Citation
Report Florida agricultural extension service

Material Information

Title:
Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title:
Annual report
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla. The Service
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Creation Date:
1942
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1939-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note:
At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46387223 ( OCLC )
2001229382 ( LCCN )

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Full Text







COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE ANDi HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June$0, 1914)
AGBiXcmTu3AZ ExTxUNSION SzENY, UNxIVrTy OF FU3A
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AmD UNrm SrAmin DwAxrxuuT or Aaazwuau
COOPERATING
WILCON NewuL, Director











1942, REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE




~. _, -:






REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1942
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED .
JUNE 30, 1942











COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director












1942 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE











REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1942 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1942








BOARD OF CONTROL H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak THos. W. BRYANT, Lakeland
R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale J.T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension' A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Acting Director J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor' CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor' JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor' FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
Cooperative Agricultural Demonstration Work W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist and District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent N. H. MCQUEEN, Assistant Boys' Club Agent W. W. BASSETT, JR., B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent' A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist' HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman' D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Extension Poultryman' A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist' CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management V. V. BOWMAN, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist' K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist
Cooperative Home Demonstration Work MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent LucY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent RUBY McDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Nutritionist VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist Negro Extension Work A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent
Part-time.
On leave of absence for Military Service.

[2]












CONTENTS
Page
R eport of D irector and V ice-Director ------------------------------------------------ --------------- 7
Financial Statem ent . . _ . . . 8
Statistical Report . __ . ----------- . . - . 8
A gricultural Conservation --------------------------------- - . 12
Editorial and M ailing . ___ . 15
County Farm A gents ---------- _ --_------------ . 18
A gricultural Econom ics . . 19
Farm M anagem ent ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19
M arketing . . __ . - --------------- 20
A gricultural Planning . _ ------_ ---_--- . 21
A gronom y . . 22
A nim al H usbandry, D airying and Poultry ---- - . . 24
A nim al H usbandry . . . --------------------------------------- 24
D airying . _ -------------------------------------------------------------- . 26
Poultry . . ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27
Boys' 4-H Club W ork . . . _ --_-----_---_----------- . 30
Citrus Fruit Culture --- ------------ . - -------- -----_--------- --------------------------------- 32
Farm Forestry ---------- ---------------- . 34
Soil Conservation ---------------_ -------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36
H om e D em onstration -------- ----------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 37
Food, N utrition and H ealth . 43
Gardening and Food Conservation . 46
Clothing and Textiles . . -------------------------------------------------- 50
H om e Im provem ent . 52
N egro Farm D em onstration W ork ------------------------------------- . --------------- 55
N egro H om e D em onstration W ork ---- ----------- _ . 58
N egro Statistical Report . . 60





3




















Hon. Spessard L. Holland
Governor of Florida
Tallahassee, Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1942, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1942.
Respectfully,
H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Board of Control







Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERS President, University of Florida







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADD RESS AGENT
Alachua .Loonis Blitch --------_-.Gainesville --- Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker--.------J. M. Kennedy.------Macdlenny.
Bay . M. B. Miller . Panama City----------------- . .
Bradford .L. T. Dyer. Starke-------------------------.
Brevard.----_T. L. Cain . Cocoa . Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward-------B. E. Lawton. Ft. Lauderdale .Miss Olga Kent
Calhoun--_. Blountstown .Mrs. Mary Bridges Charlotte .R. A. Fulford . Punta Gorda. Citrus. 0. M. Maines . Inverness.------Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Clay. Gn. Cve Spg.-Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird Columbia .Guy Cox . Lake City . Miss Elizabeth Dickenson Dade. u. fl. Steffani.------Miami.-----Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.).J. L. Edwards . Miami.----Miss Margaret Delaney DeSoto.-------E. H. Vance.-------.-Arcadia.--------------Dixie . . . X. Brenneis. -- Cross City. Duval. A. S. Lawton. Jacksonville.------Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.).G. T. Huggins. Jacksonville ---- Mrs. Dorothea Calmes Escambia.----E. H. Finlayson .Pensacola .Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden .Henry Hudson .Quincy .Miss Elise Laffitte Gilchrist.A. S. Laird. Trenton. Glades .F. D. Yaun. Moore Haven. Gulf. J. B. White .Wewahitchka . Mrs. Pearl Whitfield Hardee .H. L. Miller. Wauchula . Hernando .C. D. Newbern. Brooksville. Highlands.L. H. Alsmeyer.Sebring. Hillsborough.--- Alec White. Tampa . Hillsborough.J. 0. Armor (Asst.) .Plant City. Hillsborough. (West) .Tampa . Mrs. Caroline M. Boogher Hillsborough. (East) .Plant City .Mrs. Irene R. Harvey Holmes . ---A. G. Hutchinson.Bonifay.----Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson . J. . W. Malone . Marianna .Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter
Jeff erson .E. N. Stephens . Monticello.-----Mrs. Ella Loeb
Lafayette .J. T. Oxford . Mayo. Lake . R. E. Norris. Tavares. Mrs. Lucie K. Miller Lee . C. P. Hueck . Ft. Myers.---------.
Leon. . . J. G. Kelley.-------Tallahassee. Miss Joyce Bevis
Levy. T. D. Rickenbaker.-----Bronson.------Mrs. Essa Shaw
Madison -------S. L. Brothers . Madison .Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee. .Ed. L. Ayers .Bradenton .Miss Margaret Cobb Marion. cl.Ocl-----------Miss Allie Lee Rush
Nassau .J. D. Coleman, Jr.Hilliard. Okeechobee .C. A. Fulford.-------Okeechobee .
Okaloosa .F. W. Barber. Crestview. Orange .K. C. Moore . Orlando .Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola._---J. R. Gunn. Kissimmee.-_--Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach.--M. U. Mounts . W. Palm Beach.Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pasco .J. A. McClellan, Jr.-----Dade City . Pinellas.J. H. Logan . Clearwater. Miss Tillie Roesel Asst. Mrs. Eileen Hammock
Polk . W. P. Hayman.------Bartow.------Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam.H. E. Westbury_.Palatka . .Miss Opal Walker St. Johns.----------------St. Augustine . Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie.-----Myron M. Yarn .Fort Pierce. Santa Rosa.---E. D. McCall. Milton. Miss Eleanor Barton Seminole .C. R. Dawson.------Sanford . Mrs. Ouida Wilson
Sarasota.-----W. E. Evans.aata. . aata-------------------------Sumter .Carl Hendricks.------Bushnell.-----.
Suwannee.----S. C. Kierce.------Live Oak. Miss Louise Taylor
Taylor .D. D. McCloud .Perry. Mrs. Ruth Elkins Union. Harry J. Brinkley.-----Lake Butler. Volusia.F. E. Baetzman .DeLand. Mrs. Gladys Kendall Wakulla.N. J. Albritton. -Crawfordville. Walton. DeFuniak Spgs.Miss Eloise McGriff Washington.K. A. Clark. Chipley.
[ 5]









NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua . . - . Otha W. Nealy . Gainesville
Columbia and So. Suwannee . McKinley Jeffers . Lake City
Gadsden . . Russell Stephens . Quincy
Hamilton and No. Suwannee . N. H. Bennett . White Springs
Jackson . Thomas A. Harris . Marianna
Jefferson . M. E. Groover . Monticello
Leon . Trolley Wyer, Jr . . I . Tallahassee
Marion . Eugune P. Smith . Ocala
Sumter . . Alonzo A. Young . Bushnell

COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua . Mary Todd McKenzie . Gainesville
Duval . Ethel M. Powell . Jacksonville Gadsden . . Diana H. Bouie . Quincy
Hillsborough . Floy Britt . Tampa
Jackson . Sudella J. Ford . Marianna
Leon . Maude K. Mumford . Tallahassee
Madison . Althea Ayer . . Madison
Marion . Idella R. Kelly . Reddick
Putnam . Fannie B. Diggs . Palatka































61











PART I -GENERAL

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR
Wilmon Newell, Director
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director
Meeting the federal crop production goals principally occupied the Florida Agricultural Extension Service during 1942. Committees for the purpose were set up within the organization and extended to represent county and community effort.
Personnel changes in the period chiefly came about when county agents resigned to enter military service or accept private employment at higher salaries. Supervisory and specialist staffs continue as before, except for the resignation of one marketing member and his successor's appointment. Addition was made of a soil conservationist.
Financial support for the work from state and federal sources did not materially differ from that available in the preceding 12 months, though the demands upon the Extension Service increased greatly. Maintaining efficiency grew more difficult as the duties multiplied and became further varied. Counties in several instances helped out by raising their appropriations.
RESULTS AND PROSPECTS
Output from Florida farms was materially enlarged during the crop and livestock seasons, despite mounting difficulties about procuring fertilizer, insecticides, labor, machinery, and transportation.
Contributions to the end thus achieved made by the Extension Service workers have been freely acknowledged, alike by the rural people among whom they labored and the government agencies charged with responsibility for keeping up food supplies.
Conditions confronted during the time will probably take on added intensity as the war situation develops. Rationing equipment and supplies has given the problem new angles. Ceiling prices on farm products caused a further complication concerning which apprehension is felt.

COOPERATION BETWEEN AGENCIES
Wartime conditions have created numerous new federal agencies dealing with farming and almost without exception these make their field contacts through Agricultural Extension Service offices and personnel. County agents in particular have had their programs greatly enlarged as the inevitable consequence.
Calls have multiplied meanwhile from the groups previously existing, asking assistance on an expanded scale in meeting their added responsibilities. Plans for work that had been set up in the Extension Service along the lines hitherto followed necessarily underwent shrinkage or side-tracking to some extent, because of these various demands.
Coordination between other federal and state units operating in different but related fields has been promoted on numerous occasions during the year under Agricultural Extension Service sponsorship. Endeavors in that direction will almost certainly require even more time, as the war situation increasingly affects the rural people. Losses of its own manpower to the armed forces or essential manufacturing enterprises will be further felt by the Extension Service at the same time, beyond question.







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORTS FROM SPECIALISTS

Projects previously started which have been continued during the period covered in this report are briefly reviewed in the following pages, by the specialists in each division. Attention is also paid in their findings to the additional undertakings they have directed or helped to prosecute. Alterations in the activities may be expected as the need and the opportunity develop.
Financial statements and statistical summaries are presented immediately hereinafter.
EMPLOYEES JOIN ARMED SERVICES
Twelve employees of the Florida Extension Service, 3 from the state staff and 9 county workers, had joined the country's armed forces by the end of 1942. They are Winmer W. Bassett, Jr., assistant boys' club agent, D. F. Sowell, extension poultryman, and J. C. Bedsole, assistant leader in land-use planning, and Stuart C. Bell, F. X. Brenneis, Miss Beulah Felts, T. K. McClane, P. R. McMullen, A. M. McNeely, J. Raymond Mills, W. J. Platt, Jr., and Marshall 0. Watkins, county workers.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1942 RECEIPTS
Smith-Lever and Bankhend Jones, Federal. $202,029.95 Capper-Ketcham, Federal-----------------------.27,417.72
Clarke-McNary, Federal .--------.---.1,620.00
State-Salaries.-----_.I~-------- -. 60,980.00
Operating.------. . 47,820.00
Continuing Appropriation ----- _._------------------------ 5,000,00
County Appropriations-----------------.- ------- 142,504.99
$487,372.66
Special State Appropriation, $80,400.00, not made available
EXPENDITURES
Smith-Lever and Bankhead Jones, Federal . $199,866.53 Capper-Ketchum, Federal-----------------------.26,872.10
Clarke-McNary, Federal ----------.--.1,620.00
State-Salaries .----------59,990.80
Operating.----------------------36,894.12
Continuing Appropriation. . 5,000.00 County Appropriations by County Boards.-----142,504.99 Balance carried over . 15,124.12

$487,372.66
STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants). 1,172 Days of service: In office-14,075; In field-15,780; Total . 29,855 Farm or home visits made . 48,060 Different farms or homes visited.-----------------25,427
Calls relating to extension work: Office-283,669; Telephone .120,286 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth.-------6,503 94








Annual Report, 1942

News articles or stories published . ----------------------------------- 6,074
Bulletins distributed ---------------------------------------------------------------- _ ----------------- 154,855
Radio talks broadcast or prepared . 583 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 600
Total attendance of men and women ------------------------------------------------ 8,632
Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber . --------------------_---_ 6,256
Total attendance . --_---------------------- 75,683
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
N um ber . - ---------------------------------------------- 1,644
A ttendance ---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------- 17,235
T ours . ------------- 227
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work -------- 302
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings -_-----------_-_--- 9,374

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total num ber of farm s ---------- ------------------------------------------------- . 65,482
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32,336
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from
home demonstration program ------------------------------------------------------------ 16,426
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year ------------- ---------------------------------- 7,777
Farm homes in whi& changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration program for the first time this year -------------------- 4,142
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled ------------------------------------ 8,560
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the
agricultural program . 9,806 Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of
home demonstration program . 11,264
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled . 3,628
Different farm families influenced by some phase of extension
program ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 38,945
Other families influences by some phase of extension program ---- 21,468

CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT
Communities conducting war work . 817 Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program . 1,911
Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian
defense, and other war work . 4,500

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING

Members in agricultural planning group ---------------------------------------- 1,297
U npaid ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------- 978
P aid . . 319 Communities in agricultural planning -------------- . ----------------- 283
Members in community agricultural planning . 665
Planning m eetings held ---------_-- -----------------_---- --------------------------------- ------ 825
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demontsration w orkers . . . 2,050 Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen --------_------------------ . 2,504
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 4,330








10 Florida Cooperative Extension

CROP PRODUCTION

Days devoted to w ork . 4,888 Communities in which work was conducted . 2,615 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 2,282

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to w ork . 4,448% Communities in which work was conducted . 1,838 Voluntary committeemen and leaders . 917 Breeding and improvement organizations -------------------------------------------- 68
Farm ers assisted . : . 1,123

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
D ays devoted to work . 983 Communities in which work was conducted . 708 Voluntary local leaders and committeemen . 515 Farmers assisted in soil management . . 22,900 Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation . 6,500

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to w ork . . _ . 1,395 Farm ers assisted . __ _------------------ . 28,808

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Days devoted to w ork . . . . 3841/2 Communities in which work was conducted . 387 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 306
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted . 596

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work . 1,675y2 Communities in which work was conducted . 1,962 Established cooperatives assisted . 57 New cooperatives assisted in organizing 'products . . 17
Value of/sold or 'purchased by cooperatives assisted during the
year (established and new) . $13,640,507 Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year . $13,423,811

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
D ays devoted to w ork . . 1,291 Communities in which work was conducted . 1,051 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 725 Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification . . 20,847

'NUTRITION AND HEALTH
D ays devoted to w ork . -------------------------------------- 4,881
Communities in which work was done . 2,275 Families assisted: In improving diets-11,705; food preparation9,869; T otal . 21,574 Families assisted with food preservation problems . . 18,291







Annual Report, 1942


COMMUNITY WORK
Days devoted to w ork . 2,620 Communities in which work was done in 'problems in clothing,
family economics, parent education and community life . 1,386 Families assisted in home management, clothing, family economics,
parent education and community life . 53,364

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects com pleted by boys . . _ . . 2,826 Projects com pleted by girls . . 23,113 Boys completing corn and peanut projects . . 367 Boys completing fruit and garden projects -----------_-------_--- ----------_ 690
Boys completing dairy and poultry projects ---------- -----------------------_---- 683
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects . 24 Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects . 68 Boys completing beef cattle wid swine projects . 707 Girls completing fruit and garden projects . 3,771 Girls completing dairy and poultry projects . 968 Girls completing food selection and preparation projects . 3,827 Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects . 1,429 Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings
and room improvement projects . 6,979 Girls completing food preservation projects . . 1,889 4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-3,733; Non-farm-678; Total . 4,441 Girls: Farm-6,452; Non-farm-3,498; Total . . 9,950 4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in extension program . 1,356 4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs . . 1,511







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION

H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge
R. S. Dennis, State Performance Supervisor

The Florida Agricultural Extension Service plays an important part in the work of the Agricultural Adjustment Agency in this state. The county agent is secretary to the county agricultural conservation association. In the county offices the AAA work and Extension work are carried on in in the same offices. The State AAA Committee is composed of the following members: James J. Love, Chairman, Gadsden County; C. S. Lee, Seminole County; W. B. Anderson, Jackson County; H. C. Brown, Lake County; and A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension, ex-officio member.
During the year of 1942 the work of the Agricultural Adjustment Agency and, consequently, the work of the county agents in connection with AAA was greatly extended and broadened by the demands of the war effort. A brief outline of the 1942 work follows.

USDA WAR BOARDS
The USDA War Boards are composed of representatives of all USDA agencies active in the field. These boards were organized in 1941 under authority delegated to the Agricultural Adjustment Agency by the Secretary of Agriculture. The AAA State Administrative Officer is chairman of the State War Board, the chairman of the AAA county committee is chairman of the county war board, while the county extension agent is secretary. Other USDA agencies represented on the state and county war boards in 1942 are: Soil Conservation Service, Bureau of Crop Estimates, Farm Credit Administration, Forest Service, Rural Electrification Administration, and Farm Security Administration. These war boards have rendered great assistance in carrying out the activities of the year.

AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION

The 1942 Agricultural Conservation Program attached particular importance to: (1) Food and feed production to meet the -necessary demands of the war effort; (2) The most efficient and productive use of the available farm labor, land, equipment, and other production facilities; (3) The conservation and improvement of soil resources to the end that future production needs could be met. All of these objectives were substantially accomplished.
Food and Feed Production-Early in November, 1941, the State USDA War Board established county goals for the production of needed crops, livestock, livestock )products, poultry and poultry products. These goals in practically all cases represented substantial increases and in some instances phenomenal increases over past production. Some of these goals were again revised upward in January of 1942.
The county USDA war boards in turn broke the county goals down to individual farms and 'proceeded with a farm-to-farm canvass and signup, securing pledges from the individual farmers to make every effort to meet the goals assigned to the farm. A 1942 farm production that broke all existing records rewarded their efforts. Table 1 gives the revised state goals.






Annual Report, 1942 13

TABLE 1-1942 REvisED STAT, GOALS FOR PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS.
I
Commodity Unit Revised State Goal
I January, 1942
M ilk* . . Pounds. 378,000,000 Eggs* . Dozen 18,750,000 Hogs* . Pounds 79,013,000 Peanuts* . Acres 273,000 Gardens . Number 61,500 Cattle and calves for slaughter Head 236,000
Oats . . A cres 14,000 H ay . . . Acres 126,000 Irish potatoes ------------------------------ Acres 32,000
Sweet potatoes ---------------------------- Acres 20,000
Corn* . . Acres 750,000 Commercial. vegetables,
including market gardens . Acres 201,000
Chickens* --------------------- - ---- Pounds 141/o above 1941
. - - ------ Pounds 101/o above 1941
Turkeys . ------------------------Tobacco, flue-cured* ---- Acres 15,160
Cotton* . Acres 65,000'
Gum naval stores . . Units 118,000
Price support in effect.
Includes staples of 11/2 inches and longer.
Unit is 1 barrel (50 gallons) turpentine, and 31/3 barrels rosin. 500 pounds gross.
Preliminary crop r reports indicate that the goal for peanuts harvested is the only goal that was not substantially reached or exceeded by a good margin.
Most Efficient Use of Available Land, Labor, and Equipment.-As a means to obtain the needed essential 'production of food and feed crops and to meet war crop goals, use was made of existing facilities, such as acreage allotments for certain special crops, with payments to the farm for planting within the allotment, and marketing quotas for flue-cured tobacco, short cotton, and peanuts for the edible trade. In the case of cotton and tobacco, farmers were encouraged to plant even below their allotments and to use the acreage, labor, fertilizer, and equipment thus released to produce more of the needed food crops.
As a means of aiding in the most efficient use of production facilities, such as farm machinery and equipment and farm transportation, war boards were requested to ration farm machinery and assist farmers in )reparing applications and appeals in connection with certificates of war necessity for farm trucks. The AAA and Extension county office personnel have devoted a tremendous amount of time to these activities and the work in this connection has been of untold value to the farmers and to the consuming public. On the farm labor front the war boards, through the AAA and Extension employees, have made every effort possible to bring the labor needs of the farmer to the attention of the authorities through the medium of regular reports and by other means.
Conservation and Improvement of the Soil.-Three means have been used in 1942 to accomplish soil conservation and improvement. First, assistance in the form of payments to farmers was offered to enable them to carry out needed soil-building practices. These payments, on the average, are equal to about one-half the cost of carrying out the practice. Many of the , se practices also contribute directly to increased food and feed production. The most important and widely used of the soil building practices applicable in Florida are: the application of phosphate materials and potash to or, in connection with the seeding of certain soil-improving crops, the applica-







14 Florida Cooperative Extension

tion of limestone where needed, the seeding of winter legumes, establishment of improved pasture by seeding or sodding, maintenance of improved pastures, construction of terraces, growing and turning under green manure and cover crops, intefplanting of certain legumes with other crops, planting forest trees, and growing home gardens. Data are -not yet available showing the results of this phase of the program for 1942, but careful estimates indicate that at least 50,000 farmers took advantage of these provisions and that the assistance given them for this purpose will total approximately $1,950,000.
Second, certain materials and seeds were made available to farmers
-without the outlay of cash, being charged against the farmer's earned payment. The table below shows the kinds and amounts of materials and seeds made available under this plan and the number of producers receiving each.

Kind Quantity No. of Producers
Limestone . . 10,994 Tons . 1,425 Superphosphate . ---------- 3,940 Tons ------ ---_------_ 996
Austrian winter pea seed . 223,210 Pounds . . 599 Oats ------------------_------- ---------- 2,952 Bushels _. . 120
Rye . _ . . _ . 18 Bushels . 5 Forest trees . 7,800 . 4

This feature of the program has enabled many small farmers to carry out soil-building practices on their farms which otherwise would not have been possible.
Third, the provisions of the 1942 program required each farmer to devote at least 25 percent of his cropland to non-depleting crops or erosionresisting uses as a condition of payment in connection with his cotton, tobacco, Irish potato or peanut allotment. Many of these non-depleting or erosion-resisting crops also contributed to the production of needed food and feed. They included peanuts hogged off, improved permanent pasture, cowpeas, and fall-seeded small grains. Other practices, such as fall-seeded winter legumes, green manure crops, kudzu, forest trees, and land terraced, contributed to soil improvement and the storing of soil fertility for use in future years. This provision affected approximately 20,000 farms and required approximately 330,000 acres to be devoted to the specified uses. Farmers on the average more than met these requirements.

MISCELLANEOUS ACCOMPLISHMENTS

Other activities carried out under the Agricultural Adjustment Agency programs include: (a) The marketing quota program for cotton, tobacco, and peanuts. In 1942 there were 12,320 farms eligible for cotton marketing quotas; 6,219 farms eligible for tobacco marketing quotas; and 9,389 farms eligible for peanut marketing quotas. (b) The Sugar Program included 36 growers who planted approximately 33,600 acres of sugarcane for sugar. The final harvested acreage figures are not yet available.
(c) Cooperation with the Agricultural Marketing Administration in their price support operations for Florida crops and products. (d) Assistance to farmers in securing essential material and equipment under priority and rationing regulations. (e) Keeping county war boards and farmers informed of the requirement of war-time regulations and restrictions affecting Florida agriculture.







Annual Report, 1942


EDITORIAL AND MAILING

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor

Goals for the production of food, fiber and oil crops announced early in the year by Secretary of Agriculture Wickard were the chief subjects emphasized by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service in 1942. In keeping with this program, the Editorial Department lent encouragement and assistance in the production of these needed items through the use of news stories, farm paper articles, radio talks, bulletins, posters, and other means.

MATERIALS PRINTED DURING THE YEAR

For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942, the Extension Service printed 4 new bulletins, 4 circulars, and numerous other materials of various kinds. The 4 bulletins amounted to 264 pages of material, and the editions totaled 50,000 copies.

The following printed materials were issued during the year:

Pages Edition
Bul. 111 Swine Production in Florida -------- _ ----------------------------- 60 15,000
Bul. 112 Avocado Production in Florida ---- __ . 112 7,500 Bul. 113 Papaya Culture in Florida . . 36 7,500 Bul. 114 Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables . 56 20,000 Circ. 60 Florida Farmers and Food for Freedom -------- 12 10,000
Cire. 61 Food for Home and Victory --------- - --_-------- . 16 20,000
Cire. 62 Making and Using Sauerkraut . ---- 8 10,000 Circ. 63 Grazing for Florida Livestock ----------------------------------- 8 12,000
M.P. 30 Soil Reaction as a Basis for Certain Land
Management Practices - ---------------------------------------- 36 4,500
M.P. I Citrus Grove Record Book (reprint) -------------_--------- 700
M.P. 10 4-H Livestock Club Record (reprint) . 12 6,000
Florida Calendar Flock Records, 6 issues, each . 4 1,000
Final Report, 15th Florida National Egg-Laying
T est . 24 1,500
Rules, 17th Florida National Egg-Laying Test . 4 1,000 1942 Calendar ---------------------------------------------------------------- 12 12,000
Food goals cards ---------------------------------------------------------- _ 1 200
Office Cards, Defense Cooperation ------------_---_--------- 1 250
Window cards-Plant Peanuts . . . 1 1,250 Form 6 Agents' Monthly Report and Certificate of Service 2 5,000
N utrition Score Sheet -------------------------------------------------- 1 600
Hog Vaccination Record Book ------------------------------------ 100 100
Group Credit Chart No. 1, 4-H Boys' Short Course 1 250
Group Credit Chart No. 2, 4-H Boys' Short Course 1 500
Victory Garden-4-H Boys' Record Book . 16 10,000 Florida 4-H Club Songs . 12 10,000
Agricultural News Service clipsheet, 42 issues,
each ----------------------------- _ . ----------------------------------- 1 900







Florida Cooperative Extension


MATERIALS FURNISHED PERIODICALS

Newspapers and farm journals published and circulating in Florida continued to-print copious quantities of materials released by the Extension Service Editors. A special Food for Freedom section, an 8-page tabloid, was printed and supplied to 41 cooperating (mostly weekly) newspapers, which distributed a total of 50,000 copies as part of their regular editions. The section was devoted entirely to food goals and their importance, with hints on how farmers might enable themselves to reach the goals.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, continued to carry from 8 to 15 different stories each week to weekly and a few daily newspapers in Florida, and newspapers continued to use generously from it.
Two daily papers printed a farm questions and answers column weekly during most of the year, the copy being furnished by the Extension Editors. These printed questions and answers always resulted in a number of additional queries being received by Experiment Station and Extension Service workers.
Special stories to dailies were sent mostly through the press associations, but an average of at least one story a week was sent direct to one or more newspapers. Skeleton stories occasionally were sent to county agents to fill in and turn over to their newspapers.
Farm journals in Florida, the South and the Nation used more material than ever before from Florida Extension Editors. Four Florida journals printed 15 stories for a total of 532 column inches, 2 Southern journals printed 9 stories amounting to 107 column inches, and 4 national periodicals printed 10 articles totaling 176 column inches, all supplied by Florida Editors.

RADIO MATERIALS AND BROADCASTING

The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF continued to be the principal radio outlet for farm material from the Extension Service, although Farm Flashes for five-days-a -week broadcasting were sent to 13 other radio stations. County and home agents broadcast regularly, mostly weekly, over 5 or more stations outside of Gainesville. The Florida Farm Hour was cut to 55 minutes near the close of this year.
A recapitulation shows that a total of 483 talks were made over WRUF during the Florida Farm Hour's six-days-a-week schedule. Of these, 85 were made by Extension workers other than Editors, 139 by Experiment Station staff members, 178 by the Editors, 26 by College of Agriculture workers, 8 by the head of the Florida USDA War Board, 1 by a State Plant Board staff member, and 46 by others. Due to the curtailment of travel, more Farm Hour programs presented local talent this year than usual.
During December, 1941, 2 Florida Farm Hour programs were curtailed so that WRUF could broadcast declarations of war in the United States Congress.
In addition to the talks listed, Farm Flashes and home demonstration copy from the USDA and transcriptions from the Farm Credit Administration were used on the Farm Hour. Cooperation was extended the Farm Security Administration and other agencies.
From talks made by Extension workers a total of 55 Farm Flashes were prepared and sent to the 13 other stations, which were furnished with a 7-minute broadcast for 5 days each week. This gave added distribution to the material contained in the Extension talks.







Annual Report, 1942 17

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
This office continued to handle news releases and radio broadcasts for the Florida USDA War Board and Agricultural Adjustment Administration. The State Plant Board, as usual, paid for the printing of 10 issues of the clipsheet, and news material was disseminated for them.
With travel restricted, the Editors made few trips during the year. However, the Editor did make a trip through western Florida, when he snapped 75 pictures which have already been largely used in illustrating articles and publications. In addition, he took a large number of pictures close to Gainesville.
The Editor appeared before a class in the College of Agriculture for 6 periods of 1 hour each. The class consisted of 10 senior students interested in Extension methods.
A magazine published in New York in Spanish and circulated in South America printed 1 Florida Extension circular, with our permission, thus giving the material circulation in South America.
Distribution of bulletins, printed materials and supplies continued to be handled by the Mailing Room. Bulletins were sent principally to county and home demonstration agents and on special request. About 5,000 people were notified when each new bulletin was available.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART 11 - MEN'S WORK

COUNTY FARM AGENTS

A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
E. F. DeBusk, District Agent
Conferences, institutes and tours were nearly all dropped in the Northwestern Florida district. Meetings held by volunteers for agricultural work, in county or neighborhood units, largely took their place.
Farm agents in the territory played a constructive part in drives for bond sales, gardens planting, scrap metal collection, and Victory pig raising. Rationing problems confronting farmers also had their attention, and they helped overcome machinery, labor, fertilizer and like shortages.
Personnel changes presented particular difficulties in many counties. Agents have been maintained in each one, nevertheless.
Organization of farmers by communities was accomplished in all units. Gatherings attended by the District Agents, assembled to further that purpose, brought out thousands of )persons.
Ten or more supplementary jobs connected with prosecuting the war 7ere held by almost every county agent and the agents were also enlisted in a dozen or more related tasks as high privates.
Production methods hitherto considered adequate underwent close scrutiny and sustained marked improvement as the result, after the war emergency conditions grew acute.
"Living-at-home" practices so long advocated by the Agricultural Extension Service showed their need more than ever and the previous findings in reference thereto proved of the greatest value in procuring greater food supplies.







Annual Report, 1942


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist


FARM MANAGEMENT

R. H. Howard, Extension Economist C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist

Farm and grove record keeping assumed 'paramount importance with increasing income tax levies, looming price ceiling threats and multiplying rationing requirements affecting rural residents.
Tours hitherto conducted among -farmers and growers had to be abandoned when rubber and gasoline shortages developed, and the Extension Service messages were thereafter transmitted chiefly through the public prints and by means of radio broadcasts.
Plant food elements used in fertilizers received special study at the request of growers. Findings therefrom helped obtain better-balanced ingredients and more liberal allowances for citrus groves under the regulations of the several federal agencies which control the manufacture and sale.
Farm and enterprise record books numbering about 2,000 were furnished upon individual applications. Assistance in utilizing the forms from the 'standpoint of income returns was extended freely. County agents and the Farm Management Specialists worked together and separately in this connection.
Grove records have been summarized in the Extension Service offices for 224 cooperating growers, and 78 others supplied by different bookkeeping systems were included. Data from preceding years furnished the basis for a paper read at the Citrus Institute setting forth trends in production costs and returns.
Two cattle ranches located not far apart had detailed record accounting set up under supervision from Extension Service Specialists. Similar direction has been given 19 cooperators in a farm forestry project sponsored by the State Forest and Park Service, for the first 12 months of the 5 years it is to run.
SMALL FARM NEEDS

Low-income farmers in several counties have been assisted toward employing better management practices, and the recommendations as carried out are credited with substantially enlarging the output from their acreage.
Land-use 'programs initiated in preceding years had the results reviewed in manuscript form for early publication, these circulars to stress the relation with the current endeavor to enlarge foodstuffs output.

OUTLOOK REPORTS

Attendance upon the 1942 annual farm outlook conference at Washington, D. C. enabled the Farm Management Specialist better to understand the country-wide situation and depict it for Florida people.







Florida Cooperative Extension


MARKETING

D. E. Timmons, Marketing Economist to April 15 V. V. Bowman, Marketing Economist from July I

Cooperation was extended the American Institute of Cooperation and the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives, following the annual meetings at Atlanta, January 6 to 16, in staging a Florida tour which started from Palatka on the 18th and ended at Miami on the 22nd.
Investigations prosecuted from the Extension Service Marketing Economist's office located and classified all fruit and vegetable canneries in this state. District meetings with county agents held at 4 central Points informed them regarding the findings.
Federal orders and regulations growing out of the war situation which deprived Florida growers and farm product processors of necessary materials required repeated studies, in which the data developed helped obtain considerable modifications. Tin for canning furnished a typical example. Substitutes for sugar previously used in gladiolus thrips control and the molasses hitherto utilized for other insecticides also resulted from the facts assembled.
Tabulations covering hog sales conducted by the Gulf Cooperative Marketing Association, with headquarters at Trenton, served some 500 members. Prices were shown by grade and size, and the statistics likewise indicated the number each individual offered. Auctions 'were held weekly from early September until well into April. Lots brought in averaged about
9 head each, but a few farmers delivered 25 to 40 head.


SUMMER AND FALL EVENTS

Truck crop marketing problems engaged a conference held in Gainesville, August 7, attended by representatives from numerous other federal and state agencies and points as far away as New York, Columbia, Chicago, and Atlanta. Data supplied by this office were utilized, and the minutes of the meeting were distributed through it.
Tomato shipping methods designed to lessen expense and wastage, which is occasioned by the practice of shipping green tomatoes, were discussed at two meetings in key producing centers, Princeton, Dade County, and Bradenton, Manatee. Information obtained during the discussion led to experimental work on this problem and may cause trial shipments of more nearly mature fruit in consumer containers.
Pecan auctions to supply the lack of an organized system for selling were established at 4 State Farmers' Markets, Starke, Pensacola, Marianna, and Lake City, through the cooperative efforts of the Agricultural Extension Service, the State Marketing Bureau and other agricultural agencies. Prices increased about 100 percent during the season, demand continued active, and the weekly sales for the season had a volume approaching 300,000 pounds which returned growers around $54,000.
Participation in the annual Extension conference centered around farm labor problems, occasioned principally by marketing labor peak requirements. Representatives of the United States Employment Service, Farm Security Administration and the State Defense Council led discussions in a program on farm labor arranged by the Extension Marketing Specialist.








Annual Report, 1942


AGRICULTURAL PLANNING WORK

V. V. Bowman, Leader in Land-Use Planning

County planning committees have been organized in 51 Florida counties. These county committees have a total membership of 1,344 made lip of the following: 679 farm men, 183 farm women, 233 United States Department of Agriculture agency representatives, 3 representatives of other federal agencies, and 246 representatives of state and local agencies.
Counties in which mapping and classification work has been done, and for which reports have been approved, are the following: Calhoun, Columbia, Escambia, Glades, Hendry, Hillsborough, Jefferson, Lafayette Madison, Palm Beach, Seminole, Volusia, Walton.
During the past year the work of the State Committee has been conducted by the executive and sub-committees, maintaining contact with other State Committee members by mail. Sub-committees which have been particularly active include those on farm labor, forestry, and production goals.
Meetings of both state and county agricultural planning committees have made 'possible a better mutual understanding of the work and problems of the different agencies and of farm people whom they serve. A closer coordination of programs has resulted.
During the present emergency War Boards and Defense Councils have been made responsible for many of the functions previously assigned to agricultural planning committees by the Mount Weather Agreement. This work was discontinued June 30, 1942.








Florida Cooperativec Extdension


AGRONOMY
J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist

Special emphasis was given the projects that tied in with the crop production goals set by the federal government. Extension Service agronomy activities helped materially in obtaining the heavier plantings of peanuts, corn, oats, hay, sweet potatoes and like products and the methods recommnended enlarged yields sizably.
Field crops goals committeemen appointed by the Extension Director included the Agronomist and county agents through the regions where general farming is followed. Placards, circular letters, news stories, radio talks and] personal contacts were utilized in carrying the message to the persons whose cooperation was most necessary.
Specialists in other Extension div isions gave valuable assistance on mnatters pertaining to their work. Credit is particularly due the Animal Husbandman and the Dairy Specialist for aid received in the pasture, forage anti similar liv estock undertakings. Federal cotton experts helped on the Sea Island cotton endeavor.
Upland cotton acreage reduction wxas advised but the production of longer-stapled output urged. Results secured were gratifying and nearly 60 percent of the crop was 1 inch or more in length. Sea Island plantings fell far below the goals, xxhich xvere announced too late, along with the supporting prices, and growers had become discouraged by poor returns previously-.

Fig. 1.-Peanuts we re an important wkar crop in Florida during 1942.
an arner rai-ed a much larger adcage than usal.




~' 7 .~
~4* ~( &J&







Annual Report, 1942


Flue-cured tobacco acreage did not quite meet the allotted total. Underplantings were the general rule, lest penalties be incurred at marketing time. Leaf quality turned out to be excellent, though the growing conditions were not favorable early in the season. Extension Service methods proved their value again, as demonstrated with plant beds construction and management, fertilizers, spacing, and so on.

PRODUCING FEED FOR MORE LIVESTOCK

Corn, peanuts and velvet beans for food and feed exceeded last year's production by 20 percent. Extension Service urging caused greatly expanded plantings of hybrid seed corn. Peanuts "hogged off" sent more swine to market from the state than ever before. Oats yielded about the same as heretofore. Seed of varieties developed at the North Florida Experiment Station in a 3,000-bushel lot were distributed through the Extension Agronomist.
Pastures were perhaps more widely maintained than in preceding years, the Extension workers aiding with sundry suggestions. Oats and lespedeza in combination formed a considerably larger acreage than hitherto. Grass seed was saved and used on a bigger scale. Hay production is believed to have picked up, the peanut contribution having been more than doubled.
Sugarcane acreage increased and the further distribution of improved varieties by county agents helped enlarge output, for both sugar and syrup. Sweet potatoes suffered from an early summer drouth.
Soil cover and manure crops furnished the best showing seen for years, especially in legumes, Extension workers and farmers joining to bring this about. Blue lupine seed approximating 30,000 pounds went to farmers through the Extension Agronomist, the sowings having been for supplying their own needs next fall or for sale to other planters.
Meetings to launch the winter crops plan took 'place in every county where the program applied, the Extension Agronomist receiving support from the Soil Conservationist and interested federal groups. County agents and the local committeemen for sundry projects took part.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY
A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist

Foods supply in the more substantial forms under mounting handicaps kept these 3 closely-related lines of work to the forefront during the year, and the preceding policies proved their worth anew amid the emergency condition thus confronted.


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman

Circular letters produced on an enlarged scale supplemented the spoken word and personal contacts in reaching the farming public. Editions ranged upward from a few score to 20,000 on the more than 2 dozen different editions.
Meetings attended brought the Extension Service Animal Husbandman in touch with representatives from other like groups, associated specialists and county agents and many livestock raisers. Cooperation was even closer than hitherto between the animal husbandry workers and the ones handling poultry and dairy products, food conservation, nutrition, and related programs.
Talks delivered before key organization meetings by the animal husbandman started with the address made in January at the State Cattlemen's annual convention at Kissimmee, and this was supplemented by an appearance at a fall session of the body's directors at Gainesville. Conferences held with farm credit and security clients at several points gave access to these United States Agriculture Department wards on a broadened scale.
BEEF CATTLE BREEDING

Reports indicate that the state 'produced more than the 65,000,000 pounds of beef the federal government bad urged. Methods stressed by this office helped materially in attaining the goal.
More than 1,800 home-raised breeding bulls were placed in Florida herds. Over 1,800 purebred sires were brought from outside. Bulls were winter-fed and heifers selected and culled as never before.
Pasture maintenance by cutting off weeds and briers enlisted 250 farmers, who worked around 250,000 acres. Grass lands fertilization
sizably increased. Sugarcane growing for winter feed multiplied and mineral supplements were in greater demand. Parasite and disease control gained ground. Beef clubs are achieving greater popularity.

SHOWS AND SALES
Rubber and gasoline shortages caused cancellation of the Florida Fair at Tampa and the Fat Stock Show and Sale in Jacksonville. Ocala nevertheless held the second yearly Southeastern Show and Sale in February. Results as compared with 12 months previous are reflected in the following table:








Annual Report, 19.1 2


1942 337
255,022
13.46
756
8101.88 .$34,336.21
20 31
6
60(,, per lb.
36
41


1941
160
97,920
12.49
862
$107.66 S12,230.20
1 1 0
55c per 11).
10 10


No. of cattle sold --- - - -- -_ - --Total weight (pounds) Average price per pound --------Average weight per steer Average price per head ----------T otal sales . . . . --------No. club members exhibiting No. 4-H club calves - --- ----No. 4-H judging teams - ----- Price of grand champion steer FFA Members exhibiting ------N o. FFA calves -------------------------


HOGS AND NN"ORK STOCK

Hog sales by the Gulf Cooperative Association have been expanded to cover Bell and Newberry as well as Trenton, where they were larger than heretofore. Auctions at several State Farmers' Livestock Markets efficiently served the surrounding country, handling swine, cattle and some cther types. Victory Pig Sales took place at Live Oak, Madison, Monticello, and Bonifay.


Fig. 2.-In response to goals for more hogs, requested by the United States Department of Agriculture, Florida farmers increased their bog produetion in 1942.

Slaughtering hogs for home use on farms gives Florida the pork from nearly 250,000 head every year. Freezer lockers are gaining ground slowly in the state. Negro farmers have shown no little interest in producing their own supplies.
Horses and mules rated revived and upward appraisal when motor vehicle fuels became scarce. Cattlemen and farmers raising colts for replacement also increased. Stallions and jacks reached new highs, 11 of the former having been on loan from the federal government.








Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING

By Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman

Milk on Florida farms for the families 12 months in the year afforded a major objective fitting in with the general foodstuffs program.
"Share-Your-Cow" clubs organized in towns and villages took on increased proportions. Treatment of family cows for Bang's disease and tuberculosis received a forward impulse.
Dairy bulls and heifers sold at cooperative auctions added notably to the potential milk output. Counties raising the stock profited from the distribution as never before.
Visits from the Extension Dairyman to the areas where the work was in progress helped him keep closely in touch with it and gave a dependable check on the results secured.
-Goals developed for milk production in 1943 brought together a state committee on dairying, in forming which this office took a leading part. Feed shortages introduced a deterring factor.

FEEDING CROP PRACTICES

Phosphates, lime rock, and like plant foods applied to farms in Florida have been perhaps more liberally utilized by dairymen than among any other class of producers.
Pastures fertilized according to approved methods assisted greatly in maintaining milk yields when imported feedstuffs became scarce. Clovers and grasses thrived which had been practically unknown 10 years previously.
Silo demonstrations in several sections again helped establish the feedgrowing system on a permanent basis. Corn and sorghum remained the foremost crops for utilization as silage. Construction of new silos was frequently reported by county agents.

ASSOCIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS

Herd testers have been difficult to obtain but the Dairy Herd Improvement Association's effort was kept going. Jersey and Guernsey registered herds went ahead with advance registry tests.
Florida Jersey Cattle Club members held their annual meeting at Sandyloam Farms, West Palm Beach, February 27th. Guernsey Club dairymen assembled on the same basis in Largo, September 25th.

SALES OF DAIRY ANIMALS

Dispersal sale held by the Sandyloam Farm owner, Hugh Dillman, on June 9th, found buyers in the state for 67 registered Jerseys which brought $11,995. Less than a dozen head went to outside buyers.
Sale sponsored every year by the Florida Jersey Cattle Club, this time in DeLand on May 15th, was again a great success. Guernsey breeders bad their sale, in connection with the yearly meeting of the Florida Club at Largo.







Annual Report, 1942


Fig. 3-Answering a call for more chickens and eggs, Florida farmers, aided by a salubrious climate, secured increased poultry meat and egg production.


POULTRY

Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
A. Woodrow O'Steen, Assistant Extension Poultryman

Data from official sources indicate that Florida enlarged her poultry output to exceed the 1942 production goals. The poultry goals committee of the Agricultural Extension Service sponsored a program for more eggs and poultry meat. This committee received full cooperation from several state agencies and associations.
Poultry work was conducted in nearly every county, emphasizing the production and marketing of high quality poultry products.
Extension workers assisted in fostering the National Poultry Improvement Plan, which is under the supervision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board.
Extension Poultryinen visited 39 counties, and also attended conferences and meetings held by the Florida Poultry Council, the Florida State Poultry Producers' Association and its local units, and the Florida Hatchery and Breeders' Association.

EGG-LAYING TEST

The Sixteenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, started October 1, 1941, and ended September 22, 1942. There were 86 pens of 13 pullets each from 19 different states and Cuba. Twelve pens were entered by Florida breeders from 6 different counties. In the entire Test there were 36 pens of heavy breeds and 50 pens of light breeds.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The average production for the 1,118 pullets in the Sixteenth Test was 200.5 eggs 'per bird and 207.7 points. This is the highest average egg production on record at the Florida Test.
The average feed consumption per bird for the 51 weeks was 110.89 pounds for the heavy breeds and 104.71 pounds for the light breeds. It required 6.50 pounds of feed to produce a dozen eggs for the heavy breeds and 5.58 pounds for the light breeds.
Practical feeding experiments are being conducted at the Chipley plant in addition to the Egg-Laying Test.

RESULTS REPORTED
Extension recommendations were followed by 1,214 farmers in obtaining better strains of baby chicks, 1,642 farmers in improving methods of feeding, 1,354 farmers in controlling external parasites, and 1,748 farmers in controlling disease and internal parasites.
Culling demonstrations in several counties gave satisfactory results.
Producers planned to grow more succulent green feed due to scarcity of essential feed ingredients.
Calendar flock record keeping continued to make substantial progress. Records for the past year showed an average egg production of 172 eggs per bird. Mortality was the lowest during the past 4 years.
Increases in production of broilers were made principally around the larger cities. In western Florida, in Walton County, commercially broiler production has been expanded.

WORK WITH 4-H CLUBS
Forty-six poultry club members from 10 counties participated in the annual 4-H Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition in Orlando, Februray 23 to 28, 1942.
Twelve breeds and 18 varieties of poultry were entered in the Poultry Show, representing a total of 337 birds. Ninety-three dozen eggs were entered in the Egg Show.
Lester Kalach from Dade County was high individual judge in the contest, and the boys from Dade County were the high team.
During the year 2,206 boys and girls were enrolled in 4-H poultry club work and 1,265 completed their projects.
A 4-H 'poultry meat production contest was started November first.

OTHER ACTIVITIES
A breeders school was held in Gainesville with approximately 20 Florida poultrymen in attendance. Dr. C. W. Knox was the principal speaker. Turkey work was continued in several of the counties in North and West Florida, with particular attention to management, feeding and breeding.

MARKETING ASSISTANCE
The average monthly and yearly 'prices of poultry products for the base period (Oct. 1, 1926-Sept. 30, 1929) and for the past 5 years (1938-42) as quoted by the State Marketing Bureau in Jacksonville have been tabulated and studied and sent to producers of the state.
The market reports on poultry and egg prices have been given over Station WRUF daily.







Annual Report, 1942 29

PRICE FINDINGS
Egg prices in 1942 averaged 5.0 cents per dozen higher than in 1941, the highest on record since 1929.
The average price of heavy bens in 1942 was 3.3 cents per pound above the 1941 average, the highest price in a number of years.
The average price of heavy fryers in 1942 was 4.1 cents 'per pound above the 1941 average, the highest average since 1930.
The poultry ration in 1942 was 37 cents per hundred higher than in 1941.
The egg-feed ratio continued to be more favorable than either the hen-feed ratio or the fryer-feed ratio. However, the egg-feed ratio was not as favorable in 1942 as in 1941.

EGG BUYING
The Extension workers assisted in the establishment of 6 egg buying stations to handle surplus eggs, also in handling egg growing schools, and inspection work. Approximately 12,000 cases were purchased by the AMA from these 6 egg buying stations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
N. H. McQueen, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent

Illness kept the State Agent from his duties for 2 months. Before the period ended the assistant was appointed, coming to his new duties from the county agent's position in Charlotte County.
Adjustments became necessary along several lines after the United States expanded its war front. Travel curtailment forced numerous county agents to spend even less time on 4-H club duties than previously.

SHORT COURSE AND CAMP CHANGES
It was voted by the Extension staff to abandon the 1942 State Short Course. This was a severe blow, as we have been depending upon the enthusiasm of the older boys which is always generated by attendance at Short Course to supply part of the club momentum.
It was also decided not to open our 3 district 4-H camps but to place summer activities on a county basis. This was carried out with some degree of success and 1,048 boys and girls attended county events in 1942 as against 1,228 boys and girls in 1941.

CONTESTS AND SCHOLARSHIPS
Due to war difficulties most of the state contests were cancelled. The State 4-11 Poultry Show was held as planned in Orlando the last of February.
The Dade County boys' team won the judging contest and were to represent Florida at the National Poultry Judging Contest in Chicago. When it was decided that no out-of-state trips be given the boys were given a $50 defense bond each.
The Florida Bankers' Association increased from 3 to, 5 the number of $100 scholarships offered. These scholarships have been awarded at the State Short Course. With the agreement of the Bankers' Association a 'plan was set up under which an examination was given in all agents' offices at the same hour and the papers were sent to the State Office for grading.
In 1941, Sears Roebuck and Company gave nearly $10,000 in Florida to establish loan funds in most counties to assist boys in project work. This is the best assistance ever offered boys' 4-H club work in Florida. All counties have not used their fund but more are beginning each month.

MEMBERSHIP AND PROJECTS
There are 262 organized clubs in 49 counties; 175 voluntary leaders in 41 counties; and 4,611 members enrolled in 49 counties. We were able to hold the membership about the same. There was a loss of but 72 in number enrolled.
Statistics also reveal that 163 training meetings were held in 21 counties; 47 tours with 624 taking part were held; 31 achievement days with 2,693 attending were held; 25 county camps were held with 621 boys attending; and 345 meetings were held by clubs without agent being present.
There was a big increase in training meetings held-163 for 1942 against 25 for 1941. This is one of the most encouraging developments of the year.
The project work for 1942 showed some improvement in percentage reporting. In 1942 there were 72 fewer enrolled and 213 more reported.







Annual Report, 1942


This raised the percent reporting from 48.7 percent for 1941 to 54.3 percent for 1942.
4-H MOBILIZATION WEEK
Due to the illness of the State Boys' Club Agent, the entire Extension staff took an active part in stressing and guiding 4-11 work. The result was that more effort was put behind the work than usual.
Contacts were made with every county agent in'the state regarding mobilization week and plans for the week were made. Many counties put on big rallies and parades. Nearly all civic clubs were told of our program. The public was informed by radio talks and news stories and editorials.
SPECIAL TASKS UNDERTAKEN
The College of Agriculture gave 10 boys 15 day-old quail chicks each to raise and liberate. When sent by express the chicks arrived dead or in a weak condition. Some were delivered by auto, but still the 150 miles were too much for the day-olds. Finally, one lot of two weeks old chicks was tried and these fared better.
The placing of day-old dairy heifers has been the project which has given best results.
About 250 have already been placed and the goal for 1943 as set by a committee of county agents is 1,400 to be placed.
Late in 1941 the Container Corporation of America offered slash pine seedlings to club boys to 'plant on their home farms and 148,860 of these seedlings were planted by club boys in 7 counties. The offer was repeated and 205,000 trees have been asked for by county agents for planting by club boys in December, 1942, and January, 1943.

HELPING WIN THE WAR

A banner carried by a 4-H club group in a parade in Orlando said "We are getting in the scrap, too". In every county where the boys have been given an opportunity they have done their full part.
Practically every 4-H boy has some war stamps and many have bought bonds. To encourage the buying of stamps we have changed the line on our boys' 4-H record books which read "Every club member should have a bank account. Have you one?" to read "Every club member should buy war bonds and stamps. How many have you bought?"
At all summer events loyalty to our country and active participation in the war effort was stressed. Prizes were given for the best 4 minute talk by a club boy on the subject "Why I Am Glad that I Am an American" at every camp.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist

In making adjustments in the Extension work early in the year to meet the war emergencies, the Citriculturist was assigned the added responsibilities of District Agent of 20 citrus producing counties of Centarl Florida.
Early in the year the war emergency made it necessary to modify the adopted plan of work in citrus culture and to re-arrange the projects of the whole extension program of the citrus area in the order of their importance in the war effort. To accomplish the food production goals it has been necessary to curtail activities on some of the long-time citrus culture sub-projects. Inability to obtain certain nitrogenous fertilizer materials has forced discontinuation for the time being of certain demonstrations involving these materials and has necessitated other changes. The shortage of machinery and labor brought about demands for many adjustments in the whole grove management set-iip. , The demands of growers for assistance from the Extension Service in making these adjustments has been very great and has been met in a most helpful manner.

COVER CROPS AND FERTILIZERS
In an effort to meet the situation brought on by a shortage of nitrogen, the use of legumes as summer cover crops has been emphasized throughout the citrus area. In cooperation with the Agronomy Department- of the Experiment Station test plantings of a relatively new and promising legume, a species of Indigofera, were made in 14 counties this year. Many favorable reports have been received from these plantings. The plant seems to be more hardy than the crotalarias.
To make for higher nitrogen efficiency and thereby conserve nitrogen the program of treating acid soil with dolomitic limestone has been carried out with renewed emphasis. This limestone treatment is predicated on the pH level of the soil as determined by systematic soil sampling.
Research and demonstrations have definitely established the fact that nitrogen is usually wasted in fertilizing a grove with only nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. As a rule, greater production is obtained with less nitrogen when ample quantities of soluble magnesium, manganese and copper are included along with the NPK. In many instances boron and iron should be added, too. To complete the nutritional program zinc must be included but this is usually more effectively applied to the foliage as a spray in combination with a sulphur insecticide or a copper fungicide.

PEST CONTROL METHODS
Early in the year the spraying and dusting schedules of the Better Fruit Program, financed by the Florida Citrus Commission, were revised by technical workers and copies were made available to all growers. Many thousands were distributed through the county agents' offices.
The shortage of labor made it necessary for a good many growers to substitute sulphur dusting for spraying in rust-mite control. This was done without appreciable sacrifice of quality or appearance of the fruit. However, the rust-mite problem has been more difficult to handle because of the dry summer and fall, accompanied by unusually warm weather.
The labor shortage also has been a serious handicap in the matter of scale control. Unfavorable weather conditions added to the problem.
This combination of conditions has caught a good many growers with too many scales in their groves at this time, and it may have an adverse







Annual Report, 1942


effect on 'production next year. The Extension Service has rendered every assistance possible to growers in making adjustments to meet these unusual conditions.
Nutritional spraying and spraying for melanose control in the spring were done with little interruption and the results have been highly satisfactory. Better nutrition of citrus trees generally, resulting from foliage applications of copper and zinc and the addition of magnesium, manganese and copper to the fertilizer mixtures, has resulted in marked improvement of the interior quality of the fruit.

IRRIGATION DEMANDS
Florida is still (December) in its worst fall and winter drought since 1907. This drought began back in the summer at a time when a reserve is usually built up in lakes and ground water. Irrigation has beeen needed generally over the area during the last 4 months; a few light rains have given only temporary relief. Since the fruit shipping season opened with relatively high prices, all irrigation equipment in the state has been brought into operation and the demand for additional equipment has increased as the drought advanced.
Because of the scarcity of material it has been necessary to make the equipment in the hands of the growers go just as far as possible in meeting the needs. To that end growers have been assisted in developing plans for keeping portable equipment in more continuous use and thereby cover the greatest possible acreage.
At this critical time the type of portable irrigation plant developed and demonstrated by the Extension Service several years ago is in general use and has been the means of saving many thousands of boxes of fruit in this drought.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester

Fire protection on farm woodlands occupied a prominent place in the Extension Forester's calendar of work and much time was devoted to it. Discussions at county agents' meetings, farmers' meetings, 4-H club meetings, businessmen's meetings, personal visits with county agents and farmers, circular letters, posters, radio talks, news releases, personal letters, and bulletins distributed to farmers, 4-H club members, and school children, all helped in bringing the need for more widespread fire protection on farm woodlands before many people.
More than 5,000 farmers protected over 180,000 acres and restocked 10,000 acres with young trees. Timber produced because fires were kept out totalled in excess of 9,000,000 board feet and was worth fully $45,000. Aggregate accrued forest values due to fire protection ran above $65,000.

TIMBER STAND IMPROVEMENT
Farmers were assisted in removing cull trees, worked-out turpentine trees, and low-value species, as well as thinning timber stands and pruning limby trees where this was necessary. Assistance was given in establishing a basis for benefit payments to farmers for removing undesirable trees from their woodlands. Aid was also extended to the Project Foresters in both the Norris-Doxey Farm Forestry and the Forest Farming Projects in establishing improvement cutting demonstrations on farms.
According to county agents' annual reports and information in possession of the Extension Forester's office, 84 farmers were assisted in a timber stand improvement program.

PLANTING SEEDLINGS
One million free slash pine seedlings were made available this year to farmers, 4-H club members, and vocational agricultural students by a local pulp mill. The Extension Service, through the county agents, distributed 620,760 of these seedlings, and the balance were handled by the State Forest Service.
Red cedar plantings for gully erosion control and for supplying fence post material were extended. As in previous years the supply of red cedar planting stock was far short of the demand.

MARKETING FOREST PRODUCT'S
Requests from farmers to county agents, and to the Extension Forester, for advice and assistance in marketing forest products have increased during the past year. Farmers were given training in estimating standing timber and in determining what products their trees can be converted into for highest values and largest profits. Whenever possible war needs were given first consideration in the marketing of timber.
Through farmers' meetings, personal letters, bulletins distributed, radio talks, and farm visits, farmers were urged to work their timber for gum in order to meet naval stores production goals, and to market available trees for lumber, crossties, poles andpiling, pulpwood, crate material, and shuttleblocks, as might be needed in the war effort and consistent with good forest management.
Assistance in marketing forest products was given to 215 farmers in 25 counties.







Annual Report, 1942


4-H CLUB ENDEAVORS
Forestry club work was carried on by instruction during 4-H club camps, other 4-H club meetings, and by personal visits to club members.
According to county agents' reports and other records, 45 club members were enrolled in 4-H forestry work in 1942 in 9 counties and 148,860 forest trees were planted by club members.
The Extension Forester attended four 4-H club summer camps during which instruction in forestry was given to 251 club members.

RURAL EMERGENCY FIRE PROTECTION
Leadership in this 'project was assigned to the Extension Forester. A State Committee consisting of Extension workers was appointed.
A project outline and plan of work was developed early in the year. The committee held a number of meetings during which plans and programs were initiated and materials prepared for carrying out a statewide campaign for fire prevention and control in farm homes, pastures, fences, and outbuildings, crop lands, and farm woodlands.
It is felt that the educational work done this year in rural, fire prevention has contributed substantially towards preventing fires in farming areas, thereby helping to conserve material resources needed in the war effort as well as in maintaining public morale at this critical time.

TIMBER-GRAZING-GAME
To meet a long-felt need for a feasible and practical plan for the complete use and proper development of the state's extensive cut-over land areas, an outline statement was prepared setting up the essential features of a state-wide, coordinated, timber-grazing-game program. It is estimated that, in whole or in part, it will provide the most constructive use for more than 75 percent of the state's land and when it becomes widely adopted will undoubtedly return millions of acres of tax-delinquent land to private ownership and tax-paying status.

STATE DEFENSE COUNCIL
Cooperation with sundry war-time federal agencies along similar lines was supplemented by assistance to the State Defense Council in developing an organization for fire prevention and suppression in forest areas, both for timber protection and to prevent forest fire smoke, which mingles with fog, from interfering with operations of the armed flying forces or making coastwise shipping more hazardous.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL CONSERVATION

K. S. McMullen, Soil Conservationist

Four soil conservation districts were organized, 1 annexation was completed, and 2 additional districts and 1 annexation were started.
From April 21st to May 15th program planning conferences were held in 11 of the older districts. These conferences were arranged through the cooperation of the State Soil Conservation Advisory Committee. They were attended by all agricultural workers, district supervisors and AAA committeemen of each district. Plans for individual conferences were arranged by the local county agent and Soil Conservation Service representatives.
DETAILS OF THE YEAR'S EFFORT

During the year covered by this report 4 districts have completed organization-Oklawaha, Istokpoga, Suwannee River, and Blackwater, One annexation has been comnpleted-2 townships of northern Sumter County have been added to the Oklawaha District. These districts were organized on a county basis; except that the annexation mentioned has been added to Okiawaha and the Istokpoga District constitutes only a portion of Highlands County.
Districts or annexations to districts now in process of organization but not completed include Bay County-petitioned as annexation to Orange Hill District; Sumter County-petitioned as all of Sumter County except that portion lying within the Oklawaha District; Columbia County-petitioned as one district.
As a result of the district program planning conferences held during April and May in 11 of the older districts, which the vocational agriculture teachers attended, and programs on conservation furnished by Soil Conservation Service technicians to vocational agriculture classes, a request was made of the State SCS office and the Extension Service by the vocational agriculture teachers for a course of study in soil conservation. The State office of the Soil Conservation Service and the State Vocational Agriculture Department cooperated with the Extension Soil Conservationist to develop the course of study, with a committee of vocational agriculture teachers making the final revision.
A two weeks field trip was made with the Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent, contacting 36 clubs in 12 counties (territory served by soil conservation districts). Talks on conservation were given to each of these clubs. Two weeks were also devoted to teaching a course in soil conservation at 2 4-H club camps.
Special programs growing out of the war emergencies were prosecuted among peanut farmers. For getting more winter cover crops out, particularly legumes planted, county conferences proved highly helpful in these directions.
MEETINGS ATTENDED

State extension service soil conservationists, including the Florida specialist in this field, held a conference for the Southern region at Memphis, May 20-22, 1942.
Alabama successes with a special conservation 'program were studied by the Florida Extension Conservationist in Auburn, June 22-26, 1942.







Annual Report, 1942


PART III- HOME ACTIVITIES

HOME DEMONSTRATION
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent
Lucy Belle Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent

During 1942 Floridians literally lived close to the war, by reason of the extensive military developments within the state. The presence of many thousands of men in uniform, and the construction of vast camps to house them, changed community life into new patterns. Great changes came into the home life of Florida farm families as their young men were called into the armed forces.
Many of the older men went into defense work and rural girls and women, not usually employed away from their homes, took jobs elsewhere in defense work or in other employment. Many women worked in the fruit and vegetable canning or packing plants, often to replace the men who were no longer available. Women and girls took charge of the farming duties on the small farms.
Labor was scarce and the fact that the men in military service assigned funds to their parents or wives which permitted them to live comfortably without the customary personal labor was a real factor in the family life of both white and negro families.
All of these things affected food production. Costs of commodities increased while the supply available diminished. Transportation difficulties cut down the number of tourists, although this was compensated for to some extent by families of service men. Transportation regulations also kept rural families from traveling far from their homes.
As these and other changes took place rapidly in farm, home and community life, the 'program of home demonstration work was adjusted to meet the situation as well as possible with the resources at hand. Plans were organized so that a larger number of people could be assisted in practical ways; 42,421 rural and urban families reported that they received help from the home agents during the year. An increase of more than 1,000 was made in the number of visits to homes and farms, over the year before, with 14,803 visits reported. In spite of the many handicaps due to transportation and labor shortages, and the consolidation of some clubs, the number of home demonstration clubs increased by nearly a hundred.

FOUR-H CLUBS
The importance of 4-H work with girls was realized, but sometimes this work got crowded out of its proper place in the J)rogram by the insistent claims for other uses of the agent's time, which seemingly could not be denied. The State Short Course was not held for the first time in 30 years. Instead, 30 county 4-H short courses were conducted, using the State Short Course Scholarship funds to strengthen the County 4-H program. No out-of-state trips were made by 4-H girls. Six winners of first honors in state contests each received $100 War Bonds instead of the trips.
All 4-H programs directed the attention of the girls to the help they could give their families during war days. Many girls selected and pre-







Florida Cooperative Extension


pared the family meals because their mothers were employed outside the homes. They helped with drives f or salvage and for war stamp sales. They helped with the 4-11 club work of younger girls.
In all, 9,769 girls were enrolled in 478 clubs in 37 counties. In 4-H club work, shifts in population took toll of the membership as well as of the 4-H leaders. In replacement, new enlistments came from communities not heretofore reached. The emphasis in projects was for increased production and facility in basic household skills.
Miss Ethyl Holloway, District Agent, prepared a handbook for 4-11 club girls and a mimeographed circular for use in connection with National 4-H Mobilization Week. Seven state-wide contests were conducted to 'promote interest in the phases of 4-H Club work. Records were submitted from 25 girls in 8 of the counties and in 7 contests, highest honors went to 5 girls. i
Club work was discussed at the annual conference of agents, and plans were laid for further strengthening and improving it. Record books and club projects were simplified, with emphasis given to recognition for the work done by the girls to help their families as a war service, rather than to the detailed projects followed in other years.
Florida 4-H club girls continued to give excellent accounts of themselves as they became capable young women and useful citizens. Some became members of the WAACs and WAVES and kindred service groups. Some served as teachers and in federal and state offices. Hundreds became busy homemakers. The College 4-H Club at Florida State College for Women in Tallahassee had a membership of 50 former 4-H girls in college.

NEIGHBORHOOD LEADERS
Tire and gasoline restrictions required the home agents to make many changes in organization to meet the increased requests for their help. Here the value of the training in organization given the home demonstration women and 4-11 girls through the years became evident. Neighborhood leaders, to the number of 4,500, about half of them women and girls, were prepared to help their communities, and they welcomed the chance to do so as a 'patriotic service. The plan was to make the neighborhood lines small enough so that the homes were within walking distance of each other.
The neighborhood leader system achieved excellent results. Home demonstration women voluntarily took over such responsible jobs as supervising community canning centers, club programs, method demonstration in cooking, canning, sewing, refinishing furniture and other skills.
The neighborhood leaders greatly expedited all war 'programs. They carried timely information on gardening, fat salvage, rubber salvage, scrap metal, war stamps and bonds, sugar and gas rationing, price control, fire prevention, announcement of meetings with state and county workers to outline future work, regulations about farm truck permits, and notification of the schedule of services of the Tuberculosis Trailer Clinic. They manned sugar rationing stations, used their homes as equipment and supply posts for canning equipment, attended canning training meetings, and taught canning to others.
CONFERENCES
Five district conferences were held early in the year for home demonstration agents and two for negro workers, to give the agents the best possible understanding of national situations and the -relationship of war to their work.







Ammal Report, 1942


An annual conference of all Extension agents was held in Gainesville in October. State staff members attended two regional Extension conferences. The negro agents were given special training, particularly in health.
Thirty-one county horne demonstration councils continued to function and a three-day meeting of the executive committee of the council was held to adapt programs to needs.
ADAPTING ALL PROGRAMS TO WAR NEEDS
Home food production and conservation and family nutrition received first consideration. Girls and women reported that they grew 22,026 home gardens, started and enlarged home fruit orchards with 19,725 fruit trees and 38,012 berry bushes. More than 6 million pints of fruits, vegetables and meats were canned for home pantries. Fifty community canning centers were operated in 23 counties with 47,744 families canning regularly. The amount of food conserved by canning was at least 4 times as much as in any previous year.


Fig. 4.-Reports from home agents indicate-that Florida farm families canned more delicious, wholesome, home-raised vegetables and fruits in 1942 than ever before.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Business firms and many civic clubs helped this program of a better family food supply through their fine support given the agents. One manufacturer of canning equipment and supplies held "cooker clinics" with the agents to put all steam pressure cookers of every make in good order for the canning season. One merchant gave garden seed, potato seed and vegetable fertilizer to be used by the negro home agent to encourage more home gardens.
The clothing and textile program shifted its emphasis to home sewing, better selected and made work clothes, and care and repair of clothing. The home improvement program stressed every-day good housekeeping. Home and community sanitation programs resulted in the screening of many homes and the installing of water, lighting, sewage and heating systems, and the remodeling of a number of dwellings. Timesaving schedules and fire prevention work were directed by the Clothing Specialist.
Health and its importance in war days was a definite part of all programs. The relation of food to health was taught in the 159 nutrition courses given by the home demonstration agents in addition to their usual foods and nutrition program. Improved health measures were reported through health examinations, immunization, first aid and home nursing courses, removal of fire and accident hazards in the homes. The fact that 1,290 dairy cows were bought for family use tells us one of the most importarit health stories for the children of these families.
Cooperative community activities were encouraged, 'partly for economic reasons but also to maintain good community life. Canning centers, school lunchrooms and community club houses or rooms were the main achievements in cooperative community activities.
The share-the-meat program, the securing and training of volunteer leaders, and better urban-rural cooperation, are some of the other community measures in which home demonstration work engaged during the year. Thirty-three white agents and 6 negro agents held 231 meetings to train 2,408 neighborhood leaders, who visited 28,475 farm families in the share-the-meat program.
The request for bulletins increased until 11,247 more were distributed than last year, totalling 78,552. Agents supplied their local newspapers with 12,341 news articles compared with 2,241 in 1941.
Through all these different phases of home demonstration work ran the over-all determination to emphasize the importance of fine family living in a "live at home" program, with thrift, careful planning, and better methods of doing the daily tasks brought out by demonstrations, through meetings, leaflets, bulletins, and through neighborhood leaders.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
There was close cooperation between the home demonstration office and other state and federal agencies. Meetings of 4-H clubs were held in the public schools in many instances. Cooperation in organizing vocational agricultural courses in food production and conservation was given by all agents. Home economics teachers were supplied with all printed material they requested. School lunch workers were taught how to use surplus food commodities issued to them. Forty-four school or community grounds were improved and beautified by home demonstration clubs.
Nutrition discussions were given by the agents or specialists before the State Tuberculosis Association and agents assisted with the Christmas seal sales in all counties. -State and county home agents directed the infantile paralysis drive among rural people at the request of the state chairman. The State Board of Health gave help through local health







Annual Report, 1942


units. Works Projects Administration aided in school feeding 'Programs and community gardens. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration cooperated in the cotton mattress program, which was concluded during the year. The agricultural goals of the AAA were outlined before all home demonstration councils and clubs. Directly associated with the War Boards through the Director of Extension, the home demonstration agents and the neighborhood leaders assisted the USDA War Boards in assignments such as farm truck registration and machinery repair projects.
The Surplus Marketing Administration furnished commodities to county home agents to use in food demonstrations to teach people to use the food to best advantage. This taught better preparation of food for nutrition and thrift in cookery. The Farm Security Administration was given cooperation through subject matter bulletins, pressure cookers clinics, and with instructions on cooking and canning vegetables, given in one instance to migrant labor camps in the Everglades.
The State Agent was chairman of the State Defense Council's Home Garden and Food Conservation Committee. She was a member of the general state salvage committee and was state chairman for the salvage of fats and grease for the War Production Board. Under the plan of the Office of Price Administration for rationing sugar, the agents worked out improved canning budgets and 'prepared instruction sheets and sugarsaving recipes. Some agents served as community rationing officers.
Information on inflation control was disseminated through the agents by letters, talks and discussions. The women cooperated by spending their money for war stamps and bonds. The significance of the price ceilings was demonstrated in the form of playlets.
Under state and county defense councils, state, district and county Extension workers and specialists served actively in nutrition and food conservation, gardening, housing, recreation, care of children and many other things relating to civilian defense.
The state agent served on the state advisory committee of War Savings. Women and girls were encouraged to save for specific purposes after the war. The Red Cross was helped by the establishment of nutrition and canteen courses in all home demonstration counties. First aid and home nursing courses were given by the agents in many counties. The USO was helped in its recreation program. Civic and county organizations were given aid whenever )possible.
I REPORT ON PERSONNEL

Home demonstration work in Florida experienced a great loss in the death December 12, 1942, of Miss Clarine Belcher, State Clothing Specialist. She had been associated with the work since 1931, and had served as agent in two counties before joining the state staff. Her service in the home demonstration program was of high quality always.
There were 38 home demonstration agents, 4 assistant agents and 9 negro agents in the work. Some changes were made in personnel during the year. New agents were appointed in Marion and Levy counties because of resignations. The Clay County agent joined the WAACs and was succeeded be a new agent. Two counties, Hamilton and Walton, withdrew their appropriations for maintaining home, demonstration work, stating that it was due to the reduction of available county revenues. One additional local home agent was appointed for negro work in Jackson County. At least 10 counties made increased appropriations for salaries or for needed equipment or office facilities. Lack of clerical help handicapped all agents. High wages elsewhere took many employees from the county offices.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SPECIAL PROGRAMS IN COUNTIES

Specialists from the state staff were assigned to work with the district and county home demonstration agents in developing a state-wide program in fire control and prevention. The mattress program was closed out with a total of 32,379 mattresses made and 16,041 comforters; 8,500 mattresses were made in 1942.
Repair and care of home equipment received more attention than before. With travel restricted, "homemade recreation" became more in demand. Four-H girls were trained as recreation leaders.

HOME INDUSTRIES
Development of marketable products from the resources of the farm and home always has been an important activity for many home demonstration women and girls. No special effort was made to emphasize this program during 1942, but the income received from cash sales was reported as $528,813.88. This included baked products, canned goods, fresh vegetables and fruits, poultry, eggs, dairy products, rugs, and miscellaneous articles.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH NEGROES
Work with negro families grew during the year and an increased amount of time of state and county workers was given to strengthening this work. The negro home agents gave useful assistance to the rural and town negroes. The work in home demonstrations was directed by the state agent with immediate supervision given by the local district agent to the -nine local agents who work with negro farm families.







Annual Report, 1942


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Nutritionist

The war did not suddenly change or materially alter the food, -nutrition and health program. It did re-emphasize the importance of keeping informed as to changing conditions, accomplishing the objectives and making ne essay adjustments. There was a concerted effort to extend the program to all people and to mobilize every educational method for informing all groups on home food problems. The Nutritionist was responsible for keeping rural people, both white and negro, informed of situations and, through county home demonstration agents, helped them make necessary adjustments. This called for constant adjustments in food programs and intensified the use of local leaders, demonstrations, nutrition courses, school lunch programs, posters, publications, motion pictures, filmstrips, news articles, radio, circular letters, personal contacts and other educational means in close cooperation with other agencies.
The Nutritionist participated in training leaders and preparing demonstrations-to be used throughout the counties as a part of the county 4-H short courses. Four-H club camps as such were cancelled this year in many counties. In other counties the schoolhouse was used for housing and instructions for short periods. Likewise, out-of-state trips were cancelled but records of state winners in the food preparation and other state contests were submitted and national awards of War Bonds were presented to the winners in place of funds for the trips.
The plans for travel by the Nutritionist were adjusted and in many instances curtailed. The policy of members of the staff traveling together was followed. Many demands from the nutrition committees in the various counties, the Parent Teachers' Association, Works Progress Administration, school lunchrooms, as well as from the county home demonstration agents, for assistance in preparation of exhibits, plans for -nutrition work and subject-matter material, were met during the time the Nutritionist spent in the office.
The program was adjusted to assist in planning for the production of an adequately balanced family food supply and the meal planning included adjustments due to food shortages or surplus foods. Emphasis was placed upon the use of 'peanuts, honey and syrup and locally produced foods in season. The packed lunch as a part of a balanced day's diet for both school children and defense workers, and better methods of food and preparation, quantity and quality buying and time adjustments were of necessity a part of the program. The place of the homemaker in the price control system and her responsibility to keep informed about ceiling prices and how and why they differ in different shops, the dangers of hoarding of essential foods, and adjustments necessary because of the rationing programs became an integral part of the program.
Included also were community adjustments such as community planning for producing and using local resources; group feeding at school and in defense areas; emergency group feeding as in evacuation or epidemics; the use of marketing facilities and delivery systems to conserve time, labor, tires and gasoline; sharing of labor and equipment; and group care and feeding of children while mothers and older children work.
Adjustment in the method of work included more emphasis on training' agents and leaders and more extensive use of leaders; a greater use of result demonstrations; more method demonstrations on proper preparation of every day locally produced foods as well as alternatives for rationed foods; more careful planning of meetings, demonstrations and travel in







Florida Cooperative Extension


order to make better use of time, travel i and materials by agents, leaders and others; the use of volunteer leaders and all other channels to reach people; information of available food supplies and the best use of food preparation and food preservation equipment on hand.
The adjustments in materials included the preparation of simply worded publications with large print, news letters of timely information, radio broadcasts, filmstrips and motion pictures. Materials on quantity cookery for camps, short courses and large groups were also prepared.

VOLUNTEER WAR WORKERS
The Nutritionist was 1 of the 2 home, demonstration workers appointed to serve on the steering committee of the Agricultural Extension Service to help formulate a plan'for the Florida volunteers for agricultural war work. While at the National Outlook Conference she was a 'participant in the workshop group for neighborhood leaders. She trained volunteer war workers in the counties in connection with regular home demonstration work, emphasizing use of enriched bread and flour, vegetable and meat cookery, use of meat alternatives, wise use of sugar and alternatives, ceiling prices and food planning.

WORK WITH FAMILIES IN THE COUNTIES
The work with adults in the counties this year was divided mainly into 3 phases-nutrition and defense, food preparation and meal planning, and the family food supply.

NUTRITION AND DEFENSE
The work with nutrition and defense consisted on an analysis of how well-fed were the people of Florida. Discussions, graphs, 'Posters, charts, filmstrips, motion pictures, questionnaires, surveys or quizzes and pamphlets, circulars and bulletins, interest sheets and food check sheets were all used to answer the questions.
In addition to regular home demonstration work planned around "The Nutrition Yardstick", nutrition courses:for women and for 4-H girls, canteen courses, first aid courses, and home nursing courses were given during the year. Eleven home demonstration agents were certified Red Cross nutrition instructors and a large number of agents were chairmen of county nutrition committees, Florida Defense Council. A "kitchen course" in nutrition and a series of 6 lessons on food selection and cooking were conducted in many counties.

FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING
The food preparation and meal planning phase was approached through building health with the right foods properly prepared and attractively served and the use of foods in season which were locally produced and available in adequate quantities. Better baking demonstrations and contests were a means of promoting the use of enriched flour, whole wheat flour and breads. Also, demonstrations centering around the theme "Get the Good from Your Food" through correct principles of cookery were used.
Vegetable plate demonstrations using large groups of vegetables grown in the garden from which meals were planned, prepared and served by committee groups were excellent means for showing the principles of planning meals and preparation of vegetables. Similar demonstrations on milk, poultry and poultry products were used.








An7tual Report, 1942


Short courses on sugar rationing and baking were held in some counties. The use of meats and meat alternatives was demonstrated through the use of meat charts and recipes, food preparation and meal planning demonstrations, using actual foods or pictures cut from magazines. "Victory Specials" were featured in the food preparation and meal planning program, as they were announced.

THE FA31ILY FOOD SUPPLY

Helping make America strong by producing and eating health-building, strength-giving foods was emphasized in this phase of the work. It was pointed out that the first line of health and national defense is through abundant supplies and proper use of the right kinds of food. Emphasis was placed upon planning to produce enough food to meet the family's need and to have a surplus. Along with this program went an educational program to show the producer his responsibility to use only his quota of the rationed foods, even when he produced surpluses.
In a November survey by the nutrition goals committee reports from 11 counties located from Escambia to Dade stated that the farm families in all counties had consumed a more adequate diet.

WORK WITH 4-H CLUBS

Many adjustments and changed procedures became necessary in the 4-H club program. The 7 point program for victory in 4-H club work was adapted to include:
Four-H Club members making themselves strong by eating every day the foods that make for good growth and physical fitness; caring for their teeth; getting 'plenty of sleep; working for good posture; having yearly health check-ups correcting physical defects and taking part in health improvement and physical fitness contests; 4-H members helping make their families strong by taking some definite part in planning, producing, preserving and storing the family food supply; 4-11 members helping to make their communities strong by demonstrating to neighbors and community groups how to produce, preserve and store protective foods; planning meals, preparing protective foods correctly, and buying foods wisely.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES

Cooperation with other agencies included assistance to the United States War Boards in educational work in connection with the Food for Freedom program. The Nutritionist and all specialists assisted with vocational home economics and agriculture, Farm Security, Sul-plus Marketing, Works Progress Administration school lunch, and Parent-Teachers Association child feeding programs. The State Board of Health and the State Tuberculosis Association and Medical and Dental Associations cooperated with the food, nutrition and health 'program by providing health examinations, illustrative material and subject-matter material.
The American Red Cross provided instructors for nutrition, first aid, canteen and home nursing courses. In professional organizations such as the Florida Home Economics Association and Florida Dietetics Association, the Nutritionist participated in the activities and served on educational committees. She was a member also of the Florida Defense Council's advisory committee on nutrition.







Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Specialist in Gardening and Food Conservation
Adjustments necessary to meet war conditions effectively presented many problems in 1942, yet progress was made. The fact that the war effort had already assumed an important place made farm and urban families more and more receptive to the live-at-home ideal, long advocated by the home demonstration agents. Home gardens and orchards and conserving the surplus from them, presently patriotic in appeal, made tremendous gains.
Early in the year the Service's agricultural goals committee, consisting of both men and women, the division of home gardens and community services and the State Nutrition Committee of the State Defense Council (all of which the Specialist in Food Conservation served), setup statewide goals and activities. These all achieved remarkable compliance and cooperation throughout the state. The organization, cooperation and integration of these state-wide agencies as well as community and neighborhood leadership, simplified subject matter, and other factors all working to the same end, increased and intensified the program.

OBJECTIVES IN FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSERVATION
The central objectives that motivated home demonstration work in Florida in the past remained fundamentally sound in days of total war. "Life at home" was found to be the same bedrock on which to build the program of state and national defense.
The gardening and canning program was carried on more extensively by women and girls than ever before and became a vital part of the Food for Freedom campaign. A generous supply of foods grown, canned and utilized by the -newest knowledge of nutrition and canning technology was the great objective of the war-time year, to the end that the supply of home-produced foods would make the drawing upon the critical commercial supply unnecessary.

METHODS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Records showed a heartening increase in the number of gardens grown. It was conservatively estimated that the number of farm home gardens was nearly doubled during 1942. The number of fruit trees and berry vines planted also showed a healthy increase.
The Extension Service, early in the year, set the goal of a "home garden for every farm family in Florida" and made plans for its realization, and checked progress at seasonal intervals. The AAA lent financial and other support. The State Defense Council, through its garden chairman, Miss Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration 'Agent, encouraged and assisted the garden and canning program in every county in the state. Farm security clients were required to grow gardens of sufficient size to yield an adequate surplus for canning. Vocational agriculture and other teachers promoted school gardens and the larger farmers contributed land for subsistence gardens for their laborers and made more home gardens available to their own farms. The Nation-wide nutrition program, stressing the need for more fruits and vegetables in an adequate diet, greatly benefited production. The Red Cross, through many nutritional and canteen classes, further emphasized the important place of gardenfresh products in the diet. In addition, every woman's journal, every farm publication, every magazine, every newspaper, played the same insistent warning note.







Annital Report, 1942


Fig. 5.-Florida farm families raised almost twice as many home gardens in 1942 as in 1941, in response to the war-time need for more food produced at home.

The radio also had a big part in making and keeping the citizenry garden conscious.
In addition to the emphasis on gardens, the consensus of opinion was that the Nation's need for adequate nutrition could not be well met without greatly increasing home orchards. Pooled orders were placed during the year in the state for additional plantings in orchards already established and for new ones to be planted.

FOOD CONSERVATION
War conditions gave the food conservation program a great deal of emphasis among both rural and urban families in every county. Requests for assistance came from home demonstration members and non-members alike, and from negroes as well as white people.
Reports were made of the many new canning centers established to meet the need for saving the farmers' surplus crops, particularly in the large commercial trucking areas, such as Palm Beach, Broward, Manatee and Seminole counties. The majority of these plants were equipped with the needed canning facilities by the county commissioners. These county officials in some instances also paid the salary of a supervisor. Seminole County had 4 centers where more than 2,000 people used th-2 Facilities and where, within the season 36,500 containers of fruit, vegetables and meat products were canned.
In Duval County centers were operated at full capacity under the supervision of both paid and volunteer workers. In one month 18,054 con-







Florida Cooperative Extension


trainers were filled in eight centers. The central and largest plant, located in Jacksonville, remained open from 8:00 A. M. until 10:00 P. M. during the height of the season. With the knowledge acquired at these canning centers, many women preferred to work at home with pressure cookers and can in smaller amounts from their own gardens. This practice was encouraged because it gave additional people access to the canning kitchen
-besides conserving gasoline and tires.
In Manatee County large and small farmers alike had at times a great surplus. Usually these surpluses occurred when the farmers were the busiest. These products canned on shares benefited many families who bad no opportunity of either producing or securing vegetables, enabled them to obtain food for themselves by canning on shares, and at the same time saved an equal amount for the busy farmer and his family. In one trucking area fully 75%, of the canning was done on a share basis from these crop surpluses.
Canning for market was less prevalent than in previous years, in spite of the increase of home canning. However, Gadsden County women reported sales of $2,044.74 from their fine quality canned goods.
Sugar rationing did much to educate the people to the more wholesome use and value of other sweets-bome produced cane syrup, brown sugar and boney. Home demonstration agents assisted their local rationing boards in many ways. Some furnished tables of amounts of sugar needed for canning sub-tropical fruits, especially for guavas. Other agents helped to issue sugar ration cards and gave out information on recipes for using sugar substitutes at the same time.
The Share-tbe-Meat campaign promised considerable educational value. Already many farm and home agents were presenting programs on recommended practices for butchering, curing and canning of meats in order to secure a better balance of quality meat products for the days ahead. State Extension and county workers alike encouraged farmers to put up meats for their own use and to butcher, cure and can larger amounts for sale to neighbors and townspeople. Increase in this practice would help relieve the pressure on transportation to send bogs and cattle to the cities and to bring the meat back to town. I
A 5-jar Can for Quality contest was held this year with a business firm again contributing $100 in cash as awards. The menu that accompanied the 5 jars required thought and background information in order to serve meals that were healthful, attractive and well balanced.
Early in the year and during the late spring and early summer months considerable canning was done for use in the school lunch program. In Citrus County the agent reported that over 2,000 containers were filled to be used in 2 school lunch rooms in the county. The county commissioners gave the Lecanto Club permission to use a plot of land owned by the county and loaned them $125 to start their garden. This indebtedness to the board was paid by a portion of canned products to the other school lunch room in the county.
The WPA loaned pressure cookers and helped in extending the canning program to needy families. The equipment was used mainly in homes where neighborhood groups canned together, with some club or individual assuming responsibility for the care of the cookers.
Salvage of Glass Containers.-Jars were collected from thousands of cooperative urban homes, storerooms, and garages. Many fine glass containers were thus easily secured for those needing them, for the cost of a new







Annual Report, 1942


vacuum seal top or a new rubber. The Florida home canner is equally as familiar and as skilled in the use of glass as tin in the pressure canner.
Refresher Courses in Canning-Early in the year all over Florida homemakers became interested in making plans for the production and conservation of their own food supply. Refresher courses were then asked for, particularly to be given to those who were to have charge of neighborhood groups, and in all canning centers. Many home agents taught such classes. Losses of vitamins and other nutrients occurring in harvesting, preparation and preservation, and the improved methods of preventing these losses, were emphasized in the home demonstration canning groups.

4-H CLUB WORK FOR GIRLS
Reports indicate that leaders and older club girls gave invaluable assistance to home agents in developing the 4-H program, in making it contribute directly-to the home food supply. Many of the girls took over the family canning as their mothers were taking over other productive work on the farm, in grading and packing sheds, or in commercial canning plants. One county reported more than 25 girls who came to 3 defense centers to learn more about canning. Another county reported the enthusiasm of club girls in the Victory Garden campaign. One club member reported 600 jars canned with the aid of her mother. A total of 9,415 cans was reported by the club members in Escambia County.
Taking in the whole state, home demonstration women and 4-H club girls canned more than 6 million pints of fruits, vegetables, meats and fish. Fifty community canning plants were operating in 23 counties. Much canning was done at home also. The amount of food conserved in 1942 was 4 times as great as that canned in any previous year. The farm families and many urban dwellers ate their own canned products and had the satisfaction of knowing that they were eating good food, tastefully and nutritiously prepared, and, at the same time helping their country in the Fight for Freedom.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Clarinet Belcher, Specialist (Deceased)

CLOTHING WORK ADJUSTED TO WAR-TIME
Clothing the family suitably proved to be an even greater responsibility of the homemaker in times of war than in peace days. Many changes were experienced in the clothing and textiles program in 1942 because of wartime needs and priorities for unusually large amounts of textile supplies.
The clothing program in all its parts was related closely to economic conditions. With women spending more time in the kitchen in food preparation and in the garden in food production it became important that homemakers have suitable and durable clothes to withstand the wear, and to be easily cared for, as well as to conserve the textile materials not readily replaceable.
The establishment in the home of many wardrobe and household textile demonstrations according to a regular planned outline was well under way. These extensive demonstrations of improved clothing became a definite part of activities of hundreds of women and girls. Working for more satisfactory dining-room and kitchen textiles was a means of unifying the programs with the food preparation work. The relation of clothing and textiles to health and personal appearance and the resulting effect on morale were stressed.
Due to the war, people were in a receptive mood for all practical information and were anxious to work and contribute their efforts to the clothing and textile program. Cottons supply the bulk of the textiles consumed by Florida rural families, consequently the rise in the price of cotton goods due to the demand for cotton work clothes and fabrics by the Army and defense workers greatly affected the clothing program of the home and family. Resourcefulness and conservation of supplies were developed as a result of shortages and higher prices, Better home management and better planning of household activities resulted in providing rural women with more time and energy to sew for their families. Families to the number of 7,574 were assisted during the year with their sewing problems, 6,912 in selection of clothing and textiles, and 5,247 in the care, renovation and remodeling of clothing.
Good habits of clothing care were emphasized, as the Florida climate offers disadvantages to textiles in insects, moulds, and heat. Coat making, remodeling, and renovation received special emphasis.
An exhibit of work clothes for Florida women was made up, consisting of a field suit, jumper slack suit, princess coverall apron, culottes, belted coverall apron, surplice coverall apron, food preparation dress, and surplice house dress. This was a very popular exhibit all over the state, and was modeled for many cooperating civic groups as well as home demonstration meetings.
MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE YEAR:
During the year two state-wide meetings for all agents and five district meetings for training county agents in clothing and textile work were held. Assistance was given in all 67 counties of the state in encouraging farm people to use the services of action agencies of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Coordination of project activities with co-workers and representatives of other government agencies in the counties was planned. Circular letters, news articles, exhibits, posters, filmstrips and other Extension means were used to spread the knowledge of proper methods with clothing and textiles.






Annual Report, 1942


In all 38 counties employing home demonstration agents, work was done through organized committees of rural and urban people in studying the situation and developing programs. Background information and other specialist aid was given planning committees and the U. S. Department of Agriculture war boards. Plans were developed to help with 4-H clubs and older youth, and training was given to 4-H judging and demonstration teams. Leaders were also trained in subject-matter and Extension methods, including group discussions.
The Clothing Specialist was assigned responsibility for assisting in develo'ping the fire prevention program for the home, and she served as a member of the state committee responsible for this project. This special material was prepared, supplied, and distributed through the Extension Service.

VOLUNTEER LEADERS-CONTINUATION OF THEIR TRAINING
Training of volunteer leaders was one of the important methods used to develop the clothing work with both women and girls. The county short courses for 4-11 club girls were used to give intensive training in clothing and textiles for the girls.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
In addition to these activities, close cooperation was given to related and interested agencies. The Specialist served as head of the textiles section of the State Home Economics Association and provided information to members of the professional groups on trends and situations in textiles under war conditions. An exhibit was made before the State Federation of Garden Clubs, showing suitable garden work clothes. The Farm Security Administration was aided with subject matter and illustrative material such as the exhibit of the girl's low cost wardrobe, and the exhibit of work clothes for women. Assistance to the State Defense Council was given by serving on the State Advisory Committee on Consumer's Interests.

SOME STATISTICS ON THE CLOTHING PROGRAM
Over 4,000 families were assisted with consumer-buying problems, and many more in making buying decisions or other adjustments in family living. Also, 2,934 families were assisted with "making versus buying" decisions. Almost 2,000 were assisted with the buying of clothing and a similar number were assisted with house furnishings and equipment. Over 1,800 were helped in their clothing accounts or budgets, and slightly under 1,000 were recorded as providing recommended clothing, furnishings, and play equipment for children during the year.






Florida Cooperative Extevsion


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home improvement

ADJUSTMENTS MADE

Much mending, repairing and painting were done during the year, there was some remodeling, but there was little building of new houses. Many who had looked forward to having electric lines extended to their homes had to be disappointed, but the fine patriotism of our rural people put their preferences into the background when they realized that steel, wire and copper for electric lines were needed in the war effort.
To strengthen the nutrition program, more comfortable, healthful, convenient and sanitary kitchens were set as goals to help the family in the better preparation and selection of food. More community meetings were held in the home, and oftentimes in the kitchen. Seeing a demonstration in the home in the early stages and watching its improvement is one of the best ways of teaching a whole neighborhood and community.
All agencies at work in the state had a unity of purpose. Most of the rural people had timely information through the press, radio, circular letters and leaflets.

BETTER MANAGEMENT UNDER WAR CONDITIONS
The planning and management of many farm activities fell into the hands of the women, since the men had gone into defense work and the older boys had gone into service. The study of what and when to buy, the care of all equipment and the knowledge of what was available, all were important in home improvement work for many Florida homemakers. . Keeping up the morale by neat, attractive homes, with simple beauty about, renewed the interest of 4-H club girls in doing their required work, and continued to be an important goal. Home sanitation inside and outside the house was stressed more than ever for health, and it was all interpreted as a part of the contribution of home management in winning the war.
Better management of time was stressed more than ever. Home demonstration club members were urged to keep track of what was ordinarily done, and by study and discussion many short-cuts were evolved and more work was undertaken. Weekly and seasonal plans were made, and adjustments.were made in relation to the war.
Thrift in rejuvenating furniture and making new furniture enabled many home makers to invest savingsin war stamps and bonds for future spending. Many paid debts and taxes with money from the pay envelope sent home by the defense workers, many of whom were getting more money than they had ever had.

4-H CLUB WORK, IN HOME IMPROVEMENT
More emphasis was put on helping 4-H club girls from 10 to 14 years of age in home improvement during the past year. They were made to think that through the part they did joyously, in following a systematized plan with the daily chores, such as dishwashing, table setting and everyday good housekeeping, they were doing their bit in the home and for Uncle Sam. Ninety-five percent of the 4-H club members, both white and negro, in the state helped with the scrap drive and the buying of war stamps. They did additional work in Victory Gardens and helped to provide more food. Four-H club members were urged to plant more fruit trees, -nuts and berries as a part of home beautification.






Annual Report, 1942 53

Better housekeeping in attics and closets was one way of getting waste paper, rags, metal and rubber for the scrap drive. Also, many learned to make thrift house furnishings.
Fire fighting and the placing of the necessary fire-fighting equipment in cases of fire in the home was studied and planned for and convenient receptacles were made for holding fire-fighting equipment.

ADULT WORK
Many women and girls, white and negro, took over the entire work in the home and garden; they also did much additional work on the farm, in the groves, and in the packinghouses. Many families made work schedules for all members. Short-cuts in laundering, house cleaning, cooking, and other daily tasks were encouraging to see. Also short-cuts for saving time and labor were studied by individuals, and results of their practice were told in the club meetings.
Food preparation in saving time and energy was studied in connection with the emphasis on the improved kitchen for sanitation, health, comfort, convenience and beauty. It will not be long before the inconvenient, unsanitary and ugly kitchen will be as obsolete as the fly brushes of other days. It is not uncommon now to see an electrified kitchen in rural areas in all parts of Florida.

WOMEN ON THE ALERT
Women of the rural sections were much better informed than many leaders thought. They were eager to do all that was asked of them in winning the war. They listened to the radio, read the daily papers, and took more magazines than in previous years.
"Living at home" was almost a game dictated by circumstances, but always fascinating and full of satisfaction. Better nutrition was coming home to the farm family in its emphatic needs, for our fighting men have to be fed correctly both in the army and out of the army.

REPORTS FROM COUNTIES
Excerpts from the home demonstration reports on home improvement work in counties in widely separate sections of the state are used here to give an idea of the home improvement undertaken throughout the state in 1942.
In Madison County homes were remodeled, several were painted outside, running water was installed, bathrooms were built, improved treatment was given windows in a large number of homes, and home furnishings were bought by a number of families.
In Holmes County a great improvement in yards was noted. Grass was planted, new fences and walks were added. Kitchens had the lead among home improvements in the county. Water and sinks were installed, cabinets built, tables and other practical conveniences added. Linoleums were added to cover worn floors.
Incomes from war industry jobs 'provided money for improvements in Pinellas County. Rural electrification helped to add water pumps and water systems, refrigerators, electric irons, electric appliances. A few families secured the necessary materials to add a bathroom, a sleeping porch or bedroom.
In Santa Rosa County rural electrification helped to provide improvements of the same sort. Also 60 poorly constructed wooden homes were remodeled and made into brick veneer homes. Many rural women painted







54 Florida Cooperative Extension

their homes and remodeled their kitchens. New furniture was purchased and 100 women improved their yards.
Alachua County made many improvements in homes and yards. One new home was built, 28 rooms painted, 13 porches improved, and a large number of other varied improvements were made.
In Dade County many homes installed electricity for the first time, repairs and improvements were made, and new furniture was made or purchased. Many pieces were repaired or refinished and rooms and floors were repainted. Labor-saving'equipment was bought. Household budgets and better planning of the use of time and leisure and the improvement of kitchens were reported by many.
Home improvement was more widespread than for many years in Calhoun County, on account of increased incomes in the families. New roofs, new screening, new pumps or kitchen sinks, new kitchen cabinets were built. Houses were coiled and more progress was made in yard beautification than heretofore.
Hillsborougb County reported improvement of working spaces in the homes, especially in the kitchens. Repainting furniture and refinishing linoleum, the addition of electric refrigerators, cabinets, stoves, ice cream freezers, and many labor-saving devices took place in the homes. Homes were painted and yards beautified.







Annual Report, 1942


PART IV -NEGRO WORK

NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent

The negro farm demonstration work, supervised by the Local District Agent, was performed by nine local farm agents. The agents worked in the following 10 counties: Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden, Hamilton, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Marion, Sumter, and Suwanee. The agent of Hamilton County worked in northern Suwanee, while the agent of Columbia County worked in southern Suwanee.
According to reports from the agents, 2,695 farms followed the practices of the agricultural 'program as set up by the Extension Service; of this number, 1,037 were reached this year for the first time. Non-farm families to the number of 1,276 were'reached during the year, and they carried out recommended practices in improving their homes and in producing food at home.
The Farm Management Specialist and other Extension specialists assisted in emphasizing the food production program. Plan sheets were sent out through the local agents to the farm families in the 10 counties, as a check and re-check system on the important foods to be planted and what foods had already been planted. In all, 8,336 farm families were reached through this method.
Much emphasis was put on the home garden, stressing increase in size, better location, planting more varieties of vegetables, and having enough to feed the family, with a surplus for canning.
Health standards of rural negroes were raised during the year. Families became more interested in guarding the health of their family members when they realized the low health status of men drafted for enlistment. The improvement of family diets, sanitary conditions, and general health practices were some of the main points in the health program.

RESPONSIBILITIES, PLANS, WORK
County and home visits were more carefully planned to save gasoline and rubber. Trips were not taken to farms when letters of information could answer the need. Agents scheduled meetings and trips to share and save in transportation'.
Labor shortages, due to the large number of men and boys taken into service, caused many adjustments in carrying on farm work. The local agents spent much time giving demonstrations in the use of farm tools and machinery. Younger boys, women and girls carried on the farming. In some cases young people and women were hired from the city to help during harvest time.
The State Short Course was not held for 4-H club members. Instead, a county short course was held in each county worked by a local agent.
Achievement day programs were held in each community in the counties instead of the former county-wide achievement day. County fairs were not held in most of the counties. Instead, exhibits were staged at the community achievement days.
The agents assisted farm families in making out applications for sugar, gasoline and oil and aided them in carrying on their live-at-home programs, thus adjusting in the best way to the rationing system. Farmers were en-







56 Florida Cooperative Extension

courage to grow more sugarcane and produce more meats and vegetables in order that the Nation would be amply supplied to carry on the war.
Since building materials were not available, the importance of making general repairs with old materials was stressed. The agents also emphasized the wise use of family income and the investment of surplus earnings in war bonds and stamps.

NEIGHBORHOOD LEADER SYSTEM

The neighborhood leader system was inaugurated under the leadership of the nine local agents. Farm folk, ministers, teachers, business men and professional workers, 539 in number, were enrolled as volunteer war workers under the neighborhood leader system. In a short while this system was organized in each county and training meetings were held for these leaders. Much needed war-time information and activities were speeded through the help of these leaders. They helped in rationing, salvage and other defense activities.

COOPERATION OF STATE AND FEDERAL AGENCIES
The agents told the farm families of other helpful agencies while carrying on their Extension work. They cooperated with the AAA program to a great extent. A number of farmers used more soil-building crops and increased their garden acreage through the agents' and the AAA influence.
The Farm Security Administration assisted low-income farmers. The agents assisted the farmers in securing FSA loans when advisable and encouraged them to keep up the standards required by the FSA.
The Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College rendered assistance to the Extension Service by the use of faculty members in giving lectures and instructions at special meetings and at county meetings. Services of the Rural Electrification Administration were used to advantage.
The Florida State Marketing Bureau gave much assistance to both agents and farmers. The State Experiment Station, State Plant Board and State Board of Health were all of invaluable assistance in carrying on the year's work.
All war agencies were given wholehearted cooperation by the District Agent and the local agents. All were represented in some phase of defense work and in the sale of stamps and bonds. A fine response was made also in the collection of scrap iron, rubber and aluminum. The Leon County agent reported the collection of 22,970 pounds of scrap through rural families.

MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS

Victory gardens to the number of 5,271 were reported by the agents. The aim of a "family milk cow" in every farm home was instrumental in causing 472 negro families to buy their first milk cows. Although many do not have milk cows, the number of families who do have their own supply of milk for home use increased greatly. Poultry production increased and farm families began to can poultry for home use. More feed was also grown for poultry.
Peanuts were grown for oil to help in the vegetable oil needs during the war. The agents reported that 4,657 farmers cooperating in their work planted peanuts.
Meat supplies were improved and increased. Swine and beef cattle were raised and much meat was canned at home.







Annual Report, 1942 57

Sweet potatoes were grown by many farmers, the "Copper Skin" Porto Rican variety proving one of the most widely used. Some farmers planted other varieties.
Sugarcane for syrup yielded 343,700 gallons in the 10 counties. Much was grown to sell in stalks for chewing purposes, also.
Increased production for livestock feed over previous years was carried out this year. Corn, peanuts, hay, oats, rye and potatoes were grown, thus cutting down the expense of purchasing feeds. Pastures were given more attention to provide green feed for livestock also.
An interracial cooperative was set up at the Farmers' Market in Chipley. This contained a refining plant for syrup and a grading and packing plant for sweet potatoes.

4-H CLUBS
The enrollment of 4-H club boys showed a decrease over last year because the labor shortage caused many boys to fill the vacancies on farms. In spite of this, 1,568 boys completed their projects. Corn, peanuts, home gardens, swine production, poultry and dairying were the major projects. Many of the boys carried several projects, with special interest being shown in food and feed crops.








Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Beulah S. Shute, Local District Agent
Helping the agents and farm families make adjustments to the war-time program was the foremost plan for 1942 among negro home demonstration agents. Other endeavors included cooperating with federal, state and other organizations in spreading information designed to aid in the war effort to the mass of rural people.
The number of home visits was cut down and more effort was made to have rural'families pool their transportation. The neighborhood leader system helped to overcome the handicap caused by the tire and gasoline shortage.
FACTORS AFFECTING COUNTY EXTENSION WORK
The usual State Boys' and Girls' Short Course was postponed and in its stead individual county short courses were held. As the 4-H club girls grew older they were guided into channels where they could serve best. Some were able to attend college. Others were fitted into employment. Most of the girls married and were able to use their 4-H club training in establishing their homes. Agents gave specific training in household service for many girls.
Adjustments in home management were necessary, for women and girls were needed in busy seasons and were often transported from the villages to the fields at daybreak and returned after sundown. Special demonstrations were prepared f or the girls and boys who were left in charge of the young ones and the house, while the parents and older sisters were in the fields. Children from 10 to 15 years old earned good money picking beans, peanuts, cotton, and other crops.
Educational work on the wise spending of money was difficult to make effective, but, with constant talk and attempted guidance of the older folk, girls were persuaded to use their money for better clothing, home improvement, health improvement, and the purchasing of war stamps.
The labor shortage on the farms and the increased cash income were f actors with which the agents dealt by using their influence to help the families make sensible adjustments to meet the future. The need was emphasized for the home 'production of food and feed; the utilization of cotton; improved nutritional habits; and getting the neighborhood leader system established.
Of the 9,758 negro farmers in counties served by home demonstration agents, more than 5001o were full owners, 40 negro men were farm managers, and 4,303 were tenant farmers. Poor family nutrition was found among all of these groups. During the year many families learned to eat more beneficial foods. Meal planning suggestions with cookery demonstrations served to bring up-to-date information on preparing nutritious food. Surplus commodity foods were used in some demonstrations in the schools by agents and 4-H club girls.

SOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE- YEAR
The cotton mattress program was continued in 2 counties, completing mattresses which had been ordered through the Surplus Commodity Corporation. The textile and clothing program centered around the economical use of fabrics, the remodeling of clothing, and information about the new fabrics on the market.
Home gardens to the number of 3,990 were grown by women and 4-H club girls, who canned 53,737 quarts of fruit and 165,896 quarts of vege-







Annual Report, 1942


tables. Quantities of )pork, beef and poultry also were canned and 1,744 families were assisted by the agents in curing 159,801 pounds of meat.
Better housing was brought about by the screening of many homes and by other sanitary measures. Homes were repaired and beautified in various ways and home grounds were improved.
Fats, oils, and scrap metal were collected by women and girls. Women volunteer war leaders numbering 354 served their communities. Bonds and stamps were purchased by clubs, by councils and by individual girls and women.
PERSONNEL AND METHODS
There were 9 counties served by local agents. Although the counties did not assist with the agents' salaries in most cases, they did give financial assistance in other ways, such as furnishing office space, part-time clerical help, fuel, and telephone. Cooperation on the part of the agents with the school boards and the other county offices was found in every instance. Individuals sympathetic with Extension work greatly aided the program and helped it to move onward in spite of handicaps due to travel complications.
One new local home agent was added to the staff. The home agents were called together several times during the year for training meetings. Two agents' conferences were held at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College in Tallahassee. Group meetings were held in conveniently located centers. Three agents went to the Tuberculosis Institute in Jacksonville. One agent attended a training meeting in Atlanta, Georgia.
Field equipment was assembled for demonstrations. A kit was provided for food demonstrations, including a sauce pan, a sharp butcher knife, a food chopper, a small oven, a dishpan, a rolling pin, a grater, and a biscuit cutter. The agents were supplied with these kits which enabled them to help 2,363 families in learning better ways of preparing food.
The agents kept daily diaries from which they compiled their monthly reports. Home records were kept by many women and girls.
The District Agent aided the agents by addressing meetings and furnishing bulletins and other literature. When mimeograph machines were not at the disposal of a local agent, important programs and letters were mimeographed in the District Agent's office. Newspaper publicity was frequently prepared by the District Agent. Exhibits were placed, short courses and camps organized and demonstrations prepared and given by the District Agent.
GARDENS, ORCHARDS, THRIFT ACTIVITIES
In addition to the large number of gardens reported from the nine counties, there were 225 home orchards begun; 247 families bought milk cows; 125 schools were helped with the lunchroom program; 8 health or nutrition clinics were organized. The tendency to sell eggs and butter before home needs were supplied was lessened. Demonstrations were given to make some of the wholesome but unattractive foods appealing to children.
Demonstrations were given by all agents on home canning. Handicrafts, health and physical fitness, health f acts about adolescence, and educational motion pictures were some of the programs stressed in the different communities. Movies were shown on "Fighting Fire Bombs", "Let My People Live", and "Goodbye, Mr. Germ".
The gathering and curing of Spanish moss brought $1,500 to rural women. Demonstration women and 4-H girls owned 49,126 hens and the eggs from these were a source of cash income. Bleached feed bags were dyed and made into attractive garments. The bags were also used for bedding, table linens, curtains, towels and slip covers. Some thrifty girls saved the strings obtained from raveling the bags open, and used them for crochet







60 Florida Cooperative Extension

cotton, making towel edging, smaller table mats, and crocheted lace. Civilian coats and suits of husbands and brothers in the Army and Navy were remodeled into clothing for the women and girls, or cut down for younger brothers.
COOPERATION EXTENDED AND RECEIVED
All negro, agents received instruction from AAA officials at a 1-day meeting. Cooperation was extended to county, state, and federal organizations whenever possible. Agents going into homes found needy cases and reported them to county welfare boards. The agents assisted county tuberculosis associations in fighting this disastrous disease. A fine spirit of cooperation existed between the local home agents and the Jeanes teachers. They assisted each other with school lunch activities, exhibits, and other rural life problems. The slight overlapping of the Farm Security Administration with the Extension program caused some confusion in I county but adjustments were made and the work goes on.
In all of her work the District Agent enjoyed the assistance of the specialist and the district agents of the State Home Demonstration Office. The State Home Demonstration Agent always had time to guide and counsel the Local District Agent, despite her own increased war-time program.
STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK (Men and Women)
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) . . 211 Days of service: In office, 1,640; In field, 3,560; Total . ------------ 5,200
Farm or hom e visits m ade . 8,404 Different farms or homes visited . . . 4,072 Calls relating to extension work: Office, 14,001; Telephone . 4,486 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth . 1,917 N ews articles or stories published . 242 Bulletins distributed --------------------------------------------- _ -_--------------------------- . 9,629
Radio talks broadcast or prepared . 3 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber . 149 Total attendance of men and women . 4P2 Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber . . . 907 Total attendance . 12,474 Meetings held at result demonstrations:
N um ber . 829 A ttendance . 4J 96 Tours conducted . 19 Achievement days held for 4-11, older youth and adult work . 40 Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings -------------------------------- 1,288
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total num ber of farm s . 8,885 Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year and in past . 2,695 Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration
and agricultural program s . 2,169 Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the
home demonstration program . 1,702 Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration
and agricultural programs this year . 1,742








Annual Report, 1942 61

Different farm families influenced by some phase of the extension program . 5,213
Others families influenced by some phase of the extension program ---- 2,155

CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT
Days devoted to war agricultural work . 204
Communities conducting war work . 216 Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program . 269
Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian defense, and other war work . 1,080

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural 'planning group . . 294
U npaid . I . 284
P aid . 10 Communities in agricultural planning . : . 108
Members in community agricultural planning . 183
Planning meetings held . 546 Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w orkers ---------_--------------- . 321
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ------------------------------------------------ 500
Days of voluntary leaders or committeemen . 649

CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work . 955
Communities in which work was conducted . 1,153 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 872

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work . 669
Communities in which work was conducted . 771
Voluntary committeemen and leaders . 571
Breeding and improvement organizations . 166
Farm ers assisted . 62562

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work . 134
Communities in which work was conducted . 185
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen . . 92
Farmers assisted in soil management -------------------------------------------------------- 1,126
Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation . 2,558

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work . 181
Farm ers assisted . . 5,695

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Days devoted to w ork -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 80
Communities in which work was conducted . 109
Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 177
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted . 447







Florida Cooperative Extension


MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION D ays devoted to w ork . _ 622 Communities in which work was conducted . 1,114 Established cooperatives assisted . . . 11 New cooperatives assisted in organizing . 10
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during the year (established and new) . . . $375,952.00 Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not members of cooperatives) assisted during year . $659,119.00

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT ,
Days devoted to w ork . . 279 Communities in which work was conducted -------------------------------------------- 358
Voluntary leaders and committeemen . 254
Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical equipment, rural electrification . 8,481

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
D ays devoted to w ork . ------- ! . 1,182 Communities in which work was done . 922
Families assisted: Improving diets, 2,301; Food Preparation, 2,375;
T otal . 4,676 Families assisted with food-preservation problems . 4,997

COMMUNITY WORK
D ays devoted to w ork . 565 Communities in which work was done in problems in clothing, family
economics, parent education and community life . 495
Families, clubs and groups assisted in problems in clothing, family
economics, parent education and community life . 14,411

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys . 2,914
Projects completed by girls . 17,011 Boys completing corn and peanut projects . 793
Boys completing fruit and garden projects . 634 Boys completing dairy and poultry projects . 312 Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects . 93
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects . 171
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects . 497 Girls completing dairy and poultry projects . 1,573 Girls completing home gardens and fruit orchard projects . 2,648 Girls completing food selection and preparation projects . 1,679 Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid . 1,287
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and
room improvement Projects . 3,781 Girls completing food preservation projects . 1,141
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm, 1,724; Non-farm, 186; Total . 1,910 Girls: Farm, 1,927; Non-farm, 481; Total . 2,408 4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in extension program . 958
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs . 890











INDEX


AAA, 12, 13, 17, 46, 60 Agencies receiving cooperation, 7,
40, 45, 51, 56 Agents, list of, 5, 6 Agricultural economics, 19 Agricultural News Service, 16 Agronomy, 22 American Institute of Cooperation,
20
Animal husbandry, 22, 24 Associations, 18
dairy, 26 Auctions, 20 Austrian winter peas, 14 Avocados, 15

Beef cattle, 24 Belcher, Clarine, 50 Bowman, V. V., 20 Boys' club work, 30 Broiler production, 28 Bulletins, 15

Calves, 13 Camping, 30 Cattle, 13, 19
breeding, 24
Chickens, 13 Citrus, 32
Clayton, H. G., 12 Clothing, 50 Club work, 28, 35, 45, 49, 57
boys, 30
girls, 37, 52 Clipsbeet, 16 College of Agriculture, 16 Commercial vegetables, 13 Conferences, 18, 19 Conservation, agricultural, 12
food, 46, 47 soil, 13, 36
Contests, club, 30 Cooperation with other agencies, 7,
40, 45, 51, 56 Cooperatives, 20 Corn, 13, 22, 23 Cotton, 13, 14, 22
mattresses, 58
County planning committees, 21 Cover crops, 32 Cowpeas, 14


Dairy specialist, 22 report, 26 sales, 26
DeBusk, E. F., 18 Defense Council, State, 35 Dennis, R. S., 12

Egg-Laying Test, 27 Employees in armed forces, 8

Family food supply, 45 Farm Flashes, 16 Farm Hour, 16 Farm management, 19 Farmers' organizations, 18 Fat stock shows, 24 Feed, 12, 23 Feed crops, dairy, 26 Financial statement, 8 Fire protection, 35 Flock records, 28 Food, 12, 18, 23
conservation, 46, 47 Forest trees, 14, 34

Game and timber, 35 Gardens, 13, 58, 59, 66
market, 13 victory, 15 Girls' club work, 37, 45, 52, 69 Gladiolus thrips, 20 Goals, state, 13 Grazing, 15 Grove records, 19 Gum naval stores, 13, 34

Hay, 13, 22 Hampson, C. M., 19 Health, 43 Hogs, 13, 20 Home demonstration work, 37 with negroes, 42, 58 Home improvement, 52 Home industries, 42 Howard, R. H., 19

Improvement, home, 52 Industries, home, 42 Institutes, 18 Irrigation, citrus, 333

Journals, farm, 16






ii

Land-use programs, 19, 21 Limestone, 14 Living-at-home, 18


Index

Rationing, 48
Record keeping, farm and grove, 19
Rye, 14

Sales, cattle, 24
dairy, 26
Salvage, container, 48
Scale control, 32
Scholarship, club, 30
Shipping tomatoes, methods, 20
Short course, 30, 55, 58
Shows and sales, 24 Sikes, Anna Mae, 43
Soil, 13, 14, 23
conservation, 36
Spencer, A. P., 7, 18
State Committee, AAA, 21
State Defense Council, 35
Statistical report, 8
Negro, 60
Sugarcane, 23
Sweet potatoes, 13, 22
Swine, 15, 23, 25

Textiles, 50
Thrift work, 59
Timber-grazing-game program, 35
stand improvement, 34
Tobacco, 13, 14, 23
Tours, 18 Trips, 17
Truck crops, 20
Turkeys, 13

USDA, 16

Velvet beans, 23
Victory gardens, 15
pigs, 18
Volunteer war workers, 38, 44, 51, 56


Mailing room, 17 Management, farm, 19 Mapping counties, 21 Market gardens, 13 Materials printed, 15 Marketing, 20, 28
forest products, 34 Meal planning, 44 Meat sharing, 48 Metal, scrap, 18 Mobilization week, club, 31 Moore, Virginia P., 52

Naval stores, 13, 34 Negro home demonstration work,
42, 58
Negro work, 55 Nettles, W. T., 18 Newell, Wilmon, 7 News Service, Agricultural, 16 Noble, C. V., 19 Nutrition and health, 43

Oats, 13, 14, 22, 23 Orchards, 59

Papayas,15
Pasture, 22, 23 Peanuts, 13, 14, 22, 23 Periodicals, 16 Personnel changes, 18, 41, 59 Pest control, citrus, 32 Pine 'planting, 31, 34 Poultry, 27 Prices, egg and poultry, 29 Printed materials, 15


Quail raising, 31 War boards, 14, 17, 21, 45
County, 14
Radio, 16 War contributions, 31, 39, 44, 50, 52
Ranches, 19 WRUF, 16




Full Text

PAGE 1

DUPLICATE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS (Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914) AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMBN AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING WILMON NlllWELL, Director 1942 REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1942 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1942

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS (Acts of May 8 and .June 30, 1914) AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OJI' FLoamA FLORmA STATE COLLEGE Jl'OR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OP AGRlCULTUIIE COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, Director 1942 REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1942 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1942

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BOARD OF CONTROL N. B. JORDAN, Quincy THOS. w. BRYANT, Lakeland H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale J., T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension 1 A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Acting Director J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor 1 CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor 1 JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor 1 FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager 1 Cooperative Agricultural Demonstration Work W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist and District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent N. H. MCQUEEN, Assistant Boys' Club Agent W. W. BASSETT, JR., B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent 2 A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist 1 HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman 1 D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Extension Poultryman 2 A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist 1 CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R.H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management V. V. BOWMAN, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist 1 K. S. McMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist Cooperative Home Demonstration Work MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Nutritionist VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation CLARINE BELCHER, ,M.S., Clothing Specialist Negro Extension Work A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent 1 Part-time. 2 On leave of absence for Military Service. [2]

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CONTENTS Page Report of Director and Vice-Director .......................................................... . ..... 7 Financial Statement ................. ........... ................................................ .. . . ...... 8 Statistical Report .................. ............. ...... ..... ......................... ... .. .... ... . ....... ... 8 Agricultural Conservation .................. . .. .. ...................................................... . .... .. 12 Editorial and Mailing ...... .. ............... ..... . ,... ... . ................................................. .. . . .. 15 County Farm Agents . .... .. . ............... .. .. .. . . ......... . ..... ............... ... ....... .... .... . .... ..... ... 18 Agricultural Economics ..................... ....... . .. ......................................................... 19 Farm Management ........... ... ... ... .. ........ . .. ...... .... .......................... .. .. ...... . .... .... 19 Marketing ........................................................................................................ 20 Agricultural Planning .............. . ...... .... ......................................................... 21 Agronomy ........................................ ...... .. .... .. ........ ....................................... . ... ... . . .. 22 Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Poultry ......... .. .. ................... ............. ... ........ 24 Animal Husbandry .. .. . ........................ ..... ..... .... .. ................. ............ .... .......... 24 Dairying ......................................... .... .. ....... .......... ... ....... . .... .. .... ............... . .. ..... 26 Poultry ................................................ .. .. ........... . .... ................... .. ... .......... . .. ... . . 27 Boys' 4-H Club Work ............. . ........ . . ........... ..... .. ..... ........ ........... . .......... . .... . ......... 30 Citrus Fruit Culture .................... .. . .... . ... .. ... . .. . .... .................................... ....... ..... .. 32 Farm Forestry ................................. .. ...... .. ... .............. ................................... ... ...... 34 Soil Conservation .................................................................................................... 36 Home Demonstration ........ ... ... .. ... ......... . ...... ............ . ............ .... ........... . ..... ........... 37 Food, Nutrition and Health .. .. . ..................... ... ... .. ......... ...................... ............... .. 43 Gardening and Food Conservation 46 Clothing and Textiles ........... ... ... ......... .. ......... . .. . .... ............ ,........... .. ..... . . . ............. 50 Home Improvement ............................ ....... . ............ ................................. ........ .. . . ... Negro Farm Demonstration Work .. ........ .......................................... .... ........ . ... 55 Negro Home Demonstration Work ... . . .................. ............................... ... ... .... .... 58 Negro Statistical Report .... ... .... ................. ............................ ............ .. ..... ... 60 [ 3]

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Hon. Spessard L. Holland Governor of Florida Tallahassee, Florida Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agri cultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1942, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1942. Respectfully, H.P. ADAIR, Chairman, Board of Control Hon. H. P. Adair, Chairman, Board of Control Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agricul ture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. Respectfully, JOHN J. TIGERT President, University of Flori
PAGE 6

COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS HOME IYEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADD.RESS ' AGENT Alachua ............ Loonis Blitch .... ......... ... ... Gainesville Mrs. Grace F. Warren Baker ..... .... ....... J. M. Kennedy ................ Macclenny ............................................... . ~:!:ii~~:a: : ::::::::t1: ./'.D~:~~~~ .. . ..:: .~~ f:rt~~ .? .~~ .. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::=::: Brevard ............ T . L. Cain .... .......... .... .. ... Cocoa ....... . .... .... .... Mrs. Eunice F. Gay Broward ... ........ B. E. Lawton . ...... .. .... ... .. Ft. Lauderdale ....... . Miss Olga Kent Calhoun ... . .... ......... ....... ........... ...... ............. Blountstown ........ Mrs. Mary Bridges Charlotte .......... R. A. Fulford ................. Punta Gorda ........................................... . Citrus ..... . ........ . 0. M. Maines .................. Inverness .. ... .. ... Mrs. Doris R. Turner Clay . ............................. . . .. ... . . .. ...... ............. .. Gn. Cve Spg ... Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird Columbia .......... Guy Cox .. .. ........ ............... Lake City .. .. Miss Elizabeth Dickenson Dade .... .. . .... ....... l;. H. Steff ani... .............. Miami .................... Miss Eunice Grady Dade (Asst.) .. J. L. Edwards ................. Miami .. .... ...... Miss Margaret Delaney DeSoto . ... . . .. ... ... E. H. Vance ... .. . .. ........ .. . ... A'rcadia ................ .... . . ............. . ............... . Dixie ... .... .......... !<' (. Brenn eis .. ............. Cross City .. .. ....... ......................... .. . ....... . . Duval... .... ...... ... A. S. Lawton .......... ....... . . Jacksonville .......... Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.).G. T. Huggins . .... .......... ... Jacksonville .... Mrs. Dorothea Calmes Escambia .... ..... E. H. Finlayson .............. Pensacola ............ Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden ............ Henry Hudson ................. Quincy .... . ............. .. Miss Elise Laffitte Gilchrist ... .. . ..... A. S. Laird ... . ...... .. ........... Trenton . ....... ...... . . .......... ........................ . . Glades ............... F. D. Yaun ...... .. . . ...... ....... Moore Haven ....... . . ......... .. . ...... ....... .. . .. .. .. . Gulf.. ................. J. B. White ....... : ......... ... Wewahitchka .... Mrs. Pearl Whitfield Hardee .. ............ H. L. Miller ...................... Wauchula ................. . ............................... . Hernando .... ...... C. D. Newb e rn ............... Brooksville ............. .... . . ......... . .... . ............. . Highlands ........ . L . H . Alsmeyer . ............. Sebring ..................................................... . Hillsborough ... . Alec White ...................... . Tampa ..................................................... . Hillsborough ... . J. 0. Armor (Asst.) ... ..... Plant City ............................................... . Hillsborough .... (West) .............................. Tampa .... Mrs. Caroline M. Boogher Hillsborough .... (Ea s t) ........ ..... .................. Plant City . . ...... Mrs. Irene R. Harvey Holmes .......... . . . . A. G. Hutchinson ..... .. .... Bonifay . .. .. ...... . Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Jackson ....... .... .. J. W. Malone . ....... . .. ... ... . Marianna ........ Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter Jefferson .......... E. N. Stephens ............... Monticello ............. . .. Mrs. Ella Loeb Lafayette ... ....... J. T. Oxford ..................... Mayo ...... .... .............. . . ... ............................ . Lake .................. R. E. Norris ................... Tavares ............ Mrs. Lucie K. Miller Lee ..................... C. P. Hueck ..................... Ft. Myers ................................. . . .... ........ . Leon ............ ..... . J. G. Kelley ..................... Tallahassee .......... .. Miss Joyce Bevis Levy .................. T. D. Rickenbaker ....... ... Bronson .................... Mrs. Essa Shaw Madison .. . ........ :s. L. Brothers ................. Madison . . ........ Miss Bennie F. Wilder Manatee ............ Ed. L. Ayers .. ............. .... . Bradenton ........ Miss Margaret Cobb Marion ......................................................... Ocala .... . . . ............. Miss Allie Lee Rush Nassau ... ........... J. D. Coleman, Jr ......... . . Hilliard . . ........... ........ .............. ...... .......... . Okeechobee ...... C. A. Fulford ................... Okeechobee ............ .... ........... .. ................ . Okaloosa .......... F. W. Barber .. ............... . Crestview .......... : ...................................... . Orange .............. K. C. Moore .. . .................. Orlando .. .... .. Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola ............. J. R. Gunn . ... .......... .. .. .. .. . Kissimmee .... ....... . Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach ..... M. U. Mounts ... .. . ... . ....... W. Palm Beach .. Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pasco ........ . ........ J. A. McClellan, Jr ...... . .. . Dade City ................................................. . Pinellas .. ........... J. H. Logan ... . ............ ... .. Clearwater ............ Miss Tillie Roese} Asst. Mrs . Eileen Hammock Polk .................. . W. P. Hayman ............... Bartow ..... .... ........... Miss Lois Godbey Putnam .. ... . ....... H. E . Westbury .............. Palatka .. ... . ....... . .. Miss Opal Walker St. Johns ..................................................... St. Augustine .... Miss Anna E. Heist St. Lucie .......... Myron M. Varn .............. Fort Pierce ............ . ............... .. .. . ............ . Santa Rosa ...... E. D. McCall... ................ Milton ... ... ...... Miss Eleanor Barton Seminole ........... C. R. Dawson ........ ...... .... Sanford ................ Mrs. Ouida Wilson Sarasota .......... . W. E. Evans ........... .. ...... Sarastoa .................. . ................................ . Sumter . . .. ......... . Carl Hendricks . .............. Bushnell .. ... ........ . ... . ................................. . Suwannee ......... S. C. Kierce ..................... Live Oak .. .. ........ Miss Louise Taylor Taylor ............... D. D. McCloud . . ...... ......... Perry .................... Mrs. Ruth Elkins Ulnion ......... .... .. . Harry J. Brinkley .......... Lake Butler ........................................... _. Volusia ............. F. E. Baetzman .. ... . .. . ..... DeLand . . .. . ....... Mrs. Gladys Kendall Wakulla ........... N. J. Albritton . ....... .... .... Crawfordville ..... ......... . .. ...... ....... ........... . Walton ......................................................... DeFuniak Spgs ..... Miss Eloise McGriff Washington ..... K. A. Clark. ... .. ................ Chipley .. . .................. ... ............................. . [ 5]

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NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY LOCAL COU N TY A GENT ADDRESS Alachua . . .. . . . . .. . .. . .... ... . . ....... . ... ... . . . .. Otha W. Neaiy .. ....... . .......... .. ..... . Gainesville Columbia and So. Suwannee .. .. . . .. McKinley Jeffers .... . . .. .. .. . . ........ . . Lake City Gad s den , ..... .. .................. . ..... .. ..... . . . Russell Stephens ........ . .. . .... . ... .. . .. . .... .. Quincy Hamilton and No. Suwannee ..... . N. H. Bennett ........................ White Springs Jackson ..... . .............................. . ... . . Thoma s A. Harris ............... .. . .. .. . . Marianna Jefferson .... . . ............................. . .... M. E. Groover .............................. . . Monticello Leon . . . ... . ................................... . ..... Rolley Wyer, Jr .......... , . ......... Tallahassee Marion . .. .. . . . ..... . ............... .. ............. Eugun e P. Smith ....... . .. . . . .... . .... .. ........ Ocala Sumt e r . . ... . . . . . . . . . ............. . ..... . ......... . Alonzo A. Young ................ .. ....... . .. Bushnell COUNTY LOCAL HO M E DEM. AGENT ADDRESS Alachua . . .. . .. . .. .. ...... .. . ... ... . .. .. . .. . . .... . Mary Todd McKenzi e .......... . . .. .. Gainesville Duval . .... ......... .. .. . ........... .. ... .... .. .. .. . Ethel M. Powell ........... . ... . ... .. ... Jacksonville Gad s de n ....... . ... . . . . .......... .. . . . . .......... . Diana H. Bouie ......... . ................. . .... Quincy Hillsborough ... . .............. . .. ... ......... . Floy Britt ..... ................ ..... .. . . .. .... ....... . Tampa Jackson . . . ................................ . ..... . Sudella J. Ford ............................ Marianna Leon .... .. . ............................. .. .. . .. . ..• Maud e K. Mumford .............. . . Tallahassee Madison .......................................... Alth e a Ayer ................................... . Madison Marion ........................................... .Idella R. Kelly .................... . ... . . .. .. . .. .. . Reddick Putnam .................................... . .... . Fannie B. Diggs .............. . ......... .... .... Palatka [ 61

PAGE 8

PART I-GENERAL REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR Wilmon Newell, Director A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director Meeting the federal crop production goals principally occupied the Flor ida Agricultural Extension Service during 1942. Committees for the pur pose were set up within the organization and extended to represent county and community effort. Personnel changes in the period chiefly came about when county agents resigned to enter military service or accept private employment at higher salaries. Supervisory and specialist staffs continue as before, except for the resignation of one marketing member and his successor's appointment. Addition was made of a soil conservationist. Financial support for the work from state and federal sources did not materially differ from that available in the preceding 12 months, though the demands upon the Extension Service increased greatly. Maintaining efficiency grew more difficult as the duties multiplied and became further varied. Counties in several instances helped out by raising their appropri ations. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS Output from Florida farms was materially enlarged during the crop and livestock seasons, despite mounting difficulties about procuring fertilizer, insecticides, labor, machinery, and transportation. Contributions to the end thus achieved made by the Extension Service workers have been freely acknowledged, alike by the rural people among whom they labored and the government agencies charged with responsibility for keeping up food supplies. Conditions confronted during the time will probably take on added in tensity as the war situation develops. Rationing equipment and supplies has given the problem new angles. Ceiling prices on farm products caused a further complication concerning which apprehension is felt. COOPERATION BETWEEN AGENCIES Wartime conditions have created numerous new federal agencies dealing with farming and almost without exception these make their field contacts through Agricultural Extension Service offices and personnel. County agents in particular have had their programs greatly enlarged as the in evitable consequence. Calls have multiplied meanwhile from the groups previously existing, asking assistance on an expanded scale in meeting their added responsi bilities. Plans for work that had been set up in the Extension Service along the lines hitherto followed necessarily underwent shrinkage or side-track ing to some extent, because of these various demands. Coordination between other federal and state units operating in different but related fields has been promoted on numerous occasions during the year under Agricultural Extension Service sponsorship. Endeavors in that di rection will almost certainly require even more time, as the war situation increasingly affects the rural people. Losses of its own manpower to the armed forces or essential manufacturing enterprises will be further felt by the Extension Service at the same time, beyond question. [ 7]

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8 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORTS FROM SPECIALISTS Projects previously started which have been continued during the period covered in this report are briefly reviewed in the following 'pages, by the specialists in each division. Attention is also paid in their findings to the additional undertakings they have directed or helped to prosecute. Altera tions in the activities may be expected as the need and the opportunity develop. Financial statements and statistical summaries are presented immediate ly hereinafter. EMPLOYEES JOIN ARMED SERVICES Twelve employees of the Florida Extension Service, 3 from the state staff and 9 county workers, had joined the country's armed forces by the end of 1942. They are Wilmer W. Bassett, Jr., assistant boys' club agent, D. F. Sowell, extension poultryman, and J. C. Bedsole, assistant leader in land-use planning, and Stuart C. Bell, F. X. Brenneis, Miss Beulah Felts, T. K. McClane, P.R. McMullen, A. M. McNeely, J. Raymond Mills, W. J. Platt, Jr., and Marshall O. Watkins, county workers. FINANCIAL STATEMENT For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1942 RECEIPTS Smith-Lever and Bankhead Jones, Federal ................ $202,029.95 Capper-Ketcham, Federal .............................................. 27,417.72 Clarke-McNary, Federal 1,620.00 State-Salaries .................................................................. 60,980.00 Operating ................................................................... . .... 47,820.00 Continuing App~op.riation 5,000,00 County Appropriat10ns ...................................................... 142,504.99 Special State Appropriation, $80,400.00, n_ot made available EXPENDITURES Smith-Lever and Bankhead Jones, Federal ................ $199,366.53 Capper-Ketchum, Federal ................................................ 26,872.10 Clarke-McNary, Federal .................................................. 1,620.00 State-Salaries .................................................................. 59,990.80 Operating ...................................................................... 36,894.12 Continuing Appropriation ................................................ 5,000.00 County Appropriations by County Boards ................ 142,504.99 Balance carried over .......................................................... 15,124.12 $487,372.66 $487,372.66 STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports GENERAL ACTIVITIES Months of service (agents and assistants) ............................................ 1,172 Days of service: In office--14,075; In field-15,780; Total ................ 29,855 Farm or home. visits made ...................................................................... 48,060 Different farms or homes visited ............................................................ 25,427 Calls relating to, extension work: Office-283,669; Telephone ........ 120,286 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth........................ 6,503.

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Annual Report, 1942 News articles or stories published .......................................................... 6,074 Bulletins distributed ........................... . .. . ..... . .... . ............ .... . . ....... ... .......... .... 154,855 Radio talks broadcast or prepared .............. . ........... . ............. .. ............ .. 583 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen: Number .. ........... ... ... . ....... .. ... . ...... . .. .... ..... ... . . .. . .. .. ..... .... .. . . . ...... ....... ... . .... .. 600 Total attendance of men and women .... ...... ................... ...... ......... .. .. 8,632 Method demonstration meetings: Number . ......... . .. . . . ...... . ........ . . .. .... .. .......... ... .. .... .... . . . ... . ........ . ............... .. . 6,256 Total attendance .......... .... .. . ...... . .. .. .......... . . . ............. ... ........................... 75,683 Meetings held at result demonstrations: Number .. .. . ........... . ......... . ............... ... ..... ...... ........ . .............. ..... ... ... ......... . Attendance ........ . ..... . ...... .... . . ......... .. .......... ... .. . ........ ........ ... . .... .... .......... . . Tours ............ . .............. . .......... . ............. .. ............ .. ............ .. ........... . .. .. ......... .. . Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ....... . Encampments, leader meetings and other meeetings ....... ... ......... .. .. . SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE Total number of farms .... . . ..... .. . ... .. .. ..... ........ .. . .. . . .... . .. . .... .. ....... . ... .. ....... . Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program .... .. ......... .... ........... ...... ....... . .............. . ......... ..... .............. . Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home demonstration program . . .............. . .............. ... .......... .. ......... . .. . . Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural program for the first time this year ....... .. ....... . . . .......... . .. .. ........... . . . Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home demonstration 'program for the first time this year ................. . . . Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled ..... ...... ........ .. .. . .......... . . Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the agricultural program ................................ .... ....................... . . .. ............ . Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home demonstration program ................ .. ........ . .. .. . .. . . .................. .. . . . . Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ........ . .............. . Different farm families influenced by some phase of extension 1,644 17,235 227 302 9,374 65,482 32,336 16,426 7,777 4,142 8,560 9,806 11,264 3,628 program . ................................................................................................. 38,945 Other families influences by some phase of extension program 21,468 CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT Communities conducting war work ........... .. ............. . ............... . ............. 817 Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program ............... . .... 1,911 Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian defense, and other war work ... . .......................... . ........................... .. 4,500 COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING Members in agricultural planning group ............. .. ........ ... ............ . . Unpaid .. . ... .. .......... . ............ . ............ .. ........ . .. . .. . ........ .. . ... . .. .. . ..... .. .. . ...... . . .. . Paid ....... . ............... . .......... . ... . ...... .... .......... ....... ........ ..... ....... ... . . ... . ........ .. . Communities in agricultural planning ........ . . . .......... ... .......................... . . Members in community agricultural planning ................................... . Planning meetings held ....... . .... . ........ . .. . ...... ........ . . . .. . ........... .... .. .. .. ........... . Days devoted to planning work by county and home demontsration workers ...... . ............. . ........... . . . .......... . .............. .. ............ ... ............ . Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen .... .. .. .. . . . ...... .. .. ...... .... . ... .. . Days of assistance r . endered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 1,297 978 319 283 665 825 2,050 2 , 504 4,330 9

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Florida Cooperat iv e E x tension CROP PRODUCTION Day s devoted to work .. .... ..... . .. .. . ...... .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. ..... . .. .... ..... .. . .. . . . ... .. ...... ... ... 4,888 Communities in which work was conducted ... ......... . .. . ....... .. ........... . ... 2,615 Voluntary leaders and committeemen .. . .......... . . .. ...... . . . ... . ...... .. ...... .. ...... 2,282 LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY Days devoted to work ........ .... .... .. . ... .. . .. . . .... ......... . . ... . . . .... . .... ...... . . . . .. . .. ... . Communities in which work was conducted . . ... ...... ... ........ . . ... ........ . ... . Voluntary committeemen and leaders .. . . ... ... .. ... . .. . .... .. .......... .. .... .. . . .. . . .. . Br e eding a nd improvement organization s .. ...... ......... . . ... .... . . .. ...... .. . .. .. . Farmers assisted ......... . ......... . .......... . . . ..... : . ... .......... . ...... . ... . .................... . ... . CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Days devoted to work .... .. .. .. .......... . .. . . .. .. . . .. ...... .. . . ..... .. .. .. ....... . . . .. .... . . . . .. . .. . Communities in which work wa s conducted . ... .......... . ..... . ................ . . . Voluntary local leaders and committeemen . . . . .. ....... . .......... .. ...... . . .. ... . Farmers as s isted in soil management . .. . ... . .... . .. . . .. .... .. ... . .. . . . . ... . ... .. . . ... .. . Farmers a s sist e d in forestry and wild life conservation . . . . ....... . ... . FARM MANAGEMENT 4,448 1,838 917 68 1,123 983 708 515 22 , 900 6,500 Days devoted to work ..... . .. . ..... . . . . .. .... . . ... . . ... .. . ..... ... . . . ... . . . .... . . ..... ..... .. .... 1,395 Farmers a s sisted . .... . .. .. . .. . . .. .. .... . . ....... .... .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . .. ............... .. .. . . .. 28,808 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Days devoted to work ........ . ......... ... ........ .. .. . ..... ....... ... ...... . . ............... . . . .... . Communities in which work was conducted . .. .. . .... .... . . ........ ... ........ . ... . Voluntary leaders and committeemen . . ..... ... ... . ... . . . . ..... ... . . . . .. .. . . ... . . .. . . Agricultural and non-agricultural groups ass i sted .. . ......... . .......... . ... . MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Days devoted to work .. . ... . .. . ...... . ... .. ..... . . ... . . ... . ... ..... ....... . .. . .... . ..... . .... .... ... . Communities in which work was conducted .. . ... . .. .. .. .. ... .. ..... .. . . ....... . .. . Established cooperatives assisted ......... .. .......... .. ................... .. ........... . ... . New cooperatives assist e d in organizing 'products . . . .. . .. .... . ... . . ... . . .... . Value of/sold or 'pur c hased by co o peratives assisted during the 384 387 306 596 1,675 1,962 57 17 year (established and n e w) .............. . .......... .. ............................. $13,640,507 Value of products sold or purchas e d by farmers or families (not memb e rs of cooperatives) assisted during the year ........ . ....... $13,423,811 HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT Days devoted to work .. ... . .... ... ..... .. .. . ........ . ...... . . ..... ........ . . .. .... .. . . . . ..... .. . . ... . Communities in which work wa s conducted .. ... . . ... . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . Voluntary leaders and committeemen .. .. ....... . . . . .................... ... ........ . .... . Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical equipment, rural e l e ctrification .... .. . .. . . .... ... . .. ...... ... .. .. . .. . ... . .. . . ... . . . . . . . NUTRITION AND HEALTH 1,291 1,051 725 20,847 Days devoted to work ................... .. .......... . ......... ... .................. ... ........ . . . .... 4,881 Communities in which work was done . .... . . . . .. . . .. .. .. . . ..... . .. .... . . . .. ... .. .. . . . 2,275 Families assisted: In improving diets-11,705; food preparation9,869; Total ......... . .. . ....... . ........ . . .. .......... ... ........ . .......... . ....... . . .. . .. ....... . .... 21,574 Familie s assisted with food preservation problems . .. . .. .... . .. . ... .. ....... . . 18,291

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Annual Report, 1942 COMMUNITY WORK 11 Days devoted to work ......... .. ................. .. .................. .. .............................. 2,620 Communities in which work was done in 'problems in clothing, family economics, parent education and community life ........... . 1,386 Families assisted in home management, clothing, family economics, parent education and community life .......... . .. .. ............... . . ... ......... 53,364 SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS Projects completed by boys ... ..... .. .......... . . . . .. . .. ......... . ................... ... ........... 2,826 Projects completed by girls ................ . .................. . ................ .... ............ 23,113 Boys completing corn and peanut projects ....... . .. .. . . ........... . .... . . .... ........ 367 Boys completing fruit and garden projects ... ... . .... .. . ...... . .. ..... .. .. ........ 690 Boys completing dairy and poultry projects . .. . ... .... ......... . . .... .. . ........... 683 Boys completing cotton and tobacco 'projects ..... ...... .......... . .. .. .......... 24 Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ............. . .............. 68 Boys completing beef cattle arld swine projects ... .. ......... .. .. .. ... . ........ 707 Girls completing fruit and garden projects .......................................... 3,771 Girls completing dairy and poultry projects ..... . . .. .................. . ........... . 968 Girls completing food selection and preparation projects . . .............. 3,827 Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid 'projects ........ 1,429 Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and room improvement projects ..................... .... ..... . ..... ... .. ... ............ 6,979 Girls completing food preservation projects ....... . ................................ 1,889 4-H Membership Boys: Farm-3,733; Non-farm-678; Total .... . ............... . .. .. ........... 4,441 Girls: Farm-6,452; Non-farm-3,498; Total .......... . ... . . . .......... . .... 9,950 4-H club members having health examinations because of participation in extension program ...... .. .................. . ................. .... ............ 1,356 4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school grounds and conducting local fairs 1,511

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12 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge R. S. Dennis, State Performance Supervisor The Florida Agricultural Extension Service plays an important part in the work of the Agricultural Adjustment Agency in this state. The coun ty agent is secretary to the county agricultural conservation association. In the county offices the AAA work and Extension work are carried on in in the same offices. The State AAA Committee is composed of the following members: James J. Love, Chairman, Gadsden County; C. S. Lee, Seminole C0unty; W. B. Anderson, Jackson County; H. C. Brown, Lake County; and A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension, ex-officio member. During the year of 1942 the work of the Agricultural Adjustment Agency and, consequently, the work of the county agents in connection with AAA was greatly extended and broadened by the demands of the war effort. A brief outline of the 1942 work follows. USDA WAR BOARDS The USDA War Boards are composed of representatives of all USDA agencies active in the field. These boards were organized in 1941 under authority delegated to the Agricultural Adjustment Agency by the Secre tary of Agriculture. The AAA State Administrative Officer is chairman of the State War Board, the chairman of the AAA county committee is chair man of the county war board, while the county extension agent is secre tary. Other USDA agencies represented on the state and county war boards in 1942 are: Soil Conservation Service, Bureau of Cro ' p Estimates, Farm Cr e dit Administration, Forest Service, Rural Electrification Admin istration, and Farm Security Administration. These war boards have ren dered great assistance in carrying out the activities of the year. AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION The 1942 Agricultural Conservation Program attached particular import ance to: (1) Food and feed production to meet the necessary demands of the war effort ; (2) The most efficient and productive use of the avail able farm labor, land, equipment, and other production facilities; (3) The conservation and improvement of soil resources to the end that future production needs could be met. All of these objectives were substantially accomplished. Food and Feed Production.-Early in November, 1941, the State USDA War Board established county goals for the production of needed crops, live stock, livestock 'products, poultry and poultry products. These goals in practically all cases represented substantial increases and in some instances phenomenal increases over past production. Some of these goals were again revised upward in January of 1942. The county USDA war boards in turn broke the county goals down to individual farms and 'proceeded with a farm-to-farm canvass and sign up, securing pledges from the individual farmers to make every effort to m e et the goals assigned to the farm. A 1942 farm production that broke all existing records rewarded their efforts. Table 1 gives the revised state goa!s.

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Annual Report, 1942 TABLE 1.-1942 REVISED STATE GOALS FOR PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS. Commodity Milk* ........... . . . .. . ........................... . . Eggs* ........ . ......... .. ....................... . Hogs* ........................................... . Peanuts* ....... . .. . ............................ . Gardens ....... . .... ... ... . ............. , ........ . Cattle and calves for slaughter Oats . . . .... . .... . ... . . ..... ..... . . . ......... . ..... . . Hay ..... . .. . .. . .... ... .. . ..... . ....... . ........ . .. . Irish potatoes . . .. . .................... . .. . . Sweet potatoes . ........................ . . . Corn* .............. . . .. ......................... . . . Commercial . vegetables, including market gardens ..... . Chickens* ... . . . .......... . ......... . .. . ... .. .. . Turkeys .. .... . .. ... . . ...... . . . .................. . Tobacco, flue-cured* ............ . .. . ... . Cotton* .......... . .. ... ................... . ..... . Gum naval stores 2 * Price support in effect. Unit Pounds . Dozen Pounds Acres Number Head Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Pounds Pounds Acres Acres Units Revised State Goal January, 1942 378,000,000 18,750,000 79,013,000 273,000 61,500 236,000 14,000 126,000 32,000 20,000 750,000 201,000 14 % above 1941 10 % above 1941 15,160 65,000 1 118,000 1 lncludes staples of 1 inches and longer. Unit is 1 barrel (50 itallons) turpentine. and 3 barrels rosin, 500 pounds gross. 13 Preliminary crop reports indicate that the goal for peanuts harvested is the only goal that was not substantially reached or exceeded by a good margin. Most Efficient Use of Available Land, Labor, and Equipment.-As a means to obtain the needed essential production of food and feed crops and to meet war crop goals, use was made of exi s ting facilities, such as acreage allotments for certain special crops, with payments to the farm for plant ing within the allotment, and marketing quotas for flue-cured tobacco, short cotton, and peanuts for the edible trade. In the case of cotton and tobacco, farmers were encouraged to plant even below their allotments and to use the acreage, labor, fertilizer, and equipment thus released to produce more of the needed food crops. As a means of aiding in the most efficient use of production facilities, such as farm machinery and equipment and farm transportation, war boards were requested to ration farm machinery and assist farmers in pre paring applications and appeals in connection with certificates of war necessity for farm trucks. The AAA and Extension county office personnel have devoted a tremendous amount of time to these activities and the work in this connection has been of untold value to the farmers and to the consuming public. On the farm labor front the war boards, through the AAA and Extension employees, have made every effort possible to bring the labor needs of the farmer to the attention of the authorities through the medium of regular reports and by other means. Conservation and Improvement of the Soil . -Three means have been used in 1942 to accomplish soil conservation and improvement. First, assistance in the form of payments to farmers was offered to enable them to carry out needed soil-building practices . . These payments, on the average, are equal to about one-half the cost of carrying out the practice. Many of the ' se practices also contribute directly to increased food and feed production. The most important and widely used of the soil building practices applicable in Florida are: the application of phosphate materials and potash to or . in connection with the seeding of certain soil-improving crops, the applica

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension tion of limestone where needed, the seeding of winter legumes, establish ment of improved pasture by seeding or sodding, maintenance of improved pastures, construction of terraces, growing and turning under green ma nure and cover crops, inter'planting of certain legumes with other crops, planting forest trees, and growing home gardens. Data are not yet avail able showing the results of this phase of the program for 1942, but careful estimates indicate that at least 50,000 farmers took advantage of these pro visions and that the assistance given them for this purpose will total ap proximately $1,950,000. Second, certain materials and seeds were made available to farmers without the outlay of cash, being charged against the farmer's earned pay ment. The table below shows the kinds and amounts of materials and seeds made available under this plan and the number of producers receiving each. Kind Quantity No. of Producers Limestone . ........ . . . .. . . . . . ..... . ..... 10,994 Tons ....... . . . . .... . .. .... 1,425 Super ' phosphate ..... . . .. ........... 3,940 Tons 996 Austrian winter pea seed . __ .223,210 Pounds 599 Oats 2,952 Bushels 120 Rye 18 Bushels 5 Forest trees 7,800 4 This feature of the program has enabled many small farmers to carry out soil-building practices _ on their farms which otherwise would not have been possible. Third, the provisions of the 1942 program required each farmer to de vote at least 25 percent of his cropland to non-depleting crops or erosion resisting uses as a condition of payment in connection with his cotton, to bacco, Irish potato or peanut allotment. Many of these non-depleting or erosion-resisting crops also contributed to the production of needed food and feed. They included peanuts hogged off, improved permanent pasture, cowpeas, and fall-seeded small grains. Other practices, such as fall-seeded winter legumes, green manure crops, kudzu, forest trees, and land ter raced, contributed to soil improvement and the storing of soil fertility for use in future years. This provision affected approximately 20,000 farms and required approximately 330,000 acres to be devoted to the specified uses. Farmers on the average more than met these requirements. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOMPLISHMENTS Other activities carried out under the Agricultural Adjustment Agency programs include: (a) The marketing quota program for cotton, tobacco, and peanuts. In 1942 there were 12,320 farms eligible for cotton market ing quotas; 6,219 farms eligible for tobacco marketing quotas; and 9,389 farms eligible for peanut marketing quotas. (b) The Sugar Program in cluded 36 growers who planted approximately 33,600 acres of sugarcane for sugar. The final harvested acreage figures are not yet available. (c) Cooperation with the Agricultural Marketing Administration in their price support operations for Florida crops and products. (d) Assistance to farmers in securing essential material and equipment under priority and rationing regulations. (e) Keeping county war boards and farmers in formed of the requirement of war-time regulations and restrictions affecting Florida agriculture.

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Annual Report, 1942 EDITORIAL AND MAILING J. Francis Cooper, Editor Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor 15 Goals for the production of food, fiber and oil crops announced early in the year by Secretary of Agriculture Wickard were the chief subjects em phasized by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service in 1942. In keeping with this program, the Editorial Department lent encouragement and assist ance in the production of these needed items through the use of news stor ies, farm paper articles, radio talks, bulletins, posters, and other means. MATERIALS PRINTED DURING THE YEAR For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942, the Extension Service printed 4 new bulletins, 4 circulars, and numerous other materials of various kinds. The 4 bulletins amounted to 264 pages of material, and the editions totaled 50,000 copies. The following printed materials were issued during the year: Pages Bui. 111 Swine Production in Florida ....... . . ..... . ................ . .. .. .... 60 Bui. 112 Avocado Production in Florida .. . . .. .. ................ . ... . .. ... 112 Bui. 113 Papaya Culture in Florida .... ... . ... .. . ... . ................. . .. . . 36 Bui. 114 Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables . .. . ............. . . . ... .. . 56 Circ. 60 Florida Farmers and Food for Freedom .. . .... . . .. . .. .. 12 Circ. 61 Food for Home and Victory ....... ... . . ... . . . ............ . . . . ..... . 16 Circ. 62 Making and Using Sauerkraut .. .... . . ............... ...... ... 8 Circ. 63 Grazing for Florida Livestock ... .. . . ........................... .. 8 M.P. 30 Soil Reaction as a Basis for Certain Land Management Practices ...... . .... ... . .. ............... . ......... 36 l\LP. 1 Citrus Grove Record Book (reprint) .. . .. . .. .... ... : .. . .. . . . M.P. 10 4-H Livestock Club Record (reprint) .......... . . . .. . . ... 12 Florida Calendar Flock Records, 6 issues, each .... 4 Final Report, 15th Florida National Egg-Laying Test ................... . ............................... . ................ . .. ... . . 24 Rules, 17th Florida National Egg-Laying Test .. . . 4 1942 Calendar .. .... . . ... ............ .... . . .. . ... . . . ... . ........... .. ... . ... .. 12 Food goals cards .. .... . .. ......... . .. . .... . . . . . .. . ... : ...... . ....... . .. . . . .. 1 Office Cards, Defense Cooperation ............. . ...... . .. . .... 1 Window cards-Plant Peanuts ................................. . 1 Form 6 Agents' Monthly Report and Certificate of Service 2 Nutrition Score Sheet ................. . .. . ....................... . .. . . . 1 Hog Vaccination Record Book ........... . ............ . . . .. . ...... 100 Group Credit Chart No. 1, 4-H Boys' Short Course 1 Group Credit Chart No. 2, 4-H Boys' Short Course 1 Victory Garden-4-H Boys' Record Book ......... . .. ... . 16 Florida 4-H Club Songs ............................................. . .. 12 Agricultural News Service clipsheet, 42 issues, each ................. .... ... . ... . ............ ... . . . .. .. . ....................... . .. 1 Edition 15,000 7,500 7,500 20,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 12,000 4,500 700 6,000 1,000 1,500 1,000 12,000 200 250 1,250 5,000 600 100 250 500 10,000 10,000 900

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension MATERIALS FURNISHED PERIODICALS Newspapers and farm journals published and circulating in Florida continued to print copious quantities of materials released by the Extension Service Editors. A special Food for Freedom section, an 8-page tabloid, was printed and supplied to 41 cooperating (mostly weekly) newspapers, which distributed a total of 50,000 copies as part of their regular editions. The section was devoted entirely to food goals and their importance, with hints on how farmers might enable themselves to reach the goals. The weekly clip sheet, Agricultural News Service, continued to carry from 8 to 15 different stories each week to weekly and a few dairly news papers in Florida, and newspapers continued to use generously from it. Two daily papers printed a farm questions and answers column weekly during most of the year, the copy being furnished by the Extension Editors. These printed questions and answers always resulted in a number of ad ditional queries being received by Experiment Station and Extension Service workers. Special stories to dailies were sent mostly through the press associa tions, but an average of at least one story a week was sent direct to one or more newspapers. Skeleton stories occasionally were sent to county agents to fill in and turn over to their newspapers. Farm journals in Florida, the South and the Nation used more material than ever before from Florida Extension Editors. Four Florida journals printed 15 stories for a total of 532 column inches, 2 Southern journals printed 9 stories amounting to 107 column inches, and 4 national periodicals printed 10 articles totaling 176 column inches, all supplied by Florida Editors. RADIO MATERIALS AND BROADCASTING The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF continued to be the principal radio outlet for farm material from the Extension Service, although Farm Flashes for five-days-a-week broadcasting were sent to 13 other radio stations. County and home agents broadcast regularly, mostly weekly, over 5 or more stations outside of Gainesville. The Florida Farm Hour was cut to 55 minutes near the close of this year. A recapitulation shows that a total of 483 talks were made over WRUF during the Florida Farm Hour's six-days-a-week schedule. Of these, 85 were made by Extension workers other than Editors, 139 by Experiment Station staff members, 178 by the Editors, 26 by College of Agriculture workers, 8 by the head of the Florida USDA War Board, 1 by a State Plant Board staff member, and 46 by others. Due to the curtailment of travel, more Farm Hour programs presented local talent this year than usual. During December, 1941, 2 Florida Farm Hour programs were curtailed so that WRUF could broadcast declarations of war in the United States Congress. In addition to the talks listed, Farm Flashes and home demonstration copy from the USDA and transcriptions from the Farm Credit Administra tion were used on the Farm Hour. Cooperation was extended the Farm Security Administration and other agencies. From talks made by Extension workers a total of 55 Farm Flashes were prepared and sent to the 13 other stations, which were furnished with a 7-minute broadcast for 5 days each week. This gave added distribution to the material contained in the Extension talks.

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Annual Report, 1942 MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES 17 This office continued to handle news releases and radio broadcasts for the Florida USDA War Board and Agricultural Adjustment Administra tion. The State Plant Board, as usual, paid for the printing of 10 issues of the clipsheet, and news material was disseminated for them. With travel restricted, the Editors made few trips during the year. However, the Editor did make a trip through western Florida, when he snapped 75 pictures which have already been largely used in illustrating articles and publications. In addition, he took a large number of pictures close to Gainesville. The Editor appeared before a class in the College of Agriculture for 6 periods of 1 hour each. The class consisted of 10 senior students in terested in Extension methods. A magazine published in New York in Spanish and circulated in South America printed 1 Florida Extension circular, with our permission, thus giving the material circulation in South America. Distribution of bulletins, printed materials and supplies continued to be handled by the Mailing Room. Bulletins were sent principally to county and home demonstration agents and on special request. About 5,000 people were notified when each new bulletin was available.

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension PART II MEN'S WORI( COUNTY FARM AGENTS A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader J. Lee Smith, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent E. F. DeBusk, District Agent Conferences, institutes and tours were nearly all dropped in the North western Florida district. Meetings held by volunteers for agricultural work, in county or neighborhood units, largely took their place. Farm agents in the territory played a constructive part in drives for bond sales, gardens planting, scrap metal collection, and Victory pig rais ing. Rationing problems confronting farmers also had their attention, and they helped overcome machinery, labor, fertilizer and like shortages. Personnel changes presented particular difficulties in many counties. Agents have been maintained in each one, nevertheless. Organization of farmers by communities was accomplished in all units. Gatherings attended by the District Agents, assembled to further that purpose, brought out thousands of persons. Ten or more supplementary jobs connected with prosecuting the war were held by almost every county agent and the agents were also enlisted in a dozen or more related tasks as high privates. Production methods hitherto considered adequate underwent close scrutiny and sustained marked improvement as the result, after the war emergency conditions grew acute. "Living-at-home" practices so long advocated by the Agricultural Ex tension Service showed their need more than ever and the previous findings in reference thereto proved of the greatest value in procuring greater food supplies.

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Annual Report, 1942 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist FARM MANAGEMENT R. H. Howard, Extension Economist C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist 19 Farm and grove record keeping assumed paramount importance with increasing income tax levies, looming price ceiling threats and multiply ing rationing requirements affecting rural residents. Tours hitherto conducted among : farmers and grow,ers had to be abandoned when rubber and gasoline shortages developed, and the Ex tension Service messages were thereafter transmitted chiefly through the public prints and by means of radio broadcasts. Plant food elements used in fertilizers received special study at the request of growers. Findings therefrom helped obtain better-balanced ingredients and more liberal allowances for citrus groves under the regu lations of the several federal agencies which control the manufacture and sale. Farm and enterprise record books numbering about 2,000 were furnished upon individual applications. Assistance in utilizing the forms from the standpoint of income returns was extended freely. County agents and the Farm Management Specialists worked together and separately in this connection. Grove records have been summarized in the Extension Service offices for 224 coo"perating growers, and 78 others supplied by different bookkeeping systems weTe included. Data from preceding yeaTS furnished the basis for a paper read at the Citrus Institute setting forth trends in production costs and returns. Two cattle ranches located not far apart had detailed record accounting seo up under supervision from Extension Service Specialists. Similar di rection has been given 19 cooperators in a farm forestry project sponsored by the State Forest and PaTk Service, for the first 12 months of the 5 years it is to run. SMALL FARM NEEDS Low-income farmers in several counties have been assisted toward employing better management practices, and the recommendations as carried out are credited with substantially enlarging the output from their acreage. Land-use programs initiated in preceding years had the results reviewed in manuscript form for early publication, these circulars to stress the re lation with the current endeavor to enlarge foodstuffs output. OUTLOOK REPORTS Attendance upon the 1942 annual farm outlook conference at Wash ington, D. C. enabled the Farm Management Specialist better to under stand the country-wide situation and depict it for Florida people.

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension MARKETING D. E. Timmons, Marketing Economist to April 15 V. V. Bowman, Marketing Economist from July 1 Cooperation was extended the American Institute of Cooperation and the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives, following the annual meet ings at Atlanta, January 6 to 16, in staging a Florida tour which started from Palatka on the 18th and ended at Miami on the 22nd. Investigations prosecuted from the Extension Service Marketing Economist's o'ffice located and cla ss ified alt fruit and vegetable canneries in this state. District meetings with county agents held at 4 central points informed them regarding the findings. Federal orders and regulations growing out of the war situation which deprived Florida growers and farm product processors of n e cessary ma terials required repeated studies, in which the data developed helped obtain con s iderable modifications. Tin for canning furni s hed a typical example. Substitutes for sugar previously used in gladiolus thrips control and the molasses hitherto utiliz e d for other insecticides also resulted from the facts assembled. Tabulations covering hog sales conducted by the Gulf Cooperative Marketing Association, with headquarters at Trenton, served some 500 members. Prices were shown by grade and size, and the statistics likewise indicated the number each individual offered. Auctions were held weekly from early September until well into April. Lots brought in averaged about 9 head each, but a few farmers delivered 25 to 40 head. SUMMER AND FALL EVENTS Truck crop marketing problems engaged a conference held in Gaines ville, August 7, attended by repr e sentatives from numerous other federal and state agencies and points as far away as New York, Columbia, Chicago, and Atlanta. Data supplied by this office were utilized, and the minutes of the meeting were di s tributed through it. Tomato ship ' ping methods designed to lessen expense and wastage, which is occasioned by the practice of shipping gr e en tomatoes, were discussed at two meetings in key producing centers , Princeton, Dade County, and Bradenton, Manatee. Information obtained during the discussion led to exp e rimenfal work on this problem and may cause trial shipments of more nearly mature fruit in consumer containers. Pecan auctions to supply the lack of an organized system for selling were established at 4 State Farmers' Markets, Starke, Pensacola, Marianna, and Lak e City, through the cooperative effort s of the Agricultural Extension Service, the State Marketing Bureau and other agricultural agencies. Prices increased about 100 percent during the season, demand continued active, and the weekly sales for the season had a volume ap proaching 300,000 pounds which returned growers around $54,000. Participation in the annual Extension conference centered around farm labor problems, occasioned principally by marketing labor peak require ments . Representatives of the United States Employment Service, Farm Security Administration and the State Defense Council led discussions in a program on farm labor arranged by the Extension Marketing Specialist.

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Annual Report, 1942 AFRICULTURAL PLANNING WORK V. V. Bowman, Leader in Land Use Planning 21 County planning committees have been organized in 51 Florida counties. These county committees have a total membership of 1,344 made u'p of the following: 679 farm men, 183 farm women, 2 33 United States Department of Agriculture agency representatives, 3 representatives of other federal agencies, and 246 representatives of state and local agencies. Counties in which mapping and classification work has been done, and for which reports have been approved, are the following: Calhoun, Colum bia, Escambia, Glades, Hendry, Hillsborough, Jefferson, Lafayette Madison, Palm Beach, Seminole, Volusia, Walton. During the past year the work of the State Committee has been con ducted by the executive and sub-committees, maintaining contact with ether State Committee members by mail. Sub-committees which have been particularly active include those on farm labor, forestry, and pro duction goals. Meetings of both state and county agricultural planning committees have made 'possible a better mutual understanding of the work and prob lems of the different agencies and of farm people whom they serve. A closer coordination of programs has resulted. During the present emergency War Boards and Defense Councils have been made responsible for many of the functions previously assigned to agricultural planning committees by the Mount Weather Agreement. This work was discontinued June 30, 1942.

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22 Floricla Cooperative E x tension A GRO N O MY J. Lee Smith, Extension Agrnnomist Special emphasis was given the projects that tied in with the crop pro duction goals set by the federal government. Extension Service agronomy activities helped materially in obtaining the heavier plantings of peanuts, co rn, oat , hay, sweet potatoes and like products and the methods 1ecom mended enlarged yield sizably. Field crops goals committeemen appointed by the Extension Director in cluded the Agronomist and county agents through the regions where general farming i s followed. Placards, circular letters, news sto ries, radio talks and personal contacts were utilized in c arrying the message to the persons whose cooperat i on was m ost necessary. Specialist in other Extension division s gave valuable assistance on mat ters pertaining to their work. Credit is particularly due the Animal Hus bandman and the Dairy Speciali t for aid received in the pasture, forage and sim ilar livestock undertakings. Federal cotton experts helped on the Sea I land cotton endeavor. Upland cotton acreage reduction was advised but the production of longer-stapled output urged. Re s ults secured were gratifying and nearly 60 percent of the crop wa s 1 inch or more in length. Sea Island plant ings fell fa1 below the goal , which were announced too late, along with the supporting price , and growers had become discouraged by poor re turns previously. Fig. 1.-Peanuts were an irnp o1ta nt war cro p in Florida during 1942, and farmers raised a much larg er acreage t han usual.

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Annual Report, 1942 23 Flue-cured tobacco acreage did not quite meet the allotted total. Under plantings were the general rule, lest penalities be incurred at marketing time. Leaf quality turned out to be excellent, though the growing con ditions were not favorable early in the season. Extension Service methods proved their value again, as demonstrated with plant beds construction and management, fertilizers, spacing, and so on. PRODUCING FEED FOR l\lORE LIVESTOCK Corn, 'peanuts and velvet beans for food and feed exceeded last year's production by 20 percent. Extension Service urging caused greatly ex panded plantings of hybrid seed corn. Peanuts "hogged off" sent more swine to market from the state than ever before. Oats yielded about the same as heretofore. Seed of varieties developed at the North Flor ida Experiment Station in a 3,000-bushel lot were distributed through the Extension Agronomist. Pastures were perhaps more widely maintained than in preceding years, the Extension workers aiding with sundry suggestions. Oats and lespedeza in combination formed a considerably larger acreage ;than hitherto. Grass seed was saved and used on a bigger scale. Hay produc tion is believed to have picked up, the peanut contribution having been more than doubled. Sugarcane acreage increased and the further distribution of im'proved varieties by county agents helped enlarge output, for both sugar and syrup. Sweet potatoes suffered from an early summer drouth. Soil cover and manure crops furnished the best showing seen for years, especially in legumes, Extension workers and farmers joining to bring this about. Blue lupine seed approximating 30,000 pounds went to farm ers through the Extension Agronomist, the sowings having been for supply ing their own needs next fall or for sale to other planters. Meetings to launch the winter crops plan took 'place in every county where the program applied, the Extension Agronomist receiving support from the Soil Conservationist and interested federal groups. County agents and the local committeemen for sundry projects took part.

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist Foods supply in the more substantial forms under mounting handicaps kept these 3 closely-related lines of work to the forefront during the year, and the preceding policies proved their worth anew amid the emergency condition thus confronted. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman Circular letters produced on an enlarged scale supplemented the spoken word and personal contacts in reaching the farming public. Editions ranged upward from a few score to 20,000 on the more than 2 dozen different editions. Me e tings attended brought the Extension Service Animal Husbandman in touch with representatives from other like groups, associated special ists and county agents and many livestock raisers. Cooperation was even closer than hitherto between the animal husbandry workers and the ones handling poultry and dairy products, food conservation, nutrition, and related programs. Talks delivered before key organization meetings by the animal hus bandman started with the address made in January at the State Cattle men's annual convention at Kissimmee, and this was supplemented by an appearance at a fall session of the body's directors at Gainesville. Con ferences held with farm credit and security clients at several points gave access to these United State s Agriculture Department wards on a broad ened scale. BEEF CATTLE BREEDING Reports indicate that the state 'produced more than the 65,000,000 pounds of beef the federal government had urged . Methods stressed by this office helped materially in attaining the goal. More than 1,800 home-raised breeding bulls were placed in Florida herds. Over 1,800 purebred sires were brought from outside. Bulls we1 : e winter-fed and heifers selected and culled as never before . Pasture maintenance by cutting off weeds and briers enlisted 250 farmers, who worked around 250,000 acres. Grass lands fertilization sizably increased. Sugarcane growing for winter feed multiplied and mineral supplements were in greater demand. Parasite and disease con trol gained ground. Beef clubs are achieving greater popularity. SHOWS AND SALES Rubber and gasoline shortages caused cancellation of the Florida Fair at Tampa and the Fat Stock Show and Sale in Jacksonville. Ocala nevertheless held the second yearly Southeastern Show and Sale in February. Results as compared with 12 months previous are reflected in the following table:

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Annual R epo1 , 194 2 1942 No. of cattle sold .............................. 337 Total weight (pound s) .................... 255,022 Average price per pound ................ 1 3.46 Average weight per steer .............. 756 Average pri ce per h ead ....... .. ......... 101.88 T ota l sa l es .. ........................................ $34,336.21 No. club members ex hi biting ........ 20 No. 4 -H c lub calves .......................... 31 o. 4-H j udging tea m s .................... 6 Price of grand champion steer ...... 60 per l b . FFA M e mber s ex hibitin g .... .. ........ 36 No. FFA ca lv es ........... .. ................... 41 HOGS A D WORK STOCK 1941 160 97,92 0 1 2 . 49 862 $107.66 $12,230.20 1 1 0 55 per lb . 10 10 25 Hog ale by the Gulf Cooperative Association ha ve been expanded to cover Bell and Newberry as well as Trenton, where they were larg er than heretofore. Auction s at several State Farmers' Li vestock Markets efficient l y s erved the s urr ou ndin g country, handling swi n e, cattle and some o ther types . Victory Pig Sa l es took place at Live Oak, Madison, Monticello, and Bonifay. Fig. 2.-ln response to goa l s for mor e hogs, requested by t h e United States Department of Agr i culture, Florida farmers increa sed their hog pro duction in 1942 . Slaughtering hog s for hom e u se on farms give s Florida the pork from n ea rl y 250,000 head every year. Freezer lockers are gaining ground slowly in t he s tate . Negr o farmers hav e s h own no littl e interest in pro ducing t h eir own s uppli es . H orses a nd mule rated revived and upw ard appraisal when m otor vehicle fuels bec ame sc ar ce . Cattlemen and farmers raising colts for replacement also increased. Stallions and jacks reached new highs , 11 of the former having been on loa n from t h e federal government.

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26 Florida Cooperative Extension DAIRYING By Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman Milk on Florida farms for the families 12 months in the year afforded a major objective fitting in with the general foodstuffs program. "Share-Your-Cow" clubs organized in towns and villages took on in creased proportions. Treatment of family cows for Bang's disease and tuberculosis received a forward impulse. Dairy bulls and heif e rs sold at cooperative auctions added notably to the potential milk output. Counties raising the stock profited from the distribution as never before. Visits from the Extension Dairyman to the areas where the work was in progress helped him keep closely in touch with it and gave a dependable check on the results secured. Goals developed for milk production in 1943 brought together a state committee on dairying, in forming which this office took a leading part. Feed shortages introduced a deterring factor. FEEDING CROP PRACTICES Phosphates, lime rock, and like plant foods applied to farms in Flor ida have been perhaps more liberally utilized by dairymen than among any other class of producers. Pastures fertilized according to approved methods assisted greatly in maintaining milk yields when imported feedstuffs became scarce. Clovers and grasses thrived which had been practically unknown 10 years previously. Silo demonstrations in several sections again helped establish the feed growing system on a permanent basis. Corn and sorghum remained the foremost crops for utilization as silage. Construction of new silos was frequently reported by county agents. ASSOCIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS Herd testers have been difficult to obtain but the Dairy Herd Improve ment Association's effort was kept going. Jersey and Guernsey registered herds went ahead with advance registry tests. Florida Jersey Cattle Club members held their annual meeting at Sandyloam Farms, West Palm Beach, February 27th. Guernsey Club dairymen assembled on the same basis in Largo, September 25th . SALES OF DAIRY ANIMALS Dispersal sale held by the Sandyloam Farm owner, Hugh Dillman, on June 9th, found buyers in the state for 67 registered Jerseys which brought $11,995. Less than a dozen head went to outside buyers. Sale sponsored every year by the Florida Jersey Cattle Club, this time in De Land on May 15th, was . again a great success. Guernsey breeders had their sale , in connection with the yearly meeting of the Florida Club at Largo.

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Annual Report, 194 2 27 POULTRY orman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman A. Woodrow O'Steen, A ss i st ant Extension Poultryman Data from official sources indicate that Florida enlarged her poultry output to exceed the 1942 production goa l s. The poultry goals committee of the Agricultural Extension Service sponsored a program for more eggs and poultry meat. This committee received full cooperation from several state agencies and associations. Poultry work was conducted in nearly every county, emphasizing the production and marketing of high quality poultry product s . Extension workers a ss isted in fostering the National Poultry Improve ment Plan , which i s under the s upervision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. Exten ion Poultr y men visited 39 counties, and also attended co ference s and meetings held by the Florida Poultry Council, the Florida State Poultry Producers ' Association and its local units , and the Florida Hatchery and Breeders' Association. EGG-LA YING TEST The Sixteenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, started October 1, 1941, and ended September 22, 1942. There were 86 pens of 13 pullets eac h from 19 different states and Cuba. Twelve pens wer e entered by Florida breeders from 6 diff e rent counties. In the entire T est there were 36 pens of h e a vy breeds and 50 pens of light b reed s . Fig. 3.-Answe ring a call for more chickens and eggs, Florida farmers, aided by a salubrious climate, secured increased poultry meat and egg pro duction.

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28 Florida Cooperative Extension The average production for the 1,118 pullets in the Sixteenth Test was 200.5 eggs per bird and 207.7 points. This is the highest average egg production on record at the Florida Test. The average feed consumpticn per bird for the 51 weeks was 110.89 pounds for the heavy breeds and 104.71 pounds for the light breeds. It required 6.50 pounds of feed to produce a dozen eggs for the heavy breeds and 5.58 pounds for the light breeds. Practical feeding experiments are being conducted at the Chipley plant in addition to the Egg-Laying Test. RESULTS REPORTED Extension recommendations were followed by 1,214 farme1s in obtain ing better strains of baby chicks, 1,642 farmers in improving methods of feeding, 1,354 farmers in controlling external parasites, and 1,748 farmers in controlling disease and internal parasites. Culling demonstrations in several counties gave satisfactory results. Producers planned to grow more succulent green feed due to scarcity of essential feed ingredients. Calendar flock record keeping continued to make substantial progress. Records for the past year showed an average egg production of 172 eggs per bird. Mortality was the lowest during the past 4 years. Increases in production of broilers were made principally around the larger cities. In western Florida, in Walton County, commercially broiler production has been expanded. WORK WITH 4-H CLUBS Forty-six poultry club members from 10 counties participated in the annual 4-H Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest held in connec tion with the Central Florida Exposition in Orlando, Februray 23 to 28, 1942. Twelve breeds and 18 varieties of poultry were entered in the Poultry Show, representing a total of 337 birds. Ninety-three dozen eggs were entered in the Egg Show. Lester Kalach from Dade County was high individual judge in the contest, and the boys from Dade County were the high team. During the year 2,206 boys and girls were enrolled in 4-H poultry club work and 1,265 completed their projects. A 4-H poultry meat production contest was started November first. OTHER ACTIVITIES A breeders school was held in Gainesville with approximately 20 Flor ida poultrymen in attendance. Dr. C. W. Knox was the principal speaker. Turkey work was continued in several of the counties in North and West Florida, with particular attention to management, feeding and breeding. MARKETING ASSISTANCE The average monthly and yearly prices of poultry products for the base period (Oct. 1, 1926-Sept. 30, 1929) and for the past 5 years (1938-42) as quoted by the State Marketing Bureau in Jacksonville have been tabu lated and studied and sent to producers of the state. The market reports on poultry and egg prices have been given over Station WRUF daily.

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Annual Report, 1942 PRICE FINDINGS 29 Egg prices in 1942 averaged 5.0 cents per dozen higher than in 1941, the highest on record since 1929. The average price of heavy hens in 1942 was 3.3 cents per pound above the 1941 average, the highest price in a number of years. The average price of heavy fryers in 1942 was 4.1 cents 'per pound above the 1941 average, the highest average since 1930. The poultry ration in 1942 was 37 cents per hundred higher than in 1941. The egg-feed ratio continued to be more favorable than either the hen-feed ratio or the fryer-feed ratio. However, the egg-feed ratio was not as favorable in 1942 as in 1941. EGG BUYING The Extension workers assisted in the establishment of 6 egg buying stations to handle surplus eggs, also in handling egg gra~ing schools, and inspection work. Approximately 12,000 cases were purchased by the AMA from these 6 egg buying stations.

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent N. H. McQueen, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent Illness kept the State Agent from his duties for 2 months. Before the period ended the assistant was appointed, coming to his new duties from the county agent's position in Charlotte County. Adjustments became necessary along several lines after the United States expanded its war front. Travel curtailment forced numerous coun ty agents to s ' pend even less time on 4-H club duties than previously. SHORT COURSE AND CAMP CHANGES It was voted by the Extension staff to abandon the 1942 State Sho1t Course. This was a severe blow, as we have been depending upon the enthusiasm of the older boys which is always generated by attendance at Short Course to supply part of the club momentum. It was also decided not to open our 3 district 4-H camps but to place summer activities on a county basis. This was carried out with some degree of success and 1,048 boys and girls attended county events in 1942 as against 1,228 boys and girls in 1941. CONTESTS AND SCHOLARSHIPS Due to war difficulties most of the state contests were cancelled. The State 4-H Poultry Show was held as planned in Orlando the last of Febru ary. The Dade County boys' team won the judging contest and were to represent Florida at the National Poultry Judging Contest in Chicago. When it was decided that no out-of-state trips be given the boys were given a $50 defense bond each. The Florida Bankers' Association increased from 3 to 5 the number of $100 scholarships offered. These scholarships have been awarded at the State Short Course. With the agreement of the Bankers' Association a 'plan was set up under which an examination was given in all agents' offices at the same hour and the papers were sent to the State Office for grading. In 1941, Sears Roebuck and Company gave nearly $10,000 in Florida to establish loan funds in most counties to assist boys in project work. This is the be s t assistance ever offered boys' 4-H club work in Florida. All counties have not used their fund but more are beginning each month. MEMBERSHIP AND PROJECTS There are 262 organized clubs in 49 counties; 175 voluntary l e aders in 41 counties; and 4,611 members enrolled in 49 counties. We were able to hold the membership about the same. There was a loss of but 72 in number enrolled. Statistics also reveal that 163 training meetings were held in 21 coun ties; 47 tours with 624 taking part were held; 31 achievement days with 2,693 attending were held; 25 county camps were held with 621 boys attend ing; and 345 meetings were held by clubs without agent being present. There was a big increase in training meetings held-163 for 1942 against 25 for 1941. This is one of the most encouraging developments of the year. The project work for 1942 showed some improvement in 'percentage reporting. In 1942 there were 72 fewer enrolled and 213 more reported.

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Annual Report, 1942 31 This raised the percent reporting from 48.7 percent for 1941 to 54.3 percent for 1942. 4-H MOBILIZATION WEEK Due to the illness of the State Boys' Club Agent, the entire Extension staff took an active part in stressing and guiding 4-H work. The result was that more effort was put behind the work than usual. Contacts were made with every county agent in the state regarding mobilization week and plans for the week were made. Many counties put on big rallies and parades. Nearly all civic clubs were told of our program. The public was informed by radio talks and news stories and editorials. SPECIAL TASKS UNDERTAKEN The College of Agriculture gave 10 boys 15 day-old quail chicks each to raise and liberate. When sent by express the chicks arrived dead or in a weak condition. Some were delivered by auto, but still the 150 miles were too much for the day-olds. Finally, one lot of two weeks old chicks was tried and these fared better. The placing of day-old dairy heifers has been the project which has given best results. About 250 have already been placed and the goal for 1943 as set by a committee of county agents is 1,400 to be placed. Late in 1941 the Container Corporation of America offered slash pine seedlings to club boys to 'plant on their home farms and 148,860 of these seedlings were planted by club boys in 7 counties. The offer was repeat ed and 205,000 trees have been asked for by county agents for planting by club boys in December, 1942, and January, 1943. HELPING WIN THE WAR A banner carried by a 4-H club group in a parade in Orlando said "We are getting in the scrap, too". In every county where the boys have been given an opportunity they have done their full part. Practically every 4-H boy has some war stamps and many have bought bonds. To encourage the buying of stamps we have changed the line on our boys' 4-H record books which read "Every club member should have a bank account. Have you one?" to read "Every club member should buy war bonds and stamps. How many have you bought?" At all summer events loyalty to our country and active participation in the war effort was stressed. Prizes were given for the best 4 minute talk by a club boy on the subject "Why I Am Glad that I Am an American" at every cam'p.

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist In making adjustments in the Extension work early in the year to meet the war emergencies, the Citriculturist was assigned the added responsi bilities of District Agent of 20 citrus producing counties of Centarl Florida. Early in the year the war emergency made it necessary to modify the adopted plan of work in citrus culture and to re-arrange the projects of the whole extension program of the citrus area in the order of their im portance in the war effort. To accomplish the food production goals it has been necessary to curtail activities on some of the long-time citrus culture sub-projects. Inability to obtain certain nitrogenous fertilizer materials has forced discontinuation for the time being of certain demonstrations in volving these materials and has necessitated other changes. The shortage of machinery and labor brought about demands for many adjustments in the whole grove m~n~gement set-up. The demands of growlers for assistance from the Extension Service in making these adjustments has been very great and has been met in a most helpful manner. COVER CROPS AND FERTILIZERS In an effort to meet the situation brought on by a shortage of nitrogen, the use of legumes as summer cover crops has been em'phasized throughout the citrus area. In cooperation with the Agronomy Department of the Experiment Station test plantings of a relatively new and promising le gume, a species of Indigofera, were made in 14 counties this year. Many favorable reports have been received from these plantings. The plant seems to be more hardy than the crotalarias. To make for higher nitorgen efficiency and thereby conserve nitrogen the program of treating acid soil with dolomitic limestone has been carried out with renewed emphasis. This limestone treatment is predicated on the pH level of the soil as determined by systematic soil sampling. Research and demonstrations have definitely established the fact that nitrogen is usually wasted in fertilizing a grove with only nitrogen, phos phoric acid and potash. As a rule, greater production is obtained with less nitrogen when ample quantities of soluble magnesium, manganese and copper are included along with the NPK. In many instances boron and iron should be added, too. To complete the nutritional program zinc must be included but this is usually more effectively applied to the foliage as a spray in combination with a sulphur insecticide or a copper fungicide. PEST CONTROL METHODS Early in the year the spraying and dusting schedules of the Better Fruit Program, financed by the Florida Citrus Commission, were revis1.!d by technical workers and copies were made available to all growers. Many thousands were distributed through the county agents' offices. The shortage of labor made it necessary for a good many growers to substitute sulphur dusting for spraying in rust-mite control. This was done without appreciable sacrifice of quality or appearance of the fruit. However, the rust-mite problem has been more difficult to handle because of the dry summer and fall, accompanied by unusually warm weather. The labor shortage also has been a serious handicap in the matter of scale control. Unfavorable weather conditions added to the problem. This combination of conditions has caught a good many growers with too many scales in their groves at this time, and it may have an adverse

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Annual Report, 1942 33 effect on production next year. The Extension Service has rendered every assistance possible to growers in making adjustments to meet these un usual conditions. Nutritional spraying and spraying for melanose control in the spring were done with little interruption and the results have been highly satis factory. Better nutrition of citrus trees generally, resulting from foliage applications of copper and zinc and the addition of magnesium, manganese and copper to the fertilizer mixtures, has resulted in marked improvement of the interior quality of the fruit. IRRIGATION DEMANDS Florida is still (December) in its worst fall and winter drought since 1907. This drought began back in the summer at a time when a reserve is usually built up in lakes and ground water. Irrigation has beeen needed generally over the area during the last 4 months; a few light rains have given only temporary relief. Since the fruit shipping season opened with relatively high prices, all irrigation equipment in the state has been brought into operation and the demand for additional equipment has increased as the drought advanced. Because of the scarcity of material it has been necessary to make the equipment in the hands of the growers go just as far as possible in meet ing the needs. To that end growers have been assisted in developing plans for keeping portable equipment in more continuous use and thereby cover the greatest possible acreage. At this critical time the type of portable irrigation plant developed and demonstrated by the Extension Service several years ago is in general use and has been the means of saving many thousands of boxes of fruit in this drought.

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension FARM FORESTRY L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester Fire protection on farm woodlands occupied a prominent place in the Extension Forester's calendar of work and much time was devoted to it. Discussions at county agents' meetings, farmers' meetings, 4-H club meet ings, businessmen's meetings, personal visits with county agents and farm ers, circular letters, posters, radio talks, news releases, personal letters, and bulletins distributed to farmers, 4-H club members, and school children, all helped in bringing the need for more widespread fire protection on farm woodlands before many people. More than 5,000 farmers protected over 180,000 acres and restocked 10,000 acres with young trees. Timber produced because fires were kept out totalled in excess of 9,000,000 board feet and was worth fully $45,000. Aggregate accrued forest values due to fire protection ran above $65,000. TIMBER STAND IMPROVEMENT Farmers were assisted in removing cull trees, worked-out turpentine trees, and low-value species, as well as thinning timber stands and prun ing limby trees where this was necessary. Assistance was given in estab lishing a basis for benefit payments to farmers for removing undesirable trees from their woodlands. Aii! was also extended to the Project Foresters in both the Norris-Doxey Farm Forestry and the Forest Farming Projects in establishing improvement cutting demonstrations on farms. According to county agents' annual reports and information in posses sion of the Extension Forester's office, 84 farmers were assisted in a timber stand improvement program. PLANTING SEEDLINGS One million free slash pine seedlings :were made available this year to farmers, 4-H club members, and vocational agricultural students by a local pulp mill. The Extension Service, through the county agents, distributed 620,760 of these seedlings, and the balance were handled by the State Forest Service. Red cedar plantings for gully erosion control and for supplying fence post material were extended. As in previous years the supply of red cedar planting stock was far short of the demand. MARKETING FOREST PRODUCTS Requests from farmers to county agents, and to the Extension Forester, for advice and assistance in marketing forest products have increased dur ing the past year. Farmers were given training in estimating standing timber and in determining what products their trees can be converted into for highest values and largest profits. Whenever 'possible war needs were given first consideration in the marketing of timber. Through farmers' meetings, personal letters, bulletins distributed, radio talks, and farm visits, farmers were urged to work their timber for gum in order to meet naval stores production goals, and to market available trees for lumber, crossties, poles and piling, pulpwood, crate material, and shuttle blocks, as might be needed in the war effort and consistent with good forest management. Assistance in marketing forest products was given to 215 farmers in 25 counties.

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Annual Report, 1942 4-H CLUB ENDEAVORS 35 Forestry club work was carried on by instruction during 4-H club camps, other 4-H club meetings, and by personal visits to club members. According to county agents' reports and other records, 45 club members were enrolled in 4-H forestry work in 1942 in 9 counties and 148,860 forest trees were planted by club members. The Extension Forester attended four 4-H club summer camps during which instruction in forestry was given to 251 club members. RURAL EMERGENCY FIRE PROTECTION Leadership in this 'project was assigned to the Extension Forester. A State Committee consisting of Extension workers was appointed. A project outline and plan of work was developed early in the year. The committee held a number of meetings during which plans and pro grams were initiated and materials prepared for carrying out a state wide campaign for fire prevention and control in farm homes, pastures, fences, and outbuildings, crop lands, and farm woodlands. It is felt that the educational work done this year in ruralfire pre vention has contributed substantially towards preventing fires in farm ing areas, thereby helping to conserve material resources needed in the war effort as well as in maintaining public morale at this critical time. TIMBER-GRAZING-GAME To meet a long-felt need for a feasible and practical plan for the com plete use and proper development of the state's extensive cut-over land areas, an outline statement was prepared setting up the essential features of a state-wide, coordinated, timber-grazing-game program. It is esti mated that, in whole or in part, it will provide the most constructive use for more than 75 percent of the state's land and when it becomes widely adopted will undoubtedly return millions of acres of tax-delinquent land to private ownership and tax-paying status. STATE DEFENSE COUNCIL Cooperation with sundry war-time federal agencies along similar lines was supplemented by assistance to the State Defense Council in develop ing an organization for fire prevention and suppression in forest areas, both for timber protection and to prevent forest fire smoke, which mingles with fog, from interfering with operations of the armed flying forces or making coastwise shipping more hazardous.

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension SOIL CONSERVATION K. S. McMullen, Soil Conservationist Four soil conservation districts were organized, 1 annexation was com pleted, and 2 additional districts and 1 annexation were started. From April 21st to May 15th program planning conferences were held in 11 of the older districts. These conferences were ananged through the cooperation of the State Soil Conservation Advisory Committee. They were attended by all agricultural workers, district supervisors and AAA committeemen of each district. Plans for individual conferences were arranged by the loca~ county agent and Soil Conservation Service repre sentatives . DETAILS OF THE YEAR'S EFFORT During the year covered by this report 4 di:.tricts have completed organization-Oklawaha, Istokpoga, Suwannee River, and Blackwater, One annexation has been com'pleted-2 townships of northern Sumter County have been added to the Oklawaha District. These districts were organized on a county basis; except that the annexation mentioned has been added to Oklawaha and the Istokpoga District constitutes only a portion of High lands County. Districts or annexations to districts now in process of organization but not completed include Bay County-petitioned as annexation to Orange Hill District; Sumter County-petitioned , as all of Sumter County except that portion lying within the Oklawaha District; Columbia County-peti tioned as one district. As a result of the district program planning conferences held during April and May in 11 of the older districts, which the vocational agri culture teachers attended, and programs on conservation furnished by Soil Conservation Service technicians to vocational agriculture classes, a request was made of the State SCS office and the Extension Service by the vocational agriculture te . achers for a course of study in soil con servation. The State office of the Soil Conservation Service and the State Vocational Agriculture Department cooperated with the Extension Soil Conservationist to develop the course of study, with a committee of voca tional agriculture teachers making the final revision. A two weeks field trip was made with the Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent, contacting 36 clubs in 12 counties (territory served by soil conservation districts) . Talks on conservation were given to each of these clubs. Two weeks were also devoted to teaching a course in soil conserva tion at 2 4-H club camps. Special programs growing out of the war emergencies were prosecuted among peanut farmers. For getting more winter cover crops . out, par ticularly legumes planted, county conferences proved highly helpful in these directions. MEETINGS ATTENDED State extension service soil conservationists, including the Florida specialist in this field, held a conference for the Southern region at Mem phis, May 20-22, 1942. Alabama successes with a special conservation program were studied by the Florida Extension Conservationist in Auburn, June 22-26, 1942.

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Annual Report, 1942 37 PART III HOME ACTIVITIES HOME DEMONSTRATION Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent Lucy Belle Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent During 1942 Floridians literally lived close to the war, by reason of the extensive military developments within the state. The presence of many thousands of men in uniform, and the construction of vast camps to house them, changed community life into new patterns. Great changes came into the home life of Florida farm families as their young men were called into the armed forces. Many of the older men went into defense work and rural girls and women, not usually employed away from their homes, took jobs elsewhere in defense work or in other employment. Many women worked in the fruit and vegetable canning or packing plants, often to re ' place the men who were no longer available. Women and girls took charge of the farming duties on the small farms. Labor was scarce and the fact that the men in military service assigned funds to their parents or wives which permitted them to live comfortably without the customary personal labor was a real factor in the family life of both white and negro families. All of these things affected food production. Costs of commodities increased while the supply available diminished. Transportation difficul ties cut down the number of tourists, although this was compensated for to some extent by families of service men. Transportation regulations also kept rural families from traveling far from their homes. As these and other changes took place rapidly in farm, home and community life, the ' program of home demonstration work was adjusted to meet the situation as well as possible with the resources at hand. Plans were organized so that a larger number of people could be assisted in prac tical ways; 42,421 rural and urban families reported that they received help from the home agents during the year. An increase of more than 1,000 was made in the number of visits to homes and farms, over the year before, with 14,803 visits reported. In spite of the many handica ps due to transportation and labor shortages, and the consolidation of some clubs, the number of home demonstration clubs increased by nearly a hundred. FOUR-H CLUBS The .importance of 4-H work with girls was realized, but sometimes this work got crowded out of its proper place in the 'program by the in sistent claims for other uses of the agent's time, which seemingly could not be denied. The State Short Course was not held for the first time in 30 years. Instead, 30 county 4-H short courses were conducted, using the State Short Course Scholarship funds to strengthen the County 4-H pro gram. No out-of-state trips were made by 4-H girls. Six winners of first honors in state contests each received $100 War Bonds instead of the trips. All 4-H programs directed the attention of the girls to the help they could give their families during war days. Many girls selected and pre

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension pared the family meals because their mothers were employed outside the homes. They helped with drives for salvage and for war stamp sales. They helped with the 4-H club work of younger girls. In all, 9,769 girls were enrolled in 478 clubs in 37 counties: In 4-H club work, shifts in population took toll of the membership as well as of the 4-H leaders. In replacement, new enlistments came from communi ties not heretofore reached. The emphasis in projects was for increased production and facility in basic household skills. Miss Ethyl Holloway, District Agent, prepared a handbook for 4-H club girls and a mimeographed circular for use in connection with Na tional 4-H Mobilization Week. Seven state-wide contests were conducted to promote interest in the phases of 4-H Club work. Records were sub mitted from 25 girls in 8 of the counties and in 7 contests, highest honors went to 5 girls. 1 Club work was discussed at the annual conference of agents, and plans were laid for further strengthening and improving it. Record books and club projects were simplified, with emphasis given to recognition for the work done by the girls to help their families as a war service, rather than to the detailed projects followed in other years. Florida 4-H club girls continued to give excellent accounts of them selves as they became capable young women and useful citizens. Some became members of the WAACs and . WAVES and kindred service groups. Some served as teachers and in federal and state offices. Hundreds became busy homemakers. The College 4-H Club at Florida State College for Women in Tallahassee had a membership of 50 former 4-H girls in college. NEIGHBORHOOD LEADERS Tire and gasoline restrictions required ' the home agents to make many changes in organization to meet the increased requests for their help. Here the value of the training in organization given the home demonstra tion women and 4-H girls through the years became evident. Neighbor hood leaders, to the number of 4,500, about half of them women and girls, were prepared to help their communities, and they welcomed the chance to do so as a patriotic service. The plan was to make the neighborhood lines small enough so that the homes were within walking distance of each other. The neighborhood leader system achieved excellent results. Home dem onstration women voluntarily took over such responsible jobs as supervis ing community canning centers, club programs, method demonstration in cooking, canning, sewing, refinishing furniture and other skills. The neighborhood leaders greatly expedited all war programs. They carried timely information on gardening, fat salvage, rubber salvage, scrap metal, war stamps and bonds, sugar and gas rationing, price control, fire prevention, announcement of meetings with state and county workers to outline future work, regulations about farm truck permits, and notifica tion of the schedule of services of the Tuberculosis Trailer Clinic. They manned sugar rationing stations, used their homes as equipment and supply posts for canning equipment, attended canning training meetings, and taught canning to others. CONFERENCES Five district conferences were held early in the year for home demon stration agents and two for negro workers, to give the agents the best possible understanding of national situations and the relationship of war to their work. '

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Annual Report, 1942 39 An an nual conference of all Extension agents was held in Gainesville in O ctober . State staff members attended two regiona l Ext e n ion con fe r ences . The negro agents were given special t ra ini ng , particularly in health. Thirty-one cou n ty hom e demonstration cou ncil s continued to fu n ction and a three-day meeting of the exec uti ve committee of the cou ncil was held to adapt programs to needs. ADAPT! G ALL PROGRAMS TO WAR EEDS Home food production and conservation and fam il y nutrition received first co n si d erat i on. Girls and wome n reported that t h ey grew 22,026 hom e garde n s, started and en l arged home fruit orc h ards with 19,725 fruit trees a nd 38,0 1 2 berry bu s hes. More than 6 million pints of fruits, vegetables and meats were canned for home pantries. Fifty community canning cen ters were ope ra ted in 23 counties with 47,744 fami li es cann i ng regularly. The a m o un t of food conserved by canning was at least 4 times as much as in any previou s year. Fig. 4.-Reports from home agent s indicat e that Flo r ida farm families canned more ~eliciou s, wholesome, home-raised vegetables and fruits in 1942 than eve r before.

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension Business firms and many civic clubs helped this program of a better family food supply through their fine support given the agents. One manu facturer of canning equipment and supplies held "cooker clinics" with the agents to put all steam pressure cookers of every make in good order for the canning season. One merchant gave garden seed, potato seed and vegetable fertilizer to be used by the negro home agent to encourage more home gardens. The clothing and textile program shifted its emphasis to home sew ing, better selected and made work clothes, and care and repair of cloth ing. The home improvement program stressed every-day good house keeping. Home and community sanitation programs resulted in the screening of many homes and the installing of water, ' lighting, sewage and heating systems, and the remodeling of a number of dwellings. Time saving schedules and fire prevention work were directed by the Clothing Specialist. Health and its importance in war days was a definite part of all pro grams. The relation of food to health was taught in the 159 nutrition courses given by the home demonstration agents in addition to their usual foods and nutrition program. Improved health measures were reported through health examinations, immunization, first aid and home nursing courses, removal of fire and accident hazards in the homes. The fact that 1,290 dairy cows were bought for family use tells us one of the most import ant health stories for the children of these families. Cooperative community activities were encouraged, 'partly for economic reasons but also to maintain good community life. Canning centers, school lunchrooms and community club houses or rooms were the main achieve ments in cooperative community acivities. The share-the-meat program, the securing and training of volunteer leaders, and better urban-rural cooperation, are some of the other com munity measures in which home demonstration work engaged during the year. Thirty-three white agents and 6 negro agents held 231 meetings to train 2,408 neighborhood leaders, who visited 28,475 farm families in the share-the-meat program. The request for bulletins increased until 11,247 more were distributed than last year, totalling 78,552. Agents supplied their local newspapers with 12,341 news articles compared with 2,241 in 1941. Through all these different phases of home demonstration work ran the over-all determination to emphasize the importance of fine family liv ing in a "live at home" program, with thrift, careful planning, and better methods of doing the daily tasks brought out by demonstrations, through meetings, leaflets, bulletins, and through neighborhood leaders. COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES There was close cooperation between the home demonstration office and other state and federal agencies. Meetings of 4-H clubs were held in the public schools in many instances. Cooperation in organizing voca tional agricultural courses in food production and conservation was given by all agents. Home economics teachers were supplied with all printed material they requested. School lunch workers were taught how to use surplus food commodities issued to them. Forty-four school or community grounds were improved and beautified by home demonstration clubs. Nutrition discussions were given by the agents or specialists before the State Tuberculosis Association and agents assisted with the Christmas seal sales in all counties. State and county home agents directed the in fantile paralysis drive among rural people at the request of the state chairman. The State Board of Health gave help through local health

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Annual Report, 1942 41 units. Works Projects Administration aided in school feeding 'programs and community gardens. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration cooperated in the cotton mattress program, which was concluded during the year. The agricultural goals of the AAA were outlined before all home demonstration councils and clubs. Directly associated with the War Boards through the Director of Extension, the home demonstration agents and the neighborhood leaders assisted the USDA War Boards in assign ments such as farm truck registration and machinery repair projects. The Surplus Marketing Administration furnished commodities to coun ty home agents to use in food demonstrations to teach people to use the food to best advantage. This taught better preparation of food for nu trition and thrift in cookery. The Farm Security Administration was given cooperation through subject matter bulletins, pressure cookers clinics, and with _instructions on cooking and canning vegetables, given in one instance to migrant labor camps in the Everglades. The State Agent was chairman of the State Defense Council's Home Garden and Food Conservation Committee. She was a member of the general state salvage committee and was state chairman for the salvage offats and grease for the War Production Board. Under the plan of the Office of Price Administration for rationing sugar, the agents worked out improved canning budgets and 'prepared instruction sheets and sugar saving recipes. Some agents served as community rationing officers. Information on inflation control was disseminated through the agents by letters, talks and discussions. The women cooperated by spending their money for war stamps and bonds. The significance of the price ceilings was demonstrated in the form of playlets. Under state and county defense councils, state, district and county Extension workers and specialists served actively in nutrition and food conservation, gardening, housing, recreation, care of children and many other things relating to civilian defense. The state agent served on the state advisory committee of War Savings. Women and girls were encouraged to save for specific purposes after the war. The Red Cross was helped by the establishment of nutrition and canteen courses in all home demonstration counties. First aid and home nursing courses were given by the agents in many counties. The USO was helped in its recreation program. Civic and county organizations were given aid whenever 'possible. REPORT ON PERSONNEL Home demonstration work in Florida experienced a great loss in the death December 12, 1942, of Miss Clarine Belcher, State Clothing Special ist. She had been associated with the work since 1931, and had served as agent in two counties before joining the state staff. Her service in the home demonstration program was of high quality always. There were 38 home demonstration agents, 4 assistant agents and 9 negro agents in the work. Some changes were made in personnel during the year. New agents were appointed in Marion and Levy counties be cause of resignations. The Clay County agent joined the WAACs and was succeeded be a new agent. Two counties, Hamilton and Walton, with drew their appropriations for maintaining home demonstration work, stat ing that it was due to the reduction of available county revenues. One additional local home agent was appointed for negro work in Jackson Coun ty. At least 10 counties made increased appropriations for salaries or for needed equipment . or office facilities. Lack of clerical help handicapped all agents. High wages elsewhere took many employees from the county offices.

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension SPECIAL PROGRAMS IN COUNTIES Specialists from the state staff were assigned to work with the dis trict and county home demonstration agents in developing a state-wide program in fire control and prevention. The mattress program was closed out with a total of 32,379 mattresses made and 16,041 comforters; 8,500 mattresses were made in 1942. i Repair and care of home equipment received more attention fore. With travel restricted, "homemade recreation" became demand. Four-H girls were trained as recreation leaders. HOME INDUSTRIES than be more in Development of marketable products from the resources of the farm and home always has been an important activity for many home demon stration women and girls. No special effort was made to emphasize this program during 1942, but the income received from cash sales was reported as $528,813.88. This included baked products, canned goods, fresh vege tables and fruits, poultry, eggs, dairy products, rugs, and miscellaneous articles. HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH NEGROES Work with negro families grew during the year and an increased amount of time of state and county workers was given to strengthening this work. The negro home agents gave useful assistance to the rural and town negroes. The work in home demonstrations was directed by the state agent with immediate supervision given by the local district agent to the nine local agents who work with negro farm families.

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Annual Report, 1942 43 FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH Anna Mae Sikes, Nutritionist The war did not suddenly change or materially alter the food, nutrition and health program. It did re-emphasize the importance of keeping in formed as to changing conditions, accomplishing the objectives and making necessary adjustments. There was a concerted effort to extend the program to all people and to mobilize every educational method for in forming all groups on home food problems. The Nutritionist was respon sible for keeping rural people, both white and negro, informed of situations and, through county home demonstration agents, helped them make necessary adjustments. This called for constant adjustments in food programs and intensified the use of local leaders, demonstrations, nutri tion courses, school lunch programs, posters, publications, motion pictures, filmstrips, news articles, radio, circular letters, personal contacts and other educational means in close cooperation with other agencies. The Nutritionist participated in training leaders and preparing demon strations •to be used throughout the counties as a part of the county 4-H short courses. Four-H club camps as such were cancelled this year in many counties. In other counties the schoolhouse was used for housing and instructions for short periods. Likewise, out-of-state trips were can celled but records of state winners in the food preparation and other state contests were submitted and national awards of War Bonds were presented to the winners in place of funds for the trips. The plans for travel by the Nutritionist were adjusted and in many instances curtailed. The policy of members of the staff traveling together was followed. Many demands from the nutrition committees in the various counties, the Parent Teachers' Association, Works Progress Administra tion, school lunchrooms, as well as from the county home demonstration agents, for assistance in preparation of exhibits, plans for nutrition work and subject-matter material, were met during the time the Nutritionist spent in the office. The program was adjusted to assist in planning for the production of an adequately balanced family food supply and the meal planning included adjustments due to food shortages or surplus foods. Emphasis was placed upon the use of 'peanuts, honey and syrup and locally produced foods in season. The packed lunch as a part of a balanced day's diet for both school children and defense workers, and better methods of food and preparation, quantity and quality buying and time adjustments were of necessity a part of the program. The place of the homemaker in the price control system and her responsibility to keep informed about ceiling prices and how and why they differ in different shops, the dangers of hoard ing of essential foods, and adjustments necessary because of the rationing programs became an integral part of the program. Included also were community adjustments such as community plan ning for producing and using local resources; group feeding at school and in defense areas; emergency group feeding as in evacuation or epidemics; the use of marketing facilities and delivery systems to conserve time, labor, tires and gasoline; sharing of labor and equipment; and group care and feeding of children while mothers and older children work. Adjustment in the method of work included more emphasis on train ing' agents and leaders and more extensive use of leaders; a greater use of result demonstrations; more method demonstrations on proper prepara tion of every day locally produced foods as well as alternatives for rationed foods; more careful planning of meetings, demonstrations and travel in

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension order to make better use of time, travel and materials by agents, leaders and others; the use of volunteer leaders and all other channels to reach people; information of available food supplies and the best use of food preparation and food preservation equipment on hand. The adjustments in materials included the preparation of simply worded publications with large print, news letters of timely information, radio broadcasts, filmstrips and motion pictures. Materials on quantity cookery for camps, short courses and large groups were also prepared. VOLUNTEER WAR WORKERS The Nutritionist was 1 of the 2 home !demonstration workers appointed to serve on the steering committee of the Agricultural Extension Service to help formulate a plan for the Florida volunteers for agricultural war work. While at the National Outlook Conference she was a participant in the workshop group for neighborhood leaders. She trained volunteer war workers in the counties in connection with regular home demonstra tion work, emphasizing use of enriched bread and flour, vegetable and meat cookery, use of meat alternatives, wise use of sugar and alternatives, ceiling prices and food planning. ' WORK WITH FAMILIES IN THE COUNTIES The work with adults in the counties this year was divided mainly into 3 phases-nutrition and defense, food preparation and meal planning, and the family food supply. NUTRITION AND DEFENSE The work with nutrition and defense consisted on an analysis of how well-fed were the people of Florida. Discussions, graphs, posters, charts, filmstrips, motion pictures, questionnaires, surveys or quizzes and pamph lets, circulars and bulletins, interest sheets and food check sheets were all used to answer the questions. In addition to regular home demonstration work planned around "The Nutrition Yardstick", nutrition courses for women and for 4-H girls, canteen courses, first aid courses, and home nursing courses were given during the year. Eleven home demonstration agents were certified Red Cross nutrition instructors and a large number of agents were chairmen of county nutrition committees, Florida Defense Council. A "kitchen course" in nutrition and a series of 6 lessons on food selection and cooking were conducted in many counties. FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING The food preparation and meal planning phase was approached through building health with the right foods properly prepared and attactively served and the use of foods in season which were locally produced and available in adequate quantities. Better baking demonstrations and con tests were a means of promoting the use of enriched flour, whole wheat flour and breads. Also, demonstrations centering around the theme "Get the Good from Your Food" through correct principles of cookery were used. Vegetable plate demonstrations using large groups of vegetables grown in the garden from which meals were planned, prepared and served by committee groups were excellent means for showing the principles of plan ning meals and preparation of vegetables. Similar demonstrations on milk, poultry and poultry products were Used.

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Annual Report, 1942 45 Short courses on sugar rationing and baking were held in some coun ties. The use of meats and meat alternatives was demonstrated through the use of meat charts and recipes, food preparation and meal planning demonstrations, using actual foods or pictures cut from magazines. "Vic tory Specials" were featured in the food preparation and meal planning program, as they were announced. THE FAMILY FOOD SUPPLY Helping make America strong by producting and eating health-building, strength-giving foods was emphasized in this phase of the work. It was pointed out that the first line of health and national defense is through abundant supplies and proper use of the right kinds of food. Emphasis was placed upon planning to produce enough food to meet the family's need and to have a surplus. Along with this program went an educa tional program to show the producer his responsibility to use only his quota of the rationed foods, even when he produced surpluses. In a November survey by the nutrition goals committee reports from 11 counties located from Escambia to Dade stated that the farm families in all counties had consumed a more adequate diet. WORK WITH 4-H CLUBS Many adjustments and changed procedures became necessary in the 4-H club program. The 7 point program for victory in 4-H club work was adapted to include: Four-H Club members making themselves strong by eating every day the foods that make for good growth and physical fitness; caring for their teeth; getting plenty of sleep; working for good posture; having yearly health check-ups correcting physical defects and taking part in health im provement and physical fitness contests; 4-H members helping make their families strong by taking some definite part in planning, producing, pre serving and storing the family food supply; 4-H members helping to make their communities strong by demonstratii:ig to neighbors and community groups how to produce, preserve and store protective foods; planning meals, preparing protective foods correctly, and buying foods wisely. COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES Cooperation with other agencies included assistance to the United States War Boards in educational work in connection with the Food for Freedom program. The Nutritionist and all specialists assisted with vo cational home economics and agriculture, Farm Security, Surplus Market ing, Works Progress Administration school lunch, and Parent-Teachers Association child feeding programs. The State Board of Health and the State Tuberculosis Association and Medical and Dental Associations co operated with the food, nutrition and health 'program by providing health examinations, illustrative material and subject-matter material. The American Red Cross provided instructors for nutrition, first aid, canteen and home nursing courses. In professional organizations such as the Florida Home Economics Association and Florida Dietetics Associa tion, the Nutritionist participated in the activities and served on educa tional committees. She was a member also of the Florida Defense Coun cil's advisory committee on nutrition.

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION Isabelle S. Thursby, Specialist in Gardening and Food Conservation Adjustments necessary to meet war conditions effectively presented many problems in 1942, yet progress was made. The fact that the war effort had already assumed an important place made farm and urban families more and more receptive to the live-at-home ideal, long advocated by the home demonstration agents. Home gardens and orchards and con serving the surplus from them, presently patriotic in appeal, made tre mendous gains. Early in the year the Service's agricultural goals committee, consisting of both men and women, the division of home gardens and community services and the State Nutrition Committee of the State Defense Council (all of which the Specialist in Food Conservation served), set state wide goals and activities. These all achieved remarkable compliance and cooperation throughout the state. The organization, cooperation and inte gration of these state-wide agencies as well as community and neighbor hood leadership, simplified subject matter, and other factors all working to the same end, increased and intensified the program. OBJECTIVES IN FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSERVATION The central objectives that motivated home demonstration work in Florida in the past remained fundamentally sound in days of total war. "Life at home" was found to be the same bedrock on which to build the program of state and national defense. The gardening and canning program was carried on more extensively by women and girls than ever before and became a vital part of the Food for Freedom cam ' paign. A generous supply of foods grown, canned and utilized by the newest knowledge of nutrition and canning technology was the great objective of the war-time year, to the end that the supply of home-pr.oduced foods would make the drawing upon the critical commercial supply unnecessary. METHODS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS Records showed a heartening increase in the number of gardens grown. It was conservatively estimated that the number of farm home gardens was nearly doubled during 1942. The number of fruit trees and berry vines planted also showed a healthy increase. The Extension Service, early in the year, set the goal of a "home garden for every farm family in Florida" and made plans for its realiza tion, and checked progress at seasonal intervals. The AAA lent financial and other support. The State Defense Council, through its garden chair man, Miss Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration 1 A.gent, encouraged and assisted the garden and canning program in every county in the state. Farm security clients were required to grow gardens of sufficient size to yield an adequate surplus for canning. 1/ocational agriculture and other teachers promoted school gardens and the larger farmers contributed land for subsistence gardens for their laborers and made more home gardens available to their own farms. The Nation-wide nutrition program, stressing the need for more fruits and vegetables in an adequate diet, greatly benefited production. The Red Cross, through many nutritional and canteen classes, further emphasized the important place of garden fresh products in the diet. In addition, every woman's journal, every farm publication, every magazine, every , newspaper, played the same in sistent warning note.

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Ann'Ual Report, 194 2 47 Fig. 5.-Florida farm families rais . ed almost twice as many home gar dens in 1942 as in 1941, in response to the war-time need for more food produced at home. The radio also had a big part in making and keeping the citizenry gar den conscious. In addition to the empha is on gardens, the consensus of opinion wa s that the ation's n eed for adequate nutrition could not be well met without greatly increasing home orchards. Pooled orders were placed during the year in the state for additional 'plantings in orchards already established and for new ones to be planted. FOOD CONSERVATIO War conditions gave the food conservation program a great deal of emphasis among both rural and urban families in every county. R eq uests for a sistance came from home demonstration member s and non-members alike, and from negroes as well as white people. Reports were made of the many new canning centers established to meet the need for saving the farmers' surplus crops, particularly in the large commercia l trucking areas, such as Palm Beach, Broward, Manatee and Seminole counties. The majority of these plants were equipped with the needed canning facilities by the county commissioners. These county officials in some instances also paid the salary of a supervisor. Seminole Cou n ty had 4 centers where mor e than 2,000 people used t h e facilities and where, within the season, 36,500 containers of fruit, vegetables and meat J~roducts were canned. In Duval County centers were operated at full capacity under the su pervision of both paid and volunteer w0rkers. In one month 18,054 con

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension tainers were filled in eight centers. The central and largest plant, located in Jacksonville, remained open from 8:00 A. M. until 10:00 P. M. during the height of the season. With the knowledge acquired at these canning centers, many women preferred to work at home with pressure cookers and can in smaller amounts from their own gardens . This practice was encouraged because it gave additional people access to the canning kitchen -besides conserving gasoline and tires. In Manatee County large and small farmers alike had at times a great surplus. Usually these surpluses occurred when the farmers were the busiest. These products canned on shares benefited many families who had no opportunity of either producing or securing vegetables, enabled them to obtain food for themselves by canning on shares, and at the same time saved an equal amount for the busy farmer and his family. In one trucking area fully 75 % of the canning was done on a share basis from these crop surpluses. Canning for market was less prevalent than in previous years, in spite of the increase of home canning. However, Gadsden County women re ported sales of $2,044.74 from their fine quality canned goods. Sugar rationing did much to educate the people to the more whole some use and value of other sweets-home produced cane syrup, brown sugar and honey. Home demonstration agents assisted their local ration ing boards in many ways. Some furnished tables of amounts of sugar needed for canning sub-tropical fruits, especially for guavas. Other agents helped to issue sugar ration cards and gave out information on recipes for using sugar substitutes at the same time. The Share-the-Meat campaign promised considerable educational value. Already many farm and home agents were presenting programs on recom mended practices for butchering, curing and canning of meats in order to secure a better balance of quality meat products for the days ahead. State Extension and county workers alike encouraged farmers to put up meats for their own use and to butcher, cure and can larger amounts for sale to neighbors and townspeople. Increase in this practice would help re lieve the pressure on transportation to send hogs and cattle to the cities and to bring the meat back to town. ' A 5-jar Can for Quality contest was held this year with a business firm again contributing $100 in cash as awards. The menu that accompanied the 5 jars required thought and background information in order to serve meals that were healthful, attractive and well balanced. Early in the year and during the late s'pring and early summer months considerable canning was done for use in the school lunch program. In Cit rus County the agent reported that over 2,000 containers were filled to be used in 2 school lunch rooms in the county. The county commissioners gave the Lecanto Club permission to use a plot of land owned by the county and loaned them $125 to start their garden. This indebtedness to the board was paid by a portion of canned products to the other school lunch room in the county. The WP A loaned pressure cookers and helped in extending the canning program to needy families. 'rhe equipment was used mainly in homes where neighborhood groups canned together, with some club or individual assuming responsibility for the care of the cookers. Salvage of Glass Containers.--Jars were collected from thousands of co operative urban homes, storerooms, and garages. l\{any fine glass contain ers w e re thus easily secured for those needing them, for the cost of a new

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Annual Report, 1942 49 vacuum seal top or a new rubber. The Florida home canner is equally as familiar and as skilled in the use of glass as tin in the pressure canner. Refresher Courses in Canning.-Early in the year all over Florida home makers became interested in making plans for the production and conser vation of their own food supply. Refresher courses were then asked for, particularly to be given to those who were to have charge of neighborhood groups, and in all canning centers. Many home agents taught such classes. Losses of vitamins and other nutrients occurring in harvesting, preparation and preservation, and the improved methods of preventing these losses, were emphasized in the home demonstration canning groups. 4-H CLUB WORK FOR GIRLS Reports indicate that leaders and older club girls gave invaluable assist ance to home agents in developing the 4-H program, in making it contribute directly• to the home food supply. Many of the girls took over the family canning as their mothers were taking over other productive work on the farm, in grading and packing sheds, or in commercial canning plants. One county reported more than 25 girls who came to 3 defense centers to learn more about canning. Another county reported the enthusiasm of club girls in the Victory Garden campaign. One club member reported 600 jars canned with the aid of her mother. A total of 9,415 cans was reported by the club members in Escambia County. Taking in the whole state, home demonstration women and 4-H club girls canned more than 6 million pints of fruits, vegetables, meats and fish. Fifty community canning plants were operating in 23 counties. Much can ning was done at home also; The amount of food conserved in 1942 was 4 times as great as that canned in any previous year. The farm families and many urban dwellers ate their own canned products and had the satisfac tion of knowing that they were eating good food, tastefully and nutritiously prepared, and, at the same time helping their country in the Fight for Free dom.

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Clarine Belcher, Specialist (Deceased) CLOTHING WORK ADJUSTED TO WAR-TIME Clothing the family suitably proved to be an even greater responsibility of the homemaker in times of war than in peace days. Many changes were experienced in the clothing and textiles program in 1942 because of war time needs and priorities for unusually large amounts of textile supplies. The clothing program in all its parts was related closely to economic conditions. With women spending more time in the kitchen in food prepara tion and in the garden in food production it became important that home makers have suitable and durable clothes to withstand the wear, and to be easily cared for, as well as to conserve the textile materials not readily replaceable. , The establishment in the , home of many wardrobe and household textile demonstrations according to a regular planned outline was well under way. The s e extensive demonstrations of improved clothing b e came a d e finite part of activites of hundreds of women and girls. Working for more satis factory dining-room and kitchen textiles was a means of unifying the pro grams with the food preparation work. The relation of clothing and tex tiles to health and personal appearance and the resulting effect on morale were stressed. Due to the war, people were in a receptive mood for all practical in formation and were anxious to work and contribute their efforts to the clothing and textile program. Cottons supply the bulk of the textiles con sumed by Florida rural families, consequently the rise in the price of cotton goods due to the demand for cotton work clothes and fabrics by the Army and defense workers greatly affected the clothing program of the home and family. Resourcefulness and conseryation of supplies were develo ' ped as a result of shortages and higher prices. Better home management and better planning of household activities resulted in providing rural women with more time and energy to sew for their families. Families to the number of 7,574 were assisted during the year with their sewing problems, 6,912 in selection of clothing and textiles, and 5,247 in the care, renovation and remodeling of clothing. Good habits of clothing care were emphasized, as the Florida climate offers disadvantages to textiles in insects, moulds, and heat. Coat making, remodeling, and renovation received special emphasis. An exhibit of work clothes for Florida women was made up, consi s ting of a field suit, jumper slack suit, princess coverall apron, culottes, belted coverall apron, sur'plice coverall apron, food preparation dress, and surplice hou s e dress. This was a very popular exhibit all over the state, and was modeled for many cooperating civic groups as well as home demonstration meetings. MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE YEAR : During the year two state-wide meetings for all agents and fiv e district meetings for training county agents in clothing and textile work were held. Assistance was given in all 67 counties of the state in encouraging farm peo ' ple to use the services of action agencies of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Coordination of project activities with co-workers and repre sentatives of other government agencies in the counties was planned. Circu lar letters, news articles, exhibits, posters, filmstrips and other Extension means were used to spread the knowledge of proper methods with clothing and textiles.

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Annual Report, 1942 51 In all 38 counties employing home demonstration agents , work was done through organized committees of rural and urban people in studying the situation and developing programs. Background information and other specialist aid was given planning committees and the U. S. Department of Agriculture war boards. Plans were developed to help with 4-H clubs and older youth, and training was given to 4-H judging and demonstration teams. Leaders were also trained in subject-matter and Extension methods, including group discussions. The Clothing Specialist was assigned responsibility for assisting in de veloping the fire prevention program for the home, and she served as a member of the state committee responsible for this project. This special material was prepared, supplied, and distributed through the Extension Service. VOLUNTEER LEADERS-CONTINUATION OF THEIR TRAINING Training of volunteer leaders was one of the important methods used to develop the clothing work with both women and girls. The county short courses for 4-H club girls were used to give intensive training in clothing and textiles for the girls. COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS In addition to these activities, close cooperation was given to related and interested agencies. The Specialist served as head of the textiles section of the State Home Economics Association and provided information to mem bers of the professional groups on trends and situations in textiles under war conditions. An exhibit was made b e fore the State Federation of Gar den Clubs, showing suitable garden work clothes. The Farm Security Ad ministration was aided with subject matter and illustrative material such as the exhibit of the girl's low cost wardrobe, and the exhibit of work clothes for women. Assistance to the State Defense Council was given by serving on the State Advisory Committee on Consumer's Interests. SOME STATISTICS ON THE CLOTHING PROGRAM Over 4,000 families were assisted with consumer-buying problems, and many more in making buying decisions or other adjustments in family liv ing. Also, 2,934 families were assisted with "making versus buying" de cisions. Almost 2,000 were assisted with the buying of clothing and a similar number were assisted with house furnishings and equipment. Over 1,800 were helped in their clothing accounts or budgets, and slightly under 1,000 were recorded as providing recommended clothing, furnishings, and play equipment for children during the year.

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME IMPROVEMENT Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home improvement ADJUSTMENTS MADE Much mending, repairing and painting were done during the year, there was some remodeling, but there was little building of new houses. Many who had looked forward to having electric lines extended to their homes had to be disappointed, but the fine patriotism of our rural people put their preferences into the background when they realized that steel, wire and copper for electric lines were needed in the war effort. To strengthen the nutrition program, ' more comfortable, healthful, con venient and sanitary kitchens were set as goals to help the family in the better preparation and selection of food. More community meetings were held in the home, and oftentimes in the kitchen. Seeing a demonstration in the home in the early stages and watching its improvement is one of the best ways of teaching a whole neighborhood and community. All agencies at work in the state had a unity of purpose. Most of the rural people had timely information through the press, radio, circular letters and leaflets. BETTER MANAGEMENT UNDER WAR CONDITIONS The planning and management of many farm activities fell into the hands of the women, since the men had gone into defense work and the older boys had gone into service. The study of what and when to buy, the care of all equipment and the knowledge of what was available, all were import ant in home improvement work for many Florida homemakers. , Keeping up the morale by neat, attractive homes, with simple beauty about, renewed the interest of 4-H club girls in doing their required work, and continued to be an important goal. Home sanitation inside and outside the house was stressed more than ever for health, and it was all interpreted as a part of the contribution of home management in winning the war. Better management of time was stressed more than ever. Home demon stration club members were urged to keep track of what was ordinarily done, and by study and discussion many short-cuts were evolved and more work was undertaken. Weekly and seasonal plans were made, and adjust ments . were made in relation to the war. Thrift in rejuvenating furniture and making new furniture enabled many home makers to invest savings in war stamps and bonds for future spend ing. Many paid debts and . taxes with money from the pay envelope sent home by the defense workers, many of whom were getting more money than they had ever had. 4-H CLUB WORK. IN HOME IMPROVEMENT More em ' phasis was put on helping 4-H club girls from 10 to 14 years of age in home improvement during the past year. They were made to think that through the part they did joyously, in following a systematized plan with the daily chores, such as dishwashing, table setting and every day good housekeeping, they were doing their bit in the home and for Uncle Sam. Ninety-five percent of the 4-H club members, both white and negro, in the state helped with the scrap drive and the buying of war stamps. They did additional work in Victory Gardens and helped to provide more food. Four-H club members were urged to plant more fruit trees, nuts and berries as a part of home beautification.

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Annual Report, 1942 53 Better housekeeping in attics and closets was one way of getting waste paper, rags, metal and rubber for the scrap driv e . Also, many learned to make thrift house furnishings. Fire fighting and the placing of the necessary fire-fighting equipment in cases of fire in the home was studied and planned for and convenient re ce ptacles were made for holding fire-fighting equipment. ADULT WORK Many women and girls, white and negro, took over the entire work in the home and garden; they also did much additional work on the farm, in the groves, and in the packinghouses. Many families made work schedules for all members. Short-cuts in laundering, house cleaning, cooking, and other daily tasks were encouraging to see. Also short-cuts for saving time and labor were studied by individuals, and r e sults of their practice were told in the club meetings. Food preparation in saving time and energy was studied in connection with the emphasis on the improved kitchen for sanitation, health, comfort, convenience and beauty. It will not be long before the inconvenient, un sanitary and ugly kitchen will be as obsolete as the fly brushes of other days. It is not uncommon now to see an electrified kitchen in rural areas in all parts of Florida. WOMEN ON THE ALERT Women of the rural sections were much better informed than many leaders thought. They were eager to do all that was asked of them in winning the war. They listened to the radio, read the daily papers, and took more magazines than in previous years. "Living at home" was almost a game dictated by circumstances, but always fascinating and full of satisfaction. Better nutrition was coming home to the farm family in its emphatic needs, for our fighting men have to be fed correctly both in the army and out of the army. REPORTS FROM COUNTIES Excerpts from the home demonstration reports on home improvement work in counties in widely separate sections of the state are used here to give an idea of the home improvement undertaken throughout the state in . 1942. In Madison County homes were remodeled, several were painted outside, running water was installed, bathrooms were built, improved treatment was given windows in a large number of homes, and home furnishings were bought by a number . of families. In Holmes County a great improvement in yards was noted. Grass was planted, new fences and walks were added. Kitchens had the lead among home improvements in the county. Water and sinks were installed, cab inets built, tables and other practical conveniences added. Linoleums were added to cover worn floors. Incomes from war industry jobs 'provided money for improvements in Pinellas County. Rural electrification helped to add water pumps and water systems, refrigerators, electric irons, electric appliances. A few families secured the necessary materials to add a bathroom, a sleeping porch or bed room. In Santa Rosa County rural electrification helped to provide improve ments of the same sort. Also 60 poorly constructed wooden homes were re modeled and made into brick veneer homes. Many rural women painted

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension their homes and remodeled their kitchens. New furniture was purchased and 100 women improved their yards. Alachua County made many im provements in homes and yards. One new home was built, 28 rooms painted, 13 porches improved, and a large number of other varied improvements were made. In Dade County many homes installed electricity for the first time, re pairs and improvements were made, and new furniture was made or pur chased. Many pieces were repaired or refinished and rooms and floors were repainted. Labor-saving equipment was bought. Household budgets and better planning of the use of time and leisure and the improvement of kit chens were reported by many. Home improvement was more widespread than for many years in Cal houn County, on account of increased incomes in the families. New roofs, new screening, new pumps or kitchen sinks, new kitchen cabinets were built. Houses were ceiled and more progress was made in yard beautification than heretofore. Hillsborough County reported improvement of working spaces in the homes, especially in the kitchens. Repainting furniture and refinishing linoleum, the addition of electric refrigerators, cabinets, stoves, ice cream freezers, and many labor-saving devices took place in the homes. Homes were painted and yards beautified.

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Annual Report, 1942 55 PART IV NEGRO WORI( NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK A. A. Turner, Local District Agent The negro farm demonstration work, supervised by the Local District Agent, was performed by nine local farm agents. The agents worked in the following 10 counties: Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden, Hamilton, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Marion, Sumter, and Suwanee. The agent of Hamilton County worked in northern Suwanee, while the agent of Columbia County worked in southern Suwanee. According to reports from the agents, 2,695 farms followed the practices of the agricultural program as set up by the Extension Service; of this number, 1,037 were reached this year for the first time. Non-farm families to the number of 1,276 were' reached during the year, and they carried out recommended practices in improving their homes and in producing food at home. The Farm Management Specialist and other Extension specialists assist ed in emphasizing the food production program. Plan sheets were sent out through the local agents to the farm families in the 10 counties, as a check and re-check system on the important foods to be planted and what foods had already been planted. In all, 8,336 farm families were reached through this method. Much emphasis was put on the home garden, stressing increase in size, better location, planting more varieties of vegetables, and having enough to feed the family, with a surplus for canning. Health standards of rural negroes were raised during the year. Fami lies became more interested in guarding the health of their family members when they realized the low health status of men drafted for enlistment. The improvement of family diets, sanitary conditions, and general health practices were some of the main points in the health program. RESPONSIBILITIES, PLANS, WORK County and home visits were more carefully planned to save gasoline and rubber. Trips were not taken to farms when letters of information could answer the need. Agents scheduled meetings and trips to share and save in transportation: Labor shortages, due to the large number of men and boys taken into service, caused many adjustments in carrying on farm work. The local agents spent much time giving demonstrations in the use of farm tools and machinery. Younger boys, women and girls carried on the farming. In some cases young people and women were hired from the city to help dur ing harvest time. The State Short Course was not held for 4-H club members. Instead, a county short course was held in each county worked by a local agent . Achievement day programs were held in each community in the counties instead of the former county-wide achievement day. County fairs were not held in most of the counties. Instead, exhibits were staged at the commun ity achievement days. The agents assisted farm families in making out ap'plications for sugar, gasoline and oil and aided them in carrying on their live-at-home programs, thus adjusting in the best way to the rationing system. Farmers were en

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56 Fl01 ida Cooperative Extension couraged to grow more sugarcane and produce more meats and vegetables in order that the Nation would be amply supplied to carry on the war. Since building materials were not available, the importance of making general repairs with old materials was stressed. The agents also empha sized the wise use of family income and the investment of surplus earnings in war bonds and stamps. NEIGHBORHOOD LEADER SYSTEM The neighborhood leader system was inaugurated under the leadership of the nine local agents. Farm folk, ministers, teachers, business men and professional workers, 539 in number, were enrolled as volunteer war work ers under the neighborhood leader system. In a short while this system was organized in each county and training meetings were held for these leaders. Much needed war-time information and activities were speeded through the help of these leaders. They helped in rationing, salvage and other defense activities. COOPERATION OF STATE AND FEDERAL AGENCIES The agents told the farm families of other helpful agencies while carry ing oil their Extension work. They cooperated with the AAA program to a great extent. A number of farmers used more soil-building crops and in creased their garden acreage through th~ agents' and the AAA influence. The Farm Security Administration assisted low-income farmers. The agents assisted the farmers in securing FSA loans when advisable and en couraged them to keep up the standards required by the FSA. The Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College rendered assistance to the Extension Service by the use of faculty members in giving lectures and instructions at special meetings and at county meetings. Services of the Rural Electrification Administration were used to advantage. The Florida State Marketing Bureau gave much assistance to both agents and farmers. The State Experiment Station, State Plant Board and State Board of Health were all of invaluable assistance in carrying on the year's work. All war agencies were given wholehearted coo ' peration by the District Agent and the local agents. All were represented in some phase of defense work and in the sale of stamps and bonds. A fine response was made also in the collection of scrap iron, rubber and aluminum. The Leon County agent reported the collection of 22,970 pounds of scrap through rural fami lies. MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS Victory gardens to the number of 5,271 , were reported by the agents. The aim of a "family milk cow" in every farm home was instrumental in causing 472 negro families to buy their first milk cows. Although many do not have milk cows, the number of families who do have their own supply of milk for home use increased greatly. Poultry production increased and farm fami lies began to can poultry for home use. More feed was also grown for poul try. Peanuts were grown for oil to help in the vegetable oil needs during the war. The agents reported that 4,657 farmers cooperating in their work planted peanuts. Meat supplies were improved and increased. Swine and beef cattle were raised and much meat was canned at home.

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Annual Report, 1942 57 Sweet potatoes were grown by many farmers, the "Copper Skin" Porto Rican variety proving one of the most widely used. Some farmers planted other varieties. Sugarcane for syrup yielded 343,700 gallons in the 10 counties. Much was grown to sell in stalks for chewing purposes, also. Increased production for livestock feed over previous years was carried out this year. Corn, peanuts, hay, oats, rye and potatoes were grown, thus cutting down the expense of purchasing feeds. Pastures were given more attention to provide green feed for livestock also. An interracial cooperative was set up at the Farmers' Market in Chip ley. This contained a refining plant for syrup and a grading and packing plant for sweet potatoes. 4-H CLUBS The enrollment of 4-H club boys 1:;howed a decrease over last year be cause the labor shortage caused many boys to fill the vacancies on farms. In spite of this, 1,568 boys completed their projects. Corn, peanuts, home gardens, swine production, poultry and dairying were the major projects. Many of the boys carried several projects, with special interest being shown in food and feed crops.

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58 Florida Cooperati v e Extension NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Beulah S. Shute, Local District Agent Helping the agents and farm families make adjustments to the war-time prog r am was the foremost plan for 1942 among negro home demonstration agents. Other endeavors included cooperating with federal, state and other organizations in spreading information designed to aid in the war effort to the mass of rural people. The number of home visits was cut down and more effort was made to have rural families pool their transportation. The neighborhood leader system h e lped to overcome the handicap caused by the tire and gasoline shortage. FACTORS' AFFECTING COUNTY EXTENSION WORK The usual State Boys' and Girls' Short Course was postponed and in its stead individual county short courses were held. As the 4-H club girls grew older they were guided into channels where they could serve best. Some were able to attend college. Others were fitted into employment. Most of the girls married and were able to use their 4-H club training in establish ing their homes. Agents gave specific training in household s e rvice for many girls. Adju s tments in home management were necessary, for women and girls were needed in busy seasons and were often transported from the villages to the fields at daybreak and returned after sundown. Special demonstra tions were prepared for the girls and boys who were left in charge of the young on e s and the house, while th e parents and older sisters were in the fields. Children from 10 to 15 years old earned good money picking beans, peanuts, cotton, and other crops. Educational work on the wise spending of money was difficult to make effective, but, with constant talk and attempted guidance of the older folk, girls were persuaded to use their money for better clothing, home improve ment, health improvement, and the purchasing of war stamps. The labor shortage on the farms and the increased cash income were factors with which the agents dealt by using their influence to help the families make sensible adjustments to meet the future. The need was em phasized for the home production of food ' and feed; the utilization of cotton; improved nutritional habits; and getting the neighborhood leader system established. Of the 9,758 negro farmers in counties served by home demonstration agents, more than 50 % were full owners, 40 negro men were farm man agers, and 4,303 were tenant farmers. Poor family nutrition was found among all of these groups. During the year many families learned to eat more beneficial foods. Meal planning suggestions with cookery demonstra tions served to bring up-to-date information on preparing nutritious food. Surplus commodity foods were used in some demonstrations in the schools by agents and 4-H club girls. SOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE YEAR The cotton mattress program was continued in 2 counties, completing mattresses which had been ordered through the Surplus Commodity Corpor ation. The textile and clothing program centered around the economical use of fabrics, the remodeling of clothing, and information about the new fabrics on the market. Home gardens to the number of 3,990 were grown by women and 4-H club girls, who canned 53,737 quarts of fruit and 165,896 quarts of vege

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Annual Report, 1942 59 tables. Quantities of pork, beef and poultry also were canned and 1,744 families were assisted by the agents in curing 159,801 pounds of meat. Better housing was brought about by the screening of many homes and by other sanitary measures. Homes were repaired and beautified in various ways and home grounds were improved. Fats, oils, and scrap metal were collected by women and girls. Women volunteer war leaders numbering 354 served their communities. Bonds and stamps were purchased by clubs, by councils and by individual girls and women. PERSONNEL AND METHODS There were 9 counties served by local agents. Although the counties did not assist with the agents' salaries in most cases, they did give :financial assistance in other ways, such as furnishing office space, part-time clerical help, fuel, and telephone. Cooperation on the part of the agents with the school boards and the other county offices was found in every instance. In dividuals sympathetic with Extension work greatly aided the program and helped it to move onward in spite of handicaps due to travel complications. One new local home agent was added to the staff. The home agents were called together several times during the year for training meetings. Two agents' conferences were held at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College in Tallahassee. Group meetings were held in conveniently located centers. Three agents went to the Tuberculosis Institute in Jacksonville. One agent attended a training meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. Field equipment was assembled for demonstrations. A kit was provided for food demonstrations, including a sauce pan, a sharp butcher knife, a food chopper, a small oven, a dishpan, a rolling pin, a grater, and a biscuit cutter. The agents were supplied with these kits which enabled them to help 2,363 families in learning better ways of preparing food. The agents kept daily diaries from which they compiled their monthly reports. Home records were kept by many women and girls. The District Agent aided the agents by addressing meetings and furnish ing bulletins and other literature. When mimeograph machines were not at the disposal of a local agent, important programs and letters were mimeo graphed in the District Agent's office. Newspaper publicity was frequently prepared by the District Agent. Exhibits were placed, short courses and camps organized and demonstrations prepared and given by the District Agent. GARDENS, ORCHARDS, THRIFT ACTIVITIES In addition to the large number of gardens reported from the nine coun ties, there were 225 home orchards begun; 247 families bought milk cows; 125 schools were helped with the lunchroom program; 8 health or nutrition clinics were organized. The tendency to sell eggs and butter before home needs were supplied was lessened. Demonstrations were given to make some of the wholesome but unattractive foods appealing to children. Demonstrations were given by all agents on home canning. Handicrafts, health and physical fitness, health facts about adolescence, and educational motion pictures were some of the programs stressed in the different com munities. Movies were shown on "Fighting Fire Bombs", "Let My People Live", and "Goodbye, Mr. Germ". The gathering and curing of Spanish moss brought $1,500 to rural women. Demonstration women and 4-H girls owned 49,126 hens and the eggs from these were a source of cash income. Bleached feed bags were dyed and made into attractive garments. The bags were also used for bed ding, table linens, curtains, towels and slip covers. Some thrifty girls saved the strings obtained from raveling the bags open, and used them for crochet

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60 Florida Cooperative Extension cotton, making towel edging, smaller table mats, and crocheted lace. Ci vilian coats and suits of husbands and brothers in the Army and Navy were remodeled into clothing for the women and girls, or cut down for younger brothers. COOPERATION EXTENDED AND RECEIVED All negro agents received instruction from AAA officials at a 1-day meeting. Cooperation was extended to county, state, and federal organiza tion s whenever possible. Agents going into homes found needy cases arid reported them to county welfare board s . The agents assisted county tu berculosis associations in fighting this disastrous disease. A fine spirit of cooperation existed between the local home agents and the Jeanes teachers. They assisted each other with school lunch activities, exhibits, and other rural life problems. The slight overlapping of the Farm Security Admin istration with the Extension program caused some confusion in 1 county but adjustments were made and the work goes on . In all of her work the District Agent enjoyed the assistance of the spec ialist and the district agents of the State Home Demonstration Office. The Stat e Home Demonstration Agent always had time to guide and counsel the Local District Agent, despite her own increased war-time program. STATISTICAL REPORT; NEGRO WORK (Men and Women) GENERAL ACTIVITIES Months of service (agents and assistants) .. . .... . .......... . .................. . ........ 211 Days of service: In office, 1,640; In field, 3,560; . Total ............. . ......... . 5,200 Farm or home visits made ........ . ........................................ . .......................... 8,404 Different farms or homes visited . ........ . . . .... . .... . .. . ... . ..... . ... .. ....... ..... .... . .... . .. 4,072 Calls relating to extension work: Office, 14,001; Telephone .... . ........ . .. 4,486 Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth ............. .. ......... 1,917 News articles or stories published .................... .. ........................... .. ......... 242 Bulletins distributed ...... .. ... . ..... . .. ... ....... . ... .... ....... .... . . . .. ..... . . .... . . .... ..... . . , ......... 9,629 Radio talks broacast or prepared ................................................................ 3 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen: Number ......................... .. ......... . . . . ... ......... . .. .. ... . ..... . ............. . ........... . ... . ........ 149 Total attendance of men and women . . . . ......... . ........................ . ........... . . 4,302 Method demonstration meetings: Number . . .......... . .......... . . . .. . ....... . . . . . ........... .. ............ .. ............ . . . .............. . ........ 907 Total attendance ..... . . . . . .. . .. ... . ... ......................... . .. . ......... . . .. .. . ....... . ............ . 12,47 4 Meetings held at result demonstrations: Number ....................................... .. ..................................... . . . ........................ . Attendance .... .. . .. ..... . .. .. ............... .. ........... . ... . ....... . . ... .......... ... ............. . ......... . Tours conducted .. . ............... . ........ ... ............ . ........... . ... . ............ . ...................... . . Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ............... . Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ... . .. . ......... . .............. . SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE 829 4,196 19 40 1,288 Total number of farms ........... . ............. . ' . ... .......... . ............ . ....................... . .. 8,885 Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural program this year and in past ..................... . .......................................... 2,695 Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration and agricultural programs ................... . .......................... .. ........... . .......... . . 2,169 Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the home demonstration program ............. .. ......... . ............... . .............. . .......... 1,702 Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration and agricultural programs this year . . ..... . . .. . . . .. ........ .. ............ . ............. 1,742

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Annual Report, 1942 61 Different farm families influenced by some phase of the extension program ............... . ..................... . .................. . ............... . . . ................. . ................. 5,213 Others families influenced by some phase of the extension program .. .. 2,155 CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT Days devoted to war agricultural work ................................ ... ................. 204 Communities conducting war work ............ . ............. .. .. . ................................. 216 Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program ............................ 269 Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian defense, and other war work ............. . ... . ........... ...... ......... .. ... . . . ............ . ... 1,080 COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING Members in agricultural 'planning group .................................................... 294 Unpaid ............. .. .. . ............... . ......................... 1 284 Paid . . .. . ......... .. .... . ............. .. ....... . ........... . .............. .. ................... . . . .................. 10 Communities in agricultural planning . .............. . ............ . ....... . ................. 108 M e mbers in community agricultural planning ....... .. .............................. . .... 183 Planning meetings held ....... . .. . . . ................ . ..................... . ................................ 546 Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration worker s .............. . .......... .. . . . . .. . .................................. .. ................ .. . .. ............... 321 Un ' paid voluntary leaders or committeemen ... . .... .... . .... ....... .. . ..... . .. .... . . . . ..... 500 Days of voluntary leaders or committeemen .. .... . . ... .. ............................... 649 CROP PRODUCTION Days devoted to work 955 Communities in which work was conducted .......................... . .. . .. .. .......... . ... 1,153 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . .................. . ................. .. ................. 872 LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY Days devoted to work ............ . ................ ... .................................................... 669 Communities in which work was conducted .... . .. .. . . .............. .. ............. .. .. 771 Voluntary committeemen and leaders .................... ...... ..... . ..... . ... ...... ..... . ... 571 Breeding and improvement organizations ...... . . ..... ........ .. . . .. . ..... . .......... . ... 166 Farmers assisted .. .. ............. .. ...................... . ............. . .. . ............. . . . ................ ... 6,562 CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Days devoted to work .......... ........ ........... . ............. . ... . .................................... 134 Communities in which work was conducted .... ..... ............... ... ................. 185 Voluntary local leaders and committeemen .......... . .................... . ........... .. ... 92 Farmers assisted in soil management . ....... ......... .. ................. .... ................ 1,126 Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation .... .......... ........ . . 2,558 Days devoted to work Farmers assisted FARM MANAGEMENT AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 181 5,695 Days devoted to work ... .... .. . . ...................... . ................................. ... ........ . . . ... .. 80 Communities in which work was conducted . . . .. . .. .. . . . ....... . .... . .... .. . . ... . . .. ... 109 Voluntary leaders and committeemen ................. . .. . ............... .. . . ................ 177 Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ................................ 447

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION Days devoted to work ........ ....... .. ............ .... ......... ... ............... .. ....... .. .... .. . . . ... . 622 Communities in which work was conducted ................ . ........................... 1,114 Established cooperatives assisted ....... . ........................... . ........... .... ............. 11 New cooperatives assisted in organizing ..................... . ...... . ..... . ........... . . 10 Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during the year (established and new) ....... .. ............................................. $375,952.00 Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not members of cooperatives) assisted during year ................................ $659,119.00 HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT Days devoted to work ............... .. ......... .. .............. .. ............ ... ......................... 279 Communities in which work was conducted .. . ............. .. .......................... 358 Voluntary leaders and committeemen . ........................... .. .......................... 254 Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical equipment, rural electrification ...................... . ......................................... 8,481 NUTRITION AND HEALTH Days devoted to work ............................. .!.. ........................ .. .......................... 1,182 Communities in which work was done .. ...................... . .......... . ................ 922 Families assisted: Improving diets, 2, 3 01; Food Preparation, 2,375; Total ............. .. .. . .......... . ............ . ............. .. ........ ... ............ .. ........................... 4,676 Families assisted with food-preservation problems ............... . ................ 4,997 COMMUNITY WORK Days devoted to work .................................................................................... 565 Communities in which work was done in problems in clothing, family economics, parent education and community life .............. .. ............ 495 Families, clubs and groups assisted in . problems in clothing, family economics, parent education and community life .. ...... .. . .. . ........... ... 14,411 SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS Pl'Ojects completed by boys ........................................................................ 2,914 Projects completed by girls ...... .. ........... . ................................................... . .. 17,0ll Boys completing corn and peanut projects ................ . .............. . ............ 793 Boys completing fruit and garden projects ........ : .......... . .......................... . . 634 Boys completing dairy and poultry projects ....... ..... .... . ........................... 312 Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects .. ...................... .. .............. 93 Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ................................ 171 Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects ............ . .......... .... .. . .......... 497 Girls completing dairy and poultry projects ... .. ............ . ............... . .......... 1,573 Girls completing home gardens and fruit orchard projects .... . ............... 2,648 Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ........................ 1,679 Girls completing health, home nursing . and first aid .. . ........ . ................ 1,287 Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and room improvement projects ............. ; ...................................................... 3,781 Girls completing food preservation projects ... .... ....................... . .. ..... . .. ... 1,141 4-H Membership Boys: Farm, 1,724; Non-farm, 186; Total ........................................ 1,910 Girls: Farm, 1,927; Non~farm, 481; Total ........................................ 2,408 4-H _clu~ member_s having health examinations because of participation m extension program .... . .......................... .. ....................................... 958 4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school grounds and conducting local fairs . .. .. .. ......... ...... ....... .. ......................... 890

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INDEX AAA, 12, 13, 17, 46, 60 Agencies receiving cooperation, 7, 40, 45, 51, 56 Agents, list of, 5, 6 Agricultural economics, 19 Agricultural News Service, 16 Agronomy, 22 American Institute of Cooperation, 20 Animal husbandry, 22, 24 Associations, 18 dairy, 26 Auctions, 20 Austrian winter pea s , 14 A vocadoes, 15 Beef cattle, 24 Belcher, Clarine, 50 Bowman, V. V., 20 Boys' club work, 30 Broiler production, 28 Bulletins, 15 Calves, 13 Camping, 30 Cattle, 13, 19 breeding, 24 Chicken s , 13 Citrus, 32 Clayton, H. G., 12 Clothing, 50 Club work, 28, 35, 45, 49, 57 boys, 30 girls, 37, 52 Clipsheet, 16 College of Agriculture, 16 Commercial vegetables, 13 Conferences, 18, 19 Conservation, agricultural, 12 food, 46, 47 soil, 13, 36 Contest s , club, 30 Cooperation with other agencies, 7, 40, 45, 51, 56 Cooperatives, 20 Corn, 13, 22, 23 Cotton, 13, 14, 22 mattresses, 58 County planning committee s , 21 Cover crops, 32 Cowpeas, 14 i Dairy specialist, 22 report, 26 s ales, 26 DeBusk, E . F., 18 Defense Council, State, 35 Dennis, R. S., 12 Egg-Laying Test, 27 Employees in armed forces, 8 Family food su pply , 45 Farm Flashes, 16 Farm Hour, 16 Farm management, 19 Farmers' organizations, 18 Fat stock shows, 24 Feed, 12, 23 Feed crop s , dairy, 26 Financial statement, 8 Fire protection, 35 Flock records, 28 Food, 12, 18, 23 conservation, 46, 4 7 Forest trees, 14, 34 Game and timber, 35 Gardens, 13, 58, 59, 66 market, 13 victory, 15 Girls' club work, 37 , 45, 52, 69 Gladiolus thrips, 20 Goals, state, 13 Grazing, 15 Grove records, 19 Gum naval stores, 13, 34 Hay, 13, 22 Hampson , C. M . , 19 Health, 4 3 Hogs, 13, 20 Home demonstration work, 37 with negroes, 42, 58 Home improvement, 52 Home industries, 42 Howard, R. H., 19 Improvement, home, 52 Industries, home, 42 Institutes, 18 Irrigation, citrus, 33 Journals, farm, 16

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ii Land-use programs, 19, 21 Limestone, 14 Living-at-home, 18 Mailing room, 17 Management, farm, 19 Mapping counties, 21 Market gardens, 13 Materials printed, 15 Marketing, 20, 28 forest products, 34 Meal planning, 44 Meat sharing, 48 Metal, scrap, 18 Mobilization week, club, 31 Moore, Virginia P., 52 Naval stores, 13, 34 Negro home demonstration work, 42, 58 Negro work, 55 Nettles, W. T., 18 Newell, Wilmon, 7 News Service, Agricultural, 16 Noble, C. V., 19 Nutrition and health, 43 Oats, 13, 14, 22, 23 Orchards, 59 Papayas, 15 Pasture, 22, 23 Peanuts, 13, 14, 22, 23 Periodicals, 16 Personnel changes, 18, 41, 59 Pest control, citrus, 32 Pine 'planting, 31, 34 Poultry, 27 Prices, egg and poultry, 29 Printed materials, 15 Quail raising, 31 Radio, 16 Ranches, 19 Index Rationing, 48 Record keeping, farm and grove, 19 Rye, 14 Sales, cattle, 24 dairy, 26 Salvage, container, 48 Scale control, 32 Scholarship, club, 30 Shipping tomatoes, methods, 20 Short course, 30, 55, 58 Shows and sales, 24 Sikes, Anna Mae, 43 Soil, 13, 14, 23 conservation, 36 Spencer, A. P., 7, 18 State Committee, AAA, 21 State Defense Council, 35 Statistical report, 8 Negro, 60 Sugarcane, 23 Sweet potatoes, 13, 22 Swine, 15, 23, 25 Textiles, 50 Thrift work, 59 Timber-grazing-game program, 35 stand improvement, 34 Tobacco, 13, 14, 23 Tours, 18 Trips, 17 Truck crops, 20 Turkeys, 13 USDA, 16 Velvet beans, 23 Victory gardens, 15 pigs, 18 Volunteer war workers, 38, 44, 51, 56 War boards, 14, 17, 21, 45 County, 14 War contributions, 31, 39, 44, 50, 52 WRUF, 16