Citation
Report Florida agricultural extension service

Material Information

Title:
Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title:
Annual report
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla. The Service
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Creation Date:
1943
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1939-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note:
At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46387223 ( OCLC )
2001229382 ( LCCN )

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Full Text






COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 aind Jun. 80, 1914)
ABmBOULTURAL EzTrNoiON Sunvics, UNIVERSITY ow FLoRIDA
FLODA STATe COLLEGE POD Worn
AND UmTo STATHe DsPARTmNT op AZCULTmU

A. P. SPNMou, Diretor











1943 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE











REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1943 WITH
,FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
- FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1943


r










COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING
A. P. SPENCER. Director












1943 REPORT



FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL



EXTENSION SERVICE












REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1943 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 80, 1943







BOARD OF CONTROL


H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak
R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University' H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture' A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Director of Extension J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor' CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor' JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor' FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Asst. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor P. H. SENN, PH.D., Asst. VFV Leader MRS. BONNIE J. CARTER, B.S., Asst. WLA Leader HANS 0. ANDERSEN, B.S.A, Asst. State Supervisor, EFL H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent W. W. BASSETT, JR., B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent' A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist' HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman' D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Poultryman' WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Poultryman L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist' CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing ZACH SAVAGE, M.S., Economist' JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Assistant in Land-Use Planning R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist' K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist

Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee

MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent RUBY McDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Specialist in Food Conservation

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent
Cooperative, other divisions, University of Florida.
' On leave.











CONTENTS

Page

Report of D irector ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7
Financial Statem ent ------------------------------------------------------------------ - -------------------- 8
Statistical Report . . ------------------------------------------------- 8
Farm Labor ---------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------- 11
Conservation and Em ergency Program s ----- . . 13
Editorial and M ailing . . - ------------------- --- 14
County A gents' A ctivities . - . --------- ------------------ . . . - . 16
A gricultural Econom ics . - . - . ----- 16
Farm M anagem ent . . . 16
M arketing . . . - . - . 17
A gronom y . . . -- . 18
A nim al H usbandry, D airying and Poultry . -- . 19
A nim al H usbandry . 19
D airying . --- - . . . 20
Poultry . : . . . 21
Boys' 4-H Clubs . - . . 22
Farm Forestry . . . 23
Soil Conservation . . . . 24
H om e D em onstration W ork . -- . . 26
Clothing and Textiles . . . - . 31
Food, N utrition and H ealth . . . . . 32
Gardening and Food Conservation . . . 34
H om e Im provem ent . . . 37
N egro Farm D em onstration W ork . . . . --- 39
N egro H om e D em onstration W ork . . . 40
N egro Statistical Report . 40







E 3



















Hon. Spessard L. Holland
Governor of Florida
Tallahassee, Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1943, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1943.
Respectfully,
H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Board of Control







Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERS, President, University of Florida







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS


HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua-. -Loonis Buitch-.------.Gainesville-.Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker-------.J. M. Kennedy-------.Macdlenny----------------------.
Bay--------.M. B. Miller*--. .Panama City .
Bradford-------L. T. Dyer ---------------- Starke-.---.
Brevard-. T. L. Cain----------.Cocoa---------.Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward-.B. E. Lawton------------ Ft. Lauderdale-.Miss Jo S. Tippins
Calhoun-.W. W. Brown.-.-----.Blountstown-.Mrs. Mary Bridges
Charlotte ----N. H. McQueen---------Punta Gorda-.--------.
Citrus-------0. _. M. Maines------------ Inverness-.Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Clay---------------------------.Ga. Cve. Spg .Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird
Columbia-.Guy Cox-----------.Lake City .Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
Dade-------.C. H. Steffani-------.Miami---------.Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.) . J. L. Edwards ----------- Miami----------.Miss Edna L. Sims
DeSoto-.W. L. Woods-----rda--------------------- Acda.
Dixie-------.C. L. Dickinson -.Cross City .
Duval-------. .A. S. Lawton--------.Jacksonville-.Miss Pearl Laffitte
D-ival (Asst.).-G. T. Huggins ----------- Jacksonville ---Miss Mildred J. Taylor
Escambia ----E H. Finlayson-.P~nsacola-.Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden-.Henry Hudson----------- Quincy---------.Miss Elise Laflltte
Gilchrist -----A. S. Laird-.--.----.Trenton .
Glades------.F. D. Yaun -------------_Moore Haven.------------Gulf--------.J. B. White--------------- Wewahitchka-.Mrs. Pearl Whitfield
Hardee -.E. H. Vance -------------- W auchula .
Hernando-.C. D. Newbern-------.Brooksville.
Highlands-.A. M. Bissett-_---------- Sebring .
Hillsborough .Alec White---------.Tampa .
Hillsborough .J. 0. Armor (Asst.)--.Plant City. Hillsborough --- (West)-------------.Tampa-.Mrs. Caroline M. Boogher
Hillsborough._ (East)-------------.Plant City-. .Mrs. Irene R. Harvey
Holmes--------A. G. Hutchinson-.Bonifay-.Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Indian River .M. A. Boudet ------------ Vero Beach .
Jackson-.J. W. Malone--------.Marianna-.Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jeff erson-.E. N. Stephens-------.Monticello----------.Mrs. Ella Loeb
Laf ayette-.J. T. Oxford--------.Mayo .
Lake--------.B. E. Norris---------.Tavares-------.Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee---------.C. P. Heuck---------.Ft. Myers . .
Leon-------.J. G. Kelley---------.Tallahassee.-Miss Bertha N. Hausman
Levy-------.T. D. Rickenbaker------Bronson .-.Mrs. Frances J. Jones
Liberty-.S. S. Alexander. Madison-.S. L. Brothers-------.Madison-.Miss Beanie F. Widr
Manatee-.Ed. L. Ayers--------.Bradenton-.Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion-.A. D. Baillie, Jr-.Ocala---------.Miss Allie Lee Rush
Martin - B-------1. L. Gittings-------.Stuart .-.
Nassau-.S. D. Coleman, Jr-.Hilliard. Okeechobee-.C. A. Fulford-------.Okeechobee.
Okaloosa-.F. W. Barber-------.Crestview .
Orange-.K. C. Moore---------.Orlando-.Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola-.J. R. Gun-------------- Kissimmee-------.Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach--M. U. Mounts-------.W. Palm Beach -----Miss Olga Kent
Miss Mildred Johnson, Asst.
Pasco-------.1. A. McClellan, Jr-.Dade City-------.Mrs. Essa D. Shaw
Pinellas-.J. H. Logan---------.Clearwater---------- Miss Tillie Roesel
Mrs. Eileen Hammock, Asst.
Polk------------- W. P. Hayman-------.Bartow----------.Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam.----H. E. Westbury .----Palatka-.Mrs. Opal W. Middleton
St. Johns-.H. E. Maltby ------------ St. Augustine-.Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie-.E. W. Stephens-. -Fort Pierce-------.Miss Mary Dixon
Santa Rosa ---E. D. McCall--------.Milton--------.Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole-.C. R. Dawson-------. .Sanford--------.Mrs. Ouida Wilson
* On military leave since October 14.






COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT AD'DRRSS AGENT
Sarasota-.W. E. Evans ----------Sarasota.
Sumter .Carl Hendricks-.Bushnell. Suwannee-.S. C. Kierce---------. .Live Oak-------.Miss Louise Taylor
Taylor-._D. D. McCloud-------.Perry------------.Mrs. Ruth Elkins
Union-------.Harry J. Brinkley -----Lake Butler. --Volusia-.F. E. Baetzman-.DeLand--------.Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Wakulla-.N. J. Albritton.-------.Crawfordville.
Walton-.Mitchell Wilkins_-. .DeFuniak Springs. Washington.-.-K. A. Clark--------. .Chipley------------------------.




NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua-------------------. _.Otha W. Nealy--------------.Gainesville
Columbia------------------.McKinley Jeffers.Lake City
Gadsden-------------------. .Russell Stephens-------------.Quincy
Hamilton---_.--------------------- N. H. Bennett ---------------.-White Springs
Jackson -------- -. -.Thomas A. Harris.M arianna
Jefferson ------.-.M. E. Groover---------------. .Monticello
Leon------------- --------.Rolley Wyer, Jr------------.Tallahassee
Marion----------------.Eugune P. Smith----------------.Ocala
Sumter--------------------. .Alonzo A. Young--------------.Bushnell
Suwannee .__--------------- Aiphonso L. Greene-----------.Live Oak
COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT .ADDRESS
Alachua .Mary Todd McKenzie---------.Gainesville
Columbia------------. ._-------Ozella Sansome-----------.----Lake City
Duval---------------------.Ethel M. Powell ------------ .Jacksonville
Gadsden-------------------. _ .Diana H. Spencer--------------. .Quincy
illsborough--------------- .Sudella Ford-------------------.Tampa
Jackson-------------------.Doris Groover----------------.Marianna
Leon----------------------.Maude K. Mumford --------------Tallahassee
Madison-------------------.Althea Ayer------------------.Madison
Marion--------------------.Idella R. Kelly----------------.Reddick
Putnam-------------------.Lee Ella Gamble--------------.Palatka




















[6]










PART I-GENERAL


REPORT OF DIRECTOR

Wilmon Newell, Director to October 25, 1943
A. P. Spencer, Director from November 1, 1943

Wilmon Newell, Florida Agricultural Extension Service director from 1921, died at his home in Gainesville, October 25, 1943. Arthur P. Spencer, for many years vice-director and more recently associate director, was chosen to succeed Dr. Newell by the State Board of Control, effective November 1, 1943.
Personnel changes during the year became much more numerous than customary, partly due to workers entering military service and in part because positions elsewhere had been offered at higher salaries. Changes on the headquarters staff took place less frequently than among the county agents.
Fiscal resources continued substantially the same in 1943 as for the immediately preceding years, except as regarded the compensation given county agricultural and home demonstration agents. On July I a $25,000 sum from a State continuing appropriation voted by the 1941 legislature was made available to raise the salaries paid these people. County commissioners also supplied additional funds in many instances, so that all the field agents received enlarged salaries.

PLANS AND PROGRAMS
Plans of work previously agreed upon were carried out, so far as conditions would permit. Modifications had to be made, however, in almost every section of the program, on account of influences exerted by the war situation.
Cooperation with Federal agencies required more time and effort than heretofore, since nearly all the emergency units dealing with farm angles depended upon the Agricultural Extension Service for reaching rural residents with the messages of production and conservation.
Production goal committees set up among the district agents and staff specialists and having membership representation by other agricultural agencies dealt with livestock, poultry, dairying, agronomy, forestry, home gardens, commercial truck crops and nutrition. Breakdowns into county units gave the farm and home agents definite information on the output expected from their territories. Results obtained equalled or exceeded the aims, except on peanuts for oil and in the number of farm gardens.

RECRUITING FARM LABOR
Responsibility for handling the labor shortage problems affecting Florida farmers most seriously has been largely placed with the Agricultural Extension Service by the several federal agencies having a part in the
-replacement endeavor.
Supervisors for emergency farm labor operations in 7 Southern states came to Florida late in October, on invitation from the Extension Service, and spent three days obtaining first-hand information regarding the -needs existing for hands and the accommodations -they would be provided.







Florida Cooperative Extension

Farm labor placement centers for white workers have been established by the Extension Service at 10 places in the fruit and vegetable areas, with housing facilities taking care of from 25 to 500 persons. Negroes from Bahama and elsewhere find quarters at 8 camps provided by the War Food Administration, the capacity of which ranges between 400 and 800.

REPORTS AND STATISTICS
Activities directed by the staff specialists with the Florida Agricultural Service have been reported on at great length from the sundry divisions and the results reflected therein will be found in condensed form on pages immediately following.
Projects given major attention during peace years necessarily have been greatly changed under the stress of wartime emergencies. Undertakings were not altogether abandoned in any instance, however, which it was felt had a continuing value to farmers.
Coverage and scope entering into the accomplishments are best indicated through the statistical summaries which also follow, based for the most part on data taken from the reports submitted by the county agricultural and home demonstration agents.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT

For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1943

RECEIPTS

Smith-Lever and Bankhead Jones, Federal . ----- $200,645.82 Capper-Ketcham, Federal -----_----------------- ___ ---------- 27,417.72
Clarke-M cNary, Federal --------------- . . 1,620.00
State- Salaries .-. . _ . _ . _ . 54,214.00
Operating . . - . -------- __ . _ . 43,070.00
Continuing Appropriation ------ - -----_-------------- ----------------- 30,000.00
County Appropriations -------------------- __ . . . 142,504.99

$474,472.53

EXPENDITURES
Smith-Lever-Bankhead Jones, Federal . __ ------ _$200,645,82 Cap'per-Ketcham , Federal . . - --------------- . ---- 27,417.72
Clarke-McNary, Federal . . . __ ------- __ 1,620.00
State . . . -----_ _-- _ 88,126.91
Continuing Appropriation . . . . 5,000.00 County Appropriations by County Boards _. . . 142,504.99 Balance carried over . _ 9,157.09

$474,472.53
STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) . . 1,161 Days of service: In office-14,144; In field-15,033; Total . 29,177 Farm or hom e visits m ade . . 49,170







Annual Report, 1943 9

Different farms or homes visited ----------------------------------------- ---_----------- 26,834
Calls relating to extension work- Office-283,669; Telephone . 173,138 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth . . 5,847
News articles or stories published ----_-------------_------- . __ . 5,926
Bulletins distributed . 156,071 Radio talks broadcast or 'prepared . 572 Training meetings held for local leaders of committeemen:
N um ber . --------------------------------------------------------- 956
Total attendance of men and women --------------------- . 10,712
Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber . 6,950 Total attendance . 114,171 Meetings held at result demonstrations:
N um ber . 1,204 A ttendance --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16,491
T ours . ------------------------------------------------------ 133
Achievement days held for 4-11, older youth and adult work ------------ 411
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings . 8,696

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE

Total -number of farms . 65,036 Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program . 35,776
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from
home demonstration program . -------------------- 16,190
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year . 6,681
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration program for the first time this year ------------ . 5,164
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled . 8,525
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the
agricultural program . 21,525 Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
demonstration program . 20,050
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled . . 4,330
Different farm families influenced by some 'phase of extension program ------------------------------------------ . 41,836
Other families influenced by some phase of extension program -------- 33,760

CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT
Communities conducting war work . ------------- 844
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program . 1,831
Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian
defense, and other war work . 4,338

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group ------------------------------------------------ 847
U npaid . 702 P aid . 145 Communities in agricultural planning . 149 Members in community agricultural planning . 476
Planning m eetings held . 953 Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration w orkers . . 1,809







Florida Cooperative Extension


Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen -------------------------------- . 2,179
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 3,636
CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work . . . . ___ . . 4,341 Communities in which work was conducted ------------ . 2,545
Voluntary leaders and committeemen _. . _ . . 1,795
LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to w ork . ------------------------------------- ----------------- . 4,433
Communities in which work was conducted ---------- . . 2,105
Voluntary committeemen and leaders . __ . . 851 Breeding and improvement organizations . 50 Farm ers assisted . . ------- _ ------- --------------------------------------------------------- 1,544
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to w ork ------------ . _ ------_----------- . 895
Communities in which work was conducted --------------- ---------------------------- 769
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen . 542 Farmers assisted in soil management ---------------------------------------------------- 20,887
,Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation . . 6,978
FARM MANAGEMENT
D ays devoted to w ork . . 1,269 Farm ers assisted . . 27,706
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
D ays devoted to w ork . ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 346
Communities in which work was conducted . . 364 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . _ . 292 Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted . 549
MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to w ork . . 2,078 Communities in which work was conducted --- ---------------------------------------- 2,308
Established cooperatives assisted . 56 New cooperatives assisted in organizing . . . ---------- 14
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted
during the year (established and new) ----------- . $16,843,547
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year ---------_------ $20,359,110
HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
D ays devoted to w ork . . 1,331 Communities in which work was conducted . 1,204 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . _ . 598 Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification . ----- --- ----- . 24,849

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to w ork . 5,251 Communities in which work was done . 2,157 Families assisted: In imp-roving diets-14,526; food preparation11,842; T otal . 26,368 Families assisted with food 'preservation problems . 39,392







Annual Report, 1943


COMMUNITY WORK
Days devoted to w ork . 2,017 Communities in which work was done in problems in clothing,
family economics, parent education and community life . 1,389 Families assisted in home management, clothing, family economics,
parent education and community life . 71,199
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects com pleted by boys . 6,036 Projects com pleted by girls . --------------------------------- . 25,589
Boys completing corn and peanut projects . 847 Boys completing fruit and garden projects . 1,493 Boys completing dairy and poultry projects . 1,609 Boys completing cotton and tobacco 'projects ------------------- . 29
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects . 288 Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects . 1,429 Girls completing fruit and garden projects . 4,972 Girls completing dairy and poultry projects . 1,993 Girls completing food selection and preparation 'projects . 4,331 Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects . 1,418 Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and
room improvement projects . 7,028 Girls completing food preservation projects . 3,032 4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-3,885; Non-farm-982; Total . 4,867 Girls: Farm-6,390; Non-farm-3,558; Total . 9,948 4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in extension 'program . . 1,852 4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
School grounds and conducting local fairs .-. . . ___ . --- 467

FARM LABOR

A. P. Spencer, Director
E. F. DeBusk, State Supervisor
R. H. Howard, Assistant State Supervisor
H. S. McLendon, Assistant State Supervisor H. 0. Anderson, Assistant State Supervisor
P. H. Senn, Assistant State Supervisor, Victory
Farm Volunteers
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, Assistant State Supervisor,
Women's Land Army
A State Farm Labor Advisory Committee assisted with this program. It consisted of H. G. Clayton, administrative officer, Agricultural Adjustment Administration; C. D. Gunn, state conservationist, Soil Conservation Service; L. H. Kramer, chairman, Florida USDA Wage Board and Agricultural Committee, Florida Defense Council; J. A. Texada, Jr., state director, Farm Security Administration; and Paul Van der Schouw, chief, Farm Labor Supply Section, War Food Administration .
Farm labor was recruited from all available domestic sources and under agreement with the Bahama Islands and Jamaica, two British provinces. Domestic labor came from Florida and from other Southern states.

HOUSING PROVISIONS
Housing the workers brought into the State called for accommodations







Floi4da Cooperative Extension


meeting definite specifications intended to furnish healthful surroundings and give adequate feeding facilities.
Quarters had to be furnished for approximately 5,000 persons because the employers could not guarantee adequate housing which met the State sanitary regulations.
Camps at key points in the chief crop-producing areas mostly supplied the deficiencies.
WORKERS ENROLLED

During the year 1,153 workers from other states have been utilized for longer or shorter periods. Recruiting within Florida for employment at other points in the state did not produce notable results, mostly the hands available preferring to come and go as they pleased.
Bahamas negroes, nearly all placed in the vegetable growing sectors, numbered about 4,800 and their help saved many crops from wastage.
Jamaica furnished around 3,100 additional negroes, who for the most part were assigned to the United States Sugar Corporation plantations.
Prisoners of war from Army internment camps could not be procured during the period.

Fig. 1-The Extension Service aided in obtaining domestic harvest labor for deficit areas wherever possible. These boys from Virginia are harvesting oranges in Orange County.





%


A







Annual Report, 1943


SURVEYS AND ANALYSIS
Studies devoted to the prevailing methods on farms in several sections developed significant data regarding ways and means by which fewer hands could do given amounts of work.
Labor-saving machinery helped the farmers fortunate enough to own it in offsetting the scarcity of help. Sharing the equipment was practiced in numerous neighborhoods, with results almost uniformly good.
Training the personnel engaged in the emergency farm labor activities could not be done on any extensive scale because the Extension Service inherited the supervision after the season was well advanced and itself lacked manpower.
District conferences held at several points gave the state supervisors opportunity to outline the plans before county agents, and considerable time was also spent within the local units for similar purposes. Experience has been relied upon, however, as the best teacher.

CROPS AND AREAS SERVED
Flue-cured tobacco farmers required assistance early in June, and county advisory committees were formed to supply it. Wives and children of turpentine hands furnished many workers, having been hired with consent from their husbands' employers. Cotton picking presented a somewhat less exacting problem, and was largely handled with the same type of workers.
Peanuts brought on more serious labor shortages than any previously encountered. One county had 70,000 acres to be picked. Negroes again furnished many hands, their ministers in numerous cases appealing publicly to the congregations for volunteers. Draft boards in some instances urged 4-F registrants to aid in saving this essential crop and the plea had a good response.
Blueberries in Northwest Florida were saved, except on 1 place. Corn snapping and cane syrup-making continued longer than customary, under favorable weather condition. All in all, crop losses from lacking labor proved relatively small, in the general farming areas. Fruits and vegetables suffered more by frosts, freezes and floods than otherwise, after the negroes came in from the West Indies.

WOMEN AND CHILDREN
Women's Land Army recruiting placed approximately 3,828 persons in seasonal or year-round work. Farm women and girls employed in agriculture during the year are estimated at 30,000. Registration for 1944 was gotten well under way.
Boys and girls between 14 and 18 contributed notably to food production, as Victory Farm Volunteers. Non-rural youths thus made available exceeded 1,200. Placements were mostly in the immediate neighborhoods, through school and other local agencies.

CONSERVATION AND EMERGENCY PROGRAMS

H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer
R. S. Dennis, Assistant Administrative Officer
Relations remained close between the Federal Agricultural Adjustment Agency and the Florida Extension Service.
State committeemen in the former are James J. Love, chairman, Gads-







Florida Cooperative Extension


den county; C. S. Lee, Seminole, W. B. Anderson, Jackson; H. C. Brown, Lake, with Extension Director A. P. Spencer ex-officio.

WARTIME OPERATIONS
State and county war boards, organized under United States Agriculture Department supervision and representing the federal agencies active in the field, handle virtually all wartime problems.
Assistance was rendered farmers in obtaining power connections, copper wire, agricultural machinery, tubes, tires and gasoline, livestock slaughter permits and like essential supplies.
Draft deferments for farm hands and support price details also received attention, along with livestock feed difficulties, the container, fertilizer and insecticide shortages and similar production handicaps.

CONSERVATION UNDERTAKINGS
Foodstuffs output enlargement furnished the basis for all the endeavor in this connection. Payments to farmers for practices helping toward that end approximated $2,250,000, about $400,000 more than in the preceding period.
Materials made available through which the practices could be given greater efficiency mostly consisted of seeds and plant foods. Terracing service was also rendered in numerous instances.
Incentive payments to truck crop growers approached $850,000. Dairy feed subsidies amounted to nearly $300,000 in the last 3 months of the year.

EDITORIAL AND MAILING

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Demands from the multiplying federal agencies dealing with agriculture, for the dissemination of information regarding rules and regulations, plus requests by farmers and growers seeking light thereon, vastly enlarged the work in this department, but it was done without larger personnel.

PERIODICALS COVERAGE
Paper shortages forced the periodicals to reduce their size and editions, thus rendering more difficult the task of obtaining space therein. Reader interest was in a measure diverted by news of war activities. Briefer and more timely stories were accordingly called for, sent out with greater frequency.
Wire services maintained by the Associated Press and the United Press took several important stories each week. Special features mailed direct to daily papers supplemented these. Weekly newspapers, a few dailies and some farm journals received the weekly clipsheet containing eight to 14 items each issue. Agricultural periodicals with state, Southern and national circulation carried more articles from this office than previously.
AGRICULTURE ON THE AIR
Radio played a more important role than ever, owing to restricted travel and the fewer meetings held. Florida Farm Hour programs over






Annual Report, 1943 1 15

Station WRUF, Gainesville, every weekday at noon, furnished the main reliance but daily farm flashes went to 14 other outlets, principally through county agents.
Remote control broadcasts were staged twice from WRUF, in the Farm Hour period. County and home agents gave 175 radio talks during the year, mostly over stations in their territories.

BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS
Editions altogether enlarged more than 100 percent and the number of new publications increased one-half.
Six bulletins contained 204 pages and 100,000 copies were printed. Circulars in the same -number included 54 pages and the editions totalled 151,000. Numerous record books and other materials were 'printed and distributed.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART 11-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES

A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
J. Lee Smith, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent E. F. DeBusk, District Agent
Assignment to handle the farm labor emergency program took E. F. DeBusk from his duties as district agent for southern Florida and in large measure they were assumed by W. T. Nettles.
Farm agents in northern and northwestern Florida counties were met with in small groups and plans made for meetings covering their territories, to promote enlarged foodstuffs production. Organization was perfected of the Florida Crop Improvement Association, to give the movement assistance.
Farm machinery, fertilizer, insecticide and labor shortages became particularly acute in the central and southern Florida counties, where special crops predominate, and much attention was devoted to measures for relieving them. Dairying conditions grew critical, intensified both by hands scarcity and lack of feeds, thus calling for similar service.
County agents continued to devote much of their time to work connected with the Agricultural Adjustment Agency and related federal agencies, but carried on their demonstration work with juniors and adults as far as possible under the circumstances. No annual state conference of agents was held during the year.

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT
C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management
Zach Savage, Economist in Farm Management
Assignments connected with current war effort and postwar planning, plus several personnel changes, caused somewhat less to be accomplished than normally in the longtime projects.
State-wide campaigns for enlarged foodstuffs production, and particularly the Victory Gardens planting aspects, which were prosecuted as a major Agricultural Extension Service undertaking, had direction through a special committee that the farm management economist headed.
REGULATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS
Regulations and restrictions placed upon agriculture by the sundry federal agencies dealing with its problems, frequently issued and even more often modified or changed, were filed and information based thereon was supplied to interested farmers.
Situation growing out of the need for special activities in fields, gardens and groves had recognition through assistance rendered several groups, notably in determining the maximum wartime production capacity for Florida and forecasting the status in Southeastern agriculture after the 1944 harvest.







Annual Report, 1944


CONTINUING PROJECTS
Management improvements were suggested to 128 farmers, averaging 8 apiece. Contacts made through county agents aided in giving the suggestions local color. Concrete community endeavor for better livings from farms continued in 1 county.
Income tax suggestions have been freely distributed by sundry methods and the data proved to be helpful. Assistance in making out the federal returns was received personally by more than 1,000 rural residents, from county agents and the farm management specialists.
Record keeping increased and improved on many places, their owners having found that the figures thus assembled proved a distinct advantage in computing the income levies. Farm record books have been furnished to more than 2,100 additional applicants during the period.

MARKETING

V. V. Bowman, Marketing Economist to June 30, 1943
D. E. Timmons, Marketing Economist from December 1, 194'
Farm labor problems received major attention, the Marketing Econonfist (Bowinan) having served as chairman for the committee which formulated a 3-point plan of work. Later it was supplanted by the nation-wide program.
Regional meetings dealing with the need for more farm hands were

Fig. 2-Millions of field boxes of both oranges and grapefruit were canned
in Florida, a good part of them on government contracts.


I -M







18 Florida Cooperative Extension

attended at Baltimore and Memphis, and several conferences within the state. Methods utilized in seeking enlarged labor supplies necessarily underwent change from month to month.
RECORDS TABULATION
Sales records have been tabulated through the sixth successive year on hogs sold by the Gulf Coast Marketing Association at Trenton, Gilchrist County. Information furnished in the current statistics is more complete than that compiled in previous seasons.
Steps toward grading the gum turpentine output sold on the State Farmers' Market at Lake City had encouragement, and the move worked out well. Cooperative selling has been discussed at several points with dairying and truck crop groups, and contacts maintained that retained the close relations between this office and the principal fruit organizations.

CITRUS CANNING REPORT
In connection with the Florida Citrus Canners Association, the Marketing Economist (Timmons) brought up to date the mimeographed report covering developments bearing on the processing industry. Trends and results from preceding years received analysis and a detailed summary for the last season was prepared.
Hearings on proposed changes in the loading rules for fresh citrus sought by the freight container bureau representing the carriers caused considerable concern among citrus factors. Aid was extended from this office in compiling exhibits for use during the proceedings and the sentiment against the proposals had been developed 'previously through interviews with grove owners and shippers.

AGRONOMY
J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist
Emphasis was specially placed on work that tied in with the crop goals set by the federal agencies. Practices previously recommended had to be modified in some degree, as labor and materials became scarcer.
Field crops goals committeemen comprising the Extension Agronomist and county agents distributed information concerning the vital need for foods production, livestock feeds output and 'products affording oil and other materials required by the war effort.

AIMS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Corn, alone or in combination with peanuts and velvet beans, was grown on 747,000 acres of the 750,000 goal. Yields totalling 8,151,000 bushels exceeded the previous season's by 20 percent.
Peanut plantings by themselves were sought on 250,000 acres. Farmers responded by cultivating 267,000 acres in the crop. At year's end, however, not more than 140,000 acres had been dug.
Hay and like forage products from 170,000 acres were needed to maintain livestock through the winter months but only about 143 000 acres went toward attaining this essential purpose.
Upland cotton had a 40,000 acres mark, and the 43,000 acres grown supplied approximately 15,000 bales. Staple length and quality improved. Sea Island cotton acreage decreased and only 125 bales resulted, support prices having been too low to be attractive.
Aims and accomplishments on other crops ran as follows: Sweet
potatoes, 27,000 and 26,200 acres; flue-cured tobacco, 15,200 and 13,600;






Annual Report, 1943


oats, 15,000 and 24,000. Sugarcane statistics are incomplete as this report is compiled.
COVER CROPS AND GRASSES
Goals have not been set under these heads but activities directed toward greater utilization received stimulation, with a generally satisfactory outcome.
Blue lupine seed produced at the North Florida Agricultural Experiment Station was distributed through the Extension Agronomist, on a )plan intended to build up the supply for subsequent seasons.
Carpet grass seed having been reserved for use at Army and Navy bases, much less permanent pasture was sown than heretofore. Projects for having seed saved within the state, of this and other pasture grasses, took on encouraging proportions.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY
A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist
Livestock and poultry work was again dominated by the need for foodstuffs in the armed forces and among civilian consumers. Goals for production announced from the federal agencies at the Nation's capital applied with particular force in these fields.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
Beef cattle in Florida have increased during the period and at the end of the year had attained a new high mark.
Reports from county agents, government investigators and the livestock markets indicated that the meats production goals had been met, despite selling and slaughtering regulations which caused confusion and uneasiness. Cattle in some sections lost 50 to 100 pounds per head before the situation could be cleared up.
Feed shortages complicated the saving of the 1943 calf crop. Bulls shipped into the state were fewer, owing to transportation handicaps, but around 1,300 good animals were placed, compared with a 1,500 number as the aim. Demands for home-bred sires far exceeded the available supply, a single county taking more than 300.

SWINE AND WORKSTOCK
Swine numbers are known to have increased, though exact figures are not obtainable. Pigs saved undoubtedly exceeded the number in any previous year.
Feed 'production for hogs at home has definitely increased and parasite control was practiced by more farmers than previously. Marketing methods also showed improvement.
Meats curing in cold storage plants decreased somewhat, erroneous reports having been circulated concerning the government attitude thereon. Information correcting the rumors was circulated from this office.
Rationing of trucks, tractors, tires and motor fuels and the difficulty in procuring repair parts focused thought in the country districts. on horse and mule power for farming operations, through which the deficiencies could be overcome.
Stallions in service were in wide demand and better mares were pur-







Florida Cooperative Extension


chased more widely for raising colts. Inoculations against sleeping sickness increased, the Extension Animal Husbandman working closely with veterinarians giving them.

FAIRS AND SHOWS
Regulations and restrictions in force caused the cancellation of all shows except 2 and the livestock exhibitions at the fewer fairs held also suffered from the wartime conditions.
February brought the Southeastern Fat Stock Show and sale at Ocala, but only 167 animals went on the auction block. Quality remained good, however, and the average weights and prices were higher.
In the Ociober Range Cattle Show at the Arcadia State Farmers' Livestock Market, Brahmas mainly composed the exhibits, a few Angus, Devon and Brown Swiss cattle rounding them out. Grass-fed animals filled the pens, except for 1 small herd of halter-broken Brahmas which had received some grain.

DAIRYING

Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman

Major problems confronting the Florida dairy industry included 2 especially difficult to handle, namely the labor shortage and the scarcity in high protein feeds. Wage and price increases made the handicaps all the greater.
Forecasts from government sources indicating that concentrated feed for cows would be plentiful failed to be realized. Dairymen who bought animals ontbe strength of these assurances found themselves in a serious situation. Demand for milk increased meanwhile, as the Army camps and Navy bases located in the state increased their populations.
Labor costs advanced over 75 percent in most areas. Feedstuffs ranged from 50 to 75 percent higher. Ceilings on the output denied the 'Producers the right to charge prices covering their necessarily higher expenditures. Subsidies proved only a partial remedy. Milk importations from other states gained rapidly.

CHANGING CONDITIONS
Peak production in peacetime had been during the late winter and the low mark was reached around July or August. Under the war situation, supplies became short in every month and more dairymen upped their output in the summer months, when pastures and forage crops helped out. Goals could be met only through this change.
Dairy herds were dispersed and the animals sold because the activities no longer broke even also brought about material modifications in ownership and operation. All told, 300 to 400 dairies were involved in the transactions. Herds averaged larger at the end of the period, and fewer producer-distributors remained in business.
CALVES DISTRIBUTION
Florida entered the year with not many less than 110,000 cows in commercial dairies. Calves offered for sale were purchased when 1 to 3 days old and placed through county agents with adult or junior farmers.
Between 9,000 and 10,000 heifer calves have been distributed in this manner. Baby animals could have been placed numbering 2,500 to 3,000 additional through 4-H club members alone, if they had been available.







Annual Report, 1943


ORGANIZED ENDEAVOR
Modified as required by the war influence, the Dairy Herd Improvement Association effort was maintained. Three groups were combined into 1. Cows on test approximated 1,250.
Work was continued with the Florida Jersey ay.d Guernsey Cattle Clubs, and the 2 registered sales they held recorded the highest average prices of any year since the organization.
Cooperation was likewise extended the State Dairymen's Association, which held its annual meeting at Gainesville. Relations remained close and friendly with the Dairy Products Association and several local organized units.
POULTRY
N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
A. Woodrow O'Steen, Assistant Extension Poultryman
Poultry production goals higher than for the previous year set the pace for the work in this department. Florida reached or exceeded the output sought.
PRICE AVERAGES AND RANGE
Feed prices per 100 pounds of poultry ration in 1943 averaged 43 cents

Fig. 3.-Egg production helped to stem the meat shortage, and later
becan-ie a problem of adjusting to available feed supplies.







Florida Cooperative Extension


higher than for the preceding like period and 24 cents above the 1926-29 base level.
Egg quotations on the Jacksonville market averaged 13.3 cents per dozen higher than the year before and exceeded the base period average by 6 cents a dozen.
Hens in the heavy grades averaged 4.1 cents per pound higher in 1943 than for 1942 and the average on heavy fryers increased 2.7 cents per pound.
Ceilings on eggs established during the previous year were not changed to take into account the upward trends in feed prices nor to recognize the other enlarged producing costs.
Surpluses developed during the spring of 1943 in several counties, especially through the central and northern sections. Federal purchases through the War Food Administration helped to relieve the situations, though most poultrymen felt that the 'prices paid were too low. Buying stations at 35 points took 9,038 cases.

EGG-LAYING TEST
Beginning October 1, 1942, and ending September 22, 1943, the Seventeenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test took place with 96 pens of 13 pullets each from 22 states. Florida breeders in 8 counties entered 14 pens.
Average output for the 1,242 pullets was 196.2 eggs per bird, with 202.2 points, which was considerably below the all-time high recorded during the preceding test.
High fowl was a Single Comb White Leghorn entered by the Thomascello Leghorn Breeders, Monticello, which laid 327 eggs for 358.60 points.
This pullet was high S. C. White Leghorn for the Nation, in all the official egg-laying tests.

PROJECTS MAINTAINED

Raising healthy 'pullets, growing green feed, keeping calendar flock records, culling practices and junior poultry work undertaken before the war went ahead on a modified scale.
Farm brooders and finishers in small units, fashioned after models developed by Extension poultrymen, aided the food for freedom program, fully 1,500 having been built.

COOPERATING GROUPS
Relations remained on a cordial basis with the Florida Poultry Council, State Poultry Producers' Association and Breeder and Hatchery Association.
BOYS' 4-H CLUBS

R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
N. H. McQueen, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent
Returning to Charlotte County as farm agent October 15, 1943, N. H. McQueen remained as state boys' club assistant on a part-time basis, and undertook supervisory duties in about 10 southeastern counties.
Stress was placed on foods production. Boys alone grew out over 64,000 fryers for spring marketing, 14,000 more than their goal.
Club members bought more than 900 baby dairy calves and they purchased 375 bred heifers, many of which are now giving milk.
Home vegetable gardens were expected to be aided by every 4-H







Annual Report, 1943


member. As projects in club work, they have been grown by above 50 percent of the boys.
CAMPS AND MEETINGS
Gasoline and tire shortages made it necessary to hold fewer club meetings. Achievement Day programs were put on less frequently, for the same reason.
Summer camps as resumed this year conformed with the wartime situation. Army physical tests in the simpler forms were given all boys attending Camp McQuarrie.
District camps proved more successful than usual and the attendance exceeded that for the last 3 preceding seasons in which they had been held. Ration boards issued points sufficient for feeding the campers.
Facilities at the University of Florida having been taken over so extensively by the United States Army for training purposes, the annual short course could not be held. Trips to out-of state points were also abandoned.
CAMPAIGNS AND PROGRAMS
Mobilization Week was emphasized s o far as possible. Conditions peculiar to club project work in Florida rendered it difficult for national plans to be utilized fully.
Time spent with county agricultural workers by the State Boys' Club Agent brought good results. Two days a month each in 3 counties demonstrated that the idea has large possibilities.
Long-time objectives remained in mind but chiefly had to be sidetracked for the more immediate effort directed toward helping win the war. Machinery has been set up, however, for use when the skies clear.

FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester
Timber shortages developing during the period caused concentration on endeavors for relieving the scarcity, as a wartime duty, and some curtailment became necessary in normal activities.
NAVAL STORES
Working farm timber for naval stores could be extended only in a limited degree, because hands were lacking with which to carry it on. Beginnings made will bring results later, it is felt.
Gum sales under competitive bidding at the Lake City State Farmers' Market, in establishing which the Extension Forester cooperated, assured farmers top prices and cash was paid at the platform.

TIMBER OUTPUT
Increasing the production of forest products needed for war purposes occupied considerable time during the final six months in the period.
Meetings attended and publicity material prepared stressed the theme, with special emphasis on pulpwood cutting. Wood for fuel, in country and city, was also urged, to conserve fuel oils and coal.

TREE PLANTING
Planting forest trees was made a major project. Slash pine seedlings in a 1,000,000 total donated by a Florida pulp mill had been made available






Florida Cooperative Extension


to farmers and landowners in 21 northeastern counties.
Farm agents received assistance from the Extension Forester in getting the trees put out through their territories, their efforts placing 713,810, or 71 percent, of which 4-H club members took 68,700. Distribution during the coming winter will be more extensive and widespread.

NATIVE TREES

Contentions previously made by the Extension Forester that farm plantings in Florida should utilize additional varieties of native trees took on further importance as the need for diversified timber grew more apparent.
Red cedar, yellow poplar, white oak and black cherry perhaps offer the greatest possibilities in this connection. Planting stock is not generally to be bad in quantity and willing specimens taken from the woods are required.
Plantings for demonstration purposes have been made at the University of Florida, Gainesville, and on the National Egg-Laying Test grounds, Chipley, using all the above-mentioned varieties, in 1/4-acre plots each, plus longleaf and slash pine, swamp chestnut oak and sweet gum. A 4-H club demonstration forest, using Ted cedar, white oak, yellow poplar and black cherry, was started in Marion County.

CORK OAK PROJECTS

Cooperating with a cork and seal company in Baltimore, which supplied acorns and seedlings, the Extension Forester assisted in testing the adaptability of cork oak to various Florida soils and locations.
Eight seedling plantings were made under his direction and 50 acorns apiece furnished to more than 50 chapters in the Future Farmers of America. Farmers numbering 11, located all the way from Lake Okeechobee to Pensacola, also received acorns and seedlings.
Farm fishponds development was also launched during the year by the Extension Forester, as a means whereby home outputs of food may be enlarged while affording rural families more attractive surroundings and the setting for enjoyable recreation.

SOIL CONSERVATION

K. S. McMullen, Soil Conservationist
The Extension soil conservation program, which is conducted in close cooperation with the federal Soil Conservation Service, has been adjusted to render the greatest possible assistance to Florida farmers in meeting production goals. An effort has been made to put soil conservation behind food and fiber production -to aid in production without impairing the soil.
The 136,000 acres of peanuts harvested for oil in 1943 presented a serious conservation 'problem, and every effort was made to meet the situation. Planting of winter leguminous covers to restore organic matter to the soil was widely advocated and practised.

SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICTS
There were 14 soil conservation districts in Florida at the beginning of the year, and organization of 5 others was completed during the year. The districts and counties included are as follows: 1, Perdido RiverEscambia; 2, Choetawhatchee River-Walton and part of Holmes; 3, Orange Hill-Wasbington and Bay; 4, Holmes Creek-Holmes and part of Jackson; 5, Chipola River-part of Jackson and Calhoun; 6, Yellow River-







Annual Report, 1943


part of Okaloosa; 7, Gadsden-Gadsden; 8, Madison-Madison; 9, Ochiockonee River-Leon; 10, Jeff erson-Jeff erson; 11, Okiawaha-Marion and part of Sumter; 12, Istokpoga-part of Highlands; 13, Suwannee River-Suwannee; 14, Blackwater-Santa Rosa; 15, Santa Fe-Columbia; 16, Jumper Creek-part of Sumter; 17, Volusia-Volusia; 18, Pinellas-Pinellas; 19, Gulf-Citrus and Hernando.
Educational work in the districts is conducted through the office of the county agent, who serves as secretary to the board of supervisors in every district save one, in cooperation with district and work unit conservationists of the Soil Conservation Service.
Reports from 17 of the districts reveal that 75 educational meetings were held with a total attendance of 2,520; 24 farm planning meetings were attended by 280; 21 demonstrations were attended by 444; 6 tours were attended by 104; 313 news stories were published on soil conservation and district activities; and 37 programs were presented before civic clubs.
Each civic supervisor was supplied copies of all materials on soil conservation published by the Extension Service, Experiment Station, and USDA. Ten districts were assisted in acquiring equipment. Election of supervisors in each district was supervised by the Extension Soil Conservationist. One-day planning conferences were held in 15 districts.

CLASSES AND EXHIBITS

Classes taught at 4-H club camps for 2 weeks had 152 boys enrolled. Study courses were supplied to vocational agriculture teachers throughout the state.
Exhibits displayed during the spring flower and vegetable show held by the Federated Circles of the Jacksonville Garden Club May 7 and 8, in putting on which the Extension Service cooperated, attracted an estimated 7,200 persons.
HARVESTING GRASS SEED
Seed became scarce for sowing Bermuda and carpet grass in pastures after the available stocks had been taken over for military purposes.
Heading by request a state-wide movement for harvesting seed within the territory, the Extension Soil Conservationist prepared the necessary instructions, and fairly good results were obtained. Later the program was expanded to include cover crop seeds.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART 111-HOME ACTIVITIES

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent Ethyl Holloway, District Agent Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent
Wartime conditions, which have controlled the activities of all individual families, necessarily have affected home demonstration work during the year. Major emphasis has been 'placed on food production and conservation, food preparation and use, nutrition, rationing, health and safety in the home, safeguarding equipment and supplies, salvage, government investments and savings, farm labor, maintaining morale, leadership, and community activities.
Volunteer war services have demanded considerable time from women who still are not employed outside their homes. Many women are working away from home, or are responsible for unfamiliar but important tasks on the farm. This has limited the time women have available for such customary responsibilities as 4-H leadership, and this in turn has affected the home demonstration program.
Home demonstration agents have been flooded with requests for help on gardens, 'poultry, food conservation and governmental regulations affecting everyday lives, as townspeople have realized that they, too, can become producers as well as consumers of food.
The home demonstration agents have endeavored to keep in close touch with people in their own homes, so the program of home demonstration work would continue to give its first service within those homes working toward a long-time program, and not serve only to meet the emergencies of war.
A total of 34,158 white families received direct help from county home demonstration agents this year. The 42 agents and assistants made 17,047 visits to homes, visiting 9,987 different homes. They directed the work of the 8,548 women enrolled in 343 home demonstration clubs, and the 9,671 girls enrolled in the 451 4-H clubs for girls.

FOOD PRODUCTION
Through the years home demonstration agents have urged production of increased amounts of food at home so the family would be well fed. 4-H girls always have been enrolled in "productive" work in order to give them instruction and to stimulate their interest in a better food supply. For years, home demonstration women have related the canning budget to the production of the home garden and orchard. Consequently when the need for home food 'production became urgent as a part of the war program and when food rationing served as a spur to Victory Gardeners and Victory Canners, home demonstration agents and women were ready to assume county-wide and state-wide leadership in these programs.
Home Gardens.-Wartime food production and conservation goals for 1943 have been met and in some instances overwhelmingly exceeded. Reports indicate that Florida families, rural and urban, have grown more Victory Gardens than ever before. In addition, considerable amounts of food have been grown for local markets to further relieve transportation difficulties and to afford the cash income needed by the farm woman and 4-H girl.







Annual Report, 1943


An extensive community canning program was instituted in counties in the trucking areas to take care of the local surplus from commercial fields. City and rural people cooperated in the endeavor to fill the home pantry shelves of both groups. The city 'people happily effected a system of work by which the busy farmer can have canned on a share-basis those products grown by himself and needed by town and country people alike.
Home Orchards.-Reports show that 317 4-H girls and 819 home demonstration women started calendar orchards this year; 125,127 fruit trees were added to orchards already started and 21,891 berry vines planted.
Home Poultry.-Poultry raising became popular with hundreds of city and town families. Small home-i-nade brooders and other poultry equipi-nent became known to many who had never seen them before. Feed for large flocks, always an important factor for Florida families, becarne increasingly so. The small home flock, more or less well managed, became the source of meat and eggs for hundreds of families.
Home Dairying.-Club women and girls reported buying 2,032 family cows this year, making a total of 10,763 cows owned by the present membership. Good calves were bought for distribution to 4-H members through the cooperation of the county agents. An adequate supply of clean milk is a great need in many rural homes.

FOOD CONSERVATION
In 1943 14 times as many containers of vegetables were filled as in 1938, an increase of 1,400% over 6 years ago and more than 4000/, over last year. A 300% increase in meat canning (pork, beef, game, fish, and poultry) is indicated for the same 6 years.
In the trucking areas of southern Florida a huge canning center prograni developed. Converting the commercial surpluses from tomato and vegetable fields into wholesome, ready-to-serve foods, became the concern of the entire population -rather than allowing the produce to waste as

Fig. 4.-Victory Gardens by the thousands-on farms and in citieshelped to boost the country's food production. This garden is growing at a county club carnp.







Florida Cooperative Extevsion


had been too commonly clone in the past.
Most immediate and impressive gains could be made through better use of existing resources of commercial truck gardens and citrus groves, eliminating waste through failure to use this food already produced, -rather than to use time, labor, seed, fertilizer, equipment and transportation facilities to grow the food elsewhere.
Home agents gave general supervision to the canning centers. Total containers filled in all centers of one county was 151,600. Of this about 14% was fruit, grapefruit and pineapple principally. Less than 1% was fish, meat, or poultry, leaving 84% of all kinds of vegetables, including tomatoes, green beans, "shell" beans, greens, squash, carrots, peas, lima beans, corn, eggplant, sauerkraut and new potatoes. The 12 centers in another county preserved over 171,000 cans.
FOOD USE, NUTRITION, FOOD PREPARATION, RATIONING
The war brought a challenge to Floridians to become, dietetically speaking, more self-sufficient within our borders by using the abundance of our available food resources more wisely and keeping good food from going to waste. This bids fair to aid the long-time economy of the state as well as contributing essentially to winning the war.
Nutrition The following summary highlights progress made in nutrition: 18,179 families reported they had planned and produced their family food supply in accordance with wartime needs; 4,304 families enrolled for special help in budgeting and buying quality food wisely. Home demonstration agents gave 382 demonstrations on the use of meat alternatives when meat rationing first was introduced in this country; 2,323 families were helped with home butchering and meat curing and cutting and 1,411 with butter and cheese making; 14,018 families asked for help from the home agents in using food alternates made necessary by food shortages.
In addition to their food program with home demonstration women and girls, county home demonstration agents gave 371 nutrition courses sponsored by the Red Cross with 5,094 women and older girls enrolled. They gave 19 canteen courses to 420 women.
Food Rationing A total of 8,991 families received direct help from home agents on how to make necessary adjustments in their food plans due to rationing. The food rationing plan was explained in detail and methods of making the best use of food were demonstrated at regular home demonstration and leader-training meetings and at county-wide meetings where representatives of many organizations were present. Consumers were urged to use fresh fruits and vegetables 'produced locally or from Victory Gardens, thereby saving transportation and processed foods f or war needs.

HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE HOME
One important goal in all wartime home demonstration programs has been to aid rural people to maintain or secure good health, both because of the shortage of available medical care and so they would be able to do the work required of them.
Health Examinations.-The real importance of immunization measures against diseases caused 3,043 families to take such positive measures to improve their health. Close cooperation with the State Board of Health, county health units and state and county home demonstration offices, exists now as always in working out plans for health instruction and health service programs. The understanding and attitude of home demonstration club members has helped greatly in establishing in rural com-







Annual Report, 1943


unities the program of health services inaugurated through the public schools in cooperation with the State Board of Health. Many women had physical examinations during the year as a result of home demonstration programs, and 1,811 4-H girls had health examinations by physicians in order to care for their health properly or to correct defects.
Home Nursing and First Aid Courses During the year 1,890 4-H girls in 18 counties enrolled in such courses arranged by the home demonstration agent. Forty home nursing courses were given to women who agreed to serve as neighborhood leaders in this work and 127 first aid courses were conducted in cooperation with the American Red Cross, with an enrollment of 2,266 women and older 4-H girls.
First aid kits for the home have been displayed at home demonstration club meetings; lists of necessary articles for a complete first aid kit for the home were distributed and instructions in first aid treatment were given.
Home Sanitation.-The home improvement program contributed to the health of the family by emphasizing home sanitation and kitchen improvement. In all, 801 homes were screened; 417 toilets were installed; 1,117 homes were repaired; 177 heating systems were secured and 1,157 houses and outbuildings were painted.
Fire Prevention and Safety.-Removal of fire and accident hazards from the home was a state-wide project. A total of 182 courses in fire prevention were given to 1,398 women.and 2,017 4-H girls who agreed to serve as leaders to urge their neighbors to observe better methods of preventing fires in their homes; 5,615 other girls of 17 counties received special instruction so they could help also; 3,856 families reported to the home agents they had removed fire hazards from their rural communities.
Safeguarding Home Equipment and Supplies - Salvage of Waste Equipment-Ailing sewing machines to the number of 259 were put into working order through instruction given by home demonstration agents. Pressure cookers to the number of 1,828 were overhauled. Many forgotten ones were discovered and put to work. The state Specialist in Food Conservation encouraged cooker clinics in many counties. All home demonstration agents were given instruction in adjusting gauges, etc., at a state short course. Also, 1,963 unusable pieces of electrical equipment were repaired at home; 1,157 homes and outbuildings and 51 fences were painted; 401 mattresses were made from home-grown cotton and 271 were renovated.
Fat Salvage.-The State Home Demonstration Agent served as state chairman of salvage of fats and grease for the War Production Board and the State Defense Council jointly. County home demonstration agents or county agents were county chairmen.
Florida was the first state to exceed its quota in collection of waste fats. For 5 months of the year Florida led the states of the Southern Region in percentage of collection, exceeding its year's quota, 900,000 pounds, by more than 6 tons.
Salvage of Rubber, Tin and Scrap Women and 4-H girls have helped with all drives. Volunteer leaders assisted in.all drives. Usually the collections were made under the supervision of other agencies, so no detailed reports of their contributions has been made.

GIRLS' 4-11 CLUB WORK
Home demonstration agents from 37 counties report they devoted 3,278 days, or an average of one-third of their entire time, to work with 4-H club girls and older youth. This is less time by 243 days than they devoted







Florida Cooperative Extension


to 4-H club work last year. This decrease in time is due to the increased demands made upon the home demonstration agents by adults from urban and rural communities, and the special work necessary in wartime.
Enrollment.-Girls to the number of 9,671 enrolled in 451 organized 4-H clubs this year under the direction of white county home demonstration agents. Daughters in 5,671 different farm homes are enrolled in 4-H clubs, 3,687 girls of non-farm homes were enrolled also, making a total of 9,358 homes which have been served through 4-H club work for girls. Home demonstration agents have conducted 3,138 method demonstration meetings.
To extend 4-H work further, volunteer leaders have held 1,202 meetings with a total attendance of 22,969. To train these 4-H leaders to reach and develop 4-H club girls, home agents held 19 training meetings with 2,153 local leaders present.
Achievements of 4-H Girls Florida 4-H girls have developed keen minds, skillful hands, happy hearts and good healthy bodies as they have carried on their 4-H club work and achieved their wartime goals. The greatest achievement of all has been the 4-square development of the girls themselves. They are becoming responsible, well informed, skillful and happy citizens and future leaders so much needed in their communities.
Food Production, Gardens, Orchards, Poultry, Dairying The Food for Freedom program has been the foremost activity among all 4-H girls. They have worked with their families and neighbors to produce more of the food supply and to conserve the surplus for future use.
Club girls have helped to raise the poultry flock, dairy cows or other livestock which they own alone or in partnership with some family member. Thus Florida girls have earned as they learned to produce food during this war year.
Food Conservation-4-H girls canned 186,789 quarts of food during the year. They have canned at home and helped to can at the community centers.
Food and Nutiftion-4-H club girls enrolled in the food and nutrition program learned about the basic 7 foods needed daily to keep families strong. They found out how to get these foods by growing them at home and they learned how to prepare food properly to save the food values and prevent waste. Then they learned how to serve 'the colorful Florida foods attractively so that the entire family would enjoy eating these foods prepared well at home.
Many girls have taken over the responsibility of buying the family food, thus learning about "ceiling prices" and the point rationing plan. They assumed responsibility, too, for the preparation of family meals as mothers worked at home or in essential war work .
Home Improvement-4-H club girls have made many Florida homes much happier, more attractive, more comfortable and orderly and certainly more satisfactory to Florida families. Young 4-H girls have learned useful skills as they have become good managers and better housekeepers. They have taken over home responsibility for bed making, table setting, and dishwashing as they helped in better home management.
Older club girls have been interested in the improvement of the living room which helps to improve the morale of the entire family. They are appreciating their home life with family members and friends now as never before.
Clothing During 1943, 70 percent or 6,790 of the girls enrolled in 4-H club work were enrolled in clothing demonstrations, 32,058 new garments were made and 7,277 garments were remodeled.







Annual Report, 1943


Farm Labor 4-11 girls have helped meet farm labor needs by assisting with work on their own farms and for their neighbors. They have taught town boys and girls to do farm work well; many are active V. F. W. members.
Short Courses and Camps For the second time in 32 years the State 4-11 Short Course for Girls was not held in Tallahassee. Shortage of transportation has affected all county-wide and state-wide activities. Nearly all counties held county short courses or camps in an effort to give special training to older girls as leaders and to recognize achievement.

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Joyce Bevis, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
Continued emphasis has been placed on conservation, such as remodeling, renovating, mending, care and storage of clothing; buying only necessary clothes and getting the best possible values for the money spent; more and better home sewing to offset labor shortages and higher costs; use of cotton goods for the general wardrobe and textile needs of Florida rural families because of their suitability to Florida climatic conditions; and helping people to understand and keep informed about new developments in government control and manufacturing, changes in style, and local merchandising situations.
The Extension Service did not have a Clothing Specialist during the first 6 months of the year, but county home agents and district and state supervisors gave such assistance along these lines as they could.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR THE YEAR
More people are looking to the Extension Service for help in solving the increasing problems of wartime. However, it is evident that physical limitations will necessitate the training and utilization of more voluntary leaders in various 'phases of home demonstration work if this additional help is to be extended.
The following brief summary contains figures on principal accomplishments by home demonstration club women and girls along clothing and textiles lines, as reported to their home demonstration agents:
The clothing program was carried on in 366 of the 553 communities of the state where home demonstration work is done. In these communities8,897 families were assisted with construction problems, an 1801o increase for this year.
7,676 families were assisted in the selection of clothing, a 1011o increase.
8,021 families were assisted with care, renovation, remodeling, etc., a 52% increase.
1,976 families were assisted with clothing accounts and budgets, a 901o increase.
440 families were helped with care and repair of sewing machines and 259 machines were put into working order.
27,393 garments were remodeled by home demonstration club members.
179,318 new garments were made by home demonstration club members.
132,915 new articles were made for the home, such as quilts, spreads, draperies, curtains, etc.
18,914 accessories such as hats, bags, dickies, collars, etc., were made by home demonstration club members.
401 cotton mattresses were made; 571 cotton mattresses were renovated.
25 counties reported that 7,071 families were doing the family laundry for the first time.







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Most of the counties reported that home demonstration club members were devoting time to Red Cross sewing, such as altering and mending uniforms for service men and making numerous articles for civilian use.

4-11 CLUB PARTICIPATION

Home agents were assisted in developing the 4-H club program with clothing and textiles at a statewide meeting, at district sessions of county councils of junior home demonstration work, through visits to counties, by judging exhibits at county achievement days, and through the preparation and distribution of such teaching aids as skits, check sheets, exhibits and mimeographed material.
During 1943 70% (or 6,797) of the girls enrolled in 4-H club work carried clothing projects. Of this total 70% (or 4,645) of the girls completed their clothing demonstrations. Through these demonstrations 32,058 new garments were made and 7,277 garments remodeled. Two counties, Orange and Dade, reported that every girl enrolled in 4-H club work had chosen clothing as one of her 4-H demonstrations.
Help- was given to 4-H club work mainly through group instruction at summer camps. Three different camps were attended by the Clothing Specialist, where 8 home demonstration agents, 20 leaders, and 235 club girls were aided.
FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Economist in Foods and Nutrition
In this phase of Extension work during 1943 emphasis was placed on nutrition for preparedness and war, without forgetting the value of good nutrition to both individuals and communities here at home.
The work with adults was divided into 4 phases as follows: (1) Nutrition and physical fitness-belping families keep physically fit through good food habits and an adequate diet; (2) food preparation and meal planning, including conservation of food values in cooking and other handling; (3) producing the family food supply to provide the food that protects physical fitness and to relieve commercial food supplies for civilians with no facilities for food production and for war needs; (4) cooperation with and understanding of wartime programs such as rationing, ceiling prices and standardization of processed foods.
In addition to these 4 phases, the junior program particularly emphasized the need for securing and maintaining good health, and for all individuals availing themselves of preventive health measures.

NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS

The approach used with all groups was to build on that which was best in a diet pattern already in use and to suggest additions to the diet, rather than the elimination of foods habitually used. The 7 basic food groups and the yardstick for good nutrition, both emphasized by the United States Department of Agriculture, were emphasized in Florida, forming the basis around which diet recommendations were made here. The 7 basic food groups are: (1) Green and yellow vegetables; (2) oranges, tomatoes and grapefruit; (3) potatoes and other vegetables and fruits; (4) milk and milk products; (5) meat, poultry, fish and eggs; (6) bread, flour and cereals; and (7) butter and fortified margarine.
Demonstrations were established in homes in an attempt to improve the health of each member of the family. Store exhibits of foods suggested for use, along with recipes for their preparation, posters, newspaper stories,







Annual Report, 1943 33

and work meetings where groups prepared meals were effective means of disseminating this information.
Records show that this phase of the program was conducted in 378 communities of 28 counties; 7,618 families in 36 counties improved their diets during the year; 2,173 families in 33 counties were assisted with child feeding problems; 204 nutrition instruction courses in 23 counties were attended by 2,052 women; 282 women in 9 counties were certified as nutrition aides; 4,560 families in 29 counties were assisted in preventing common diseases; 3,043 people in 22 counties were immunized against communicable diseases; and 2,019 families in 25 counties participated in first aid or home nursing courses.
In the junior program, 1,590 4-H club girls in 16 counties enrolled in the health, home nursing and first aid courses and 1,286, approximately 80 percent, completed the courses. In 8 counties 167 nutrition courses were attended by 2,442 4-11 club girls.

FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING
A total of 11,944 families in 37 counties were assisted with food prepartion and 588 voluntary leaders in 31 counties helped to make possible this widespread assistance.
During the year demonstrations have been given showing the correct food preparation 'principles for all groups of foods. Because of wartime needs, particular emphasis has been placed on enriched flour, bread and cereals, sugar, meat alternates and meat extenders, soybean products, peanuts, sweet potatoes, and foods rich in vitamins and minerals that can be secured locally or in adequate quantities.
Families adopting improved practices in food preparation are recorded as follows: Baking 5,267 in 32 counties; meat cookery 6,714 in 32; vegetable and fruit cookery 7,715 in 31; dairy products 5,613 in 33; 'Poultry products 5,899 in 32; and fats 5,677 families in 28 counties. Reports show also that 4,304 families in 23 counties budgeted and bought food wisely through quality, quantity and cooperative buying.
Menus for families with ration allowances and budgeted expenditures were suggested as aids in meal planning. Homemakers have been helped to streamline meal preparation, preparing fewer dishes at a meal; planning nutritional balance over a longer period; sharing responsibility among members of the family in food preparation; planning a lunch preparation center in the kitchen; and exchange of labor in meal preparation with. the neighbors.
Leader training meetings have been held on a community or county basis, as seemed best.
4-H CLUB TRAINING
The food, nutrition and health program for 4-H club girls was developed along the same lines as the work with adults. Each member was encouraged to guard her own health and that of her community.
In addition to having health checks by nurses and physicians, each girl enrolled in this work scored herself in food selection, health and posture at the beginning of the year, made plans for improvement, and scored herself again at the middle and end of the year. As her health was checked the girl realized more and more the importance of well selected, planned and prepared meals.
In menu demonstrations the girls discussed the use of available foods for those which are scarce-which can substitute for others.






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FOOD RATIONING
Food rationing, necessitated by wartime stringencies, called for widespread educational efforts on the 'part of agents to help families understand the best use of available foods. The Nutritionist has discussed rationing at county-wide meetings where representatives of home demonstration clubs and many other organizations were present.

SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM
Home demonstration clubs were pioneers, many years ago, in efforts to provide adequate hot lunches for school children, and have worked continuously on this problem. In more recent years assistance from federal agencies has made school lunches possible in many schools where they were not possible previously.
The Nutritionist and State Home Demonstration Agent served on the advisory committee to the school lunch program, appointed by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. They outlined the assistance that home demonstration agents and women had been to the program, and suggested ways through which they could continue to serve.
Agents reported that during 1943 they actively assisted in 308 school lunchrooms -helping to plan and initiate lunchrooms, surveying needs, advising about balanced meals, furnishing recipes, menus and bulletins, loaning home demonstration equipment, such as pressure cookers, giving demonstrations in the preparation of canned foods, and encouraging home demonstration members to cooperate.
Home demonstration clubs have donated food, 4-H club girls have served in the lunchrooms at mealtime and aided in the production of foods in school gardens.

SAFETY
An increasing effort has been made to help rural families provide safe working conditions. Four thousand one hundred and fifty-one in 34 counties were assisted in removing fire and accident hazards.

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation
The wartime econ my, with its ever greater concentration on food production and conservation under increasingly adverse conditions, has brought a number of new problems in this phase of Extension work. Rationing, 'priorities and other changes necessitated by the country's all-out war effort made both rural and urban people more anxious to produce and conserve than ever before. Requests for help and instruction in producing and conserving foods have been especially heavy from urban centers.
Work of the Economist in Food Conservation continues to include encouragement of increased efforts toward more and better quality gardens and home orebards and assistance in providing larger quantities and better qualities of conserved fruits, vegetables, meats fish and other food products
-frozen, canned, brined and dried.
The Economist in Food Conservation attended a workshop on canning, freezing and dehydration methods directed by the Food Distribution Administration. She conducted a short course or workshop for 12 Florida home agents, in which up-to-date canning principles and practices were discussed and demonstrated.







Annual Report, 1943


HOME GARDENS
The national Food for Freedom goals called for considerable increases in home gardens during 1943, in both rural and urban areas. Most of the Florida goals were met, some materially exceeded. Victory Gardens, both large and small, were raised in a number estimated to exceed 150,000, providing vegetables of good nutritional value for use fresh and in canning. Home demonstration members grew 20,339 gardens in 1943, an increase of nearly 2,000 over the year before. In addition, many products have been grown for local markets, further relieving transportation congestion and affording cash income to farm women and 4-H girls.
The Florida Extension Service set up a garden goals committee which lent encouragement and assistance to the effort. Needed publications on garden plantings and insect and disease control were printed and distributed in large numbers. Food for victory pledge cards were distributed to the number of 120,000.
Commercial concerns, civic groups, publishers, nurserymen and Seedsmen wishing to encourage the movement through advertisements and in other ways were assisted.

CALENDAR ORCHARDS
The calendar orchard program, which has long advocated and encouraged increased plantings of fruits and berries, has not been neglected. The longer time required for such plantings to come to bearing has tended to make them secondary to gardens, which supply food in a very short time. Florida farm families planted 15,127 fruits trees and 21,981 berry vines, according to reports from county home demonstration agents.

Fig. 5-Community canning kitchens were kept constantly busy during
the canning season to fill home pantries.






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I Increased earnings on the part of farm people call for larger plantings of economic ornamentals -those which provide fruits or berries in addition to shade and beauty.
Under the leadership of home demonstration agents, farm families throughout the state are pooling orders for fruit trees and berry vines for planting during the winter of 1943-44.

WARTIME FOOD CONSERVATION
With Victory Gardens grown in larger numbers, with commercial fields at times offering enormous surpluses of staple vegetables, with grapefruit always available to the home canner at moderate cost in the citrus producing areas, and with the war emergency stimulating a concerted educational drive for more food, canning the surplus became of vital interest to town and farm 'people alike. Consequently, every available piece of canning equipment was put to full use, and thousands of families preserved food products by methods other than canning.
Amounts of vegetables canned at home, as reported by home demonstration agents, increased 1,400 percent from 1938 to 1943, more than 400 percent in 1943 over 1942. From 1938 to 1943 a 300 percent increase occurred in amount of meat canned at home. The agents' reports show that home demonstration families during 1943 canned 10,611,103 fruits, vegetables, pickles and relishes and marmalades and jellies. Also they preserved 218,308 quarts of fruit juices and 448,666 quarts of meats of various kinds.
In addition, they stored over 5 million pounds of vegetables by other methods.
Additional statistics from the agents reveal that 7,568 families cured 7,158,496 pounds of meat; 5,979 families made 465,933 pounds of sausage; 6,269 families made 676,298 13ounds of lard; 3,130 families made 80,309 pounds of soap at home; 184 families smoked 9,574 pounds of fish; and 426 families brined 5,915 quarts of vegetables.
Efficient, properly ventilated storage places for canned food supplies are needed in many homes throughout the state, necessitating repairs, structural changes or new buildings.
Canning Centers A huge community canning program was instituted in the truck growing areas, and community canning centers have been the means of getting thousands of cans of fruits and vegetables preserved in counties throughout the state. City and rural people cooperated in the endeavor to fill their home 'pantries with foods, effecting a system of. canning on shares at many of the centers. In this way the busy farmer could produce the food, the city housewife could can it, and both could share equally in its utilization.
Various methods of establishing and operating the canning centers were followed, as best suited the occasion. However, in all cases the home demonstration agent gave general supervision to the work, and in most cases one or more home demonstration women supervised each center. Strict supervision insured quality products, for both those who were canning for themselves and those who were canning on halves.
Many other agencies, including vocational agriculture teachers and supervisors, municipalities, counties, churches, business concerns and various organizations cooperated to make the canning centers possible.
There is need for plans for satisfactory canning center structures and for modernization of many existing structures, as well as for installation of modern equipment when this can be obtained.







Annual Report, 1943 37

HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Home Improvement Agent
With first emphasis on food production and conservation as wartime necessities, home improvement has naturally received secondary emphasis. However, proper physical surroundings contribute to efficiency in all farm operations and to the development of character in young people, and so home improvement activities have been pressed as best they could under the circumstances.
Now ' that farm families are receiving increased incomes they would purchase home conveniences and improvements, but in most instances these are unobtainable.
Mending what was on hand has been the order of the day, and women and girls left on farms did much repairing of steps and fences, coiled rooms and papered walls, put on new roofs, painted and installed window panes. The care and repair of equipment was emphasized by home agents, and instructional helps on the subject were distributed from time to time.

BETTER MANAGEMENT IN THE HOME
Time saving, stressed for several years in home improvement work, was a more important subject this year because more women and girls were assisting with* farm work outside of the home. Cutting minutes from the time required for everyday tasks gives more time for added duties or for recreation.
Better management in the home was taught to 4-H girls through team demonstrations in dishwashing, table setting, bed making, room cleaning and similar household duties.
The saving of money available now but which cannot be spent for new home equipment - especially through the 'purchase of War Bonds and Stamps -to be spent later has been encouraged widely.

PHYSICAL EQUIPMENT
Few new houses have been built this year, due to inability to obtain materials. Only 106 dwellings have been constructed where helps and plans were furnished through this office. Materials for remodeling could be more easily obtained, but scarcity of labor restrained this work. Only 652 homes were remodeled by home demonstration families.
Assistance was continued in the installation of sunshine water heaters, as well as a few electric, kerosene and gas heaters. When it again becomes possible to extend electric lines through REA assistance there will be wide demand for electricity in additional farm homes.

HOME SANITATION
Reports of malaria among our fighting forces in the South Pacific has brought a fuller realization of the danger of this malady here at home. More screening has been done in rural areas during the past few years than ever before, and the need for screening for protection against mosquitoes and flies is not now as great as it once was. This year metal screens were unobtainable for most homes, and new synthetic screening was not available part of the year. However, 801 rural homes were screened this year.
The hookworm hazard is becoming more clearly understood and appreciated in rural areas. Coupled with running water in more homes, this







Florida Cooperative Extension


knowledge is advancing home sanitation. Agents report 302 sanitary toilets installed during the year.
Cooperation was continued with the State Board of Health and county units.
HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Exhibits of thrift furnishings were loaned to counties to be used in connection with the girls' 4-H thrift room improvement and for women with limited budgets for room improvement. Suggestions were given on inexpensive slip covers, "pepping up" the house furnishings with sacks which are tied and dyed or stenciled, and other ways of utilization.
Stress has been laid on improvement of the living room, making it into a place where the neighborhood girls.and boys could meet for games, music singing, candy pulls, and such wholesome entertainment.

EXTERIOR BEAUTIFICATION
Grass plantings in yards nearly doubled this year, 7,969 such plantings by home demonstration families being reported. Lawn plantings were increased because soil preparation had been stressed in many homes, and the soil was ready for planting. Foundation plantings reported numbered 1,068, whitewashed outbuildings 367, and whitewashed fences 60.
HOME INDUSTRIES AND CRAFTS
Home industries and rural crafts have declined this year, due in part to the fact that women are doing more field work than formerly and in part to the fact that farm families have more money to spend than in former years for the purchase of needed items. However, this project was continued and has helped to develop the latent artistic talent and creative ability in many women and girls.







Annual Report, 1943


PART IV-NEGRO WORK

FARM DEMONSTRATIONS
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
Negro farmers found themselves called on to produce more food crops than previously, both for home consumption and to sell.
Local farm agents in 9 Florida counties continued to receive assistance from the district office, and a tenth county was added before the year ended.
PRACTICES FOLLOWED
Improved agricultural practices recommended by the Extension Service were followed on 3,432 farms in the 10 counties, 991 having been reached for the first time.
Home gardens had special stress, and the effort in this field was extended to include a large number of non-farm families which had not hitherto grown all the vegetables needed.

WARTIME CHANGES
Manpower shortages affected negro farmers little less than their white neighbors. Boys, girls and women accordingly did more field work than customary.
Rationing and related regulations gave a further complicating factor in the foods 'production program and agents were required to render much assistance toward their correct interpretation.

MEETINGS AND EXHIBITS
Gas and tires scarcity forced numerous revisions in working plans.
Fairs took place in far fewer counties than formerly so exhibits had lessened importance.
Annual agents' conference was held during October at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, and supplied the local agents with much information regarding their wartime duties.

SPECIALTY CROPS
Work with sweet potatoes and sugarcane for syrup carried on in previous periods proved that its worth was particularly pronounced under war conditions.
Sugar refined from syrup at central 'plants -not only supplied sweetening for family use but a source from which cash income could be secured on an expanded scale.
Sales have been made in enlarging volume through the Florida Farmers' Cooperative Association, which took steps to utilize facilities made available at the Lake City State Farmers' Market for refining syrup, grading and packing sweet potatoes and similar activities.

4-11 BOYS' CLUBS
Boys enrolled in the 10 counties numbered 2,821, and 2,367 completed their projects. These featured the customary aims, with added emphasis on foods production.
State Short Course sessions had to be dropped, owing to the transporta-







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tion situation, the higher living costs for club members away from home, and related conditions.
County courses which were substituted reached more )?eople than under the old plan. Achievement Day programs in some cases took on a community rather than county-wide status.

HOME DEMONSTRATION

Beulah S. Shute, Local District Agent to June 30, 1943
Floy Britt, Local District Agent from July 1, 1943
Food production achievements by negro women amply rewarded the effort to expand them which constituted the major endeavor.
Volunteer local leaders numbering 446 helped materially in obtaining 4,510 home gardens on farms or urban lots, with 91 calendar orchards started and 1,815 fruit trees added to former plantings.
Foods conservation took a leading part in the program, 46 canning centers reporting 171,657 containers filled and 12,860 pounds of dried fruits and vegetables stored. Records which are incomplete show $32,279.21 worth of farm food products sold during the year.

DAIRYING, POULTRY AND MEAT
Milk cows purchased by negro farm families added 239 to the previous total owned, raising it above 1,600.
Poultry raising reached its highest peak meanwhile, with nearly 100,000 chickens raised and over 375,000 dozen eggs produced. Home-made brooders were widely used.
Meat was cured for 1,669 negro, homes, in a quantity exceeding 250,000 pounds. Sausage made weighed 12,562 pounds and lard rendered 43,016. Far fewer families bought meats.
DETAILS CONCERNING WORK
Local county home agents received assistance from the district home demonstration headquarters in 25 calls, 25 home visits, 11 meetings, 4 camps and short courses, and 2 fairs and exhibits.
Following the annual agents' conference at Tallahassee in October, the women workers remained over an extra day for special instruction by state specialists in canning meats and vegetables and making 'peanut butter.
The number of negro women enrolled for home demonstration work grew to 2,134 during the period. Girls enlisted in 4-H club activities totalled 8,106. Investments in war bonds and stamps from the 2 groups aggregated $6,658.49.
STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK (Men and Women)
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) . 199 Days of service: In office-1,570; In field-3,416; Total --------- __ . 4,986
Farm or hom e visits made . 7,070 Different farms or homes visited ----- . . 4,061 Calls relating to extension work: Office-14,001; Telephone . 5,039 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth . 1,875 News articles or stories published . 213 Bulletins distributed . 11,760 Radio talks broadcast or prepared . I







Annual Report, 1943 41

Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber . 134 Total attendance of men and women . 31127 Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber . 735 Total attendance . 8,589 Meetings held at result demonstrations:
N um ber . 314 A ttendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,454
Tours conducted . . 35 Achievement days held for 4-11, older youth and adult work . 41
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings . 897
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total num ber of farm s . 8,613 Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year and in past . 3,432
Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration
and agricultural programs . 2,350 Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the
home demonstration program . . 1,377
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration
and agricultural programs this year . 1,440 Different farm families influenced by some phase of the extension
program . 5,664
Other families influenced by some phase of the extension program ---- 2,087
CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT
Days devoted to war agricultural work . 181 Communities conducting war work . 176
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program . 655
Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian
defense, and other war work . 544

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group . 349
U npaid . 345 P aid . 4 Communities in agricultural planning . 70
Members in community agricultural planning . 260
Planning m eetings held . 322 Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w orkers . 341 Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen . 755
Days of voluntary leaders or committeemen . 194

CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to w ork . 922 Communities in which work was conducted . . 1,054 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 1,060

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to w ork . . 595 Communities in which work was conducted . 693






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Voluntary committeemen and leaders ---------------------------------------- --------------- 547
Breeding and improvement organizations . . 33 Farm ers assisted . 6,275

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work . 127 Communities in which work was conducted -------------------------------------------- 159
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen . 27 Farmers assisted in soil management . 869 Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation . 1,444

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to w ork . 200 Farm ers assisted . 4,061

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Days devoted to w ork . " --------------------- * . . 40
Communities in which work was conducted . 74 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 62 Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted . 601

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to w ork . 780 Communities in which work was conducted . 1,076 Established cooperatives assisted . : -------------------------------------- * ------------------------ 18
New cooperatives assisted in organizing . 18 Value of products sold or 'purchased by cooperatives assisted
during the year (established and new) . $ 13,414.00 Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families
(not members of cooperatives) assisted during year . $2,950,684.00

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to w ork . 307 Communities in which work was conducted . 394 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 272 Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification . 4,155

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to w ork . . 1,095 Communities in which work was done . . 720 Families assisted: Improving diets-1,888; Food Preparation-1,344;
T otal . . . 3,232 Families assisted with food-preservation problems . 2,495

COMMUNITY WORK
Days devoted to w ork . . . 422 Communities in which work was done in problems in clothing, family
economics, parent education and community life . 449 Families, clubs and groups assisted in problems in clothing, family
economics, parent education and community life . 9,878







Annual Report, 1943 43

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects com pleted by boys . . -----_----------------------- . 4,610
Projects com pleted by girls . - ----- ---------- . 9,476
Boys completing corn and peanut projects . 1,121 Boys completing fruit and garden projects -------------------------------------------- 1,362
Boys completing dairy and poultry projects -------------------------------------------- 572
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects -------------------------------------------- 152
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects . . 324 Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects -------------------------------------- 482
Girls completing dairy and poultry projects . . --------------------------- 887
Girls completing home gardens and fruit orchard projects ---------------- 1,378
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects . 1,051 Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid . 628 Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and
room improvem ent projects . -------- --- _ ------------------------------------------------ 1,581
Girls completing food preservation projects ---------- - -------- ----_----------------- 1,035
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-2,596; Non-farm-225; Total -------_------_- ------------------- 2,821
Girls: Farm-1,609; Non-farm-235; Total -------------------------------------- 1,844
4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in extension program -------------- _ . . ---------------------- 1,062
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs . _ 1,238




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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS (Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914) AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE , UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA .l<'LORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES DEPART~IENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING A. P. SPBNCER, Direct.or 1943 REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1943 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1943

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS (Acts of Ma:, 8 and .June 30, 1914) AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA l<'LORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING A. P. SPENCER. Uirector 1943 REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1943 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1943

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BOARD OF CONTROL H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A. , LL.D., Pre s ident of the University• H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture' A. P. SPENCER , M.S., Director of Extension J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor' CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor' JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor' FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager• Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor H. S. MCLENDON, B.A. , Asst. State Supervisor, Em e rgency Farm Labor P. H. SENN, PH.D., Asst. VFV Leader MRS. BONNIE J. CARTER, B.S., Asst. WLA Leader HANS 0. ANDERSEN, B.S.A, Asst. State Supervisor, EFL H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA R. S . DENNIS, B . S.A . , Assistant Coordinator with AAA R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent W. W. BASSETT, JR., B.S . A., Assistant Boys' Club A g ent2 A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist• HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman 1 D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A. , Poultryman 2 WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A. , Assistant Poultryman L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester C. V. NOBLE, PH.D . , Agricultural Economi s t• CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economi s t, Farm Managem e nt R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing ZACH SAVAGE, M.S., Economist' JOSEPH C . BEDSOLE, B.S.A., As s istant in Land-Use Planning' R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist• K. S. McMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee MARYE. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, M . S., Specialist in Nutrition VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE s. THURSBY, Specialist in Food Conservation Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent FL O Y BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent 1 Cooperati v e . other div is ion s , Univer s i t y of Fl o rida. !? On leave. [ 2]

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CONTENTS Page Report of Director ............................... . . .. ....... .. ...... .......... ... ..... . ....... ......... ... ....... . 7 Financial Statement .. ... ........ . .. .... ..... . . ...... ... ........ . . .. . ................... . ................... 8 Statistical Report ...... .. ........ . ............................................ .. ............................. 8 Farm Labor 11 Conservation and Emergency Programs .......................................................... 13 Editorial and Mailing 14 County Agents' Activities .. ........ .. . .. ................ . ........................... .... ... ........ .. . . . . .... 16 Agricultural Economics .. .... ...... .... ...... .. ........ ....... .... .... ......... . ...................... . ..... ... 16 Farm Management ............................................... .... ....... .... ....... . ......... .. ......... 16 Marketing .............................. . .................... ... .................................................... 17 Agronomy .................................... ..... ....... ... ..... .... ......... .. ........ ..... ................. .. ......... 18 Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Poultry ...... ....... ..... ............. . .................... 19 Animal Husbandry ............................................... .. ................................ . ........ 19 Dairying .. .... ........................ .. .. ..... ...... ... ...... .... .......... . ......... .... ........ .. .......... .. ...... 20 Poultry .......... : ............... ... ........ 21 Boys' 4-H Clubs ..... ... ........ .... ...... . ..... . ..... .... ....... .. ....... ... ......... ... ......... . ........... .... .... 22 Farm Forestry .......................................... ........ ........................ ... ........... ... ........ ..... 23 Soil Conservation ............. .. ........... ...... .. ..... .... ............ ... ...... ..... .. . ............ ....... .. ....... 24 Home Demonstration Work .... ...... ...... ..... ..... . ...................... . ........... .. ................. 26 Clothing and Textiles ........ ... ..... .. .. .. ..... . . ...... ..... .... ......... ... .... ... ....... ...... .. .. .. ....... . . . 31 Food, Nutrition and Health 32 Gardening and Food Conservation .... . ............................................................... 34 Home Improvement ........ , .... ........ . .. ......... ....... .. . .. . ............ ... ...... . ...... .......... ...... .... .. 37 Negro Farm D _ emonstration Work ... . ........... . ......... .... ....... .... ....... .... ....... .... ...... 39 Negro Home Demonstration Work ... .. .......... .. . .. ............... . . .. .................... . ........ 40 Negro Statistical Report ..... ... ....... ... .................... ..... ...... .. .................. ..... ...... 40 [ 3]

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Hon. Spessard L. Holland Governor of Florida Tallahassee, Florida Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the 4gri cultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1943, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1943. Respectfully, H.P. ADAIR, Chairman, Board of Control Hon. H. P. Adair, Chairman, Board of Control Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. Respectfully, JOHN J. TIGERT, President, University of Florida [ 4]

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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT Alachua . . ...... .... Loonis Blitch .. .. ............ . . Gainesville . . ...... Mrs. Grace F. Warren Baker ................. J. M. Kennedy .... ............. Macclenny ...................................... . ........ . Bay ......... .. .. . ...... M. B. Miller* .......... ....... .. Panama City ........................................... . Bradford .. ...... ... L. T. Dyer ....... . . ... . .. ......... Starke ....... . ............. . .......... . . . ............. . .. . ... . Brevard .... .. .. .. . . T. L. Cain ....... .. . . . .. .......... . Cocoa ............ .. ........ Mrs. Eunice F. Gay Broward ..... . ..... B. E. Lawton . .. . . ............. Ft. Lauderdale ........ Miss Jo S. Tippins Calhoun .. ... ........ W. W. Brown . ...... .......... Blountstown ............ Mrs. Mary Bridges Charlotte . . .. .. .... N. H. McQueen ... ........... . Punta Gorda ........... . ............................... . Citrus ...... . .. . ...... O. M. Maines . ... . . ........... .Inverness ... .. .... . .. Mrs. Doris R. Turner Clay . ... . . . ... .... ................................................ Gn. Cve. Spg .. . Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird Columbia ... . .. .... Guy Cox ....... . ... . ............... Lo.ke City ... . Miss Elizabeth Dickenson Dade .................. C. H. Steffani... . ............. Miami... ................... Miss Eunice Grady Dade (Asst.) ... J. L. Edwards .. .... ... ........ Miami... ...... ... ............ Miss Edna L. Sims DeSoto ....... . . .. ... W. L. Woods . ... ... . ........ .. . Arcadia ..... . ..... . . ...... .. ... ... . ... .. . . .. .. . . . .. ... . ..... . Dixie ....... ..... ...... C. L. Dickinson ... ........... . Cross City ............................................... . Duval... ............. A. S. Lawton . .. ............... Jacksonville . ........... Miss Pearl Laffitte D 1Val(Asst.) .. G. T. Huggins .. ............... Jacksonville . . .... Miss Mildred J. Taylor Escambia .......... E H. Finlayson .... ......... P ~nsacola . .. . ...... .... Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden ... . . ..... . . Henry Hudson ... .. . . .. .. ..... Quincy .. .. .. . . . .. . .......... Miss Elise Laffitte Gilchrist . ....... ... A. S. Laird .... .. . .. .. . . ... .... . . .Trenton .. . . ..... .. . ........ . . .... . . . ... ...... .. . ..... ....... . Glades ...... .. .. . .... F. D. Yaun ..... . . . . . .. . ......... Moore Haven ........... ... . . .... . .............. ... ..... . Gulf ................... J. B. White ....... .. ............. Wewahitchka ........ Mrs. Pearl Whitfield Hardee .............. E. H. Vance ... ... . . ............. Wauchula ... . ................ .. .. . ............ .. .... . ..... . Hernando . . ........ C. D. Newbern . ..... ..... ..... Brooksville .................. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .... .. . . .... . . . Highlands .. ... .. . A. M. Bissett .. ...... .. ..... . .. Sebring ...... . .................................. .. .......... . Hillsborough ... .Alec White ... . .................. Tampa ....... . . .. . ... ............ . .......... ... ... . .. .. ...... . Hillsborough .... J. O. Armor (Asst.) ...... Plant City . . ............... . .. . ............... . .......... . Hillsborough .... (West) .............. .. .............. Tampa ........ Mrs. Caroline M. Boogher Hillsborough ... . (East) . . ............. . .. . .......... .. Plant City .. . ......... Mrs. Irene R. Harvey Holmes ... . . . ....... .A . G . Hutchinson ........... Bonifay .... .. . .. . . ... Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Indian River .... M. A. Boudet .. ... ............. Vero Beach . .......... . .... .. ... . ......... .. . ... ........ . Jackson .. ........... J. W. Malone ................... Marianna .............. Mrs. Alyne C. Heath Jefferson ........... E. N. Stephens . . .............. Monticello ... .. ................ . .. Mrs. Ella Loeb Lafayette . '. .. ..... J. T. Oxford .................... Mayo ......... . .... ... .......... . .. ...... .......... .... ....... . Lake ........ .. .. .... .. R. E. Norris ....... .. ........... Tavares ................ Mrs. Lucie K. Miller Lee ..... . .... .. ......... C. P. Heuck. .... .. .............. Ft. Myers . . ............................................... . Leon ...... , . ... . ...... J. G. Kelley ..................... Tallahassee .. Miss Bertha N. Hausman Levy ....... ... ........ T. D. Rickenbaker ......... Bronson. ...... . .... Mrs. Frances J. Jones Liberty .. .. ......... .J. S. Alexander ...................................................... . ................... . ......... . Madison .... ..... . .. S. L. Brothers ..... .... .. ...... Madison. ........... Miss Bennie F. Wilder Manatee .... . ....... Ed. L. Ayers . . . . .......... , .... Bradenton . ... ........ Miss Margaret Cobb Marion ..... . ........ A. D. Baillie, Jr .............. Ocala .......... .. .......... Miss Allie Lee Rush Martin. .. . . . ........ .B. L. Gittings . . ............... Stuart Nassau .... .. ....... .J. D. Coleman, Jr .......... Hilliard .. ..... ..... . ..... . .... . ..... . ........... ... ......... . Okeechobee ....... C. A . Fulford .. . . .......... ... Okeechobee . ... . ....... . .. . ... ..... . . . ... . . .... . . ......... . Okaloosa ... ........ F. W. Barber .. ..... ....... . ... Crestview . .... ....... . . . .... . ............................. . Orange .. . ... ... ..... K. C. Moore ..... .. .............. Orlando ..... .. ... . ... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola ..... ... ..... J. R. Gunn ....... .. . . ............ Kissimmee ................ Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach ..... M. U. Mounts ..... ......... .. . W. Palm Beach ... .. . . ... . . Miss Olga Kent Mi s s ;Mildred Johnson, Asst. Pasco ....... .. . .. .... .J. A. McClellan, Jr .. .. .... Dade City .. . . . ........... Mrs. Essa D. Shaw Pinellas ............ .J. H. Logan ........ . ............ Clearwater ..... . .......... Miss Tillie Roese! Mrs. Eileen Hammock, Asst. Polk. .......... .. .. . ... W. P. Hayman .... ....... .. .. . Bartow ........ .. ... . .. . .... . .. Miss Lois Godbey Putnam ...... .. ..... H. E. Westbury ........ .. ... . Palatka . .... .... . Mrs. Opal W. Middleton St, Johns .... .. ... . H. E. Maltby . ... .............. St. Augustine .. ...... Miss Anna E. Heist St. Lucie ........... E . . W. Stephens ~ ............. . Fort Pierce ................ Miss Mary Dixon Santa Rosa ...... E. D. McCall... .. . . ............ Milton .......... . ......... Miss Eleanor Barton Seminole ........... C. R. Dawson .. . .. ........ . .. . Sanford ....... ...... ....... Mrs. Ouida Wilson On military leave since October 14. [ 5]

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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued) HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT Sarasota .. .. .... ... W. E. Evans ........... . . .. ..... Sarasota ....... . .. . . .. .. .... ...... . .. .... ... .. ..... .... .... . Sumter .............. Carl Hendricks ..... ..... ..... Bushnell . .............................. .. .............. . ... . Suwannee ....... .. S. C. Kierce ............. ..... .. .Live Oak. .......... ... .. Miss Louise Taylor Taylo"r .............. . D. D. McCloud ... .............. Perry ............................ Mrs. Ruth Elkins Union ............ . ... Harry J. Brinkley .. . ... ... Lake Butler ........ ............. ..... . .. . ... . . ... . .. . . .. . Volusia .............. F. E. Baetzman .. ........... DeLand .................. Mrs. Gladys Kendall Wakulla ......... . .. N. J. Albritton ...... ....... ... Crawfordville .................... .... ............... . . . Walton .............. Mitchell Wilkins ..... . ....... DeFuniak Springs ................................. . Washington ..... K. A. Clark .................... Chipley ............... . .................. .... ............. .. . NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS Alachua ............ . ................... ... ......... Otha W. Nealy ............................... . Gainesville Columbia ........ . .. ....... ........... ... ........... McKinley Jeffers ...... ... ................. .... Lake City Gadsden ......... . . .. ............................... Russell Stephens ............ . ... ...... .............. Quincy Hamilton . .. ............... . .. . ............ ..... ... N . H. Bennett . ........ .. .... ... .... .. . .. . White Springs Jackson ....... ..... .... .... ......... .. . ..... ...... .. Thomas A. Harris .............................. Marianna Jefferson ....... . . . . . ................. ... ........... M. E. Groover ................ . ................... Monticello Leon ................................................... Rolley Wyer, Jr ......... . . . ................ . Tallahassee Marion .. .................... ........................ Eugune P. Smith ....... .. ............................. Ocala Sumter ............. . . . .............................. Alonzo A. Young ....... .... .... ... ....... .. : .... Bushnell Suwannee ... ................. .. ................... Alphonso L. Greene ..................... . .... Live Oak COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS Alachua ....... ...... .. .... ....... ........... ....... . Mary Todd McKenzie .................... Gainesville Columbia . .. ..... ... ....... ....... ......... . ...... . Ozella Sansome .. ... .. .. .... . ....... .. ......... Lake City Duval. .............................. ... . . ............. Ethel M. Powell. ...... ...... ............... Jacksonville Gadsden ............ . .................. ..... ........ Diana H. Spencer .... .... ............... ... ........ Quincy Hillsborough ... .... ............. . ............... Sudella Ford . ................ ... ............. . .......... Tampa Jackson ......... . .. ........ .. . ..... .. : .............. Doris Groover ................................... . Marianna Leon .................. . ......... .... ...... . . .. .. . .. .... Maude K. Mumford . ..... ......... ....... Tallahassee Madison ...... ........ . ... ..... . ...... .. ............ Althea Ayer .......................................... Madison Marion ........... . . . . .. ............................. .Idella R. Kelly .............................. . ....... Reddick Putnam ........ : .... . . .. ................ ..... ....... Lee Ella Gamble ............. .. ................... Palatka [ 6]

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PART I-GENERAL \ REPORT OF DIRECTOR Wilmon Newell, Director to October 25, 1943 A. P. Spencer, Director from November 1, 1943 Wilmon Newell, Florida Agricultural Extension Service director from 1921, died at his home in Gainesville, October 25, 1943. Arthur P. Spencer, for many years vice-director and more recently associate director, was chosen to succeed Dr. Newell by th e State Board of Control, eff e ctive November 1, 1943. Personnel changes during the year became much more numero . us than customary, partly due to workers entering military service and in part because positions elsewhere . had been offered at higher salaries. Changes on the headquarters staff took place less frequently than among the county agents. Fiscal resources continued substantially the same in 1943 as for the immediately preceding years, except as regarded the compensation given county agricultural and home demonstration agents. On July 1 a $25,000 sum from a State continuing ap ' propriation voted by the 1941 legislature was made available to raise the salaries paid these people. County com missioners also supplied additional funds in many instances, so that all the field agents r~ceived enlarged salaries. PLANS AND PROGRAMS Plans of work previously agreed upon were carried out, so far as con ditions would permit. Modifications had to be made, however, in almost every section of the program, on account of influences exerted by the war situation. Cooperation with Federal agencies required more time and effort than heretofore, since nearly all the emergency units dealing with farm angles depended upon the Agricultural Extension Service for reaching rural resi dents with the messages of production and conservation. Production goal committees set u ' p among the district agents and staff specialists and having membership representation by other agricultural agencies dealt with livestock, poultry, dairying, agronomy, forestry, home gardens, commercial truck crops and nutrition. Breakdowns into county units gave the farm and home agents definite information on the output expected from their territories. Results obtained equalled or exceeded the aims, except on peanuts for oil and in the number of farm gardens. RECRUITING FARM LABOR Responsibility for handling the labor shortage problems affecting Flor ida farmers most seriously has been largely placed with the Agricultural Extension Service by the several federal agencies having a part in the replacement endeavor. Supervisors for emergency farm labor operations in 7 Southern states came to Florida late in October, on invitation from the Extension Service, and spent three days obtaining first-hand information regarding the needs existing for hands and the accommodations they would be provided. [ 7]

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8 Florida Cooperative Extension Farm labor placement centers for white workers have been established by the Extension Service at 10 places in the fruit and vegetable areas, with housing facilities taking care of from 25 to 500 persons. Negroes from Bahama and elsewhere find quarters at 8 camps provided by the War Food Administration, the capacity of which ranges between 400 and 800. REPORTS AND STATISTICS Activities directed by the staff specialists with the Florida Agricultural Service have been reported on at great length from the sundry divisions and the results reflected therein will be found in condensed form on pages immediately following. Projects given major attention during peace years necessarily have been greatly changed under the stress of wartime emergencies. Under takings were not altogether abandoned in any instance, however, which it was felt had a continuing value to farmers. Coverage and scope entering into the accomplishments are best indi cated through the statistical summaries which also follow, based for the most part on data taken from the reports submitted by the county agri cultural and home demonstration agents. FINANCIAL STATEMENT For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1943 RECEIPTS Smith-Lever and Bankhead Jones, Fed er al ................ $200,645.82 Capper-Ketcham, Federal ..... ..... ..... .... ..... ... ..... ...... ....... .. . 27,417.72 Clarke-McNary, Fed e ral .. ....... . ............... .. ....................... 1,620.00 State-Salarie s ..... .. ........................................................... 54,214.00 Operating ............. . ...... .... ......................... .. ..................... 43,070.00 Continuing Appropriation ... . . ......... . . ................................ 30,000.00 County Appropriations .. . ....................................... . .... . .... 142,504.99 $474,472.53 EXPENDITURES Smith-Lever-Bankhead Jones, Federal ..................... . .. $200,645.82 Capper-Ketcham, Federal ........ . .......................... .. ....... . ... 27,417.72 Clarke-McNary, Federal .................................................. 1,620.00 State .................................... .. ................................... .. .. ......... 88,126.91 Continuing Appropriation .................................. ... ...... . .... 5,000.00 County Appropriations by County Boards ................ 142,504.99 Balance carried over ........................................................ 9,157 . 09 $474,472.53 STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports GENERAL ACTIVITIES Months of service (agents and assistants) ........................................ . ..... 1,161 Days of service: In office-14,144; In field-15,033; Total ........... .. ... 29,177 Farm or home visits made .... ... ................................. .. ................ ... ........ . .... 49,170

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Annual R e port, 194 8 9 Different farms or homes visited . . ............. . .......... . .. . .......... . . . . .... ...... . . . . .. .... 26,834 Calls relating to extension work: Office-2 8 3 , 66 9 ; Teleph o ne . .. .. ..... .. 173,138 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth .. ...... .. . .. . ... .. . . ... 5,847 New s articles or stories published . . ......... .... ........ . .. . . .. ...... . . . . .... ......... .. ..... 5, 5 26 Bulletins distributed ............ .. ........... .. .. . ...... . .. .... ........ . . . . . ....... . .. . ... . ...... .. . . . .. .... 156,071 Radio talks broadcast or prepared ... . . .. . . .. . . . .. . ... ........ ..... .... . . ...... . . ....... ... . .. 572 Training meetings held for local leaders of committeemen: Number .. ......... . ............. ... .. .. ........ . . . . ... ..... ... . . . ........... . ......... . . . . . ........ .. .. .. . . .... 956 Total attendance of men and women ... .. . .. . ..... ...... . . . .. ...... .. ......... .. . ... .. . . 10,712 Method demonstration me e tings: Number .............. . ............. . . .. .......... .. ........... . ............. . ........... . . .. ............... . ... 6,950 Total attendance ....... . . . . . . .. . . .... . . . . . . .. ..... . .. ... . . .. . .... .. .. ... ...... . . . .. . ... ... .. . . .. ..... . .. 114,171 Meetings held at result demonstration s : Number . . ........ .. . . . . . . .......... ..... ........ ..... ....... .. . ..... ..... .. . ... ..................... . .. . ..... . Attendance ... . . ..... . .. ... .... .. .. . ...... ........ . . . ......... . . . . . .. . ...... . .. . ........................... . .... . Tours .... . ..... .. ...... .. . . . ... .. .. .. . . . .. ... . . .. . ....... . ...... . .. .... ... . .... . .. ...... ... . ...... ... ........ ..... . . .. . Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ..... .. . . .. . Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ...... . ............. . ..... '.. SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE 1,204 16,491 133 411 8,696 Total number of farms .. . .. . ......... . .. . . . . . ..... . ... . . . ........... . .......... . . .. .. . .... . .. . .. . . . ... 65,036 Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program . .. ........................... . . . ......... .... ........... . . . ........ . ....................... 35 , 776 Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home demonstr a tion program .. . . . ....... . . ... . . . . ........ ..... ... . ... .. . . .... . . .. . ... . . ..... 16,190 Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural program for the first time this year .... . ............. . .......... . .............. . .. . .... 6,681 Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home demonstration program for the first time thi s year .. ... . ..... .... . . .. . 5,164 Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled ................... . .......... . ......... 8,525 Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the agricultural program .. .... ... . ... . .. ... .. .. .... .. . ... .. . ...... .. . .. . . .. . .. . ...... .. . .. ....... . . . . ... 21,525 Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home demonstration program .. ......... . ............... . . . ............... . ......... . . . .................. 20,050 Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ... .. . .. .. . ... . ... ... ....... 4,330 Differ e nt farm families influ e nc e d by some phase of ext e nsion program ..... . ............... . .... .... . .. . . . ......... . .. . ............. . ....................................... . ...... 41,836 Other familie s influenced by some phase of extension program . .. .. . .. 33,760 CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT Communitie s conducting war work .. .......... . ....... . ... ... ..... . ..... . . . .... . .. . . ..... .. . . . 844 Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program ... .. ....... . .. ... ... . .. 1,831 Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian defense, and other war work . ....... . .... ... .. ... ..... . .. .. . . . .. ....... .... . . .. . .. . .. . ...... 4,338 COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING Members in agricultural planning g roup .. .. . . . . . . . . ..... . .. . . . . .. .... . .. ... .... .. .. .. . . 847 Unpaid . ... ... . ........ .... ..... . .. . . .. ........... ... .. . ... . . ... . . .. .... . . . . .. ... ..... . ..... .. .. . ... . . .. ...... . .. 702 Paid ..... . . . ........... .. ............. . ........................ . . . . . ............. . ........... . .......... . . . ... . ... 145 Communitie s in agricultural planning .... ... .......... .. . .. . .. . . ..... . . .. . . . . . . ... . .. ...... .. 149 Members in community agricultural planning ... . . . .. .... . .. ...... . . . . . . .. . .. . .... .. . 47~ Planning meetings held ... ... . . ................... . .............. . .. . .......... . .. . . . . . ........ ... .. . .. 953 Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration work e rs . . ........ . . .. . . ....... .. .. ... ... . .. . .. ..... .. .. . . . . . .... . .. ... ... .. ....... ... . . ...... . .. . . . .... 1 , 809

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10 Florida Cooperative Extension Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ............................................ 2,179 Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 3,636 CROP PRODUCTION Day.s devoted to work .... . ...... .. ........ .... .. . ................ . . . ..................... .. ....... . ...... 4,341 Communities in which work was conducted ..................... . . .. ....... . ......... .. 2,545 Voluntary leaders and committeemen ...................................................... 1,795 LIVESTOCK , DAIRYING, POULTRY Days devoted to work .................. . .................... ,. ..... .... .. ... ............. ..... ......... .. 4,4 33 Communities in which work was conducted . ..... ....... ...... ......................... 2,105 Voluntary committeemen a nd leaders ......... . ......... ... ........... . ...................... 851 Breeding and improvement organizations .. .. .... .......... ..... .. ....................... 50 Farmers assisted ............................................................................................ 1,544 CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Days devoted to work ..... . . ... ..... .. ........ ..... ............................. ... ......... ..... ...... .. 895 Communities in which work was conducted ........ .................................. . . 769 Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ............................................ 542 Farmers assisted in soil management ...... .... ......... . .................... .... ...... .. 20,887 : Fa;i-rners assisted in forestry and wild life conservation .................... 6,978 FARM MANAGEMENT Days devoted to work .... ... ..... ...... .......... . .. : ................. . ........... .. ..................... 1 ,26 9 Farmers assisted . . ...................... . .......... .... ....... .. .................. .. . .. .......... . .......... 27,706 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Days devoted to work ..... .... ........ . .................... .. ............................................ 346 Communities in which work was conducted . .... ......... .... ........ .. .... . ......... .. 364 Voluntary leaders and committeemen .................... .... ...... . ......................... 292 Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ................................ 549 MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Days devoted to work .. .. . ... ... . . .............. .. ...... . . ....... .......... . ...... ..... ..... .. .......... . 2,078 Communities in which work was conducted ......................................... . .. 2,308 Established cooperatives assisted ................................................................ 56 New cooperatives assisted in organizing .... .. ....... .. .......... . .......... ... ....... .. 14 Value of products sold or purchas ed by cooperatives assisted during the year (established and new) . .. ....... .... ......... ..... ... .... ..... $16,843,547 Value of products sold 01 purchased by farmers or families (not members of cooperatives) assisted during the year ................ $20,359,110 HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT Days devoted to work ..... . ............................................................................. . Communities in which work was conducted ........................................... . Voluntary leaders and committeemen ....................................................... . Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical equipment, rural electrification ................ .. .................. ... .................... . NUTRITION AND HEALTH 1,331 1,204 598 24,849 Days devoted to work ... . .. . .................... .. .................... . .................................. 5,251 Communities in which work was done .... .......... ... ... ..... ........... .... .... ...... .. 2,157 Families assisted: In improving diets-14,526; food preparation11,842; Total ........................................................... . .................................. 26,368 Families assisted with food 'preservation problems ............................ 39,392

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Annual Report, 1943 11 COMMUNITY WORK Days devoted to work .................................................................................... 2,017 Communities in which work was done in problems in clothing, family economics, parent education and community life ............ 1,389 Families assisted in home management, clothing, family economics, parent education and community life ................................................ 71,199 SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS Projects completed by boys ....................................................................... . Projects completed by girls ................. '. ..................................................... . Boys completing corn and peanut projects ........................................... . Boys completing fruit and garden projects ........................................... . Boys completing dairy and poultry projects ......................................... . Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ....................................... . Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ............................... . Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects ................................... . Girls completing fruit and garden projects ........................................... . Girls completing dairy and poultry projects ....................................... . Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ................... . Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects ........... . Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and room improvement projects ................................................................. . Girls completing food preservation projects ........................................... . 4-H Membership Boys: Farm-3,885; Non-farm-982; Total ................................... . Girls: Farm-6,390; Non-farm-3,558; Total ................................. . 4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in extension program ............................................................... . 4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving School grounds and conducting local fairs ....................................... . FARM LABOR A. P. Spencer, Director E. F. DeBusk, State Supervisor R. H. Howard, Assistant State Supervisor H. S. McLendon, Assistant State Supervisor H. 0. Anderson, Assistant State Supervisor P. H. Senn, Assistant State Supervisor, Victory Farm Volunteers Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, Assistant State Supervisor, Women's Land Army 6,036 25,589 847 1,493 1,609 29 288 1,429 4,972 1,993 4,331 1,418 7,028 3,032 4,867 9,948 1,852 467 A State Farm Labor Advisory Committee assisted with this program. It consisted of H. G. Clayton, administrative officer, Agricultural Adjustment Administration; C. D. Gunn, state conservationist, Soil Conservation Serv ice; L. H. Kramer, chairman, Florida USDA Wage Board and Agricultural Committee, Florida Defense Council; J. A. Texada, Jr., state director, Farm Security Administration; and Paul Van der Schouw, chief, Farm Labor Supply Section, War Food Administration . Farm labor was recruited from all available domestic sources and under agreement with the Bahama Islands and Jamaica, two British provinces. Domestic labor came from Florida and from other Southern states. HOUSING PROVISIONS Housing the workers brought into the State called for accommodations

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12 Florida Cooperative Extension meeting definite specifications intended to furnish healthful surroundings and give adequate feeding facilities. Quarters had to be furnished for approximately 5,000 persons because the employers could not guarantee adequate hou s ing which met the State sa nitary regulations. Camps at key points in the chief crop-producing areas mostly supplied the deficiencie s. WORKERS ENROLLED During the year 1,153 workers from other states have been utilized for longer or shorter periods . Recruiting within Florida for employment at other points in the state did not produce notable results, mostly the hands available 'preferring to come and go as they pleased. Bahamas negroes, nearly all placed in the vegetable growing sectors, numbered about 4,800 and their help saved many crops from wastage. Jamaica furnished around 3,100 additional negroes, who for the mo st part were assigned to the United States Sugar Corporation plantations. Prisoners of war from Army internment camps could not be procured during the period. Fig. 1.-The Extension Service aided in obtaining domestic harvest labor for deficit area s wherever possible. These boys from Virginia are harvesting oranges in Orange County.

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Annual Report, 1943 SURVEYS AND AN AL YSIS 13 Studies devoted to the prevailing methods on farms in several sections developed significant data regarding ways and means by which fewer hands could do given amounts of work. Labor-saving machinery helped the farmers fortunate enough to own it in offsetting the scarcity of help. Sharing the equipment was 'practiced in numerous neighborhoods, with results almost uniformly good. Training the personnel engaged in the emergency farm labor activities could not be done on any extensive scale because the Extension Service inherited the supervision after the season was well advanced and itself lacked manpower. District conferences held at several points gave the state supervisors opportunity to outline the plans before county agents, and considerable time was also spent within the local units for similar purposes. Experi ence has been relied upon, however, as the best teacher. CROPS AND AREAS SERVED Flue-cured tobacco farmers required assistance early in June, and county advisory committees were formed to supply it. ,vives and chil dren of turpentine hands furnished many workers, having been hired with consent from their husbands' employers. Cotton picking presented a some what less exacting problem, and was largely handled with the same type of workers. Peanuts brought on more serious labor shortages than any previously encountered. One county had 70,000 acres to be picked. Negroes again furni s hed many hands, their ministers in numerous cases appealing publicly to the congregations for volunteers. Draft boards in some instances urged 4-F registrants to aid in saving this essential crop and the plea had a good response. Blueberries in Northwest Florida were saved, except on 1 place. Corn snapping and cane syrup-making continued longer than customary, under favorable weather condition. All in all, crop losses from lacking labor proved relatively small, in the general farming areas. Fruits and vegetables suffered more by frosts, freezes and floods than otherwise, after the negroes came in from the West Indies. WOMEN AND CHILDREN Women's Land Army recruiting placed approximately 3,828 persons in seasonal or year-round work. Farm women and girls employed in agri culture during the year are estimated at 30,000. Registration for 1944 was gotten well under way. Boys and girls between 14 and 18 contributed notably to food 'produc tion, as Victory Farm Volunteers. Non-rural youths thus made available exceeded 1,200. Placements were mostly in the immediate neighborhoods, through school and other local agencies. CONSERVATION AND EMERGENCY PROGRAMS H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer R. S. Dennis, Assistant Administrative Officer Relations remained close between the Federal Agricultural Adjust ment Agency and the Florida Extension Service. State committeemen in the former are James J. Love, chairman, Gads

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension den county; C. S. Lee, Seminole, W. B. Anderson, Jackson; H. C. Brown, Lake, with Extension Director A. P. Spencer ex-officio. WARTIME OPERATIONS State and county war boards, organized under United States Agricul ture Department supervision and representing the federal agencies active in the field, handle virtually all wartime problems. Assistance was rendered farmers in obtaining power connections, cop per wire, agricultural machinery, tubes, tires and gasoline, livestock slaughter permits and like essential supplies. Draft deferments for farm hands and support price detail's also received attention, along with livestock feed difficulties, the container, fertilizer and insecticide shortages and similar production handicaps. CONSERVATION UNDERTAKINGS Foodstuffs output enlargement furnished the basis for all the endeavor in this connection. Payments to farmers for practices helping toward that end approximated $2,250,000, about $400,000 more than in the preceding period. Materials made available through which the practices could be given greater efficiency mostly consisted of seeds and plant foods. Terracing . service was also rendered in numerous instances. Incentive payments to truck crop growers approached $850,000. Dairy feed subsidies amounted to nearly $300,000 in the last 3 months of the year. EDITORIAL AND MAILING J. Francis Cooper, Editor Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor Demands from the multiplying federal agencies dealing with agricul ture, for the dissemination of information regarding rules and regulations, plus requests by farmers and growers seeking light thereon, vastly en larged the work in _ this department, but it was done without larger per sonnel. PERIODICALS COVERAGE Paper shortages forced the periodicals to reduce their size and editions, thus rendering more difficult the task of obtaining space therein. Reader interest was in a measure diverted by news of war activities. Briefer and more timely stories were accordingly called for, sent out with greater frequency. Wire services maintained by the Associated Press . and the United Press took several important stories each week. Special features mailed direct to daily papers supplemented these. Weekly newspapers, a few dailies and some farm journals received the weekly cli'psheet containing eight to 14 items each issue. Agricultural periodicals with state, Southern and national circulation carried more articles from this office than pre viously. AGRICULTURE ON THE AIR Radio played a more important role than ever, owing to restricted travel and the fewer meetings held. Florida Farm Hour programs over

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Annual Report, 1943 15 Station WRUF, Gainesville, every weekday at noon, furnished the main reliance but daily farm flashes went to 14 other outlets, principally through county agents. Remote control broadcasts were staged twice from WRUF, in the Farm Hour period . County and home agents gave 175 rndio talks during the year, mostly over stations in their territories. BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS Editions altogether enlarged more than 100 percent and the number of new publications increased one-half. Six bulletins contained 204 pages and 100,000 copies were printed. Circulars in the same number included 54 pages and the editions totalled 151,000. Numerous record books and other materials were 'printed and distributed.

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension PART II-MEN'S WORI( COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader J. Lee Smith, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent E. F. DeBusk, District Agent Assignment to handle the farm labor emergency program took E. F . DeBusk from his duties as district agent for southern Florida and in large measure they were assumed by W. T. Nettles. Farm agents in northern and northwestern Florida counties were met with in small groups and . plans made for meetings covering their terri tories, to promote enlarged foodstuffs production. Organization was per fected of the Florida Crop Improvement Association, to give the movement assistance. Farm machinery, fertilizer, insecticide and labor shortages became particularly acute in the central and southern Florida counties, where special crops predominate, and much attention was devoted to measures for relieving them. Dairying conditions grew critical, intensified both by hands scarcity and lack of feeds, thus calling for similar service. County agents continued to devote much of their time to work connected with the Agricultural Adjustment Agency and related federal agencies, but carried on their demonstration work with juniors and adults as far as possible under the circumstances. No annual state conference of agents was held during the year. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist FARM MANAGEMENT C. ;M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management Zach Savage, Economist in Farm Management Assignments connected with current war effort and postwar planning, plus several personnel changes, caused somewhat less to be accomplished than normally in the longtime projects. State-wide campaigns for enlarged foodstuffs production, and particu larly the Victory Gardens planting aspects, which were prosecuted as a major Agricultural Extension Service undertaking, had direction through a special committee that the farm management economist beaded. REGULATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS Regulations and restrictions placed upon agriculture by the sundry federal agencies dealing with its problems, frequently issued and even more often modified or changed, were filed and information based thereon was supplied to interested farmers. Situation growing out of the need for special activities in fields, gar dens and groves had recognition through assistance rendered several groups, notably in determining the maximum wartime production capacity for Florida and forecasting the status in Southeastern agriculture after the 1944 harvest.

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Annual Report, 194 3 CONTINUING PROJECTS 17 Management improvements were sugge ted to 128 farmers, averaging 8 apiece. Contacts made through county agents aided in giving the sug gestions local color. Concrete community endeavor for better livings from farms continued in 1 county. Income tax suggestions have been freely distributed by sundry methods and the data proved to be helpful. Assistance in making out the federal returns was received personally by more than 1,000 rural residents, from county agents and the farm management specialists. Record keeping increased and improved on many places, their owners having found that the figures thus assembled proved a distinct advant age in computing the income levies. Farm record books have been fur ni heel to more than 2,100 additional applicants during the period. MARKETING V. V. Bowman, Marketing Economist to June 30, 1943 D. E. Timmons, Marketing Economist from December 1, 1943 Farm labor problems received major attention, the Marketing Econo mist (Bowman) having served as chairman for the committee which formu lated a 3-point plan of work. Later it was supplanted by the nation-wide program. Regional meetings dealing with the need for more farm hands were Fig. 2 . -Millions of field boxes of both oranges and grapefruit were canned in Florida, a good part of them on government contTacts.

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension attended at Baltimore and Memphis, and several conferences within the state. Methods utilized in seeking enlarged labor supplies necessarily underwent change from month to month. RECORDS TABULATION Sales records have been tabulated through the sixth successive year on hogs sold by the Gulf Coast Marketin g Association at Trenton, Gil christ County. Information furnished in the current statistics is more complete than that compiled in previous seasons. Steps toward grading the gum turpentine output sold on the State Farmers' Market at Lake City had encouragement, and the move worked out well. Cooperative selling has been discussed at several points with dairying and truck crop groups, and contacts maintained that retained the close relations between this office and the principal fruit organizations. CITRUS CANNING REPORT In connection with the Florida Citrus Canners Association, the Market ing Economist (Timmons) brought up to date the mimeographed report covering dev e lopments bearing on the processing industry. Trends and results from preceding years received analysis and a detailed summary for the last season was prepared. Hearings on propo s ed changes in th e loading rules for fresh citrus sought by the freight container bureau representing the carriers caused consider able concern among citrus factors. Aid was extended from this office in compiling exhibits for use during the proceedings and the sentiment against the proposals had been developed previously through interviews with grove owners and shippers. AGRONOMY J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist Emphasis was specially placed on work that tied in with the crop goals set by the federal agencies. Practices previously recommended had to be modified in some degree, as labor and materials became scarcer. Field crops goals committeemen comprising the Extension Agronomist and county agents di s tributed informatiop concerning the vital need for foods production, livestock feeds output and products affording oil and other materials required by the war effort. AIMS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS Corn, alone or in combination with peanuts and velvet beans, was grown on 747,000 acres of the 750,000 goal. Yields totalling 8,151,000 bushels exceeded the previous season's by 20 percent. Peanut plantings by themselves were sought on 250,000 acres. Farmer s responded by cultivating 267,000 acres in the crop. At year's end, however, not more than 140,000 acres had been dug. Hay and like forage products from 170,000 acres were needed to main tain livestock through the winter months but only aboout 143,000 acres went toward attaining this essential purpose. Upland cotton had a 40,000 acres mark, and the 43,000 acres grown supplied approximately 15,000 bales. Staple length and quality improved. Sea Island cotton acreage decreas e d and only 125 bales resulted, support prices having been too low to be attractive. Aims and accomplishments on other crops ran as follows: Sweet potatoes, 27,000 and 26,200 acres; flue-cured tobacco, 15,200 and 13,600;

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Annual Report, 1943 19 oats, 15,000 and 24,000. Sugarcane statistics are incomplete as this report is compiled. COVER CROPS AND GRASSES Goals have not been set under these heads but activities directed toward greater utilization received stimulation, with a generally satisfactory out come. Blue lupine seed produced at the. North Florida Agricultural Experi ment Station was distributed through the Extension Agronomist, on a 'plan intended to build up the supply for subsequent seasons. Carpet grass seed having been reserved for u s e at Army and Navy bases, much less permanent pasture was sown than heretofore. Projects fo1 having seed saved within the state, of this and other pasture grasses, took on encouraging proportions. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist Livestock and poultry work was again dominated by the need for food stuffs in the armed forces and among civilian consumers. Goals for pro duction announced from the federal agencies at the Nation's capital applied with particular force in these fields. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman Beef cattle in Florida have increased during the period and at the end of the year had attained a new high mark. Reports from county agents , government investigators and the livestock markets indicated that the meats 'production goals had been met, despite selling and slaughtering regulations which caused confusion and uneasi ness. Cattle in some sections lost 50 to 100 pounds per head before the situation could be cleared up. Feed shortages complicated the saving of the 1943 calf crop. Bulls shipped into the state were fewer, owing to transportation handicaps, but around 1,300 good animals were placed, compared with a 1,500 number as the aim. Demands for home-bred sires far exceeded the available supply, a single county taking more than 300. SWINE AND WORKSTOCK Swine numbers are known to have increased, though exact figures are not obtainable. Pigs saved undoubtedly exceeded the number in any pre vious year. Feed 'production for hogs at home has definitely increased and parasite control was practiced by more farmers than previously. Marketing methods also showed improvement. Meats curing in cold storage plants decreased somewhat, erroneous reports having been circulated concerning the government attitude thereon. Information correcting the rumors was circulated from this office. Rationing of trucks, tractors, tires and motor fuels and the difficulty in procuring repair parts focused thought in the country districts . on horse and mule power for farming operations, through which the deficiencies could be overcome. Stallions in service were in wide demand and better mares were pur

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20 Florida Cooperative. Extension chased more widely for raising colts. Inoculations against sleeping sick ness increased, the Extension Animal Husbandman working clo s ely with veterinarians giving them. FAIRS AND SHOWS Regulations and restrictions in force caused the cancellation of all shows except 2 and the livestock exhibition s at the fewer fairs held also suffered from the wartime conditions. February brought the Southeastern Fat Stock Show and sale at Ocala, but only 167 animals went on the auction block. Quality remained good, however, and the average weights and prices were higher. In the October Range Cattle Show at the Arcadia State Farmers' Live stock Market, Brahmas mainly com ' posed the exhibits, a few Angus, Devon and Brown Swiss cattle rounding them out. Grass-fed animals filled the pens, except for 1 small herd of halter-broken Brahmas which had received some grain. DAIRYING Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman Major problems confronting the Florida dairy industry included 2 especially difficult to handle, namely the labor shortage and the scarcity in high protein feeds. Wage and price increases made the handicaps all the greater. Forecasts from government sources indicating that concentrated feed for cows would be plentiful failed to be realized, Dairymen who bought animals on . the strength of these assurances found themselves in a serious situation. Demand for milk increased meanwhile, as the Army camps and Navy bases located in the state increased their populations. Labor costs advanced over 75 percent in most areas. Feedstuffs ranged from 50 to 75 percent higher. Ceilings on the output denied the producers the right to charge prices covering their necessarily higher expenditures. Subsidies proved only a partial remedy. Milk importations from other states gained rapidly. CHANGING CONDITIONS Peak production in peacetime had been during the late winter and the low mark was reached around July or August. Under the war situation, supplies became short in every month and more dairymen upped their output in the summer months, when pastures and forage crops helped out. Goals could be met only through this change. Dairy herds were dispersed and the animals sold because the activities no longer broke even also brought about material modifications in owner ship and operation. All told, 300 to 400 dairies were involved in the trans actions. Herds averaged larger at the end of the period, and fewer producer-distributors remained in business. CALVES ' DISTRIBUTION Florida entered the year with not many less than 110,000 cows in com mercial dairies . Calves offered for sale were purchased when 1 to 3 days old and placed . through county agents with adult or junior farmers. Between 9,000 and 10,000 heifer calves have been distributed in this manner, Baby animals could have been placed numbering 2,500 to 3,000 additional through 4-H club members alone, if they had been available.

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Annual Report, 1943 21 ORGA IZED E DEAVOR Modified as required by the war influence, the Dairy Herd Improvement Association effort was maintained. Three groups were combined into 1. Cows on test approximated 1,250. Work was continued with the Florida Jersey ar.tl Guernsey Cattle Clubs, and the 2 registered sales they held recorded the highest average prices of any year since the organization. Cooperation was likewise extended the State Dairymen's Association, which held its annual meeting at Gainesville. Relations remained close and friendly with the Dairy Product s Association and several local or ganized units. POULTRY N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman A. Woodrow O'Steen, Assistant Extension Poultryman Poultry production goals higher than for the previous year set the pace for the work in this department. Florida reached or exceeded the output sought . PRICE AVERAGES AND R ANGE Feed prices per 100 pounds of poultry ration in 1943 averaged 43 cents Fig. 3 . -Egg production helped to stem the meat shortage, and later became a problem of adju ting to available feed s upplies.

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension higher than for the preceding like period and 24 cents above the 1926-29 base level. Egg quotations on the Jacksonville market averaged 13.3 cents per dozen higher than the year before and exceeded the base period average by 6 cents a dozen. Hens in the heavy grades averaged 4.1 cents per 'pound higher in 1943 than for 1942 and the average on heavy fryers increased 2.7 cents per pound. Ceilings on eggs established during the previous year were not changed to take into account the upward trends in feed prices nor to recognize the other enlarged producing costs. Surpluses developed during the spring of 1943 in several counties, especially through the central and northern sections. Federal -purchases through the War Food Administration helped to relieve the situations, though most poultrymen felt that the 'prices paid were too low. Buying stations at 35 points took 9,038 cases. EGG-LAYING TEST Beginning October 1, 1942, and ending September 22, 1943, the Seven teenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test took place with 96 pens of 13 pullets each from 22 states. Florida breeders in 8 counties entered 14 pens. Average output for the 1,242 pullets was 196.2 eggs per bird, with 202.2 points, which was considerably below the all-time high recorded during the preceding test. High fowl was a Single Comb White Leghorn entered by the Thomascello Leghorn Breeders, Monticello, which laid 327 eggs for 358.60 points. This pullet was high S. C. White Leghorn for the Nation, in all the official egg-laying tests. PROJECTS :MAINTAINED Raising healthy 'pullets, growing green feed, keeping calendar flock records, culling practices and junior poultry work undertaken before the war went ahead on a modified scale. Farm brooders and finishers in small units, fashioned after models developed by Extension poultrymen, aided the food for freedom program, fully 1,500 having been built. COOPERATING GROUPS Relations remained on a cordial basis with the Florida Poultry Council, State Poultry Producers' Association and Breeder and Hatchery Associ ation. BOYS' 4-H CLUBS R. W. Blacklock, Sta_te Boys' Club Agent N. H. McQueen, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent Returning to Charlotte County as farm agent October 15, 1943, N. H. McQueen remained as state boys' club assistant on a part-time basis, and undertook supervisory duties in about 10 southeastern counties. Stress was placed on foods production. Boys alone grew out over 64,000 fryers for spring marketing, 14,000 more than their goal. Club members bought more than 900 baby dairy calves and they pur chased 375 bred heifers, many of which are now giving milk. Home vegetable gardens were expected to be aided by every 4-H

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Annual Report, 1943 23 member. As projects in club work, they have been grown by above 50 percent of the boys. CAMPS AND MEETINGS Gasoline and tire shortages made it necessary to hold fewer club meet ings. Achievement Day 'programs were put on less frequently, for the same reason. Supimer camps as resumed this year conformed with the wartime situ ation. Army physical tests in the simpler forms were given all boys attending Camp McQuarrie. District camps proved more successful than usual and the attendance exceeded that for the last 3 preceding seasons in which they had been held. Ration boards issued points sufficient for feeding the campers. Facilities at the University of Florida having been taken over so ex tensively by the United States Army for training purposes, the annual short course could not be held. Trips to out-of state points were also abandoned. CAMPAIGNS AND PROGRAMS Mobilization Week was emphasized so far as possible. Conditions peculiar to club project work in Florida rendered it difficult for national plans to be utilized fully. Time spent with county agricultural workers by the State Boys' Club Agent brought good results. Two days a month each in 3 counties demonstrated that the idea has large possibilities. Long-time objectives remained in mind but chiefly had to be sidetracked for the more immediate effort directed toward helping win the war. Machinery has been set up, however, for use when the skies clear. FARM FORESTRY L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester Timber shortages developing during the period caused concentration on endeavors for relieving the scarcity, as a wartime duty, and some curtailment became necessary in normal activities. NAVAL STORES Working farm timber for naval stores could be extended only in a limited degree, because han9s were lacking with which to carry it on. Beginnings made will bring results later, it is felt. Gum sales under competitive bidding at the Lake City State Farmers' Market, in establishing which the Extension Forester cooperated, assured farmers top prices and cash was paid at the platform. TIMBER OUTPUT Increasing the production of forest products needed for war purposes occupied considerable time during the final six months in the period. Meetings attended and publicity material pre'pared stressed the theme, with special emphasis on pulpwood cutting. Wood for fuel, in country and city, was also urged, to conserve fuel oils and coal. TREE PLANTING Planting forest trees was made a major project. Slash pine seedlings in a 1,000,000 total donated by a Florida pulp mill had been made available

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension to , farmers and landowners in 21 northeastern counties. Farm agents received assistance from the Extension Forester in getting the trees put out through their territories, their efforts placing 713,810, or 71 percent, of which 4-H club members took 68,700. Distribution during the coming winter will be more extensive and widespread. NATIVE TREES Contentions previously made by the Extension Forester that farm plant ings in Florida should utilize additional varieties of native trees took on further importance as the need for diversified timber grew more apparent. Red cedar, yellow poplar, white oak and black cherry perhaps offer the greatest possibilities in this connection. Planting stock is not generally to be had in quantity and wildling specimens taken from the woods are required. . Plantings for demonstration purposes have been made at the Univer sity of Florida, Gainesville, and on the National Egg-Laying Test grounds, Chipley, using all the above-mentioned varieties, in -acre plots each, plus longleaf and slash pine, swamp chestnut oak and sweet gum. A 4-H club demonstration forest, using red cedar, white oak, yellow poplar and black cherry, was started in Marion County. CORK OAK PROJECTS Cooperating with a cork and seal company in Baltimore, which supplied acorns and seedlings, the Extension Forester assisted in testing the adaptability of cork oak to various Florida soils and locations. Eight seedling plantings were made under his direction and 50 acorns apiece furnished to more than 50 chapters in the Future Farmers of America. Farmers numbering 11, located all the way from Lake Okee chobee to Pensacola, also received acorns and seedlings. Farm fish 'ponds development was also launched during the year by the Extension Forester, as a means whereby home outputs of food may be enlarged while affording rural families more attractive surroundings and the setting for enjoyable recreation. SOIL CONSERVATION K. S. McMullen, Soil Conservationist The Extension soil conservation program, which is conducted in close cooperation with the federal Soil Conservation Service, has been adjusted to render the greatest possible assistance to Florida farmers in meeting production goals. An effort has been made to put soil conservation behind food and fiber production to aid in production without impairing the soil. The 136,000 acres of peanuts harvested for oil in 1943 presented a serious conservation 'problem, and every effort was made to meet the situ ation. Planting of winter leguminous covers to restore organic matter to the soil was widely advocated and practised. SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICTS There were 14 soil conservation districts in Florida at the beginning of the year, and organization of 5 others was completed during the year. The districts and counties included are as follows: 1, Perdido River Escambia; 2, Choctawhatchee River-Walton and part of Holmes; 3, Orange Hill-Washington and Bay; 4, Holmes Creek-Holmes and part of Jack son; 5, Chipola River-part of Jackson and Calhoun; 6, Yellow River

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Annual Report , 1943 25 part of Okaloosa; 7, Gadsden-Gadsden; 8, Madison-Madison; 9, Ochlocko nee River-Leon; 10, Jefferson-Jefferson; 11, Oklawaha-Marion and part of Sumter; 12, Istokpoga-part of Highlands; 13, Suwannee River-Su wannee; 14, Blackwater-Santa Rosa; 15, Santa Fe-Columbia; 16, Jumper Creek-part of Sumter; 17, Volusia-Volusia; 18, Pinellas-Pinellas; 19, Gulf-Citrus and Hernando. Educational work in the districts is conducted through the office of the county agent, who serves as secretary to the board of sup e rvisors in every district save one, in cooperation with district and work unit con servationists of the Soil Conservation Service. Reports from 17 of the districts reveal that 75 educational meetings were held with a total att e ndance of 2,520; 24 farm planning meetings were attended by 280; 21 demonstrations were attended by 444; 6 tours were attended by 104; 313 news stories were published on soil conservation and district activities; and 37 programs were presented before civic clubs. Each civic supervisor was supplied copies of all materials on soil con servation published by the Extension Service, Experiment Station, and USDA. Ten districts were assisted in acquiring equipment. Election of supervisors in each district was supervised by the Extension Soil Conserva tionist. One-day planning conferences were held in 15 districts. CLASSES AND EXHIBITS Classes taught at 4-H club camps for 2 weeks had 152 boys enrolled. Study courses were supplied to vocational agriculture teachers throughout the state. Exhibits displayed during the s pring flow er and vegetable show held by the Federated Circles of the Jacksonville Garden Club May 7 and 8, in putting on which the Extension Service cooperated, attracted an esti mated 7,200 persons . HARVESTING GRASS SEED Seed became scarce for sowing Bermuda and carpet grass in pastures after the available stocks had been taken over for military purposes. Heading by request a state-wide movement for harvesting seed within the territory, the Extension Soil Conservationist prepared the necessary instructions, and fairly good results were obtained. Later the program was expanded to include cover crop seeds.

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26 Florida Cooperative Extension PART III-HOME ACTIVITIES HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Agent Ethyl Holloway, District Agent Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent Wartime conditions, which have controlled the activities of all individual families, necessarily have affected home demonstration work during the year. Major emphasis has been placed on food production and conserva tion, food preparation and use, nutrition, rationin g , health and safety in the home, safeguarding equipment and supplies, salvage, government in vestment s and savings, farm labor, maintaining morale, leadership, and community activities. Volunteer war services have demanded considerable time from women who still are not employed outside their homes. Many women are working away from home, or are responsible for unfamiliar but important tasks on the farm. This has limited the time women have available for such customary responsibilities as 4-H leadership, and this in turn has affected the home demonstration program. Home demonstration agents have been flooded with requests for help on gardens, poultry, food conservation and governmental regulations affect ing everyday lives, as townspeople have realized that they, too, can become producers as well as consumers of food. The home demonstration agents have endeavored to keep in close touch with people in their own homes, so the program of home demonstration work would continue to give its first service within those homes working toward a long-time program, and not serve only to meet the emergencies of war. A total of 34,158 white families received direct help from county home demonstration agents this year. The 42 agents and assistants made 17,047 visits to homes, visiting 9,987 different homes. They directed the work of the 8,548 women enrolled in 343 home demonstration clubs, and the 9,671 girls enrolled in the 451 4-H clubs for girls. FOOD PRODUCTION Through the years home demonstration agents have urged production of increased amounts of food at home so the family would be well fed. 4-H girls always have been enrolled in "productive" work in order to giv e them instruction and to stimulate their interest in a better food supply. For years, home demonstration women have related the canning budget to the production of the home garden and orchard. Consequently when the need for home food production became urgent as a part of the war program and when food rationing served as a spur to Victory Gardeners and Victory Canners, home demonstration agents and women were ready to assume county-wide and state-wide leadership in these programs. Home Gardens.-Wartime food production and conservation goals for 1943 have been met and in some instances overwhelmingly exceeded. Re ports indicate that Florida families, rural and urban, have grown more Victory Gardens than ever before. In addition, considerable amounts of food have been grown for local markets to further relieve transportation difficulties and to afford the cash income needed by the farm woman and 4-H girl.

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Annual R eport, 19 43 27 An extensive community canning program was instituted in counties in the tr ucking area s to take care of the l oca l s u rp lu s from commercial fi e ld s. C ity and r ural people cooperated in the e ndeavo r to fill the home pantry s h e l ves of both groups. The city 'people happily effected a system of work by which the busy farmer can have canned on a share-bas i s those products grown by him se l f and needed by town and country peop l e alike. Home Orchard s . -Reports show that 317 4-H gir l s and 819 home demon stration women started calendar orchards this year; 125,127 fruit trees were added to orchards already started and 21,891 berry vines planted. Home Poultr y . -Poultry raising became popular with hundreds of c it y and town families. Small home-made brooders and other poultry eq ui ment became known to many who had never seen them before. Feed for large flocks, always an important factor for Florida families, became in creas ingl y so . The small home flock, more or l ess well managed, became the somce of meat and eggs for hundreds of families . Home Dairying. -Club women and girls reported buying 2,032 family cows this year, making a total of 10,763 cows owned by the present mem bership . Good calves were bought for distribution to 4-H members through the cooperation of the county agents. An adequate supply of clean milk is a great need in many rural hom es . FOOD CONSE RVATION In 1943 14 times as many co n tainers of vegetab l es were filled as in 1938, an increase of 1,400 % over 6 years ago and more than 4 00 % over last year . A 30 0 % increa se in meat canning (pork, beef, game, fish, and po ultry) is indicated for the same 6 years. In the trucking areas of sout h er n Florida a hug e c anning center pro gram d eveloped. Converting the commercial surp lu ses from tomato and vegetab l e fields into who l esome, ready-to-serve foods, became t h e co ncern of the entire population rather than allowing the produce to waste a s Fig. 4.-Victory Gardens by the thousands on farms and in cities helped to boost the country's food production . This garden is growing at a cou nt y club camp.

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28 Florida Cooperative Extension had been too commonly done in the past. Most immediate and impressiv e gains could be made through better use of existing resources of commercial truck gardens and citrus groves, eliminating waste through failure to use this food already produced, rather than to use time, labor, seed , fertilizer, equipment and transportation facilities to grow the food elsewhere. Home agents gave general supervision to the canning centers. Total containers filled in all centers of one county was 151,600. Of this about 14 % was fruit, grapefruit and pineapple principally. Less than l % was fish, meat, or poultry, leaving 84 % of all kinds of vegetables, including tomatoes, green beans, "shell" beans, greens, squash, carrots, peas, lima beans, corn, eggplant, sauerkraut and new potatoes. The 12 centers in another county preserved over 171,000 cans . FOOD USE, NUTRITION, FOOD PREPARATION, RATIONING The war brought a challenge to Floridians to become, dietetically speak ing, more self-sufficient within our borders by using the abundance of our available food resources more wisely and keeping good food from going to waste. This bids fair to aid the long-time economy of the state as well as contributing essentially to winning the war. Nutrition.-The following summary highlights progress made in nutri tion: 18,179 families reported they had planned and produced their family food supply in accordance with wartime needs; 4,304 families enrolled for special help in budgeting and buying quality food wisely. Home demon stration agents gave 382 demonstrations on the use of meat alternatives when meat rationing first was introduced in this country; 2,323 families were helped with home butchering and meat curing and cutting and 1,411 with butter and cheese making; 14,018 families asked for help from the home agents in using food alternates made necessary by food shortages. In addition to their food program with home demonstration women and girls, county home demonstration agents gave 371 nutrition courses spon sored by the Red Cross with 5,094 women and older girls enrolled. They gave 19 canteen courses to 420 women. Food Rationing.-A total of 8,991 families received direct help from home agents on how to make necessary adjustments in their food plans due to rationing. The food rationing plan was explained in detail and methods of making the best use of food were demonstrated at regular home demonstration and leader-training meetings and at county-wide meet ings where representatives of many organizations were present. Con sumers were urged to use fresh fruits and vegetables produced locally or from Victory Gardens, thereby saving transportation and processed foods for war needs . HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE HOME One important goal in all wartime home demonstration programs has been to aid rural people to maintain or secure good health, both because of the shortage of available medical care and so they would be able to do the work required of them. Health Examinations.-The real importance of immunization measures against diseases caused 3,043 families to take such positive measures to improve their health. Close cooperation with the State Board of Health, county health units and state and county home demonstration offices, exists now as always in working out plans for health instruction and health service programs. The understanding and attitude of home demon stration club members has helped greatly in establishing in rural com

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Annual Report, 1943 29 munities the program of health services inaugurated through the public schools in cooperation with the State Board of Health. Many women had physical examinations during the year as a result of home demonstration programs, and 1,811 4-H girls had health examinations by physicians in order to care for their health properly or to correct defects. Home Nursing and First Aid Courses.-During the year 1,890 4-H girls in 18 counties enrolled in such courses arranged by the home demonstration agent. Forty home nursing courses were given to women who agreed to serve as neighbodhood leaders in this work and 127 first aid courses were conducted in cooperation with the American Red Cross, with an enrollm e nt of 2,266 women and older 4-H girls. First aid kits for the home have been displayed at home demonstration club meetings; lists of necessary articles for a complete first aid kit ior the home were distributed and instructions in first aid treatment were given. Home Sanitation . -The home improvement program contributed to the health of the family by emphasizing home sanitation and kitchen improve ment. In all, 801 homes were scr e ened; 417 toilets were installed; 1,117 homes were repaired ; 177 heating s ystems were secured and 1,157 houses and outbuildings were painted. Fire Prevention and Safety.-Removal of fire and accident hazards from the home was a state-wide project. A total of 182 courses in fire prevention were given to 1,398 women . and 2,017 4-H girls who agreed to serve as leaders to urge their neighbors to observe better methods of preventing fires in their homes; 5,615 other girls of 17 counties received s ' pecial instruction so they could h e lp al s o; 3,856 families reported to the home agents they had removed fire hazards from their rural communities. Safeguarding Home Equipment and Supplies Salvage of Waste Equip ment.-Ailing sewing machines to the number of 259 were put into work ing order through instruction given by home demonstration agents. Pressure cookers to the number of 1,828 were overhauled. Many forgotten ones were discovered and put to work. The state Specialist in Food Con servation encouraged cooker clinics in many counties. All home demon stration agents were given instruction in adjusting gauges, etc., at a state short course. Also, 1,963 unusable pieces of electrical equipment were repaired at home; 1,157 homes and outbuildings and 51 fences were painted; 401 mattresses were made from home-grown cotton and 271 were renovated. Fat Salvage.-The State Home Demonstration Agent served as state chairman of salvage of fats and grease for the War Production Board and the State Defense Council jointly. County home demonstration agents or county agents were county chairmen. Florida was the first state to exceed its quota in collection of waste fats. For 5 months of the year Florida led the states of the Southern Region in percentage of collection , exceeding its year's quota, 900,000 pounds, by more than 6 tons. Salvage of Rubber, Tin and Scrap.-Women and 4-H girls have helped with all drives. Volunteer leaders assisted in . all drives. Usually the col lections were made under the supervision of other agencies, so no detailed reports of their contributions has been made. GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK Home demonstration agents from 37 counties report they devoted 3,278 days, or an average of one-third of their entire time, to work with 4-H club girls and older youth. This is less time by 243 days than they devoted

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension to 4-H club work last year. This decrease in time is due to the increased demands made upon the home demonstration agents by adults from urban and rural communities, .and the special work necessary in wartime. Enrollment.-Girls to ,the number of 9,671 enrolled in 451 organized 4-H clubs this year under the direction of white county home demonstra tion agents. Daughters in 5,671 different farm homes are enrolled in 4-H clubs, 3,687 girls of non-farm homes were enrolled also, making a total of 9,358 homes which have been served through 4-H club work for girls. Home demonstration agents have conducted 3,138 method demonstration meetings. To extend 4-H work further, voluteer leaders have held 1,202 meetings with a total attendance of 22,969. To train these 4-H leaders to reach and develop 4-H club girls, home agents held 19 training meetings with 2,153 local leaders present. Achievements of 4-H Girls.-Florida 4-H girls have developed keen minds, skillful hands, happy hearts and good healthy bodies as they have carried on their 4-H club work and achieved their wartime goals. The greatest achievement of ail has been the 4-squ.are development of the girls themselves. They are becoming responsible, well informed, skillful and happy citizens and future leaders so much needed in their communities. Food Production, Gardens, Orchards, Poultry, Dairying.-The Food for Freedom program has been the foremost activity among all 4-H girls. They have worked with their families and neighbors to produce more of the food supply and to conserve the surplus for future use. Club girls have helped to raise the poultry flock, dairy cows or other livestock which they own alone or in partnership with some family member. Thus Florida girls have earned as they learned to produce food during this war year. Food Conservation.-4-H girls canned 186,789 quarts of food during the year. They have canned at home and helped to can at the community centers. Food and Nutrition.-4-H club girls enrolled in the food and nutrition program learned about the basic 7 foods needed daily to keep families strong. They found out how to get these foods by growing them at home and they learned how to prepare food properly to save the food values and prevent waste. Then they learned how to serve the colorful Florida foods attractively so that the entire family would enjoy eating these foods preparaed well at home. Many girls have taken over the responsibility of buying the family food, thus learning about "ceiling prices" and the point rationing plan. They assumed responsibility, too, for the preparation of family meals as mothers worked at home or in essential war work . Home lmprovement.-4-H club girls have made many Florida homes much happier, more attractive, more comfortable and orderly and certainly more satisfactory to Florida families. Young 4-H girls have learned useful skills as they have become good managers and better housekeepers. They have taken over home responsibility for bed making, table setting, and dishwashing as they helped in better home management. Older club girls have been interested in the improvement of the living room which helps to improve the morale of the entire family. They are appreciating their home life with family members and friends now as never before. Clothing.-During 1943, 70 percent or 6,790 of the girls enrolled in 4-H club work were enrolled in clothing demonstrations, 32,058 new garments were made and 7,277 garments were remodeled.

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Annual Report, 1943 31 Farm Labor.-4-H girls have helped meet farm labor needs by assist ing with work on their pwn farms and for their neighbors. They have taught town boys and girls to do farm work well; many are active V. F. W. members. Short Courses and Camps.-For the second time in 32 years the State 4-H Short Course for Girls was not held in Tallahassee. Shortage of transportation has affected all county-wide and state-wide activities. Nearly all counties held county short courses or camps in an effort to give special training to older girls as leaders and to recognize achievement. CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Joyce Bevis, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles Continued emphasis has been placed on conservation, such as remodel ing, renovating, mending, care and storage of clothing; buying only neces sary clothes and getting the best possible values for the money spent; more and better home sewing to offset labor shortages and higher costs; use of cotton goods for the general wardrobe and textile needs of. Florida rural families because of their suitability to Florida climatic conditions; and helping people to understand and keep informed about new develop ments in government control and manufacturing, changes in style, and local merchandising situations. The Extension Service did not have a Clothing Specialist during the first 6 months of the year, but county home agents and district and state supervisors gave such assistance along these lines as they could. ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR THE YEAR More people are looking to the Extension Service for help in solving the increasing problems of wartime. However, it is evident that physical limitations will necessitate tne training and utilization of more voluntary leaders in various 'phases of home demonstration work if this additional help is to be extended. The following brief summary contains figures on principal accomplish ments by home demonstration club women and girls along clothing and textiles lines, as reported to their home demonstration agents: The clothing program was carried on in 366 of the 553 communities of the state where home demonstration work is done. In these communities8,897 families were assisted with construction problems, an 18% in crease for this year. 7,676 families were assisted in the selection of clothing, a 10% increase. 8,021 families were assisted with care, renovation, remodeling, etc., a 52 o/o increase. 1,976 families were assisted with clothing accounts and budgets, a 9% increase. 440 families Were helped with care and repair of sewing machines and 259 machines were put into working order. 27,393 garments were remodeled by home demonstration club members. 179,318 new garments were made by home demonstration club members. 132,915 new articles were made for the home, such as quilts, spreads, draperies, curtains, etc. _ 18,914 accessories such as hats, bags, dickies, collars, etc., were made by home demonstration club members. 401 cotton mattresses were made; 571 cotton mattresses were renovated. 25 counties reported that 7,071 families were doing the family laundry for the first time.

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension Most of the counties reported that home demonstration club members were devoting time to Red Cross sewing, such as altering and mending uniforms for service men and making numerous articles for civilian use. 4-H CLUB PARTICIPATION Home agents were assisted in developing the 4-H club program with clothing and textiles at a statewide meeting, at district sessions of county councils of junior home demonstration work, through visits to counties, by judging exhibits at county achievement days, and through the prepar ation and distribution of such teaching aids as skits, check sheets, exhibits and mimeographed material. During 1943 70% ( or 6,797) of the girls enrolled in 4-H club work carried clothing projects. Of this total 70 % ( or 4,645) of the girls completed their clothing demonstrations. Through these demonstrations 32,058 new garments were made and 7,277 garments remodeled. Two counties, Orange and Dade, reported that every girl enrolled in 4-H club work had chosen clothing as one of her 4-H demonstrations. Help was given to 4-H club work mainly through group instruction at summer camps. Three different camps were attended by the Clothing Specialist, where 8 home demonstration agents, 20 leaders, and 235 dub girls were aided. FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH Anna Mae Sikes, Economist in Foods and Nutrition In this phase of Extension work during 1943 emphasis was placed on nutrition for preparedness and war, without forgetting the value of good nutrition to both individuals and communities here at home. The work with adults was divided into 4 phases as follows: (1) Nutri tion and physical fitness helping families keep physically fit through good food habits and an adequate diet; (2) food preparation and meal planning, including conservation of food values in cooking and other handling; (3) producing the family food supply to provide the food that protects physical fitness and to relieve commercial food supplies for civil ians with no facilities for food production and for war needs; (4) cooper ation with and understanding of wartime programs such as rationing, ceiling prices and standarization of processed foods . In addition to these 4 phases, the junior program particularly empha sized the need for securing and maintaining good health, and for all individuals availing themselves of preventive health measures. NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS The approach used with all groups was to build on that which was be s t in a diet pattern already in use and to suggest additions to the diet, rather than the elimination of foods habitually used. The 7 basic food groups and the yardstick for good nutrition, both emphasized by the United States Department of Agriculture, were emphasized in Florida, forming the basis around which diet recommendations were made here. The 7 basic food groups are: (1) Green and yellow vegetables; (2) oranges, tomatoes and grapefruit; (3) potatoes and other vegetables and fruits; ( 4) milk and milk products; (5) meat, poultry, fish and eggs; (6) bread, flour and cereals; and (7) butter and fortified margarine. Demonstrations were established in homes in an attempt to improve the health of each member of the family. Store exhibits of foods suggested for use, along with recipes for their preparation, posters, newspaper stories,

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Annual Report, 1943 33 and work meetings where groups prepared meals were effective means of disseminating this information. Records show that this phase of the program was conducted in 378 communities of 28 counties; 7,618 families in 36 counties improved their diets during the year; 2,173 families in 33 counties were assisted with child feeding problems; 204 nutrition instruction courses in 23 counties were attended by 2,052 women; 282 women in 9 counties were certified as nutrition aides; 4,560 families in 29 counties were assisted in preventing common diseases; 3,043 people in 22 counties were immunized against communicable diseases; and 2,019 families in 25 counties participated in first aid or home nursing courses. In the junior program, 1,590 4-H club girls in 16 counties enrolled in the health, home nursing and first aid courses and 1,286, approximately 80 percent, completed the courses. In 8 counties 167 nutrition courses were attended by 2,442 4-H club girls. FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING A total of 11,944 families in 37 counties were assisted with food prep artion and 588 voluntary leaders in 31 counties helped to make possible this widespread assistance. During the year demonstrations have been given showing the correct food preparation principles for all groups of foods. Because of wartime ' needs, particular emphasis has been placed on enriched flour, bread and cereals, sugar, meat alternates and meat extenders, soybean products, peanuts, sweet potatoes, and foods rich in vitamins and minerals that can be secured locally or in adequate quantities. Families adopting improved practices in food preparation are recorded as follows: Baking 5,267 in 32 counties; meat cookery 6,714 in 32; vege table and fruit cookery 7,716 in 31; dairy products 5,613 in 33; poultry products 5,899 in 32; and fats 5,677 families in 28 counties. Reports show also that 4,304 families in 23 counties budgeted and bought food wisely through quality, quantity and cooperative buying. Menus for families with ration allowances and budgeted expeditures were suggested as aids in meal planning. Homemakers have been helped to streamline meal preparation, preparing fewer dishes at a meal; planning nutritional balance over a longer period; sharing responsibility among members of the family in food preparation; planning a lunch preparation center in the kitchen; and exchange of labor in meal preparation with . the neighbors. Leader training meetings have been held on a community or county basis, as seemed best. 4-H CLUB TRAINING The food, nutrition and health program for 4-H club girls was developed along the same lines as the work with adults. Each member was encour aged to guard her own health and that of her community. In addition to having health checks by nurses and physicians, each girl enrolled in this work scored herself in food selection , health and posture at the beginning of the year, made plans for improvement, and scored herself again at the middle and end of the year. As her health was checked the girl realized more and more the importance of well selected, planned and prepared meals. In menu demonstrations the girls discussed the use of available foods for those which are scarce which can substitute for others.

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension FOOD RATIONING Food rationing, necessitated by wartime stringencies, called for wide spread educational efforts on the 'part of agents to help families under stand the best use of available foods. The Nutritionist has discussed rationing at county-wide meetings where r e presentatives of home demon stration clubs and many other organizations were present. SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Home demonstration clubs were pioneers, many y e ars ago , in efforts to provide adequate hot lunches for school children, and have worked con tinuously on this problem. In more recent years assistance from federal agencies has made school lunch e s possible in many schools where they wer e not possible previously. The Nutritionist and State Home Demonstration Agent s erved on th e advisory committee to the school lunch program, appointed by the State Sup e rintendent of Public Instruction. They outlined the assistance that home demonstration agents and women had been to the program, and suggested ways through which they could continue to serve. Agents reported that during 1943 they actively assisted in 308 school lunchrooms helping to plan and initiate lunchrooms, surveying needs, advising about balanced meals, furnishing recipes, menus and bulletins, loaning home demonstration equipment, s uch as pres s ure cookers , giving demonstrations in the preparation of canned foods, and encouraging home demonstration members to cooperate. Home demonstration clubs have donated food, 4~H club girls have served in the lunchrooms at mealtime and aided in the production of foods in school gardens. SAFETY An increasing effort has been made to h e lp rural families provide safe working conditions. Four thousand one hundred and fifty-on e in 34 coun ties were assisted in removing fire and accident hazards. GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation The wartime economy, with its ever greater concentration on food pro duction and conservation under increasingly adverse conditions, has brought a number of new problems in this phase of Extension work. Rationing, 'priorities and other changes necessitated by the country's all-out war effort made both rural and urban people more anxious to produce and conserve than ever before. Requests for help and instruction in producing and conserving foods have been especially heavy from urban centers. Work of the Economist in Food Conservation continues to include en couragement of increased efforts toward more and better quality gardens and home orchards and assistance in providing larger quantities and better qualities of conserved fruits, vegetables, meats fish and other food products frozen, canned, brined and dried. The Economist in Food Conservation attended a workshop on canning, freezing and dehydration methods directed by the Food Distribution Ad ministration. She conducted a short course or worshop for 12 Florida home agents, in which up-to-date canning principles and practices were discussed and demonstrated.

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Annual Report, 194 3 35 HOME GARDE S The national Food for Freedom goals called for considerable increases in home gardens during 1943, in both rural and urban areas. Most of the Florida goals were met, some materially exceeded. Victory Gardens, both large and small, were raised in a number estimated to exceed 150,000, 'providing vegetables of good nutritional value for use fresh and in canning. Home demonstration members grew 20,339 gardens in 1943, an increase of nearly 2,000 over the year before . In addition, many products have been grown for local markets, further relieving transportation congestion and affording ca s h income to farm women and 4-H girls. The Florida Exten s ion Service s et up a garden goals committee which lent encouragement and as s istance to the effort . Needed publications on garden plantings and insect and disea s e control were printed and distributed in large numbers. Food for victory pledge cards were distributed to the number of 120,000. Commercial concerns, civic groups, publishers, nurserymen and seed s men wishing to encourage the movement through advertisements and in other ways were assisted. CALENDAR ORCHARDS The calendar orchard program, which has long advocated and encour aged increased plantings of fruits and berries, has not been neglected. The longer time required for such plantings to come to bearing has tended to make them secondary to gardens, which supply food in a very short time. Florida farm families 'planted 15,127 fruits trees and 21,981 berry vines, according to reports from county home demonstration agents . Fig. 5.-Community canning kitchens were kept constantly busy during the canning season to fill home pantries.

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension Increased earnings on the part of farm people call for larger plantings of economic ornamentals those which provide fruits or berries in addi tion to shade and beauty. Under the leadership of home demonstration agents, farm families throughout the state are pooling orders for fruit trees and berry vines for planting during the winter of 1943-44. WARTIME FOOD CONSERVATION With Victory Gardens grown in larger numbers, with commercial fields at times offering enormous surpluses of staple vegetables, with grapefruit always available to the home canner at moderate cost in the citrus pro ducing areas, and with the war emergency stimulating a concerted educa tional drive for more food, canning the surplus became of vital interest to town and farm 'people alike. Consequently, every available piece of canning equipment was put to full use, and thousands of families preserved food products by methods other than cannning. Amounts of vegetables canned at home, as reported by home demon stration agents, increased 1,400 percent from 1938 to 1943, more than 400 percent in 1943 over 1942. From 1938 to 1943 a 300 percent increase occurred in amount of meat canned at home. The agents' reports show that home demonstration families during 1943 canned 10,611,103 fruits, vegetables, pickles and relishes and marmalades and jellies. Also they preserved 218,308 quarts of fruit juices and 448,666 quarts of meats of various kinds. In addition, they stored over 5 million pounds of vegetables by other methods. Additional statistics from the agents reveal that 7,568 families cured 7,158,496 pounds of meat; 5,979 families made 465,933 pounds of sausage; 6,269 families made 676,298 'pounds of lard; 3,130 families made 80,309 pounds of soap at home; 184 families smoked 9,574 pounds of fish; and 426 families brined 5,915 quarts of vegetables. Efficient, properly ventilated storage places for canned food supplies are needed in many homes throughout the state, necessitating repairs, structural changes or new buildings. Canning Centers.-A huge community canning program was instituted in the truck growing areas, and community canning centers have been the means of getting thousands of cans of fruits and vegetables preserved in counties throughout the state. City and rural people cooperated in the endeavor to fill their home 'pantries with foods, effecting a system of , canning on shares at many of the centers. In this way the busy farmer could produce the food, the city housewife could can it, and both could share equally in its utilization. Various methods of establishing and operating the canning centers were followed, as best suited the occasion. However, in all cases the home demonstration agent gave general supervision to the work, and in most cases one or more home demonstration women supervised each center. Strict supervision insured quality products, for both those who were can ning for themselves and those who were canning on halves. Many other agencies, including vocational agriculture teache rs and supervisors, municipalities, counties, churches, business concerns and vari ous organizations cooperated to make the canning centers possible. There is need for plans for satisfactory canning center structures and for modernization of many existing structures, as well as for installation of modern equipment when this can be obtained.

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Annual Report, 1943 37 HOME IMPROVEMENT Virginia P. Moore, Home Improvement Agent With first emphasis on food production and conservation as wartime necessities, home improvement has naturally received secondary emphasis. However, proper physical surroundings contribute to efficiency in all farm operations and to the development of character in young people, and so home improvement activities have been pressed as best they could under the circumstances. Now that farm families are receiving increased incomes they would purchase home conveniences and improvements, but in most instances these are unobtainable. Mending what was on hand has been the order of the day, and women and girls left on farms did much repairing of steps and fences, ceiled rooms and papered walls, put on new roofs, painted and installed window panes. The care and repair of equipment was emphasized by home agents, and instructional helps on the subject were distributed from time to time. BETTER MANAGEMENT IN THE HOME Time saving, stressed for several years in home improvement work, was a more important subject this year because more women and girls were assisting with farm work outside of the home. Cutting minutes from the time required for everyday tasks gives more time for added duties or for recreation. Better management in the home was taught to 4-H girls through team demonstrations in dishwashing, table setting, bed making, room cleaning and similar household duties. The saving of money available now but which cannot be spent for new home equipmentespecially through the purchase of "\Var Bonds and Stamps to be spent later has been encouraged widely. PHYSICAL EQUIPMENT Few new houses have been built this year, due to inability to obtain materials. Only 106 dwellings have been constructed where helps and plans were furnished through this office. Materials for remodeling could be more easily obtained, but scarcity of labor restrained this work. Only 652 homes were remodeled by home demonstration families. Assistance was continued in the installation of sunshine water heaters, as well as a few electric, kerosene and gas heaters. When it again be comes possible to extend electric lines through REA assistance there will be wide demand for electricity in additional farm homes. HOME SANITATION Reports of malaria among our fighting forces in the South Pacific has brought a fuller realization of the danger of this malady here at home. More screening has been done in rural areas during the past few years than ever before, and the need for screening for protection against mos quitoes and flies is not now as great as it once was. This year metal screens were unobtainable for most homes, and new synthetic screening was not available part of the year. However, 801 rural homes were screened this year. The hookworm hazard is becoming more clearly understood and appre ciated in rural areas. Coupled with running water in more homes, this

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension knowledge is advancing home sanitation. Agents report 302 sanitary toilets installed during the year. Cooperation was continued with the Stat e Board of Health and county units . HOUSE FURNISHINGS Exhibits of thrift furnishings were loaned to counties to be used in conectinon with the girls' 4-H thrift room improvement and for women with limited budgets for room improvement. Suggestions were given on inexpensive slip covers , "pepping up" the house furnishings with sack s which are tied and dyed or stenciled, and other ways of utilization. Stress has been laid on improvement of the living room, making it into a place where the neighborhood girls and boys could meet for games, music singin g , candy pulls, and such whoiesome entertainment. EXTERIOR BEAUTIFICATION Grass plantings in yards nearly doubled this year, 7,969 such plantings by home demonstration families being reported. Lawn plantings were increased because soil preparation had been stressed in many homes, and the soil was ready for planting. Foundation plantings reported numbered 1,068, whitewashed outbuildings 367, and whitewashed fences 60. HOME INDUSTRIES AND CRAFTS Home industries and rural crafts have declined this year, due in part to the fact that women are doing more field work than formerly and in 'part to the fact that farm families have more money to spend than in former years for the purchase of needed items. However, this project was con tinued and has helped to develop the latent artistic talent and creative ability in many women and girls.

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Annual Report, 1943 PART IV-NEGRO WORI( FARM DEMONSTRATIONS A. A. Turner, Local District Agent 39 Negro farmers found themselves called on to produce more food crops than previously, both for home consumption and to sell. Local farm agents in 9 Florida counties continued to receive assistance . from the district office, and a tenth county was added before the year ended. PRACTICES FOLLOWED Improved agricultural practices recommended by the Extension Service were followed on 3,432 farms in the 10 counties, 991 having been reached for the first time. Home gardens had special stress, and the effort in this field was ex tended to include a large number of non-farm families which had not hitherto grown all the vegetables needed. WARTIME CHANGES Manpower shortages affected negro farmers little less than their white neighbors. Boys, girls and women accordingly did more field work than customary. Rationing and related regulations gave a further complicating factor in the foods 'production program and agents were required to render much assistance toward their correct interpretation. MEETINGS AND EXHIBITS Gas and tires scarcity forced numerous revisions in working plans. Fairs took place in far fewer counties than formerly so exhibits had lessened importance. Annual agents' conference was held during October at the Florida Agri cultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, and supplied the local agents with much information regarding their wartime duties. SPECIALTY CROPS Work with sweet potatoes and sugarcane for syrup carried on in pre vious periods proved that its worth was particularly pronounced under war conditions. Sugar refined from syrup at central plants not only supplied sweeten ing for family use but a source from which cash income could be secured on an expanded scale. Sales have been made in enlarging volume through the Florida Farm ers' Cooperative Association, which took steps to utilize facilities made available at the Lake City State Farmers' Market for refining syrup, grading and packing sweet potatoes and similar activities. 4-H BOYS' CLUBS Boys enrolled in the 10 counties numbered 2,821, and 2,367 completed their projects: These featured the customary aims, with added emphasis on foods production. State Short Course sessions had to be dropped, owing to the transporta

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension tion situation, the higher living costs for club members away from home, and related conditions. County courses which were substituted reached more people than under the old plan. Achievement Day programs in some cases took on a com munity rather than county-wide status. HOME DEMONSTRATION Beulah S. Shute, Local District Agent to June 30, 1943 Floy Britt, Local District Agent from July 1, 1943 Food production achievements by negro women amply rewarded the effort to expand them which constituted the major endeavor. Volunteer local leaders numbering 446 helped materially in obtaining 4,510 home gardens on farms or urban lots, with 91 calendar orchards started and 1,815 fruit trees added to former plantings. Foods conservation took a leading part in the program, 46 canning centers reporting 171,657 containers filled and 12,860 pounds of dried fruits and vegetables stored. Records which are incomplete show $32,279.21 worth of farm food products sold during the year. DAIRYING, POULTRY AND MEAT Milk cows purchased by negro farm families added 239 to the previous total owned, raising it above 1,600. Poultry raising reached its highest peak meanwhile, with nearly 100,000 chickens raised and over 375,000 dozen eggs produced. Home-made brood ers were widely used. Meat was cured for 1,669 negro homes, in a quantity exceeding 250,000 pounds. Sausage made weighed 12,562 pounds and lard rendered 43,016. Far fewer families bought meats. DETAILS CONCERNING WORK Local county home agents received assistance from the district home demonstration headquarters in 25 calls, 25 home visits, 11 meetings, 4 camps and short courses, and 2 fairs and exhibits. Following the annual agents' conference at Tallahassee in October, the women workers remained over an extra day for special instruction by state specialists in canning meats and vegetables and making peanut butter. The number of negro women enrolled for home demonstration work grew to 2,134 during the period. Girls enlisted in 4-H club activities totalled 3,106. Investments in war bonds and stamps from the 2 groups aggregated $6,658.49. STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK (Men and Women) GENERAL ACTIVITIES Months of service (agents and assistants) ... .. ........................................... 199 Days of service: In office-1,570; In field-3,416; Total ............ . ....... 4,986 Farm or home visits made ........... . . .. ......................................... ,. .................. 7,070 Different farms or homes visited .................... . ................................. ,......... 4,061 Calls relating to extension work: Office-14,001; Telephone ................ 5,039 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth ........................ 1,875 News articles or stories published ...................... , ........................... :............. 218 Bulletins distributed ....... .. ..................................................... . ......................... 11,760 Radio talks broadcast or prepared .............................................................. 1

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Annual Report, 1943 41 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen: Number ..... . ..... . ........................ .. .................................................... ............... 134 Total attendance of men and women .................................................... 3,127 Method demonstration meetings: Number 735 Total attendance ............. . ......... . ............................... . .................................. 8,589 Meetings held at result demonstrations: Number .......... . ...................................................... . ............................... ....... 314 Attendance 3,454 Tours conducted .......... . .......... . ................................. . . . ........ . ............. .. .. . ........... 35 Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work . ........... 41 Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ......... . ... . .............. 897 SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE Total number of farms ............. . . .. . . . .. ................. . ... ... ...................................... 8,613 Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program this year and in past ............... . .. .... . ... . .......... . . . .. . ..... . . . ....... .. . . 3,432 Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration and agricultural programs . . ........................... .. . . . . ............. . ...... . .............. 2,350 Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the home demonstration program ........................ . .. . ....................... , .............. 1,377 Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration and agricultural programs this year . . ...... . . . . . .. . . ... .. .. . ....... .. ... . . . . . ..... . ... . 1,440 Different farm families influenced by some phase of the extension program . ... .... .................. . .. . ..... . ...... . ........ . ...... . . . . .. ... .... . . .... . . . . . . .. . . ... . .. . ..... . .... 5,664 Other families influenced by some phase of the extension program .... 2,087 CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT Days devoted to war agricultural work .... . ..... .. . ... ... . ........... . ...... . ...... . . . .... 181 Communities conducting war work .... . . . ...... . ... ... . .. . .. . .. . ..... . ... . . . .. .. . ... . .. . . . . . .. 176 Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program ...... . . . ...... .... .. .. ..... 655 Days devoted to food supplies and critical war 'problems, civilian defense, and other war work ...................... . . . ....................... .. .. . ........... 544 COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING Members in agricultural planning group ........... . ...... .... .. ........... ... .. . . . . .... . . . . 349 Unpaid ........ . ..... . . .. . . ........ . ..... .. ... . .................. . .. . . .. . . ... . . .. ............ . .... . .. . ... .. ...... 345 Paid ......... . ................................. . ... . .. . ...... .............................. . .... .. ... . . . ........... 4 Communities in agricultural planning ............ ,.. .. .................... ... .. . ............. 70 Members in community agricultural planning . . ......................... . . . .. . . . ..... 260 Planning meetings held .............. ... ............................ . . . ..................... . .. . ........... 322 Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration workers ... . ..... . ................... . . . . . ... . ................... . ..... ... . . ........ .. ...... . .. . ..... .. ....... . ... 341 Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen . . ... .. .. . . . ................. .. . .. . . . . ...... 755 Days of voluntary leaders or committeemen ... . .......................... . .. . .. . ....... 194 CROP PRODUCTION D . ays devoted to work ..................................... . .. . .. .. . ..... . ............... . . ... .......... . . 922 Communities in which work was conducted ... . ... . ... . ... . ....... . ... : ....... . .... . . . ..... 1,054 Voluntary leaders and committeemen ..... . ... . .... . .. .... .. . ... . ....... .... . . . . . . . . .. ....... 1,060 LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY Days devoted to work ................. . . . ...................... . .. . . .. .................... . . . . . .. . ......... 695 Communities in which work was conducted ...... . . .. . . ... . ............ . ...... . ...... . ..... 693

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension Voluntary committeemen and leaders ......... . ........................ . . . ................... 547 Breeding and improvement organizations .. . . .. .......................................... 33 Farmers assisted . . ........... . .. . . . .. .. . .... . . ............ . ...... .. .... .. ........ . .. . .................. .. ....... 6,275 CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Days devoted to work .... . . . ... .. . .. ................... . . .. . . ....................... . . . .................. 127 Communfties in which work was conducted . . .. . .................. . ... . ................ 159 Voluntary local leaders and committeemen . . ... . .. . .................. . .. . ............... 27 Farmers a s sisted in soil man a gement . . .... .. .. ... .. . ... . ......... .. .... . . ... .. . .. . ...... . ... 869 Farmers as s i s ted in forestry and wild life conservation ... ... .. . .. .. ....... . . . . 1,444 FARM MANAGEMENT Days devot e d to work ... . .... .. . . ...................... . . . .... . .......................................... 200 Farmers assisted .............. .. ..... .. ......... . .......... . ... .. ... .. ... . .................. . .................. 4,061 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Day s devoted to work .. . ... . .. .. .. . ..... . ... .. .. .. . .. . . '. . ... ...... . ... . . . .... .. ........... . .............. 40 Communities in which work was conducted . .. ... . . . ................ . ...................... 74 Voluntary leaders and committeemen ........ . .. .. ...................... ... ...... . ........... 62 Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ............ ... .. . . . ............ 601 MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Days devoted to work ------------780 Communities in which work was conduct e d ---------------------1,076 Established cooperatives assisted --------------------------------------------18 New cooperatives assisted in organizing --18 Value of product s sold or 'purchased by cooperatives as s isted during the y e ar (e s tablished and new) --$ 13,414.00 Value of products s old or purcha s ed by farmers or families (not memb e r s of cooperatives) assisted during year .... .. . . $ 2,950,684.00 HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT Day s devoted to work 307 Communiti es in which work was conducted 394 Voluntary leaders and comm i tteemen 272 Families a ss isted in house furnishings, s urroundings , m e chanical equipment, rural electrification 4,155 NUTRITION AND HEALTH Days devoted to work 1,095 Communities in which work was done -------------------720 Families as s i s ted: Improving diets-1,888; Food Preparation-1,344; Total --------: .. 3,232 Families assi s t e d with food-preservation pr o blems 2,495 COMMUNITY WORK Days devoted to work . .. ., . . .. ........ . .. ..... . . . . . . .... ... . .. . .. .. ...... . .. . . .. .... .... .... .. . . ... . . .. . . 422 Communities in which work was done in problems in clothing, family economic s, parent education and community life ............ .. .................. 449 Families, clubs and groups assisted in problems in clothing, family economic , s, parent education and community life 9,878

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Annual Report, 1943 SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS Projects completed by boys ..... ................. ....... ............... ................... ...... ...... . Projects completed by girls . ...... ............. .......... ...... ...................... .. ..... .. .. ... . . Boys completing corn and peanut projects .......... . . . .......................... . ....... . Boys completing fruit and garden projects .. .. .. .... . .... . ........ .......... ......... . Boys completing dairy and poultry projects ........ .... .................... . .......... . Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects .. . . . ... ... ..................... . . . ........ . Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ...................... . ........ . Boys completing beef cattle and swine project s ...................... .. ... . ......... . Girls completing dairy and poultry projects ... .. . .. . .. ..................... . .......... . Girls completing home gardens and fruit orchard projects ............... . Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ... ....... .... . .... . Girls completing health, home nursing and fir s t aid .................... ... ........ . Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and room improvement projects ............ ............ ....... ....................... ........ ..... . Girls completing food preservation projects .. ...... . . . ................................ . 4-H Membership Boys: Farm-2,596; Non-farm-225; Total ......................... : . . ......... . Girls: Farm-1,609; Non-farm-235; Total ..................... ........ ........ . 4-H club members having health examinations because of participa tion in extension program .. . . ....................................................•............. 4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school grounds and conducting local fairs ............. ..... ..................... . . . .. ......... . 43 4,610 9,476 1,121 1,362 572 152 324 482 887 1,378 1,051 628 1,581 1,035 2,821 1,844 1,062 1,238