 March 2, 1946. Seventy-nine club members from 12 counties participated in the show and 45 members participated in the judging contest. Three hundred and sixty chickens, 131 dozen eggs and various scale models of poultry houses and equipment were shown. '.Miscellaneous.-Four thousand five hundred and four families were assisted in controlling poultry parasites and diseases. Demonstrations on chickenpox vaccination were given in 16 counties. Housing and equipment demonstrations were given in 9 counties. The Fifth Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie August 26-30, 1946 , after a lapse during the war period from 1941 to 1946. All State agencies, Florda State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Poultry Council, Hatchery and Breeders' Association and commercial or ganizations cooperated in making this institute a success. Over 250 registered during the week, with about 100 spending the entire week. Egg candling and grading demonstrations were given by Extension workers. Seventeen egg shows were held at county and State fairs. According to estimates by Inspection Bureau officials, approximately 4,000,000 dozen eggs will be marketed in cartons in 1946, contrasted with about 3,000,000 dozen in 1945. In addition to this, 13,000 cases of eggs of U. S. Grade AA classification will be marketed in cartons. Poultry dressing demonstrations were given at 5 home demonstration council meetings and at 4-H camps and short courses. Better marketing methods were stressed by radio talks, news articles and classes held at the University Poultry Laboratory. Assistance in marketing poultry and eggs was given in 356 communities to 1,882 farmers or families. The value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives total $79,800, and by non-members $226,783. In the 1946 official list of hatcheries al).d poultry breeding flocks, 74 hatcheries with a total capacity of 2,700,000 eggs are listed. This is about 70 percent of the total number of hatcheries and egg capacity in the State. There are 215 flock owners cooperating in the plan, with a total of 166,831 breeding birds. Three hundred and thirty-one farmers were assisted in obtaining pure bred males and 315 farmers secured purebred females. Radio talks, letters, bulletins and demonstrations have been used to further a practical turkey management program which gave particular emphasis to the separation of chickens and turkeys and portable coops used on clean land. Orange, Broward, Alachua, Leon and Suwannee coun ties have been active in turkey work during the year . Turkey production increased from 140 thousand in 1945 to 156 thousand in 1946. This is also an increase over the 1937-41 average of 113 thousand turkeys produced per year.

PAGE 39

38 Florida Cooperative Extension BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent W. W. Bassett, Asst. State Boys' Club Agent' W. W. Brown, Asst. State Boys' Club Agent• The year showed a marked improvement in county Extension 4-H club organizations. On January 1, 1946, there were 3 counties employing regular assistant ,county agents. During the year 14 additional counties employed assistant agents so that more and better club work could be accomplished. Three of these counties report enrollments of over 500 4-H club boys each. The changing of county agents always disrupts club work and there have been 14 county agent changes during the year. Eight counties used 4-H club broadcasts to create a better understand ing of club work. The Extension Radio Specialist prepared script and furnished material for club programs. The State Club Staff prepared and made 12 broadcasts on club work. Four-H club activities fit into the programs of civic clubs. Agents were assisted in preparing club programs for presentation to these clubs. The State staff made talks on club work before 15 such groups. In almost every county at least 1 4-H program was given before a civic club. A newsletter has been sent out each month by the Boys' Club Depart ment. On January 1, 1946, W. W. Bassett, Jr. returned as Assistant Boys' Club Agent after 5 years in the armed services. In the 6 months he worked before resigning to enter business, he helped set up local club or ganizations and wrote a 4-H leaders' manual, which is now being printed. On November 1, 1946, W. W. Brown, a former 4-H boy and county agent, became Assistant Boys' Club Agent. Outstanding Accomplishments.-The greatest accomplishment of the year was in codifying the results of 30 years of 4-H club work in the form of a State 4-H program of work with boys. The district organiza tion has proven the most forward step taken in boys' work in Florida. The State is divided into 10 4-H districts of 5 to 7 counties each. The county agents in each district elect 1 of their number as chairman. The 10 district chairmen met in Gainesville in January for 2 days. They did a conscientious and complete job in preparing a boys' 4-H clu:b, state program. Decided progress was made in 1946 in determining adjustments and relationships of present programs to long-time objectives. The Florida boys' State 4-H club program established a definite written policy for boys' club work in the State. Ten district 4-H conferences were held in January and February_ 1946. The conferences were called by the district 4-H chairmen. At these meet ings the goals for the year w~re established by the county agents. During the annual Extension Conference in Gainesville in October 1946 the 10 district chairmen met and decided upon goals on a State basis. Activity and project goals with results are given in the table below: Activity Goals Leader training meetings ............................................. . Demonstration teams ................................................... . Judging contests ........................................................... : Short Course ................................................................... . 'Resigned July 1, 1946. 4 Appointed November 1, 1946 Goal 10 35 5 1 Result 64 11 6 1

PAGE 40

Annual R eport, 1946 Boys at camp ................. . . .. ............................................. 1,500 Achievement days ............................................. . ............ 25 4-H tours .. . ................. . ....... . .. . ........ . ................................. 150 Educational trips ....................... . .. . ................................ 50 Recr eatio nal meetings ................ . ............... .. ................ 500 Older youth organization ............................................ 3 P r oject Goa l s Goal Corn .. .. ....... ... ............. . ................................. 1,500 acres Peanuts. ...................................................... 200 acres Soil conservat i on ....................................... 2,000 acres Potatoes ...................................................... 200 acres Cotton .............................. . .. .. .... . ........ .. ..... . .. 25 acres Home gardens ........................ . ......... .. ........ 1,500 e nrolled Market gardens .. . .. . ... . ............................... 225 acres Poultry ........................................................ 1,000 completions Dairy cattle ............................... . ................ 1,200 animals Beef cattle .................................................. 1,000 animals Swine ........ . ............. . .................................... 3,000 animals Forestry. ....... ... ........................................... 100 acres Agricultural engineering.. .................... . .. 75 enrolled Farm managem ent.... ..................... ... ....... 25 enro ll ed 39 1,414 27 78 31 R e sults 1,077 acres 542 acres 511 acres 128 acres 38 acres 2 , 002 enrolled 164 acres 375 0 915 completions 1,006 animals 859 animals 2,534 animals 100 acres 14 enrolled 34 en roll ed In the 1 , 330 days spent in th e field the 17 assistant county agents made 2,382 visits to club projects. Visiting the boy a t his proje c t helps secure b et ter project work. There was a 35 % increas e in enrollment this year. Enrollment and reports are com pared by years as follows: Enrollm e nt 1944 ....................... . ............... . 1945 ...................... . ................ . 1946 ....................................... . 5,360 5 ,8 08 7 ,8 97 Report s 3 , 346 3 , 164 4,194 62 % 54 1,53 1, Th e Florida Bankers ' Association co ntributes five 4 -H $100.00 scholar ships to the College of Agriculture each year. The scholarships are Fig. 7 .Flag raising ceremony at th e tent city where th e 4-H boys at 1946 Short Course camped.

PAGE 41

40 Florida Cooperative Extension awarded at the annual short course based on an examination given by the Boys• Club Agent. A large cartridge corporation is continuing its contribution to conser vation by sponsoring 4-H conservation camps for white and negro 4-H club boys. During April and May the State Club Staff spent 1 day with all but 4 of the county agents in the State helping with club program. Camps, Short Course.-The Annual 4-H Club Short Course is the big event of the year . Many boys receive their inspiration to go to college through attendance at the short course. The 1946 course was the 27th held at the University of Florida. It was attended by 215 boys. The theme was "Know Your Government," arid all general assembly talks were on phases of this subject. The summer. 4-H camp is an institution in Florida . . The 3 district camps were repaired as well as possible, considering the shortage of labor and materials. In 1946 1,483 boys and 835 girls attended 4-H camps. This was the largest number of club members to attend club camps in any year. The desire of all livestock shows and breed associations to promote club work has given Florida 4-H boys opportunity to compete in 6 live stock judging contests. Two more poultry contests will be added in 1947.

PAGE 42

Annual Report, 1946 41 FARM FORESTRY L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester Forest fires are still the greatest obstacle to the deve~opment of pro ductive and profitable forests in Florida. County agents report assisting 4,829 farmers to prevent them. County agents were assisted in visualizing the extent of fire damage by trips through both burned and unburned woods . They were also given instruction in methods to be followed in influenc ing farmers and other timberland owners in fire protection. Largely through discussions during field visits, county agents were assisted in conducting demonstrational and other educational activities in fire prevention at the most appropriate and strategic times of the year, Through cooperative arrangements with the State Forest Service fir e protection organization, county agents were able to extend the work of the Forest Service and provide protection for many additional acres of forest land. The Extension For e ster delivered 1 radio talk on the need for protect ing woodlands from fire and made 6 other forestry radio talks during the year. These radio talks were made available to county agents in 12 other counties . County agents in 15 counties were given assistance in planning and developing result demonstrations in the Timber-Grazing-Game method of forest fire prevention. Instruction in forest fire prevention was given to 4-H club boys during the annual short course and at 2 4-H camps. Forest fire prevention was also included as a feature of many talks delivered by the Extension For ester before 4-H club meetings throughout the State. For e st Planting.-Demand by farmers for forest planting stock far ex ceeded the supply, and hundreds of farmers and 4-H club members could not obtain forest seedlings for plantings during 1946. This is, of course, a severe blow to the Extension forest planting program in Florida. How ever, agents' reports show that they assisted 353 farmers in planting trees last year. County agents received assistance in determining su i table species of forest trees for planting under local soil and climatic conditions. They were shown how and when forest-grown wild seedlings of slash pine and red cedar could be taken up from the woods, where they have come in too thickly, and transplanted to other areas where needed . Through close cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service, county agents were able to assist in the distribution to farmers of more than 40,000 red cedar seedlings which were supplied by SCS nurseries. Two mimeographed instruction sheets on forest planting were prepared and distributed to all county agents . A number of method demonstrations were given by the Extension Forester before meetings of county agents and farmers showing correct tree planting procedures. To 443 4-H club boys forest planting methods were taught during the annual short course and at 2 summer camps. In addition, 36 other club boys received instruction and actual experience in tree planting by parti cipating in farm, school and community 4-H club forest plantings. The Extension Forester provided wildling red cedar seedlings and assisted county agents and 4-H club boys in making forest plantings of cedar on the grounds of 3 different schools. Timber Marketlng,-Efforts were made to stimulate harvesting of all farm timber which is ready for market.

PAGE 43

42 Florida Cooperative Extension To help relieve the pole shortage which was holding up rural electrifi cation construction and other power and telephone service, county agents were assisted in publicizing the need for cutting more pole timber. Farmers were urged to cut conservatively, keeping always a satisfac tory stand of trees growing in their woods. County agents were supplied with market information on forest products. In 25 counties where the services of woodland marketing project foresters are available, county agents contributed materially to the effec tiveness of the project by bringing farmers in need of timber marketing assistance and the project foresters together. Agents' report assisting 329 farmers in selective cutting of lumber and 263 farmers in timber estimat ing and appraisal. They further report assisting 211 farmers to market and distribute $187,565 worth of forest products, and assisting 178 farm ers in thinning , weeding, pruning . and improvement cutting of timber. Instruction in marketing farm timber was given to 443 4-H club mem bers during the annual short course at 2 4-H club camps and during 4-H club meetings held throughout the State . The idea of planting and managing the farm forest so that most, if not all, of the farm requirements for wood can be me.t was included in the instruction offered 4-H boys. To meet the problem of fires on farm woodlands the Timber-Grazing Game Program was devised. County agents received assistance in plan ning, developing and publicizing this program in their counties. During field visits local situations were studied on the . ground and recommenda tions were made for establishment of demonstrations. Extension Bulletin 127, Timber-Grazing-Game, was made available to county agents in quantities sufficient for distribution to all interested farmers and other forest landowners. News stories and radio talks were prepared to provide publicity for the program, both locally and State-wide . Mimeographed outlines covering 4 different 4-H club projects were pre pared and furnished county ag e nts. Instruction in the field was given 443 club members by the Extension Forester in tree identification, tree plant ing, timber estimating, pruning, timber utilization and forest fire protec tion. County agents report 32 club boys completed forestry projects on 100 acres of forest and 36 club boys completed projects in wildlife and nature study. They further report 1,422 boys receiving training in forestry and 1,362 boys receiving training in wildlife. Development of Grune, Fish and Other Wildlife. Opportunities for establishment of fish ponds and better management of existing ponds were pointed out to county agents during field visits . Also, conditions favorable to restocking certain areas with desirable game birds and animals were outlined. Establishment and maintenance of suitable food and cover also were given much consideration . The agents report having assisted 58 farmers in the construction and management of fish ponds, 221 farmers in protection of wildlife areas, 135 farmers to plant wildlife food plants and 108 farmers to plant food and cover plants. Naval Stores Conservation Progrlllill,-County agents were given in formation on gum farming during the annual conference of Extension workers and at sectional meetings . Printed instructions from the naval stores cooperative agent and itemized cost figures for installation per 1,000 pines of turpentine size were helpful additions to the available list of printed materials useful to farmers. County agents report assisting 76 farmers in gum farming work. Forest Insects and Diseases.-County agents were assisted in recognizing diseases and insect pests during field visits.

PAGE 44

Annual Report, 1946 43 Fence Post Problem.-Work was continued in helping county agents and farmers in meeting the growing need for durable fence posts. The planting of an acre or more on each farm to native red cedar has been recommended. Posts from 3 additional tree species known or said to be durable-red mulberry, catalpa and Casuarina-were secured for placement in the post durability test established a . year previously. A mimeographed instruction sheet , explaining the South Carolina method for treating non-durable pine and other sapling posts, with chro. mated zinc chloride by the "tub method" was prepared and furnished county agents. Farmers within reach of local creosote treating plants were advised to have their posts custom treated by this process whenever possible. Demonstration Forests.-Additional work was done in carrying forward work begun 3 years ago on 4 forest demonstration plantings in 4 different parts of the State. Two of the plantings are being carried out in coopera tion with organized 4-H club groups. Interest in community forests was stimulated in 4 counties by county and home agents, and in 2 counties plans for improving 20and 52-acre tracts of community-owned land already have been adopted.

PAGE 45

44 Florida Coop e rati ve E x t en sion SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION T. K. McClane, Jr., Extension Soil Conservationist K. S. McMullen, Extension Soil Conservationist With t h e organization of 3 new soil conservation districts and comple tion of organization in 2 others, Florida now has 36 districts covering 39 counties and comprising nearly 65 % of the acreage of the State . The educational work with organized soil conservation districts was conducted through the respective county agents. Planning and execution of such activities was approached, first, on a State level through officials of the Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service, and second, on a county and district level through the county agent, boards of supervisors and district and work unit conservationists. County agents act as secretaries to the boards of supervisors in every district except 1 . Annual elections of supervisors were held in 29 districts in 1946. The combined annual report of Florida soil conservation district super visors showed 1945 to be a banner year in conservation of soil and water . 3 Febr u ary 1 to November 30. 1 9 4 G. •December 1, 194 5, to January 3 1 , 1946. Fig. 8. Soil-improving cover crops, such as this lupine, are encouraged by Soil Conservation workers and th e Extension Service.

PAGE 46

Annual Report, 1946 45 (Annual reports of supervisors for 1946 will not be released until February , 1947, and therefore are not included in this report . ) Districts also contri buted to war food and feed production . Reports indicated more interest in conservation by both the farmer and the general public. Supervisors report that conservation surveys as a basis for determining capabilities, management practices and proper land use, have been com pleted on 287 , 857 acres during 1945 in the 31 districts operating that year. Contour and topographic information has be ' en developed and used in areas where water c o ntrol and water management were necessary. This scienti fic information plus farmer experience has be e n used in the developm e nt of 3,195 farm pl a ns covering 861,001 acres . These plans call for devoting each acre to its best use for maximum production and sufficient soil con servation practices to maintain soil fertility . . For specific practices established, supervisors' reports show a decided incr e ase ov e r the previous year. Report on pra c tic es establi s hed and planned to date (December 31, 1945) : Practice Established Plann e d Crop rot a tions . . . . . . . .... ... .. . . , ...... . . .. . ..... . . . . . ....... . 139 , 684 acres 229 , 521 acres Strip-cropping ... .. .. ..... ................... .. .. .. ...... ....... 4,579 acres 10 , 493 acres Kudzu .. . . . ... . . . .. . .. . . . ............................... . .. . .. .... .... 6,075 acres 18,739 acres Terracing ....... ,......................................... . ... . . . .. 6,602 miles 14,465 mil e s Pasture improvement .................... .... ... ... .. .... 37,352 acres 172,279 acres Fish ponds .. . ........ . . . .. . ........................ .. ....... . . .... 31 _ 65 Wildlife ar e as ..... ..... . . . ................. ...... .. .... . .. .... . 28,605 acres 35 , 359 acres Farni drainage . . .. . ........ ... .... . .... ..... .. ... . . .. .... . ... . 28 , 664 acres 71,360 acres Woodland improvement . . .. ... .. ... ..... ...... ... .. . .. . 135 , 804 acres 251,103 acres Contour farming .... .... .... .. ...... .. .... . ... .. .. ... . ...... . . 72 , 693 acres 117,291 acres (Only practices involving larger acreages shown . ) Reports show that districts exp e nded mor e than $40,000 during the year and that they now own a considerable amount of machinery and equipment obtained by grants, purchase or other means. Many districts own tract o rs, terracing equipment and combines in addition to smaller items such as choppers, cultipackers, seed drills, lime spreaders, etc. Organization of New Soil Conservation Districts.-The Director of Ex tension is Administrator to the State Soil Conservation Board and is r e sponsible for administering the State Districts Act. Also, in accordance with departmental policy, he is responsibl e for the educational activities in districts . Based on this authority, the Extension Soil Conservationist, administratively responsible to the Director, heads up the organizational and educational work in districts on a State level and the county agent assumes the same obligation on a county level. During the period covered by this report 3 districts were organized . The Extension Conservationist assisted 4 .districts in arranging tours of soil conservation work. Two districts were assisted in terracing demon strations . Twenty-eight meetings of boards of supervisors were attended to assist in either administrative or educational matters. Seven tours were attended. Twenty-six districts were assisted in setting up record keeping and accounting systems. Very little uniformity existed in this re spect between districts and for this reason, as well as to provide adequately for preserving of district records, a record system was prepared . This system has been adopted as the official system of records for districts by the State organization of soil conservation district supervisors. A tour was also arranged for county agents in citrus counties in Janu ary at Haines City, Polk County, Florida . The purpose of this tour was to inspect and study field trails on (1) moisture control and (2) prevention of erosion in citrus groves as conducted by the Soil Conservation Servic '.'.

PAGE 47

46 Florida Cooperative Extension Plans for the tour were made by the Extension Conservationist, Extension Citriculturist and representatives of the Soil Conservation Service, work ing cooperatively . Soil and Water Conservation Work with 4 H Clubs.-The teaching of soil and water conservation to rural and urban youths is of inestimable value, yet 1 of the most difficult jobs ever attempted. The lack of tangible ownership, as well as the lack of specific remuneration, seems to be the main deterrent to conservation projects. Some 20 counties signed up in a State soil conservation contest (sponsored by Firestone) and 3 counties submitted reports. The State winner of the 4-H Soil Conservation Contest was guided on a 10-day tour of soil conservation work in the State with the assistance of county agents and SCS personnel. The Extension Conservationist assisted in the 4-H Club Short Course at the University in early June. SUMMARY OF SOIL CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES BY COUNTY AGENTS Information taken from annual statistical reports of county agents is given below, showing totals for Florida: Number of communities in which work was conducted this year( a) Soil management ................................................................................ , 540 (b) Wildlife conservation .. . .......................... . ... ....... .................................. 151 Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisted this year( a) Soil management ...................................................... . ......................... 300 (b) Wildlife conservation.......................... .. ..... .... ......... ......... ................... 56 Number of farmers assisted this year(a) With problems of land use based on soil types ............................ 4,416 (b) In the use of recommended crop rotations .................................... 4,002 ( c) With strip-cropping ........ .... .......... ........ ................... .. ............ ....... ..... . 128 (d) In constructing terraces .................................................................... 435 (e) In grassing waterways or . otherwise controlling gullies............ 393 (f) With contour farming of crop land ......... . .......... .......... .................. 217 (g) In contouring pasture or range ...................................................... 122 (h) In the use of cover or green manure crops ..................... .... ......... 14,136 (i) In otherwise controlling wind or water erosion .......................... 375 (j) In summer fallowing.. ...... ............ ..... .. . .......... .. .... ........... .. ........ ......... 124 (k) In making depth of moisture tests ...................... .. ........................ 30 (1) With drainage ......................................................................... .. ........... 1,085 (m) With irrigation . . .......... ..... .. ...... .... . ...... ....... .... .............. :...................... 852 (n) With land clearing....................... ..... ................................... . .. ... ......... 980 Number of farmers( a) In soil conservation districts which were assisted with or ganization or operations this year............. . ........... ...... ........ .... ......... 9,762 (b) Assisted in arranging for farm-conservation plans this year .... 1,135 (c) Assisted in doing work based on definite farm-conservation plans this year .................................................................................... 1,029 Number of farmers assisted this year( a) In construction or management of ponds for fish .................... 58 (b) In protection of wildlife areas, such as stream banks, odd areas, field borders, marshes and ponds, from fire or livestock 221 (c) In planting of edible wild fruits and nuts in hedges, stream banks, odd areas and field borders ................................................ 135 (d) With other plantings for food and protection in wildlife areas 108 4-H club projects in soil conservation and pasture improvement( a) Number of boys enrolled..................................................... ....... ........ 61 (b) Number of boys completing ................................ .... ............ . ........... 31 (c) Number of units involved in completed projects ........................ 5il

PAGE 48

Annual Report, 1946 47 SOILS AND FARM CROPS J. Lee Smith, Agronomist Extension agronomy work was aimed at, first, informing Florida farm ers on the most economical agronomic production practices known: second, finding, securing, or assisting them in producing supplies of better seeds; third, helping them to make the best use of the fertilizers which they secured; and fourth, assisting them to maintain and improve soil fertility while producing crops. The county agent, as secretary to the Board of Soil Conservation Dis trict Supervisors and secretary to the P & MA Committee, has planned, promoted and executed programs that have resulted in a good many con servation accomplishments during the year. Green Manure Crops.-Since 1940, when the Florida Agricultural Ex periment Station distributed to farmers, through . county agents, the first commercial supply of blue lupine seed, the Extension Service has been very active in demonstrating the value of this winter cover, finding the best methods of handling it, and building up a supply of seed. Depth of planting, seedbed preparation, time of planting, rate of seeding and fer tilizing methods had to be learned. There has been a steady growth and interest in this new legume. County agents in 33 counties reported 59,405 acres of blue lupine planted on 1,954 farms, using 4,455,398 pounds of seed, in 1946. Through the efforts of the Agronomist and county agents, a larger supply of planting seed has been secured each year. In 1946, 22 counties reported that 6,405,840 pounds of blue lupine seed were harvested from 8,919 acres. Other green manure crops which the Extension Service has been pro moting and the acreage grown in 1946 are: Indigofera, 1,091 acres; Alyce clover, 6,767 acres; Sesbania, 8,320 acres; others, 5,706 acres. Because supplies of seed were short and it was profitable to farmers, the county agents during very recent years have promoted the growing and harvesting of manure crop seed. The agents report accomplishments for 1946 as follows: 661,000 pounds of crotalaria seed harvested from 26,804 acres, 62,000 pounds of indigofera seed harvested from 685 acres, 1,258,400 pounds of Alyce clover seed from 5,615 acres, and 12,600 pounds of Sesbania seed from 63 acres. To show the value of lupines as a manure crop, demonstrations in grow ing corn following lupines were conducted in 1946 in approximately 16 counties. Southeastern experiment stations, in cooperation with IU.S. Department of Agriculture research workers, have discoovered a hard-seeded, volunteer ing Crimson clover named the Dixie Crimson clover. The North Florida Experiment Station has tested its adaptability to the North Florida region. Eight county agents established demonstrations " in 1945 comprising 358 acres. In 1946 they have established demonstrations on 2,143 acres using 10,400 pounds of seed. Peanuts.-Of the approximately 450,000 acres on which peanuts were grown in 1946, only 110,000 acres were dug. The remainder were used for hog feed. The seed disinfecting program to control damping-off which was begun 5 years ago has been continued this year. County agents' reports indicate that 85% of the seed used on the 450,000 acres planted to peanuts was treated this year. This practice has been estimated to be worth between 3 and 4 million dollars annually to Florida farmers.

PAGE 49

48 Florida Cooperative E xtension The Extension Service supervised the production of Dixie Runner pea nuts in 1945 and 1946 . The reports show that 356 farmers saved 104,000 bushels of this seed in 1946 . Cotto n. The Extension program for cotton is to maintain the use of varieties having a staple length of 1 inch or better, improve the quality, if possible , and strive for more economical production. Approximate l y 95 % of the cotton grown this year was of varieties of 1 inch staple or longer. Because of rainy weather during harvesting season, the grade and quality of the lint was poor . Corn and Oats. -More and more interest has been developed in sweet corn production . Demonstrations were co nducted with 4-H boys in 16 counties. The oats acreage in Florida has grown from 26,000 to 165,000 acres in recent years. The Extension program calls for growing a larger acreage of higher yielding oats of rust-resistant varieties. However, Helminthos porium leaf spot is lowering the value of many new rust-resistant varieties. Pastures . -Mo re and better grazing from more and better pastures on Florida farms and ranches is an item in the Extension agronomy program . Spearheaded by the county agents and other Extension workers and using the helps offered through the P & MA, approximately 718 , 122 acres Fig. 9. County agents aided growers with tobacco production problems and acreage a llotments .

PAGE 50

Annual Report, 1946 49 of improved pasture have been established in this State during the past 11 years. It is estimated that approximately 100,000 acres were in improved pasture at the beginning of that time. This makes a total approximately 800,000 acres of improved pasture in the State at present. Because of the scarcity of pasture grass seed, Extension workers have made a special effort to get farmers to save what they could. There were 128,655 pounds of seed harvested in the State and used on other pasture lands this year. A total of 514,620 pounds have been purchased and used by the Florida cattlemen and farmers this year, according to reports from 50 counties.

PAGE 51

50 Florida Cooperative Extension Part Ill -Work With Women and Girls HOME DEMO NS TR A TION WORK Mary E . Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Agent Ethyl Holloway, District Agent Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent A State home demonstration agent, 3 district agents and 4 specialists, 40 co unt y home demonstration agents, 7 assis t ant agen ts , 11 negro hom e demonstration agents and a negro district agent make up the personnel responsible fo r guiding the work. First attention is given to work in rural areas and the interests of farm people. Th e entire program wi th the rural family is developed in direct relationship to agric ultur a l problems as they affect the lif e of rural people. During the past 3 years the interest of non-farm people in h ome demonstration work has increased greatly and plans have been adapted, as far as facilities permit , to meet this trend. Community home demonstration clubs for girls and women a r e or ganized to serve as a means of reaching more peop l e and to encourage coo perative work locally . Many other women receive direct assis t ance from the agents. Organization . District agents work through county h ome demonstra tion agents to strengthen practical programs and to ma i ntain cord i a l rela tionships with county appropriating boards . Because of the many changes in personnel and scarcity of suitable prospective workers, district agents have had a busy and perplexing year. The 4 specialis t s work in the fields of food preservation; nutriti on and health; hom e improvement; and clothing. Th ey provide reliable informa tion to the workers and assist in determining the most effective methods Fig. 10 . The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work ex tends valuable aid to the home demonstration staff in planning and carry ing on the work.

PAGE 52

Annual Report, 1946 51 and programs. Extension specialists in dairying, animal husbandry, poul try and agricultural engineering have given fine assistance through their work with home demonstration agents. County councils made up of representatives of the community clubs help in determining programs and in getting desired results. The 2 State coun cils, 1 for 4-H girls and the other for women, serve as advisory boards to the home demonstration agents and develop recommendations for State wide programs. The 3 district agents assist with (1) 4-H work, (2) women's programs and (3) negro work, thereby helping in the general guidance of State wide programs. Eleven counties have no clerical help and 10 have part-time help only. Fifteen have full-time help financed by either the county alone or the State and county jointly. County boards of commissioners and school boards cooperate financially in establishing and maintaining home demonstration work in the counties and have given fine understanding arid support to the work during the year. Three counties made appropriations to establish the work for the first time. Two counties provided funds in the budget for 2 assistants and 5 other counties set up funds for employing assistant agents. Almost with out exception, increases were made in county budgets this year and addi tional or improved facilities were provided. Home demonstration work as a part of the Extension Service is fortun ate in its cordial relationships with other agencies at work in the State and organization plans include cooperative work. The strength of home demonstration work continues to be largely in the vision, ability and devotion of the home demonstration agents in the coun ties. It is a cause of real concern, therefore, to find a nation-wide scarcity of trained women ready to fill the positions necessary in a rapidly expand ing national program. Seventeen changes have been made in county and State positions this year. Six agents have retired from Extension work after years of fine service. Eight have left home demonstration work for marriage or to give full time to their homes and families. Two have resigned for other reasons, 1 to return to Extension work in her native state and 1 proved better suited to other fields. One home demonstration agent died in ser vice. Exclusive of the 5 who served only 1 year and the 2 who were trans ferred to other counties, before resignation, the average tenure of the above agents was 21 years. Thirteen of the new appointees have had no experience in home demon stration work. An undue amount of time of the State and district agents has been taken with personnel problems, selection and training. Specia lists have made adjustments in their program to give needed special aid. Fourteen counties have been provided with part-time clerical help with funds available from the State office. All personnel had salary increases. At least 15 counties made extensive improvement in the offices. Retire ment provisions have brought a sense of security to home demonstration workers which is noticeable in its effect on their work. Eleven home demonstration agents, most of them appointees during the year, attended the 3-weeks course at the University of Florida, June 17 July 3, receiving needed information and 3 hours' graduate t:redit. Pre-service training has been developed in cooperation with the Florida State College for Women in the appointment of home demonstration assis tants who serve on apprenticeship in at least 2 counties in the 10 months' period of employment.

PAGE 53

52 Florida Cooperative 'Extension Farm labor continued to offer some perplexing problems. Wome n and girls continued to help with family duties, according to 18 home demon stration agents who reported they helped women on 951 farms to improve labor-saving methods and in better ways of sharing labor and , equipment . The home demonstration agents looked directly to farm people for facts and made 20,535 home visits to secure as well as give needed information. This was an average of 402 home visits per agent. Program Planning.-Specialists provided the agents with carefully con sidered suggestions throughout the year as situations changed. State and district home demonstration agents and specialists made a total of 349 visits into counties to aid in determining programs . and to assist in carry ing out the plans made. Seven hundred and thirty-two communities reported their programs had been planned cooperatively by Extension agents and local committees . Leaders named by the clubs and councils assumed responsibility for get ting suggestions from the club members about the kind of information rieeded. Evidence of local participation is shown in the fact that 2,648 women served as voluntary local leaders in furthering adult programs and 642 women and 1,032 older 4-H girls aided in 4-H club work for girls . These leaders held 1,590 meetings without the agent being present, with an attendance of 25,793 girls and women. At 165 meetings held to train these leaders the attendance was 2,393 women. Also, 222 meetings were held to train 4-H club leaders with an attendance of 3,105 girls. Meeting Needs of All Farm Faanilies.-Organized work through clubs was conducted in 953 Florida communities in counties employing home demonstration agents; 296 organized clubs functioned for women and 441 4-H clubs for girls. Reports from 40 counties show the 47 county home demonstration agents and assistants worked with 8,468 women in organized clubs. In addition, 4,789 other women who could not become members of an organized club carried out demonstrations in their homes. Also, . 10,133 girls were members of 4-H clubs directed by the home demonstration agents. Reports show that 16,785 farm homes have been improved as a result of participation in home demonstration work. Reports of 40 counties show 18,615 non-farm homes received similar direct help. Florida rural families have 189,547 daughters of 4-H club age (1940 census) with a total enroll ment of 13,386 girls, white and negro, in 4-H club work . . 4-H Work for Girls.-Four-H club work for girls in 1946 has continued as an important part of the program of home demonstration work in the State. This junior home demonstration work is designed to train young women and 4-H girls from 10 to 20 years of age to become useful, skillful, happy citizens and leaders in their homes and communities. All members of State staff assist with the 4-H program . Negro home demonstration work for girls is supervised directly by the Negro District Agent and home demonstration agents, working under the direction of the State Home Demonstration Agent. The total 4-H club enrollment in 1946 of 10,133 white girls . is an increase of 563 over 1945, when the total enrollment was 9,570. Of the 10,i33 girls, 4,482 are enrolled for first-year work; 2,693 in second year; 1,432 in third; 881 in fourth; 350 in fifth; 186 in sixth ; 68 in seventh; and 39 in eighth and ninth . The 4-H girls of different ages enrolled this year show an increase in numbers of girls 10, 11, 12 and 14 years of age and approximately the same number of older girls as enrolled last year, as indicated by the accompany ing chart:

PAGE 54

Annual Report, 1946 1946 10 years of age ... . ......... ... ........ .... ...... . . .. ...... 2,735 11 years of age .................................... . ...... . 2,148 12 years of age . ... ........ . . . .................. ...... ..... 1,826 13 years of age ........... .. ........ .... .......... .. ....... 1,358 14 years of age..... . ....... ..... . . .. ...... . . .. .... ... . .... 976 15 years of age............ .. ..................... ... ...... 578 16 years of age. .. ......... ... ......... ... ..... .... ........ 297 17 years of age............. . . . ....... .. .......... .. ..... . . 134 18 and 20 years of age . .......... . ............ .. ...... 46 1945 2,251 1,945 1,806 1,497 948 595 321 134 60 53 In 41 counties 441 4-H clubs for girls are organized, an increase of 18 clubs over the previous year . The total demonstrations carried by club girls in 41 counties numbered 30,869. There were 18,277 completions this year. The number of 4-H girls enrolled in 1946 as "out of school" was 522 and "in school" 9,986 . Junior Home Demonstration Councils. Junior home demonstration councils made up of 2 representatives from each community 4-H club are organized in 23 counties and meet regularly. Older 4-H girls who become council members have participated in community and county-wide events. Committees of girls working within the councils have worked on scrap salvage and bond drives, famine relief programs, school, church and libraries, and community club houses and recreation projects, and have been responsible for local publicity and recreation programs . The State Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work was re-organ ized during the State Short Course . in June, when 21 organized counties sent delegates to the State meeting . Volunteer Leadershl,p.-The fine work of volunteers and leaders respon sible for the direct leadership of the work with 4-H girls in the 41 counties has been noted with pride. In their own neighborhoods or communities 2,253 women and 916 older girls have served as volunteer local learlers. They have met with clubs at 1,391 meetings. Some parents have volun teered to become new 4-H leaders this year. Local leaders were trained at club meetings, special leadership meetings and short courses by home demonstration agents, specialists and district agents. Leadership handbooks were pr e pared by the State Home Demon stration Office and discussed and given to local leaders in the Short Course program. A total of 222 training meetings for leaders have been held in counties . Major Accomplishments Through 4-H Club Work.-Reports reveal that 13,386 girls and young women from 10 to 20 years of age (white and negro) are enrolled this year in 600 4-H clubs throughout the State . Club girls planted hundreds of home gardens to produce food for better family nutrition and are producing beef, dairy cattle, feed, poultry and eggs. This year 4-H girls conserved 239,905 quarts of fruit and vegetables. War bonds and stamps valued at $725.00 were given by interested Flor ida citizens for outstanding 4-H achievement. Agents report that 4,322 girls enrolled in gardening and 2,735 com pleted this demonstration; 735 girls enrolled for fruit plantings; 65,153 quarts of fruits , 139,914 quarts of vegetables and 34,838 quarts of meats were canned by these girls, making a grand total of 239,905 containers. The reports showed that this year in 11 counties 1,106 club girls were enrolled in health, nursing and first aid, and that 545 completed demon strations in this activity. In 27 counties 1,300 girls enrolled in 4-H work had complete physical examinations.

PAGE 55

54 Floricla Cooperative E x tension PouJtry . The poultry program for 4-H girls had an enrollment in 1945 of 1,873, with 1,180 completing . The poultry raising demonstratioh in co operation with Sears, Roebuck and Company, and directed by the home demonstration agents and the Poultry Extension Specialists, helped train 4-H girls for leadership and provided 15,000 to 20,000 pounds of fryers and over 125,000 dozen eggs in 13 counti e s. C lothing .-During 1946 41 counties reported 8 , 990 4-H club g irl s enrolled as clothing demonstrators, including 1,988 negro girls. White Negro New garments made . ........ . . . .. 25 , 491 14,596 Garments remodeled ........ . ..... 6,344 3,536 Household articles made ....... . 5 , 218 3,361 Total 40,087 9,880 8,579 Food Selection, Preparation and Meal Planning.-Reports from counties showed that this year there were 5,574 girls in 41 counties enrolled in this phase of club work and 3 , 329 girls in 41 counties completed the demon strations. These girls in 40 counties planned 79 , 253 meals and in 41 coun ties served 85,320 meals. Hom e Safety. Thirty counties in Florida reported having given definite training in safety and fire prevention to 3,740 4-H girls; there were 1,956 4-H girls carrying on a safety demonstration in their homes or communi ties. During the year 230 meetings for promoting safety in the home were held with groups of 4-H club girls and a total of 209 method demonstra tions were given before the groups. Fig. 11 .Florida 4-H girls , at their 1946 Short Course, collected hun dreds of clothing items and canned hundreds of containers of food for sending to distressed peoples overseas.

PAGE 56

Annual Report, 1946 55 In 12 counties 946 girls were enrolled in home management programs; 2,497 improved 1,300 rooms and made 3,233 articles of home furnishings. Thirty-four counties reported girls and women made 1,774 rugs from waste materials. Home yards were beautified by 1,011 girls. Lawns and ornamental shrubbery, including fruit and nut trees, were planted. Home Industrles.-Four-H girls have utilized home resources and money through crafts learned under the direction of home demonstration agents. Four counties report 27 demonstrations given on the standardization of products. Counties report 779 girls making 1,943 articles. Fresh garden, poultry and dairy products sold by 4-H girls totaled approximately $11,713. Other Community Activities in Which 4-H Girls Cooperate.-Women and girls representing 12,112 families have worked together in canning centers to conserve 1,780 canned products for famine relief. They have helped with the work of the school lunch program in 237 communities where 44,048 children were involvea. Seven communities have had school gardens which 4-H girls planted for use by the school lunchroom and 4-H club . Libraries have been maintained or assisted in 38 communities by home demonstration clubs. Club girls and women planned and held 422 socials in 50 home demon stration club houses . They took part in 204 programs on special days. State Short Course for 4-H Girls.-The annual State Short Course for Florida Club Girls was held at the State College for Women , June 10-14, attended by 500 4-H girls and leaders. District and County 4-H Camps.-The summer 4-H camps are events which 4-H girls look forward to with great anticipation. It was necessary to cancel or postpone some camps this year, due to the prevalence of polio in the state. Twenty-nine camps for girls were held with a total attend ance of 753. Achievement Days and Exhlbits.-In 39 counties 329 4-H achievement days have been held this year. These community and county-wide events included exhibits of 4-H club work prepared and set-up by the 4-H girls .

PAGE 57

CL OTHIN G A ND TEXTILES Joyce Bevis, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles The Florida clothing program is planned to interest, inspire and teach Florida rural women and girls the selection, construction and care of clothing and household textiles; and to help them to con tribute to better family living by understanding the needs and re sponsibilities of all members of the family and home in supplying clothing for the family and textiles for the home. The number of clothing leaders in the State has increased from 241 to 493 and the clothing program has been carried into 10 new com munities this year . Cloth in g Program . During 1946 there were 2,642 clothing demonstrators among home dem onstration clubs and 7,002 among 4-H club members who were working on their clothing prob lems. These clothing demonstra tors were located in 577 com munities of the 40 counties of the State where home demonstration work is established. County reports show that through the help of the Specialist, the county home demonstration agents and 493 leaders, 7,744 fam ilies were assisted with clothing construction problems , 5,913 fam ilies received assistance with pro blems in selection of clothing and household textiles, 6,980 families were given help in problems of care, renovation and remodeling, 1,758 families asked for help on clothing budgets and 628 families had help on the care and repair of their sewing machines. The result was that 337 sewing machines were put into good working con dition through the aid of the agent and specialist. In addition , 11,192 families used thrift materials such as sacks . Fig. 12 . Ne ll Tison, . president of the Florida Council of Junior Home D e monstration Work , is typical of the well dressed Flor i da 4-H club girl.

PAGE 58

Annual Repor.t, 1946 57 As a result of the assistance received by these families, the records show that 32,549 garments were remodeled, 108;439 garments were mended or renovated, and 98,341 new garments were made. There were 493 leaders among the home demonstration and 4-H club groups who helped to carry out a good clothing program this year. These leaders gave 1,229 method demonstrations on phases of clothing work and helped to set up 536 clothing exhibits, besides giving individual help to others in solving various types of clothing problems for women and girls. During 1946, 41 counties report 7,002 4-H club girls enrolled in clothing demonstrations. Of the 7,002 , 3,742 girls completed their demonstrations. These demonstrators made 25,491 new garments, remodeled 6,344 garments, and made 5,218 articles of furnishing for their homes. Some of these cloth ing and household articles were exhibited at the State Short Course, and a few of the dresses were modeled by the girls at a small dress revue. Household Textiles.-In the field of household furnishings 50,182 new household articles, such as pillowcases, curtains and quilts , were made. Also, 28,588 accessories such as hats, bags, blouses, dickeys, etc., were made. Home demonstration women reported making 165 mattresses, re novating 543 mattresses, and making at home 1 , 774 rugs. Clothing Contributions.-In addition to the regular clothing work done by the home demonstration and 4-H club members, 27 counties reported having contributed 15,377 clothing articles and 21 counties reported contri buhng 923 sewing supplies and 1 , 233 other articles to the overseas relief program.

PAGE 59

58 Florida Cooperative Extension FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH I Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist The food, nutrition and health program of the Florida Agricultural Ex tension Service was a continuation of a program to assist individuals and families to provide a better food supply through the use of more home grown and home-conserved foods, and to help individuals and families im prove their health and physica_l fitness by assisting them to acquire a better working knowledge of food values and of nutrition generally. Nutrition and Health.-At present 41 of the 67 counties in Florida have full-time health departments accredited by the State Board of Health. All counties have had provision made for some type of health service from the health departments of adjoining counties if none is available within the county. Home demonstration agents receive fine cooperation from these units. Reports of county home demonstration agents show that they devoted 476 days to programs on home care and food for the sick. They cooperated in presenting 204 programs to promote Child Health Day. Agents report the following additional activities: 4,720 persons were assisted in pre vention of colds and other common diseases; 5,337 individuals were assisted in taking positive preventive measures to improve health; home nursing and first aid courses were given to 1,728 individuals; in 5 counlies 18 health clinics were organized through the efforts of Extension workers; and 1,897 individuals were assisted with child-feeding problems. Campaigns to get people to eat an adequate breakfast were stressed again this year. The Nutritionist and home demonstration agents pre pared recipes for nourishing sandwich fillings which were published in local papers. Mimeographed copies were distributed to parents. Reports show that 342 schools were assisted in establishing or maintaining hot school lunches and that 8,278 families planned and prepared food for home use and for school lunches, using methods to get the most food value. There were 771 food preparation demonstrations given by home demon stration agents, 429 by adult home demonstration women and 675 by 4-H club girls. Also, 9,065 families in 34 counties report planning meals using food locally produced and 8,127 families report using alternatives made necessary by food shortages; 3,649 families in 29 counties reported budget ing and buying foods weekly through cooperative arrangements; 204 food exhibits were arranged in 27 counties by home demonstration agents, 346 in 22 counties by home demonstration club women and 657 in 28 counties by 4-H club girls. The study of food needs showed that in many counties there was a need for more milk, butter and cheese to be used in family meals. Special food preparation demonstrations were given in an effort to correct this situa tion. In 3.7 counties 6,559 families used home-made butter and 1,644 fam ilies in 34 counties made and used 29,407 pounds of cottage cheese. Food preparation and meal planning continued to be a most popular and interesting demonstration. 'Reports show that improved food practices were adopted in baking by 4,828 families; in meat cookery by 4,451 fam ilies; in vegetable and fruit cookery by 5,647 families; in dairy products by 3,268 families; in poultry products by 3,637 families and in fats by 2,735 families. •A number of counties reported that farm families purchased dairy cows primarily as a result of the nutrition program in which the need for milk in the family diet was discussed and demonstrated. This year in 37 counties, 2,015 family cows were added, bringing the total number of family

PAGE 60

Annual Report, 1946 59 cows owned by home demontration women to 11,003. Also, 272 milk goats supplied milk for home demonstration club families in 21 counties. The home demonstration agents in 41 counties devoted 1,283 days to promoting home production of the family food supply, with 571 communi ties participating and 954 ~oluntary local leaders assisting. The reports show that 8,423 families produced their food supply according to needs and 20,272 families reported that they had made changes in their food supply by making changes in home production of vegetables, fruit, meats, milk, poultry and eggs. 4-H Club Work.-This year 1,061 4-H club girls were enrolled in health, home nursing and first aid and 545 girls completed demonstrations in this activity. Also, 1,300 4-H girls had complete physical examinations. This year 5,574 girls in 41 counties enrolled in food preparation and meal planning projects and 3,329 of these girls completed their demonstra tions. They planned 79,253 and served 85,320 meals. Accomplishments in home food production by 4-H club girls were indi 0 cated by the following reports: 1,945 girls enrolled in poultry production and 1,004 girls completed with 60,523 birds; 213 girls enrolled in dairy demonstrations with 153 completing with 290 animals; 87 girls enrolled in beef cattle demonstrations with 45 girls completing projects on 124 animals; 57 girls enrolled in beekeeping demonstrations, 47 completing with projects on 298 colonies. Reports showed that there were 22,746 girls enrolled in the different phases of 4-H club work, with 12,244 completing. Records were submitted in the following national contests: General records, home grounds beauti fication, food conservation, gardens, clothing achievement, dress revue, food preparation and poultry. Cooperation With Other Agencies.-Current reports showed that the average school lunch attendance in federally reimbursed school lunch de partments was approximately 112,000 ; Last year the average daily at tendance ranged from 88,000 to 90,000. The number of schools having lunch rooms increased from 400 to 750. Last year 239 school lunch depart ments were not federally reimbursed. This year approximately 175 school lunch departments were not federally reimbursed. In 6 counties 7 home demonstration clubs acted as sponsors of school lunch rooms and in 30 counties 237 communities were helped by home demonstration groups with the school lunch program. Over 44,048 children in 26 counties were involved in these programs. Seven communities in 6 counties report having a school garden program. The State report shows that 1,897 families in 36 counties were assisted with child feeding problems and that 342 schools in 33 counties were assisted in establishing and main taining hot school lunches.

PAGE 61

60 Florida Cooperative Extension GA RDE NING A ND F OO D C O NS ER V ATIO N Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation The food situation during 1946 offered a tr emendo us challenge to every hom e demonstration worker in the co untry . Substantial contributions to famine relief wer e made in the 10 carloads of food shipped out of the State from 11 counties. In addition, many other donations of food have been made for which we have no record. Home Ga r dens, Fruit P l a n ti n gs. In gardening activ i ties some 40 coun ties reported a total of 17 , 081 gardens grown by women and girls with a cash valuation of $48,471.17 in fresh vegetables sold from them. This year's figures show an increase of 1,981 gardens over those grown in 1945 . Scar city of some items of food has caused a better appreciation for many h ome -grown products and has kept food co ns ervatio n can ning , freezing and curing at a high peak. Club members report ca lendar orchard fruit tree and vine plantings started this year as totaling 7,010. Foo d Co n se r vat i on . Reports from home demonstration agents show that adult home demonstration club members representing 21,029 different families co nserved available foods in 1946 as follows: Fruits and vege tabl es canned 2,030,820 quarts, dried 2,533 pounds , stored 386,424 pounds , frozen 19 ,223 pounds. Meats and fish canned 401,387 quarts , cured 1,972,323 pounds, stored 649,694 pounds and frozen 226,748 pounds. Fig. 13. Home demonstration agents throughout the State, like Miss Elise Laffitte of Gadsden , aided their people to conserve vast quantities of food.

PAGE 62

Annual Report, 1946 61 There were 63 canning centers reported operating in 1946, 49 of which come under the supervision of home demonstration agents. Reports from 11 Florida counties show a total of 355,927 No. 2 con tainers, making over 10 carloads of food, used in canning in 1946. Quick Freezing.-Twenty-two community freezer lockers are reported as being established this year and 100 club members were able to purchase home freezing .storage cabinets. Agents gave 84 result demonstrations on handling and packaging fruits, vegetables and meats. Gardens, Fruit Plantings, Canning,-Gardening drew an enrollment of 4,322 girls, and of that number 2,735 completed the demonstrations. Also, 735 girls enrolled for fruit plantings and 547 were able to make the plant ings as outlined. These girls canned 65,153 quarts of fruits, 139,914 quarts of vegetables and 34,838 quarts of meats, making a grand total of 239,905 containers.

PAGE 63

MISS VIRGINIA MOORE Florida's apostle of home improvement , retired Jun e 30, 1946, after 23 years of noteworthy service to rural families of the state. HOME IMPROVEMENT Virginia P . Moor e, Home Improvement Agent ' The Specialist in this program retired in the middl e of the year, so the wor k report ed h ere was done l a r gely as a result of co operative interest of all hom e demons tr ation workers. Housing. Crowded conditions made housing one of the state ' s greatest problems. Inadequacy of houses availab l e for family living as to space, sanitation, conveni ence or state of repair bro u ght distress to many people . Thanks to b et ter incomes and a g r eat de sire for more satisfying homes , many Florida families had cash laid away ready for use in making improvements in their houses or surroundings when building was possible. Shortages of materials and high prices did not prevent realization of the h opes of 544 families who did build new houses. A house plan service s et u p for th e fi r st time , und e r the direction of the Agricultural Engineer, was useful to those families. With mor e women do in g their own work , a nd because of g reat er i nt er est in home management, 5 , 775 women enro ll ed in everyday good h o us e keeping . For effic i e ncy, strength-saving and cleanliness 1 ,81 7 kitchens were improved and 299 water systems and 627 sanita r y privies or indoor toilets were installed . Comfort as well as utility was important for better family living and 624 mattresses were repaired or renovated and 287 ne w mattresses were made. All th ese improvements a ls o con t ri but ed to good he a lth . A commitee of Extension age nt s, men a nd women, d efi ned th e housin g pr ogra m to b e und er tak en in all co unti es to emphas iz e repair and sanita tion in the hous e and s urroundings a nd yard b ea utifi ca tion. All fa milies intending to build later were urg ed to make plans on pap er, using th e house plans available . A list of prospective hom e -builders is being com pil ed in many co unty Extension offices to receive timely suggestions. Electrification. At l ea st 993 hous es of families e nroll e d in hom e demon stration work e nj oye d the us e of electricity for the first time , most of th e service coming through th e ex t e nsi o n of Rural El ec trifi ca tion Administra tion lin es. Generally speaking, o ur farm wome n are a nd hav e been good eve ryday hous e k ee pers , but now w hat a di ffe r e nce! Y es, the fa rm woman who has e lectricity as a servant is fast overcoming kitchen drudg ery. Two special training co urses were given all age nts on us es of e l ectricity and selection of equipment, showing trends in appliance manufacture , through th e c ooperation o f busin es s concer n s making a nd distributing e quipm ent. 7 Retired June :m , 19-46.

PAGE 64

Annual Report, 1946 63 Home Beautification,-Agents report that 6,101 4-H girls and women improved and beautified their home grounds, 573 lawns were started, 1,006 families planted grass and 1,082 started foundation plantings around the homes. A State contest in yard beautification was scheduled for the 4-H club girls, with 6,354 girls enrolled in home improvement. These fam ilies influenced 3,360 other people to paint or whitewash their buildings, or to plant grass or shrubs. Instruction on color in the home and simple decoration in home furnishings was given girls enrolled in 4-H club work. Management in the Home.-Agents report that 2,851 families asked for help With home account keeping. The number of families producing their family food supply wholly or in part increased appreciably, due to high costs of fresh produce. While the total amount of canning was less this year than last, home pantries were more carefully budgeted with the 1 % million: pints canned or stored. Management of time became increas ingly important, as many women were employed outside their homes, and 1,875 families were assisted with time-management problems. According to reports given to the home demonstration agents, 830 families were helped to use the resources of their homes and farms to develop home industries, which added $666,263 . 99 to the cash income of the families. Consumer Interests.-To make buying decisions or other adjustments in family living , 4,122 families reported they used timely economic infor mation, supplied by the hom e demonstration agents . Also 7.424 families were assisted with information on how to buy food, clothing and home furn ishings, equipment and supplies to better advantage.

PAGE 65

64 Florida Cooperative Extension Part IV -Negro Work NEG RO FARM DEM O NS TR A TIO N W OR K A . A. Turner , Negro District Agent Negro farm demonstration work, under the supervision of the Negro District Agent, was carried on i n 10 counties in 1946. In addition, Exten sion work was extended to as many counties as could be effectively carried on without agents being employed therein. A number of adjoining coun ties were reached wit h information sent through circu lar letters , newspaper articles and personal contacts with farm families. A summary of results of the efforts of negro county agents with negro farm families is present e d below . Crop and Livestock Production. To increase crop production , negro county agents assisted 1 , 923 farmers to obtain improved and certified varieties or strains of seed. Higher yields of corn, sweet potatoes , fruits, tobacco and other crops were obtained. Twenty two hundred and fifty e ight farmers were assisted with the use of fe rtiliz ers. To increase livestock production , the agents assisted 1 , 812 farmers in improving methods of feeding livestock and 322 farmers in obtaining pure bred males and females. To conserve our natural resources, agents worked with 341 farmers in the use of crop rotations, 99 in constr ucting terraces and 480 with the use of cover or green-manure crops. Eight hundred and ninety-one farmers coopera ted in prevention of fores t fires . To plan and make adj ustm ents for farming activities, agents assisted 521 farmers with farm -l abor problems , 386 with locating supplemental sources of income , 413 in developing farm and home plans, 336 in k ee ping records, 323 in using outlook information to make adjustments on the farm , and 185 with credit problems . Improving Farms and Equipment. To improve farm homes , farms and equipment, agen ts assisted 220 families in constructing dwellings, 393 in remodeling homes, 917 in screening or using other recommended methods of controlling flies or other insects, and 564 families in improving hom e grounds. In addition, 166 families were assisted in obtaining elec tri city and 18 families with using electricity for income-producing purposes . Agents also assisted 94 farmers with th e construction of farm buildings Fig . 14. Negro 4-H boys received instruction in selecting, feeding and car ing for hogs to obtain best results .

PAGE 66

Annual Report, 1946 65 and 72 with remodeling or repairing farm buildings. One hundred and sixteen farm families followed instructions in the maintenance and repair of mechanical equipment and 132 farmers were assisted in the selection and more efficient use of mechanical equipment. Health and Recreation.-To improve health conditions among rural fam ilies, the agents assisted 1,119 families in the prevention of colds and other common diseases, 927 families with preventive measures to improve health, and 1,258 families in removing fire and accident hazards. The importance of taking advantage of county health units and county doctors and nurses was stressed to rural families. To improve recreation and community life as well as family relation ships, the agents assisted 504 families in improving home recreation and 115 families in improving community recreational facilities. Twenty-seven communities were assisted in providing library facilities, 308 families were assisted with child development and guidance problems, 230 families in improving family relationships, and 422 individuals participated in child development and parent education. Leadership.-There have been 2 changes in personnel during the year. Financial assistance has been given in promoting farm demonstration work among negroes in the counties. Various counties gave financial assistance for purchase of demonstration materials, and to assist with the 4-H Club State Short Course and district camps. Boards of commissioners in the counties provide office space for all agents. There are 741 volunteer local leaders who are of valuable assistance to the agerits in determining and promoting the programs in the counties. These leaders are given special training under the supervision of the local agents. Dependable persons who are good demonstrators are selected to assist the agent in promoting and carrying on county programs. Special Events.-During the latter part of May the Annual State 4-H Short Course was held at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College. All counties except 1 participated. There was much improvement in this short course over previous years. The NF A boys and 4-H boys and girls had their state meetings at the same time, with an attendance of over 400 rural boys and girls. Many of the programs were held jointly with 4-H boys and girls and NF A boys. One district camp was held at Lake Hall, Leon County, with boys from 5 counties participating. The second district camp was held at East Lake Weir, Marion County, during the month of July with boys from 5 counties participating. Achievement days have been held In each county supervised by the Negro District Agent. The Rural Pastors' Institutes at the Florida A. and M. College, Talla hassee, and at Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, were held during the months of April and June. These institutes were under the auspices of the Federated Council of Churches of America, with colleges and the Extension Service cooperating. The Florida State Fair was held February 1-12. Four farm agents were assisted by county boards of commissioners and business men In dis playing exhibits in the Negro Exhibit Building at the Fair. This was the first fair since February 1942. Funds were provided for negro farm demonstration work in 10 counties the past year. Through the cooperation of vocational agriculture teachers 1.1,nd home agents in counties where no farm agents work, the work was carried into 10 additional counties in 1946 . The Negro . District Agent closely supervised all agents in order to broaden the scope of Extension work.

PAGE 67

66 Florida Cooperative Extension NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Floy Britt, Negro District Home Demonstration Agent In the supervisory program for 1946, the following goals were stressed: Family food supply, food conservation, nutrition, home improvement, cloth ing, health, sanitation and community work. These activities were selected because they represented the most urgent needs of the people. Foods and Nutrition.-In the field of food production, reports from agents show that 5,588 gardens were grown, 11,997 calendar fruit plantings started this year, 6,580 berry plants and vines planted, 53,936 chickens raised, 42,565 dozen eggs produced, and 2,768 families owned cows. One hundred ninety-nine milk cows were added this year. In food conservation agents report 3,081 families canned 396,849 quarts of vegetables, fruits and meats and 124,175 containers of pickles, marmal ades, poultry, fish and fruit juices. In the field of nutrition and health 2,439 farm families improved their diets, 3,178 families made improvements in food preparation, 2,232 families improved family food supply, and 1,320 families made food supply budgets. Three thousand, one hundred ninety families served balanced meals with food locally produced and 969 families made improvement in feeding children. Also, 1,577 families put forth efforts in preventing colds and other common diseases, 759 families gave first aid treatments in their homes, and 1,599 families removed accident hazards from their homes. Hol!Tfe Improvement.-Agents report on home improvement in their counties as follows: 1,525 families improved housekeeping methods, 176 ' families constructed new houses, 281 families remodeled old homes, 1,257 families improved the arrangement of kitchens and other rooms, 113 fam ilies obtained electricity, and 429 families bought electrical equipment. Thirty-three families installed water systems, 5,125 farm families installed water heaters and 1,477 homes were screened. Thirty-six families installed indoor toilets and sewage systems and 28 farms families installed outside toilets. Seven hundred and seventeen families repaired homes and 307 families painted homes. Seven hundred and nine families made complete improvement of grounds, 2,169 families utilized sack materials in their homes, and 228 mattresses were made and renovated this year. On improving the family clothing supply the agents report as follows: 3,556 garments remodeled, 14,596 new garments made for family members, 7,579 garments mended, and 16,890 household articles made. Eight hun dred and forty-three families improved methods in laundering. Community Advanoome111t.-Under community work agents report that 90 communities improved community recreational facilities, 14 communi ties provided library facilities this year, 46 communities improved school grounds and 1,039 families made use of canning centers. Forty-four com munities assisted with school lunch program and 3,547 children benefited by school lunch program in these 44 schools, and 56 communities provided school gardens. Two hundred and ninety-six articles were contributed to . overseas relief, 164 containers of canned products were contributed to famine relief and 670 community volunteer leaders assisted with commun ity activities this year. Supervision.-There have been 2 changes in negro home demonstration personnel thi~ year.

PAGE 68

Annual Report, 1946 67 Financial aid has been given to help promote home demonstration work among negroes in all counties where home demonstration agents are employed. There are 670 local leaders and other interested pople who play a very important part in helping the agents to determine programs in the coun ties. The assistance given by Extension specialists has proven most help ful to the negro agents. Specialists give helpful demonstrations and assistance to all agents (m.en and women) at the annual conference for negro farm and home agents. In the 10 counties supervised by the Local District Agent there are volunteer leaders including women; men, boys and girls who aid the agents in promoting county-wide programs. Dependable persons who are good demonstrators are selected and given special training by the local agents, preparing them to render valuable assistance in their various counties. Besides assisting the agents in getting information to the rural families, they help with community and county exhibits, fairs, achievement pro grams, picnics, camps and short courses. Twenty-three business firms contributed to the support of the negro 4-H club program in 1946. The following supervisory goals for 1946 have been reached: Some improvement of offices and facilities in all counties. Clerical help added to 1 county. Telephone installed in 1 agent's office. More financial aid has been given for conducting work in all counties. Creditable exhibits have been shown in various counties creating a desire in farm people to better their circumstances. Much has been done to assist in supplying the food, shelter and cloth ing needs of the people in the counties, but there is much yet to be done. Short Courses and Camps.-The Annual 4-H Short Course for Negro Boys and Girls was held at the Florida A. and M. College in Tallahassee, beginning Tuesday afternoon, May 28, and closing Saturday morning, June 4. Enrollment in 1946 increased over 1945, with 156 girls and 11 local leaders attending. The program for the short course was designed to help meet the needs of Florida 4-H club boys and girls. Emphasis was placed on gardening, poultry, dairying, food production, canning, home improvement, self-im provement, leadership instruction, nutrition, health, music and citizenship training. Leading girls from the various counties assisted local agents with demonstrations on gardening, canning, home improvement and self improvement. Two very successful district camps for negro 4-H club girls were held in the northern and central sections of Florida, with 60 girls from 7 coun ties attending. Girls at both camps received training in foods, health, handicrafts, community singing, nature study, first aid, water safety and recreation. In addition, a very successful camp for negro 4-H club girls was held at the Youth Center, Alafia, Florida, on August 1-4, 1946. Forty 4-H club girls attended. The Duval County 4-H club girls enjoyed 1 week's camp at Florida Normal College, St. Augustine. Forty-two 4-H club girls attended. The Ministers' Institute held at Edward Waters College proved most helpful. Over 50 ministers selected a course in home and community improvement.

PAGE 69

68 Florida Cooperative Extension STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK (Men and Women) GENERAL ACTIVITIES Months of service (Agents and Assistants)................................................ 243 Days of service: In office-1,916; in field-4,082 .................................... 5,998 Farm or home visits made .............................................................. : ............... 9,547 Different farms or homes visited ............ '. ..................................................... 4,657 Calls relating to extension work: Office-18,986; telephone ................ 4,481 Days devoted to work with. 4-H clubs and older youth ............................ 2,638 News articles or stories published................................................................ 188 Bulletins distributed ........................................................................................ 15,555 Radio talks broadcast or prepared................................................................ 11 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen.................... 317 Total attendance of men and women .................................................... 3,153 Method demonstration meetings .................................................................... 1,458 Total attendance ............................................... . ........ , ................. ............ 18,280 Meetings held at result demonstrations........................................................ 203 Attendance .................................................................................................. 3,302 Tours conducted ................................................................................................ 40 Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work................ 42 Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ................................ 1,161 SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE Total number of farms in counties worked ................................................ 7,845 Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program this year and in past ................................................................ 3,130 Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration and agricultural programs...................................................................... 2,099 Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the home demonstration program .................................. :............................. 2,316 Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration and agricultural program this year.............................................. 5,004 . Different farm families influenced by some phase of the extension program ...................................................................................................... 4,853 Other families influenced by some phase of the extension program.... 2,361 COOPERATIVE AGRICULTUThAL PLANNING Members in agricultural planning group ............................. _....................... 50 Unpaid ........................................................................................................ 45 Paid .............................................................................................................. 5 Communities in agricultural planning ................. ,........................................ 20 Members in community agricultural planning............................................ 129 Planning meetings held.................................................................................... Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration workers ........................................................................................................ 368 Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen................................................ 427 Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen ............................ 455 CROP PRODUCTION Days devoted to work. ....................................................................... a............. 989 Communities in which work was conducted ....... ,........................................ 753 Voluntary leaders and committeemen ............................................................ 1,043

PAGE 70

Annual Report, 1946 LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY Days devoted to work ............................ . . .................. . .. .. ..... ..... . . . ............. ..... .. . . Communities in which work was conducted . . . . ....... . ... ............... .. ...... ..... .. . . . Voluntary co mmitteemen anj lead e rs . .............. . . ................................ .. ...... . Farmers assisted .. .. .......................... .. . ... ........ .... .................................... : ........ . CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Days devoted to work. ......................... ... .. . ..... .. . . .................. ............................ . Communiti e s in which work was conducted .... .. ..... . .. ..... ................. .': ........ . Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ............................................... . Farmers assisted in soil management . . ......... . ............ ..... .. .... ..... . ............ ... Farmers assi sted in forestry and wildlife conservation ..... .. ...... .. . ... .. .. . . . FARM MANAGEMENT 69 727 587 466 6,864 201 210 170 1 , 836 1,126 Days devoted to work............................ . ......... . .. ... ............................................ 220 Farmers assisted ...... . .. . ..... . .... ...... .. ..... ..... .. ..... .... ... . .. ... ........ .'............................. 2,902 GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE , Days devoted to work................................... . . ... . ... .... ... ..................................... 85 Communities in which work was conducted ......... .................................... .. . 82 Voluntary leaders and committeemen. .. . ...... .. ......... .... . .................................. 98 Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted.. ...... ............................ 102 MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Days devoted to work. . . . ........... .............................. . . ... . . ... . .. .... . ......... . .. . . .... . .... . . Communities in which work was conducted .... .... ....... .... .. . .. .... . .... ....... . ...... . Established cooperatives assisted .... ..... .. .. . .. . .. .............. . .. .... . .......... ....... .. .. . . . . Value . of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during 821 1,005 2 the year (established and new) . . .. . .. .. ..... . ....... . ............ ............... . ....... .... $1,000 Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or . families (not members of cooperatives) assisted during year ........................ $1 ,2 82,170 HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT Days devoted to work.................. .. . . .. ...................... . . ..................................... . . 373 Communiti e s in which work was conduct e d.. ... .. .. . . ... .. .... . .................. .. .. . .... 352 Voluntary lead e rs and committeemen.. .. . ........ . . ... . .. .. .................... .. .... ....... . . 452 Families assisted in house furnishings , farm buildings , surrounding s, mechanical equipment, rural electrification ....... .... ..... ... ..... ...... .. . .. ..... 5,911 NUTRITION AND . HEALTH Days devoted to work. ......... ... , .................. . ............... . ....................................... 1,316 Communities in which work was don e......... .. . .............................................. 8!4 Families assisted: Improving di e ts, 2,436; food preparation, 2,162; total .. ....... .. ........ .............................. ................. ...... .... ............................ .. .... 4,598 Families assisted with food-preservation problems ................................. .. . 3,415 HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS Days devoted to work. .................... ........ ..... . . ..... . ....... ........................... ..... .... .. . Communities in which work was done ......... . ........ .. ...... .. .... ..... .. . ... . . . ...... .. ... . Voluntary l ea ders assisting ... ... .. .... .. .. .. ...................... .. ...... ........ . .... ... .. . . . .. . . .. .. . Families assisted ............... . ...... .... . ...... ... ..... ...... ...... .......... . . .. ..... . .. . ... .... .. . . ..... . . Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies ... . . .......... . Families assisted with consumer-buying problems ......... . .. ... .. . . ......... . . . . ... . 117 122 116 1,739 150 421 639

PAGE 71

70 Florida Cooperative Extension CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Days devoted to work ............................................. .. ........... . . . .. .. ..... ..... ........ .. . . . Communities in which work was done ...... ......... . . .... ...... .. . . ......... . . .... ........ .. . . Voluntary leaders assisting ........ . ............ . ............ ..... ......... .. ............. ..... ......... . Families assisted .................................... .... ......... . ................................ .. ...... ... . FAMil,Y RELATIONSHIPS-CHn.D DEVELOPMENT 234 156 153 3,585 Days devoted to work.... . .. .. . . . .......... ..... ..... . . .......... ... .. ................. ... ... . .. ......... . .. . 103 Communities in which work was done.. . .. ....... ...... .. . .. ..... ......... ...... .. .. . .... ...... 121 Voluntary leaders assisting........ .. ............. . ............. .. ......... ... .......... ....... .......... 109 RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE Days devoted to work................. .. ........................ .. . .... ........ .. ........... ... ............. . 174 Communities in which work was done... ..... ...... .... ....... ... ... ...... . ........... ..... .. . . 192 Voluntary leaders assisting....... .... . ............ .......... ... .. ... .... . . ......... .. . . ........ .. .. . .. . . 203 Families assisted in improving home recreation .... ..... ....... ........ ....... ...... ... 504 Communities assisted in improving recreational facilities......... .. ........... 115 Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs of activities, or meeting programs........... .. . ....... ...... .... ..... ............... . .... 92 Communities assisted in providing library facilities. .... ............ ... .......... .. 27 SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS Projects completed by boys ....... , ............. . .......................... . .......................... . Projects completed by girls ..... ... ......................... ... ................................... : . .. . Boys completing corn and peanut projects ....... .............. .... .. . ........ . ..... ... .... . Boys completing fruit projects ............................................ . .......................... . Boys completing garden projects ................. ....... ..... .......... ... ....... .......... ........ . Boys completing market gardens, truck, and canning crops ................. .. . Boys completing dairy projects ..................................................................... . Boys completing poultry projects ........................ .. ............ .... ......... .. ............ . Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects .................. . ............. .. ........... . Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ................................. . Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects ............ ... ......... .. ............. . Girls completing dairy projects ..... ......... .... . .. .. ....... . .. ... .. ................ .... ........... . Girls completing poultry projects ...... ....... .......... ........ ..... .. ... .... ...... ...... ... . .. .. . Girls completing home gardens . . .. ....... ..... ........................... ..... ... . ........ ......... . Girls completing fruit projects ............................. . ......................................... . Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops .... .. . ....... .. '. .. . Girls completing food selection and preparation projects .. ...... ....... ........ . Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid ....... .... .......... .... ....... . . Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and room improvement projects ... , ............................................................... . Girls completing food preservation projects ... . ................ .... ....................... . 4-H Membership: Boys: Farm, 2,109; non-farm, 196; total.. ....... ... . ........ ...... .... ...... .... . Girls: Farm, 2,399; non-farm, 854; total.. . .. ......... ...... ...... ....... ........ . 4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in Extension program . ............ ... .......... .. . ... ......... .. .... . .... . . .... ....... . . .. . 4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school grounds and conducting local fairs ... ......... .... .............. . .......... . ........... . . . 4,301 7,290 861 101 917 120 108 528 98 367 523 53 441 1,005 176 23 81G 764 1,872 1,086 2,305 3,253 1,293 147

PAGE 72

INDEX Achievement days and exhibits, 55 Agricultural conservation, 16 Agricultural economics, 27 Agricultural engineering, 24 Agricultural Experiment Station, 7, 15, 18 Agricultural production goals, 18 Andersen, H. 0., 19 Animal husbandry, 30 Baetzman, F. E., 34 Bankers' Association, State, 3!J Barrus, Edith Y., 50 Bas s ett, W. W. , 38 Beale, Clyde, 13 Beef cattle, 30 Bevis, Joyce, 22, 56 Blacklock, R. W., 38 Boys' 4-H club work, 38 Broadcasting activities, 14 Brown, Hamlin L., 33 Brown, W. W., 38 Buildings, farm, 17, 24 Bulletins, 13 Camps, 40, .55, 67 Cattle, beef, 30 Child Health Day, 58 Citrus grove management , 27 Clayton, H. G., 16 Clothing and textiles, 56 Community advancement, 66 Conservation, food, 60 soil, 9, 44 Coo per, J. Francis, 13 Cooperation with other agencies, 59 Corn and oats, 48 Cotton, 48 crop insurance, 17 Councils, junior, 53 senior, 51 County agents' work, 23 County and home agents, 45 Crops, demonstrations, 47, 64 green manure , 47 Culling poultry, 36 Dairy cattle shows and sales, 32, 33 Dairy feed payment program, 17 Dairying, 30, 33 DeBusk, E. F., 19 Dennis, R. S. , 16 DDT, 31 Director's report, 7 Drainage, 26 Duroc Swine Association, 32 Editorial work, 13 Egg-Laying Test, 3 5 Electrification, 62 Emergency farm labor, 19 Engineering, agricultural, 24 Extension methods, 29 Farm and home planning, 28 i Farm building service, 24 applications, 17 Farm forestry, 41 Farm labor, 9, 19 Farm machinery, 25 Farm management, 28 Feed production and con s ervation, 34 Financial statement, 8 Fite prevention, 22 Florida Bankers' Association, 39 Florida Breeders' and Hatchery Association, 35, 37 Florida Duroc Swine Association, 32 Florida Jersey Cattle Club, 34 Florida Poultry Producers' ' Association, 35, 37 Florida State Board of Health, 21 Food conservation, 60 Food, nutrition and health, 58, 66 Food selection, 54 Forest demonstratio , ns, 43 fence post problems, 43 insects and diseases, 42 planting, 41 Freezing, 61 Fruit plantings, 60 4-H club work, 29, 33, 36, 46, 51, 59 boys , 38 camps, 40, 55 girls, 26 , 52, 54, 55 short course, 40 Game, fish and wildlife development, 42 Gardening and food conservation, 60 Grass, rye, 34 Grove management, citrus, 27 Guernsey Cattle Club, 34 Hampson, C. M., 28 Health and medical service, 21, 58, 65 Hog work, 32 Holloway, Ethyl, 50 Home demonstration work, 50 organization, 50 program planning, 52 meeting needs of farm families, 52 volunte e r leaders, 52 Home gardens and fruit plantings, 60 improvement, 62, 66 beautification, 63 consumer interests, 63 electrification, 62 management, 63 safety, 22, 54 Household textiles, 57 Housing, 8, 24, 62 state committee, 8 Improvement, professional, 7 Industries, home, 55 Insurance, cotton, 17 Irish potato goals, 17 Jersey Cattle Club, 34

PAGE 73

ii Index Johnson, John M., 24 Junior home demonstration councils, 53 Keown, Mary E., 50 Labor, farm, 9, 19 Livestock work, 30, 64 Local leaders, 52 Logan, J. H.,. 34 Machinery development, 26 Marketing quotas, 17 McClane, T. K., 44 McDavid, Ruby, 50 McLendon, H. S., 19 McMullen, K. S., 23, 44 Meal 'planning, 54 Mehrhof, N. R., 34 Men's work, 23 Moore, Virginia P., 62 National Home Demonstration Week, 13 National Poultry Improvement Plan, 35 National Safety Council, 22 Naval stores, 42 Negro home demonstration work, 66 food and nutrition, 66 home improvement, 66 community advancement, 66 supervision, 66 short course and camps, 67 Negro work, 64 health and recreation, 65 leadership, 65 special events, 65 crop and livestock production, 64 improving farm equipment, 64 Nettles, W. T., 23 Newspapers and farm journals, 14 Nieland, L. T., 22, 41 Noble, C. V., 27 Oats, 33, 48 Oil, fuel in syrup cooking, 26 Office of Price Administration, 33 Pastures, 48 Peaden, P. L., 19 Peanuts, 47 Perry, F. S., 34 Personnel, 7 Planning, farm and home, 28 Potato goals, Irish, 17 Poultry, 30, 54 activities, 34 culling, 36 . miscellaneous. 37 national improvement plan, 35 Poultry Institute, 37 Printed materials, 13 Production and Marketing Adminis tration, 9, 14, 17, 48 Production goals, 18 Publications, news, radio, 13 Radio programs, 13, 38, 41 Record books, 28 Recreation, 65 Retirement system, 7 Rural Electrification Administration, 26, 62 Rye, 34 Rye grass, 34 Safety and fire prevention, 22 Sanitation and management, dairy herds, 34 Savage, Zach, 27 Seed drying, 26 Shealy, A. L., 30 Sheely, W. J., 30 Sikes, Anna Mae, 58 Smith, J. Lee, 23, 47 Soil and water conservation, 44 Soil conservation, 9, 44 activities by agents, 46 new soil districts, 45 Soil Conservation Service 33, 44 Soils and farm crops, 4 7 Spencer, A. P., 7, 23 State Advisory Committee, 19 State Forest Service, 41 State Housing Committee, 24 State Livestock Sanitary Board, 32, 35 State Soil Conservation Board, 9 State Veterans' Advisory Commit tee, 28 Statistical report, 9 negro work, 68 Statistical summary, housing and farm buildings, 25 Sugar, 17 Swine work, 32 Syrup, cooking with oil, 26 Textiles, 56 Thomas, Jefferson, 13 Timber marketing, 41 Tractor maintenance short course, 26 Turner, A. A., 64 United States Department of Agriculture, 7, 15, 18, 24 Veterans, assistance to, 18, 28 Victory farm volunteers, 21 Visual aids, 15 Water conservation, 44 Watkins, M. 0., 7 Wildlife development, 42 Work of county agents, 23 Work with women _and girls, 50 WRUF, 14