Citation
Report Florida agricultural extension service

Material Information

Title:
Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title:
Annual report
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla. The Service
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Creation Date:
1939
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1939-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note:
At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46387223 ( OCLC )
2001229382 ( LCCN )

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text















COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND ROME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director





SILVER ANNIVERSARY REPORT

FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL

EXTENSION SERVICE

1939


REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1939

WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30,1939







BOARD OF CONTROL R. P. TERRY, Chairman, Miami THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland W. M. PALMER, Ocala H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Live Oak J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension' A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor' CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor' E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager1
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent E. F. DEBusx, B.S., Citriculturist A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist' HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AG., Poultryman' D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist' D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Asst. Economist, Farm Management RUBY BROWN, Asst. Home Economist R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent Lucy BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

'Part-time.









CONTENTS
PAGE

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR 7

Financial Statement _.-. 12

Statistical Report 12

EDITORIAL AND MAILING 17

AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION 21

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES 24

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 26

Farm Management Activities 26

Land-Use Planning 28

Marketing 29

AGRONOMY ACCOMPLISHMENTS 32

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY 37

Animal Husbandry 37

Dairying 41

Poultry Keeping 43

Boys' 4-H1 CLUB WORK 50

CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE 59

I'ARM FoEXsnY 64

GENERAL HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 66

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES 76

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH 79

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION 83

HOME IMPROVEMENT 86

ACTIVITIES WITH NEGRO FARMERS 88

NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 91

Negro Statistical Report 93


[83





















Hon. Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Plorida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1939, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1939.
Respectfully,
R. P. TERRY,
Chairman, Board of Control


Hon. R. P. Terry,
Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accorda nee with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
JoHN J. TIGERS, President, University of Florida





COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua . Fred L. Craft . Gainesville . Mrs. Grace F. Warren Baker M. D. Futch --------. Macclenny
Bay E. R. Nelson . Panama City
Bradford . T. K. McClane . Starke Brevard . '. L. Cain . Cocoa Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward .B. B. E. Lawton .Ft. Lauderdale .-. Miss Olga Kent Calhoun . J. G. Kelley . Blountstown --------_-- _ Miss Eloise Chapman
Charlotte . N. H. McQueen . Punta Gorda Citrus Ben L. Gittings . Inverness . Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Clay Green Cove Springs . Miss Beulah Felts
Columbia . Guy Cox . Lake City . Miss Ruth Durrenberger Dade C. H. Steffani .Miami Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.). J. L. Edwards . Miami Miss Margaret Delaney DeSoto E. H. Vance . Arcadia
Dixie D. M. Treadwell.Cross City
Duval . A. S. Lawton . Jacksonville . Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) . Frank M. Dennis. Jacksonville . Mrs. Dorothea Calmes Escambia . E. H. Finlayson.Pensacola . Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden . Henry Hudson .Quincy Miss Elise Laffitte
Gilchrist . A. S. Laird .Trenton Glades & Hendry.G. C. Hodge . Moore Haven Gulf Wewahitchka . Mrs. Pearl Whitfield
Hamilton . J. J. Sechrest . Jasper Hardee H. L. Miller . Wauchula
Hernando . C. . Newbern .Brooksville Highlands . L. H. Alsmeyer .-Sebring Hillsborough . Alec White . Tampa Hillsborough (West) . Tampa Miss Allie Lee Rush Hillsborough (East ) . .Plant City Miss Irene Riley
Holmes M. B. Miller . Bonifay . Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson . J. W . Malone . Marianna . Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter Jefferson . P. R. McMullen. Monticello . Mrs. Ruby Brown Braswell Lafayette . D. H. Ward . Mayo Lake R. E. Norris . Tavares Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee C. P. Heuck . Ft. Myers
Leon K. S. McMullen . Tallahassee . Miss Rosalie L. Wolfe
Levy . T. D. Rickenbaker.Bronson . Miss Wilma Richardson Liberty F. D. Yaun . Bristol
Madison . S. L. Brothers . Madison . . Miss Bennie F. Wilder Manatee . Ed L. Ayers . Bradenton . Miss Margaret Cobb Marion R. A. Stratford . Ocala Miss Kathryn Riddle
Nassau J. Raymond Mills.Hilliard
Okaloosa . . John G. Hentz, Jr.Crestview Okeechobee .--------- C. A. Fulford . Okeechobee
Orange K. C. Moore . Orlando . Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola J. R. Gunn . Kissimmee Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach . M. U. Mounts . West Palm Beach . Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pasco J. A. McClellan, Jr.Dade City
Pinellas . J. H. Logan . Clearwater Miss Tillie Roesel Miss Margaret Alford, Asst.
Polk W. P. Hayman . Bartow Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam. H. E. Westbury . Palatka . Mrs. Josephine Nimmo Arbogast St. Johns . Loonis Blitch .St. Augustine . Miss Anna E. Heist St. Lucie . Myron M. Varn. Fort Pierce Santa Rosa .--------_-- John G. Hudson . Milton Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole . C. R. Dawson ._Sanford . Mrs. Reva D. Andrews Sarasota . W . E. Evans . Sarasota Sumter W. J. Platt, Jr . Bushnell
Suwannee . S. C. Kierce . Live Oak Miss Louise Taylor Taylor D. D. McCloud.Perry . Miss Floy Moses
Union L. T. Dyer . Lake Butler .
Volusia F. E. Baetzman . DeLand Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Wakulla . N. J. Albritton . Crawfordville . Mrs. Pearl Penuel Walton Mitchell Wilkins.DeFuniak Springs . Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington . Fred W. Barber. Chipley










AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension Gainesville
H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge Gainesville
James J. Love, Chairman, State Committee Quincy
Walter B. Anderson, State Committeeman Greenwood
Ralph B. Chapman, State Committeeman Sanford
Harry C. Brown, State Committeeman Clermont
E. Owen Blackwell, Asst. Field Officer and State Accountant . Gainesville Mrs. Minnie P. Carr, Statistical Assistant Gainesville
R. S. Dennis, State Performance Supervisor Gainesville

ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION
COUNTY NAME ADDRESS
Alachua Harry J. Brinkley Gainesville
Brevard Clifford R. Boyles Cocoa
Columbia Mrs. Gussie Calhoun Lake City
Dade Edward A. Little Homestead
Escambia Bryan C. Gilmore Pensacola
Gilchrist Harley M. Moore Trenton
Hamilton Eugene N. Stephens Jasper
Hardee Miss Eleanor M. Glorious . Wauchula
Hillsborough Marshall 0. Watkins Plant City
Holmes Leon W. Miller Bonifay
Jackson Franklin W. Smith Marianna
Lake George T. Huggins Tavares
Lee Miss Beulah H. Goodrich . Fort Myers
Levy Daniel D. Faircloth Bronson
Madison Julian H. Wallace' Madison
Okaloosa Stuart C. Bell Crestview
Palm Beach Mrs. Mary McCarley. West Palm Beach
Polk Lewis S. Maxwell Bartow
Santa Rosa Charles- N. Clymore Milton
Union Grady Brannen Lake Butler
Volusia Orwin A. Morse DeLand
Walton Arnold G. Hutchinson_.-----DeFuniak Springs
Washington Alex D. Sapp Chipley

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua Frank E. Pinder Gainesville
Columbia and So. Suwannee.----McKinley Jeffers Lake City
Gadsden John P. Powell Quincy
Hamilton and No. Suwannee . N. H. Bennett White Springs
Jackson 0. W. Nealy Marianna
Jefferson M. E. Groover Monticello
Leon Rolley Wyer, Jr Tallahassee
Sumter Alonzo A. Young Bushnell

COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua Mary Todd McKenzie Gainesville
Duval Ethel M. Powell Jacksonville
Gadsden Diana H. Bouie Quincy
Hillsborough Floy Britt Tampa
Leon Alice WV. Poole Tallahassee
Madison Althea Ayer Madison
Marion Idella R. Kelley Reddick
Putnam Fannie B. Diggs Palatka


[6]









REPORT FOR 1939


PART I-GENERAL


REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR

Dr. John T. Tigert,
President, University of Florida
SIR: I submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1939, and a summary of activities for. the calendar year 1939.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director

Florida Agricultural Extension Service activities completed their 25th year in 1939. Effective July 1, 1914, following the passage of the SmithLever Act, the organization was instituted at the University of Florida, under approval from the United States Department of Agriculture and the State Board of Control.
During the entire quarter of a century the Agricultural Extension Service has definitely sought to improve rural living standards, through larger and more dependable farm incomes. "Living-at-bome" practices have been consistently advocated, that Florida farmers might become selfsupporting from the lands they cultivate.
In the beginning seven projects were reported as follows: 1, Administration, 2, demonstration work for adult farmers, 3, boys' 4-H corn club work, 4, home economics, 5, hog cholera educational work in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry, 6, silo construction, and 7, disease and insect control of horticultural crops.
For the current year the Extension Service is operating under 16 different projects; of these "land use", soil conservation and forestry have been added since 1938.
In 1914 the State Board of Control was headed by Hon. P. K. Yonge as chairman, and Dr. A. A. Murphree served as president for the University of Florida. P. H. Rolfs was made Agricultural Extension Service director and the supervisory staff, in addition, was as follows: C. K. McQuarrie, state agent, Miss Agnes Ellen Harris, assistant state agent for home demonstration work; A. P. Spencer and E. S. Pace, district agents, and G. L. Herrington, boys' club agent. Only Spencer, now vice-director, has been in continuous service throughout the 25-year period.
When the first year of Agricultural Extension Service work in Florida came to an end, 40 percent of the counties had agreed to cooperate financially in employing county agents. During 1939, 60 of the 67 counties pro,zided funds for farm and home demonstration agents. Crop diversification and the formation of boys' and girls' clubs were early objectives. Corn and pig clubs were organized among boys and the girls were urged to join tomato and vegetable clubs. In the intervening period the Extension Ser-







Florida Cooperative Extension


vice has reflected the changing conditions in Florida and United States agriculture. While the World War was under way, from 1914 to 1918, emergency food production was of paramount importance, becoming more so after this country entered the conflict in 1917. Federal Department of Agriculture specialists were assigned to the state in increased number,
working with and through the Extension Service.
Modifications in the program which started with 1919 and continued
until 1930 brought, reconstruction policies into the foreground. Additions included agricultural economics, with farm management and marketing studies being undertaken in a limited way. Agricultural Extension Service activities became better co-related with the research facilities of the State Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture.
Findings for which they were responsible reached the farming population through the county agents. From 1930 to 1933 the nation's agriculture was entering the depression period. Lending agencies, Federal, State and private, furnished funds designed to tide things over. Emergency measures were again resorted to along sundry lines, in the Agricultural Extension Service field. County appropriations underwent 25 percent reductions.
Salaries had to be cut and numerous workers were released.
Beginning with 1933 the agricultural adjustment era was reached.
Duties falling upon county farm and home demonstration agents, became immediately enlarged. Boards and committees for the numerous relief proN posals were almost altogether set up under their supervision. Personnel
was gradually increased under additional appropriations from Federal, State and county sources but between 1933 and 1936 much of the Extension work as formerly conducted was necessarily neglected. Since the latter date the situation has been improved and the Extension Service agents have been relieved of much detail work placed under them during the earlier stages of crop restrictions, benefit payments and the like, At the end of the quarter century the Florida Agricultural Extension Service was receiving cooperation from a greater number of counties than at any previous time in its history. In a number of counties the work had been expanded to
cover the needs of both white and Negro farmers and their families,

REVIEW OF 1939 ACTIVITIES
Changes in personnel and plans were relatively few during the year.
Programs followed had been shaped to conform with other Federal and State work affecting agriculture. Aims sought to be accomplished by all these agencies dealt as heretofore with the ways and means whereby farms and groves might be made to return the owners larger.incomes and afford their families more comforts. In Florida, as elsewhere, the Agricultural Extension Service continued to act as the channel through which contacts
were made with the rural population.
Price declines took place during the 12 months on sundry products,
further complicating an already serious situation. Citrus fruits, cotton, tobacco and hogs fell to new low levels in Florida. Relief from the conditions thus brought about was extended by several Federal agencies dealing with loans, grants and benefits. In greater or less degree, all these worked in close cooperation with the Agricultural Extension Service, though calling on county farm and home agents not so frequently in a manner that interfered with their primary purposes.
Agricultural Adjustment Act administration in the field was more and
more turned'over to assistants by the county agents, giving the latter renewed opportunities for educational work. Farm Security Administration activities ranked next among the, federal groups in demands on the Extension Service. Rural electrification undertakings in the state also







Annual Report, 1939 , 9

received continuing attention. Contacts were made with the regional office in Atlanta, since no representative was stationed in Florida. Farm and home agents in the promising territories helped to organize the electric cooperatives which farmers join who wish the service extended to their places.
PROJECTS ADDED DURING THE YEAR
A specialist to supervise the farm forestry program has been added. It is the plan to enlarge this service, cooperating with Clarke-McNary and Norris-Doxey programs. Florida ' has largeareas of land that can be more profitably used for forestry than for any other purpose. This work is .coordinated with the State and Federal forest services, the Soil Conservation Service, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and the forestry division of the College of Agriculture.
To date only one soil conservation district has been established and placed on a working basis. This comprises an area of the rolling lands of western Florida and is in a general farming area. Three additional districts have been petitioned for and will be in operation during 1940. An amendment to the State Soil Conservation Districts Law was necessary in order to proceed in a legal way and this has been largely responsible for delay. The Soil Conservation Districts Law as now set up provides that the State Board of Control constitutes the State Conservation District Board and this board in turn has appointed the Director of Extension to serve as administrator in affairs affecting the soil conservation districts. It is proposed that the Agricultural Extension 'program administered by the county agents in the respective counties should be largely the basis for the educational work necessary and in each case working in coordination with representatives of the Soil Conservation Service who have been assigned for technical work in these districts.
The land-use program has been set up and is proceeding. It was necessary to lease office space, since the University was already overcrowded. Programs and personnel were provided in accordance with the recommended procedure, working under the direction of the economics section. The Extension Service emphasized the home management feature and an experienced county home demonstration agent was employed to assist. This, however, was discontinued as of June 20, due to a reduction of funds for personnel services. We believe that the home management phase of this work is of sufficient importance to be reinstated and we will make an effort to do so if funds are available. Farm management specialist was placed in charge of this service and works closely with the district agents in selecting counties and formulating procedures in the counties. Since July 1 the Bureau of Agricultural Economics has assigned a representative. A committee consisting of a representative of the economics section of the Extension Service, the Experiment Station and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, serves as a directing body in formulating and carrying out the program.

COOPERATION WITH STATE INSTITUTIONS
Relations have become closer and closer between the Extension Service and the State Agricultural Experiment Station system in the College of Agriculture at the University of Florida. Cooperation likewise has been on an enlarging scale with the Florida State College for Women, where the Home Demonstration Department headquarters are located.
Other State agencies that the Extension Service utilizes in for ' warding its purposes include the Department of Agriculture, the Marketing Bureau, the Agricultural Markets Board, and the Citrus Commission. Chambers of







10 Florida Cooperative Extension

Commerce at several points have enlisted the Agricultural Extension Service in developing their plans. A notable instance was supplied by the Jacksonville organization in promoting the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale as an annual event.
Federal and State endeavor has continued for reviving the Sea Island cotton industry, the Extension Service doing its full share. In the section of Florida where long staple cotton was once an important crop there is little tendency to increase on account of boll weevils and unfavorable weather conditions. There is, however, a tendency to expand in the citrus area. The outcome is still uncertain but undoubtedly there will be a larger acreage planted in 1940, due to an increased price per pound paid in 1939, and because of a reduction in revenue that may be expected from tobacco, and with the lower price of hogs there will be a tendency to decrease pork production.

BOYS'AND GIRLS'CLUB WORK
The type of programs carried on by 4-H clubs has varied considerably in the past five years. There has been no marked change in general procedures as to organization and membership, but because of the enlarged agricultural programs, supported from Federal funds, the type of work has been influenced by this condition. Additional responsibilities placed en county agents have made,,it necessary to delegate much of this to assistants, also to persons who serve voluntarily.
The Vocational Agricultural Department has programs now in practically every agricultural community of importance. Most of the boys with possibilities for constructive 4-H club work have been brought into the vocational agricultural program and supervised in an extensive way by the teachers. This vocational program is no longer confined to the public schools but extends its work out on the farms, and has programs similar in purpose to the extension 4-11 club program. This has not caused serious confusion in .administrative matters, but adjustments should be made, otherwise duplications of efforts are bound to result.
This situation is not as conspicuous with home demonstration agents because of the fewer vocational departments in the public schools that would enter into 4-11 club work for girls. Because of this condition with the 4-H club boys, the membership from year to year does not materially increase and the 4-11 club program can be expanded in so far as to include additional subject matter that cannot be 'provided otherwise.
I It was reported in 1938 that this department had made a special eff ort
to establish three 4-11 district camps. This has served a useful purpose in providing a place for community programs and cooperation between counties. The facilities at the camps are being gradually added to and our State Legislature has made a limited allotment of funds for their maintenance and upkeep. To make a camp successful there must be a definite and well planned program. Our specialists assist at these camps and provide most of the subject matter given.
Each camp has a director with sufficient assistants to properly conduct the affairs of the camp. Gradually other divisions of the State and Federal Government have expressed their interest and offer their services in carrying out health and recreation programs, wildlife and other programs of general interest to rural people. Our camps are conducted between June 15 and September 15 and our plan is to use these properties for farm and home meetings which are supervised by the district agent.
The growth of the College 4-H Club for girls which had an increase in membership of nearly 50 freshmen this year at Florida State College for Women alone, is one of the best evidences of encouragement given rural







Annual Report, 1939


young people to study together to recognize community and state needs. More than 50 of these college girls assisted with the annual Short Course for 4-H Club Girls, with the women's council meetings, and with county camps.
The State Short Course for 4-H Club Girls was attended by 538 club girls and leaders from the 37 organized counties. All home demonstration agents attended the Short Course and council meetings. Fifty summer camps or short courses were held in the counties last year with an attendance of 1,631 girls and 409 adults. The general theme of the state and county short courses has been "the contribution of 4-H club girls to better family living," with the young people themselves analyzing their work in the light of improving rural life.
Results in 4-11 club work with girls show great improvement in quality of work done and understanding the part of the girls, of the relationship of their activities to better living on the farm.
A worthy Florida 4-H girl received highest award in the Southern States for her general foods and nutrition records, receiving a $400.,00 college scholarship.

DIVISIONS OF WORK AND RESOURCES
Gradually home demonstration work has become more involved in the enlarged agricultural programs. Special courses have been provided at the College for home demonstration agents, dealing with agricultural production that applies particularly to the homes. The College of Agriculture is offering special courses to extension agents with credits leading toward advanced degrees. These courses can be undertaken by only a part of the group on account of distances from the institution and other conditions that would interfere.
The Negro work is operating in 14 counties with a total of 17 agents. Four of these have both agricultural and home agents. The expenses for this work are carried by the Extension Service with State and Federal funds. In two cases the counties are appropriating small amounts. This is substantially the same number of persons as have served in the past and the programs are very similar.
All sources of revenue remain as of 1938. Federal funds assigned to the Extension Service remain practically the same. State funds approved by the 1939 Legislature were practically doubled, a larger part of which was intended to relieve expenditures by counties. However, to date this increase has not materialized due to a depleted condition of the State Treasury, so the state funds available for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940, remain practically the same as of 1939.
County appropriations in support of county and home demonstration work show a slight increase. Of the 67 counties in the state, 60 have made financial provisions for extension work. At present all agricultural counties with one exception are now cooperating, 58 of these with county agents, and 36 with both county and home agents. The budget for the year beginning July 1, 1939, shows an increase over 1938 but the larger area to be served does not permit any substantial expansion.
Reports summarized in the following pages give in more detailed form the accomplishments under the heads touched on herein and cover the activities in divisions concerning which this review contains no mention. In most cases, statistical data are appended, further setting forth the coverage attained in the Florida Agricultural Extension Service plans. Attention is directed to the comprehensive manner in which the interests of agriculture in the State have been given attention in laying out the programs.







12 Florida Cooperative Extension

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1939
RECEIPTS
Federal Smith-Lever $ 63,968.10
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal 5,179.03
Bankhead-Jones, Federal 111,332.87
Capper-Ketcham, Federal 26,555.74
Additional Cooperative, Federal 12.400.00
State Appropriation 81,700.00
County Appropriation 118,121.74
Egg Laying Contest, Sales 6,120.00
Continuing Appropriations 5,000.00

$436,377.48
EXPENDITURES
Administration $ 13,972.29
Publications, printing 11,487.22
County Agent Program 187,384.72
4-H Club Program (Boys) . 8,627.17
Home Demonstration Program 137,115.74
Dairy and Animal Husbandry 8,434.50
Farm and Home-Makers' Program (Negro Work) . 32,009.81 Citriculture 4,973.14
Poultry. Husbandry 4,519.16
Extension Schools 266.20
Agricultural Economics 16,936.14
Florida National Egg-Laying Contest 10,651.39

$436,377.48

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Days service rendered by county workers . . 29,075 Days in office 13,301.5
Days in field 15,773.5
Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily . . 1,987 Number paid employes assisting Extension program ---- . 745 Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 310 Members in such clubs 7,163
4-H clubs 763
4-H club members enrolled 15,815
Different 4-H club members completing 9,616
4-H club teams trained 547
Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 15 years of age and older . 11 Members in these groups 494
Farm or home visits made ------- I . 50,836
Different farms or homes visited 26,283
Calls relating to Extension work 354,666
News articles or stories published and circular letters . 6,434 Number individual letters written 103,493
Bulletins distributed 124,560
Radio talks 314
Extension exhibits shown 553
Training meetings held for local leaders ------- . . . 360 (Attendance 6,020
Method demonstration meetings held 12,146
(Attendance 192,080







Annual Report, 1939


3,566
40,414
247 9,129 153 39,952
104 4,772
4,313 201,141


Meetings held at result demonstration (Attendance Farm tours conducted (Attendance Achievement days held (Attendance Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) -----------(Attendance Other meetings (Attendance

CEREALS

Communities in which work was conducted Result demonstrations conducted . ------Meetings held News stories published and circular letters Farm or home visits made Office calls received 4-H club members 4-H club members completing Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing Farmers following better practices recommended .


495 219 172 87
1,064

630 338
55511/
9,497Y2 Bu. 10,228


LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS


Communities in which work was conducted Result demonstrations conducted Meetings held
News stories published and circular letters Farm or home visits made Number office calls received 4-H club members enrolled . 4-H club members completing Yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing(Seed, pounds . . -- . (Forage, tons . Farmers following better practice recommendations ------------


1,443 1,146 882 906
4,308 22,592
356 207

102,391
257/4 37,205


POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS


Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops
Communities in which work was
conducted 394
Result demonstrations 168
Meetings held 266
News stories published and
circular letters written ------------- 162
Farm or home visits made . - ------------ 620
Office calls received 4,361
4-H club members enrolled . - ------ 306 4-H. club members completing . 171 Acres in projects by 4-11 club
members completing 100
Yields by 4-H club members completing 1.1,561 Bu. Farms following better practices . 4,682


Cotton Tobacco


270
71
425

392 753
21,456
116
50

64-1028,849 Lb.
7,844


152
50
211

340 1,601 13,619
27 16

18190 19,813 Lb. 8,0,17







14 Florida Cooperative Extemion

FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted 2,797
Result demonstrations conducted 10,223
Meetings held 3,567
News stories published and circular letters issued . 1,776 Farm or home visits made 10,573
Office calls received 36,225
4-H club members enrolled 9,257
4-H club members completing 5,301
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,320 Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 36,932% Bu. Farms and homes adopting improved practices 50,338

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted 618
Result demonstrations conducted 637
Meetings held 558
News stories published and circular letters issued . _ . 341 Farm or home visits made 1,697
Office calls received 5,991
4-H club members enrolled 390
4-H club members completing 263
Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting
with small trees 210
Acres reforested 6,002130
Farms adopting better forestry practices 4,139
Farms adopting soil conservation practices 1,359
Acres involved 283,517
Land clearing 1 357
Acres involved 42,906
Farmers adopting better machine practice 1,251
Number machines involved 1,204
Farmers adopting better building and equipment practices ---- 4,945 Building and items of equipment involved 7,435

POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted 759
Result demonstrations conducted 1,957
Meetings held 1,231
News stories published and circular letters issued ---------------- 578
Farm or home visits made 4,416
Office calls received 9,257
4-H club members enrolled 2,519
4-H club members completing 1,572
Number chickens raised 68,712
Number colonies of bees 208
Families following improved practices in poultry raising . 19,932 Families following improved practices-bees 1,271

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted 1,543
Result demonstrations conducted 1,961
Meetings held 1,764
News stories published and circular letters issued ---------------_-- 1,767
Farm or home visits made 13,508
Office calls received 28224
4-H club members enrolled 2:275
4-H club members completing







Annual Report, 1939


Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members
completing 3,407
Farmers obtaining better breeding stock 2,321
Farmers using other improved livestock practices . ---- 31,706

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Communities in which work was conducted 1,503
Result demonstrations conducted 1,120
Meetings held 1,028
News stories published and circular letters issued -------------------- 813
Home or farm visits made 2,867
Office calls received 27,737
4-H club members enrolled 26
4-H club members completing 3
Farmers keeping account and cost records 506
Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts -------- . 671 Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments -------- 4,103 Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year . 7 Farmers making business changes resulting from economic
surveys 11,515
Families assisted in getting established 10,204
Marketing groups organized or assisted 151
Individuals affected by marketing program 10,662
Organizations assisted with problems 512
Individuals assisted with 'problems 11,390
Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted $4,196,628.50 Value of products sold by individuals (not in organizations) 1,609,271.27 Value of supplies purchased-all associations 91,378.83
Value of supplies purchased by all individuals 593,955-86

FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted 1,093
Result demonstrations conducted 8,513
Meetings held 4,315
News stories published and circular letters issued ---------------- 929
Farm or home visits made 3,452
Office calls received 12,056
4-11 club members enrolled 7,044
4-11 club members completing 4,953
Containers of food prepared and.saved by 4-11 club members 94,776 Dishes of food prepared, meals served and vegetables and
fruits stored and dried 75,148
Families adopting better practices as to foods _----------------- 11,344
Schools following recommendations for school lunch ---------------- 144
Children in schools following lunch recommendations ------------ 34,260
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs . 2,454,672 Value of products canned or otherwise preserved . $323,963.99 Families readjusting family food supply 4,469

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted 211
Result demonstrations conducted 608
Meetings held 245
News stories published and circular letters issued . ---------- 60
Farm or home visits made 367
Office calls received 721
4-11 club members participating 375
Families following child-development plans .2,694
Different individuals participating in child-development
program
Children involved in child-development program . . 1,947







16 Florida Cooperative Extension

CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted 570
Result demonstrations conducted 2,824
Meetings held 2,777
News stories published and circular letters issued --------- ------ 530
Farm or home visits made 2,162
Office calls received ---------_--------- ---- 5,405
4 11 club members enrolled . . ____ ----------- 8,250
4-H club members completing 5,950
Articles made by 4-H club members completing ---------- 38,853
Individuals following better clothing practices 31,907
Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing
requirements 5,576
Savings due to clothing program . $73,215.36

HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted 1,278
Result demonstrations conducted 5,758
Meetings held 2,210
News stories published and circular letters issued . ------------- 504
Farm or home visits made 2,295
Office calls received . . . . 4,152 4-H club members enrolled . . . -- . 3,625
4-H club members completing 2,657
Projects conducted by 4-H members completing 17,030
Families following better home-management practices . _ 15,665 Estimated savings due to home-management program . . $43,608.54 Families improving household furnishings 12,267
Savings due to house-furnishings program $31,630.50
Families following handicraft practices 2,675

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted 400
Result demonstrations conducted 985
Meetings held 756
News stories published and circular letters issued . 122 Farm or home visits made 893
Office calls received 1,231
4-H club members enrolled 2,573
4-H club members completing . . 1,799
Additional 4-H club members participating 4,314
Individuals having health examination 3,682
Individuals adopting health measures . _ . . 19,364 Families adopting health measures 3,410

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Communities in which work was conducted 927
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting . 849 Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or
committeemen 2,117
Meetings held 1,376
News stories published and circular letters issued . . . 1,481 Farm or home visits made 2,962
Office calls received 6582
Communities assisted with community problems . . 1:317 Country life conferences 98
Families following recommendations as to home recreation . 1,607 4-H clubs engaging in community activities 155
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross
or other relief agency 1,414







Annual Report, 1939


Title P
100. Preserving Florida Citrus Fruit ---- . . -------------101. Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida . . 102. Roses in Florida . - . . - -45. The First Canning Demonstration . . -------46. Thrift Room Suggestions for Florida 4-H
Club girls
47. Caring for the W ardrobe -----_------------- - ---------48. The Well Dressed 4-11 Club Girl . . _42. Fundamentals in Home Sewing (Reprint) . 43. The Florida 4-H Club Uniform (Reprint) .
Pub. 26. Florida Citrus Costs and Returns, Seventh Annual Summary
Pub. 27. The 1939 Farm and Home Outlook for Florida
Pub. 1. Citrus Grove Record Book (Reprint) Pub. 6. 4-11 Crop Club Record (Reprint) . Pub. 10. 4-11 Livestock Club Record (Reprint) . Pub. 12. Florida Egg Quality Program-Suggestions to the Consumer (Revised) . Pub. 13. Florida Egg Quality Program-Suggestions to the Producer (Reprint) -------------------Pub. 15. 4-H Club Food Preparation Guide and Record (Repr.)
Pub. 20. 4-11 Canning Guide and Record (Reprint) Calendar, 1939
Final Report, 12th Florida National EggLaying Test
Annual Report, 1938
Program, Boys' 4-11 Short Course .
Credit Group Chart No. 1 ---------------------_- ------Exhibit Card, 4-H Poultry Club -------------------Covers for Small Farm Record Book .


ages 44 20 24 20

20 20 36

20

32

24 46 12 12

8

8

24 16

20 120
8 1 1


Edition 25,000
12,000 20,000 20,000

20,000 25,000
20,000 25,000
20,000

3,500

2,500 1,000
20,000 15,000

25,000

12,000

25,000 25,000
12,000

1,500
2,000
400 200
1,000 1,000


Pul.
Bul. Bul. Cire. Circ.

Cire. Circ. Circ. Circ. Misc

Mise

Mise Misc Mise Mise

Misc

Misc

Mise


EDITORIAL AND MAILING

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale. Assistant Editor
The three editors and three clerks and stenographers in the Editorial and Mailing Department are employed jointly by the Agricultural Extension Service and the Agricultural Experiment Station. On the whole, they devote probably a little less than 50 percent of their time to the Station, a little more than 50 'percent to Extension, although there is no hard and fast division of time.
No changes in type of work or its character and relationships have occurred during the year. The Editors work with materials for both adults and juniors.
BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS
Manuscripts for bulletins, circulars and miscellaneous publications are prepared carefully by the authors, and are then checked by Experiment Station specialists in the field covered by each bulletin, as well as the Vice-Director of Extension and others. When the manuscripts reach the Editor they have been thoroughly checked for accuracy of subject matter. The manuscripts are then edited and revised from the standpoint of composition and sent to the printer. Proofs are checked always by the Editor and usually by the author as well.
The following bulletins and other materials were printed during the year:







Florida Cooperative Extension

Announcement and Rules, 14th Florida
National Egg-Laying Test 5 1,500
Window Cards advertising Florida Poultry
Institute 200
Mailing Slips 25,000
Milk Record Sheets 2,500
Cards for Negro Agents' offices . 50
Agricultural News Service (weekly
clipshect) 1 44,200
Thus it is seen that three new bulletins, amounting to 88 pages, were printed during the year, with 57,000, copies being run; four new circulars aggregated 96 pages, with 85,000 copies, while two reprinted circulars totaled 48 pages arid 45,000 copies; 6,000 copies were run of two new miscellaneous publications which totaled 56 pages, while 123,000 copies were printed of seven old ones, 126 pages.
Copies of all new bulletins and circulars were distributed immediately to county and home demonstration agents and libraries. They were sent on request after that.

SERVICE TO NEWSPAPERS AND FARM JOURNALS
All weekly and a few daily newspapers in Florida were served by a weekly clipsheet containing from eight to 12 or more items relating to agricultural work and recommendations by the Extension Service, Experiment Station and other agencies. Newspapers reprinted this material generously, showing a keen interest in agriculture and its problems.
Daily newspapers were further served through special releases direct to one or more papers and through releases over the wire and mail services of the Associated Press.
Farm journals, national, Southern and local, have been generous in the use of copy sent out by the Extension Editors during' the year. From copy written by the Extension Editors, five national farm periodicals Y)rinted 13 articles totaling 313 column inches, two Southern journals printed 17 articles totaling 179 column'inches, and four Florida periodicals printed 17 articles totaling 482 column inches. This gives a total of 47 separate articles and 974 column inches.
In addition, dozens of copies of radio talks and other articles prepared by staff members of the Extension Service and Experiment Station were forwarded to Florida farm periodicals and were printed by them.

TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING AND RADIO WRITING AND DELIVERY
On request of home demonstration agents the Extension Editor conducted two one-day training courses for reporters in girls' 4-H clubs, with a total attendance of 74 girls, and one for reporters of women's home demonstration clubs, with an attendance of 18 women. A special class for reporters was conducted for the week of the Girls' 4-H Short Course at Tallahassee, with an enrollment of 16 girls. Newspapers receive and use more material where such courses have been conducted.
During November the Editor arranged a series of six district schools for county and home demonstration agents interested in preparing and delivering radio talks and conducting regular radio programs. The instruction was given by John C. Baker, extension radio specialist with the United States Department of Agriculture, and served to stimulate and make more effective the radio work of agents. These six schools were attended by 42 agents.






Annual Report, 1939


RADIO PROGRAMS
Radio broadcasts continued to be an important means of carrying timely information to Florida farmers and rural women. Some agents used this medium regularly, others sporadically during the year. As a result of the radio schools conducted in November, at least three additional programs, weekly or more often, were inaugurated.
The Florida Farm Hour each week day at noon over WRUF, Gainesville, continued to be an outstanding and appreciated service with a large following. This program is directed by the Extension Editors and employs speakers from the Extension Service, Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, State Plant Board, other agencies, and farmers and farm women.
Extension workers, including county and home demonstration agents, made 446 talks on the Farm Hour during the year. Only 12 of these were made by home demonstration workers, since their staff headquarters are not in Gainesville. This included 313 daily broadcasts of farm news highlights, a very popular feature, by the Extension Editors and 121 talks by Extension staff workers and county agents. Total talks for the year were 1,004, an average of slightly more than three each week day.
In addition to farm news highlights, regular features included the farm question box each Tuesday, and weekly news and editorial snapshots each Saturday. Generally Monday programs are devoted to horticulture, Tuesday to insects, Wednesday to general material, Thursday to dairy and poultry, Friday to livestock, and Saturday to news.
Special industry broadcasts by remote control created widespread interest. One from Brooker was devoted to tung oil and a tung mill,.one from Leesburg to the Watermelon Festival, one from Jacksonville to clover and pastures and the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale, one from Starke to a strawberry market, one from Trenton to a swine show and sale, one from Bradenton to the new Experiment Station laboratory there, and one from the Dairy Products Laboratory on the University campus to the work of that unit.
A special 4-H club broadcast, one-half hour in duration, was staged from the studios of WTAL in Tallahassee four days during Girls' Club Short Course in June.
Farm Flashes, in cooperation with the USDA Radio Service, were sent to six stations for five days each week. On some of these stations the flashes were broadcast regularly, on others sporadically. Talks made by Extension workers over WRUF were revamped into flashes in 24 instances, and 2 00 copies were sent. The Editors prepared and sent an additional 54 flashes, for 420 copies.

SILVER ANNIVERSARY
The 25th anniversary of the Florida Extension Service was widely publicized in newspapers, farm journals, civic and other meetings, and over the radio. One national farm publication, circulated largely among specialists, county agents and teachers of agriculture, carried a detailed review of the accomplishments of 25 years in Florida. Florida farm journals and newspapers gave wide usage to special stories, clipsheet articles, and press service reports on the celebration. Two of the state's largest dailies carried special pages in which the work was reviewed, and 16 weeklies issued special Extension Anniversary sections or editions.
The 25 years of work were dramatized over the radio -in one program, and other programs carried news and reviews of the history and accomplishments.







20 Florida Cooperative Extension

A check of about half of the 50 Florida dailies and 125 weeklies-all that are received on our exchange desk-reveals that more than 5 000 column inches of space was devoted to news and editorial matter concerning the Silver Anniversary.
Talks on the anniversary before civic clubs, 4-11 achievement days and other groups; arranged largely under the direction of the Editors, were made in 54 instances, covering nearly every county where agents Are employed.
MISCELLANEOUS
The Editor attended five meetings, with total attendance of 136, and spoke at one of them. Assistance was rendered to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Soil Conservation Service, State Forest Service, and other state and federal agencies in conducting their publicity in Florida. The Extension Editor was publicity chairman for the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale held in Jacksonville in early March, and handled both news and radio releases concerning this event, both before it was staged and while it was in progress.







Annual Report, 1939


AGRICULTURAL, CONSERVATION

H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge
R. S. Dennis, Performance Supervisor A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant

In addition to the foregoing personnel, assigned from the Florida Agricultural Extension Service staff, a State Committee functioned, composed of the following farmers:
James J. Love, Quincy, Gadsden County, Chairman
Ralph B. Chapman, Sanford, Seminole County
W. B. Anderson, Greenwood, Jackson County
H. C. Brown, Clermont, Lake County

Growers participating in the program are organized into county Agricultural Conservation Associations, which elect community committeemen. County farm agents serve as the local administrative officers. County Association treasurers are bonded.

PAYMENTS FOR PARTICIPATION
Payments made to farmers for 1938 participation are indicated by the table which follows:

Number of Net
Farms Reporting Payment

Cotton 8,762 $ 230,387.66
Flue-cured tobacco 3,989 57,506.22
Peanuts 3,012 37,216.54
Potatoes 464 93,446.02
Type 62 tobacco 87 26,448.06
Type 45 tobacco 157 2,088.17
Soil-building practice payment . 34,657 1,879,339.41
Increase in payment 36,064 324,737.91
Number of assignments . . 511 Amount paid assignees 129,173.93
*Total net payment actually paid
farmers participating . 2,510,841.49
Number of interested persons . 41,051

-As of December 19, 1939. A number of adjustment applications not included have since been paid.

ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS IN 1939
On December 10, 1938, farmers voted in regard to ma keting quotas on cotton and tobacco for 1939. Marketing quotas were approved for cotton, disapproved for tobacco. Acreage allotments for 1939 for both commodities were issued prior to the referendum. Tobacco allotments were in effect for 1939 under the Conservation Program even though there were no marketing quotas.
Acreage allotments for all special crops in Florida for 1939 were as f follows:







Florida Cooperative Extension


Number of Acreage Normal
Crop Farms Allotment Yield

Cotton 13,202 89,720.4 165 pounds
Flue-cured tobacco -------------------- 5,338 14,525.1 897 pounds
Type 62 tobacco 173 2,278.9 1,010 pounds
Peanuts 3,826 46,634.0 639 pounds
Commercial vegetables 7,167 190,469.0
Celery 296 5,972.4 480 crates
Total soil-depleting crops . 16,854 812,468.5


The number of counties for which acreage allotments and normal yields were established are as follows: Cotton, 28 counties; flue-cured tobacco, 33 counties; type 62 tobacco, three counties; peanuts, two counties; commercial vegetables, 33 counties; celery, five counties; total soil-depleting crops, 39 counties.
After completion of the work of establishing acreage allotments for special crops, about 10 percent of the farms under worksheet were reconstituted and acreage allotment had to be re-determined for these farms as they were operated in 1939. It was necessary to re-determine allotments for approximately 3,500 farms for 1939.

COTTON MARKETING QUOTAS
Cotton marketing quotas were approved in a referendum held December 10, 1938, for the marketing year August 1, 1939, to July 31, 1940.
Cotton marketing quota work has been carried out this year with a considerable reduction in the number of farms planting cotton and a substantial decrease in the number of over-planted farms as compared to 1938. Preliminary figures indicate a production of 4,746,794 pounds of lint cotton. This is slightly less than 4001o of the 1938 production. Cotton farms in Florida in 1939 planted 57,850.1 acres. The actual average yield was 82 pounds per acre.
Congress provided for cotton price adjustment payments to all farms receiving a cotton acreage allotment for 1939. The rate per pound was established at 1.6 cents on the normal production. To date 12,208 cotton price adjustment applications have been audited and certified to the General Accounting Office for the amount of $228,378.22. Only a few applications remain in the State Office and it is estimated that the total payments will amount to approximately $230,000.

PERFORMANCE AND EDUCATIONAL WORK
During 1939 photographic material was delivered for the following counties: Bradford, Hillsborough, and portions of Palm Beach, Glades, Hendry and Dade. Under contract at present are: Marion, Gilchrist, Seminole, and portions of Levy and Manatee, In addition to the above, photographs were purchased for Orange County, which was not flown under AAA contract. Plane-table and chain sketch maps were brought up to date on thwTe farms in the 1938 Program and new maps made for those participating for the first time in 1939.
Final compliance records show that there were 45,334 farms checked. The tilled acreage- in these farms totalled 2,366,329. The labor cost of checking together with the cost of computing the acreage in the county office amounted to 51/2 cents per acre. Since regulations provided that all farms on which cotton and tobacco were grown had to be measured, it was necessary to measure 941 farms which were not signed up under the Conservation Program.







Annual Report, 1939 23

Meetings have been held throughout the year for farmers, committeemen and others to acquaint them with the provisions of the program. A number of counties have held farmer-business men's meetings which have proved highly successful in getting the 'plans explained and understood by both groups. Many of the farmers' meetings have been attended and participated in by the Administrative Officer and the two Assistant District Agents and all three have assisted in training meetings for County Agents end Committeemen.

PRELIMINARY WORK FOR 1940
Acreage allotments and quotas for cotton and tobacco in 1940 have been established for all farms growing these two crops in 1939. Notices of 1940 quotas were mailed to farm operators prior to the referendum held for these two crops on December 9. Results of the referendum show that marketing quotas will be in effect for cotton and tobacco in 1940. Final figures in regard to acreage allotment and production will not be available until after determinations have been made for reconstituted farms in 1940.
To date acreage allotments for commercial vegetables, celery, potatoes and 'peanuts have been established an(! work is in progress on establishing total soil-depleting allotments for the 1940 Conservation Program.







Florida Cooperative Extension


.PART 11-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES
A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent
North and Northwest Florida counties numbering 20 are included in the Agricultural Extension Service district covering that section. General farming predominates.
In the Central and Southern Florida district are 39 counties having farm agents. Agricultural operations in this territory are widely varied, the more northerly area principally growing staple crops while farther southward the chief interest is with citrus, fruits and vegetables.
DISTRICT OPERATIONS
Personnel limitations again hampered the work in northern and northwestern Florida. Funds available remained under pronounced restrictions and but few counties increased their appropriations. Farm agents had numerous additional duties 'placed upon them by the cooperative activities with Federal and other State undertakings.
Operations in the northern and northwestern Florida counties employed educational means and methods which can be summarized as follows:
Definite well planned result demonstrations, based on best research data available.
"Spring planning meetings" where results from result demonstration data, and research or survey data were given farmers and improved practices were recommended to them to be incorporated into their farm plans for 1938.
Method demonstrations and other timely Extension meetings for advancing the farm program.
Farm tours where a cross-section of the Extension program of the county was shown being worked out in the field through demonstrations.
Circular letters to call attention to a well balanced f arm program, to results of previous demonstrations and to get to farmers timely information on projects in the program, such as pastures, peanuts, oats, summer and winter legume cover crops. Thousands of copies of such letters were prepared and sent out from the State office, others by agents from the county offices.
Newspaper articles were written and published.
Signs or placards placed on demonstrations, or in offices and other places of meetings urging farmers to follow up the best practices known.
In some places exhibits were made in order to 'put results before the farmers. These exhibits were placarded with slogans and legends to teach improved practice.
Charts were used in presenting subject matter to farmers and business men's groups. Information bulletins were sent to farmers at opportune time.
Tobacco grading demonstrations were held, where the various grades of flue-cured tobacco were demonstrated to growers.
Radio talks and field meetings were again used.
In practically every county in the district, a program was conducted in commemoration of the 25th anniversary of Agricultural Extension Service.







Annual Report, 1939


Most of the papers issued special editions or 'pages in cooperation with it.
Central and southern Florida district counties faced varying conditions during the year. Citrus growers suffered from over-production, lack of coordinated marketing and prices below the amounts expended upon their groves. Vegetable area farmers did somewhat better than during the preceding season and took new courage. Progress of a very satisfactory nature was made in livestock industry development and improvement.
The one program that has attracted state-wide attention has been improved pasture work in this district. The big 'problem now is to keep dairymen and cattlemen from attempting to develop pasture on land useless for permanent pasture. The investment in machinery and equipment for building pastures in flatwoods land covered with saw palmetto is one of the most interesting developments in a decade.
Reports show there have been this year around 50,000 acres planted in improved pasture grasses in the district, which included clover and carpet, Napier, para, and other grasses. They show also around one-half million pounds of grass seed and clover planted in the district this year.
In addition to a number of pasture tours in the different counties through the fine cooperation of the county agents in the district, the first state-wide pasture tour over the central and southern end of the state was held. More than 500 people attended the tour which lasted four days. Cattlemen, business men, bankers, and representatives of practically all agricultural agencies working with farmers were present. Representatives from the AAA at Washington and the Federal Land Bank from Columbia were among those in attendance.
How widespread and far-reaching Agricultural Extension Service work in Florida has become is shown by the department activities described in the -reports which make up this volume. Ways and means utilized for obtaining contacts with farmers and others interested are reflected in the following summary of the supervisory endeavors carried on by the District Agent in the Central and Southern section, during the 1939 period:
Made 152 visits to county agents for consultations, suggestions anti promotion of plan of work.
Made four visits to counties having no county agents to work with committees on agricultural problems.
Held or took active part in 62 meetings with over 9,000 farmers and others to give educational information, promote special features of Extension work and discuss plan of work.
Held 14 meetings with county commissioners adjusting misunderstandings, getting appropriations, placing new agents and discussing plans of work.
Made six radio talks on timely agricultural subjects in addition to making four talks over special farm hour broadcasts from farms and other places.
Worked with county agents in conducting 15 farm tours to carry lessons of better practices to farmers.
Held program building conferences with county agents in planning program of work.
Held four special educational meetings with county agents and other farm agencies on permanent pasture building.
Made 18 addresses to organizations on agricultural information and the promotion of Agricultural Extension work.
Assisted in holding 4-H club camps with 23 counties with an attendance of over 6,000 boys and girls.
Director of citrus and poultry institutes at Camp McQuarrie for two weeks.
Spent 115 days in office attending to correspondence, working out plans for promotion of work and making out monthly and annual reports.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist
:R. H. Howard, Extension Economist
D. Gray Miley, Assistant Extension Economist
Specialists comprising the Farm Management staff divided their energies during 1939 between the continuation of work previously begun, the development of new projects and general assistance to farmers bearing on their current problems.

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
The United States volume of 'production of citrus fruits has increased about 50 percent since this phase of farm management work was begun in an effort to assist growers find ways and means of reducing the unit cost of production. As a result of the citrus grove records used as a basis for the citrus management study, more information has been secured and made available to the industry. The cost of producing fruit in the average Florida grove was better than $1.00 per box marketed in the 1930-31 season. Cost of production for the 1939-40 crop will probably be less than $0.60 per box marketed unless frost or other hazards prevent marketing a large portion of the supply.
At the beginning of the 1938 cost year, September 1, the specially prepared citrus record books were mailed out to the old cooperators and others requesting them, for keeping grove accounts and related information pertaining to grove operations. County farm agents supply cooperating growers with self-addressed envelopes in which to mail the carbon copies of their monthly accounts direct to the county agents' offices.
The number of citrus grove accounts summarized since the beginning of this work is shown in Table 1, which has been used as a basis for the management study.

TABLE 1-SUMMARY OF THE NUMBER OF CITRUS RECORD ACCOUNTS,
BY COUNTIES, FROM 1930-31 TO 1939-40
11930- 1931-11932-11933-11934-11935-11936-11937-11938-* 11939--,
Counties 1 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 ; 38 1 39 1 40

Lake . 39 61 88 86 105 109 97 87 89 85 Polk --- . 17 59 80 82 82 80 71 84 84 96 Orange ----- 46 42 48 44 60 59 17 51 61 71 Highk , j. 12 35 44 37 42 40 37 38 40 40
Miscellaneous 5 12 8 14 8 45 60 70


Total . 1 119 209 268 263 325 1 326 300 305 341 11 362

*Estimate, based upon number of cost records completed as of August 31, 1939. Fruit receipts will not be available until the crop of 1939-40 has been sold.
tAccounts started.
There will be more than 300 complete grove cost records supplied for the 1938-39 season. Receipts will not be available until the entire crop produced is marketed next summer. Thus the citrus management study is based upon a crop-year basis, which includes parts of three calendar years.








Annual Report, 1939


DADE COUNTY POTATO STUDY
Continuation of the economic study of the Dade County white potato industry for the fifth consecutive year was made at the request of growers.
The results of this survey, including data covering the previous four years, were mimeographed and returned to growers. Each grower who cooperated by keeping fairly complete and accurate records and furnished same also received his individual business analysis in order that he might compare his operations as to profitable and unprofitable practices with the average of all growers' records.
Upon the completion of this study and summarizing the records, the county farm agent held a meeting at which time the findings were discussed. The discussion was devoted to the presentation of factors affecting profitable management as revealed by the records over the period of years as well as current economic problems in the industry, factors affecting the price of early potatoes, and the outlook for the 1940 potato crop.

DAIRY FARM ACCOUNTS
This project was undertaken at the request of the dairymen in the Jacksonville area. For the past four or five years there has been an attempt to regulate the price and grades of milk. To do this, accurate information about the costs involved in producing milk is necessary.
The 16 dairymen previously taking part and two new cooperators started another set of records on July 1, 1938. The work was carried on in the same manner as during the previous year except that the dairymen were asked to keep a supplemental record of the quantity of the different kinds of feed fed. Twelve of the records were completed and summarized.
The cost of producing a unit of milk separate from the cost of marketing was obtained. The costs per hundredweight for the two years were as follows:
Production Marketing Total
Cost Cost Cost
8 Retail dairies 1st year . $3.226 $2.018 $5.244
5 Retail dairies 2ndyear . 3.029 2.378 5.407
8 Wholesale dairies 1st year . $2.716 $ .390 $3.106
7 Wholesale dairies 2nd year . 2.534 .420 2.954
Average 16 dairies 1st year -------- $2.938 $1.146 $4.084
Average 12 dairies 2nd year . 2.710 1.150 3.860
FARM RECORD BOOKS
F ' arm record books of two kinds are supplied by the Agricultural Extension Service. One book is intended for those who desire to keep detailed records by enterprises. The other book is arranged for chronological entries only and provides for monthly and annual summaries. It is intended for use on small farms.
Twenty of the first named books were distributed to farmers in the Everglades who had found vegetable farming unprofitable and were chang ing to beef cattle as a major enterprise. Seventeen of the farmers are completing their, records which will be summarized and analyzed during January 1940. One hundred seventy-seven more books were furnished upon request to county agricultural agents and farmers. The vocational agriculture teachers of the state have adopted the book for use for adult projects during 1940.
The other record book was distributed to 159 Negro and 127 white farmers. The Negro record keepers were supervised and it is expected that about 95 complete records will be collected soon for summary and analysis.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fifty out of 80 books distributed under this plan last year were completed and most of the same 50 farmers started the records again in 1939. Meetings were held in Negro communities to discuss the economics of differences in farm management practices as they were disclosed by the records.

DEMONSTRATIONS AND SURVEYS
Thirty-three record books were placed in Jackson, Union and Hillsborough counties during the year. Thirty-two of the records were completed by the farmers, then summarized and analyzed by the project leader. Farm layout and soils maps were prepared for each farm and the maps and analyses were delivered to the farmers individually.
A rather comprehensive schedule prepared by the Agricultural Economics Department of the University was used in interviewing 69 farmers living within the Soil Conservation project area in Jefferson County and an equal number of farmers living outside the area, but near to the project. A record of the 1937 farm business was secured from 138 farmers. Records were secured of the 1938 farm business from 70 of the same farmers, again evenly divided between those living within the project area and those Iliving without. It is hoped that records of the same 70 farmers may be secured for the 1939 crop year.

ECONOMIC OUTLOOK INFORMATION
Following the National Outlook Conference held in Washington, D. C., in October of 1938, in cooperation with the Extension staff, College of Agriculture, and Experiment Station, the Florida Farm Outlook for 1939 was prepared and published. Approximately 2,000 copies of this report were distributed among farmers and agricultural workers.
A summary of the situation and prospective outlook for agricultural crops and livestock grown in Florida was presented in more than 100 meetings.
The Annual Outlook Conference in Washington was attended again this fall by a representative of the Extension staff.

LAND-USE PLANNING ACTIVITIES
This project became active in Florida during February of this year, although groundwork had been laid during the years 1935 to 1938, inclusive. It is conducted in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Counties are selected by the State Land-Use Planning Committee with recommendations that the intensive land-use planning survey be made in those counties if their technical agricultural workers find the work a feasible current undertaking. When a decision has been made to start the project within the county, the project leader and one or more District Extension Agents meet a called group composed of all representatives of Federal and State departments of agriculture who work regularly within the county'. At this meeting, the project is explained rather fully and a county committee of farm men and women is selected to represent every community in the county and all of the major agricultural enterprises.
These farmer representatives along with the technical agricultural workers compose the county committee. This committee arranges for two series of meetings to be held in all communities. Land-use maps are made and descriptions of each land-use area are written with recommendations regarding projects which might be attempted as, a program for the improvement of rural conditions. The maps and'manuscripts prepared for







Annual Report, 1939 29

each community are combined into a county report for acceptance by both the county and state committees before it is considered by the project leader to be a correct report of the county.
Preliminary reports have been prepared for Escambia, Jefferson, Madison, Lafayette, Columbia, Seminole and Pinellas counties. The reports for three of the counties have been accepted by the county and state committees. The remaining four reports will be reviewed by the county committees in the near future. A program based on a preliminary report has been developed and considerable work has been accomplished in Lafayette County. Columbia and Jefferson counties have selected projects and the programs are being developed at this time.
Members of the project staff have appeared on various state and regional conference programs. Agents from several of the counties where the project is being pursued have appeared also.
The project leader conducted a land-use planning course during the University Summer School Session for which graduate credit was given. One-fourth of the vocational agriculture teachers of the state completed the course.
A study of reports of land-use planning progress made in Alabama, Georgia and North Carolina in November showed Florida to be leading among the four states in cooperation secured from various agricultural agencies, number of programs planned based on county land-use reports, and number of items included in the reports.

MARKETING ACTIVITIES
D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing

CITRUS MARKETING
Outlook and educational meetings were held in the principal citrus producing counties in cooperation with the citrus specialist, Department representatives from Washington, county agents and Florida Citrus Growers, Inc. As was the plan for the previous year, the principal meetings were held during the spring.
The American Fruit and Produce Auction Association furnished the Extension Service a movie film on auction markets. This picture, with explanations, has been shown in a number of places during the current season.
A number of the meetings of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., were attended, especially state directors' meetings and committee meetings. At most of the meetings of representatives of this organization, special data were presented which the Extension Economist in Marketing had prepared.
One of the most important experiments ever attempted in a commodity was tried in grapefruit this year; that is, the fixing of a minimum price which growers must receive for their fruit. The authority for this approach was a state law permitting the Florida Citrus Commission to determine a fair price that growers must be paid for their fruit. The enforcement was in the hands of the State Department of Agriculture. A number of meetings in connection with this experiment' were attended and information supplied on the cost of production and marketing citrus fruits.
The Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., in their original efforts to secure a marketing agreement practically demanded one which included volume prorate. The final agreement put into effect did not include volume prorate and in order for the representatives of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., to understand why it was not thought advisable to include volume prorate







30 Florida Cooperative Extension

in the 'present agreement many conferences have been necessary with them and with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration on this question.
The Citrus Committee of the House of Representatives, State Legislature, requested information which was furnished them on costs of marketing, including picking, hauling, washing and polishing citrus fruits.
It has been thought advisable to work very closely with the Florida Canners' Association. Their annual meeting, as well as monthly and called meetings, were attended and two demonstrations were given on the condition of grapefruit sections canned from various grove properties.
For some time it has been felt that a larger citrus growers' list should be assembled, if notices of educational meetings and other circular information were to be gotten to them promptly. The Florida Citrus Exchange and the Florida Canners' Association requested such a list, as well as a number of other organizations and individuals. The compiling of this list was done in cooperation with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and the Experiment Station.
The question of price differentials by grade and size has been raised a number of times and a demand for figures on differentials of price between grades and sizes has existed for some time. Because of this fact it has been thought advisable to tabulate grade and size prices that these data may be of assistance to those whose job it is to make recommendations concerning grades and standards. Three years' data have been tabulated already and current prices on grades and sizes are being kept up to date.

VEGETABLE MARKETING

In April a trip covering a week's time was made to southern Florida to the truck crop areas for the purpose of making moving pictures of the marketing of Florida vegetables.
In June and again during October several days were spent in working with potato, celery, and other vegetable growers and shippers to learn from them the prospective supply of these crops, attitudes with respect to credit and toward cooperative marketing.
By invitation, the annual meeting of State market managers and directors was attended. Statistics were compiled and other information secured in personal work with potato growers. Attention was also given to bean marketing plans.

LIVESTOCK MARKETING

Records were assembled for bringing up to date the statistics showing the prices of hogs by grades and sizes at the cooperative markets in the state.
In October the "Ups and Downs of Prices of Beef Cattle and Hogs" was presented to the county and state workers of the Farm Security Administration at their annual meeting in Gainesville.
Contact with the Gainesville Auction market has been constantly maintained as the local management has requested it.

WATERMELON CONTROL COMMITTEE

The Extension Service was again asked to hold meetings for growers to name delegates to district meetings for the purpose of nominating grower members of the Watermelon Control Committee.
The meeting of the Watermelon Control Committee in Jacksonville was-attende&atrthe request of the Control Committee Manager.







Annual Report, 1939


There has been established a U. S. No. 3 grade of watermelon and copies of grade regulations have been sent to agents in 'watermelon counties for distribution to their farmers.

COOPERATIVE COUNCIL WORK
At the request of a number of cooperative marketing organizations in Florida, a meeting of all types of Florida agricultural cooperatives was called in Orlando in November to discuss the formation of a State Cooperative Council. Prior to the meeting contacts were made with a number of other cooperatives to determine their interest also.
The Extension Economist in Marketing was elected temporary secre'tary for the proposed state cooperative council. Mr. C. C. Campbell, elected temporary chairman, appointed an organization committee of 11 members. This organization committee met in Lakeland and, using other state cooperative council articles of incorporation and by-laws, made up a proposed set for Florida. These proposed articles of incorporation and by-laws
-were mimeographed and sent out by the secretary to the active mailing list of fruit, vegetable, dairy, -livestock, and all other types of farm cooperatives with a request for suggestions or comments. The work in securing a charter for this organization is being continued.

WORK WITH OTHER GROUPS
Motor truck transportation studies were continued through 1939.
Flue-cured tobacco marketing control and grading problems called for considerable work during the year.
For some time Extension representatives have been interested in obtaining more satisfactory grades and standards for Florida fruits and vegetables. Complaints have been received from growers, shippers and citrus fruit canneries as to grades and standards. Numbers of conferences were attended during the year where grades and standards were discussed.
Grades and standards of Persian (Tahiti) limes were recently established by the Department of Agriculture and the Extension Service has made these available to growers and shippers.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRONOMY ACCOMPLISHMENTS J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist
Agronomy has so many phases in Florida agriculture that many divisions of the Agricultural Extension Service utilize its approved practices when prosecuting their endeavors. Field crops afford perhaps the broadest opportunity for farmers to benefit from agronomy research and demonstrations. Examples showing the trend of activities along this line are found in the following statement of accomplishments during 1939:
In the rolling land area of the State some terracing has been done and contour culture practiced for several years. These practices received emphasis in 1937 and again in 1938 and 1939. Terracing engineers have been trained in every county where needed. In some counties power machinery was used in building terraces. In one county a terracing association was organized which bought and operated the machinery. In two others the Boards of County Commissioners supplied it, and in another a private concern supplied machinery and contracted to build the terraces. In other counties farmers built their terraces with their own horse-drawn implements. As a result of these efforts there were 21,594 acres of land on 725 farms terraced during the 1937 season. During the 1938 season there were terraces constructed on 19,510 acres on 720 farms. In 1939 1,238 farms constructed 5,424,040 feet of standard terrace.
As terracing is done, contour listing and contour culture are being increased. More will be done this year than ever before. Strip-cropping, though not popular, is also being done to some extent.
To add humus and nitrogen, catch plant food elements as they are dissolved in the soil, and prevent the washing away the soils of some of the Florida lands, either summer or winter cover crops are being used extensively.
Crop rotation for soil improvement and disease elimination was carried out pretty generally throughout the State. On the vegetable lands it is a crop of vegetables and then one or more cover or green manure crops grown and turned into the land. In the southern, and eastern part of the general farming belt it was a combination of peanuts for grazing and corn or velvet beans and corn, or both velvet beans and peanuts along with corn, on the same land. In among this combination in many fields was one or both of the legumes, crotalaria or beggarweed. Many farmers of this area let part of their crop land lie idle and grow up to native vegetation in a two or three year rotation.
In the northwestern counties of the State the combination of corn, peanuts, and/or velvet beans is now generally practiced. Nearly 70 percent of the crop land in this entire area was devoted to some combination in'which at least one legume was grown. On the, level lands of this part of the state the farmers say their land is improving under this system of management. Watermelons and peanuts for nuts are never grown one year after another, but only one crop in three to eight is taken off the same land. Cotton seldom follows cotton. Austrian peas and hairy vetch have been planted on a small percentage of our cotton and commercial peanutland.

CORN, PEANUTS AND VELVET BEANS FOR FEED
To again stimulate the farmers' interest in growing feed the District Agent and Animal Husbandman assisted county agents in conducting a series of meetings in their respective counties just prior to planting time. These meetings were followed up by sending circular letters to a large






Annual Report, 1939


percentage of the producers calling their attention to the increased gains secured by interplanting their corn with peanuts and properly spacing their peanuts. Another letter was sent calling their attention to amount of seed needed for planting an acre of peanuts spaced properlyy . And again placards remained placed in county agents' offices and at other places where farmers assemble often, calling attention to the benefits of these practices.
The practicability of such a program has been shown in that hogs are now being marketed from every county in the northern half of the state where peanuts are grown.
. More landplaster has been used during 1939 on or under peanuts to make them fill out in northwestern part of the State than ever before. The Extension Service has persuaded the fertilizer dealers to stock it. On four different tests where results were recorded solid peanuts -were increased 200 percent. These tests were made on land that bad shown signs of needing land-plaster.
Increasing the stand of peanuts when interplanted with corn shows the same percentage increase of production as when planted solid.
This last winter the North Florida Experiment Station released a crossbred corn, Florident White. Approximately 400 bushels of this corn seed were distributed through the county agents' offices of 15 counties. This corn did well and most farmers were well pleased with it. There were a few plantings of hybrid grown also last year.

SPACING PEANUTS AS A COMMERCIAL CROP
Spacing demonstrations again were conducted throughout the whole peanut area. In all northwestern Florida the results were about the same as shown in pre- ious years. Last year on seven demonstrations where soil types were the same and runner peanuts were grown, when spaced 12 to 14 inches only 871 pounds peanuts were produced, but where they were spaced from 7 to 8 inches, 1312 pounds per acre were produced-an increase of approximately 50 percent. More farmers are turning to this practice every year.
In undertaking to show which fertilizer or soil corrective materials are more effective in the production of peanuts, comparative demonstrations were conducted again this year but no complete records are available.

HAY AND OTHER FORAGE CROPS
The planting of velvet beans among the corn and peanuts for grazing during the winter was probably slightly increased, but bad production weather completely destroyed this crop in the western part of the State.
Sorghum has been grown about as usual by dairymen and others for silage. Some grow corn. There has been but slight increase.
There has been sugarcane grown and ensiled this fall. Some has been put up as dry forage also.
There have been the largest number of 'plantings of Napier grass to provide grazing and silage that have ever been made in one year.
Production of legume hay has been increased in northern Florida this year, but the quality is poor.

PERMANENT PASTURE DEVELOPMENT
Power rotary brush and palmetto cutters have been brought into use for destroying the native vegetation ' such as palmetto, gallberry, and myrtle. Highlands and lowlands, hills and hammocks, loams and muck lands, as well as prairies have been turned into pasture. Farm visits, personal calls, demonstrations, circular letters, and AAA payments have all been used in







Florida Cooperative Extenw'ion


Fig. 1. So rapid is the advance in improved pastures, and so expansive the acreage being see that airplane, are being used for ending pastures in Florida. The first pasture grass seed ever si by plane was near lBrighton in 1924.


Fig. 2- Para grass, especially suitable for lowlands of southern Florida, has been started on a considerable acreage by cattlemen. This picture shows vegetative plantings being nade on a large scale.

promoting and helping in this development. As a result it appears now that hundreds of farmers and cattlemen have converted or are now engaged in converting 60,000 acres of these lands into permanent pastures this year by seeding and 3,656 by vegetative plantings.
Another phase of this pasture development involves the establishment of White Dutch, Persian, Hop and other clovers on both grass sod, cultivated land, and virgin sod. By the trial and error method, utilizing







Annual Report, 1939 35

everything av available, White Dutch and Hop were successfully grown three or four years ago by a dairyman on flatwoods near Jacksonville. By the use of a combination of one ton lime 'per acre, 500 pounds superphosphate and 100 pounds muriate of potash it has now been successfully produced by the Agronomist at the Experiment Station on similar lands and on other lands that hold moisture well. Some has been made to grow on Tifton and heavy phases of Norfolk soils. During the fall of last year hundreds of tests and demonstrations were established in the State. Demonstration clover pastures have now been established in practically every county in the State. This appears to be a real step forward in pasture development in Florida.
On the lighter soils of the State where pasture is needed, as well as soiling crop and silage, Napier grass fed cafeteria style has seemed to give the answer. Hundreds of thousands of canes have been planted the past ear establishing pastures of this grass. Many field meetings and circular letters were again used this year to teach growers successful methods of handling these plantings. To this was added pasture tours. The last one covered eight or 10 counties and was attended not only by hundreds of farmers, but by Chamber of Commerce officials, bankers, Washington AAA officials and representatives of the Farm Credit Administration.
OATS TO MEET GRAIN SHORTAGE
There is a very short supply of grain feeds in the State this year because of a very unfavorable production season. This is particularly true in the western part of the general farming area. This grain supply on many farms will be exhausted by January. None, without conserving it, will have feed toproduce another crop without buying it and supplementing it with other pasture and feeds.
To encourage and assist the farmers to meet this situation the Extension Agronomist joined the county agents and the livestock specialists in getting seed dealers to stock Hastings 100 Bushel and Nortex seed oats. They held a series of from three to six meetings in each county advising the farmers to plant the rust-resistant varieties and telling them how to fertilize the crop in order to insure a real crop. Thousands of circular letters also were sent to all farmers, properly advising them. Oats, they were told, will mature in May-two months before corn-this will help to meet the short feed situation. As a result the largest oat crop ever in the history of that area has been planted, even though cash was the shortest it has been for years. The rust-resistant varieties were used by large numbers. Nearly all seedsmen stocked the recommended varieties.
UPLAND COTTON SEED TESTS
To test out strains and varieties produced by the breeders more recently, the Extension Agronomist arranged with breeders to furnish seed of their most promising strains or varieties and with and through the county agents 11 variety test plots were established. Although the weather was most unfavorable for cotton production the tests came through. The yields were very low.
SEA ISLAND COTTON
The Experiment Station and the Extension Service have continued to provide a source of pure seed. It is no longer needful for growers to go to the islands off the coast of Georgia and South Carolina and buy pure Sea Island cotton seed. By cooperating with growers in an area where -no other cotton is grown, by ginning where no other cotton is ginned, and by roguing thoroughly every off-type plant that could be found by going







Florida Cooperative Extension


over the field from two to five times, they have now on hand 1,600 bushels of pure seed yet to be sold to the producers.
Again the Extension Service cooperated with the State and WPA in a boll weevil control campaign. The State Government through Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo made available thousands of gallons of syrup and many thousands of pounds of calcium arsenate to be applied by presquare mopping method as outlined by the WPA Entomologist.
The Sea Island cotton acreage is smaller than it was in 1937 and 1938. It is scattered over a large area.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Another practice survey was conducted in December 1939. Such
practices as quantity and quality of fertilizer used; number stalks set per acre; soil types; varieties; and treatment of land the year before; these were all studied. The study showed that quantity of fertilizer varied with soil types, that a fertilizer analyzing 3 percent nitrogen, 8 percent phosphate, and 8 percent potash was the most profitable among those used. It was also shown that medium land in rotation with native vegetation was safest to use and produced best tobacco. The Bonanza variety proved again its adaptability to more soil types and conditions. Five to six thousand stalks per acre was a good stand.
By personal contact and in meetings, shifts in fertilizer practices were secured again this year. On the lighter soils of Lafayette, Suwannee, Columbia and Alachua counties, 1,200 pounds of 3-8-8 was recommended rather than a smaller amount or lower analysis. On the heavier soils of Madison and Hamilton counties many were persuaded to use a smaller quantity or less nitrogen in their fertilizer. Some farmers used only 1,000 pounds of a 2-8-8 and produced a higher quality of tobacco.
Just a few weeks before the market opened the Tobacco Section of the B. A. E. assisted the Extension Agronomist and county agents in holding approximately 50 grading demonstrations throughout the flue-cured tobacco growing area. These meetings were attended by a great many of the fluecured growers of the state, and did much good. Again this year the Extension Service undertook to detect outbreaks and assist farmers in control of blue mold. This time they demonstrated the use of paradichlorobenzene in its control. Many demonstrations were conducted with most effective results in most tobacco counties.
An exhibit of Government standard grades of Florida tobacco has been assembled for use at fairs, meetings, and other places to acquaint farmers better with them.

SUGARCANE AND SWEET POTATOES
Approximately 65 percent of the farmers of northern Florida grew a small acreage of sugarcane for producing syrup for home use. The old Louisiana Purple has been almost eliminated by mosaic and nematodes. Cayana 10 took its place on most of these farms. The last few years POJ varieties have made appearance on a great many farms. The last three or four years hybi-ids produced or multiplied by the Florida Experiment Station have been introduced. This last spring 40,000 stalks of planting material from the North Florida Experiment Station were distributed to hundreds of these farmers. The varieties were 951 and 762.
Another crop used on many northern Florida farms is sweet potatoes. Many have become diseased. This year there were hundreds of thousands of draws imported from South Carolina points. These were of the Louisiana strain of Porto Rico. The production of these will be used as seed on other farms in 1940.








Annual Report, 1939


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
Beef cattle, hogs and workstock receive attention from the Agricultural Extension Service Animal Husbandry Department. Cooperation was maintained through the period with agencies having similar aims. Information was distributed by personal visits, correspondence, circular letters, newsPaper articles, radio talks, tours and meetings. Factual material and experimental data founded on College of Agriculture research furnished the basis.
Beef cattle raisers fared well during the period. Prices have been favorable, grass in most sections was good and the outlook improved. Business and financial interests came to better understand the livestock industry. Demand for breeding stock was measurably enlarged. Interest in pasture development reached new heights.
Land for grazing purposes was sought, thousands of acres having been bought and fenced.
BEEF CATTLE ACTIVITIES
In respect both to adult farmers and 4-H club members, this work stresses production and fattening cattle for market. Since the annual calf crop is the key to success, a slogan has been made of the phrase, "Get a calf crop."
Bulls for herd improvement are of primary importance. In our 1939 plan of work we set as our goal the placing of 1,000 bulls in the State and the getting of 10 new farmer-breeders to establish a purebred herd. The goal for placing the bulls has been reached, and instead of 10 new men establishing purebred herds there are 14.
One of the factors in herd management, controlled breeding and getting a calf crop, is the -winter feeding of bulls, having them come through the winter in a good healthy, strong condition ready for the spring breeding season. Many cases are reported of an increase in the calf crop and an increase in the number of early calves as a result of winter feeding bulls.
Herd management in Florida demands that calves be dropped during the early spring months. This year there are 1,98 menpracticing controlled breeding and having calves dropped in the early spring, whereas, a few years ago calves came along at almost any time of the year. This dropping of calves linearly spring has cut down materially on screw worm infestation of young calves.
Selection of heifer calves from good breeding cows and sired by good bulls is closely allied with controlled breeding. We set a goal at the beginning of last year to have 10,000 heifers selected for replacement. Our records show that 153 different cattle owners have selected 17,730 heifer calves and are growing them out for herd replacements. Not all of these heifers will be used for replacement in their herds; many of them will be sold to go in other herds as replacements. Most of the 9,000 cows and heifers purchased for replacement were from well managed herds.
Calf crop output has increased from the 30 to 50 percent obtained under non-control conditions to 60 to 85 percent when the control methods are followed, as shown by reports from 17 counties. Records disclose more








Florida Cooperative E.cteusion


than 21,000 fat calves sold to local and out-of -the- State packers. Cull cowvs found their way to the butchers in 15,000 cases while 41,000 steers were marketed. In many cases the steers became diverted to the feed lots of Virginia. North Carolina and Ohio, where they were fattened on corn.

FINISHING STEERS FOR MARKET
Statistics indicate that Florida cattlemen are feeding more steers every year, utilizing velvet bean and corn fields. In the current 12 months, 5,600 animals were run in the bean fields while 3,200 occupied feed lots.
Many acres formerly in rough grasses, palmettos, hushes, and weeds are now being planted to carpet, Bahia, Bermuda, Para, and other grasses and lespedeza. Records coming into this office show that approximately 100,000 acres of pasture land have been prepared this season. Large areas of the muck and wet lands that were too damp for other grasses have been cleared and put into Para grass. Approxim-ately 12,168 acres have been put into Para grass this year and 466 acres into Napier grass.
The Extension Service and State Cattlemen's Association sponsored a tour-day beef cattle and pasture tour from Gainesville through central and southern Florida from October 31 through November 3. Business men, representatives of the Farm Credit Administration, bankers, representatives (f the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, railroad representatives, teachers, and cattlemen were invited to get, first-hand, a cross-section of beef cattle and pasture development.


- ~ I L
-- - .


Fig. 3. Prime steers are no- being produced in Florida. This one was g-rand champion at the Florida Fat Stock Showv.







Annual Report, 1939


FLORIDA FAT STOCK SHOW AND SALE
This annual event continued to be a major factor in developing the State's livestock industry. Sponsorship again has been furnished by the Agricultural Extension Service working jointly with the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce, the State Marketing Bureau and the chief railroads serving the territory.
Results obtained from the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale this year in comparison With the three preceding seasons are graphically revealed in the summary of reports contained in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-SumMARY REPORT or ANNUAL FAT STOCK SHOW AND SALE,
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, FEBRUARY 23 AND 24, 1939, WITH COMPARISON
OF 1936, '37, '38 SHOWS.


1939 1938 1937 1936


408 177 535 636
304 ' 425 144,010 445,180 461,303 .1014 .1071 .0972 .0712 746 813 832 725
$75.68 $87.17 $80.94 $51.50 30,879.02 $15,429.45 $43,302.77 $32,860.93
58 12 50 71
0 0 2 3
81 23 21 18
94 39 32 18
11 10 7 9
57 561/2 e 3 2 1/-2 32fl

15 10 16 18


Number of cattle sold Total weight (pounds) --- . -- -----Average price per pound . Average weight per steer, pound Average price per head -----------------Total sales
No. of exhibitors No. of Georgia exhibitors . -----------
No. of club boys exhibiting ----------
No. 4-H club calves No. of 4-H judging teams . Price of grand champion steer . No. of Florida counties sending
cattle


Marketing facilities again disclosed an increase, livestock auctions having been opened during the year at five additional points, raising the total now operating to 10. Extension Service endeavor has continued for helping producers understand the classes of cattle most in demand at the various markets.
OTHER WORK WITH BEEF CATTLE
Associations of cattlemen, state and county, are kept in touch with on sundry matters vitally affecting the livestock industry in Florida. At present 26 county groups are officially affiliated with the State Cattlemen's Association.
Florida Fair officials received assistance in further building up the beef cattle exhibit. Animals shown have vastly improved since the displays were resumed three years ago and exhibitors with whom contacts have been made are preparing even better stock for next spring's show.
Boys in the 4-H clubs have been accorded the attention the significances of their work with livestock entitled them to receive.
Each year the Extension Animal Husbandman, in connection with the county agents, has helped select steers for 4-H boys to feed and has advised with them on feeding and handling animals.
In June, during the Short Course at Gainesville, the Extension Animal Husbandman instructed 150 boys in the selection and judging of beef cattle. This same work was continued at Camp McQuarrie and at Camp Timpoochee with other boys.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SWINE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
Raising hogs for both home use and market is urged under this head, with special help made available to farmers concerning home curing of meats.
Diseases and parasites of swine have been greatly reduced in areas where demonstrations were conducted in raising healthy pigs. Cooperation was forthcoming for several scores of these demonstrations.
Feed and forage crops are outlined in connection with the movement for growing healthier pigs. Feeds represent 85 percent of swine production costs and are accordingly important. Peanuts interplanted with corn are advised as an economical source for good hog feed.
Developing of farmer-breeders and placing of purebred boars is largely responsible for the improvement in quality of market hogs. More than 40 O boars and 200 purebred sows have been placed on farms this year.
Fat hog shows and sales were held in six counties during the season. Fat barrows entered at these events proved that the quality of Florida swine is on the up-grade. The Extension Service feels very encouraged over these reports of improvement of market hogs, for it shows that our work is bearing fruit. "Raise large litters of healthy pigs on home-grown feeds and protect them against parasites and diseases," shall continue to be our "hog song", backed up by demonstrations.
Extension Service animal husbandry workers have consistently pointed out that it is poor business to sell corn in the fall rather than feed it to hogs. This year one of the best demonstrations reported so far took place. County Agent Brothers of Madison County recommended that his farmers feed their corn through hogs rather than sell it. Seven different farmers followed these recommendations. One man fed 708 hogs and sold on two different dates. The first sale netted a profit of $3.28 per hog and the second sale, $3.51 per hog. This feeding was done on concrete floors using corn, protein, and mineral supplements.

CURING MEAT FOR THE HOME SUPPLY
Consistently, the Agricultural Extension Service has sought to persuade farmers that they will profit by producing, slaughtering and curing meats for their home use. Progress has been manifest along that line during the present year.
. Working closely with cold-storage meat curing plants has helped in reaching more producers and in improving the meat curing practices followed at the plants. Vast quantities of meat are cured at the 60 under operation, some privately owned and others under ice company control. This year 38 of them reported 5,000,000 pounds.
The Florida Meat Curing and Cold Storage Association was organized last year. At its initial meeting various questions were discussed and especially questions that concerned the business and mechanical end of meat curing. One of the items discussed was storing cured meats. Out of this discussion has come a request th'at the Extension Service, with the help of the Experiment Station representatives, work out plans for storing cured meats from April through August. The various members of the association agreed to follow our suggestions on this experimental work of storing meats.
WORKSTOCK ON FLORIDA FARMS
Recognition that replacement costs for mules and horses are too great in Florida is the foundation of the Agricultural Extension Service effort








Annual Report, 1939


concerning workstock. Farmers are urged to raise colts and thus reduce the required outlay in keeping up the supply of animals.
Breeding stock was located for buyers in different sections during the year. Information was supplied on handling and feeding and about breaking home-raised colts. Demonstrations as to selecting work animals and brood mares were given in seven counties.
Colt shows took place at three rural trading centers, each event having a good attendance. Parades of horses and colts staged under direction of the Animal Husbandry Department in the Extension Service literally "stole the show" on every occasion.
Demonstrations in riding horse colts held nine times in one county had good results. Cattlemen are more and more using home-raised animals in handling their herds. Mule colts have been bred in several localities, with excellent returns.

DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Dairy work as carried on in the Agricultural Extension Service during 1939, through county farm agents and with cooperation from sundry organ. ized groups, utilized the following methods of getting information to farmers: Personal visits, farmers' meeting-(a) community and (b) field-, news stories, radio talks, motorcades to demonstrations, method demonstrations, adults and juniors, result demonstrations with adults and juniors, circular letters, county and state dairy meetings, personal letters, and 4-H dairy club, demonstration teams.

FEEDING AND PASTURE WORK
Forage demonstrations in 1939 exceeded those of any 'previous year. Grasses were introduced into about 85 percent of the counties reporting dairy work.
Acreages of oats, rye and like winter grazing crops were quite generally increased.' Clovers became much more widely grown on dairy farms. Duval county took the leadership in this activity.
Pastures and forage crops received fertilization more extensively. In Duval County about 1,095 acres were seeded to clovers fertilized with a ton of limestone, about 500 to 600 pounds of superphosphate, and 100 to 150 pounds of muriate of potash per acre with probably 75 to 100 pounds of a soluble nitrogen fertilizer per acre.
Field days held in Duval, Volusia, Leon, Gadsden, Bay, and various other counties showing results of fertilizing pastures for dairy cows created wide interest among farmers. Fertilization of forage crops and adaptation of forages to soils extended from Dade to Escambia counties with more than 80 percent of the county agents reporting demonstrations. In some instances, extremely dry weather hampered the success of winter clovers.
Minerals added to the rations for cows gave further excellent results in increased milk yields. Estimates are that around 235 mineral troughs were constructed in 1939, as the result of demonstrations showing their value.
HOME ASPECTS OF DAIRYING
Reports from about 37 county farm agents showed enlarged interest in this field. Pasco County went to the forefront with some 73 baby calves bought from dairies in Hillsborough and Pinellas counties as the nucelus for family cow herds.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Duval County listed 74 dairy heifers with 4-H club members. Volusia cooperatively purchased 45 calves and placed three registered bulls. Heifers and bulls were also taken by Bay and Columbia counties. Suwannee and Lafayette brought in a carload of high grade Jerseys from Tennessee.
Home demonstration agents have been active during 1939 in placing dairy heifers among their 4-H club girls and assisting in getting more forage produced for the family cow by distribution of Napier grass and other improved grasses. Practically all of the 37 county farm agents reporting family cow work are looking after the proper feeding practices to see that the right kind of forages with mineral supplements are provided.

DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT
Dairy herd improvement associations remained in the formative stage but the area covered and the influence exerted both increased during 1939.
The monthly summaries show progress in reducing feed cost per 100 pounds of milk over a period of time. In summarizing, we find that we are getting a return of from $3.00 to $5.00 for each dollar spent for herd testing through the adjustments. of feeding practices, culling, and other improvements that are being made.
Official testing has grown gradually. Two registered Guernsey and three Jersey herds were on advanced registry test. All are making creditable records and achieving noteworthy progress.
Farm Agent Lawton of Duval County established his goal some years ago to place registered sires at the head of every herd in the 100 dairies in his county. He has succeeded in this endeavor. He now reports that Duval dairymen have nine registered Jerseys and Guernseys with dams of a production record above 800 pounds of fat, 27 registered bulls with dams of a production record above 400 pounds of fat, and three proven sires in the county. In 1939 12 dairy farms in Jacksonville continued the dairy farm records started the previous year.

DAIRY BREED CATTLE CLUBS
Definite work was organized in 1939 with the Florida Jersey Cattle Club and Florida Guernsey Cattle Club, of which the Extension Dairyman is secretary.
During 1939 each breed club put on a sale of registered cattle, 22 in the Guernsey sale and 32 in the Jersey sale. A sales committee, including the field representative of each club, the president of each club, and the Extension Dairyman, helped select the animals to go in each sale.
The Guernsey sale was held in Largo in late March, with consignments from some of the best representative breeders of Guernsey cattle in the South. This representative lot of good animals sold for a fair price as compared with other sales in the South. These animals -were distributed throughout the peninsular and central sections of Florida.
The sale of registered Jerseys on May 26 set a mark in Florida as one of our most successful registered Jersey sales. The Florida Jersey Cattle Club was successful in having one of their members, Marcus A. Milam. of Miami, named a director of the American Jersey Cattle Club.
The two breed associations were instrumental this past year in getting appropriations for Bang's disease eradication and tuberculosis work renewed in the Florida Legislature and they have been successful in getting a purebred show of dairy animals at the Florida Fair. They were active in having the Florida Milk Control Law re-enacted and have been serving 'he dairy industry in various ways in developing the dairy business in Florida along a practical line.







Annual Report, 1939


FACILITIES AND MARKETING
Florida dairymen are cooperating with the municipal and State milk inspection departments in the building of better dairies. iSeveral hundred thousand dollars have been spent in 1939 in the building of better dairy barns and dairy houses in all of the dairy centers of Florida.
Farm agents in Jefferson and Leon counties have been active in working with the Negro agents in the farming sections of these two counties to develop theproduction of milk to be sold to the cheese plant at Thomasville.
Production for the creamery at Chipley has been planned by the farm agents in the three counties which compose the immediate territory.

SILOS AND BULL PENS

Demonstrations on the savings in milk yields on dairy farms having shade and shelter provided in Bay, Volusia, Duval, Dade, and other sections of the State have proven the need for increasing the number of sheds. Where these sheds are provided there is greater conservation of stable fertilizer. In the Panama City area cattlemen use shelters, in the summer months when dog flies trouble the animals. They serve as a shelter during the day and the cows are grazed on pasture during the night. They have also proven profitable in sections of the East Coast affected with epidemics of mosquitoes and horseflies at certain seasons of the year.
The introduction of safety bull pens has been slow but is gradually gaining ground.
TRIPS, TOURS AND EVENTS

In 1939 the Extension Dairyman visited the registered Jersey sale held at Athens by the Georgia Jersey Cattle Club and visited pasture and forage crops enroute to Athens. In August he made an educational tour through Tennessee and North Carolina, visiting dairies and studying forage and pasture conditions.
Pasture and forage crops tours were conducted in Bay, Duval, Volusia, Pinellas, aud Manatee counties. These demonstration tours are of great value in developing the forage growing programs.
The annual State Dairymen's Association meeting was held at the University in June 1939, and was attended by about 87 representative dairymen from all sections of Florida.


POULTRY KEEPING

Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
D. F. Sowell, Extension Poultryman
E. F. Stanton, Supervisor Egg-Laying Contest

Projects mainly formulated and developed in the 1939 Agricultural Extension Service poultry undertakings related to quality production, improved marketing and organization activities. Record keeping was also stressed.
Visits to 40 counties made by the Extension Poultrymen during the 12 months enabled them to give farm and home demonstration agents firsthandassistance in the plans best calculated to yield results in the different territories.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING TEST
The Thirteenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, started October 1, 1938, and ended September 21, 1939. There were 96 pens of 13 pullets each from 21 different states. Florida breeders from 10 different counties entered 21 pens.
The average egg production per bird was figured on the basis of the original number of birds and was 183.4 eggs for a value of 185 points. This is an increase of 1.6 eggs and 4.2 points above the record made the previous year.
The Fourteenth Contest was Rtarted October 1, 1939, with all available pens filled.

FEED PRICE COMPARISON
Feeds utilized by commercial poultry producers continued to be mostly bought from outside sources. Price comparisonsare therefore important, as indicating how profit margins rise or fall with the fluctuations.
The poultry ration as used in this report to illustrate price changes is composed of equal parts of a mash mixture (100 pounds bran, 100 pounds shorts, 100 pounds yellow corn meal, 100 pounds fine ground oats, 100 pounds meat scraps-55% protein, and 25 'pounds alfalfa leaf meal) and a grain mixture (100 pounds cracked yellow corn and 100 pounds wheat).
I The poultry ration prices for the base period (1926-29) and the years
1935, 1936, 1937, 1938 and 1939 are listed in Table 3 with indications of prices being slightly higher for December 1939.

POULTRY PRODUCT LEVELS
Daily prices on eggs and poultry meat are quoted by the State Marketing Bureau at Jacksonville, Tampa, and Miami. The quotations on the Jacksonville market have been tabulated and studied over a period of years and sent to cooperators to assist them in making plans for the future.

TABLE 3.-MONTHIX PRICE OF POULTRY RATION.*
I Base I
Month Period ' 1935 1936 1937 1938 1 1939
1926-291 1 1

October . . 2.78 2.18 2.43 2.28 1.88 2.09
November . 2.72 2.16 2.48 2.12 1.85 2.10
December ------------ 2.72 2.14 2.57 2.06 1.85 2.15
January . 2.73 2.34 2.12 2.77 2.12 1.93
February . 2.77 2.32 2.10 2.67 2.13 1.94
March ---- . _ ------ 2.78 2.32 2.12 2.62 2.10 1.93
April . --------- 2.78 2.31 2.11 2.71 2.06 1.95
May 2.81 232 2.11 2.76 2.03 2.00
June _. -------- . 2.85 2.28 2.10 2.72 1.99 2.01
July 1 2.90 2.22 2.23 2.65 1.99 1.94
August . 2,87 2.15 2.42 2.51 1.94 1.89
September ---------- 2.84 2.13 2.43 2.37 1.89 2.05


Average ------------ 2.80 2.24 2.27 2.52 1.99 2.00

-Price based on Quotation Jacksonville, Florida.







Annual Report, 1939


TABLE 4.-MONTHLY PRICES OF No. 1 (GRADE A 24 OUNCE) WHITE EGGS* (CENTS PER'DOZEN).
Base
Month Period 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
11928-29
October .--.--.-56.4 39.3 38.4 38.1 36.3 32.4
November . 57.0 37.0 41.9 39.6 36.8 33.9
December . 52.0 40.6 43.4 38.0 40.1 30.9
January . 45.9 35.8 33.5 29.4 32.5 30.8
February. 34.3 31.8 31.2 27.5 26.6 24.3
March. - 31.0 23.0 23.5 25.1 .22.2 21.6
April . 29.4 24.9 22.9 25.5 22.3 21.9
May 28.8 26.3 24.1 24.2 25.0 22.6
June. 32.3 26.8 25.7 25.8 25.7 23.0
July 36.6 31.5 31.9 30.1 31.5 29.1
August . 42.1 35.6 34.0 33.0 32.8 29.6
September --- . 47.5 39.0 37.5 37.2 36.3 28.8
Average. 41.1 32.6 32.3 31.1 J 30.7 27.4
*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.

TABLE 5.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY HENS* (CENTS PEE POUND).

I Base I I
Month I Period 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
1 1926-29
October . 28.1 21.0 19.6 18.7 20.2 16.9
November . 26.9 21.7 19.6 20.3 21.0 17.9
December . 26.5 20.6 18.7 20.7 21.2 15.3
January . 26.6 17.5 20.0 18.7 20.1 21.4
February. 27.1 17.8 19.9 19.3 19.0 20.7
March. 27.9 18.3 19.5 18.6 19.9 20.4
April . 27.6 18.0 20.3 18.5 19.7 21.1
May 27.0 18.0 20.8 19.0 19.0 19.3
June . 25.7 18.7 20.5 19.5 19.3 18.8
July 24.5 18.2 20.9 16.8 19.4 17.8
August . 25.2 18.4 20.7 16.0 18.7 18.2
September .---- 27.0 19.3 20.2 17.5 20.2 16.9
Average . 1 26.7 18.9 20.1 1 18.6 1 19.8 1 18.7
*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.

TABLE 6.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY FRYERS* (CENTS PER POUND).
Month Base
Mnh Period 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
1926-29112 .
October.---. 33.8 22.4 21.2 27.1 22.9 2.
November .---- 34.9 2.3.2 20.5 26.7 23.0 22.3
December .-- 36.2 23.2 20.0 27.7 23.6 22.1
January. 38.3 21.5 25.5 22.3 25.8 23.4
February . 39.1 24.3 25.6 24.3 24.6 21.6
March. 41.0 26.1 27.0 24.1 27.2 21.9
April . 42.7 25.9 27.2 27.0 27.8 24.8
May 39.9 26.4 25.7 24.1 24.0 22.0
June.-. 37.2 23.1 23.5 25.3 21.8 21.8
July 32.4 21.2 23.1 25.5 20.5 22.5
August . 30.8 20.3 22.6 24.5 21.6 21.9
September . . 32.7 21.0 22.3 25.8 22.9 21.0
Average. .I 36.6 1 23.2 1 23.7 1 25 . 23.8 I 22.3*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.







46 Florida Cooperative Extension

TABLE 7.-RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX To EGG, HEN, FRYER INDICES.
1936


Ratio gi -d


Eggs to feed . 94 119 11001103 1109 1108 113 99 92 78 81 87 Hens to feed . 916 96 921 97 10 081101 98 87 80 80 75
Fryers to feed . 86 86 87 84 1183 1085 92 87 81 72 65 58

1937


Ratio ;i
-" MI r
Eggs to feed. ---- 66 83 86 93 86 84 90 90 94 83 88 96 Hens to feed . 7273471 71171 8070 7278 82196103 Fryers to feed . 60 64 63 67 61 72 87 92 95 991 99 101

1938


Ratio r'- 01 rEggs to feed .9111011 9511031121 114 124 115 115 941196 111
Hens to feed .-97 911 95 961 97 107 114 109 112 106 15 116
Fryers to feed 86 82 87 88 83 841I 91 103 104 100 97 94

1939


Ratio $i r. ~


Eggs to feed . 94 101 101 106 110 100 119 106 85 76 77 75
Hens to feed ----- 113 109 104 109 100 103 109 109 88 80 87 73
Fryers to feed.- 86 79 77 831I 77 83 103 108 89 87 83 77


RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX TO EGG, HEN AND FRYER INDICES
Changing feed prices and poultry products prices have a direct influence on the profits that may be expected and also on the type of poultry Extension work that can be undertaken.
Table 7 shows the relationship of feed to poultry products for the past four years (1936, 1937, 1938 and 1939). The base period used is the threeyear average (1926-1929).








Annual Report, 1939


GROWING HEALTHY POULTRY
To aid in this direction the "Grow Healthy Chick and Pullet" program has been stressed with special emphasis placed on disease-free chicks and clean land.
During the year Extension recommendations were followed by 2,653 families in purchasing baby chicks, 3,730 in chick rearing and 3,168 in sanitation for disease and parasite control.
Green feed recommendations have been presented giving crop, variety, amount of seed per acre, distance apart in the row and planting dates.
Results indicate that producers feeding succulent green feed throughout the year had greater egg production, lower mortality and greater returns per bird.
Extension recommendations were followed by 2,720 families in production feeding.

CULLING DEMONSTRATION
Most commercial poultrymen are experienced in culling but many culling demonstrations have been held to benefit the small flock owners and the beginners. Flock owners have been advised to follow a systematic culling schedule, and to replace culled stock with healthy pullets which are bred to lay.
During the year 987 families have followed an organized, improved breeding plan.
CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
Florida poultrymen are supplied with record books by the Agricultural Extension Service. About 20 percent of the record keepers submitted monthly reports which were summarized. These summaries, together with feed, egg and poultry prices, were sent the cooperators each month. The Calendar Flock Records run from October I to September 30.
During October 1939, 375 record books were placed in the hands of poultrymen, more than twice the 156 books distributed in October 1938.

MEETINGS AND EXHIBITS
The Second Annual Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie, August 28 to September 2, 1939. This institute was more successful than the one held during the summer of 1938.
The Florida Poultry Producers' Association held its annual meeting, and the Florida Poultry Council held its summer meeting during the Poultry Institute.
Florida's World Poultry Congress Committee was organized in 1938 and developed plans for full participation in the 7th World's Poultry Congress and Exposition, Cleveland, Ohio, July 28 to August 7, 1939.
The entire Extension organization, all State agencies, poultry associations, and commercial organizations worked together and prepared a program for full participation.
Outstanding accomplishments were a full membership quota, the high F. F. A. judging team and winning of Egg Meal Menu Contest and $1,000 by Mrs. Homer Hixson, Gainesville.
The State 4-H Club Poultry Show at the Central Florida Exposition is the outstanding feature of the junior poultry work. There were 795 birds and 85 dozen eggs exhibited. The birds and eggs were of good quality, and the 4-H members were justly proud of their achievements. Fifteen








Florida Cooperative Extension

TABLE S.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORD SUMMARY.


1936-1937


43 19,987 465 169
45 18



Over 500
Birds


15
9 9

965 902
1,052

168 152 178


1938-1939 1937-1938


Number of farmers 27 25
Ave. no. birds 12,574 11,189
Ave. no. birds per farm ---------- . 466 448
Ave. no. eggs per bird . 175 160 Ave. percent culled 37 56
Ave. percent mortality . 16 21

FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE
25-250 251-50 O
Birds Birds

Total number of flocks


1936-37 1937-38 1938-39

Ave. size of flocks
1936-37 1937-38 1938-39

Ave. no. eggs per bird
1936-37 1937-38
1938-39 -_------- --------------


teams were trained for the poultry and egg judging contest. Houston Means, George Macy and Frances Broome were the three individual high judges who won trips to the World's Poultry Congress and participated in the National 4-H Judging Contest. George Macy was rated excellent and the other two members good.
During the year 2,360 boys and girls were enrolled in poultry club work and 1,470 completed their projects.

POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
Fifteen counties have active local poultry associations which are organized into the Florida Poultry Producers' Association. One new county unit was formed during the year and one old one became inactive.
Eight of the county associations have used the educational program outlined by the Agricultural Extension Service. Egg and poultry shows were sponsored by eight of the local groups and in one a chick exposition also was staged.
Activities of the State Association included the second annual Poultry Institute held at Camp McQuarrie and the State Egg Show which took place at Tampa during the Florida Fair. Poultry Extension work was otherwise cooperated with efficiently by -the State organization.
Egg quality demonstrations at their local county fairs were put on by several county associations. Florida Poultry Council support for the endeavor toward improving the egg output had cooperation from all the State farm service agencies. Egg candling and grading demonstrations took place at numerous adult and 4-H club meetings.







Annual Report, 1939


. NATIONAL IMPROVEMENT PLANS
In Florida the National Poultry Improvement Program is supervised by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. Breeders and hatcheries taking part increased, the Extension Service assisting to bring about this end.
There were 34 hatcheries, 81 White Leghorn breeders, 47 Rhode Island Red breeders, 22 Barred Plymouth Rock breeders, 87 New Hampshire breeders, and 33 breeders of other breeds, codperationg in the program during 1939.
ANortheast Florida Baby Chick Association was organized to include all counties in the northeast corner of the State. Plans were made to include other counties as soon as it is deemed advisable. Hatcherymen must cooperate with the National Poultry Improvement Program to be eligible for membership.

CONTINUING POULTRY WORK
Vaccination against fowl pox was practiced more generally than ever before. Many poultrymen have been taught to vaccinate without outside help, and others depend on feed salesmen. In 1939 the county and home demonstration agents assisted in the vaccination of over 100,000 pullets.
Suwannee, Gilchrist and Levy counties have been active in turkey work. In these counties turkey production is an important farm enterprise.
Reports indicate that egg 'production was increased by artificial lights on a larger scale than heretofore, among owners of both farm and commercial flocks.
Farmers who did not have electric power used oil lanterns as a source of light for the all-night lighting system. Most farmers who have electric power use the morning lights, but there are a few who use all-night lights.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent

State-wide programs could not be undertaken in this department, owing to the wide variations in Florida agricultural conditions. Complications were further introduced by the large number of citrus and truck crops growers who live in towns. One delegate to the National Camp in 1939 did his club work on vacant lots in the Miami suburbs.
County farm agents found themselves less and less with time for 4-H club endeavors. Of the 55 agents during 1939, 16 or about 30 percent had under 10 boys reporting. In some instances it was indicated that interest could not be aroused while other agents explained the duties connected with administering the Agricultural Adjustment Act and related federal activities had taken precedence.
Table 9 shows the amount of time given to boys' club work by Florida agents as summarized December 1, 1938. This table does not give all time spent in club work, as some work was done by the soil conservation assistants.
The average time 'per county agent spent on club work was 7.3%; 43 of the time spent by agents on club work was in attending camps and short courses. This leaves but 4.2% of agents' time in working on club work in the counties.


TABLE 9.-PERCENT COUNTY AGENT'S TIME

Southeast Days Days to ITime to
District Worked Club Club
Work Work

Alachua . 307 34 11
Baker. 293 44 15
Bradford . 309 16 5
Brevard ---303 34 11
Columbia 296 25 8
Dade.568 (2) 186 33
DeSoto.293 17 4
Duval.I 585 (2) 48 8
Gilchrist.289 1 10 3
Hamilton . 307 1
Hardee . . 307 35 11
Levy ----------- 303 0
Marion. 300 31 10
Nassau . 269 31 10+
Okeechobee .- 302 17 5
Palm Beach ----- 300 38 13
Pasco-. 309 96 31
Putnam. 288 19 6
St. Johns . 306 20 6
Seminole . . 307 0
Sumter.- - 295 33 11
Union.-- . 306 18 6
Volusia . -- 285 19 6


TOTAL . 7,410 772 10


DEVOTED TO CLUB WORK.
Club VisitsI Meet- to Club Percent ings Mem- Reports
Held hers Secured

93 5 47
9 144 34
17 21 32
36 37 50
8 49 71
227 224 46
16 0 50
46 2 69
14 0 60

27 24 42

59 71 26
27 38 6
12 7 56
62 19 72
82 809 87
17 32 82
11 13 100

6 95 88
18 - 64
16 25 46


803 1,115 62







Annual Report, 1939


Southwest
District


Charlotte. Glades & Hendry Hernando.
Highlands. Hillsborough. Lake* . Lee
Manatee . Orange . Osceola -------Pinellas . Polk
Sarasota .


IOTAL .


Days Worked


302 310 303 292 269 292 286 305 298 308 291 277 308


3,841


Days to Club Work

15 6
4 2
41
8 13 5 39 0 13



146


Percent Time to Club Work

5
2 1 7 15
2 4
1 +
13 0
4




4+


Club Meetings Held

15 17

4
84
1
16 10
44

11



202


VisitsI to Club Percent Mem- Reports hers ISecured

67 84
- 9
15
- 75
97 71
3 83
- 36
1 0
100 70





283 64


*Club work done by an assistant.


Northwest
District


Bay
Calhoun -. Dixie . Escambia -----Gadsden . Holmes.-. jackson . Jeff erson . Lafayette. Leon . . Liberty ----Madison . Okaloosa . Santa Rosa.---Suwannee.
Taylor.-----Wakulla . -Walton.
Washington.


TOTAL.-----


Days Worked


272 302 303
304 306 299 296 306 307 297 287 311 291 291 306 305 309 309
294


5,694


Days to
Club I Work


51
0
171'/2 28

4
7
7
22
9
40 24 21 25/2 19

27 17


IPercent Time to Club Work

18 0 5 9
14 5
1+
2 2 7 3
12
8 7 8 6

9
5 +


5+


Club Meetings Held

29
0 6
30


0
4
25
3
26 11 35 15
20

24 22


252


Visits
to Club Percent Mem- Reports hers Secured

133 90
0 33
44 68
7 60
0 0
4 75
3 30
0 100
35 35
0 0
78 60
53 47
- 36
34 43

- 53
1 9


392 41







Florida Cooperative Extensioit


ENROLLMENT STATISTICS FOR 1939
In the counties where county agents are employed there were 15,296 boys available and 4,125 club members (mostly boys) enrolled. This gives us about one out of four available boys enrolled, which is the national average.
Table 10 gives enrollment in each county. The table shows the enrollment and reports per county for 1938 and 1939 as well as number of farms in county and estimated number of boys available. The goal, of 5,000 members set for the year is shown to have been reached.
Goal set on reports was 60 percent; as the following table indicates, it was not fully attained. A gain to 54 percent from 53 was registered. Table 11 gives counties which secured 6011o or more reports. This list of counties will be placed on the 4-H honor roll for 1939.
These 23 county agents out of 55 had 39flo of available boys in State and 56clo of enrollment and secured 76% of all reports received. Six counties where 4-H boys are employed had 13% of available boys in State and 35% of enrollment and secured 467,o of all reports received.

PROJECTS, PROGRESS AND METHODS
County agents were furnished with definite recommendations for project work. This was done in an attempt to assist agents in getting definite Mstructions to club members.
In December 1937 and January 1938, the State Boys' Club Agent prepared a rather voluminous looseleaf Boys' 4-H Club Guide. In this guide almost everything having to do with boys' club work in Florida was put in shape for easy reference by the county agent. The agents interested in club work reported that it was the most valuable addition to club work that had been made in years. Each year loose sheets are sent to county agents to substitute where changes have been made or for including where subject covered is new.
Talks were made before 15 luncheon clubs, four farmers' and business men's clubs and over 100, school talks were made by State Boys' Club Agent. Monthly radio talks over WRUF were given on club work.
The project work with poultry and livestock showed some improvement again in 1939. The number and quality of baby beef shown at the Fat Stock Show increased. A club boy exhibited the grand champion pen of three. The State Pig Club Show did not bring out quite as many entries as last year, but all were of high quality. The State Poultry Show was the best and largest we have held'.

4-H CLUB CAMPS
The three district camps were improved by the addition of enough mattresses to furnish one for every bed. Seats for the auditorium were built for each camp. New equipment was added for kitchens and general efficiency of camps was improved.
Every county but one having boys' 4-H club work was represented at camp in 1939. A change was made in type of camps held at Timpoochee. In the past joint camps have been held there. In 1939 it was decided to hold boys and girls camps separately. The results varied.
We were pleased that again we were able to allow Alabama counties to use the facilities of Camp Tinipoochee. We are not using Camp Timpoochee and Cherry Lake long enough to justify the money invested. We hope that the use of these camps can be extended. Camp McQuarrie operated continuously from the second week in June through the second week in September.







TABLE 10.-Boys AVAILABLE FOR CLUB WORK AND ENROLLMENT AND REPORTS BY COUNTIES, 1939.


Number County IWhite


Alachua . Baker.---Bradford.
Brevard.-Columbia. Dade.---_DeSoto . Duval. Gilchrist .----Hamilton. Hardee _. Levy . -Marion . Nassau.----Okeechobee . -Palm Beach --Pasco . -Putnam. St. Johns . Seminole.-----Sumter. Union.--Volusia.---TOTAL Southeast District


21,786


Farms

1,301
419 796 686
914 1,587
435 1,021 518 633
1,471 726 1,886 565 259 1,037 1,237
808
472 942 928 523 2,572


Number
Boys Available

434 139 265 131 321 317 87
340 172
211 300
2 42 628 155
52
207
412 269 157

309
174 514



6,024


1938
Enrollment

210 38 69
54 56 99 119 18,5 25 0
105
0
75
102
25
141 431 28 61 15
180,
47 26



2,091


1939 Gain
Enroll- or
ment Loss

197 -13
88 +50
59 -10
52 - 2
64 + 8
123 +24
97 -22
193 + 8
20 - 5
0 0
78 -27
0 0
232 +157
83 -19
23 - 2
108 -33
477 +46
41 +13
43 -18
0 -15
220 +40
60 +13
39 +13



2,297 +206


62 1,466


63.7 1 + 1.7


1938 Reports I 1939 Reports
Number Percent INumber IPercent

101 47 63 32
13 34 34 38
22 32 10 17
26 50 16 30
40 '71 46 72
46 46 37 30
59 50 50 51
128 69 120 62
15 60 10 50
0 0 0 0
45 42 50 64
0 0 0 0
20 26 136 60
6 6 50 60
14 58 20 84
103 72 78 72
371 87 399 84
23 82 33 80
61 100 43 100
7 47 0 0
160 88 206 93
30 64 45 75
12 46 20 51


Gain or Loss Percent

-_15 + 4
-15
-20 � 1
-16 + 1
-7
10
+22
0
+ 33
+54 +26

-3
2


+ 5 +11 + 5


1,302











TABLE 10.-Boys AVAILABLE FOR CLUB WORK AND EN20LLMENT AND REPORTS BY COUNTIES, 1939-Continued.


County


Bay
Calhoun .---D ixie -- ----- -Escambia . Gadsden . Holmes . Jackson.--Jeff erson. Lafayette. Leon.-----Liberty . Madison.---Okaloosa. Santa Rosa . Suwannee_. . Taylor ----_--Walton . Wakulla.
Washington.---


Number White Farms

202 150 267
1,094 848 1,786 2,517
444 434 368
184 856 1,067
1,240 1,433 545 1,303 233 1,051


TOTAL Northwest District 17,114


Number
Boys Available

68
47 89 563 282 595 835
148 145 122
62
285 322
413 474 109
434 78
350


5,591


1938
Enrollment

80
6 16
130
0 92
343
61 25 53 16 91 93 78 195 32 138

90


1,539


1 1939 1 Gain Enroll- or 1938 Reports
ment I Loss Number Percent

17 -63 72 90
0 - 6 2 33
40 +24 11 68
115 -15 79 60
0 0 0
146 +54 70 75


1,554


-r 41
+ 10
- 9 + 5 + 1 + 7
-19 + 2 +58
-3
-33

-29



+15


18 25 19

54 44 28 85

74

8


30 100 35

60
47 36
43

53

9


632 41


1939 Reports Number I Percent


14
0
25 81
0
29
24 42 12 40
0
43 26 29
94 25 60

0



544


82

62 70

20
6
60 79 70
0
43 40 36 37 90 59

0



35


Gain or Loss Percent

-8
0 6
+10

-55 -6
+ 18
-21 +30
0
-17 -7
0
-6
+~-90
+ 6

9






TABLE 10.-Boys AVAILABLE FOR CLUB WORK AND ENROLLMENT AND REPORTS BY COUNTIEs, 1939-Concluded.
Number INumber I 1938 1939 I Gain I Gain
County White Boys IEnroll- IEnroll- I or 1938 Reports I 1939 Reports Ior Loss
IFarms Available ment I ment Loss INumber IPercent INumber IPercent Percent

Charlotte . 148 30 19 12 - 7 16 84 12 100 +16
Glades and
Hlendry . 346 69 64 12 -52 6 9 0 .0 -9
Hernando ._ 459 92 18 20 + 2 - - 16 80 +80
Highlands . 654 131 20 2 -18 15 75 2 100 +25
Hillsborough --- 3,944 789 124 172 +48 89 71 124 72 + 1
Lake.----- 2,491 498 421 673 +252 352 83 468 72 -11
Lee 508 102 36 62 +26 13 36 21 34 - 2
Manatee _ . 1,155 251 67 72 +�5 - - - -
Orange . 3,111 620 124 183 +59 86 70 81 44 -26
Osceola . 537 117 0 7 + 7 0 0 7 100 +100
Pinellas .--- 766 152 - 14 �14 - - 7 50 +50
Polk.----- 4,020 804 3 0 - 3 3 102 0 0 -100
Sarasota . 180 36 0 0 0 0 0 0


TOTAL South- I
west District 18,324 3,681 896 1,229 +333 580 64 756 61+ 3

District


0







Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE 11-COUNTIES SECURING 60 ,o REPORTS.
Boys Number Number Percent
County Available Enrolled Reports Reports

Columbia 321 64 46 72
Duval 340 193 120 62
Hardee 300 78 50 64
*Marion 628 232 136 60
Nassau _ . . 83 50 60
Okeechobee 52 23 20 84
Palm Beach 207 108 78 72
*Pasco 412 477 399 84
Putnam 269 41 33 80
St.Johns 1.57 43 43 100
*Sumter ------------ - _--------_-_ 309 220 206 93
Union 174 60 45 75
*Bay 68 17 14 82
Dixie 89 40 25 62
Escambia 563 115 81 70
Jefferson 148 71 42 60
Lafayette 145 16 12 79
"Leon 122 58 40 70
Taylor 109 29 25 90
Charlotte 30, 12 12 100
Hernando 92 20 16 80
Hillsborough . . 789 172 124 72
"Lake 498 673 486 72


TOTAL . . . 5,977 2,847 2,103 73

*Counties where former 4-H club boys were employed.
6 Counties
23 Counties where
55 with 60clo 4-H Boys
Counties Reports Employed
Average number boys available per county . 278 259 339
Average number boys enrolled per county . 92 123 279
Average percent available enrolled per county 33 47 82
Average number reports per county . 50 91 213
Average percent reports per county . . 54 73 75

SHOWS, EXHIBITS AND CONTESTS
The 1939 State Pig Club Show was held at Tallahassee and was sponsored by the Leon County Fair. Fewer pigs were shown but the quality was excellent. County Agent K. S. McMullen again handled all details.
, The StatePoultry Show is growing. The first year we filled but 1/4 of the building. In 1939 we filled the entire building. Over 400 birds were exhibited by club members. The State 4-H Poultry Judging Contest is held in connection with this show. The Central Florida Exposition sponsors this contest.
The biggest improvement was made in the baby beef exhibit at the Florida Fat Stock Show. The number of exhibits increased over 100%. A 441 entry was grand champion pen of three.
Beef cattle judging contest is held in connection with this show. Eleven teams competed in 1939, four more than in 1938. Bradford County had the winning team, whose members received scholarships to short course.
The state poultry judging contest is somewhat different than the usual in that the winning team is selected on the entire poultry club records of the






Annual Report, 1939


participants. The winning club member in this contest was given a $100.00 scholarship. The winning county team also represents Florida in the National 4-H1 Poultry Judging Contest in Chicago. Lake County boys' team won in 1939 and Joe Busby also of Lake County is now in college on his $100.00 scholarship.
In 1939 six counties sent teams for the dairy demonstration. Alachua County members won and were awarded the trip to San Francisco. At the last minute one of the Alachua County team could not go, so the second team from Pasco County went. They won second in the Southern Division.
TRIPS OUT OF THE STATE
Florida was represented by two boys at the 1939 National 4-H Camp, Everette Davis of Escambia County and Jack Prator of Pasco County.
The Pasco County dairy demonstration team went to the National Dairy Show.
A team of two boys and one girl represented Florida 4-H club work at the judging contest held in connection with the World Poultry Congress at Cleveland.
Three boys attended the 4-H Club Congress from Florida. The state champion barrow was shown by a girl this year. Joe Busby, Henry Swanson and Billy Lorenz of Lake County made this trip.

STATE BOYS' SHORT COURSE
this is the big event of the club year. Many boys have received the inspiration to go to college by attending a short course. Only boys winning a trip in their club work can attend.
The 1939 short course was held at the University of Florida May 29 to June 3. We were not successful in getting representation from every county. Some were unable to come because of conflict with school examinations and some county agents failed to secure any scholarships for prizes.
STATE WINNERS IN PROJECT WORK
Meat Animal Production.-Sidney Allen of Suwannee County won the gold watch offered by Thomas E. Wilson.
Baby Beef.-Lonnie Howell of Holmes County showed champion 4-H steer. Sidney Allen of Suwannee County showed grand champion pen of three. Leroy Fortner of Alachua County won the $1010 scholarship given by Florida Fat Stock Show to outstanding boy in beef project.
Fat Barrow.-.Eloise Boyles, a pig club girl from Suwannee County, showed grand champion barrow at State Pig Club Show and won the trip to Chicago.
Breeding Pig.-Jack Dyer of Union County showed the grand champion breeding pig and also reserve champion barrow.

SCHOLARSHIP WINNERS
National 4-H Fellowship.-Wilmer Bassett, former 4-H club boy and assistant agent in Lake County, won this $1,000 fellowship and is now in Washington.
Bankers' Scholarship.-Zeke Bagley of Jackson County, Benjamin Woodball of Duval and Harry L. Collins, Jr., of Lake won the three bankers' scholarships. Woodhall and Collins entered college in September.
Lake County Scholarship.-Claxon Parker won the scholarship contributed by the Lake County bankers. Parker entered college.







58 Florida Cooperative Extension

Fat Stock Show Scholarship-Leroy Fortner of Alachua County won this scholarship. He is a sophomore in college.
Central Florida Exposition Scholarship-Joe Busby of Lake County won this award and entered the University of Florida in September.
Sumter County Scholarship.-This was won by Billy Sharpe.
United States Sugar Corporation Scholarship This, the most valuable scholarship offered, was won by Dan Roberts of Alachua County. He is expected to take some line of work in college which will fit him to be of assistance in the sugar industry of Florida.
Sears, Roebuck Scholarship For the past two years a 4-H club boy has won the special scholarship given to the freshman of those receiving Sears, Roebuck scholarships who made the highest grade in college work. Russell Peeples won in 1938 and Arthur P. Ellis for 1939. The majority of those awarded these scholarships are 4-H club boys. The Extension Service does not have a 'part in the awarding of the Sears, Roebuck scholarships.
Kraft-Phenix Cheese Company Scholarship.-By winning second in the Southern Division in the contest at San Francisco David Boatwright and Maxie Bryant of Pasco County won $100 scholarships.

OTHER CONTRIBUTORS TO CLUB WORK
The Atlantic Coast Line gave a trip to the National 4-H Camp.
The Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company gave $150 toward expenses of taking poultry judging team to Chicago. This was given through the Florida Chain Store Association.
The Central Florida Exposition at Orlando sponsored the State Poultry Show and contributed several hundred dollars in prizes.
The Leon County Fair Association sponsored the State Pig Club Show and contributed the cash premiums.
The Florida Fat Stock Show sponsored the State Baby Beef Show and contributed prize money.
Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo contributed money for trip to Chicago for girl who showed champion- barrow. Mr. Mayo also contributed heavily to the various local fat stock shows at which 4-H club boys won nice premiums.
The service clubs, boards of county commissioners, and business men in the State contributed 300 short course scholarships as well as many of the awards at the county contests.

OTHER EXAMPLES OF GOOD WORK
One of the finest pieces of club work in Florida was turned in by County Agent J. A. McClellan when on four days' notice he whipped his dairy demonstration team into shape and won second in the contest at San Francisco. Pasco County was awarded the cup as having best 4-H club work in the state for 1938-39.
We are using the radio to publicize club work. The State Boys' Club Agent made nine talks over WRUF, the University of Florida Station. He also talked over WDBO at Orlando and WTAL at Tallahassee. During short course the radio is used daily. The opening program is broadcast and four boys appear on the farm hour each day.
On National Achievement Day 4-H club programs are put on not only over the four stations of the NBC but also from Orlando, Ocala and Gainesville. Some of the agents use their local stations several times during the year.
In ARS Ralcer County built the first county 4-H club building for boys' work in Florida. This year Lake County completed a club building.







Annual Report, 1939 59


CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist
Citrus Extension work was conducted during the year by the Citriculturist and farm agents in 26 counties. Assistance was received from district agents; members of the Experiment Station staff; the FederalState Horticultural Protection Service; specialists of the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture; representatives of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the Farm Credit Adiministration, and the State Plant Board. Very constructive cooperation was received from Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated; the Florida Citrus Commission; the Florida Citrus Exchange; production managers of cooperative associations; and field representatives of fertilizer and insecticide companies.

PROBLEMS CONFRONTING INDUSTRY
The 'primary problem of the Florida citrus industry, which directly confronts the Extension Service, is to bring about still further reductions in the cost of producing citrus fruits so that they can be sold at a price within reach of more consumers in the low income groups and which will return to the producer some profit on production cost. At the same time the quality of the fruit, particularly the eating quality, must be maintained at a high consumer standard to further strengthen demand and increase consumption.
It is therefore imperative that every unnecessary expenditure in both production and marketing be eliminated, that the efficiency of every essential operation be maintained at the highest possible degree, and that a high consumer standard of quality be established and rigidly maintained in both production and marketing.

FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS
Four hundred records show that yield is the most important factor in determining net returns on production expenditures, as long as returns to the grower can be maintained at a level above cost of production. Yield and unit cost of production are largely determined by the fertilizing practice ond soil management.
Results of 21 demonstrations involving 480 acres impress the importance of using a completely balanced fertilizing program. In these demonstrations, where magnesium, zinc (on foliage or soil), copper and manganese were included in the fertilizing program as needed, average results, in comparison with comparable check groves in which these "secondary elements" were not added where needed, are summarized in Table 12.
TABLE 12.-RELATioN OF BALANCED FERTILIZER TO YIELD, PRODUCTION
COST, FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY*, AND PLANT FOOD APPLIED.
Yield Production Fertilizer Lbs. N, P205 &
Treatment per Acre I Cost per Box Efficiency I KO Applied
Boxes Cents Percent Per Acre
Secondary
elements
not added ill. 63 12 262

Secondary
elements
added . 172 41 18 270

*Percent of plant nutrients in the fertilizer recovered and removed by the crop.







Go Florida Cooperative Extension

Research 'points out that a higher degree of efficiency of the fertilizer applied can be obtained by maintaining the soil -reaction of the naturally acid soils within the range of PH 5.5 to 6.2. In 45 demonstration groves of 1,000 acres, in which the soil reaction was maintained within the range of PH 5.5 to 6.2 by the use of dolomite, average results in comparison with check groves in which the PH fell below the standard are given in Table 13.

TABLE 13-RELATION OF PH To FERTILMER EFFICIENCY, PLANT FOOD
APPLIED, YIELD AND PRODUCTION COST.
Fertilizer Lbs. N, P205 &I Yield I Production
Efficiency I K20 Applied I per Acre I Cost per Box
Percent Per Acre Boxes Cents
Range of PH
5.5 to 6.2 17 251 151 39
Range of PH
below 5.5 12 287 122 47


Soil acidity tests were made on 1,563 groves, representing 32,000 acres, and instructions were given growers for maintaining the desired PH.

EFFECTS FROM COVER CROPS
Effects of a definite cover crop program in the production of citrus are found in the records of 26 demonstration groves, summarized in Table 14. In these groves, involving a total of 590 acres, a continuous effort has been made to increase yield and net returns, and lower cost of production, by making full use of cover crops that produced the greatest tonnage of organic matter, and by maintaining the optimum PH for the cover crop.

TABLE 14-RELATION OF COVER CROP TO YIELD, PRODUCTION COST AND FERTiLizER EFFICIENCY.
Marketing Production Yield Fertilizer I Lbs. N, P.O. &
Year Cost per Box per Acre Efficiency I K O Applied
Cents Boxes Percent Per Acre

1936-37, AV. 56 108 9 339
1937-38, AV. 41 131 12 309
1938-39, AV. 32 215 16 380


CULTIVATION AND IRRIGATION
Forced economy in production is gradually correcting the evil of execssivecultivation. The limited operating budget presents the opportunity to im . press the facts of direct waste and ill effects of too much cultivation. In efficiency analysis of production operation it has been pointed out that high efficiency in -fertilizing will not tolerate excessive cultivation. Furthermore, nutrient deficiency diseases are aggravated by excessive or improper cultivation. These facts have been further established this year by 110 demonstrations in 20 counties, and have been emphasized in 81 news stories and radio talks.








Annual Report, 1939 61

Growers have been handicapped in equipping for grove irrigation because of low price of fruit. The portable irrigation plant developed and demonstrated by the Extension Service in 1934-35 has 'proved highly valuable to many growers during the droughts of the last two years. Six cooperative associations have built portable units and have irrigated the groves of many of their grower members. Seven commercial operations and grove caretakers have added to their equipment portable irrigation units and are doing custom irrigation.
Demands upon the Extension Service to assist growers with their
-irrigation problems have been very heavy during the past year. In addition o 201 growers assisted in purchasing irrigation equipment for 4,000 acres, 177 growers were assisted in making improvements in old plants to render them more adequate or to make possible their operation at lower cost.

MELANOSE, STEM-END ROT AND SCALE CONTROL
As fruit prices decline and the margin of difference in prices by grades narrows, profits on measures designed for melanose control primarily become questionable. Therefore preventive measures, which affect control of stem-end rot also, are being stressed in the whole culture program.
The fact has been forcefully emphasized in 57 demonstration groves, 1200 acres, that the most effective melanose control or prevention results from the cultural practices which promote high tree vitality, such as ample water supply, conservative cultivation, and adequate fertilization, including magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese. It is also noted that a cultural program thus maintained results in an appreciable control or prevention of stem-end rot.
Extension work on scale control emphasizes the economic importance of going back in the culture program and removing as far as possible the necessity for the practices which result in an increase in the scale population. It has been demonstrated that the preventive measures for melanose control, when carried out, greatly lessen the need for copper sprays; and that substituting for the sprays soil applications of copper, manganese, and in many instances zinc, removes dreaded causes of scale increase. Nine method demonstrations in the proper technique of applying oil sprays were conducted in six counties, and were attended by 166 growers. The oil sprays schedule of the "Better Fruit Program" was made available to all growers and about 9,000 copies were distributed.

CONTROL OF RUST MITE AND WRENCHING
It is nece sary to keep ever before growers improvements in rust mite control measures developed by research and to re-impress the fact that fruit is in danger of rust mite discoloration as long as it is on the tree. This has been done in 62 grower meetings in 20 counties, by radio, press articles, and grove visits. Spray and dust schedules have been distributed to more than 10,000 growers. In 19 demonstration groves an average saving of 1 cent a box on 57,000 boxes was realized on rust mite control by more careful timing of the applications of dusting sulfur and by using more material per tree at an application.
Wrenching, a zinc deficiency disease of citrus trees, has been a topic for discussion in 207 grower meetings in 26 counties during the year. Film slides in natural colors were projected in most instances, and every detail of the disease and corrective measures were discussed.
The fact that zinc has just as important a place in citrus tree nutrition as potash, phosphorus or nitrogen is brought out in the average results of 4 demonstration groves and summarized in Table 15. Results of these







Florida Cooperative Extension


groves were compared with the average of 14 comparable groves, receiving practically the same treatment, but with zinc deficiency untreated.
The cost of supplying the zinc needed was approximately 1/2 cent per box.

TABLE 15.-EFFECT OF ZINC DEFICIENCY ON YIELD, PRODUCTION COST AND FERTILMER EFFICIENCY.
Yield Production Fertilizer Lbs. N, M,, &
Treatments I per Acre I Cost per Box Efficiency I KO Applied
Boxes Cents Percent Per Acre

Zinc deficient 121 55 13 263
Zinc applied 167 40 20 236


BRONZE LEAF CONTROL
Bronze leaf is a foliage symptom of magnesium deficiency. To maintain an available supply of magnesium in the acid soils in the most economical and most practical manner, the soil 'pH must be maintained around 6.0. This can be done in the citrus grove most safely by the use of dolomite which at the same time supplies magnesium slowly. For correcting a deficiency of magnesium in an advanced stage and for supplying the nutrient on soils of a high pH, magnesium sulfate is used to supplement or replace dolomite. Thus it is seen that soil acid tests are essential in establishing a basis for proper treatment. During the year, 1,900 such tests were made in. 25 counties, representing 30,160 acres.
The importance of correcting magnesium deficiency, of maintaining the optimum soil reaction, and of maintaining an adequate supply of magnesium in the soil, may be seen in the records of 31 groves, summarized and averaged in Table 16. In 1935-36 all of these groves exhibited symptoms of magnesium deficiency in varying degrees and the soil pH was generally below the optimum. Dolomite was applied annually during the last three years, in rates of 500 to 1,000 pounds per acre, supplemented by the use of magnesium sulfate in a few instances of advanced degrees of deficiency. The total cost of supplying the magnesium and correcting soil acidity averaged $2.20 an acre per year.

TABLE 16.-Ti-iF INFLUENCE OF MAGNESIUM ON YIELD, PRODUCTION COST AND FERTILMER EFFICIENCY.
Marketing Yield Production I Fertilizer I Lbs. N, P O &
Yea per Acre Cost per Box Efficiency I KO Applied
Boxes Cents Percent Per Acre

1936-37 -------- 112 61 10 314
1937-38 . 131 52 13 285
1938-39 --- 219 31 19 326


MEETINGS, TOURS AND VISITS
Assistance has been given Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated, by speaking at meetings of growers' county units and in state meetings, on problems of production and marketing, also by working with the program







Annual Report, 1939


committees of community and county units, as well as the State organization, in preparing appropriate educational programs.
Much time has been devoted to attending meetings of directors and conferences with representatives of various organizations which have to do with the citrus industry in its different phases. In this manner the Extension Service has been drawn closer to the organized element of the industry.
During the year 297 educational meetings were held with growers in 24 counties. Eleven tours of growers were conducted to demonstrations and to experimental plots of the Citrus Experiment Station. A tour from one county was attended by 125 growers. Grove visits reported by farm agents numbered 2,369.
The fifth annual Growers' Institute -was held at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County, in early September. About 300 growers enrolled from 11 counties. Various phases of citrus production and marketing were discussed by representatives of the Extension Service, the Citrus Experiment Station, Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated, and commercial organizations.
The Citriculturist served on the advisory committee to the Better Fruit Committee of the Florida Citrus Commission. This advisory committee compiled the material and prepared for publication the spraying and dusting schedules of the Better Fruit Program for 1939. He made two trips to the markets, visiting principal cities in Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. The purpose was to obtain first hand information on dealer and consumer reaction to grades, sizes and processing treatments.






Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Farm Forester
Improvement of farm timber stands, marketing forest products, fire prevention in wooded areas, reforestation practices and activities with 4-H club members continued to be the main undertakings in this work.

TIMBER STANDS DEMONSTRATIONS
Sixteen method demonstration meetings were held in 16 northern Florida counties. These meetings were held in the woods where correct methods could be demonstrated on typical stands of farm timber. Advance publicity was provided by the county agents through newspaper articles and circular letters to farmers. Farm Security Administration county supervisors were invited to 'participate and to invite their clients. Vocational agricultural instructors and their students were also invited. Representatives of the Naval Stores Control Program, U. S. Forest Service, State Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, and Bureau of Chemistry and Engineering assisted the county agents and Extension Forester in conducting the demonstrations. Each of these agencies presented some feature of the program. Pulpwood cutting, pruning, turpentining (gum farming), improvement cutting, thinning, planting, and fire prevention methods were demonstrated. A form of round table discussion followed.
A total of 427 farmers attended the 16 farm forestry, demonstration meetings conducted in 16 different farm woods; 255 farmers and farm women attended four other meetings before which this subject was discussed. One hundred seventy 4-H club boys were given instruction in farm timber stand improvement work while at camp, and during the annual short course. Fifty members of civic clubs and 55 county agents received the benefit of some information on this subject. Upwards of 60 individual farm visits were made during which this was discussed and demonstrated. Altogether 1,017 persons were contacted with reference to farm timber stand im'provement work.
MARKETING FARM TIMBER
In addition to the 1,017 farmers and others receiving instruction in better marketing of farm timber, an additional 120 farmers in 29 counties were assisted in more conservative and advantageous cutting and marketing of their forest crops, making a total of 1,137 persons who received the benefit of this teaching program. It is reasonable to expect that many of these farmers will discuss the lessons learned with others, thus extending the effects of the educational work.
In the two adjoining counties of Lafayette and Suwannee farmers having stands of pine timber of turpentine size are, as a result of this educational program, organizing themselves into a two-county gum farming producers' unit, the firk of such enterprises in the State.

PREVENTION OF FIRES
Methods underwent something of a change in this field during the period, to give the work more aspects of the positive approach than had been presented formerly. Stress was placed on sundry phases of woods improvement that cannot be accomplished without protection against fires.
In addition to the 1,017 farmers, 4-H club members, and business men who attended the group meetings previously mentioned, and who received instruction in fire prevention along with other information, an additional






Annual Report, 1939 65

70 individual farm.visits were made by the Extension Forester in 21 counties during which advice and assistance in forest protection was given. Thus the total number of persons reached with a direct message on fire prevention was 1,087.
Upon request, an address on forest protection and conservation was prepared and delivered by the Extension Forester before the women's club of Dade City (Pasco County). Thirty-two members were present.

REFORESTATION ENDEAVORS
The need for reforestation of depleted and under-stocked timber stands was stressed in all group discussions and demonstration meetings with farmers, 4-H club members, county agents, and others. Areas of poor, steep, or wet lands unsuited for cultivation were pointed out, during farm visits, as desirable locations for farm forests. Ten method demonstrations in correct planting were given before groups of farmers in 10 different counties. Many individual farm demonstrations in proper planting were also given.
According to the county agents' annual reports, farm forestry work was included as part of the county agent's program of work in 22 counties. Although it is known that more forest trees were planted in other counties which are not reported, eight counties reported that 1,247,300 trees were planted with the assistance of county agents. Although not all farms planting forest trees were listed, the reports showed 1,838 acres were planted on 85 farms.
Counties in which outstanding results in forest tree planting were secured are Walton, Jackson, Liberty, Union, Suwannee, Wakulla, DeSoto, and Polk.
FORESTRY IN 4-H CLUBS
Assistance was given in setting up the 4-H- club forestry educational exhibit at the Lake County Fair in Eustis.
A class containing 23 advanced 4-11 club boys received special instruction from the Extension Forester during the annual short course at the University of Florida.
Lecture-demonstrations during the Short Course for Girls at Florida State College for Women were attended by about 450 4-H club members.
Two weeks spent in teaching forestry at Camp McQuarrie reached a total of 189 youths.
In a group meeting at Lake City, with the agricultural agents from nine counties present, plans were developed for 4-H club forestry work in northeastern Florida.
Forestry clubs in the Lake County 4-11 club organization were addressed twice, about 45 members having turned out on these occasions.
All told, the Extension forestry program was presented to 707 young people during 1939.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART III-WOMEN'S AND


GIRLS' DEMONSTRATIONS

GENERAL HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent
Lucy Belle Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent
The ultimate objectives of the home demonstration program have changed little. To make use of the, resources of the farm, farm home and the community to) the end that family incomes may be increased; to'teach better practices and higher standards; to develop leadership among rural women and girls; and to improve family living and rural life are objectives which have constantly guided the trained workers and responsible home demonstration women and girls in program determination. Progress made in attainment of these general objectives is more or less intangible.
The most valuable results of an educational program cannot be tabulated. Brighter outlook, changes in attitude, improvements in family living, development of rural leadership, learning of skills and quality standards, are intangible results noted in all counties where home demonstration work is conducted. The inspirational value to others of the examples of enrolled girls and women is increasingly evident in'terms of better rural living. A greater development and use of the agricultural resources of the State can be traced directly to the instruction and guidance given to consumers in country and urban areas by home demonstration workers. The economic value of the home demonstration program can be only partially tabulated in terms of thrift in the home, actual increases in cash income and in wise conservation of food and health.

OBSERVANCE OF 25 YEARS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Anniversary of twenty-five years of home demonstration work in Florida was celebrated with special programs in each of the 37 organized counties. All the programs were scheduled to fall within a week or two of the anniversary date of the passing of the Smith-Lever Act and many of them were tied up with county-wide 4-H club achievement days. Men and women agents worked together in planning observation of this epochal event. Where Achievement Day programs were not held, the occasion was in the nature of a rally or picnic at which public spirited people joined with Extension workers to make the event one of significance. Each member of the State staff appeared on county programs on more than one occasion.
PERSONNEL
The personnel in home demonstration work consists of one state agent; three district agents; four specialists-in food conservation, nutrition, textiles and clothing, and home improvement; and 37 county home demonstration agents and three assistant agents employed in 36 counties. The work of the local Negro district agent and eight Negro county home demonstration agents is directed by the state home demonstration office. Men specialists located in Gainesville, particularly those dealing with poultry, dairying and editorial work, assist with the home demonstration program.







Annual Report, 1939 67

Selection and Employment of New Agents.-One of the big personnel problems this year has been selecting and employing new agents to fill vacancies. The requirement for completion of a four-year college course in home economics has been rigidly adhered to in employing new workers, but a second need is for assistant agents who can be given experience under the direction of capable agents and placed in counties as new positions open. Three assistants are now at work.
Continued training for home demonstration agents in service to enable them to keep abreast of the requirements expected of them is one of the greatest needs of home demonstration work. Stress of work in the counties makes it practically impossible for agents to do as much reading of professional literature as they would like, nor can arrangements be easily made to obtain extended leave for study. This need is partially met in Florida through work donewith subject-matter specialists in home demonstration work and agriculture, through short courses, and through district and state conferences of Extension workers.
Technical information relative to agricultural subjects prepared by Extension specialists, the State Plant Board and Experiment Station is sent' directly to home agents, who use it for reference. Studies done by other governmental and related agencies which come across the desk of the State Home Demonstration Agent are made available on request to the field staff.
If conditions in the counties are such that they can be away, agents are given opportunity to attend professional educational meetings in and out of the State, such as those of the Educational Association, Home Economics Association, and American Dietetic Association.
Additional professional training was made possible for all agents by
(1) one state conference, (2) four district conferences, and (3) four short courses. In addition, arrangements were made for two home demonstration agents to study for a shortperiod at Florida State College for Women and plans have been discussed and recommendations made for summer courses on agriculture for active and prospective agents.
Assistance in counties was increased. Full-time stenographers were secured in two counties; short-time assistance from State funds was given to 18 counties; small increases were made in budgets in 11 counties; new work rooms were secured in three counties, better office quarters in six.

IMPROVEMENT IN ORGANIZATION

Emphasis has been placed on the following points in 1939: (1) Clubs have been consolidated to save time and travel; (2) work has been planned to delegate all possible responsibilities to individuals or to other organizations; (3) special effort has been made to coordinate work of home demonstration agents and other governmental agencies to avoid duplication of effort; (4) long-time and immediate goals have been based on needs and determined by rural people; (5) 'plans for use of specialists' time have been improved, resulting in better service to counties, and in better coordination of all phases of the general home demonstration program. This -year every organized county in the State has received at least seven days"aid from specialists, and though no cash has been saved from reduced travel, there has been saving in time and individual effort; (6) emphasis on quality of work undertaken has resulted in increased demonstration value of all enterprises. Quality work is emulated. Exhibits, records and reports, of dernonstr, tions show- the improvement, and increased interest manifested in exhibits ofall sbrts reflects appreciation of the high standard attained.







68 Florida Cooperative Extension

PROGRAM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
Analysis of county needs with farm women and men thinking along with the workers has taken 'place in nine c ounties. 'Subsequent planning for a home demonstration program to meet these needs has included the same group.
Program planning and development has been participated in by women and girls through State and county councils in 32 counties. Farm women were named to membership on State and county land-use committees.
Home demonstration workers-have long made use of all available factual data in determining county programs. -Census figures, reports from the State Department of Agriculture, research -studies done on agriculture and related subjects, social studies, educational reports and our own Extension reports are sources used. However, it- has become apparent that we need to obtain more facts from farm people directly and through research for use in developing a practical program. In this connection all record books for individual demonstrators have been revised during the year with a view to unifying and as far as possible simplifying them. Committees of home agents have worked with state supervisors and specialists in these revisions.
IOne agent this year undertook a special study in her own county (Gadsden) to get factual data for- guidance in program making.
In determining programs the -objective always foremost is a program to serve all members of the family. To achieve this requires that men and women Extension agents plan together to dovetail all demonstrations and enterprises in the home and farm to one common need.
Analyzing county needs is undertaken in the individual counties and follows different procedures. Getting an expression of needs from farm families through community meetings held for the 'purpose is becoming a More prevalent custom. In all the organized counties it has long been customary for home demonstration agents to work with representatives of home demonstration clubs in county-wide council meetings to determine ,ind plan programs. At such times, the factual data referred to are reviewed together with current outlook material.
Program planning begins likewise in the county and represents the combined thinking of members of home demonstration club groups and the agent. Four important factors are considered in making plans: Correlation of all phases of home demonstration, work to fit family and community needs; special attention to be given to the phase which will receive, extra help from the specialist assigned to the county; 'planned assistance from specialists; coordination with other governmental service programs.
A foulr-year plan for the assignment of specialist assistance in the counties on a progressive schedule from year to year has made it possible for all counties to be served equitably and all agents receive the training and assistance needed. 'District agents and specialists now work with county home agents to determine and develop unified county programs before any specialist's work is begun.
This plan has developed a general recognition of the need for long-time, well tounded. county and State 'plans with immediate objectives set up from year to year. Th& program thus attained has steered away from overemphasis of any one phase-to the neglect of other important needs.
Program Development.-In developing-the program, use has been made of all Extension teaching methods and procedures, of the training of the, specialists, of the organized groups-of home demonstration women and girls, and of trained volunteer leadership.







Annual Report, 1939


Work of the specialists in program development is significant. They are responsible for four points in each of the counties assigned for special work: (1) to acquaint the county home agent with recent reliable subject matter information and efficient Extension methods-in short, train the agent professionally; (2) to help the agent develop efficient methods for carrying on the program by assisting her with work with individuals and with organized communities; (3) to assist the agent in training volunteer local leaders; (4) to aid the agent in the establishment of result demonstrations, both in individual homes and on a community-wide basis.
To further integrate the various phases of work into a well balanced program, the specialists agreed last year that their plans would emphasize:
(1) planning, (2) production, (3) conservation, and (4) utilization. Discussions at monthly state staff meetings and analysis of situations observed in the counties while on field trips helped to guide the work of all staff members.
In developing the 'program in the State, special effort has been made to establish outstanding demonstrations in the homes with accurate records so that others might be inspired to improve their own practices. Emphasis has also been put on improvement of quality on all work done. Club programs have been planned for continuity in the phase of work being emphasized in the county. Local leaders have been invaluable in program development, keeping behind demonstrations, 'prompting the work and assisting with method demonstrations at meetings, setting up exhibits, etc. Tours have proven most effective in stimulating interest in result demonstrations.

COUNCILS OF ROME DEMONSTRATION WORK FOR GIRLS AND WOMEN
County and State councils of home demonstration work, composed of representative rural women and girls, are important factors in making plans for unified programs, and also for training real leaders capable of assuming responsibility for carrying out these plans successfully. Four new county councils for women have been organized this year, making a total of 32. There are 31 county councils for girls in the State. Each council met quarterly and operated under a definite plan of work with specific goals adopted by the council members for the county. County programs followed recommendations of the State council for State-wide work as far as practicable.
Junior and senior State councils held a joint session for the first time during the 1939 State Short Course. At this time the junior council members stated their purposes and objectives, presented their program of work, and made a progress report of work being done in the counties. A significant result of this meeting has been the increased number of home demonstration women who have been inspired to volunteer for service as local leaders.
The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work provided loan scholarships for two former 4-11 club girls now in the College of Home Economics, Florida State College for Women. As a part of their scholarship program, the council helped to meet the expenses of other vmrthy college 4-H club members in attending the Rural Youth Conference.
The State Council has conducted for years a record book contest for county councils to interest the women in keeping a record of results of county council work and evaluating progress made. Seventeen books were submitted in 1939, and the Dade County Council received first honors.
Leadership training meetings held in every county by the home demonstration agents assisted by the specialists and district agents were attended








Florida Cooperative Extensiov.


by more than 3,300 leaders, girls and women. County and state councils held training meetings for local leaders so they might learn to serve more intelligently. The number of volunteer leaders increased considerably this year, indicating that the women realize their own responsibility for extending the home demonstration program.


Fig. 4-0ne county council of women's home demonstration work provided a rest room
at a state fair as a community service which was much appreciated.

The number of older 4-H club girls and former 4-H club girls serving as leaders is greater than last year, showing that the interest gained as girls in matters of rural living carries over into their mature life.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
Excellent relationships exist between home demonstration workers and representatives of other organizations in the State. Reports show that agents have cooperated with county health units, Farm Security Administration, Rural Electrification Administration, National Youth Administration, homemaking groups of Works Progress, Administration, child welfare units, women's clubs, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, parent-teacher groups, school principals, fair organizations, Florida Public Health Association, State Poultry Council, and Florida Beekeepers' Association.
In the counties where the REA has been developing lines, the home demonstration agents have done what they could to promote interest in the program, and have correlated the home demonstration program in home improvement to emphasize selection and use of electrical equipment.
A total of 411/2 days was devoted to cooperation with other agencies.
Former home demonstration agents served this year as chairmen of the Division of Home Demonstration and of the Department of American Home in the State Federation of Women's Clubs. County home demonstration agents were presidents of the State Dietetic Association and the State Home Economics Association.







Annual Report, 1939


School executives and teachers have given generous cooperation, recognizing the established place of home demonstration work in the educational program of the State. Home agents assist in furthering general educational programs in the counties and help specifically with such things as hot school lunch programs, cooperation with parent-teacher associations, beautifying the school grounds, etc.
The fine help given by the press of the state is appreciated and has enabled us to increase our service to many people.
Cooperation of County Boards.-County commissioners and county school boards showed their approval and continued support of the program of home demonstration work and their recognition that the work has grown during the year by increasing the financial budgets for the work in 11 counties. Three counties-Dade, Duval and Pinellas-provided sufficient funds for employing assistant home demonstration agents. New or improved offices were secured in six counties, new work rooms in three counties.

COOPERATION WITH THE NATIONAL FARM PROGRAM
The Federal Agricultural Adjustment Administration made provisions for men and women district supervisors of the Cotton States to attend a conference in Washington in February 1939 to which a representative was sent from this State. The purpose was to get basic information relative to: Training needed by Agricultural Adjustment Administration county personnel; work done by home agents and demonstration members toward better farm living; and the contribution which the Agricultural Adjustment Administration can make to farm problems. Throughout the year State and county home demonstration workers have 'put emphasis on the economic and educational value of this phase of the national program.
The State AAA Administrator appeared on State Council meeting programs and set forth the purpose and scope of this work. During the year similar programs have been given in the counties where home demonstration councils are organized. Home demonstration agents have made use of statistics available from Agricultural Adjustment Administration work sheets when determining program emphasis, as well as in program development.
Land-use planning has become a specific part of the county Extension organization in several Florida counties and in all the counties has given emphasis to the trend for analysis of county needs by trained workers and farm people working together.
The land-use program was presented to the members of the State Council of Home Demonstration Work at their annual meeting. The State home demonstration agent is a member of the State land-use committee and the three farm women members of the State committee are home demonstration women.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH 4-H GIRLS
Throughout this report the work of the 4-H girls and the adults has been discussed together because home demonstration supervisors are responsible for the development of plans of workfor both. County home demonstration agents devoted approximately one-third of their time to work with girls.
Enrollment.-Total enrollment of girls in 4-H club work increased this year and quality and scope of results improved greatly. Enrollment of girls by phases of home demonstration work is as follows: Gardening, 4,693; poultry, 1,395; foods and nutrition, 4,447; clothing, 8,697; home beautification, 1,762; home orchards, 571; dairying, 243; food conservation, 2,576;







Florida Cooperative Extension


home management, 1,181; house furnishings, 1,654; handicraft, 652; home health and sanitation, 2,573 girls.
The percentage of enrollment of the 10,664 girls by years in club work is as follows: First year, 43.10/; second, 24.9%; third, 14.21/o; fourth, 8.70/0; fifth, 5.111o; sixth or over, 4.16/o. In age groups 20 percent of the entire membership is at least 15 years old, indicating that rural girls are remaining as club members for longer periods or returning as members after dropping out for a time. One hundred older 4-H girls and former club members married or employed now serve as volunteer leaders for 4-11 girls' clubs; 42.750/, of all leaders for 4-H clubs are former club members.
Cooperation with Adult Programs.-Councils of senior home demonstration work actively sponsor 4-H club work for girls in the counties and in the State. All senior clubs devote at least one program each year to 4-H club work, presented by the girls. The senior clubs furnish many Short Course and camp scholarships. The State Council provides loan scholarships for club girls in college. The transition to membership in senior groups has come readily for mature 4-11 club members because of this intercxchange of interest and mutual understanding.
State Short Course. The State Short Course attended by 538 girls and leaders and all home demonstration agents continues to be the outstanding event of the 4-H club girl's year, and affects the year's program in 4-H club work probably more than any other event. All State year-round contests are headed up at this time; instruction is based on club requirements and projects. Council and club organization is taught. A popular innovation the past two years was the presentation of 4-H club girls as main speakers on the general assembly programs.
Too much praise cannot be given the assistance rendered the Short Course by the members of the College 4-H Club who remain after college closes to help with the Short Course and they in turn receive valuable training in organization of community work.
State Short Course scholarships are given by business men and women and civic organizations. Rotary, Kiwanis, Lions Clubs, Federated Clubs, P.-T. A., chambers of commerce, boards of county commissioners and school boards, as well as interested individuals provided most of the scholarships this year.
Camps.-Camps for 4-H girls really are county or district short courses. In most counties the "Short Course girls" assist with instruction of the younger girls and know when they come to Short Course that this will be their responsibility. The 2,400 girls and leaders attending these camps, over 500 girls at the State Short Course, and nearly 100 women who attended the Senior Home Demonstration Council meeting, all received special training fitted to relieve the agent of many details of the programs in the communities.
The number of encampments for women decreased this year. The decision to do this was made by the women to release more of the agent's time for other necessary work. Attendance at the girls' camps increased by 200.
The 134 Achievement Day programs and exhibits also served as a means of giving considerable useful information to the 47,266 people attending them.
Contests Contests as such do not give any cause for concern in our educational program in Florida because we do not establish any county or State contest which is not an integral part of the year's program. This year State-wide contests were conducted in poultry, canning, clothing, and nutrition. Awards are given to the State office by interested business organizations. A general plan is made and followed for all contests so







Annual Report, 1939


that all awards are given on approximately the same basis of work done and are commensurate in amount with effort expended and results achieved by the club members. Many girls are honored in each contest by featuring community and county winners rather than state winners only.
College 4-H Club.-This organization began its 14th year with the c.pening of the Florida State College for Women in September. Membership consists of approximately 100 girls who formerly were club members in the counties. Its purpose is to encourage other 4-H club girls to enter college; to develop an appreciative interest in college life; to promote the program of 4-H club work in the State; and above all, to give the members a greater appreciation and better understanding of their responsibilities and opportunities for improving rural living in Florida. The club develops a regular study program during the year. Its members participate actively in campus life and hold offices in other clubs and classes. One of their most valuable services is given during the annual 4-H Short Course and at county camps where they serve as group leaders or instructors for the younger girls. Four past members of this club now serve as agents or assistant agents in Florida and show the value of the training received in their 4-11 club work and this college club.
Rural Youth Conference.-For the second consecutive year the members of the College 4-H Club and the young men of the Agricultural Club of the University of Florida have jointly arranged a Rural Youth Conference which was held on the campus of the University. A week-end so spent provides a fine social experience for both the young men and women, acquaints them with the State educational institution, and contributes to their cultural development in college life. The conference 'program planned and carried out by the young people on the subject "Using Our Opportumties and Resources for Better Rural Living in Florida" has proved farreaching in its effect on the attitude of these young people regarding their responsibilities and opportunities.

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Recreational activities have received new impetus. Two recreational training camps were held for adult leaders, and 75 training meetings were conducted by community leaders. Libraries were started and improved, pageants and plays presented, and club houses or community centers were built.
The development of local leadership in rural communities, encouragement of family recreation and guidance in a program of community recreation was emphasized during the year. To this end:
75 training meetings were conducted for community leaders.
358 community groups were assisted with programs of activities.
185 communities developed recreation according to recommendations.
1,283 families followed recommendations as to home recreation.
95 community or county-wide pageants were presented. .
37 community houses, club houses or community rest rooms were established.
32 communities were assisted in providing library facilities.
52 4-11 club encampments were held with 1,631 club girls in attendance.
2 sectional recreational training camps for adult leaders were held through the cooperation of the National Recreation Association.

HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING
Industries developed affected individuals rather than community groups. Home products were standardized and assistance was given in securing







74 Florida Cooperative Extemion

markets and packaging marketable products. Roadside markets were operated by women and girls and many sales made by individuals.
Marketing.-The need for standardization of all marketable home products and establishment of standard prices as a means of increasing or supplementing the income has been emphasized by home demonstration workers for a good many years. During the past year agents have concentrated their eff orts on standardizing a few articles that could be made well at minimum cost of time and money. Native products and surplus food products have been featured. Recently developed State markets have given impetus to the marketing program already underway. The following results are reported:
803 4-11 club members received instruction in marketing.
946 individuals were assisted with marketing problems.
157 farmers were assisted in developing supplemental sources of income.
497 club members were assisted in standardizing products for market.
Products sold:
Fresh vegetables $ 24,657.22
Fresh fruits 6,904.87
Poultry and eggs 88,788.40
Dairy products 28,360.18
Food products 15,617.14
Canned goods 6,476.42
Miscellaneous 18,904.49

$189,708.72

HEALTH DEVELOPMENT
A positive health program was recognized as a necessity and was promoted by home demonstration agents, farm women and girls to the extent that:
2,583 4-11 club members were enrolled in special health projects.
1,799 4-H club members completed a special health demonstration.
4,353 4-H club members participated in some definite health improvement work.
3,630 4-H club members and others had health examinations on recommendations of extension workers.
5,343 individuals improved health habits.
3,794 individuals improved posture.
946 adopted better home-nursing procedure.
946 sanitary closets were installed.
1,143 families followed recommended methods of controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects.
12,835 individuals adopted recommended positive preventive measures to improve health.

POULTRY AND HOME DAIRYING
Encouragement of other productive phases resulted in 2,060 poultry demonstrators in the state who reported:
199,191 chickens raised in 1939.
1,712,767 dozen eggs produced at home.
211,504 dozen eggs used at home.
279,299 dozen eggs sold to supplement family income.
11,593 quarts of chicken canned for family food budget.







Annual Report, 1939


There were 5,209 home dairy demonstrators and they reported:
585 milk cows added during the year.
2,125 families used standard quota of milk daily.
1,133 homes adopted improved practices in home dairying.
21,998 pounds of surplus butter sold.

ACTIVITIES OF COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
County home demonstration agents with the help of State workers supervised definite programs in the counties. They developed county plans of work, as rural people indicated their -needs and desires, holding 6,714 meetings with an attendance of 236,373. They directed the activities of 1,157 volunteer leaders; held 8,741 method demonstration meetings with a total attendance of 162,229. They distributed 65,584 bulletins and carried on extensive correspondence, writing more than 29,900 personal letters and 1,866 circular letters.
Negro home demonstration agents directed 213 volunteer leaders; held 1,480 method demonstration meetings with an attendance of 26,355; distributed 3,761 bulletins; wrote 2,688 individual and 138 circular letters.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH NEGROES
The number of Negro agents remains the same but the quality of work done improved noticeably. The Negro district agent, guided by the State agent, gives close supervision to the counties. An annual conference and a Short Course attended by 309 girls served as training meetings. The Negro agents assisted with a series of one-day farm and home institutes for Negro farm leaders from 47 counties to secure important data on farm living in Florida.
The 1939 program was planned around the theme, "Supplying the. Needs of Florida's Rural Negroes," with foremost aims of supplying the Negro family with adequate food, shelter and clothing. Other major problems worked on during the year were home sanitation, healthful living, and home ownership.
There were 2,528 girls enrolled in 123 clubs; 1,446 women enrolled in 83 clubs. Negro agents report work directly with 2,853 Negro families of the 5,518 Negro farms reported in the 1935 census, or 51 percent. One-sixth of the entire enrollment of girls have been in club work more than four years; 2,441 of the 2,528 Negro club members are in school.
Progress was noted in the food conservation program for the year, which resulted in 35,502 quarts of food being canned by the homemakers and 4-H club girls. , A program for health and home sanitation received emphasis during the year with 193 families installing sanitary closets, 9r.,.outhouses, and 82 dwelling houses being screened.- From the records compiled, 2,463 Negro families improved health as a result of the health and sanitation program. Home marketing of garden, orchard, and farm produce together with handicraft resulted in cash sales amounting to $59,912.08 during the year. This money was spent largely for food, clothing and house furnishing.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Clarinet Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
Purpose of the clothing and textiles program is to assist rural women and girls in establishing in their homes demonstrations in careful planning, wise selection, skillful making and efficient care of clothing and textiles for the family and the home.
Rural women and girls learn much that is cultural as well as practical through participation in the clothing program. Artistic clothing and home furnishings offer the opportunity for development of self-expression and appreciation of beauty. Pride, satisfaction and self-assurance are qualities developed among both women and girls from presenting an attractive personal appearance.
With continued low cash income for Florida farmers, and clothing and textiles taking fourth place in the family pattern of spending, all economies are encouraged. The buying of ready-to-wear garments and articles on an increased scale has necessitated consumer education in the clothing and textile program. Wise selection is emphasized.
Of the 10,223 rural women and girls who received help in making clothing, the juniors made 31,543 articles, of which 7,198 were dresses. Although the trend is towards buying more ready-to-wear articles, home sewing continues to hold an important place, and the clothing work is among the most popular with 4-H club girls.

CORRELATION WITH OTHER PROGRAMS
A unified program for better family living is the goal of the Agricultural Extension Service, and the clothing and textiles work is correlated with other activities with this end in view. The clothing and textiles program contributes to better family relationships through a fair apportionment of the money available for clothing between members of the family, and through the pride and satisfaction engendered by being attractively dressed.
Home Management Taking inventories, making plans, and keeping accounts of expenditures and other features of wise home management are encouraged in all wardrobe and household textiles demonstrations. Selection and use of sewing equipment, apportionment of money to be spent on the wardrobes of members of the family, and efficient care of clothing and textiles also blend with home management.
Health.-Proper selection of shoes and undergarments is stressed as Important in developing correct posture and avoiding fatigue. Good grooming is used to emphasize the need for good health and food habits. Sanitation, protection from disease and control of body temperature and moisture are among the clothing factors which contribute to health.
A successful method demonstration on shoe selection was developed and presented to adult and older junior groups. It included a discussion of the health, aesthetic and economical aspects of footwear, and concluded with the group judging four pairs of shoes on display.
The use of more cotton continues to be a part of the clothing teaching for health as well as economy. Cotton use was encouraged in sewing courses, exhibits of new fabrics, finishes and costumes, -and in- consumer education through the study of fabrics.
Improvement in health and food habits has resulted from demonstrations in good grooming and the bodily measurements for pattern selection. Interest in the individual's physical condition was increased through 60 pattern alteration demonstrations.







Annual Report, 1939


Home Improvement The relationship of the clothing and textiles program to home improvement is expressed through home furnishings. Attractive and adequate textiles required for the various rooms of the home are constructed as one part of the 4-11 club girl's clothing work. Through the establishment of household textiles demonstrations in the home by women, further unity is added. Principles of art as learned in dress are applied successfully to home decoration.
The Farm.-Tbe clothing and textiles program bears a direct relationship to some of the agricultural programs. In the study of proper land use, specific information about clothing practices within the counties has been determined and used in program planning. Cotton, the principal textile used for Florida wear, is of prime import in the AAA program.

BEAUTY IN TEXTILES
The satisfaction which comes to the individual as a result of wearing artistic clothing and living in attractive surroundings justifies the time devoted to the aesthetics of the clothing program. The principles of color, line and design are learned and applied to everyday living by home demonstrati6n club members. In the 59 dress revues conducted this year both women and girls who modeled outfits which they had constructed, and those who, viewed them, learned effective methods of improving the artistic aspects of clothing.
Sixty-nine girls were chosen from the 725 modeling in 28 county revues for girls to represent their counties in the 13th annual State Dress Revue held during Short Course. A quarter century of clothing and textile work in Florida was featured in a simple pageant celebrating the Silver Anniversary of Extension work.
Clothing work by rural women and girls today expresses more careful planning through harmony in color design and texture. This is partly a result of 38,345 individuals receiving help in clothing selection during the past six years.

ECONOMY IN TEXTILES
Extending the farm income through economical clothing and textiles practices remains as important today as in the past. To improve further the management of the clothing dollar, skillful sewing and efficient care have been emphasized. Rural women and girls to the number of 946 received help from the Clothing Specialist in wardrobe planning, making an inventory, a three-year clothing plan, and keeping records.
Through this year's program 2,395 individuals have been assisted in keeping accounts of clothing expenditures, as compared with 1,822 last year. There was an increase of 203, to 1,148, in number of rural women and girls budgeting their clothing money. This year's savings resulting from the clothing program are estimated at $73,815.78, due in part at least to 2,068 families following clothing buying recommendations made by the agents.
The clothing program has had its part in increasing satisfactions obtained from cash spent on this essential item of family living. Helpful hints on buying household textiles have been prepared and distributed to club members. Information on buying wardrobe items has been included in a recent publication for junior members. Twenty exhibits of good and poor buys have been displayed, and 35 method demonstrations on better buying have been presented.
Clothing judging is another activity encouraged in the 4-H club girls' work. A clothing judging contest is conducted during Short Course to develop appreciation and judgment of clothing qualities.






78 Florida Cooperative Extemion

Construction continues to be an important feature of the work, since a saving is realized from home sewing._ Remodeling and renovating clothing continues to be an economical practice for rural families.

CARE OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Efficient care is essential to economical and artistic clothing. Since better cleaning and storage practices are urgently needed among rural families, all possible aids for developing this part of the program are employed. Improvement is being made gradually, as indicated by exhibits of better laundered clothing and increasing numbers and improvement of storage facilities.
Laundry demonstrations have received greater emphasis this year, particularly methods used with rayons and fine cottons.

A 4-H WINNER
Elsie May Knott of Volusia County was awarded the trip to the National Club Congress in Chicago as State clothing winner. In addition to her outstanding clothing work, Elsie May has conducted a well rounded program, including profitable canning and poultry demonstrations.







Annual Report, 1939


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist
The plan for food, nutrition and health work in Florida took into consideration the relationship that existed between all phases of family living and farm enterprises. The general program developed was based upon the needs of the people themselves, the physical, climatic, and economic conditions in the various farming areas. The plans were made using factual information and, through state, county, and community program planning conferences and councils, all activities were integrated in order that a unified program could be developed to meet the farm and home needs.
Through this cooperative planning it was possible to furnish interested farm people with reliable information and to assist them to recognize their own problems, and, in this way, to help them develop a program through their own efforts which met their individual and family needs and conditions.
The food, nutrition and health work for 1939 was a continuation of the fundamental program of planning, 'providing, conserving and utilizing the family food supply necessary to meet nutritional needs. No outstanding changes in the program were made but the plans were adapted to meet changing situations and the varying conditions of the individual farm families according to income levels and dietary needs of the different areas in the state.

PLANNING, PROVIDING AND UTILIZING FAMILY FOOD SUPPLY
Since food needs represent one of the primary demands made on the family income the goal for each farm family -was the production as far as practical of an adequate food supply. For the past five years women and girls have worked towards achieving this goal. Both the home location, the soil conditions, and the status of the family were considered in making the food supply plan.
It was recommended that each farm family plan, produce, and conserve the year's food supply based on nutritional requirements in order to safeguard the health of the family and to insure a satisfying distribution of the cash income to meet the needs and desires of the family. This included the live-at-home idea, every farm family to have dairy cows, year-round garden, calendar orchard, backyard poultry Rock, home produced meat supply, cereals, syrup, sugar, etc., where practical and possible.
This program also included the planning and wise buying of foods which could not be economically produced, as is very often the case in specialized farming areas. Since in these specialized areas the families are potential consumers rather than producers, emphasis was placed on wise buying, selection, preparat ' ion, and better use of the foods purchased. Demonstrations have been given and exhibits in wise buying of foods have been arranged by the Nutritionist and home demonstration agents. The home demonstration women following this work have made definite studies, collected, and discussed this information in groups.
A special effort was made this year to have a greater number of more adequate records from individual demonstrators. In some counties those who did not keep records were asked to write a story which included certain specific information.

FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING-ADULTS
It was recommended that each farm family appreciate the importance of standards in food selection, preparation and meal planning necessary








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li. 5HInle l Ia e IIIe IIII
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Fig. 5. Home gardens and canned products enable Florida farm woen to provide their families with adequate and nourishing foods.







Annual Report, 1939


for building and maintaining health, since utilizing the f oods that are produced is equally as important as their production. A garden of vegetables, a pantry of canned products, or a yard full of poultry cannot improve family health unless they are properly utilized. Demonstrations by the Nutritionist and home demonstration agents in food preparation and meal planning were given as means of leadership training in order to raise standards.

HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL NEEDS
It was recommended that each farm family have an understanding and appreciation of the outward signs of good health and nutrition and a knowledge of proper selection and preparation of foods necessary to growth and health. This was done through a physical check of individuals to determine physical needs other than food and by cooperation with other health agencies. Discussion and method demonstrations of factors necessary for good nutrition, including adequate food, preparation and uses of classes of food have been given to stimulate interest and build a background for'plannfng and providing the family food supply. Meetings were held at which club members appraised their family diets to see how they met the health needs of the family.

WORK WITH GIRLS
Special attention was given in the 4-H club program to helping the girls understand the necessity for farm and home cooperative planning, because the farm women of the future need to understand the parallel between animal nutrition and human nutrition, the relation of a balanced food supply to the health and prosperity of the farm fami ' ly, and the interdependence of farm and home management while they are still in the formative age.
HEALTHIMPROVEMENT
At the beginning of the demonstration each girl made a definite check on her posture, using a chart and score furnished by the agents to note necessary improvements and to list means for making these corrections. Another check was made at the end of the year to note improvements. Demonstrations in food selection, good posture, contests, both county and state, exhibits, etc., served as means of motivation and teaching. Often younger club girls enroll in this demonstration and continue it through their club work in coordination with other demonstrations.
Splendid cooperation of other agencies such as school nurse, county nurse, county health units and civic clubs has greatly assisted this dernonstration. Through this work very often the entire family realizes the need for positive health.

FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING-GIRLS
In addition to continuing the health improvement and posture work this demonstration included selection and preparation of foods, meal planning, and table service. Activities included individual and team food preparation demonstrations, judging of products, making recipe files, food scrapbooks and exhibits.
As a means of stimulating and motivating this program, community, county, and state food preparation contests were conducted. These were natural developments within the program and not unrelated activities. At the annual Short Cours, the five girls scoring highest in the State food







Florida Cooperative Extension


preparation contest continued their work and added to their demonstrations and records during the summer. From this group one girl was selected to represent Florida at the National 4-H Club Congress. This year Catherine Barnes of St. Johns County won this out-of-state trip and was one of four regional winners of $400 scholarships.

BAKING AND JUDGING BAKED PRODUCTS
This demonstration was planned for girls who have completed at least three years of food preparation work and are at least 14 years old. It is a continuation of the health improvement, food preparation and meal planning demonstrations and the activities are somewhat similar. Girls satisfactorily completing at least three years' requirements are eligible to participate in bread baking and judging contest which offers an out-ofstate trip.
THE YOUNG HOMEMAKER
The needs and interests of the older 4-H club girls are planned for in this demonstration. Some of the activities are assisting with the family food supply demonstration, planning parties, entertaining, assisting with younger members of the family and self-iniprovement.

SUMMARY OF STATISTICAL REPORT
All counties participated in the feeding the family and healthy living programs. In each of the intensive counties demonstrations were established. Each community is working on at least two of the feeding the family programs. Each county entered at least one girl in each of the four phases of the food, nutrition and health work at 4-H Club Short Course and all counties included some of this work at 4-H club camps.
I During 1939 club women adopted improved practices in food preparation:
a. baking, 1,629 women in 34 counties; b. meat cookery, 1,379 women in 29 counties; c. vegetable cookery, 2,793 women in 33 counties; d. dairy products, 1,887 women in 31 counties; e. poultry products, 1,502 women in 29 counties. Also 5,522 families served better balanced meals in 35 counties; 2,464 families improved home packed lunches according to recommendations in 34 counties; 146 schools followed recommendations for hot dish or school lunches in 23 counties; 1,0 98 families followed recommended methods of child feeding in 34 counties; 1,128 families planned family food budgets for year in 32 counties; 2,296 families followed food buying recommendations in 28 counties; 1,878 families followed recommendations for storage of home food supply in 31 counties; 2,578 families assisted in using timely economic information as basis for re-adjusting the family food supply in 32 counties; 4,359 individuals improved health habits according to recommendations in 32 counties; 1,789 individuals adopted recommendations for corrective feeding in 30 counties; 2,721 individuals improved posture according to recommendations in 27 counties; 12,835 individuals adopted recommendations for positive preventive means to improve health in 31 counties; 779 families adopted better home nursing methods in 24 counties.
Statistics for juniors reveal that 4,447 4-H club girls enrolled in 36 counties; 3,164 4-H club members completed in 36 counties. Dishes of food products prepared 65,932 in 35 counties; meals planned and served 22,128 in 35 counties; 494 4-H club girls from 37 counties attended method demonstrations in the healthy living program at Short Course.







Annual Report, 1939


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation
I
Statistics and all other recent factual information show that the large. majority of the Florida farm families do not have the supply of fruits and vegetables, meats and fishery products that soil, climate and unusually fine water resources warrant and which optimum health requires. In order that the farm family have a more balanced and healthful year-round food supply, the promotion of all-year gardens, permanent and varied fruit and berry plantings and their adequate cultivation, and the preparation and conservation of the surplus products according to the latest canning methods have received in 1939, as in past years, the active support of the Economist in Food Conservation. For what shall it profit the farm family to gain from cash crops and lose it all in having to purchase needed foods and feeds at prices far above what it would have cost the family to produce them?

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
Promotionof all-year gardens, permanent fruit plantings adapted to the varied soil and climatic conditions and areas, and their improved cultivation compose a large part of the program of the Economist in Food Conservation, since preparation and utilization can follow only where there is production.
All agents endeavor to interest farm women and girls in extending the gardens throughout the year and in establishing calendar orchards -wherever soil and other conditions permit, realizing as they do the urgent and fundamental need for more home produced fruits and vegetables in the diet.
Records submitted on gardening activities for the current year show 36 counties reporting 3,888 year-round gardens planted, with a cash valuation of $24,657.22 for vegetables sold, and 781 homes growing new vegetables.
THE FLORIDA CALENDAR ORCHARD
The home fruit supply from year to year, so records show, with the desire for general improvement of the home surroundings and development of a better rounded diet, slowly takes on more adequate proportions. Likewise, records show how the orchard directly and indirectly makes a contribution to the family income. However, the fact remains that hundreds of homes in Florida have no fruit except that which is purchased, or at the best, there is a great lack of variety. The need for more fruit plantings and more variety is still being convincingly demonstrated when working on the canning budget. The problem of increasing the family fruit supply is necessarily a long-time objective. In the northern and western counties the fig, peach, pear, plum, persimmon, pecan, muscadine and bunch grapes, blueberries, strawberries, youngberries and other berries grow with very little persuasion. The satsuma, the kumquat, the Thomasville citrange, the quincadoni, and in some counties a fine summer apple, thrive if given fair treatment. In southern Florida in addition to the wonderful variety of citrus fruits, there is the marvelous mango, avocado, papaya, surinam cherry, and many other economic ornamentals that grow well usually with but little attention.
Records show that 548 calendar orchards have been planted. These plantings include 24,092 fruit trees, 36,028 berry vines, and 5,053 grapevines. Fresh fruit having a cash valuation of $6,904.87 was sold from 447 homes.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD CONSERVATION
While food conservation ever stands out as a major activity of interest and importance in the farm home, and reports show progress made, it requires a continuous campaign to convince the average woman of the fact that canning should be done scientifically. Only by the use of fine i fresh products, canned by the latest methods known, can be achieved quality canned products of high nutritive value. Striving to bring about a quality consciousness has also been the aim of all home demonstration agents.
GIRLS' CANNING PROGRAM
There were 2,567 4-H club girls enrolled in canning during the current year,'and they reported 105,191 containers filled.
As with the gardening requirements for girls, the canning is also set up for a logical development into the budgeted and canned family food supply. A new canning guide and record book for the younger girls was published in June. This leaflet contains detailed directions for canning berries and tomatoes as called for in the First Canning Demonstration. It also includes directions for making simple "spreads" and relishes which appeal, perhaps, more to the younger club girl than does plain canning.

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS BY GIRLS
There were 4,693 girls enrolled in gardening in 1939 and 2,803 were reported as completing the demonstration. 'The Garden Record Book with its suggestions for fruit plantings and vegetables for the beginning year is included with other instructional material for club girls. It is seen that the girls' gardening demonstrations lead on to the time when they will be enrolled in the women's program and assist with the planning and care of the home garden and calendar orchard.

MISCELLANEOUS
From a demonstration in wreath making given to the home demonstration agents some 10 years ago, wreath making in many varied and interesting forms has become very popular. County-wide annual wreath festivals for special days have been made stimulating, instructive and remunerative. The highly attractive foliage of tropical and other plants is used along with fruit, berries and many interesting kinds of seedpods. . . In one county the wreaths were labeled with the name of the plants used in their construction. These wreaths not only presented seasonal exhibits which taught many people in a beautiful way to send special Christmas and other greetings, but served to create interest in plant material in a most unusual way. Wreaths are made for decoration at h , ome. and for the cemeteries as well as for sale. One 4-11 club girl reported selling $5 worth to friends.
This yRar 293 individuals are reported making specific plantings for Christmas wreaths in IS counties.
,The "county" flower demonstration is another project which began to develop along with wreath making as a means of adding more interest and color to.the prosaic vegetable garden demonstration. , The county flower most. popular in the state has been the zinnia, followed closely by the marigold and the petunia. One county this year held their 12th annual zinnia show. Every variety was suitably and beautifully featured
The county lower was reported growing in 3,370 homes in 27 counties. In 19 counties 2,908 individuals report encouraging the growth of an







Annual Report, 1939


annual, and 19 counties report 1,909 individuals being interested in the growth of a perennial county flower.
It is felt that the beautification work needed all over Florida could be greatly extended if every club home in every county planted generously their adopted annual and perennial flower.
The fifth competitive educational exhibit of citrus by-products was set up at the Florida Orange Festival in Winter Haven located in the heart of the citrus industry. This exhibit consisted of canned grapefruit, marmalades, preserves, spiced pickles, crystallized citron of commerce, kumquats, calamondins, tangelos, tangerines, Seville oranges and baked products such .s citrus pastries, cakes and cookies.
Well made citrus products are always highly colorful, spectacular and attract considerable attention. Eighteen counties of the citrus growing areas and individuals from 21 counties sent in choice exhibits. The beautiful display featuring a wide variety of Florida's citrus fruits in all their many delectable ways of serving tends to do much to bring about a greater appreciation of their many healthful and delightful uses. The exhibit is instructive not only for Florida's own folk, but also for the many winter visitors in the State.
The valuable experience gained in the preparation of the products for the Orange Festival may be a means of increasing the cash income by marketing those preserves and baked goods at other times. In addition, Florida housewives and others may be encouraged to include these healthful fruits, and fruit products more generally in the diets of their own families.


Fig. 6-Home demonstration women are Lrivinv more attention to planning the year's food
supply for their families. Exhibits at fairs call attention to this work.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement

Extension home improvement activities had their usefulness further broadened during 1939 by the house building and furnishing which Florida farm families found they could do with aid from sundry federal agencies. Farmers whose houses are up-to-date, kept in repair, given paint when needed, and furnished tastefully have a better standing with bankers and business men than their less progressive neighbors. ,
In home improvement work thinking and planning are of first importance; action follows a good plan. Tours, working bees, magazines with good exterior beautification plans, and good house plans with interior decorations were used by the agents in stimulating interest and crystallizing thought. During Better Homes Week home demonstration -clubs cooperated with local merchants in displaying certain items and also by having exhibits on the subjects which were stressed in the county, such as health, comfort, beauty, and convenience.

IMPROVING THE HOUSE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS
County Home Demonstration Agents and the Home Improvement Specialist gave attention to the improvement of both homes and their surroundings. They helped in the remodeling of old houses and the building of new homes; in improving the architecture of the house to suit the countryside, with thought given to health and comfort and conveniences for the family. Also, consideration is given to the placing of the house so that prevailing winds may reach the bedrooms, and large windows are built to let in the Florida sunshine as well as air.
Home Demonstration Agents for many years have encouraged and aided rural families in remodeling their homes. This work has shown rapid advances during the past year, as a result of small loans for the purpose made by the Federal Housing Administration. The same agency is encouraging the erection of new farm homes.
More thought is being given to natural and artificial lighting as related to the health of the homemaker. Many home demonstration women have cut windows in the kitchen so that the women do not have to work in their own light and so that a current of air can be furnished. Insulating houses to keep out heat or cold, dampness and sound is encouraged.
In the surroundings of the house, home sanitation is the first point of attack because of its relation to health. Screening, filling in low places, and oiling stagnant streams, lakes or pools where mosquitoes breed have been consistently recommended by Extension workers as well as public health authorities. Many times these things have been done on a community basis for greater effect.
Farm folks are better citizens because they have good health and comfortable surroundings, which constitute the underlying motive for all Extension home improvement undertakings.
Following the establishing of desirable homes and provision for adequate sanitation comes beautification of home grounds, or exterior home improvement. In this, emphasis has been placed on the use of native shrubbery and other materials. Plans and suggestions for 'planting home and school grounds furnished by the College of Agriculture and the U. S. Department of Agriculture have been of valuable assistance to the agents in this connection.







Annual Report, 1939


ELECTRIFICATION ADVANCES
Where 10 years ago electricity, except that supplied by home power plants, was a rarity in rural Florida, now it is noticeable in many areas. Since 1937, encouraged by the Rural Electrification Administration, at least five different cooperatives have made the "juice" available to customers along hundreds of miles of rural lines in many counties.
Because home demonstration women have become interested in and talked electricity, the advance during the past two years has been noticeable. There has been an awakening to the need of electricity, running water, more adequate storage space, baths, indoor toilets, and making working surfaces the proper height. All of these things tend to lighten the load carried by rural women and give them more time for cultural things, their families, their communities, and recreation.
Business principles are being increasingly applied to home-making activities. Good equipment is appealing to those who can make wise investments in equipment which saves labor, time and money. Since rural electrification has made such rapid strides, electric pumps in large numbers are being installed to provide running water in rural homes. The sunshine water heater is another valuable asset becoming more widely used in Florida homes.
JUNIOR HOME IMPROVEMENT
Girls were still embarked upon the four-year program of definitely planned home improvement. In the first year emphasis is laid on the various chores each girl should do around the home in the best possible manner, such as washing dishes, setting the table, making a bed, and properly cleaning a room. After learning pointers on these at their club meetings and from literature, the girls are required to practice them in their homes until they become habits. In this way it is hoped to give the girls a start towards developing a fine art of homemaking.
In the second year emphasis is put on the outside of the house. The girls improve the porch and its furnishing% and make foundation plantings around their own homes.
First requirement of the third year is a drawing of the yard as it is and another plan of what it can and should be. This brings about a fine family relationship where all members of the family work together in the planning. A green yard usually is the first visual demonstration. Then come steppingstones or walks, which in many cases have been made by the girls.
The fourth year the girls may choose a room in the home to be improved. Usually the living room or the kitchen is selected. First considered are floors and walls, then come furniture rejuvenation and the making of thrift furniture, and lastly wise and thrifty buyingof furniture and furnishings is stressed. This home improvement work is coordinated with sewing in making dish cloths, dish towels, table mats, table cloths and napkins, curtains, rugs, porch pillows, chair backs and cushions, table runners, and similar materials.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART IV-NEGRO EXTENSION


WORK

ACTIVITIES WITH NEGRO FARMERS A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
Nine local farm agents served 10 counties during the year. Home agents were assigned in four additional counties.

DISTRICT, STATE AND NATIONAL MEETINGS
Annual conference of agents and farmers took place December 6 to 8, 1938, at the Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee. In March 1939 an Agricultural Adjustment Act conference was held at the same institution, attended by agents representing 12 counties.
Boys' and girls' 4-H club 21st annual Short Course occupied the first week of June at the A. and M. College, bringing out 14 agents, 31 adult leaders, 111 club boys and 153 girls.
District farm and home institutes held for the fourth year during August, September and October in one-day meetings at eight centrally located places assembled 1,350 farm men and women.
Cotton allotment and referendum matters were discussed in another conference with Agricultural Adjustment Administration officials, which convened at the A. and M. College November 13.
Florida was represented at the National Conference of Farm Agents, Vocational Teachers and farmers, in Washington, D. C., October 12 to 14, for study of the problems confronting the rural Negroes of the cotton belt.

FAIRS AND EXHIBITS
Negro farm agents in seven counties put on an exhibition at the Florida Fair, Tampa, during February 1939. Boys' 4-H club work was specially stressed.
Space in the Florida Exhibit at the New York World's Fair was made available to Negro citizens and a variety of products and materials was shown.
PROJECT ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Typical were the results in Alachua County when one farmer in each of 45 communities was selected to plant five acres of soil-improving crops during the fall of 1938, to be plowed under and followed with corn in the spring of 1939. Records kept disclosed that 6,041 bushels of corn came from the 225 acres, or better than 26 bushels per acre.
Local county agents spent 31 days in 64 communities and received assistance from 84 voluntary leaders in furthering fall and winter grazing crops.
Sea Island cotton raising was fostered by the Leon County local agent.
Method demonstrations were repeatedly given in the flue-cured tobacco counties and most Negro farmers had more leaf to sell this year.
In Gadsden County 15 farmers grew a total of 31,500 pounds of sun tobacco under contract and received $4,252.50 or an average of 131/2c per pound. Thirty-six Alachua County farmers grew 68,127 pounds of bright







Annual Report, 1939


tobacco which was sold on the open market for a total of $10,211.68. Fifteen Sumter County farmers received $4,501.52 for their tobacco crop.
Truck crops production was assisted by the Sumter and Alachua local farm agents. Sumter County truck growers realized $14,045.06 for their cucumbers, $12,032.00 for tomatoes, $10,049.03 for strawberries, $2,030.03 for beans and $10,042.98 for watermelons. Alachua County truck growers realized $23,798.06 for their beans, cucumbers and squash.
Eight agents carried on work in 152 communities for improved home gardens among Negro farmers.
Local county agents spent 125 days assisting farmers in nine counties with their pork production.
Dairying received special attention in several counties. Sixty milk cows in Jefferson County are returning their owners an average of $270.00 monthly from the sale of milk to a cheese company at Thomasville. The skimmed milk is afterwards returned to the farmers free of charge. Leon County farmers are also receiving a substantial cash income from the sale of milk to the same company. George Philpot, a farmer of Hamilton County, operates the only Negro dairy we have record of in the State. During the year he maintained a herd of 12 Jersey cows and sold 6,000 gallons of whole milk, 4,800 gallons of skimmed milk, and 200 pounds of butter for a total of $3,460.00. After deducting $1,266.00 for feed and $848.00 for labor, Philpot had a profit of $1,346.00.
In nine counties 123 days were devoted by eight local farm agents to poultry flock improvement. According to the Alachua County agent, Haynes Brooks of Arredonda community operates a small poultry farm with 450 birds. This farmer supports his wife and five children from this flock. Brooks sold $742.51 worth of poultry and eggs.

I SWEET POTATOES AND SUGARCANE
In its third season, the four-year plan for demonstrating sweet potatoes and sugarcane as safe cash crops for small farmers had some noteworthy developments.
Study of the out-of-State market for these products, begun at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1938 by a Florida Farmers' Cooperative Association representative, was continued through the current 'period.
Sugarcane syrup made by Negro farmers in Florida has been introduced into 110 Cleveland retail grocery stores during the two years, the Association representative giving out samples in his house-to-house canvassing.
Fifty thousand certified Puerto Rico plants were ordered from the Louisiana Sweet Potato Growers' Association and taken through the local farm agents by farmers in several northern Florida sections.
Bankers and business men became interested in the possibilities of sweet potato growing as advocated by the Extension Service workers. Cashier P. B. McDougall of the Lewis State Bank, Tallahassee, donated 1,000 of the Louisiana plants to each of two Leon County Negro 4-H club boys.
The report of John Mizell of Jasper, Hamilton County, is used as showing the most outstanding result with the sugarcane and sweet potato crops the past year. Mizell reported having made a net profit on his 10 acres of sugarcane and four acres of sweet potatoes totaling $1,456.75. The report of Mizell could be verified by the fact that he received $226.00 net profit from his second carload of chewing sugarcane shipped to Detroit, Michigan, grown on three-fourths of one acre. He made and marketed 450 gallons of syrup which he sold at 50c per gallon and has 75,000







Florida Cooperative Extension


stalks of seed sugarcane banked for sale from which he expects to receive $10.00 per thousand stalks. He has a record of saving 95 percent of his sweet potatoes banked and only offers them for sale when the price ranges are from $1.25 to $1.50 per bushel. His average yield of sweet potatoes the past year was 225 bushels 'per acre despite the unfavorable climatic conditions for that crop.

WORK OF BOYS' 4-H CLUBS
Boys' 4-H clubs among Florida Negroes enrolled 1,906 members this year, 1,097 of the number completing their projects.
Corn projects were started by 862 boys and finished in 480 instances. Jefferson County boys averaged 45% bushels to the acre.
Sixty 4-H club boys enrolled for cotton projects, with 35 completing them. Sea Island cotton was planted by 17 Alachua County members, 14 of whom completed their projects.
Peanut projects enrolled 319 boys, 122 completing theirs. Six Sumter County members raised 13,100 pounds of the Florida Runner variety on eight acres. Adult farmers bought their crops at 75c per bushel.
A total of 183 boys enrolled for the poultry projects, and they were completed by 76, with 52,784 birds. Girls' club members have heretofore shown the greatest interest in this project but the local farm. agents report that boys are rapidly taking it up.
Home and market garden projects were enrolled in by 223 boys, 110 completing. In the swine project, 166 members enrolled and 118 completed their work. Leon County put on a pig contest, which ended with a show at the county fair.

CAMP AND ACHIEVEMENT DAYS
Next to the annual State Short Course for 4-H Club Boys and Girls, the boys' camps are regarded as the most important group events. Three were held during the year, with the total attendance of boys reaching 114. Leon, Gadsden and Alachua counties had encampments.
Achievement Day was celebrated in Alachua, Columbia, Hamilton, Jefferson and Leon counties. Altogether, 4,498 persons were present for the exercises.
Number of 4-H clubs in State 110
Number of 4-H club boys enrolled 1,906
Number of club members completing projects 1,097
Number of Achievement Days held 5
Total attendance at Achievement Days 4,498
Number of encampments 3
Total attendance at encampments 114
Number of tours conducted 7
Number attending tours .- 188







Annual Report, 1939


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Beulah S. Shute, Local District Home Demonstration Agent
Local home demonstration service during 1939 extended regularly into eight counties which have a high percentage of Negro population.
Supplying the needs of Florida rural Negroes was the central aim sought, provision of adequate food, shelter and clothing coming first. Home sanitation and healthful living, proper family relations, farm ownership and good citizenship were other objectives.
Supervisory programs aimed to obtain a more abundant life for rural Negro families. Harmony in farm homes was striven for, through improvement of the dwelling, the furnishings and the surroundings. Practices advocated would lead to the more effective use of time, income and energy.

PERSONNEL PROBLEMS
Phases of the plans were taken to 10 counties where agents were not working by the Local District Home Demonstration Agent, at different times during the 12 months.
Meetings called jointly by the State Agricultural Extension Service and the Federal Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the Annual Boys' and Girls' Short Course and the series of six one-day farm and home institutes furnished opportunities for giving agents further training.
County local home demonstration agents were encouraged by regular visits from the District Agent. Needs of individual farm families received study on these trips. Planning was done in advance that the endeavor might supply the demand for information and inspiration to the fullest possible extent.
FARM HOME UNDERTAKINGS
Progress was made on most of the projects that the program featured. Reports from the several counties giving the results in detail furnished ample evidence of accomplishments. In the State, 1,847 individuals made clothing for themselves and members of their families. 461 women planned and carried out family food budgets. Poultry products value at $9,406.55 were used in the home. There were 661 family cows owned and milked, and 385 club women improved their practices in home dairying.
A total of 35,502 quarts of food were canned by homemakers and 4-H club girls; this food was valued at $7,515.20. Better planned, more nutritious and more attractive meals are being served to Florida's rural Negro families as a result of food selection, meal planning and preparation. Improved practices in some 'phase of food preparation this year were made by 1,043 women, while 593 women served balanced meals. School children from '567 homes carried lunches that had been 'planned according to recommendations and in 680 homes methods in child feeding were improved.

CAMPS, PICNICS AND EXHIBITS
Camps carried on for from three days to a week each furnished instruction and amusement for Negro young people in four counties.
Picnics on a -neighborhood or county-wide basis were among the more popular community events in eight counties during the year.
Exhibits directed by Negro women and 4-H club girls were shown at the Florida Fair, Tampa, and the Strawberry Festival, Plant City. Displays of like nature appeared at county fairs and festivals in four places. Community exhibitions were put on in numerous instances.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' AND GIRLS' SHORT COURSE
The 21st Annual Boys' and Girls' State Short Course was held June 6-9 at the Florida A. and M. College. The total enrollment, 309 this gear, was less than the twoprevious years. This was due partly to the fact that the registration fee for each person attending was slightly higher, and to the fact also that a number of eligible 4-H club girls were finishing high school and had gone to other necessary expenses this season and were unable to finance their trip to Tallahassee.
Eight agents, 153 4-H club girls, and 27 leaders made a total of 187 girls and women in attendance at the Short Course.
The Contests held and their respective winners are as follows:


First Place
Song Contest Alachua County
Bedmaking Contest Gadsden County
Poultry Judging Madison County
Record Books Gadsden County


Second Place
Duval County Duval County Putnam County Marion County


Teams composed of two girls represented each county. No one team entered two contests; therefore, many more girls were able to participate in the contests and receive the value of this type of training.







Annual Report, 1939 93


STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)

GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Total days service rendered 4,587
Members in Extension associations or committees 590
Communities in which Negro Extension program has been
planned 232
Clubs or other groups organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 83
Members in such clubs or groups 1,446
4-H clubs 233
4-H club members enrolled 4,479
4-H club members completing 2,925
4-H club teams trained 86
Farm or home visits 6,911
Different farms or homes visited 3 432
Calls relating to Extension work 10,842
News articles or stories published and circular letters issued . 589 Letters written 7,399
Bulletins distributed 6,981
Extension exhibits 49
Meetings held 2,505
(Attendance 50,401
Achievement days and encampments 37
(Attendance 28,342
Homes and farms influenced by program 7,330
Homes with 4-H club members enrolled 2,042

CEREALS
Communities in which work was conducted 263
Result demonstrations conducted 56
Meetings held 91
New's stories published and circular letters issued 23
4-H club members enrolled --- . 1,090
4-H club members completing 695
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 941
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing . 13,828

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted 400
Result demonstrations conducted
Meetings held 80
News stories published and circular letters issued . 31 4-H club members enrolled 399
4-H club members completing 178
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing . 209 Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 5,256







94 Florida Cooperative Extension

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS

Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Others Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was conducted ---- 245 87 79
Result demonstrations conducted 29 12 13
Meetings held 57 34 56
News stories published and circular letters . 46 16 15
4-H club members enrolled 306 61 22
4-H club members completing 184 36 18
Acres in projects conducted by 4-11 members -_ 124.5 45 17
Yield of crops grown by 4-H members . ----------- 4,490 bu. 18,027 lb. 18,625 lb.

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted 767
Result demonstrations conducted 1,610
Meetings held 560
News stories published and circular letters issued 81
4-H club members enrolled 3,207
4-H club members completing 2,082
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing . 422 Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing . - . 5,058 Bu.

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted 120
Result demonstrations conducted 71
Meetings held 57
News stories published and circular letters issued 9
4-H club members enrolled 16
4-H club members completing 1
Terracing and drainage, farms 66
Acres 1,712
Land clearing practices 86
Acres 338
Better equipment practices 328
Buildings erected or improved 490

POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted 20,5
Result demonstrations conducted 379
Meetings held 198
News stories published and circular letters issued 43
4-H club members enrolled 753
4-H club members completing 531
Number units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 52,784
Families following better practices for poultry 3,917

DAIRY CATTLE BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted 402
Result demonstrations conducted 270
Meetings held 20 3
News stories published and circular letters issued 62
4-H club members enrolled 617
4-H club members completing 486
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 518







Annual Report, 1939


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Result demonstrations conducted 4
Meetings held 28
News stories published and circular letters issued . 43 Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments . 467 Families assisted in getting established 31
Individuals affected by marketing program 306
Organizations assisted with problems 140
Individuals assisted with problems 764
Value of products sold by association and individuals . $219"406.48 Value of supplies 'purchased by organizations and individuals . 51,226.05
FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted 299
Result demonstrations conducted . 896
Meetings held 391
News, stories published and circular letters issued 31
4-H club members enrolled 3,582
4-H club members completing 2,600
Families adopting improved food practices 7,366
Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school
lunch 34
Children involved 2,256
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs . . 419502 Value of products canned or otherwise preserved 7,609.12
CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted 121
Result demonstrations conducted 225
Meetings held 151
News stories published and circular letters issued 6
4-H club members enrolled 1,023
4-11 club members completing 935
Other 4-H club members who participated 670
Families adopting better child-devel6pment practices . __ . 2,329 Individuals participating in child-development program . 880 Children involved 1,542
CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted 150
Result demonstrations conducted 514
Meetings held 241
News stories published and circular letters issued 18
4-H club members enrolled 1,920
4-H club members completing 1,373
Articles made by 4-11 club members 5,076,
Individuals following better clothing practices 10,975
Savings due to clothing program $5,783.67
HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted 420
Result demonstrations conducted 1,131
Meetings held 338
News stories published and circular letters issued . 75 4-H club members enrolled 3,322
4-H club members completing 2,690
Units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing ---- 8,838 Families adopting iniproved home-management practices . 79735 Saving due to home-management program $5,518.20
Families making improvements in house furnishings . . 3,559 Savings due to home-furnishings program $3,045.00
Families following recommendations regarding handicraft . 891







96 Florida Cooperative Extension

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted 195
Result demonstrations conducted 582
Meetings held 213
News stories published and circular letters issued 31
4-H club members enrolled 2,177
4-11 club members completing 1,308
Individuals having health examinations 1,112
Other 4-H club members who participated 740
Individuals adopting better health habits 5,712
Families adopting better health habits 1,909

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Meetings held 282
News stories published and circular letters issued 102
Communities assisted with community problems 494
Training meetings conducted for community leaders . 83 Families following recommendations as to home recreation . 441 4-H clubs engaging in community activities 67
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other
relief agency 201







Annual Report, 1939


INDEX


College 4-H club, 10, 73 Community work, 73 Cooperation with State Institutions, 9 Cooperative council, 31 Corn, peanuts and velvet beans, 32 Cotton marketing quotas, 22
Sea Island, 35, 88
seed tests, upland, 35
Councils of girls and women, 69 County agent activities, 24 County and home demonstration
agents, 5
Cover crops, citrus, 60 Crop rotation, 32 Culling poultry, 47

Dairying, report, 41 Dairy breed clubs, 42
demonstration team, 58
farm accounts, 27
f feeding, 41
herd improvement, 42
home, 74 sales, 42
work, home, 41
Director and Vice-Director, report
of, 7

Economics, agricultural, 26 Economic outlook information, 28 Editorial and mailing report, 17 Egg-Laying Test, Florida National,
44
Electrification advances, 87

Farm accounts, 27 Farm forestry report, 64 Farm management, 26 Farm record books, 27 Fat Stock Show and Sale, 39 Feed prices, poultry, 44 Fertilizer demonstration, citrus, 59 Financial statement, 12 Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., 29, 62 Florida National Egg-Laying Test,
. 44
Food conservation, 83, 84 Food, nutrition and health, 79
preparation and meal planning, 79,
81
Forage demonstrations, 41 Forage and hay crops, 33 Forestry clubs, 65
fire protection, 64
marketing farm timber, 64


Acreage allotments, 21 Agents' activities, 11, 75 Agents, county and home demonstration, 5
Negro, 6
Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 6, 71
Agricultural Conservation, assistants in, 6
report, 21
Agricultural economics report, 26 Agronomy report, 32 Animal husbandry report, 37 Anniversary programs, 19, 66 Associations, poultry, 48

Baking, 82 Bankers' scholarships, 57 Beef cattle, 37 Board of Control, State, 2, 4 Boys' 4-H club work, 10, 50
contributors to, 58
Negro, 90
State Short Course, 57 Bronze leaf control, 62 Bulletins and circulars, 17 Bull 'pens, 43
Calendar flock records, 47
orchard, 83
Camps, club, 10, 52, 57, 72, 90, 91 Canning, 84, 91 Cattle, beef, 37
clubs, 42 sales, 42 sheds, 43
Citrus, bronze leaf control, 62
costs, 26
cover crops, 60 cultivation, 60
fertilizer demonstrations, 59
wrenching, 61
fruit culture, report, 59 grove management, 26
Growers' Institute, 63
irrigation, 60 marketing, 29
melanose control, 61
rust mite, 61
scale control, 61 stem-end rot, 61
Clothing and textiles, 76, 78 Clovers, 34 Club camps, 10, 52, 57, 72 Club work, 10, 50, 65, 66, 72






Florida Cooperative Extension


reforestation, 65
timber stand demonstrations, 64 Wrenching, citrus, 61 Fruit supply, home, 83

Gardening, 83, 84 Girls' 4-H club work, 10, 66, 71
councils, 69
State College Club, 73 State Short Course, 72
Grades and standards work, 31 Grading tobacco, 36

Hay and forage crops, 33 Health development, 74, 79, 81 Herd management, cattle, 37 History of Extension Service in
Florida, 7
Hog prices, 30 Home demonstration councils, 69
handicraft, 84
planning, 69
report, 66
with 4-H club girls, 71
with Negroes, 75, 91 Home dairying, 74 Home improvement, 77, 86 Home meat curing, 40 Home products and industries, 74, 84

Industries, home, 74 Irrigation, citrus, 60

Land-use planning, 9, 28

Marketing agreements, 29
citrus, 29
farm timber, 64
home products, 74
livestock, 30
quotas, 22
specialist's report, 29
swine, 40
vegetables, 30 Meat curing, 40 Melanose, citrus, 61 Men's work, 24

National Poultry Improvement Plan,
49 .
Negro county and home demonstration agents, 6
extension work, 88
4-H clubs, 90
home demonstration work, 75, 91
statistical report, 93


Newspaper and farm journal service,
18
Nutrition, health and food, 79

Oats, 35
Organization and personnel, 67

Pasture development, 33
tours, 38, 43
Peanuts, corn and velvet beans, 32 Peanut spacing, 33 Potato study, Dade County, 27 Poultry associations, 48
calendar flock records, 47 culling demonstrations, 47
feed prices, 44
home flocks, 74
improvement, 47
Improvement Plan, National, 49
Institute, second annual, 47
keeping, report, 43 products prices, 44
State 4-11 Club show, 48 Price fixing, grapefruit, 29 Program planning, 68 Projects added during year, 9

Radio programs, 19 Record books, farm, 27 Reforestation, 65 Review of 1939 work, 8 Rural electrification advances, 87 Rust mite control, 61

Scale control, 61 Scholarship winners, 57 Sea Island cotton, 35 Shows, exhibits and contests, 56 Silos, 43
Silver Anniversary, 7, 19 Soil conservation district, 9 Spacing peanuts, 33 Staff members, 2 Statistical report, 12
Negro, 93
Steers for market, finishing, 38 Stem-end rot, citrus, 61 Sugarcane, 36, 89 Sweet potatoes, 36, 89 Swine production and marketing, 40

Terracing, 32 Textiles, 77
clothing and, 76, 78 Timber marketing, 64
stands, 64







Annual Report, 1939


Watermelon marketing control, 30 Women's councils, 69 Workstock on farms, 40 World's Poultry Congress, 48 Wreath making, 84 Writing training, 18
Youth conference, 73


Tobacco, flue-cured, 36, 88 marketing quotas, 23 Tours, 'pasture, 38, 43 Truck crops production, 89

Vegetable marketing, 30 Velvet beans, peanuts and corn, 32




Full Text

PAGE 1

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS (Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914) AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, Director SILVER ANNIVERSARY REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE 1939 REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1939 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1939

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS (Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914) AGRICULTURAL .EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, Director SILVER ANNIVERSARY REPORT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE 1939 REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1939 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1939

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BOARD OF CONTROL R. P. TERRY, Chairman, Miami THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland W. M. PALMER, Ocala H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Live Oak J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension! A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editorl JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editorl CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor 1 E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager! COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent A. E. DuNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist! HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultrymanl D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist! D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R.H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Asst. Economist, Farm Management RUBY BROWN, Asst. Home Economist R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist! COOPERATJVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent I Part-time.

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CONTENTS PAGE f.EPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR .......................................................... 7 Financial Statement .................................................................................... 12 Statistical Report .......................................................................................... 12 EDITORIAL AND MAILING ........................................................................................ 17 AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION .............................................................................. 21 COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES ....................................... ........................................ 24 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS .................................................................................... 26 Farm Management Activities .................................................................... 26 Land-Use Planning ...................................................................................... 28 Marketing ..................................... . ................................................................ 29 AGRONOMY ACCOMPLISHMENTS , ............................................................................ 32 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY ................................................ 37 Animal Husbandry ...................................................................................... 37 Dairying .......................................................................................................... 41 Poultry Keeping ........................................................................................... 43 BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK ..................... ..................................................................... 50 CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE .......................................................................................... 59 !•'ARM F0RESTRY .................................................................................................... 64 GENERAL HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ............................................................ 66 CLOTHING AND TEXTILES ............................. ........................................................ 76 FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH ............................................................................ 79 GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION ................................................................ 83 HOME IMPROVEMENT ........................................ ...................................................... 86 ACTIVITIES WITH NEGRO FARMERS ...................................................................... 88 NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ................................................................ 91 Negro Statistical Report .............................................................................. 93 [ 3]

PAGE 5

Hon. Fred P. Cone, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida Sm: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricul tural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1939, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1939. Respectfully, R. P. TERRY, Chairman, Board of Control Hon. R. P. Terry, Chairman, Board of Control SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS Ala c hua ... ... ... . ...... .. . .. Fred L. Craft ..... , .. . Gainesville . . . ..... ............ Mrs. Grace F. Warren Baker .. . . .. . .. ........... ... . . M. D. Futch ... . .. .. . .. . . Macclenny . . . . . ..... .............. ..... .. .....• ................ . . .. . .. Bay .... . .. . .. .. . . ........ ..... . E. R. Nelson . ... . . .... . Panama City ... . . . ........... . . ... . . .. . .. .... .......... ...... . . . . . Bradf o rd ...... ..... .. . ..... T. K. McClane .. ...... . Starke .. . .... . .. .. . ... . .. .. ...... ....... . .... . ....... .. . ... .... . ....... . Brevard .... . . .......... .... . '!' . L. Cain ...... ........... Cocoa .................... . . ... .. . Mrs. Eunice F. Gay Broward . ... . . .. . ........ . .. B. E. Lawton . ...... . ... Ft. Laud e rdale . . .. ....... . .. .... . . Miss Olga Kent Calhoun . ....... .. . ..... .... J. G. Kelley . .. .... . ...... Blountstown .......... . . .... Mis s Eloise Chapman Charlotte . .... ....... ..... . N. H. McQueen ... ... Punta Gorda ...... ............. .. . . . . . ... . . . ..... ....... .. . .... .. .. . Citrus . ... . . .............. .. . . Ben L. Gittings . .... .Inverness . . . ... .. .. .. Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore Clay . . . . .. . . . ... ............ ........ ...... . ............. .. .... . . . . Green Cove Springs ........ Miss Beulah Felts Columbia .... .......... .... . Guy Cox ..... . . ..... . .. .. . . Lake City ....... ... . . Miss Ruth Durrenberger Dade . . . ...... . ..... . .. . ...... . C. H. Steffani.. .... . .. Miami . . . .. . . . . .. . . . ....... ... . . . Miss Eunice Grady Dade (Asst.) . . .. .. . .. . . J. L . Edward s .. ........ Miami . . . ..... . .......... . . . .. Mis s Margaret Delaney DeSoto ..... ........ ... . . .. ... E . H. Vance ..... .. . ... . .Arcadia . ................. .... .. . .... .. ........ .. ..... .... .. . .... .. .. . .. . Dixi e .. . . . .... . .. ...... . .. .... .D . M . Treadwell ..... Cross City .. .. . . .. .. .. ... .... . .. ........ . . . . . .. ... . ..... .... .. . .... . . . Duval... . . .. . . ........... ..... A. S. Lawton .... .... .. . Jacksonville . .. . ... ............. Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) ........ . . Frank M. Dennis . . . Jacksonville ..... ....... Mrs. Dorothea Calmes Escambia ................. . E. H. Finlayson .. ... Pensacola ............... ..... Miss Ethel Atkinson , Gadsd e n .. . .... ....... . .. .. . Henry Hudson .. . . ..... Quincy ... . .. ... .. .... ..... ... . . ... Mi s s Elise Laffitte Gilchrist .. .... ... . .. ....... .A. S. Laird . ... .. . ..... . .Trenton . .. .. ...... . . . .. . .. .... ............... . ...... ...... .. .. ........ . Glades & Hendry . .. . G . C. Hodge . . ........... Moore Haven .. . .. . .. ..... .................. . . .. . .. . .. ........ . ... . Gulf . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .... .. ...... . ...... .. . ...... ....... . . .. . ...... Wewahitchka .. . .. .. . ... Mr s . Pearl Whitfield Hamilton . . .. .... '. ... .. . ... J. J. Sechrest . . ... . ... Jasper ....... ......... . . ........... . .... ..... . ..... ........... .... . . . .. . Hardee ..... . ............ .. .. H. L. Miller .......... . . Wauchula ..... .... . . . ............. .... . ....... . . ............ . ....... . Hernando .............. .. .. C. D. Newbern . . . .. .. Brooksville ........ ............. ......... .. .. . .. ............ ... . .... . Highlands .. . ......... .... .L . H. Alsmeyer .. . . . . Sebring ..... ... .. . .. . .. ........ . . ...... .. ... .. . . .. ......... ..... . .. .. . Hill s borough .... . .. . .. . . Alec White ..... . ....... . Tampa .. .. .. , . ..... .. ......... ... .. .. , .......... ; .. .. .. Hillsborough (West ) ..... . ............ .. .... . ..... . Tampa ............... . ... . . ... Miss Allie Lee Rush Hillsborough (East ) .......... ..... ............ . . Plant City .......... . . . .. . . . . .. . ... . Miss Irene Riley Holme s . .... ........ .. . . ..... M. B. Miller . . .......... Bonifay .. ........ ....... .. . Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Jack s on .. .. ............. .... J . W. Malone . ......... Marianna . . ........ ...... Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter Jeffer s on .. ............. .... P. R. McMullen ... . Monticello ... ...... . Mrs. Ruby Brown Braswell Lafayette ... .......... ... . . D. H. Ward .. .......... Mayo . ............. . ... . . ................ ....... ............... . ..... .. . . Lak e ............ ........ ...... R . E. Norris ..... ........ Tavares . ................. ...... Mrs. Lucie K. Miller Lee .. . ............... . . . ........ C. P . Heuck. . ............ Ft. Myers ......... . .. .... . ............. ... . .. . .. . .. ........... .. .... . Leon ....... . .. . .. ..... . ... ... . K. S . McMull e n . .... . . Tallahasse e ............ .... Miss Rosalie L. Wolfe Levy .. .... .. ..... .... .... . . . . T. D. Rickenbaker . Bronson .. .... .. . ..... . .. . .. Mi ss Wilma Richardson Liberty ... .. .. ....... ........ F. D. Yaun .... ..... . .... . Bristol . . . ........ ...... . .......... .. . .. . . ........... . ......... , ... , .... . Madison . ... .............. .. S. L. Brothers ... . .... . Madison ...... . ..... ........ Miss Bennie F. Wilder Manatee ... ............... .. Ed L. Ayers .... .. .. .. .. Bradenton ... . ..... ........... Miss Margaret Cobb Marion . . . ................... R. A. Stratford .. .. .. . Ocala .... ... .. ... .. . . . . .. ........ Miss Kathryn Riddle Nassau . ..... . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . J . Raymond Mills . . . Hilliard ................ . .. ....... . . ................ . .. .... .. . ... . .. .. . . 8t!~~h~t~~ . . . . .. . . . ~~11.r. iu~~~t . ~~: :: g:s:;~~bee . . .. .. . . . .. . : . .. .. .. . . .'. . . . Oran g e ... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. ... . K. C. Moore ......... .. . Orlando . .. .. .. . .. ... ..... .. Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola . .. . .. .......... ...... J. R. Gunn .... . ........ ... Kissimmee ........ ................ Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach ......... . . .. M. U. Mounts . . .. . . .... West Palm Beach .... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pasco .. . .... ............ ..... . J. A. McClellan, Jr .. Dade City .. .. . . ......................... .. ..................... .. .. .. Pinellas . . .. . .... . ......... . ,J. H. Logan ..... . .. .. ... Clearwater .. . . . . . .... . ...... .. .. . . Miss Tillie Roese! Miss Margaret Alford, Asst. Polk. . . ... . .... .. ... ... ... .... . W. P. Hayman ...... . Bartow ... .. . . ..... . .. ......... . ... .. Miss Lois Godbey Putnam . ......... . .... ... .. . H . E. Westbury . .. . . Palatka . . . . Mrs.Josephine Nimmo Arbogast St. John s . . . . .... . ... . .... Loonis Blitch .. . .. . . ... . St. Augustine .............. . . Miss Anna E. Heist St. Lucie ............... . .. .. Myron M. Varn " . ... Fort Pierce ....... ................ . .. ... .................... ...... . Santa Rosa ........... ... John G. Hudson .. .. . . Milton ... ... . .... .. . .......... Miss Eleanor Barton Seminole .. . ........... .. .. . C. R. Dawson ...... , ... . Sanford ..... .......... ..... Mrs. Reva D. Andrews Sarasota : ..... ... . ..... .... W. E. Evans .. ..... .. ... Sarasota .. . .......... . .. ....... . . .......... .. ....... ... . ......... ... .. Sumter .. . . .. ... . . .... .. ... .. W . J . Pla t t, Jr ........ Bushnell ................ .. . .. ... . ............... . . . .. .... ...... .. .... . Suwannee . . .. . . .. .. .. ... .. S. C. Kierce ...... ...... Live Oak ..... ... ...... . .. .. ... . . Miss Louise Taylor Taylor .......... .. .. .. .. .. .. . D. D. McCloud .. ... , .. P e rry . .. ........ ..... . ..... ........... ... Mis s Floy Moses Union ...... . .. ......... . . . . .. .L. T. Dyer ... ..... . .. .. '. .Lake Butler ...... . .. .... . ............ .. . ... . . ........... .. .. . ... .. Volusia .' .. ................... F . E. Baetzman ... .. . DeLand ...... ........ .......... Mrs . Gladys Kendall Wakulla .... .......... ...... N. J. Albritton .. .... . Crawfoi'dville . ............... Mrs. Pearl Penuel Walton . .. .. . .. .......... ... . Mitchell Wilkin s ..... DeFuniak Springs ...... .. Miss Eloise McGriff Wa s hington .. ...... ...... Fred W. Barber .... Chipley . ................ .. . .... . ............ . . . ........ .. ...... . ..... . . [ 5]

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AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension ........................................ Gainesville H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge ............................ Gainesville James J. Love, Chairman, State Committee ........................................ Quincy Walter B. Anderson, State Committeeman .................................... Greenwood Ralph B. Chapman, State Committeeman ............................................ Sanford Harry C. Brown, State Committeeman ......................... , .................. Clermont E. Owen Blackwell, Asst. Field Officer and State Accountant .... Gainesville Mrs. Minnie P. Carr, Statistical Assistant ........................................ Gainesville R. S. Dennis, State Performance Supervisor .................................... Gainesville ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION COUNTY NAME ADDRESS Alachua ....................................... Harry J. Brinkley ................................ Gainesville Brevarrl ........................................ Clifford R. Boyles .......................................... Cocoa Columbia ...................................... Mrs. Gussie Calhoun .............................. Lake City Dade ............................................. Edward A. Little ................................ Homestead Escambia ..................................... Bryan C. Gilmore ................................ Pensacola Gilchrist .............. . ........................ Harley M. Moore ........................................ Trenton Hamilton ..................................... Eugene N. Stephens .................................. Jasper Hardee ........................................ Miss Eleanor M. Glorious .................... Wauchula Hillsborough .............................. Marshall 0. Watkins ............................ Plant City Holmes ......................................... Leon W. Miller .......................................... ,.Bonifay Jackson ........................................ Franklin W. Smith .............................. Marianna Lake ............................................. George T. Huggins .................................... Tavares Lee ................................................ Miss Beulah H. Goodrich................ Fort Myers Levy ............................................. Daniel D. Faircloth .................................. Bronson Madison ....................................... Julian H. Wallace: ................................... Madison Okaloosa ...................................... Stuart C. Bell ......... , ................................ Crestview Palm Beach ................................ Mrs. Mary McCarley ................ West Palm Beach Polk. ............................................. Lewis S. Maxwell ........................................ Bartow Santa Rosa ................................. Charles N. Clymore .................................... Milton Union ........................................... Grady Brannen .................................... Lake Butler Volusia ......................................... Orwin A. Morse ........................................ DeLand Walton ......................................... Arnold G. Hutchinson ............ DeFuniak Springs Washington ................................ .Alex D. Sapp .............................................. Chipley NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS Alachua ....................................... Frank E. Pinder .................................. Gainesville Columbia and So. Suwannee .... McKinley Jeffers .................................... Lake City Gadsden ....................................... John P. Powell ............................................ Quincy Hamilton and No. Suwannee ... N. H. Bennett ................................ White Springs Jackson ..................... , .................. O. W. Nealy ............................................ Marianna Jefferson ...................................... M. E. Groover ........................................ Monticello Leon ............................................. Rolley Wyer, Jr ................................. Tallahassee Sumter ......................................... Alonzo A. Young ................................... , .. Bushnell COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS Alachua ....................................... Mary Todd McKenzie ........................ Gainesville Duval ............................................ Ethel M. Powell ................................ J acksonville Gadsden ....................................... Diana H. Bouie ............................................ Quincy Hillsborough ............................... Floy Britt .................................................... Tampa Leon ............................................. .Alice W. Poole .................................... Tallahassee Madison ....................................... Althea Ayer ................................................ Madison Marion ......................................... Idella R. Kelley ........................................ Reddick Putnam ........................................ Fannie B. Diggs ........................................ Palatka [ 6]

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REPORT FOR 1939 PART I-GENERAL REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR Dr. John T. Tigert, President, University of Florida Srn: I submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1939, and a summary of activities for_ the calendar year 1939. Respectfully, WILMON NEWELL, Director Florida Agricultural Extension Service activities completed their 25th year in 1939. Effective July 1, 1914, following the passage of the Smith Lever Act, the organization was instituted at the University of Florida, under approval from the United States Department of Agriculture and the State Board of Control. During the entire quarter of a century the Agricultural Extension Service has definitely sought to improve rural living standards, through larger and more dependable farm incomes. "Living-at-home" practices have been consistently advocated, that Florida farmers might become self supporting from the lands they cultivate. In the beginning seven projects were reported as follows: 1, Admin istration, 2, demonstration work for adult farmers, 3, boys' 4-H corn club work, 4, home economics, 5, hog cholera educational work in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry, 6, silo construction, and 7, disease and insect control of horticultural crops. For the current year the Extension Service is operating under 16 differ ent projects; of these "land use", soil conservation and forestry have been added since 1938. In 1914 the State Board of Control was headed by Hon. P. K. Yonge as chairman, and Dr. A. A. Murphree . served as president for the University of Florida. P. H. !Rolfs was made Agricultural Extension Service director and the supervisory staff, in addition, was as follows: C. K. McQuarrie, state agent, Miss Agnes Ellen Harris, assistant state agent for home demonstration work; A. P. Spencer and E. S. Pace, district agents, and G. L. Herrington, boys' club agent. Only Spencer, now vice-director, has been in continuous service throughout the 25-year period. When the first year of Agricultural Extension Service work in Florida came to an end, 40 percent of the counties had agreed to cooperate finan cially in employing county agents . During 1939, 60 of the 67 counties pro •ri
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8 Florida Cooperative Extension vice has reflected the changing conditions in Florida and United States agriculture. While the World War was under way, from 1914 to 1918, emergency food production was of paramount importance, becoming more so after this country entered the conflict in 1917. Federal Department of Agriculture specialists were assigned to the state in increased number, working with and through the Extension Service. Modifications in the program which started with 1919 and continued until 1930 brought. reconstruction policies into the foreground. Additions included agricultural economics, with farm management and marketing studies being undertaken in a limited way. Agricultural Extension Service activities became better co-related with the research facilities of the State Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture. Findings for which they were responsible reached the farming population through the county agents. From 1930 to 1933 the nation's agriculture was entering the depression period. Lending agencies, Federal, State and private, furnished funds designed to tide things over. Emergency measures were again resorted to along sundry lines, in the Agricultural Extension Service field. County appropriations underwent 25 percent reductions. Salaries had to be cut and numerous workers were released. Beginning with 1933 the agricultural adjustment era was reached. Duties falling upon county farm and home demonstration agents. became immediately enlarged. Boards and committees for the numerous relief pro posals were almost altogether set up under their supervision. Personnel was gradually increased under additional appropriations from Federal, State and county source,s but between 1933 and 1936 much of the Extension work as formerly conducted was necessarily neglected. Since the latter date the situation has been improved and the Extension Service agents have been relieved of much detail work placed under them during the earlier stages of crop restrictions, benefit payments and the like. At the end of the quarter century the Florida Agricultural Extension Service was receiving cooperation from a greater number of counties than at any previous time in its history. In a number of counties the work had been expanded to cover the needs of both white and Negro farmers and their families 1 REVIEW OF 1939 ACTIVITIES Changes in personnel and plans were relatively few during the year. Programs followed had been shaped to conform with other Federal and State work affecting agriculture. Aims sought to be accomplished by all these agencies dealt as heretofore with the ways and means whereby farms and groves might be made to return the owners larger .incomes and afford their families more comforts. In Florida, as elsewhere, the Agricultural Extension Service continued to act as the channel through which contacts were made with the rural population. Price declines took place during the 12 months on sundry products, further complicating an already serious situation. Citrus fruits, cotton, tobacco and hogs fell to new low levels in Florida. Relief from the con ditions thus brought about was extended by several Federal agencies dealing with loans, grants and benefits. In greater or less degree, all these worked .in close cooperation with the Agricultural Extension Service, though calling on county farm and home agents not so frequently in a manner that inter fered with their primary purposes. Agricultural Adjustment Act administration in the field was more and more turned over to assistants by the county agents, giving the latter re newed opportunities for educational work. Farm Security Administration activities ranked next among the federal groups in demands on the Extension Service. Rural electrification undertakings in the state also

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Annual Report, 1939 9 received continuing attention. Contacts were made with the regional office in Atlanta, since no representative was stationed in Florida. Farm and home agents in the promising territories helped to organize the electric . cooperatives which farmers join who wish the service extended to their places. PROJECTS ADDED DURING THE YEAR A specialist to supervise the farm fore13try program has been added. It is the plan to enlarge this service, cooperating with Clarke-McNary and Norris-Doxey programs. Florida has large areas of land that can be more profitably used for forestry than for any other purpose. This work is coordinated with the State and Federal forest services, the Soil Conservation Service, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and the forestry division of the College of Agriculture. To date only one soil conservation district has been established and placed on a working basis. This comprises an area of the rolling lands of western Florida and is in a general farming area. Three additional dis tricts have been petitioned for and will be in operation during 1940. An amendment to the State Soil Conservation Districts Law was necessary in order to proceed in a legal way and this has been largely responsible for delay. The Soil Conservation Districts Law as now set up provides that the State Board of Control constitutes the State Conservation District Board and this board in turn has appointed the Director of Extension to serve as administrator in affairs affecting the soil conservation districts. It is proposed that the Agricultural Extension 'program administered by the county agents in the respective counties should be largely the basis for the educational work necessary and in each case working in coordination with representatives of the Soil Conservation Service who have been assigned for technical work in these districts. The land-use program has been set up and is proceeding. It was necessary to lease office space, since the University was already over crowded. Programs and personnel were provided in accordance with the recommended procedure, working under the direction of the economics section. The Extension Service emphasized the home management feature and an experienced county home demonstration agent was employed to assist. This, however, was discontinued as of June 20, due to a reduction of funds for personnel services. We believe that the home management phase of this work is of sufficient importance to be reinstated and we will make an effort to do so if funds are available. Farm management specialist was placed in charge of this service and works closely with the district agents in selecting counties and formulating procedures in the counties. Since July 1 the Bureau of Agricultural Economics has assigned a repre sentative. A committee consisting of a representative of the economics i;ection of the Extension Service, the Experiment Station and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, serves as a directing body in formulating and carrying out the program. COOPERATION WITH STATE INSTITUTIONS Relations have become closer and closer between the Extension Service and the State Agricultural Experiment Station system in the College of Agriculture at the University of Florida. Cooperation likewise has been on an enlarging scale with the Florida State College for Women, where the Home Demonstration Department headquarters are located. Other State agencies that the Extension Service utilizes in forwarding its purposes include the Department of Agriculture, the Marketing Bureau, the Agricultural Markets Board, and the Citrus Commission. Chambers of

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10 Florida Cooperative Extension Commerce at several points have enlisted the Agricultural Extension Serv ice in developing their plans. A notable instance was supplied by the Jacksonville organization in promoting the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale as an annual event. Federal and State endeavor has continued for reviving the Sea Island cotton industry, the Extension Service doing its full share. In the section of Florida where long staple cotton was once an important crop there is little tendency to increase on account of boll weevils and unfavorable weather conditions. There is, however, a tendency to expand in the citrus area. The outcome is still uncertain but undoubtedly there will be a larger acreage planted in 1940, due to an increased price per pound paid in 1939, and because of a reduction in revenue that may be expected from tobacco, and with the lower price of hogs there will be a tendency to decrease pork production. BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUB WORK The type of programs carried on by 4-H clubs has varied considerably in the past five years. There has been no marked change in general pro cedures as to organization and membership, but because of the enlarged agricultural programs, supported from Federal funds, the type of work has been influenced by this condition. Additional responsibilities placed en county agents have made jt necessary to delegate much of this to assistants, also to persons who serve voluntarily. The Vocational Agricultural Department has programs now in practically every agricultural community of importance. Most of the boys with possi bilities for constructive 4-H club work have been brought into the vocational agricultural program and supervised in an extensive way by the teachers. This vocational program is no longer confined to the public schools but extends its work out on the farms, and has programs similar in purpose to the extension 4-H club program. This has not caused serious confusion in administrative matters, but adjustments should be made, otherwise duplica tions of efforts are bound to result. This situation is not as conspicuous with home demonstration agents because of the fewer vocational departments in the public schools that would enter into 4-H club work for girls. Because of this condition with the 4-H club boys, the membership from year to year does not materially increase and the 4-H club program can be expanded in so far as to include additional subject matter that cannot be 'provided otherwise. It was reported in 1938 that this department had made a special effort to establish three 4-H district camps. This has served a useful purpose in providing a place for community programs and cooperation between counties. The facilities at the camps are being gradually added to and our State Legislature has made a limited allotment of funds for their mainten ance and upkeep. To make a camp successful there must be a definite and well planned program. Our specialists assist at these camps and provide most of the subject matter given. Each camp has a director with sufficient assistants to properly conduct the affairs of the camp. Gradually other divisions of the State and Federal Government have expressed their interest and offer their services in carry ing out health and recreation programs, wildlife and other programs of general interest to rural people. Our camps are conducted between June 15 and September 15 and our plan is to use these 'properties for farm and home meetings which are supervised by the district agent. The growth of the College 4-H Club for girls which had an increase in membership of nearly 50 freshmen this year at Florida State College for Women alone, is one of the best evidences of encouragement given rural

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Annual Report, 1939 11 young people to study together to recognize community and state needs. More than 50 of these college girls assisted with the annual Short Course for 4-H Club Girls, with the women's council meetings, and with county camps. The State Short Course for 4-H Club Girls was attended by 538 club girls and leaders from the 37 organized counties. All home demonstration agents attended the Short Course and council meetings. Fifty summer camps or short courses were held in the counties last year with an attend ance of 1,631 girls and 409 adults. The general theme of the state and county short courses has been "the contribution of 4-H club girls to better family living," with the young people themselves analyzing their work in the light of improving rural life . Results in 4-H club work with girls show great improvement in quality of work done and understanding ,on the part of the girls, of the relationship of their activities to better living on the farm. A worthy Florida 4-H girl received highest award in the Southern States for her general foods and nutrition records, receiving a $400.-0-0 college scholarship. DIVISIONS OF WORK AND RESOURCES Gradually home demonstration work has become more involved in the enlarged agricultural programs. Sp e cial courses have been provided at the College for home demonstration agents, dealing with agricultural production that applies particularly to the hom e s. The College of Agriculture is offer ing special courses to extension agents with credits leading toward advanced degrees. These cour s es can be undertaken by only a part of the group on account of distanc es from the institution and other conditions that would interfere. The Negro work is operating in 14 counties with a total of 17 agents. Four of these have both agricultural and home agents. The expenses for this work are carried by the Extension Service with State and Federal funds. In two cases the counties are appropriating small amounts. This is sub stantially the same number of p e rsons as have served in the past and the programs are very similar. All sources of revenue remain a s of 1938. Federal funds assigned to the Extension Service remain practically the same. State funds approved by the 1939 Legislature were practically doubled, a larger part of which was intended to relieve expenditures by counties. However, to date this increase has not materialized due to a depleted condition of the State Treasury, so the state funds available for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940, remain i;ractically the same as of 1939. County ap propriations in support of . county and home demonstration work show a slight increase. Of the 67 counties in the state, 60 have made financial provisions for extension work. At present all agricultural counties with one exception ar e now cooperating, 58 of these with county agents, and 36 with both county and home agent s . The budg e t for the year beginning July 1, 1939, shows an increase over 1938 but the larger area to be served does not permit any substantial expan s ion. Reports summarized in the following pages give in more detailed form the ~ccomplishments under the heads touched on herein and cover the activitie s in divisions concerning which this review contains no mention. In most case s , statistical data are appended, further setting forth the coverage attained in the Florida Agricultural Extension Service plans. Attention is directed to the comprehensive manner in which the interests of agricul ture in the State have been given attention in laying out the programs.

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]2 Flor i da Coop e rativ e Extensio n FINANCIAL STATEMENT For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1939 _ RECEIPTS Federal S~i t h-Lever . ... . . : ... . : . . .. .... . : . . : .. . .. . .. . .... . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. $ 6 3 , 9 68.10 Supplementary Smith-Le v er, Federal . . .-. . .. ... . . ... ......... 5 , 17 9 .03 Bankheiad-Jones, Federal... . .. . . . ............. ... . ..... .. .. ............. 111,332.87 Capper-Ketcham, Federal .. . ............. ............ .... ... . ...... . . 26,555.74 Additional Cooperative, Federal ... .. ... . ....... . ... . .. ...... .. 12 , 400.00 State Appropriation . . ... . ...... . .... . .... .. ... .. .... . . . . ..... . . .. .... ... . .. 87 , 700.00 County Appropri a tion . ... . . . . ... .. . . . . .. . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . .... . . .. . ...... .. 118 , 121.74 Egg Laying Contest , Sales .......... .. .... . ...... . . . ... . ..... .. .. . .. . 6,120.00 Continuing Appro"priation s .. .... . . .. .. . . . ..... . . .. . . , .... . .... .... . ... 5,000.00 EXPENDITURES i~i:ir~!if~~;: 0 ;~i~ti~g : : :: : : : :: : :::::: ::: :: ::::~ : :: , : :: : ::: : :: ; :::: : : :: :::: $ }r::~~:~~ County Agent Program . . . . . . . .... . .. .. .... .. . .... ...... .. .... .... .. . •. 187,384.72 4-H Club Program (Boys) . . . ..... ..... .. .. . .. . ... .. . . ..... . . . . , ..... . 8,627.17 Home Demonstration Program ............... . .. . .. .............. . 1 3 7,115.74 Dairy and Animal Husbandry .............. .. ..... . .. .............. 8,434.50 Farm and Home-Makers' Program (Negro Work) .. .. 32 , 009.81 Citriculture . . .. .. ..... ..... . ........ . . . . . ... . . .. .. . . ... . . . .. . . . ..... . .. ... ... .... .. 4 , 973.14 ~~~!~~o~US~h;j~Y .. :: : ::::: : ::: . . : . : : . ::::::: : ::::: :: . :: . :::: :::::: : : 4 ~~t~i Agricultu ra l Economic s . . .. . ...... . .. . . ... . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . .. .. 16,9 3 6.14 Florida National Egg-Laying Contest .. . . .. . ........ ......... 10,651.39 $436,377.48 $436, 3 77.48 STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports GENERAL ACTIVITIES Days servic e rendered by county workers ... .. . ............ . . . .. ... ... . . Days in office ..... ....... .. . ... .. . . . . . . ....... ........ .... .. .. . . ..... . .... ....... .... .. . . .. . ...... . Days in field .......... ... . . ..... .. .. . . . ....... . . . ..... .. . . .. . . . . . . .... . ... .. .... .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. ... . . Number peopl e a s sisting Extension program voluntaril y . ... .. . . Number p a id em ployes a s si s ting Extension program . .. . . . .. . .. . Clubs or g anized to carry on adult home demonstration work Member s in s uch club s .. . .. .. . . ... .. ...... . . ...... .. . . . . . . ..... ........... ... . . . ......... . 4-H club s . . .. . ... ............ .... . . . . . . .. . . .. . ........... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............ . .. ... . .. .. ... . 4-H club members enroll ed .. . . .. ........... ..... ... . .................... .. .. . .. . . . ... . Different 4-H club member s completin g . ... ...... . . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .... . 4 -H club t e ams trained . . . ... .. ... . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. ..... ... . ...... . . .. . .... . . .... . .. . . . . . . . . Groups other than 4 H club s organized for Exten s ion w ork w i th rural young p e ople 15 years of age and old er . . ..... . Member s in these group s ...... . .. . ....... . . ... . .. .. . .... . . . ... . .. ... . . ... .. ..... . .. ... . . Farm or home visits made . . ............. .... . . . . .. ... .. ... . .......... .. . . . . . . .. . .... . Different farms or home s visited ....... . . .. . . . . . ... . ............ . : .. . . . . .. . . . .. . Calls relat i ng to Extension work ..... ..... ... . . . ... .. . .. . ....... . . ... . .. . . . . . .. . . . News article s or storie s published and circular letters . . . .... ... . . Number individual letter s written . . . . . . ... ... . . .... . ...... ... .. . .. ... .. .. ... . ... . Bulletins distributed .... .. . .... ....... . ... . .. . ... . . .. .. . . . .. .. ..... .. . . . . . . . ... . .. ... : .... . . Radio talks . . . . .. . . ... . . : ......... . , . . .. . .. . . .. . .... .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . .... . .... . . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .... . Extension e xhibits shown ; . . . . ... . . ........ .. .. .... . . . .. . ..... ......... . .. . . .. . . .... . ... . Training meetings held for local leader s . .. ... .. ......... . .. .... . . . .. . . .. . . . (Attendance ...... . .. . . .. . .. . .. .... . Method d e mon s tration meetings held . .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . ..... .. .... ....... . . . .. . (Attendance .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . 29,075 13,301.5 15,773.5 1 , 987 745 310 7,163 763 15,815 9,616 547 11 494 50,836 26,283 354,666 6,434 103,493 124,560 314 553 360 6,020 12,146 192,080

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Annual Report, 1939 Meetings held at result demonstration " (Attendance .... . .. ............. . .. . Farm tours conducted ............. . .................... .. ............ .. . .. ............... . . (Attendance ................. , ..... . Achievement days held .. ..... . .......................................................... . . (Attendance ..... .. ........ ...... .. . Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) ......... .. . (Attendance .. . .................... . Other meetings (Attendance CEREALS Communities in which work was conducted ...... ........ .. .. ......... .... . Result demonstrations conducted ......... .. . . ............. .. .. . .... . . : ........ . . Meetings held .... ....... . .......... ... ... . .................. . . . ............. . ................... . News stories published and circular letters ............................... . Farm or home visits made ..... . ................... .. ................................ . Office calls received .......... ............ . . . .. .... ... . ... ..... : .. : ....... . ................. . . 4-H club members .... ... . .. .. ...... .. . . ............... .. . . ... . .......... . . ... . . ..... . ... .... . 4-H club members completing ............ ....... . . ........ .... .. . . .... ....... ....... . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing Farmers following better practices recommended , .. .. . ...... ....... . LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS Communities in which work was conducted ...... . .. ... . .. ................ . Result demonstrations conducted .......... .... ............. . . ........ .. ..... . .. . l'rleetings held ....... . .................. ... . ...... ......... . . .. ............ . . . . ... ............... . News stories published and circular letters ........ ...... .......... ... . Farm or home visits made ... ......... ........ . . ........ .............. .... ......... .. . 3,566 40,414 . . 247 9,129 153 39,952 . 104 4,772 4,313 201,141 495 219 172 87 1,064 4,824 630 338 555 13 . 9,497 Bu. 10,228 1,443 1,146 882 906 4,308 Number office calls received .. .. .............. . . ... .. .. ... . .. ..... . .... ..... .... : .. . ... . 22,592 356 207 4-H club members enrolled .. ... ............... ..... ............. ..... ............... . 4-H club members completing ............. ........... .......... ... ................ . Yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing( Seed, pounds ................... . (Forage, tons . ... .... .......... . . Farmers following better practice recommendations ........ . . . . 102,391 257. 37,205 POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Other Crops Communitie s in which work was conducted ....... ... . . . .. . .. ...... . .. . ...... . ..... 394 Result demonstrations ........ . ................ .. . 168 Meetings held .......... ... . . ............................. 266 News stories published and circular letters written ... ... ............ 162 Farm or hom e visits made ... .. ...... . .... . . . . 620 Office calls received .... ......... ...... .. ... . ......... 4,361 4-H club members enrolled ... .... ............. 306 4-H. club members completing ............ 171 Acres in projects by 4-H club .members completing ..... .... . ... .. . . ....... 100 Yields by 4-H club members completing 11,561 Bu. Farms following better practices ....... . 4,682 Cotton Tobacco 270 152 71 50 425 211 392 340 753 1,601 21,456 13,619 116 27 50 16 64;1. 18-t\;28,849 Lb. 19,813 Lb. 7,844 8,017

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension FRUITS , VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS Communities in which work was conducted ............................... . Result demonstrations conducted ........... . ................ ........ ........... . Meetings held ............................... .. .. ... ............................................. . News stories published and circular l e tters issued ................... . Farm or home visits made ......... ... ..... . .. . ...................................... . Office calls received .............. ........ . . ............................................... . 4-H club members enrolled ..... ...... .. . ............. ............................... . . 4-H club members completing ........ : .. . .... . ................................ .... .. . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing Farms and homes adopting improved practices ...................... . . 2,797 10,223 3,567 1,776 10,573 36,225 9,257 5,301 1,320 36,932 . Bu. 50,338 FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Communities in w-hich work was conducted ..................... . ...... ... , Result demonstrations conducted ... ............................................ . Meetings held ............................ .. . . . .. ........................................... .. .. . . News stories published and circular letters issued ............. .... . . . Farm or home visits made .......... ... . . ............................................ . Office calls received 4-H club members enrolled ........... .. .... . .. ................. : .................... :. 4-H club members completing ....................................................... . Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting with small trees .......... .. ..... ..... .. ....... .... ........... ................... ... ... . Acres reforested ...................... ... ..... ... ... ... ... . . ............. ...... .............. . . . Farms adopting better forestry practices ... ....... ...... .. .. ........... . Farms adopting soil conservation practices .... . .......................... . Acres involved ............................ ........ ....... . ..................................... . Land clearing ...... .................................. . . . .. . .. ............. .. . ...... .. . ..... .. ... . Acres involved .................................. .. . .. .. ........ . .. ....................... ..... . .. . Farmers adopting better machine practice ......... ....... ........ . .. .... . Number machines involved .................. , ........................................ . Farmers adopting better building and equipment practices ... . Building and items of equipment involved ........................ , ...... . POULTRY AND BEES Communities in which work was conducted ............................... . Result demonstrations conducted ....... . ..... ........... ................ .. ..... . Meetings held ........................... ... ... .... .............................................. . News stories published and circular letters issued ............... . Farm , or home visits made ........ .. .. . ... ... . . . ..................................... . Office calls received .............. ... ......... .. .. ..... . ..... ............................ . ... . 4-H club members enrolled ........ . ................. . ........ ..................... ... . 4-H club members completing ... .. . .. . .... .. ...... .. ....... ......... . ............. .. . Number chickens raised ....... . ......... ... . ............................................ . Number colonies of bees ..... ... .. ........ . . ... . ..... .. ......................... .. ... . . . Families following improved practices in poultry raising ... . Families following improved practices-bees ........................... . 618 637 558 341 1,697 5,991 390 263 210 6,002!. 4,139 1,359 283,517 357 42,906 1,251 1,204 4,945 7,435 759 1,957 1,231 578 4,416 . 9,257 2,519 1,572 68,712 208 19,932 1,271 DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES Communities in which work was conducted ........... , ................... . Result demonstrations conducted . ....... . ........................................ . Me e tings held ...................................... . ............................................ . News stories published and circular lett ers issued ................... . Farm or home visits made ... . ................... . ................................... . Office calls received ............. .. ..... ... .. ................ ..... ..... ... .. ... ... ... ..... . . 4 -H club members enrolled ..... ... .. . ... ...... ............................... ... ... . 4-H club members completing . .......... : . .......................... , ........... . 1,543 1,961 1,764 1,767 13 , 508 28,224 2,275 1,252

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Annual Report, 1939 Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing ............................ .. ....................... .. .......................... . Farmers obtaining better breeding stock ............. .. ............... '. .... . Farmers using other improved livestock practices ............... . AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Communities in which work was conducted ....... . . . ..................... . Result demonstrations conducted . ................... .. . . . . . .. .................. . Meetings held ........ .................. ...... . .. . .. .................... ... ...................... . News stories published and circular letters issued . . ................. . Home or farm visits made .. .... .. . . . .. . ..................... ..... ................... . Office calJs received . .. .. ............ ..... . . ..................... .. . . . .. ... . ............... . 4-H club members enrolJed ......... . ...................... ....... . . .................. . 4-H club members completing .. . .. . . ........ ............... . . . ...................... . Farmers keeping account and cost records ......... .. .................... . Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts ................... . Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ....... . Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year ... . Farmers making business changes resulting from economic 3,407 2,321 31,706 1,503 1,120 1,028 813 2,867 27,737 26 3 506 671 4,103 7 surveys ..... . ... .. .. . ................... ..... ... . . ........... .. .. .... ... ....................... 11,515 Families assisted in getting established ........ .. ... . ...................... 10,204 Marketing groups organized or assisted ....... ..... ,..... .................. 151 Individuals affected by marketing program . . .. ....... ................. 10,662 Organizations assisted with problems ........................................ 512 Individuals assisted with problems .............. .. . ...... ..................... 11,390 Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted $4,196,628.50 \'alue of products sold by individuals (not in organizations) 1,609,271.27 Value of supplies purchased-all associations .. .................... .. 91,378.83 Value of supp:ies purchased by all individuals .... .......... .......... 593,955.86 FOODS AND NUTRITION Communities in which work was conducted ........ ... . . .................. . Result demonstrations conducted ....... .. .......... ..... . . .. ................ .. . . Meetings held ..... .. . ... .................. .... ... . ......................... . . . ................. :. News stories published and circular letters issued ............... . Farm or home visits made ...... .. . . . .. .............................................. . Office calls received ..................... . . . ......................... . . . . . ................. . 4-H club members enrolled ................................... . ....................... . •!-H club members completing ..................•................ . .................... Containers of food prepared and .save d by 4-H club members Dishes of food prepared, meals served and vegetables and 1,093 8,513 4,315 929 3,452 12,056 7,044 4,953 94,776 fruits stored and dried ... .. . ... ..... . ..... .... .. . ............. ................ .... 75,148 Families adopting better practices as to foods .................... 11,344 Schools following recommendations for school lunch ................ 144 Children in schools following lunch recommendations ............ 34,260 Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs .... 2,454,672 Value of products canned or otherwise preserved ... . ................ $323,963.99 Families readjusting family food supply . . ........... .... ................... 4,469 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATiON Communities in which work was conducted ........ ... .................... . Result demonstrations conducted . .. ..................... .. ..................... . l\ieetings held ...... . .... ...................... . .............................................. . ... . New s stories published and circular letters issued ---Farm or home visits made .............. . .. . ... . . . .. . ... . ... . .... . .... ..... .. ....... . . Office calls received ... ............. . . . .. ..... .................. . ...... ... ............. : . . . . 4-H club members participating .. .. .............. ................... ......... ,. Families following child-development plans .. .. . .. .. . ................. . Different individuals participating in child-development program ....... .. ..................................................... . .. . ................. . Children involv ed in child-development program ................... . 211 608 245 60 367 721 375 2,694 939 1,947 15

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension CLOTHING Communities in which work was conducted .. ........... ........ . ..... . Result demonstrations conducted ................ ...... ................ . . .. ... . . . Meetings held . ........................................................................... ..... .. . News stories published . and circular letters issued ..... .. . ....... . Farm or home visits made ............................. ..... .................. : ...... . Office calls received ............... ...... .......... ...... . ......... ............ .......... . 4-H club members enrolled ................ .... .. .. ...................... . . . .... . 4-H club members completing ............ ; .... .... ... .. .............. :, . ........ . Articles made by 4-H club members completing .......... .. . .. . ... . Individuals following better clothing practices ..... ................. . . Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing 570 2,824 2,777 530 2,162 5,405 8,250 5,950 38,853 31,907 requirements ...... . ....... ............. ....... .... ... ...... .................. . . ........ . 5,576 Savings due to clothing program ......... .. .. .... . . .................... .. ...... $73,215.36 HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS Communities in which work was conducted . ....... ........ ........... . Result demonstrations conducted .......... .. ... ...... . . ....... . ............... . Meetings held .................................... . ....... ..... .. . ... . ... .... .... .... ...... . . News stories published and circular letters issued ............... . Farm or home visits made .......................... ..... ................. ........ ... . Office calls received ............ ........ . ............. . ....................... . . . .. . . . . 4-H club members enrolled ...... .......... ............... ..... ............... . 4-H club members completing .................. . .. . ......................... . ... . Projects conducted by 4-H members completing .. .. . .... .............. . :F amilies following better home-management practices ... . ... . Estimated savings Jue to home-management program . ...... . Families improving household furnishings .. ................... ... ... . Savings due to house-furnishings program ................. ............ . Families following handicraft practices ....... .................. .. . ... . HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION Communities in which work was conducted .................. .. ....... . Result demonstrations conducted ............ . .... .. .. ...... ....... ........... .. . Meetings held ..................... . ........................ . . .... ....................... .. .. . News stories published and circular letters issued ....... , .... ... . ... . !''arm or home visits made ... . .. .................. .. . ... ...................... .. ..... . Office calls received ........... ... .......... . ....... . ......... . .. ......... ..... ... ........ . 4-H club members enrolled ... . .... .... ....... .. . . ........ ................ .... ... . . 4-H club members completing ...... .. .... . ..... ....... . .......... : ...... . ... ..... ... . Additional 4-H club members participating ........ .' ..... ............. . Individuals having health examination ... ............. ......... .......... . Individuals adopting health measures .... .. . . . ... .................. ..... .. . Families adopting health measures ...... ... . . .. .... .......................... . 1,278 5,758 2,210 504 2,295 4,152 3,625 2,657 17,030 15,665 $43,608.54 12,267 $31,630.50 2,675 400 985 756 122 893 1,231 2,573 1,799 4,314 3,682 19,364 3,410 EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Communities in which work was conducted ... . ............ .... ... . . .. . Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting ........ .. . .. .. . Days of assistance, rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen ............ ......... .............. .. .... ....... ..................... ... . . Meetings -held ............................................ ... ............................ ... ... '. News stories published and circular letters issued ............... . F'arm or home visits made .... .. .................. . ..... . ......................... . .. . Office calls received ..................... ..... ........................ ....... ............ .. . Communities assisted with community problems ........... . . . . . ... . Country life conferences . ............. ......... ............. .. ... .......... .... . ....... . Families following recommendations as to home recreation ... . 4-H clubs engaging in community activities .................... ..... .. . Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross . or other relief agency .... ......................... . ... ....... ....... .. ... ...... . . 927 849 2,117 1,376 1,481 2,962 6,582 1,317 98 1,607 155 1,414

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Annual Report, 1939 EDITORIAL AND MAILING J. Francis Cooper, Editor Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor 17 The three editors and three clerks and stenographers In the Editorial and Mailing Department are employed jointly by the Agricultural Extension Service and the Agricultural Experiment Station. On the whole, they devote probably a little less than 50 percent of their time to the Station, a little more than 50 'percent to Extension, although there is no hard and fast division of time. No changes in type of work or its character and relationships have occurred during the year. The Editors work with materials for both adults and juniors. BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS Manuscripts for bulletins, circulars and miscellaneous publications are prepared carefully by the authors, and are then checked by Experiment Station specialists in the field covered by each bulletin, as well as the Vice-Director of Extension and others. When the manuscripts reach the Editor they have been thoroughly checked for accuracy of subject matter. The manuscripts are then edited and revised from the standpoint of com position and sent to the printer. Proofs are checked always by the Editor and usually by the author as well. The following bulletins and other materials were printed during the year: Title Pages Bul. 100. Preserving Florida Citrus Fruit ... ............... 44 Bul. 101. Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida ................ 20 Bul. 102. Roses in Florida ............................. 24 Circ. 45. The First Canning Demonstration ........ ................... 20 Circ. 46. Thrift Room Suggestions for Florida 4-H Club girls ...................................................................... 20 Circ. 47. Caring for the Wardrobe .................... 20 Circ. 48. The Well Dressed 4-H Club Girl ............ . 36 Circ. 42. Fundamentals in Home Sewing (Reprint) . 28 Circ. 43. The Florida 4-H Club Uniform (Reprint) ............ 20 Misc. Pub. 26. Florida Citrus Costs and Returns, Seventh Annual Summary ................ ........ 32 Misc. Pub. 27. The 1939 Farm and Home Outlook for Florida ........................................................ 24 Misc. Pub. 1. Citrus Grove Record Book (Reprint) . . .... 46 Misc. Pub. 6. 4-H Crop Club Record (Reprint) ............ ___ 12 Misc. Pub. 10. 4-H Livestock Club Record (Reprint) ........ 12 Misc. Pub. 12. Florida Egg Quality Program-Suggestions to the Consumer (Revised) .................... 8 Misc. Pub. 13. Florida Egg Quality Program-Suggestions to the Producer (Reprint) .................... 8 Misc. Pub. 15. 4-H Club Food Preparation Guide and Record (Repr.) ........................................ 24 Misc. Pub. 20. 4-H Canning Guide and Record (Reprint) 16 Calendar, 1939 ................................................... . Final Report, 12th Florida National EggLaying Test .................................................... 20 Annual Report, 1938 ........................................ 120 Program, Boys' 4-H Short Course ................ 8 Credit Group Chart No. 1 .................... ... ....... 1 Exhibit Card, 4-H Poultry Club 1 Covers for Small Farm Record Book ..... : ..... . Edition 25,000 12,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 25,000 20,000 25,000 20,000 3,500 2,500 1,000 20,000 15,000 25,000 12,000 25,000 25,000 12,000 1,500 2,000 400 200 1,000 1,000

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18 Florida Cooperati ve Extension Announcement and Rules, 14th Florida National Egg-Laying Test ............... . ........ 5 Window Cards advertising Florida Poultry Institute ....... . .......... .. ..... . ....... . . .... ...... ... ...... ... . Mailing Slips ...... . . . .... .. . ....... ............................ . Milk Record Sheets .... . ........... ....... ................... . . Cards for Negro Agents' offices ................... . Agricultural News Service (weekly clip sheet) ........ .... . ... .. ...................................... 1 1,500 200 25,000 2,500 50 44,200 Thus it is seen that three new bulletins, amounting to 88 pages, were printed during the year, with 57,000 copies being run; four new circulars aggregated 96 pages, with 85,000 . copies, while two reprinted circulars totaled 48 pages and 45,000 copies; 6,000 copies were run of two new miscellaneous publications which totaled 56 pages, while 123,000 copies were printed of seven old ones, 126 pages. Copies of all new bulletins and circulars were distributed immediat e ly to county and home demonstration agents and libraries. They were sent on request after that. SERVICE TO NEWSPAPERS AND FARM JOURNALS All weekly and a few daily news ' papers in Florida were served by a weekly clipsheet containing from eight to 12 or more items relating to agricultural work and recommendations by the Extension Service, Experi ment Station and other agencies. Newspapers reprinted this material generously, showing a keen interest in agriculture and its problems. Daily newspapers were further served through special releases direct to one or more papers and through r e leases over the wire and mail services of the Associated Press. Farm journals, national, Southern and local, have been generous in the use of copy sent out by the Extension Editors during ' the year. From copy written by the Extension Editors, five national farm periodicals printed 13 articles totaling 313 column inches, two Southern journals printed 17 articles totaling 179 column inches, and four Florida periodicals printed 17 articles totaling 482 column inches. This gives a total of 47 separate articles and 974 column inches. In addition, dozens of copies of radio talks and other articles prepared by staff members of the Extension Service and Experiment Station were forwarded to Florida farm periodicals and were printed by them. TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING AND RADIO WRITING AND DELIVERY On request of home demonstration agents the Extension Editor con ducted two one-day training courses for reporters in girls' 4-H clubs, with a total attendance of 74 girls, and one for reporters of women's home demonstration clubs, with an attendance of 18 women. A s'pecial class for reporters was conducted for the week of the Girls' 4-H Short Course at Tallahassee, with an enrollment of 16 girls. Newspapers receive and use more material where such courses have been conducted. During November the Editor arranged a series of six district schools for county and home demonstration agents interested in preparing and delivering radio talks and conducting regular radio programs. The in struction was given by John C. Baker, extension radio specialist with the United States Department of Agriculture, and served to stimulate and make more effective the radio work of agents. These six schools were attended by 42 agents.

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Annual Report, 1939 RADIO PROGRAMS 19 Radio broadcasts continued to be an important means of carrying timely information to Florida farmers and rural women. Some agents used this medium regularly, others sporadically during the year. As a result of the radio schools conducted in November, at least three additional programs, weekly or more often, were inaugurated. The Florida Farm Hour each week day at noon over WRUF, Gainesville, continued to be an outstanding and appreciated service with a large follow ing. This program is directed by the Extension Editors and employs speakers from the Extension Service, Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, State Plant Board, other agencies, and farmers and farm women. Extension workers, including county and home demonstration agents, made 446 talks on the Farm Hour during the year. Only 12 of these were made by home demonstration workers, since their staff headquarters are not in Gainesville. This included 313 daily broadcasts of farm news high lights, a very popular feature, by the Extension Editors and 121 talks by Extension staff workers and county agents. Total talks for the year were 1,004, an average of slightly more than three each week day. In addition to farm news highlights, regular features included the farm question box each Tuesday, and weekly news and editorial snapshots each Saturday. Generally Monday programs are devoted to horticulture, Tuesday to insects, Wednesday to general material, Thursday to dairy and poultry, Friday to livestock, and Saturday to news. Special industry broadcasts by remote control created widespread interest. One from Brooker was devoted to tung oil and a tung mill, one from Leesburg to the Watermelon Festival, one from Jacksonville to clover and pastures and the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale, one from Starke to a strawberry market, one from Trenton to a swine show and sale, one from Bradenton to the new Experiment Station laboratory there, and one from the Dairy Products Laboratory on the University campus to the work of that unit. A special 4-H club broadcast, one-half hour in duration, was staged from the studios of WTAL in Tallahassee four days during Girls' Club Short Course in June. Farm Flashes, in coo'peration with the USDA Radio Service, were sent to six stations for five days each week. On some of these stations the flashes were broadcast regularly, on others sporadically. Talks made by Extension workers over WRUF were revamped into flashes in 24 instances, and 200 copies were sent. The Editors prepared and sent an additional 54 flashes, for 420 copies. SILVER ANNIVERSARY The 25th anniversary of the Florida Extension Service was widely publicized in newspapers, farm journals, civic and other meetings, and over the radio. One national farm publication, circulated largely among specialists, county agents and teachers of agriculture, carried a detailed review of the accomplishments of 25 years in Florida. Florida farm journals and newspapers gave wide usage to special stories, clipsheet articles, and press service reports on the celebration. Two of the state's largest dailies carried special pages in which the work was reviewed, and 16 weeklies issued special Extension Anniversary sections or editions. The 25 years of work were dramatized over the radio in one program, and other programs carried news and reviews of the history and accomplish ments.

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension A check of about half of the 50 Florida dailies and 125 weeklies-all that are re::eived on our exchange desk-reveals that more than 5,000 column inches of space was devoted to news and editorial matter concerning the Silver Anniversary. Talks on the anniversary before civic clubs, 4-H achievement days and other groups, arranged largely under the direction of the Editors, were made in 54 instances, covering nearly every county where agents are employed. MISCELLANEOUS The Editor attended five meetings, with total attendance of 136, and spoke at one of them. Assistance was rendered to the Agricultural Adjust ment Administration, Soil Conservation Service, State Forest Service, and . other state and federal agencies in conducting their publicity in Florida. 'rhe Extension Editor was publicity chairman for the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale held in Jacksonville in early March, and handled both news and radio releases concerning this event, both before it was staged and while it was in progress.

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Annual Report, 1939 21 AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge R. S. Dennis, Performance Supervisor A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant _ In addition to the foregoing personnel, assigned from the Florida Agri cultural Extension Service staff, a State Committee functioned, composed of the following farmers: James J. Love, Quincy, Gadsden County, Chairman Ralph B. Chapman, Sanford, Seminole County W. B. Anderson, Greenwood, Jackson County H. C. Brown, Clermont, Lake County Growers participating in the program are organized into county Agri cultural Conservation Associations, which elect community committeemen. County farm agents serve as the local administrative officers. County Association treasurers are bonded. PAYMENTS FOR PARTICIPATION Payments made to farmers for 1938 participation are indicated by the table which follows: __ __ _ I I Cotton . . .. . . .................. ......................... . .. 1 Flue-cured tobacco ............................. . Peanuts ........ .............. ........................... . Potatoes . . .. ... ... .......... . .......................... . 'l'ype 62 tobacco ................................ .. Type 45 tobacco ............................... . . . Soil-building practice payment ...... .. Increase in payment .......................... 1 Number of assignments ............ ....... ! Amount paid assignees ...................... *Total net payment actually paid farmers participating .............. ..... . Number of interested persons ........ .. ---------Number of Farms Repo_r_!i_ng 8,762 3,989 3,012 464 87 157 34,657 36,064 511 41,051 Net Payment $ 230,387.66 57,506.22 37,216.54 93,446.02 26,448.06 2,088.17 1,879,339.41 324,737.91 129,173.93 2,510,841.49 As of December 19, 1939. A number of adju s tment applications not included have since been paid . ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS IN 1939 ' On D e cember 10, 1938, farmers voted in regard to marketing quotas on cotton and tobacco for 1939. Marketing quotas were approved for cotton, disapproved for tobacco. Acreage allotments for 1939 for both commodities were issued prior to the referendum. Tobacco allotments were in effect for 1939 under the Conservation Program even though there were no market ing quotas. Acreage allotments for all special crops in Florida for 1939 were as follows:

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension Crop Cotton .......................................... . Flue-cured tobacco ................... . Type 62 tobacco ........................ . Peanuts ...................................... . Commercial vegetables ............ . Celery .................................. :: ...... . Total soil-depleting crops ...... . Number of Farms 13,202 5,338 173 3,826 7,167 296 16,854 Acreage Allotment 89,720.4 14,525.1 2,278.9 46,634.0 190,469.0 5,972.4 812,468.5 Normal Yield 165 pounds 897 pounds 1,010 pounds 639 pounds 480 crates The number of counties for which acreage allotments and normal yields were established are as follows: Cotton, 28 counties; flue-cured tobacco, 33 counties; type 62 tobacco, three counties; peanuts, two counties; com mercial vegetables, 33 counties; celery, five counties; total soil-depleting crops, 39 counties. After completion of the work of establishing acreage allotments for special crops, about 10 percent of the farms under worksheet were re constituted and acreage allotment had to be re-determined for these farms as they were operated in 1939. It was necessary to re-determine allotments for approximately 3,500 farms for 1939. COTTON MARKETING QUOTAS Cotton marketing quotas were approved in a referendum held December 10, 1938, for the marketing year August 1, 1939, to July 31, 1940. Cotton marketing quota work has been carried out this year with a considerable reduction in the number of farms planting cotton and a sub stantial decrease in the number of over-planted farms as compared to 1938. Preliminary figures indicate a production of 4,746,794 pounds of lint cotton. This is slightly less than 40% of the 1938 production. Cotton farms in Florida in 1939 planted 57,850.1 acres. The actual average yield was 82 pounds per acre. Congress provided for cotton price adjustment payments to all farms receiving a cotton acreage allotment for 1939. The rate per pound was established at 1.6 cents on the normal production. To date 12,208 cotton price adjustment applications have been audited and certified to the General Accounting Office for the amount of $228,378.22. Only a few applications remain in the State Office and it is estimated that the total payments will amount to approximately $230,000. PERFORMANCE AND EDUCATIONAL WORK During 1939 photographic material was delivered for the following counties: Bradford, Hillsborough, and portions of Palm Beach, Glades, Hendry and Dade. Under contract at present are: Marion, Gilchrist, Seminole, and portions of Levy and Manatee. In addition to the above, photographs were purchased for Orange Oounty, which was not flown under AAA contract. Plane-table and chain sketch maps were brought up to date on tho~e farms in the 1938 Program and new maps made for those participating for the first time in 1939. Final compliance records show that there were 45,334 farms checked. The tilled acreage in these farms totalled 2,366,329. The labor cost of checking together with the cost of computing the acreage in the county office amounted to 5 cents per acre. Since regulations provided that all farms on which cotton and tobacco were grown had to be measured, it was necessary to measure 941 farms which were not signed up under the Conservation Program.

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Annual Report, 1939 23 Meetings have been held throughout the year for farmers, committee men and others to acquaint them with the provisions of the program. A number of counties have held farmer-business men's meetings which have proved highly successful in getting the plans explained and understood by both groups. Many of the farmers' meetings have been attended and par ticipated in by the Administrative Officer and the two Assistant District Agents and all three have assisted in training meetings for County Agents and Committeemen. PRELIMINARY WORK FOR 1940 Acreage allotments and quotas for cotton and tobacco in 1940 have been established for all farms growing these two crops in 1939. Notices of 1940 quotas were mailed to farm operators prior to the referendum held for these two crops on December 9. Results of the referendum show that marketing quotas will be in effect for cotton and tobacco in 1940. Final figures in regard to acreage allotment and production will not be available until after determinations have been made for reconstituted farms in 1940. To date acreage allotments for commercial vegetables, celery, potatoes and peanuts have , been established and work is in progress on establishing total soil-depleting allotments for the 1940 Conservation Program.

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension PART II-MEN'S WORI( COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader J. Lee Smith, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent H. G. Clayton, District Agent R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent North and Northwest Florida counties numbering 20 are included in the Agricultural Extension Service district covering that section. General farming predominates. In the Central and Southern Florida district are 39 counties having farm agents. Agricultural operations in this territory are widely varied, the more northerly area principally growing staple crops while farther south ward the chief interest is with citrus fruits and vegetables. DISTRICT OPERATIONS Personnel limitations again hampered the work in northern and north western Florida. Funds available remained under pronounced restrictions and but few counties increased their appropriations. Farm agents ha
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Annual Report, 1939 25 Most of the papers issued special editions or 'pages in cooperation with it. Central and southern Florida district counties faced varying conditions during the year. Citrus growers suffered from over-production, lack of coordinated marketing and prices below the amounts expended upon their groves. Vegetable area farmers did somewhat better than during the preceding season and took new courage. Progress of a very satisfactory 11ature was made in livestock industry development and improvement. The one program that has attracted state-wide attention has been im proved pasture work in this district. The big ' problem now is to keep dairymen and cattlemen from attempting to develop pasture on land useless for permanent pasture. The investment in machinery and equipment for building pastures in flatwoods land covered with saw palmetto is one of the most interesting developments in a decade. Reports show there have been this year around 50,000 acres planted in im ' proved pasture grasses in the district, which included clover and carpet, Napier, para, and other grasses. They show also around one-half million pounds of grass seed and clover planted in the district this year. In addition to a number of pasture tours in the different counties through the fine cooperation of the county agents in the district, the first state-wide pasture tour over the central and southern end of the state was held. More than 500 peoj>le attended the tour which lasted four days. Cattlemen, business men, bankers, and representatives of practically all agricultural agencies working with farmers were present. Representatives from the AAA at Washington and the Federal Land Bank from Columbia were iimong those in attendance. How widespread and far-reaching Agricultural Extension Service work in Florida has become is shown by the department activities described in the reports which make up this volume. Ways and means utilized for obtaining contacts with farmers and others interested are reflected in the following summary of the su pervisory endeavors carried on by the District Agent in the Central and Southern section, during the 1939 period: Made 152 visits to county agents for consultations, suggestions and promotion of plan of work. Made four visits to counties having no county agents to work with committees on agricultural problems. Held or took active part in 62 meetings with over 9,000 farmers and others to give educational information, promote special features of Ex tension work and discuss plan of work. Held 14 meetings with county commissioners adjusting misunderstand ings, getting appropriations, placing new agents and discussing plans of work. Made six radio talks on timely agricultural subjects in addition to making four talks over special farm hour broadcasts from farms and other places. Worked with county agents in conducting 15 farm tours to earn• lessons of better practices to . farmers. Held program building conferences with county agents in planning program of work. Held four special educational meetings with county agents and other farm agencies on permanent pasture building. Made 18 addresses to organizations on agricultural information and the promotion of Agricultural Extension work. Assisted in holding 4-H club camps with 23 counties with an attendance of over 6,000 boys and girls. Director of citrus and poultry institutes at Cam'p McQuarrie for two weeks. Spent 115 days in office attending to correspondence, working out plans for promotion of work and making out monthly and annual reports.

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26 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist R. H. Howard, Extension Economist D. Gray Miley, Assistant Extension Economist Speciaiists comprising the Farm Management staff divided their energies
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Annual Report, 1939 27 DADE COUNTY POTATO STUDY Continuation of the economic study of the Dade County white potato industry for the fifth consecutive year was made at the request of growers. The results of this survey, including data covering the previous four years, were mimeographed and returned to growers. Each grower who cooperated by keeping fairly complete and accurate records and furnished same also received his individual business analysis in order that he might compare his operations as to profitable and unprofitable practices with the average of all growers' records. Upon the completion of this study and summarizing the records, the county farm agent held a meeting at which time the findings were dis cussed. The discussion was devoted to the presentation of factors affecting profitable management as revealed by the records over the period of years as well as current economic problems in the industry, factors affecting the price of early potatoes, and the outlook for the 1940 potato crop. DAIRY FARM ACCOUNTS This project was undertaken at the request of the dairymen in the Jacksonville area. For the past four or five years there has been an attempt to regulate the price and grades of milk. To do this, accurate information about the costs involved in producing milk is necessary. The 16 dairymen previously taking part and two new cooperators started another set of records on July 1, 1938. The work was carried on in the same manner as during the previous year except that the dairymen were asked to keep a supplemental record of the quantity of the different kinds of feed fed. Twelve of the records were completed and summarized. The cost of producing a unit of milk separate from the cost of marketing was obtained. The costs per hundredweight for the two years were as follows: 8 Retail dairies 1st year 5 Retail dairies 2nd year 8 Wholesale dairies 1st year ..... . 7 Wholesale dairies 2nd year ..... . Average 16 dairies 1st year ....... . Average 12 dairies 2nd year ... . Production Cost $3.226 3.029 $2.716 2.534 $2.938 2 . 710 FARM RECORD BOOKS Marketing Cost $2.018 2.378 $ .390 .420 $1.146 1.150 Total Cost $5.244 5.407 $3.106 2.954 $4.084 3.860 F_arm record books of two kinds are supplied by the Agricultural Exten sion Service. One book is intended for those who desire to keep detailed records by enterprises. The other book is arranged for chronological entries only and provides for monthly and annual summaries. It is intended for use on small farms. Twenty of the first named books were distributed to farmers in the Everglades who had found vegetable farming unprofitable and were chang ing to beef cattle as a major enterprise. Seventeen of the farmers are completing theirrecords which will be summarized and analyzed during January 1940. One hundred seventy-seven more books were furnished upon request to county agricultural agents and farmers. The vocational agri culture teachers of the state have adopted the book for use for adult projects during 1940. The other record book was distributed to 159 Negro and 127 white farmers. The Negro record keepers were supervised and it is expected that about 95 . complete records will be collected soon for summary and . analysis.

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28 Florida Cooperative Extension Fifty out of 80 books distributed under this plan last year were completed and most of the same 50 farmers started the records again in 1939. Meet ings were held in Negro communities to discuss the economics of differences in farm management practices as they were disclosed by the records. DEMONSTRATIONS AND SURVEYS Thirty-three record books were placed in Jackson, Union and Hills borough counties during the year. Thirty-two of the records were completed by the farmers, then summarized and analyzed by the project leader. Farm layout and soils maps were prepared for each farm and the maps and analyses were delivered to the farmers individually. A rather comprehensive schedule prepared by the Agricultural Eco nomics Department of the University was used in interviewing 69 farmers living within the Soil Conservation project area in Jefferson County and an equal number of farmers living outside the area, but near to the project. A record of the 1937 farm business was secured from 138 farmers. Record s were secured of the 1938 farm business from 70 of the same farmers, again evenly divided between those living within the project area and those living without. It is hoped that records of the same 70 farmers may be secured for the 1939 crop year. ECONOMIC OUTLOOK INFORMATION Following the National Outlook Conference held in Washington, D. c : , in October of 1938, in cooperation with the Extension staff, College of Agriculture, and Experiment Station, the Florida Farm Outlook for 1939 was prepared and published. Approximately 2,000 copies of this report were distributed among farmers and agricultural workers. A summary of the situation and prospective outlook for agricultural crops and livestock grown in Florida was presented in more than 100 meEtings. The Annual Outlook Conference in Washington wa _ s attended again this fall by a representative of the Extension staff. LAND-USE PLANNING AC:TIVITIES This project became active in Florida during February of this year, although groundwork had been laid during the years 1935 to 1938, inclusive. It is conducted in cooperation with the United States Department of Agri culture and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. _Counties are selected by the State Land-Use Planning Committee with recommendations that the intensive land-use planning survey be made in those counties if their technic a l agricultural workers find the work a feasible current undertaking. When a decision has been made to start the project within the county, the project leader and one or more District Extension Agents meet a called group composed of all representatives of Federal and State departments of agriculture who work regularly within the county : At this meeting, the project is explained rather fully and a county com mittee of farm men and women is selected to represent every community in the county and all of the major agricultural enterprises. These farmer representatives along with the technical agricultural workers compose the county committee. This committee arranges for two series of meetings to be held in all communities. Land-use maps are made and descriptions of. each land-use area are written with recommendations regarding projects which might be attempted as a program for the im provement of rural conditions. The maps and' manuscripts prepared for

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Annual Report, 1939 29 each community are combined into a county report for acceptance by both the county and state committees before it is considered by the project leader to be a correct report of the county. Preliminary reports have been prepared for Escambia, Jefferson, Madi son, Lafayette, Columbia, Seminole and Pinellas counties. The reports for three of the counties have been accepted by the county and state com mittees. The remaining four reports will be reviewed by the county com mittees in the near future. A program based on a preliminary report has been developed and considerable work has been accomplished in Lafayette County. Columbia and Jefferson counties have selected projects and the programs are being developed at this time. Members of the project staff have appeared on various state and regional conference programs. Agents from several of the counties where the project is being pursued have appeared also. The project leader conducted a land-use planning course during the University Summer School Session for which g raduate credit was given. One fourth of the vocational agriculture teachers of the state completed the course. A study of reports of land-use planning progress made in Alabama, Georgia and North Carolina in November showed Florida to be leading among the four states in cooperation secured from various agricultural agencies, number of programs planned based on county land-use reports, and number of items included in the reports. :MARKETING ACTIVITIES D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing CITRUS MARKETING Outlook and educational meetings were held in the principal citrus producing counties in cooperation with the citrus specialist, Department representatives from Washington, county agents and Florida Citrus Grow ers, Inc. As was the plan for the previous year, the principal meetings were held during the spring. The American Fruit and Produce Auction Association furnished the Extension Service a movie film on auction markets. This picture, with explanations, has been shown in a number of places during the current season. A number of the meetings of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., were attended, especially state directors' meetings and committee meetings. At most of the meetings of representatives of this organization, special data were presented which the Extension Economist in Marketing had prepared. One of the most important experiments ever attempted in a commodity was tried in grapefruit this year; that is, the fixing of a minimum price which growers must receive for their fruit. The authority for this approach was a state law permitting the Florida Citrus Commission to determine a fair price that growers must be paid for their fruit. The enforcement was in the hands of the State Department of Agriculture. A number of meet ings in connection with this experiment were attended and information supplied on the cost of production and marketing citrus fruits. The Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., in their original efforts to secure a marketing agre e ment practically demanded one which included volume prorate. The final agreement put into effect did not include volume prorate and in order for the representatives of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., to understand why it was not thought advisable to include volume prorate

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension in the present agreement many conferences have been necessary with them and with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration on this question. The Citrus Committee of the House of Representatives, State Legislature, requested information which was furnished them on costs of marketing, including picking, hauling, washing and polishing citrus fruits. It has been thought advisable to work very closely with the Florida Canners' Association. Their annual meeting, as well as monthly and called meetings, were attended and two demonstrations were given on the condition of grapefruit sections canned from various grove properties. For some time it has been felt that a larger citrus growers' list should be assembled, if notices of educational meetings and other circular inform ation were to be gotten to them promptly. The Florida Citrus Exchange and the Florida Canners' Association requested such a list, as well as a number of other organizations and individuals. The compiling of this list was done in cooperation with the Agricultural Adjustment Administra tion and the Experiment Station. The question of price differentials by grade and size has been raised a number of times and a demand for figures on differentials of price between grades and sizes has existed for some time. Because of this fact it has been thought advisable to tabulate grade and size prices that these data may be of assistance to those whose job it is to make recommendations concerning grades and standards. Three years' data have been tabulated already and current prices on grades and sizes are being kept up to date. VEGETABLE MARKETING In April a trip ~overing a week's time was made to southern Florida to the truck crop areas for the purpose of making moving pictures of the marketing of Florida vegetables. In June and again during October several days were spent in working with potato, celery, and other vegetable growers and shippers to learn from them the prospective supply of these crops, attitudes with respect to credit and toward cooperative marketing. By invitation, the annual meeting of State market managers and direc tors was attended. Statistics were compiled and other information secured in personal work with potato growers. Attention was also given to bean marketing plans. LIVESTOCK MARKETING Records were assembled for bringing up to date the statistics showing the prices of hogs by grades and sizes at the cooperative markets in the ~tate. In October the "Ups and Downs of Prices of Beef Cattle and Hogs" was presented to the county and state workers of the Farm Security Administration at their annual meeting in Gainesville. Contact with the Gainesville Auction market has been constantly main tained as the local management has requested it. WATERMELON CONTROL COMMITTEE The Extension Service was again asked to hold meetings for growers to name delegates to district meetings for the purpose of nominating grower members of the Watermelon Control Committee. The meeting of the Watermelon Control Committee in Jacksonville was .attended, at,the request of the Control Committee Manager.

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Annual Report, 1939 31 There has been established a U. S. No. 3 grade of watermelon and copies of grade regulations have been sent to agents in watermelon counties for distribution to their farmers. COOPERATIVE COUNCIL WORK At the request of a number of cooperative marketing organizations in Florida, a meeting of all types of Florida agricultural cooperatives was called in Orlando in November to discuss the formation of a State Cooper ative Council. Prior to the meeting contacts were made with a number of other cooperatives to determine their interest also. The Extension Economist in Marketing was elected temporary secre tary for the proposed state cooperative council. Mr. C. C. Campbell, elected temporary chairman, appointed an organization committee of 11 members. This organization committee met in Lakeland and, using other state co operative council articles of incorporation and by-laws, made up a proposed set for Florida . These proposed articles of incorporation and by-law'5 were mimeographed and sent -0ut by the secretary to the active mailing list of fruit, vegetable, dairy, livestock, and all other types of farm co operatives with a request for suggestions or comments. The work in secur ing a charter for this organization is being continued. WORK WITH OTHER GROUPS Motor truck transportation studies were continued through 1939. Flue-cured tobacco marketing control and g rading problems called for considerable work during the year. For some time Extension representatives have been interested in obtain ing more satisfactory grades and standards for Florida fruits and vege tables. Complaints have been received from growers, shippers and citrus fruit canneries as to grades and standards. Numbers of conferences were attended during the year where grades and standards were discussed. Grades and standards of Persian (Tahiti) limes were recently establish ed by the Department of Agriculture and the Extension Service has made these available to growers and shippers.

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRONOMY ACCOMPLISHMENTS J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist Agronomy has so many phases in Florida agriculture that many divisions of the Agricultural Extension Service utilize its approved practices when prosecuting their endeavors. Field crops afford perhaps the broadest oppor tunity for farmers to benefit from agronomy research and demonstrations. Examples showing the trend of activities along this line are found in the following statement of accomplishments during 1939: In the rolling land area of the State some terracing has been done and contour culture practiced for several years. These practices received emphasis in 1937 and again in 1938 and 1939. Terracing engineers have been trained in every county where needed. In some counties power machinery was used in building terraces. In one county a terracing association was organized which bought and operated the machinery. In t\vo others the Boards of County Commissioners supplied it, and in another a private concern supplied machinery and contracted to build the terraces. In other counties farmers built their terraces with their own horse-drawn implements. As a result of these efforts there were 21,594 acres of land on 725 farms terraced during the 1937 season. During the 1938 season there were terraces constructed on 19,510 acres on 720 farms. In 1939 1,238 farms constructed 5,424,040 feet of standard terrace. As terracing is done, contour listing and contour culture are being increased. More will be done this year than ever before. Strip-cropping, though not popular, is also being done to some extent. To add humus and nitrogen, catch plant food elements as they are dissolved in the soil, and prevent the washing away the soils of some of the Florida lands, either summer or winter cover crops are being used extensively. Crop rotation for soil improvement and disease elimination was carried out pretty generally throughout the State. On the vegetable lands it is a crop of vegetables and then one or more . cover or green manure crops grown and turned into the land. In the southern and eastern part of the general farming belt it was a combination of peanuts for grazing and corn oi' velvet beans and corn, or both velvet beans and peanuts along with corn, on the same land. In among this combination in many fields was one or both of the legumes, crotalaria or beggarweed. Many farmers of this area let part of their crop land lie idle and grow up to native vegetation in a two or three year rotation. In the northwestern counties of the State the combination of corn, peanuts, and/or velvet beans is now generally practiced. Nearly 70 percent of the crop land in this entire area was devoted to some combination in which at least one legume was grown. On the, level lands of this part of the state the farmers say their land is improving under this system of management. Watermelons and peanuts for nuts are never grown one year after another, but only one crop in three to eight is taken off the same land. Cotton seldom follows cotton. Austrian peas and hairy vetch have been planted on a small percentage of our cotton and commercial peanut land. CORN, PEANUTS AND VELVET BEANS FOR FEED To again stimulate the farmers' interest in growing feed the District Agent and Animal Husbandman assisted county agents in conducting a series : of meetings in their respective counties just prior to 'planting time. These meetings were followed up by sending circular letters to . a large

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Annual Report, 1939 33 percentage of the producers calling their attention to the increased gains secured by interplanting their corn with peanuts and properly spacing their peanuts. Another letter was sent calling their attention to amount of seed needed for planting an acre of peanuts spaced properly. And again placards remained placed in county agents' offices and at other places where farmers assemble often, calling attention to the benefits of these practices. The practicability of such a program bas been shown in that bogs are now being market-<.!d from every county in the northern half of the state _ where peanuts are grown. More landplaster has been used during 1939 on or under peanuts to make them :fill out in northwestern part of the State than ever before. The Extension Service has persuaded the fertilizer dealers to stock it. On four different tests where results were recorded solid peanuts were increased 200 percent. These tests were made on land that bad shown signs of need ing land-plaster. Increasing the stand of peanuts when interplanted with corn shows the same percentage increase of production as when planted solid. This last winter the North Florida Experiment Station released a cross bred corn, Florident White. Approximately 400 bushels of this corn seed were distributed through the county agents' offices of 15 counties. This corn did well and most farmers were well pleased with it. There were a few plantings of hybrid grown also last year. SP ACING PEANUTS AS A COMMERCIAL CROP Spacing demonstrations again were conducted throughout the whole ueanut area. In all northwestern Florida the results were about the same ;s shown in previous years. Last year on seven demonstrations where soil types were the same and runner peanuts were grown, when spaced 12 to 14 inches only 871 pounds peanuts were produced, but where they were spaced from 7 to 8 inches, 1312 pounds per acre were produced-an increase of approximately 50 percent. ;More farmers are turning to this practice every year. In undertaking to show which fertilizer or soil corrective materials are more effective in the production of peanuts, comparative demonstrations were conducted again this year but no complete records are available. HAY AND OTHER FORAGE CROPS The planting of velvet beans among the corn and peanuts for grazing during the winter was probably slightly increased, but bad production weather completely destroyed this crop in the western part of the State. Sorghum has been grown about as usual by dairymen and others for silage. Some grow corn. There has been but slight increase. There has been sugarcane grown and ensiled this fall. Some bas been put up as dry forage also. There have been the largest number of plantings of Napier grass to provide grazing and silage that have ever been made in one year. Production of legume hay has been increased in northern Florida this year, but the quality is poor. PERMANENT PASTURE DEVELOPMENT Power rotary brush and palmetto cutters have been brought into use for destroying the native vegetation, such as palmetto, gallberry, and myrtle. Highlands and lowlands, hills and hammocks, loams and muck lands, as well as prairies have been turned into pasture. Farm visits, personal calls, demonstrations, circular letters, and AAA payments have all been used in

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34 Florida Cooperative E x tension Fig. 1.-So rapid i s the advance in improved pa stures, a11d so ex pansive the acreage being seed that airplanes are being u se d for see ding pasture s in Florida. The first pasture grass seed ever so by plan e was near Bri g hton in 1924. F i p:. 2 .-Para grass, espec iall y s uitable for lowland :; of sout h ern F lorida , has been started on a cons id erab l e acreage by cattlemen. This picture s how s vegetat i ve plantings being nu1cle on a l a r ge sca l e. promoting and helping in t hi s development. As a r es ult it appears now that hundreds of farmers and cattlemen have converted or are now engaged in converting 60,000 acres of these lands into permanent pastures this year by seeding and 3,656 by vegetative p lantin gs. Another pha e of this pasture deve l opment involves the estab li shment of White Dutch, Persian, Hop and ot h er clovers on both g ra ss sod, cultivated land, and virgin sod. By the trial and error method, utilizing

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Annual Report, 1939 35 everything available, White Dutch and Hop were successfully grown three or four years ago by a dairyman on flatwoods near Jacksonville. By the use of a combination of one ton lime 'per acre, 500 pounds superphosphate and 100 pounds muriate of potash it has now been successfully produced by the Agronomist at the Experiment Station on similar lands and on other lands that hold moisture well. Some has been made to grow on Tifton and heavy phases of Norfolk soils. During the fall of last year hundreds of tests and demonstrations were established in the State. Demonstration clover pastures have now been established in practically every county in the State. This appears to be a real step forward in pasture development in Florida. On the ligMer soils of the State where pasture is needed, as well as soiling crop and silage, Napier grass fed cafeteria style has seemed to give the answer. Hundreds of thousands of canes have been planted the past :year establishing pastures of this grass. Many field meetings and circular letters were again used this year to teach growers successful methods of handling these plantings. To this was added pasture tours. The last one covered eight or 10 counties and was attended not only by hundreds of farmers, but by Chamber of Commerce officials, bankers, Washington AAA officials and representatives of the Farm Credit Administration. OATS TO MEET GRAIN SHORTAGE There is a very short supply of grain feeds in the State this year because of a very unfavorable production season. This is particularly true in the western part of the general farming area. This grain supply on many farms will be exhausted by January. None, without conserving it, will have feed to produce another crop without buying it and supplementing it with other pasture and feeds. To encourage and assist the farmers to meet this situation the Extension Agronomist joined the county agents and the livestock specialists in getting seed dealers to stock Hastings 100 Bushel and Nortex seed oats. They held a series of from three to six meetings in each county advising the farmers to plant the rust-resistant varieties and telling them how to fertilize the crop in order to insure a real crop. Thousands of circular letters also were sent to all farmers, properly advising them. Oats, they were told, will mature in May-two months before corn-this will help to meet the short feed situation. As a result the largest oat crop ever in the history of that area has been planted, even though cash was the shortest it has been for years. The rust-resistant varieties were used by large numbers. Nearly ell seedsmen stocked the recommended varieties. UPLAND COTTON SEED TESTS To test. out strains and varieties produced by the breeders more recently, the Extension Agronomist arranged with breeders to furnish seed of their most promising strains or varieties and with and through the county agents 11 variety test plots were established. Although the weather was most unfavorable for cotton production the tests came through. The yields were ver-y low . SEA ISLAND COTTON The Experiment Station and the Extension Service have continued to provide a source of pure seed. It is no longer needful for growers to go to the islands off the coast of Georgia and South Carolina and buy pure Sea Island cotton seed . By cooperating with growers in an area where no other cotton is grown, by ginning where no other cotton is ginned, and by roguing thoroughly every off-type plant that could be found by going

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension over the field from two to five times, they have now on hand . 1,600 bushels of pure seed yet to be sold to the producers. Again the Extension Service cooperated with the State and WP A in a boll weevil control campaign. The State Government through Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo made available thousands of gallons of syrup and many thousands of pounds of calcium arsenate to be applied by pre Bquare mopping method as outlined by the WP A Entomologist. The Sea Island cotton acreage is smaller than it was in 1937 and 1938. It is scattered over a large area. FLUE-CURED TOBACCO Another practice survey was conducted in December 1939. Such practices as quantity and quality of fertilizer used; number stalks set per acre; soil types; varieties; and treatment of land the year before; these were all studied. The study showed that quantity of fertilizer varied with soil types, that a fertilizer analyzing 3 percent nitrogen, 8 percent phos phate, and 8 percent potash was the most profitable among those used. It was also shown that medium land in rotation with native vegetation was safest to use and produced best tobacco. The Bonanza variety proved again its adaptability to more soil types and conditions. Five to six thousand stalks per acre was a good stand. By personal contact and in meetings, shifts in fertilizer practices were secured again this year. On the lighter soils of Lafayette, Suwannee, Columbia and Alachua counties, 1,200 pounds of 3-8-8 was recommended rather than a smaller amount or lower analysi s . On the heavier soils of Madison and Hamilton counties many were persuaded to use a smaller quantity or less nitrogen in their fertilizer. Some farmers used only 1,000 pounds of a 2-8-8 and produced a higher quality of tobacco. Just a few weeks before the market opened the Tobacco Section of the B. A. E. assisted the Extension Agronomist and county agents in holding ap proximately , 50 grading demonstrations throughout the flue-cured tobacco growing area. 'rhese meetings were attended by a great many of the flue cured growers of the state, and did much good. Again this year the Extension Service undertook to detect outbreaks and assist farmers in control of blue mold. This time they demonstrated the use of paradichloro benzene in its control. Many demonstrations were conducted with most effective results in most tobacco counties. An exhibit of Government standard grades of Florida tobacco has been i , .ssembled for use at fairs, meetings, and other places to acquaint farmers better with them. SUGARCANE AND SWEET POTATOES Approximately 6/i percent of the farmers of northern Florida grew a small acreage of sugarcane for producing syrup for home use. The old Louisiana Purple has been almost eliminated by mosaic and nematodes. Cayana 10 took its place on most of these farms . The last few years POJ varieties have made appearance on a great many farms. The last three or four years hybi'ids produced or multiplied by the Florida Experiment Station have been introduced. This last spring 40,000 stalks of planting material from the North Florida Experiment Station were distributed to hundreds of these farmers. The varieties were 951 and 762. Another crop used on many northern Florida farms is sweet potatoes. Many have become diseased. This year there were hundreds of thousands of draws imported from South Carolina points. These were of the Louisiana strain of Porto Rico. The production of these will be used as seed on other farms in 1940.

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Annual Report, 1939 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY A . L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman 37 Beef cattle, hogs and workstock receive attention from the Agricultural Extension Service Animal Husbandry Dep a rtment. Cooperation was main tained through the period with agencies having similar aims . Information was distributed by personal visits, corres pondence, circular letters, news paper articles, radio talks, tours and meetings. Factual material and experimental data founded on College of Agriculture research furnished the basis. Beef cattle raisers fared well during the period. Prices have been favorable, grass in most sections was good and the outlook improved. Busi ness and financial interests cam e to better understand the livestock industry . Demand for breeding stock was measurably enlarged. Interest in pasture development reached new heights. Land f.or grazing purposes was sought, thousands of acres having been bought and fenced. BEEF CATTLE ACTIVITIES In respect both to adult farmers and 4-H club members, thi s work stresses production and fattening cattle for market. Since the annual calf crop is th e key to success, a slogan has been made of the phrase, "Get a calf cro'p." Bulls for herd improvement are of primary importance. In our 1939 plan of work we set as our goal the placing of 1,000 bulls in the State and the getting of 10 new farmer-breeders to establi s h a purebred herd. The goal for placing the bulls has been reached, and instead of 10 new men establishing purebred herds there are 14. One of the factors in herd management, controlled breeding and getting a calf crop, is the winter feeding of bulls, having them come through the winter in a good healthy, strong condition ready for the spring breeding season. Many cases are reported of an increase in the calf crop and an increase in the number of early calves as a result of winter feeding bulls. Herd management in Florida demands that calves be dropped during the early spring months. This year there are 1 98 men 'practicing controlled breeding and having calves dropped in the early spring, w , hereas, a few years ago calves came along at almost any .time of the year. This dropping of calves in '. early spring has cut down materially on screw worm :infestation of young calves. Selection of heifer calves from good breeding cows and sired by good bulls is closely allied with controlled breeding. We set a goal at the be ginning of last year to have 10,000 heifers selected for replacement. Our r e cords show that 153 different cattle owners have selected 17,730 heifer calves and are growing them out for herd replacements. Not all of these heifers will be used for replacement in their herds; many of them will be sold to go in other herds as replacements. Most of the 9 , 000 cows and heifers purchased for replacement were from well managed herds. Calf crop output has increased from the 30 to 50 percent obtained under non-control conditions to 60 to 85 percent when the control methods are followed, as shown by reports from 17 counties. Records disclose more

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38 Floricla Cooperative Extension than 21,000 fat calves sold to local and out-of-the-State packe r s. C ull cows found their way to the butchers in 15,000 cases while 41,000 stee r s were marketed. In many case the steers became diverted to the feed l ots of Virginia , orth Carolina and Ohio, where they were fattened on corn. FINISHING STEERS FOR MARKET Statistics indicate that Florida cattlemen are feeding more steers every year, utilizing velvet bean and corn fields. In the current 12 months, 5,600 animals were run i n the bean fie ld s while 3,200 occupied feed lots . Many acres formerly in rough grasses, palmettos, bushes, and weed are now being planted to carpet, Bahia, Bermuda, Para, and other grasses and lespedeza. Records coming into this office show that approximately ] 00,000 acres of pasture land have been prepared thi s season . Large area s of the muck and wet lands that were too damp for ot h er grasses have Leen cleared and put into Para grass. Approximately 12,168 acres h ave been put into Para grass this year and 466 acres into Napier grass. The Extension Service and State Catt l eme n 's Associat ion sponsored a four -cla y beef catt l e and pasture tour from Gainesville t h ro u g h ce n tral and southern F l or i da from October 31 through November 3 . Business men, representatives of t h e Farm Credit Administration, bankers, representative cf the Agricultural Adjustment Admjnistration, railroad representatives, teachers, and cattlemen were invited to get, first-hand, a crossection of beef cattle and pasture development. Fi,:r . 3 . Prime sleers ar e now be in g produced in Florida. Thi s one was g-rand cha m pion at the Florida Fat Stock Show.

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Annual Report, 1939 FLORIDA FAT STOCK SHOW AND SALE 39 This annual event continued to be a major factor in developing the State's livestock industry. Sponsorship again has been furnished by the Agricultural Extension Service working jointly with the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce, the State Marketing Bureau and the chief railroads serving the territory. Results obtained from the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale this year in comparison with the three preceding seasons are graphically revealed in the summary of reports contained in Table 2. TABLE 2.-SUMMARY REPORT OF ANNUAL FAT STOCK SHOW AND SALE, JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, FEBRUARY 23 AND 24, 1939, WITH COMPARISON OF 1936, '37, '38 SHOWS. 1939 I 1938 1937 1936 Number of cattle sold ........ .. .... ... . .... 408 I 177 535 636 T otal weight (pounds) ............ .. ...... 304,425 \ 144,010 445,180 461,303 Average price per pound ......... . ...... .1014 .1071 .0972 .0712 Average weight per steer, pound I 746 I 813 832 725 Av er age price per head .......... .. .... .. $75.68 I $87.17 $80.94 $51.50 Total sales ...... .. . ... . . .. . . . ............ . . . ... . .. . $30,879.02 $15,429.45 ' $43,302.77 $32,860.93 :t-;o. of exhib\tors 58 / 12 50 71 No. of Georgia exh1b1tors . .......... . ... . 0 . 0 2 3 No . of club boys exhibiting ............ 81 I 23 21 18 No. 4-H clu? ca.lves ......................... . 94 I 39 32 18 No. of 4-H Judgmg teams \ 11 10 7 ~ Price of grand champion steer .. .. . . 57 ~• I 56 32 32~' N~aifieF.~~~'.~~-.~~~~ . ~'.~~ .. ~.~.~~'.~~ .. J _ _ 1_~ _ ' -~ 18 Marketing facilities again disclosed an increase, livestock auctions having been opened during the year at five additional points, raising the total now operating to 10. Extension Service endeav,or has continued for helping producers understand the classes of cattle most in demand at the various markets. OTHER WORK WITH BEEF CA TILE Associations of cattlemen, state and county, are kept in touch with on sundry matters vitally affecting the livestock industry in Florida. At present 26 county groups are officially affiliated with the Stat e Cattlemen's Association. Florida Fair officials received assistance in further building up the beef cattle exhibit. Animals shown have vastly improved since the displays were resumed three years ago . and exhibitors with whom contacts have been made are preparing even better stock for next spring's show. Boys in the 4-H clubs have been accorded the attention the significances of their work with livestock entitled them to receive. Each year the Extension Animal Husbandman, in connection with the county agents, has helped select steers for 4-H boys to feed and has advised with them on feeding and handling animals. In June, during the Short Course at Gainesville, the Extension Animal Husbandman instructed 150 boys in the selection and judging of beef cattle. This same work was continued at Camp McQuarrie and at Camp Timpoochee with other boys.

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension SWINE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING Raising hogs for both home use and market is urged under this head, with special help made available to farmers concerning home curing of meats. Diseases and parasites of swine have been greatly reduced in areas where demonstrations were conducted in raising healthy pigs. Cooperation was forthcoming for several scores of these demonstrations. Feed and forage crops are outlined in connection with the movement for growing healthier pigs. Feeds represent 85 percent of swine production costs and are accordingly important. Peanuts interplanted with corn are advised as an economical source for good hog feed. Developing of farmer-breeders and placing of purebred boars is largely responsible for the improvement in quality of market hogs. More than 400 boars and 200 purebred sows have been placed on farms this year. Fat hog shows and sales were held in six counties during the season. Fat barrows entered at these events proved that the quality of Florida swine fo on the up-grade. The Extension Service feels very encouraged over these reports of improvement of market hogs, for it shows that our work is bearing fruit. "Raise large litters of healthy pigs on home-grown feeds and protect them against parasites and diseases," shall continue to be our "hog song", backed up by demonstrations. Extension Service animal husbandry workers have consistently pointed out that it is poor business to sell corn in the fall rather than feed it to hogs. This year one of the best demonstrations reported so far took place. County Agent Brothers of Madison County recommended that his farmers feed their corn through hogs rather than sell it. Seven different farmers followed these recommendations. One man fed 708 hogs and sold on two different dates. The first sale netted a profit of $3.28 per hog and the second sale, $3.51 per hog. This feeding was done on concrete floors using rorn, protein, and mineral supplements. CURING MEAT FOR THE HOME SUPPLY Consistently, the Agricultural Extension Service has sought to persuade farmers that they will profit by producing, slaughtering and curing meats for their home use. Progress has been manifest along that line during the present year. . Working closely with cold-storage meat curing plants has helped in reaching more producers and in improving the meat curing practices follow ed at the plants. Vast quantities of meat are cured at the 60 under operation, some privately owned and others under ice company control. This year 38 of them reported 5,000,000 pounds. The Florida Meat Curing and Cold Storage Association was organized last year. At its initial meeting various questions were discussed and especially questions that concerned the business and mechanical end of meat curing. One of the items discussed was storing cured meats. Out of this discussion has come a request thkt the Extension Service, with the help of the Experiment Station representatives, work out plans for storing cured meats from April through August. The various members of the association agreed to follow our suggestions on this experimental work of storing meats. WORKSTOCK ON FLORIDA FARMS Recognition that replacement costs for mules and horses are too great in Florida is the foundation of the Agricultural Extension Service effort

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Annual Report, 1939 41 concerning workstock. Farmers are urged to raise colts and thus reduce the required outlay in keeping up the supply of animals. Breeding stock was located for buyers in different sections during the year. Information was supplied on handling and feeding and about break ing home-raised colts. Demonstrations as to selecting work animals and brood mares were given in seven counties. Colt shows took place at three rural trading centers, each event having a, good attendance. Parades of horses and colts staged under direction of the Animal Husbandry Department in the Extension Serviee literally "stole the show" on every occasion. Demonstrations in riding horse colts held nine times in one county had good results. Cattlemen are more and more using ,home-raised animals in handling their herds. Mule colts have been bred in several localities, with excellent returns. DAIRYING Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman Dairy work as carried on in the Agricultural Extension Service during 1939, through county farm agents and with cooperation from sundry organ ized groups, utilized the following methods of getting information to farmers: Personal visits, farmers' meeting-(a) community and (b) field-, news stories, radio talks, motorcades to demonstrations, method demonstra tions, adults and juniors, result demonstrations with adults and juniors, circular letters, county and state dairy meetings, personal letters, and 4-H dairy club< demonstration teams. FEEDING AND PASTURE WORK Forage demonstrations in 1939 exceeded those of any 'previous year. Grasses were introduced into about 85 percent of the counties reporting dairy work. Acreages of oats, rye and like winter grazing crops were quite generally increased. Clovers became much more widely grown on dairy farms. Duval county took the leadership in this activitiy. Pastures and forage crops received fertilization more extensively. In Duval County about 1,095 acres were seeded to clovers fertilized with a ton of limestone, about 500 to 600 pounds of superphosphate, and 100 to 150 pounds of muriate of potash per acre with probably 75 to 100 pounds of a soluble nitrogen fertilizer 'per acre. Field days held in Duval, Volusia, Leon, Gadsden, Bay, and various other counties showing results of fertilizing pastures for dairy cows created wide interest among farmers. Fertilization of forage crops and adaptation of forages to soils extended from Dade to Escambia counties with more than 80 percent of the county agents reporting demonstrations. In some instances, extremely dry weather hampered the success of winter clovers. Minerals added to the rations for cows gave further excellent results in increased milk yields. Estimates are that around 235 mineral troughs were constructed in 1939, as the result of demonstrations showing their value. HOME ASPECTS OF DAIRYING Reports from about 37 county farm agents showed enlarged interest in this field. Pasco County went to the forefront with some 73 baby calves bought from dairies in Hillsborough and Pinellas counties as the nucelus for family cow herds.

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension Duval County listed 74 dairy heifers with 4-H club members. Volusia cooperatively purchased 45 calves and placed three registered bulls. Heifers and bulls were also taken hy Bay and Columbia counties. Suwannee and Lafayette brought in a carload of high grade Jerseys from Tennessee. Home demonstration agents have been active during 1939 in placing dairy heifers among their 4-H club girls and assisting in getting more forage produced for the family cow by distribution of Napier grass and other improved grasses. Practically all of the 37 county farm agents reporting family cow work are looking after the proper feeding practices to see that the right kind of forages with mineral supplements are provided. DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT Dairy herd improvement associations remained in the formative stage but the area covered and the influence exerted both increased during 1939. The monthly summaries show progress in reducing feed cost per 100 pounds of milk over a period of time. In s ummarizing, we find that we are getting a return of from $3.00 to $5.00 for each dollar spent for 11erd testing through the adjustments. of feeding practices, culling, and other improvements that are being made. Official testing has grown gradually. Two. registered Guernsey and three Jersey herds were on advanced registry test. All are making credit able records and achieving noteworthy progress. Farm Agent Lawton of Duval County established his goal some years ago to place registered sires at the head of every herd in the 100 dairies in his county. He has succeeded in this endeavor. He now re ports that Duval dairymen have nine registered Jerseys and Guernseys with dams of a production record above 800 pounds of fat, 27 registered bulls with dams of a production record above 400 pounds of fat, and three proven sires in the county. In 1939 12 dairy farms in Jacksonville continued the dairy farm records started the previous year. DAIRY BREED CATTLE CLUBS Definite work was organized in 1939 with the Florida Jersey Cattle Club and Florida Guernsey Cattle Club, of which the Extension Dairyman is secretary. During 1939 each breed club put on a sale of registered cattle, 22 in the Guernsey sale and 32 in the Jersey sale. A sales committee, including the field representative of each club, the president of each club, and the Extension Dairyman, helped select the animals to go in each sale. The Guernsey sale was held in Largo in late March, with consignments from some of the best representative breeders of Guernsey cattle in the South. This representative lot of good animals sold for a fair price as com pared with other sales in the South. These animals were distributed throughout the peninsular and central sections of Florida. The sale of registered Jerseys on May 26 set a mark in Florida as one of our most successful registered Jersey sales. The Florida Jersey Cattle Club was successful in having one of their members, Marcus A. Milam of Miami, named a director of the American Jersey Cattle Club. The two breed associations were instrumental this past year in getting appropriations for Bang's disease eradication and tuberculosis work re newed in the Florida Legislature and they have been successful in getting a purebred show of dairy animals at the Florida Fair. They were active in having the Florida Milk Control Law re-enacted and have been serving the dairy industry in various ways in developing the dairy business in Florida along a practical line.

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Annual Report, 1939 FACILITIES AND MARKETING 43 Florida dairymen are cooperating with the municipal and State milk inspection departments in the building of better dairies. ,Several hundred thousand dollars have been spent in 1939 in the building of better dairy barns and dairy houses in all of the dairy centers of Florida. Farm agents in Jefferson and Leon counties have been active in working with the Negro agents in the farming sections of these two counties to develop the production of milk to be sold to the cheese plant at Thomasville. Production for the creamery at Chipley has been planned by the farm agents in the three counties which compose the immediate territory. SILOS AND BULL PENS Demonstrations on the savings in milk yields on dairy farms having shade and shelter provided in Bay, Volusia, Duval, Dade, and other sections of the State have proven the need for increasing the number of sheds. Where these sheds are provided there is greater conservation of stable fertilizer. In the Panama City area cattlemen use shelters in the summer months when dog flies trouble the animals. They serve as a shelter during the day and the cows are grazed on pasture during the night. They have also proven profitable in sections of the East Coast affected with epidemics of mosquitoes and horseflies at certain seasons of the year. The introduction of safety bull pens has been slow but is gradually gaining ground. TRIPS, TOURS AND EVENTS In 1939 the Extension Dairyman visited the registered Jersey sale held at Athens by the Georgia Jersey Cattle Club and visited pasture and forage crops enroute to Athens. In Augu s t he made an educational tour through Tennessee and North Carolina, visiting dairies and studying forage and pasture conditions. Pasture and forage crops tours were conducted in Bay, Duval, Volusia, Pinellas, a11.d Manatee counties. These demonstration tours are of great value in developing the forage growing programs. The annual State Dairymen's Association meeting was held at the Uni versity in June 19 3 9, and was attended by about 87 representative dairymen from all sections of Florida. POULTRY KEEPING Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman D. F. Sowell, Extension Poultryman E. F. Stanton, Supervisor Egg-Laying Contest Projects mainly formulated and developed in the 1939 Agricultural Extension Service poultry undertakings related to quality production, im proved marketing and organization activities. Record keeping was also stressed. Visits to 40 counties made by the Extension Poultrymen during the 12 months enabled them to give farm and home demonstration agents first hand assistance in th e plans best calculated to yield results in the different territories.

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING TEST The Thirteenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, started October 1, 1938, and ended September 21, 1939. There were 96 pens of 13 pullets each from. 21 different states. Florida breeders from 10 different counties entered 21 pens. The average egg production per bird was figured on the basis of the original number of birds and was 183.4 eggs for a value of 185 points. This is an increase of 1.6 eggs and 4.2 points above the record made the previous year. The Fourteenth Contest was started October 1, 1939, with all available pens filled. FEED PRICE COMPARISON Feeds utilized by commercial poultry pr oducers continued to be mostly bought from outside sources. Price comparisons are therefore im ' portant, as indicating how profit margins rise or fall with the fluctuations. The poultry ration as used in this report to illustrate price changes is composed of equal parts of a mash mixture (100 pounds bran, 100 pounds shorts, 100 pounds yellow corn meal, 100 pounds fine ground oats, 100 pounds meat scraps-55% protein, and 25 'pounds alfalfa leaf meal) and a grain mixture (100 pounds cracked yellow corn and 100 pounds wheat). The poultry ration prices for the base period (1926-29) and the years 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938 and 1939 are listed in Table 3 with indications of prices being slightly higher for December 1939. POULTRY PRODUCT LEVELS Daily prices on eggs and poultry meat are quoted by the State Marketing Bureau at Jacksonville, Tampa, and Miami. The quotations on the Jack so nville market have been tabulated and studied over a period of years and se nt to cooperators to assist them in making plans for the future. TABLE 3.-MONTHLY PRICE OF POULTRY RATION.* Month October _______ ____ ____ _ November --------December ___________ _ January ----------F'ebruary --------March -----------------April ___________________ _ May -------------------June -----------July __ _ _ ___ ______ ____ ____ _ August ________ __ _____ _ September _ ___ __ ___ _ Bas e I Period 1 1 1926-29 2.78 2.72 2.72 2.73 2.77 2.78 2.78 2.81 2.85 2.90 2.87 2.84 Average ------------! 2.80 1935 2.18 2.16 2.14 2.34 2.32 2.32 2.31 2.32 2.28 2.22 2.15 2.13 2.24 1936 I I I 2.43 I 2.48 2.57 2.12 2.10 2.12 2 . 11 2.11 2.10 2.23 2.42 2.43 2.27 *Price based on quotation Jacks onv ille. F'lorida . 1937 1938 t 1939 2.28 1.88 2.09 2.12 1.85 2.10 2.06 1.85 2.15 2.77 2.12 1.93 2.67 2.13 1.94 2.62 2.10 1.93 2.71 2.06 1.95 2.76 2.03 2.00 2.72 1.99 2.01 2.65 1.99 1.94 2.51 1.94 1.89 2.37 1.89 2.05 2.52 I 1.99 I 2.00

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Annual Report, 1939 45 TABLE 4.-MONTHLY PRICES OF No. 1 (GRADE A 24 OUNCE) (CENTS PER DOZEN). WHITE EGGS* J!~iid I 1935 1936 I 1928-29 Octob_e_r-... .. ... .. .. ... . ' ~5~6~.4~~ 3 ~ 9 November .......... 57.0 37 Month 1937 I 1938 I 1939 . 3 I 38.4 38.1 36.3 32.4 .o 41.9 39.6 36.8 33.9 December .......... .. 52.0 40 .6 43.4 38.0 40.1 30.9 January ........... . .. 45.9 35 .8 33.5 29.4 32.5 30.8 February ............ 34.3 31 .8 31.2 27.5 26.6 24.3 March ................. . 31.0 23 .0 23.5 25.1 . 22 . 2 21.6 April .. . ...... .. ......... 29.4 24 .9 22.9 25.5 22.3 21.9 May ...................... 28.8 26 .3 24.1 24.2 25.0 22.6 June .................... 32.3 26 .8 25.7 25.8 25.7 23.0 July 36.6 31 August ................ 42.1 35 September .......... 47.5 39 .5 31.9 30.1 31.5 29.1 .6 34.0 33.0 32.8 29.6 .0 37.5 37 .2 36.3 28.8 Average . . ............ ! 41.1 32.6 32.3 I 31.1 I 30.7 27.4 •Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida. TABLE 5.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY HENS* ( CENTS PER POUND). Month I J!~iid I 1935 II 1936 jl 1937 I 1938 1939 I 192&-29 October 28.1 21.0 19.6 18.7 20.2 I 16.9 November -26.9 21.7 19.6 20.3 21.0 17.9 December ............ 26.5 20.6 18.7 20.7 21.2 15.3 January .............. 26.6 17.5 20.0 18.7 20.1 21.4 February -----27 .1 17.8 19.9 19.3 19.0 20.7 March 27.9 18.3 19.5 18.6 19.9 20.4 April ................... . 27.6 18.0 20.3 18.5 19.7 21.1 May ---27.0 18.0 20.8 19.0 19.0 19.3 June 25.7 18.7 20.5 19.5 19.3 18.8 July 24.5 18.2 20.9 16.8 19.4 17.8 August -------------25.2 18.4 20.7 16.0 18.7 18.2 September 27.0 19.3 20.2 17.5 20.2 16.9 Average .............. 1 26.7 I 18.9 I 20.1 I 18.6 I 19.8 18.7 •Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida. TABLE 6.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY FRYERS* (CENTS PER POUND). Base / I I Month 1 ~itf 9 ! 1935 1936 1 . 9~~~! ~ 19~9 October ... ... . . ..... . .. 33.8 I 22.4 21.2 27.1 22.9 I 22.0 November ...... . ... 34.9 23.2 20.5 26.7 23.0 22.3 December .......... .. 36.2 I 23.2 20.0 27.7 23.6 22.1 January .............. 38.3 I 21.5 25.5 22.3 25.8 23.4 February ............ 39.1 24.3 25.6 24.3 24.6 21.6 March .................. 41.0 26.1 27.0 24.1 27.2 21.9 April .................... 42.7 I 25.9 27.2 27.0 27.8 24.8 l\lay .................... . . 39.9 26.4 25.7 24.1 24.0 22.0 June ............. . ... . . . 37.2 23.1 23.5 25.3 21.8 21.8 July .................... . . 32.4 I 21.2 23.1 25.5 20.5 22.5 August ................ 30.8 20.3 22.6 24.5 21.6 21.9 September ......... . I 32. 7 21.0 22.3 25.8 22.9 21.0 Average ......... . .... 1 36.6 23.2 23.7 25-:-4-1-23.8-22.3 *Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida .

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension TABLE 7.-RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX TO EGG, HEN, FRYER INDICES. 1936 ----------------------------1 I I , Ratio I i:: A ' ,_; I ;..: ' >. 1 . I ..0 I ;..: ;..: ii 0 z 81 80 65 > 0 z I I I 87 75 58 .;
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Annual Report, 19 3 9 GROWING HEALTHY POULTRY 47 To aid in thi s direction the "Grow Healthy Chick and Pullet" program has been stressed with special emphasis placed on disease-free chicks and clean land. During the year Extension recommendations were followed by 2,653 families in purchasing ,baby chicks, 3,730 in chick rearing and 3,168 in sanitation for disease and parasite control. Green feed recommendations have been presented giving crop, variety, amount of seed per acr e , distance apart in the row and planting dates. Results indicate that producer s feeding succulent green feed throughout the year had greater egg production, lower mortality and greater returns per bird. Extension recommendations were followed by 2,720 families in production feeding. CULLING DEMONSTRATION Most commercial poultrymen are experienced in culling but many culling demonstrations have been held to benefit the small flock owners and the beginners. Flock owners have been advised to follow a systematic culling schedule, and to re place culled sto c k with healthy pullets which are bred to lay. During the year 987 families have followed an organized, improved breed ing plan. CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS Florida poultrymen are supplied with record books by the Agricultural Extension Service. About 20 percent of the record keepers submitted monthly reports which were summarized. The s e summaries, together with feed, egg and poultry prices, were s ent the cooperators each month. The Calendar Flock Records run from October 1 to September 30. During October 1939, 375 record books were placed in the hands of poultrymen, more than twice the 156 books distributed in October 1938. MEETINGS AND EXHIBITS The Second Annual Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie, Augu s t 28 to September 2, 1939. This institute was more successful than the on e held during the summer of 1938. Th e Florida Poultry Producers' Association held its annual meeting, and the Florida Poultry Council held its summer m e eting during the Poultry Institute. Florida's World Poultry Congress Committee wa s organized in 1938 and developed plans for full ' participation in the 7th World's Poultry Congress and Exposition, Cl e veland, Ohio, July 28 to August 7, 1939. T . h e entire Extension organization, all Stat e agencies, poultry associa tion s , and commercial organizations worked togethe'r and prepared a program for full participation. Outstanding accomplishments were a full membership quota, the high F. F. A. judging team and winning of Egg Meal Menu Contest and $1,000 by Mrs. Homer Hixs o n, Gainesville. The State 4-H Club Poultry Show at the Central Florida Exposition is the outstanding feature of the junior poultry work. There were 795 birds and 85 dozen eggs exhibited. The birds and eggs were of good quality, and the 4-H members were justly proud of their achievements. Fifteen

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48 Florida Cooperati ve Extension TABLE 8.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORD SUMMARY. 1938-19 3 9 1937-1938 1 1936-1937 Number of farmers ..... .... . ... . . . . ... . . Ave. no. birds ... . ............ . . .... . .. . . .. . . . Ave. no. birds per farm . . .......... . . Ave. no. eggs per bird ... . . . , . . . . . . .. . Ave. percent culled . . . . . . ...... . . . .. . . . . . Ave . percent mortality . ... . ... . .. . .. . . 27 12,574 46 6 175 3 7 16 25 11,18 9 448 160 56 21 FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE 25-250 251-500 Birds Bird s i Total number of flocks r 1 9 36-37 18 10 19 3 73 8 8 8 19383 9 12 6 Ave. size of flocks 19363 7 1 38 303 19373 8 104 279 1938-39 120 277 Ave. no. eggs per bird 19::16-37 184 16 3 1937-38 162 186 19 3 8-39 158 177 43 19,987 *65 169 45 18 Over 500 Bird s 15 9 9 965 902 1,052 168 152 178 teams were trained for the poultry and egg judging contest. Houston Means, George Macy and Frances Broome were the three individual hi g h judges who won trips to the World's Poultry Congress and participated in the National 4-H Judging Contest. Geor g e Macy was rated excellent a nd the other two members good. Durin g the year 2 ,3 60 boys and girl s were enr o lled in poultry club work and 1,470 completed their projects. POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS Fifteen counties have active local poultry associations which are or g an ized into the Florida Poultry Producer s ' Association. One new county unit was fo r med during the year and on e old one becam e inactive. Eight -0f the county as s ociations have u s ed the educational program outlined by the Agricultural Extension Service. Egg a nd poultry show s were spon s ored by eight of the local groups and in one a chick exposition also was staged. Activities of the State A ss ociation included the se c ond annual Poultry In s titute held at Camp McQuarrie and the State Egg , Show which t o ok place at Tampa during th e Florida Fair. Poultry Ext e nsion work was otherwise cooperated with efficiently by th e State organization. Egg qu a lity demonst r ations at their local county fairs were put on by several county association s . Florida Poultry Council support for the endeavor toward improving the egg output had cooperation from all the State farm service ag e ncies . Egg candlin g and grading demonstration s took place at numerous adult and 4-H club meeting s .

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Annual Report, 1939 NATIONAL IMPROVEMENT PLANS 49 In Florida the National Poultry Improvement Program is supervised by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. Breeders and hatcheries taking part increasecl, the Extension Service assisting to bring about this end. There were 34 hatcheries, 81 White Leghorn breeders, 47 Rhode Island Red breeders, 22 Barred Plymouth Rock breeders, 87 New Hampshire breeders, and 33 breeders of other breeds, cooperationg in the program during 1939. A Northeast Florida Baby Chick Association was organized to include all counties in the northeast corner of the State. Plans were made to include other counties as soon as it is deemed advisable. Hatcherymen must cooperate with the National Poultry Improvement Program to be eligible for membership. CONTINUING POULTRY WORK Vaccination against fowl pox was practiced more generally than ever . before. Many poultrymen have been taught to vaccinate without outside help, and others depend on feed salesmen. In 1939 the county and home demonstration agents assisted in the vaccination of over 100,000 pullets. Suwannee, Gilchrist and Levy counties have been active in turkey work. In these counties turkey production is an important farm enterprise. Reports indicate that egg production was increased by artificial lights on a larger scale than heretofore, among owners of both farm and com mercial flocks. Farmers who did not have electric power used oil lanterns as a source of light for the all-night lighting system. Most farmers who have electric power use the morning lights, but there are a few who use all-night lights.

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50 Floricla Cooperativ e Extension BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent State-wide programs could not be undertaken in this department, owing to the wide variations in Florida agricultural conditions . Complications were further introduced by the large number of citrus and truck crops growers who live in tov..-ns. One delegate to the National Camp in 1939 did his club work on vacant lots in the Miami suburbs. County farm agents found themselves less and less with time for 4-H club endeavors. Of the 55 agents during 1939, 16 or about 30 percent had under 10 boys reporting. In some instances it was indicated that interest could not be aroused while other agents explained the dutiei; connected with administering the Agricultural Adjustm e nt Act and related federal activities had taken precedence . Table 9 shows the amount of time given to boys' club work by Florida agents as summarized December 1, 1938. This table does not give all time spent in club work, as some work was done by the soil conservation assistants. The average time per county agent spent on club work was 7.3%; 43 % of the time spent by agents on club work was in attending camps and short courses. This leaves but 4.2 % of agents' time in working on club work in the counties. TABLE 9.-PERCENT COUNTY AGENT'S TIME DEVOTED TO CLUB WORK. Percent Club Visits Southeast Days Days to Time to Meetto Club Percent District Worked Club Club ings MemReports Work Work Held hers Secured Alachua 307 34 11 93 5 47 Baker 293 44 15 9 144 34 Bradford 309 16 5 17 21 32 Brevard 303 34 11 36 37 50 Columbia 296 25 8 8 49 71 Dade ------------568 (2) 186 33 227 :224 46 DeSoto 293 17 4 16 0 50 Duval --585 (2) 48 8 46 2 69 Gilchrist ... .... ... .... / 289 10 3 14 0 60 Hamilton 307 1 Hardee 307 35 11 27 24 42 Levy 303 0 Marion -------300 31 10 59 71 26 Nassau ................ 269 31 10+ 27 38 6 Okeechobee -----302 17 5 12 7 56 Falm Beach -----300 38 13 62 19 72 Pasco 309 96 31 82 809 87 Putnam 288 19 6 17 32 82 St. Johns 306 20 6 11 13 100 Seminole 307 0 Sumter ---------295 33 11 6 95 88 Union 306 18 6 18 64 Volusia 285 19 6 16 25 46 l I 'l'OTAL . .. ............. J 7,410 77 _ 2 _ I _ __ 1-~~___1 1. _11_5_-'--_6_2_

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Annual Report, 1939 loays to Percent Club Southwest Days Time to MeetDi s trict Worked I Club Club ings I Work Work Held Charlotte 302 15 5 I 15 Glades & Hendry 310 6 2 17 Hernando 303 4 1 Highlands ... ... ... ... 292 2 7 4 Hillsborough -----269 41 15 84 Lake* 292 8 2 1 Lee 286 13 4 16 Manatee . ........ . ... . 305 5 1+ 10 Orange 298 39 13 44 Osceola 308 0 0 Pinellas . . ...... . ....... 291 13 4 11 Polk .............. .... .... 277 Sl\rasota 308 ... --~ ---~ ----I TOTAL 3,841 I 146 4+ I 202 *Club work done by an as s istant . Northwest Days District Worked ;-~y I 272 Calhoun .............. 302 Dixie 303 Escambia 304 Gadsden . .. . .. .... .. .. 306 Holmes ... ..... . ....... 299 Jackson 296 Jefferson ..... ... ...... 306 Lafayette 307 Leon 297 Liberty ------287 Madison 311 Okaloosa .............. 291 Santa Rosa ...... .. 291 Suwannee 306 Taylor .. . .... . .. .. ... .... 305 Wakulla 309 Walton 309 Washington 294 --------TOTAL I I Southeast Southwest ---Northwest .... ...... 5,694 7,410 3,841 5,694 I \ Percent Days to Time to Club I Club I Work Work I I 51 18 0 0 I 17 5 28 9 2 14 11 5 4 1+ 7 2 7 2 22 7 9 3 40 12 24 8 21 7 25 8 19 6 -27 9 17 5+ 332 772 10 146 4 332 5 Club Meetings Held 29 0 6 30 1 1 0 4 25 3 26 11 35 15 20 24 22 252 803 202 252 i 51 Visits to Club Percent MemReports bers Secured 67 84 9 15 75 97 71 3 83 36 1 0 100 70 283 64 Visits to Club Percent MemReports bers Secured I I 133 90 0 33 44 68 7 60 0 0 4 75 3 30 0 100 35 35 0 0 78 60 53 47 36 34 43 53 1 9 I 392 41 1,115 62 283 64 392 41 TOTAL STATE 16,945 ! 1,250 7.3 j 1,257 . \ 1,790 ____ _ __ 53

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52 Ploricla Cooperative Extension ENROLLMENT STATISTICS FOR 1939 In the counties where county agents are employed there were 15,296 boys available and 4,125 club members (mostly boys) enrolled. This gives us about one out of four available boys enrolled, which is the national average. Table 10 gives enrollment in each county. The table shows the enroll ment and reports per county for 1938 and 1939 as well as number of farms in county and estimated number of boys available. The goal of 6,000 members set for the y e ar is shown to have been reached. Goal set on reports was 60 percent; as the following table indicates, it was not fully attained. A gain to 54 percent from 53 was registered. Table 11 gives counties which secured 60 % or more reports . This li s t of counties will be placed on the 4-H honor roll for 1939. These 23 county agents out of 55 had 3 , 9% of available boys in State and 56 % of enrollment and secured 76% of all reports received. Six counties where 4-H boys are employed had 13 % of available boys in State and 35% of enrollment and secured 46 % of all reports received. PROJECTS . PROGRESS AND METHODS County agents were furnished with definite recommendations for 'project work. This was done in an attempt to assist agents in getting definite instructions to club members. In December 1937 and January 1938, the State Boys' Club Agent pre pared a rather voluminous looseleaf Boys' 4-H Club Guide. In this guide almost everything having to do with boys' club work in Florida was put in shape for easy reference by the county agent. The agents interested in club work reported that it was the most valuable addition to club work that had been made in years. Each year loose she e ts are sent to county agents to substitute where changes have been made or for including where subject covered is new. Talks were made before 15 luncheon clubs, four farmers' and business men's clubs and over 100 school talks were made by State Boys' Club Agent. Monthly radio talks over WRUF were given on club work. The project work with poultry and livestock showed some improvement again in 1939. The number and quality of baby beef shown at the Fat Stock Show increased. A club boy exhibited the grand champion pen of three. The State Pig Club Show did not bring out quite as many entries as last year, but all were of high quality. The State Poultry Show was the best and largest we have held . 4-H CLUB CAMPS The three district camps were improved by the addition of enough mattresses to furnish one for every bed. Seats for the auditorium were built for each cam p. New equipment was added for kitchens and general efficiency of camps was improved. Every county but one having boys' 4-H club work was represented at camp in 1939. A change was made in type of camps held at Timpoochee. In the past joint camps have been held there. In 1939 it was decided to hold boys and girls camps separately. The results varied. We were pleased that again we were able to allow Alabama counties to use the faciliti e s of Camp Timpoochee. We are not using Camp Tiinpoochee and Cherry Lake long enough to justify the . money invested. We hope that the use of these camps can be extended. Camp McQuarrie operated continuously from the second week in June through the second week in September.

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TABLE 10.-BOYS AVAILABLE FOR CLUB WORK AND ENROLLMENT AND REPORTS BY COUNTIES, 1939. County I Number I Number I White Boys Farms Available 1938 Enroll ment -----------. Alachua 1,301 434 210 Baker .. . . .. ... .... ..... 419 139 38 Bradford 796 265 69 Brevard 686 131 54 Columbia ---------914 321 56 Dade ... ... . . .... . . .. .. .. 1,587 317 99 DeSoto 435 87 119 Duval ... .. ...... .. .. . .. 1,021 340 185 Gilchrist ---------518 172 25 Hamilton 633 211 0 Hardee ........ . .. ..... 1,471 300 105 Levy . ... .... ...... ... ... 726 242 0 Marion . . . ............. 1,886 628 75 Nassau 565 155 102 Okeechobee -----259 52 25 Palm Beach ---1,037 207 141 Pasco 1,237 412 431 Putnam ---808 269 28 St. Johns ............ 472 157 61 Seminole ----942 188 15 Sumter 928 309 180 Union -----523 174 47 Volusia 2,572 514 26 TOTAL South6,024 east District .. 21,786 2,091 I 1939 Enroll ment 197 88 59 52 64 123 97 193 20 0 78 0 232 83 23 108 477 41 43 0 220 60 39 2,297 Gain I I I Gain or 1938 Reports I 1939 Reports I or Loss Loss Number I Percent I Number I Percent I Percent -13 101 47 63 32 --15 +50 13 34 34 38 + 4 -10 22 32 10 17 15 2 26 50 16 30 -20 + 8 40 71 46 72 + 1 +24 46 46 37 30 -16 -22 59 50 50 51 + 1 + 8 128 69 1,20 62 7 5 15 60 10 50 JO 0 0 0 0 0 0 -27 45 42 50 64 +22 0 0 0 0 0 0 +157 20 26 136 60 +33 -19 6 6 50 60 +54 2 14 58 20 84 +26 -33 103 72 78 72 +46 371 87 399 84 3 +13 23 82 33 80 2 -18 61 100 43 100 -15 7 47 0 0 +40 160 88 206 93 + 5 +13 30 64 45 75 +11 +13 12 46 20 51 + 5 ----------------+206 1,302 62 1,466 63.7 + 1.7

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TABLE 10.-BOYS AVAILABLE FOR CLUB WORK AND EN.WLLMENT AND REPORTS BY COUNTIES, 1939-Continued. County White Boys EnrollEnrollor 1938 Reports 1939 Reports or Loss Farms Available ment ment ' Loss Number I Percent 1 Number I Percent I Percent I Number I Number I 1938 1939 Gain Gain Bay ................... ... 202 68 80 17 -63 I 72 90 14 82 -8 Calhoun 150 47 6 0 -6 2 33 0 0 Dixie -267 89 16 40 +24 11 68 25 62 -6 Escambia 1,094 563 130 115 -15 79 60 81 70 +10 Gadsden .. .......... .. 848 282 0 0 0 0 0 Holmes 1,786 595 92 146 +54 70 75 29 20 -55 Jackson .... ......... . 2,517 835 343 384 +u 43 12 24 6 -6 Jefferson 444 148 61 71 +10 18 30 42 60 +18 Lafayette 434 145 25 16 -9 25 100 12 79 -21 Leon ....... . ............ 368 122 53 58 + 5 19 35 40 70 +30 Liberty 184 62 16 17 + 1 -0 0 0 Madison ... .. ..... . ... 856 285 91 98 + 7 54 60 43 43 -17 Okaloosa 1,067 322 93 64 -19 44 47 26 40 -7 Santa Rosa ........ 1,240 413 78 80 + 2 28 36 29 36 0 Suwannee ..... ..... 1,433 474 195 253 +58 85 43 94 37 -6 Taylor ---------545 109 32 29 -3 25 90 +90 Walton ................ 1,303 434 138 105 -33 74 53 60 59 + 6 Wakulla . ........... .. 233 78 Washington --1,051 I 350 90 61 -29 8 9 0 0 I 9 TOT AL NorthGJ I west District 17,114 5,591 1,539 +15 632 i 41 544 35 6

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TABLE 10.-BOYS AVAILABLE FOR CLUB WORK AND ENROLLMENT AND REPORTS BY COUNTIES, 1939-Concluded. I Number I Number I 1938 1939 Gain I I Gain County White I Boys I EnrollEnrollor I 1938 Reports I 1939 Reports I or Loss I Farms Available I ment ment Loss I Number I Percent I Number I Percent I Percent ----Charlotte ....... . . . .. 148 I 30 19 12 -7 16 84 12 100 +16 Glades and Hendry 346 69 64 12 -52 6 9 0 0 -9 Hernando ----459 92 18 20 + 2 16 80 +so Highlands 654 131 20 2 -18 15 75 2 100 +25 Hillsborough 3,944 789 124 172 +48 89 71 124 72 + 1 Lake ... . ........... . .. . . 2,491 498 421 673 +252 352 83 468 72 -11 Lee 508 102 36 62 +26 13 36 21 34 -2 Manatee .. ...... . .... . 1,155 251 67 72 +5 Orange ............ . ... 3,111 620 124 183 +59 86 70 81 44 -26 Osceola -537 117 0 7 + 7 0 0 7 100 +100 Pinellas . ........... .. 766 152 14 +14 7 50 +so Polk -4,020 804 3 0 3 3 102 0 0 -100 Sarasota --180 36 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 I --------118,324 . . . . 1~ I I TOTAL SouthI west District 3,681 896 +333 I 580 64 756 I 61+ -3 I District Southwest ..... ..... 1 18,324 3,681 \ 896 1,229 +333 580 64 756 61+ 3 Northwest ..... . .... 1 17,114 5,591 1,539 1,554 + 15 632 41 544 35+ 6 Southeast 21,178 6,024 I 2,091 2,_297 +206 1,312 62 1,466 63.7 + 1.7 I I STATE .............. , 57,224 15,296 4,526 5,080 +554 I 2,514 53 I 2,766 54+ I + 1 01 01

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56 Florida Cooperative Extension TABLE 11.-C0UNTIES SECURING 60% REPORTS. I Boys I Number I Number I County Available Enrolled Reports Percent Reports Columbia . . ....................... . 1 ~l64 Duval .......................... .. .... 340 193 Hardee .... . ..... ....... ... ......... . 300 78 *Marion .................. . ........... 628 232 Nassau .. ... . . ...... . ..... . . . ..... .. 155 83 Okeechobee ....... ... . ... ........ 52 23 Palm Bea ch ........ . ............. 207 108 *Pasco ... . ................. . ........ . ... 412 477 Putnam.... .. ......... ...... ...... . .. 269 41 St. Johns ................. . ..... ..... 157 43 *Sumter ............ . ................. 309 220 Union . ... . ..................... . ..... 174 60 *~file:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 17 40 Escambia . ............ .. ........... 563 115 Jefferson ... .. .......... .... ......... 148 71 Lafayette . ............ .. ........... 145 16 *Leon ....... ... ........................ 122 58 Taylor ........ .. ......... .. ......... .. 109 29 Charlotte ... ..... ... . ... .......... . 30 12 Hernando ............. ... .......... 92 20 Hillsborough .... ......... ....... 789 172 *Lake ... ...... ......................... 498 673 TOT AL .. ... . ...... ... .. . ............ . j 5,977 2,847 *Counties where former 4•H club boys were employed. 55 Counties Average number boys available per county .... 278 Average number boys enrolled per county ...... 92 Average percent available enrolled per county 33 Average number reports per county ...... ... ....... 50 Average percent reports per county .................. 54 --------46 72 120 62 50 64 136 60 50 60 20 84 78 72 399 84 33 80 43 100 206 93 45 75 14 82 25 62 81 70 42 60 12 79 40 70 25 90 12 100 16 80 124 72 486 72 2,103 73 6 Counties 23 Counties where with 60% 4-H Boys Reports Employed 259 339 123 279 47 82 91 213 73 75 SHOWS, EXHIBITS AND CONTESTS The 1939 State Pig Club Show was held at Tallahassee and was spon sored by the Leon County Fair. Fewer pigs were shown but the quality was excellent. County Agent K. S. McMullen again handled all details. , The State 'Poultry Show is growing. The first year we filled but 1/4 of the building. In 1939 we filled the entire building. Over 400 birds were exhibited by club members. The State 4-H Poultry Judging Contest is held in connection with this show. The Central Florida Exposition s'ponsors this contest. The biggest improvement was made in the baby beef exhibit at the Florida Fat Stock Show. The number of exhibits increased over 100%. A 4-H entry was grand champion pen of three. Beef cattle judgil}-g contest is held in connection with this show. Eleven teams competed in 1939, four more than in 1938. Bradford County had the winning team, whose members received scholarships to short course. The state poultry judging contest is somewhat different than the usual in that the winning team is selected on the entire poultry club records of the

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Annual Report, 1939 57 participants. The winning club member in this contest was given a $100.00 scholarship. The winning county team also represents Florida .in the National 4-H Poultry Judging Contest in Chicago. Lake County boys' team won in 1939 and Joe Busby also of Lake County is now in college on his $100.00 scholarship. In 1939 six counties sent teams for the dairy demonstration. Alachua County members won and were awarded the trip to San Francisco. At the last minute one of the Alachua County team could not go, so the second team from Pasco County went. They won second in the Southern Division. TRIPS OUT OF THE STATE Florida was represented by two boys at the 1939 National 4-H Camp, Everette Davis of Escambia County and Jack Prator of Pasco County. The Pasco County dairy demonstration team went to the National Dairy Show. A team of two boys and one girl represented Florida 4-H club work at the judging contest held in connection with the World Poultry Congress at Cleveland. . Three boys attended the 4-H Club Congress from Florida. The state champion barrow was shown by a girl this year. Joe Busby, Henry Swanson and Billy Lorenz of Lake County made this trip. STATE BOYS' SHORT COURSE This is the big event of the club year. Many boys have received the inspiration to go to college by attending a short course. Only boys winning a trip in their club work can attend. The 1939 short course was held at the University of Florida May 29 to June 3. We were not successful in getting representation from every county. Some were unable to come because of conflict with school xaminations and some county agents failed to secure any scholarships for prizes. STATE WINNERS IN PROJECT WORK Meat Animal Production.-Sidney Allen of Suwannee County won the gold watch offered by Thomas E. Wilson. Baby Beef.-Lonnie Howell of Holmes County showed champion 4-H steer. Sidney Allen of Suwannee County showed grand champion pen of three. Leroy Fortner of Alachua County won the $100 scholarship given by Florida Fat Stock Show to outstanding boy in beef project. Fat Barrow.-Eloise Boyles, a pig club girl from Suwannee County, showed grand champion barrow at State Pig Club Show and won the trip to Chicago. Breeding Pig.--Jack Dyer of Union County showed the grand champion breeding pig and also reserve champion barrow. SCHOLARSHIP WINNERS National 4-H Fellowship.-Wilmer Bassett, former 4-H club boy and assistant agent in Lake County, won this $1,000 fellowship and is now in Washington. Bankers' Scholarship.-Zeke Bagley of Jackson County, Benjamin Wood ball of Duval and Harry L. Collins, Jr., of Lake won the three bankers' scholarships. Woodhall and Collins entered college in September. Lake County Scholarship.-Claxon Parker won the scholarship con tributed by the Lake County bankers. Parker entered college.

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension Fat Stock Show Scholarship.--Leroy Fortner of Alachua County won this scholarship. He is a sophomore in college. Central Florida Exposition Scholarship.-Joe Busby of Lake County won this award and entered the University of Florida in Se'ptember. Sumter County Scholarship.-This was won by Billy Sharpe. United States Sugar Corporation Scholarship.-This, the most valuable scholarship offered, was won by Dan Roberts of Alachua County. He is expected to take some line of work in college which will fit him to be of assistance in the sugar industry of Florida. Sears, Roebuck Scholarship.-For the past two years a 4-H club boy has won the special scholarship given to the freshman of those receiving Sears, Roebuck scholarships who made the highest grade in college work. Russell Peeples won in 1938 and Arthur P. Ellis for 1939. The majority of those awarded these scholarships are 4-H club boys. The Extension Service does not have a part in the awarding of the Sears, Roebuck scholarships. Kraft-Phenix Cheese Company Scholarship.-By winning second in the Southern Division in the contest at San Francisco David Boatwright and Maxie Bryant of Pasco County won $100 scholarships. OTHER CONTRIBUTORS TO CLUB WORK The Atlantic Coast Line gave a trip to the National 4-H Camp. The Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company gave $150 toward expenses of taking poultry judging team to Chicago. This was given through the Florida Chain Store Association. The Central Florida Exposition at Orlando sponsored the State Poultry Show and contributed several hundred dollars in prizes. The Leon County Fair Associ a ti , on sponsored the State Pig Club Show and contributed the cash premiums. The Florida Fat Stock Show sponsored the State Baby Beef Show and contributed prize money. Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo contributed money for trip to Chicago for girl who showed championbarrow. Mr. Mayo also con tributed heavily to the various local fat stock shows at which 4-H club boys won nice premiums. The service clubs, boards of county commissioners, and business men in the State contributed 300 short course scholarships as well as many of the awards at the county contests. OTHER EXAMPLES OF GOOD WORK One of the finest pieces of club work in Florida was turned in by County Agent J. A. McClellan when on four days' notice he whipped his dairy demonstration team into shape and won second in the contest at San Francisco. Pasco County was awarded the cup as having best 4-H club work in the state for 1938-39. We are using the radio to publicize club work. The State Boys' Club Agent made nine talks over WRUF, the University of Florida Station. He also talked over WDBO at Orlando and WTAL at Tallahassee. During short course the radio is used daily. The opening program is broadcast and four boys appear on the farm hour each day. On National Achievement Day 4-H club programs are put on not only over the four stations of the NBC but also from Orlando, Ocala and Gainesville. Some of the agents use their local stations several times during the year. In 1988 Baker County built the first county 4-H club building for boys' work in Florida. This year Lake County completed a club building.

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Annual Report, 1989 59 CITRUS FR~IT CULTURE E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist Citrus Extension work was conducted during the year by the Citri culturist and farm agents in 26 counties. Assistance was received from district agents; members of the Experiment Station staff; the Federal State Horticultural Protection Service; specialists of the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture; representatives of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the Farm Credit Adiministration, and the State Plant Board. Very constructive cooperation was received from Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated; the Florida Citrus Commission; the Florida Citrus Exchange; production managers of cooperative associa tions; and field representatives of fertilizer and insecticide companies. PROBLEMS CONFRONTING INDUSTRY The 'primary problem of the Florida citrus industry, which directly confronts the Extension Service, is to bring about still further reductions in the cost of producing citrus fruits so that they can be sold at a price within reach of more consumers in the low income groups and which will rnturn to the producer some profit on production cost. At the same time the quality of the fruit, particularly the eating quality, must be maintained at a high consumer standard to further strengthen demand and increase consumption. It is therefore imperative that every unnecessary expenditure in both production and marketing be eliminated, that the efficiency of every essential operation be maintained at the highest possible degree, and that a high consumer standard of quality be established and rigidly maintained in both production and marketing. FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS Four hundred records show that yield is the most important factor in determining net returns on production expenditures, as long as returns to the grower can be maintained at a level above cost of production. Yield and unit cost of production are largely determined by the fertilizing practice 2nd soil management. Results of 21 demonstrations involving 480 acres impress the importance of using a completely balanced fertilizing program. In these demonstra tions, where magnesium, zinc (on foliage or soil), copper and manganese were included in the fertilizing program as needed, average results, in comparison with comparable check groves in which these "secondary elements" were not added where needed, are summarized in Table 12. TABLE 12.-RELATION OF BALANCED FERTILIZER TO YIELD, PRODUCTION COST, FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY*, AND PLANT FOOD APPLIED. Yield ~T_r_e_a_tm_en_t~~~per Acre Boxes Secondary elements not added I Secondary I elements I added ..... . I 111 172 Production Cost per Box Cents 68 41 Fertilizer Efficiency Percent 12 18 I Lbs. N, P,O, & K,Q Applied Per Acre 262 270 *Percent of plant nutrients in the fertilizer recovered and removed by the crop.

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GO Florida Cooperative Extension Research points out that a higher degree of efficiency of the fertilizer applied can be obtained by maintaining the s oil reaction of the naturally acid soils within the range of pH 5.5 to 6.2. In 45 demonstration groves of 1,000 acres, in which the soil reaction was maintained within the range of pH 5.5 to 6.2 by the use of dolomite, average results in comparison with check groves in which the pH fell below the standard are given in Table 13. TABLE 13.-RELATION OF PH TO FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY, PLANT FOOD APPLIED, YIELD AND PRODUCTION COST. Fertilizer J Lbs. N, P , O , &I Y i eld Production Efficiency K , O Applied I per Acre Cost per Box Percent I Per Acre Boxes 1 -Cent _ s _ _ Range of pH 5.5 to 6,2 17 251 151 39 Range of pH below 5.5 12 287 122 47 Soil acidity tests were made on 1,563 groves, representing 32,000 acres, and instructions were given growers for maintaining the desired pH. EFFECTS FROM COVER CROPS Effects of a definite cover crop program in the production of citrus are found in the records of 26 demonstration groves, summarized in Table 14. In these groves , involving a total of 590 acres, a continuous effort has been made to increase yield and net returns, and lower cost of production, by making full use of cover crops that produced the greatest tonnage of organic matter, and by maintaining the . optimum pH for the cover crop. TABLE 14.-RELATION OF COVER CROP TO YIELD, PRODUCTION COST AND FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY. Marketing Production Yield Fertilizer I Lbs. N, P , O, & Year Cost per Box per Acre __ ._ , Efficiency I K , O Applied Cents Boxes Percent I Per Acre 1936-37, Av. 56 108 9 I 339 1937-38, Av. 41 131 12 309 1938-39, Av. 32 215 16 380 CULTIVATION AND IRRIGATION Forced economy in production is gradually correcting the evil of exces s ive . cultivation. The limited operating budget . presents the opportunity to im ' press the facts of direct waste and ill effects of too much cultivation. In efficiency analysis of production operation it has been pointed out that high efficiency in fertilizing will not tolerate excessive cultivation. Furthermore, nutrient deficiency diseases are aggravated by excessive or improper cultivation. These facts have been further established this year by 110 demonstrations in 20 counties, and have been e mphasized in 81 news storie s and radio talks.

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Annual Report, 1939 61 Growers have been handicapped in equipping for grove irrigation be cause of low price of fruit. The portable irrigation plant developed and demonstrated ,by the Extension Service in 1934-35 has 'proved highly valu able to many growers during the droughts of the last two years. Six cooperative associations have built portable units and have irrigated the groves of many of their grower members. Seven commercial operations and grove caretakers have added to their equipment portable irrigation units and are doing custom irrigation. Demands upon the Extension Service to assist growers with their irrigation problems have been very heavy during the past year. In addition to 201 growers assisted in purchasing irrigation equipment for 4,000 acres, 177 growers were assisted in making improvements in old plants to render them more adequate or to make possible their operation at lower cost. MELANOSE, STEM-END ROT AND SCALE CONTROL As fruit prices decline and the margin of difference in prices by grades narrows, profits on measures designed for melanose control primarily be come questionable. Therefore preventive measures, which affect control of stem-end rot also, are being stressed in the whole culture program. The fact has been forcefully emphasized in 57 demonstration groves, 1200 acres, that the most effective melanose control or prevention results from the cultural practices which promote high tree vitality, such as ample water supply, conservative cultivation, and adequate fertilization, including mag nesium, copper, zinc and manganese. It is also noted that a cultural program thus maintained results in an a ppreciable control or prevention of stem-end rot. Extension work on scale control emphasizes the economic importance of going back in the culture program and removing as far as possible the necessity for the practices which result in an increase in the scale popula tion. It has been demonstrated that the preventive measures for melanose control, when carried out, greatly lessen the need for copper sprays; and that substituting for the sprays soil ap'plications of copper, manganese, and in many instances zinc, removes dreaded causes of scale increase. Nine method demonstrations in the proper technique of applying oil sprays were conducted in six counties, and were attended by 166 growers. The oil sprays schedule of the "Better Fruit Program" was made availahle to all growers and about 9,000 copies were distributed. CONTROL OF RUST MITE AND FRENCHING It is necessary to keep ever before growers improvements in rust mite control measures developed by research and to re-impress the fact that fruit is in danger of rust mite discoloration as long as it is on the tree. This has been done in 62 grower meetings in 20 counties, by radio, press articles, and grove visits. Spray and dust schedules have been distributed to more than 10,000 growers. In 19 demonstration groves an average saving of 1 cent a box on 57,000 boxes was realized on rust mite control by more careful timing of the applications of dusting sulfur and by using more material per tree at an application. Frenching, a zinc deficiency disease of citrus trees, has been a topic for discussion in 207 grower meetings in 26 counties during the year. Film slides in natural colors were projected in most instances, and every detail of the disease and co1Tective measures were discussed. The fact that zinc has just as important a place in citrus tree nutrition as 'potash, phosphorus or nitrogen is brought out in the average results of l4 demonstration groves and summarized in Table 15. Results of these

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension groves were compared with the average of 14 comparable groves, receiving practically the same treatment, but with zinc deficiency untreated. The cost of supplying the zinc needed was approximately cent per box. TABLE 15.-EFFECT OF ZINC DEFICIENCY ON YIELD, PRODUCTION COST AND FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY. Treatments I Yield Production I Fertilizer jLbs. N, P,O , , & per Acre Cost per Box I Efficiency K,O Applied I Boxes Cents I Percent Per Acre Zinc deficient! 121 55 13 263 Zinc applied I 167 40 20 236 I BRONZE LEAF CONTROL Bronze leaf is a foliage symptom of magnesium deficiency. To main tain an available supply of magnesium in the acid soils in the most economical and most practical manner, the soil pH must be maintain e d around 6.0. This can be done in the citrus grove most safely by the use c,f dolomite which at the same time supplies magnesium slowly. For correcting a deficiency of magnesium in an advanced stage and for supply ing the nutrient on soils of a high pH, magnesium sulfate is used to supple ment or replace dolomite. Thus it is seen that soil acid tests are essential in establishing a basis for proper treatment. During the year, 1,900 such tests were made in 25 counties, representing 30,160 acres. The importance of correcting magnesium deficiency, of maintaining the optimum soil reaction, and of maintaining an adequate su ' pply of magnesium in the soil, may be seen in the records of 31 groves, summarized and averaged in Table 16. In 1935-36 all of these groves exhibited symptoms of magnesium deficiency in varying degrees and the soil pH was generally Lelow the optimum. Dolomite was applied annually during the last three years, in rates of 500 to 1,000 pounds per acre, supplemented by the use of magnesium sulfate in a few instances of advanced degrees of deficiency. The total cost of supplying the magnesium and correcting soil acidity averaged $2.20 an acre per year. TABLE 16.-THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNESIUM ON YIELD, PRODUCTION COST AND FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY. Marketing Yield Production I Fertilizer I Lbs. N, P,O s & Year per Acre Cost per Box / Efficiency K,O Applied Boxes Cents Percent Per .A,c r e 1936-37 112 61 10 314 1937-38 131 52 13 285 1938-39 219 31 19 326 MEETINGS, TOURS AND VISITS Assistance has been given Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated, by speaking at meetings of growers' county units and in state meetings, on problems of production and marketing, also by working with the program

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Annual Report, 1939 63 committees of community and county units, as well as the State organiza tion, in preparing appropriate educational programs. Much time has been devoted to attending meetings of directors and conferences with representatives of various organizations which have to do with the citrus industry in its different phases. In this manner the Extension Service has been drawn closer to the organized element of the industry. During the year 297 educational meetings were held with growers in 24 counties. Eleven tours of growers were conducted to demonstrations and to experimental plots of the Citrus Experiment Station. A tour from one county was attended by 125 growers. Grove visits reported by farm agents numbered 2,369. The fifth annual Growers' Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County, in early September. About 300 growers enrolled from 11 counties. Various phases of citrus production and marketing were discussed by representatives of the Extension Service, the Citrus Experiment Station, Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated, and commercial organizations. The Citriculturist served on the advisory committee to the Better Fruit Committee of the Florida Citrus Commission. This advisory committee compiled the material and prepared for publication the spraying and dusting schedules of the Better Fruit Program for 1939. He made two trips to the markets, visiting principal cities in Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. The purpose was to obtain first hand information on dealer and consumer reaction to grades, sizes and processing treatments.

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension FARM FORESTRY L. T. Nieland, Exten s ion Farm Forester Improvement of farm timber stands, marketing forest products, tire prevention in wooded areas, reforestation practices and activities with 4-H club members continued to be the main undertakings in this work. TIMBER STANDS DEMONSTRATIONS Sixteen method demonstration meetings were held in 16 northern Florida counties. These meetings were held in the woods where correct methods could be demonstrated on typical stands of farm timber. Advance publicity was provided by the county agents through newspaper articles and circular letters to farmers. Farm Security Administration county supervisors were invited to participate and to invite their clients. Vocational agricultural instructors and their students were also invited. Representatives of the Naval Stores Control Program, U. S. Forest Service, State Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, and Bureau of Chemistry and Engineering assist6d the county agents and Extension Forester in conduct ing the demonstrations. Each of these agencies presented some feature of the program. Pulpwood cutting, pruning, turpentining (gum farming), improvement cutting, thinning, planting, and tire prevention methods were demonstrated. A form of round table discussion followed. ' A total of 427 farmers attended the 16 farm forestry demonstration meetings conducted in 16 different farm woods; 255 farmers and farm women attended four other meetings before which this subject was discussed. One hundred seventy 4-H club boys were given instruction in farm timber stand improvement work while at camp, and during the annual short course. Fifty members of civic clubs and 55 county agents received the benefit of some information on this subject. Upwards of 60 individual farm visits were made during which this was discussed and demonstrated. Altogether 1,017 persons were contacted with reference to farm timber stand improve ment work. MARKETING FARM TIMBER In addition to the 1,017 farmers and others receiving instruction in better marketing of farm timber, an additional 120 farmers in 29 counties were assisted in more conservative and advantageous cutting and marketing of their forest crops, making a total of 1,137 persons who received the benefit of this teaching program. It is reasonable to expect that many of these farmers will discuss the lessons learned with others, thus extending the effects of the educational work. In the two adjoining counties of Lafayette and Suwannee farmers having stands of pine timber of turpentine size are, as a result of this educational program, organizing themselves into a two-county gum farming producers' unit, the first of such enterprises in the State. PREVENTION OF FIRES Methods underwent something of a change in this field during the period, to give the work more aspects of the positive approach than had been presented :formerly. Stress was placed on sundry phases of woods improvement that cannot be accomplished without protection against tires. In addition to the 1,017 farmers, 4-H club members, and business men who attended the group meetings previously mentioned, and who received instruction in fire prevention along with other information, an additional

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Annual Report, 1939 65 70 individual farm . visits were made by the Extension Forester in 21 counites during which advice and assistance in forest protection was given . Thus the total number of persons reached with a direct message on fire prevention was 1,087. Upon request, an address on forest protection and conservation was pre pared .and delivered by the Extension Forester before the women's club of Dade City (Pasco County). Thirty-two members were present. REFORESTATION ENDEAVORS The need for reforestation of depleted and under-stocked timber stands was stress e d in all group discussions and demon s tration meetings with farmers, 4-H club members, county agents, and others. Areas of poor, steep, or wet lands unsuited for cultivation were pointed out, during farm visits, as desirable locations for farm forests. Ten method demonstrations in correct planting were given before groups of farmers in 10 different counties. Many individual farm demonstrations in pro"per planting were also given . According to the county agents' annual reports, farm forestry work was included as part of the county agent's program of work in 22 counties. Although it is known that more forest trees were planted in other counties which are not reported, eight counties r e ported that 1,247,300 trees were planted with the assistance of county agents. Although not all farms planting forest trees were listed, the reports showed 1,838 acres were planted on 85 farms. Counties in which outstanding results in forest tree planting were secured are Walton, Jackson, Liberty, Union, Suwannee, V\Takulla, DeSoto, and Polk. FORESTRY IN 4-H CLUBS Assistance was given in setting up the 4-H club forestry educational exhibit at the Lake County Fair in Eustis. A class containing 23 advanced 4-H club boys r e ceived special instruction from the Extens i on Forester during the annual short course at the Uni versity of Florida. Lecture , demonstrations during the Short Course for Girls at Florida State College for Women were attended by about 450 4-H club members. Two weeks s ' pent in teaching forestry at Camp McQuarrie reached a total of 189 youths. In a group meeting at Lake City, with the agricultural agents from nine counties present, plans were developed for 4-H club forestry work in northeastern Florida. Forestry clubs in the Lake County 4-H club organization were addressed twice, about 45 members having turned out on these occasions. All told, the Extension forestry program was presented to 707 young people during 1939.

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension PART III-WOMEN'S AND GIRLS' DEMONSTRATIONS GENERAL HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent Lucy Belle Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent The ultimate objectives of the home demonstration program have changed little. To make use of the resources of the farm, farm home and the community to> the end that family incomes may be increased; to teach better practices and higher standards; to develop leadership among rural women and girls; and to improve family living and rural life are objectives which have constantly guided the trained workers and responsible home demonstration women and girls in program determination. Progress made in attainment of these general objectives is more or less intangible. The most valuable results of an educational program cannot be tabu lated. Brighter outlook, changes in attitude, improvements in family living, development of rural leadership, learning of skills and quality . standards, are intangible results noted in all counties where home demonstration work is conducted. The inspirational value to others of the examples of enrolled girls and women is increasingly evident in ' terms of better rural living. A greater development and use of the agricultural resources of the State can be traced directly to the instruction and guidance given to consumers in country and urban areas by home demonstration workers. The economic value of the home demonstration program can be only partially tabulated in terms of thrift in the home, actual increases in cash income and in wise conservation of food and health. OBSERVANCE OF 25 YEARS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Anniversary of twenty-five years of home demonstration work in Florida was celebrated with special programs in each of the 37 organized counties. All the programs were scheduled to fall within a week or two of the anniversary date of the passing of the Smith-Lever Act and many of them were tied up with county-wide 4-H club achievement days. Men and women agents worked together in planning observation of this epochal event. Where Achievement Day programs were not held, the occasion was in . the nature of a rally or picnic at which public spirited people joined with Extension workers to make the event one of significance. Each mem ber of the State staff appeared on county programs on more than one occasion. PERSONNEL The personnel in home demonstration work consists of one state agent; three district agents; four specialists-in food conservation, nutrition, tex tiles and clothing, and home improvement; and 37 county home demonstra tion agents and three assistant agents employed in 36 counties. The work of the local Negro district agent and eight Negro county home demonstra tion agents is directed by the state home demonstration office. Men specialists located in Gainesville, particularly those dealing with poultry, dairying and editorial work, assist with the home demonstration program.

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Annual Report, 1939 67 Selection and Employment of New Agents.-One of the big personnel problems this year has been selecting and employing new agents to fill vacancies. The requirement for completion of a four-year college course in home economics has been rigidly adhered to in employing new workers, but a second need is for assistant agents who can be given experience under the direction of capable agents. and placed in counties as new positions open. Three assistants are now at work. Continued training for home demonstration agents in service to enable them to keep abreast of the requirements expected of them is one of the greatest needs of home demonstration work. Stress of work in the counties makes it practically impossible for agents to do as much reading of pro fessional literature as they would like, nor can arrangements be easily made to obtain extended leave for study. This need is partially met in Florida through work done with subject-matter specialists in home demon stration work and agriculture, through short courses, and through district and state conferences of Extension workers. Technical information relative to agricultural subjects prepared by Extension specialists, the State Plant Board and Experiment Station is sent directly to home agents, who use it for reference. Studies done by other governmental and related agencies which come across the desk of the State Home Demonstration Agent are made available on request to the field staff. If conditions in the counties are such that they can be away, agents are given opportunity to attend professional educational meetings in and out of the State, such as those of the Educational Association, Home Economics Association, and American Dietetic Association. Additional professional training was made possible for all agents by (1) one state conference, (2) four district conferences, and (3) four short courses. In addition, arrangements were made for two home demonstration agents to study for a short period at Florida State College for Women and plans have been discussed and recommendations made for summer courses on agriculture for active and prospective agents. Assistance in counties was increased. Full-time stenographers were secured in two counties; short-time assistance from State funds was given to 18 counties; small increases were made in budgets in 11 counties; new work rooms were secured in three counties, better office quarters in six. IMPROVEMENT IN ORGANIZATION Emphasis has been placed on the following points in 1939: (1) Clubs have been consolidated to save time and travel; (2) work has been planned to delegate all possible responsibilities to individuals or to other organiza tions; (3) special effort has ,been made to coordinate work of home demon stration agents and other governmental agencies to avoid duplication of effort; ( 4) long-time and immediate goals have been based on needs and determined by rural people; (5) plans for use of specialists' time have been improved, resulting in better service to counties, and in better coordination of all phases of the general home demonstration program. This year every. organized county in the State. has received at least seven days''aid from specialists, and though no cash has been saved from reduced travel, there has been saving in time and individual effort; (6) emphasis on quality of work undertaken has resulted in increased demonstration value of all enterprises. Quality work is emulated. Exhibits, records and reports of demonstrations show the improvement, and increased interest manifested in exhibits of .all sorts reflects appreciation of the high standard attained.

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension PROGRAM PLANNING AND , DEVELOPMENT Analysis of county needs with farm women and men thinking along with the workers has taken 'place in nine ~ounties. . Subsequent planning for a hom e d e monstration program to meet these needs has included the same group. Program planningand develo_pment has been participated in by women and girls through State and county , councils in 32 counties. Farm women were named to membership on State ,and county land-use committe e s. Home demonstration workers have long made use of all available factual data in determining county programs. , Census figures, reports from the State Department of Agricultur e , r e search studies done on a g riculture r , nd related .subjects, social s tudies, , educational -reports and our own Ex tension reports are sources u s ed . However, it has . become apparent that we need to obtain more facts from farm : people directly and through research for use in developing a practical pr9gram. In this connection all record books for indiyidual demonstrator s have been revised during the year with a view to unifying and as far as . possible simplifying them. Committees of home agents have worked with state supervisors and specialists in these revisions. One agent this year undertook a special study in her own county ( Gads den) to get factual data for . . guidance in program making. In determining programs the objective always foremost is a program to serve all members of the family. To achieve this requires that men and women Extension agents plan together to dovetail all demonstrations and enterprises in the home and farm to one common need. Analyzing county needs is undertaken in the individual counties and follows different procedures. Getting an expression of needs from farm families through community meetings held . for the ' purpose is becoming a more prevalent custom. In all the organized counties it has long been ~ustomary for home demonstrati o n agents to work with representatives of home d _ emonstration clubs in county-wide council meetings to determine rind plan programs. At such times ; the factual data referred to ar e reviewed together with current outlook material. Program planning begins likewise in the county and represents the combined thinking •of members . of . home demonstration club groups and the agent. Four important factor s are considered in making plans: Correlation of all phases of home demonstration . work to fit family and community needs; special attention to be given to the phase which will receive extra help . from the specialist assigned to the county; ' planned assistance from specialist s ; coordination with other governmental service programs. A four-year plan for the as s ignment of specialist assistance in the counties on a progressive schedule from year to year has made it possible for all counties to be ' served equitably and all agents receive the training and assistane . needed. District agents and specialists . now work with county home agents to determine and develop unified county programs before any specialist's work is begun. Th i s plan has developed a , general recognition of the need for long-time, well rounded county and State . plans with immediate objectives set up from year to year. Tl).e program thus . attained has steered away from over emphasis of any one phase to the neglect of other important needs. Program Development.-In developing -the program, use has been made of all Extension teaching methqds and procedures, of the training of the _ specialists, of the organi.-;ed , groups : of home demonstration women and girls, and of trained volunteer leadership.

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Annual Report, 1939 69 Work of the specialists in program development is signHicant. They are responsible for four points in each of the counties assigned for special work: (1) to acquaint the county home agent with recent reliable subject matter information and efficient Extension methods-in short, train the agent professionally; (2) to help the agent develop efficient methods for carrying on the program by assisting her with work with individuals and with organized communities; (3) to assist the agent in training volunteer local leaders; ( 4) to aid the agent in the establishment of result demon strations, both in individual homes and on a community-wide basis. To further integrate the various phases of work into a well balanced program, the specialists agreed last year that their plans would emphasize: (1) planning, (2) production, (3) cons e rvation, and (4) utilization. Dis cussions at monthly state staff meetings and analysis of situations observed in the counties while on field trips helped to guide the work of all staff members. In developing the ' program in the State, special effort has been made to establish outstanding demonstrations in the homes with accurate records so that others might be inspired to improve their own practices. Emphasis has also been put on improvement of quality on all work done. Club pro _ grams have been planned for continuity in the phase of work being emphasized in the county. Local leaders have been invaluable in program development, keeping behind demonstrations, ' prompting the work and assisting with method demonstrations at meetings, setting up exhibits, etc. Tours have proven most effective in stimulating interest in result demon strations. COUNCILS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FOR GIRLS AND WOMEN County and State councils of home demonstration work, compo s ed of representative rural women and girls, are important factors in making plans for unified programs, and also for training real leaders capable of assuming responsibility for carrying out these plans successfully. Four new county councils for women have been organized this year, making a total of 32. There are 31 county councils for girls in the :State. Each council met quarterly and operated under a definite plan of work with specific goals adopted by the council members for the county. County programs followed recommendations of the State council for State-wide work as far as practicable. Junior and senior State councils held a joint session for the first time during the 1939 State Short Course. At this time the junior council members stated their purposes and objectives, presented their program of work, and made a progress report of work being done in the counties. A significant result of this meeting has been the increased number of home demonstration women who have been inspired to volunteer for service as local leaders. The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work provided loan scholarships for two former 4 H club girls now in the College of Home Economics, Florida State College for Women. As a part of their scholar ship program, the council helped to meet the expenses of other worthy college 4-H club members in attending the Rural Youth Conference. The State Council has conducted for years a record book contest for county councils to interest the women in keeping a record of results of county council work and evaluating progress made. Seventeen books were submitted in 1939, and the Dade County Council received first honors. Leadership training meetings held in every county by the home demon stration agents assisted by the specialists and district agents were attended

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70 Florida Cooperative E x tensio n by more t han 3,300 leader s , girls and women. County and state counci l s held training meetings for local leaders so t h ey might lea1n to serve more intelligently. The number of volunteer leaders increased considerably this year, indicating that the women realize their own responsibility for exte nd ing the home demonstration program. F'ig . 4. 0ne county co unciJ of women's home de m onst.ration work provided a 1e 3t room at a state fair a s a community se rvic e which was much appreciated. The number of older 4-H club girls and former 4-H club girls serving as leaders is greater than last yea1, showing t ha t the interest gained as girls in matter of rural living carries over into their mature life. COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES Excellent relationship exist between home demonstiation workers and representatives of other organizations in the State . . Repo1ts ,show that agents have cooperated with co unty . health units . , Farm Security Aamin istration, Rural Electrification Ad1i1inistration, National Youth Administra tion, homemaking groups of Works Progress Administration, c hild welfare units, women's clubs, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, parent-teacher groups, schoo l principal s, fair organizations, Florida Public Health Associa tion, State Poultry Council, and Florida Beekeep , ers' . Association. In the counties where the REA has been developing lines, t h e home demo nstration agents h ave done what they could to promote interest in the program, and hav e correlated t he hom e demonstration program in home improvement to emphasize se l ection and use of e lectrical equipment. A total of 4111,~ days was devoted to cooperation with other agencies. Former home demonstration agents served this year as c hairm en of the Divi s ion of Home Demon strat ion and of the Department of American Home in the State Federation of Women's Clubs. Cou nty home demonstra tion agentl, were presidents of the State Dietetic Association and t h e State Home Economics As soc iation.

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Annual Report, 1939 71 School executives and teachers have given g e nerous cooperation, recog nizing the established place of home demonstration work in the educational program of the State. Home agents assist in furthering general educational p1ograms in the counties and help specifically with such things as hot school lunch programs, cooperation with parent-teacher associations, beautifying the school grounds, etc. The fine help given by the press of the state is appreciated and has enabled us to increase our service to many people. Cooperation of County Boards.-County commissioners and county school boards showed their approval and continued support of the 'program of home demonstration work and their recognition that the work has , grown during the year by increasing the financial , budgets for the work in 11 counties. Three counties-Dade , Duval and Pinellas-provided sufficient funds for employing assistant home demonstration agents. New or im proved offices were secured in six counties, new work rooms in three counties. COOPERATION WITH THE NATIONAL FARM PROGRAM The Federal Agricultural Adjustment Administration made provisions for men and women district supervisors of the Cotton States to attend a conference in Washington in February 1939 to which a representative was sent from this State. The purpose was to get basic information relative to: Training needed by Agricultural Adjustment Administration county personnel; work done by home agents and demonstration members toward better farm living; and the contribution which the Agricultural Adjust ment Administration can make to farm problems. Throughout the year State and county home demonstration workers have 'put emphasis on the economic and educational value of this phase of the national program. The State AAA Administrator appeared on State Council meeting pro grams and set forth the purpose and scope of this work. During the year similar programs have been given in the counties where home demonstra tion councils are organized. Home demonstration agents have made use of statistics available from Agricultural A.djustment Administration work sheets when determining program emphasis, as well as in program develop ment. Land-use planning has become a specific part of the county Extension organization in several Florida counties and in all the counties has given emphasis to the trend for analysis of county needs by trained workers and farm people working together. The land-use program was presented to th e members of the State Council of Home Demonstration Work at their annual meeting. The State home demonstration agent is a member of the State land-use committee and the three farm women members of the State committee are home demonstration women. HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH 4-H GIRLS Throughout this report the work of the 4-H girls and the adults has been discussed together because home demonstration supervisors are responsible for the development of plans of work for both. County home demonstration agents devoted approximately one-third of their time to work with girls . Enrollment.-Total enrollment of girls in 4-H club work increased this :,ear and quality and scope of results improved greatly.. Enrollment of girls by phases of home demonstration work is as follows: Gardening, 4,693; poultry, 1,395; foods and nutrition, 4,447; clothing, 8,697; home beautifica tion, 1,762; home orchards, 571; dairying, 243; food conservation, 2,576;

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72 Florida Cooperati ve Extension home management, 1;181; house furnishings, 1 , 654; handicraft, 652; home health and sanitation, 2,573 girls. The percentage of enrollment of the 10,664 girls by years in club work is as follows: First year, 43.1 % ; second, 24.9%; third, 14.2 % ; fourth, 8.7%; fifth, 5.1 % ; sixth or over, 4.1 % . In age groups 20 percent of the entire membership is at least 15 years old, indicating that rural girls are remaining as club members for longer periods or returning as members after dropping out for a time. One hundred older 4-H girls and former club members married or employed now serve as volunteer leaders for 4-H girls' clubs; 42.75% of all leaders for 4-H clubs are former club members. Cooperation with Adult Programs.-Councils of senior home demon stration work actively s ponsor 4-H club work for girls in the counties and in the State. All senior clubs devote at least one program each year to 4-H club work, presented by the girls . The senior clubs furnish many Short Course and camp scholarships. 'l'he State Council provides loan scholar ships for club girls in college. The transition to membership in senior groups has come readily for mature 4-H club members because of this inter exchange of interest and mutual understanding. State Short Course.'-The State Short Course attended by 538 girls and leaders and all home demonstration agents continues to be the outstanding event of the 4-H club girl's year, and affects the year's program in 4-H club work probably more than any other event. All State year-round contests are headed up at this time; instruction is based on club requirements and projects. . Council and club organization is taught. A popular innovation the past two years was the presentation of 4-H club girls as main speakers on the general assembly programs . Too much praise cannot be given the assistance rendered the Short Course by the members of the College 4-H Club who remain after college closes to help with the Short Course and they in turn receive valuable training in organization of community work. State Short Course scholarships are given by business men and women and civic organizations. Rotary, Kiwanis, Lions Clubs, Federated Clubs, P.-T. A., chambers of commerce, boards of county commissioners and school boards, as well as interested individuals provided most of the scholar ships this year. Camps.-Camps for 4-H girls really are county or district short courses. In most counties the "Short Course girls" assist with instruction of the younger girls and know when th e y come to Short Course that this will be their re s ponsibility. The 2,400 girls and leaders attending these camps, over 500 girls at the State Short Course, and nearly 100 women who attended the Senior Home Demonstration Council meeting, _ all received special training fitted to relieve the agent of many details of the programs in the communities. The number of encampments for women decreased this year. The decision to do this was made by the women to release more of the agent's time for other necessary work. Attendance at the girls' camps increased by 200. The 134 Achievement Day programs and exhibits also served as a means of giving considerable useful information to the 47,266 people attending them . . Contests.-Contests as such do not give any cause for conc e rn in our educational program in Florida because we do not establish any county or State contest which is not an integral part of the year's program. This rear State-wide contests were conducted in poultry, canning, clothing, and nutrition. A wards are given to the State office hy interested business organizations. A general plan is made and followed for all contests so_

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Annual Report, 1939 73 that all awards are given on approximately the same basis of work done and are commensurate in amount with effort expended and results achieved by the club members. Many girls are honored in each contest by featuring community and county winners rather than state winners only. College 4-H Club.-This organization began its 14th year with the c , pening of the Florida State College for Women in September. Member ship consists of approximately 100 girls who formerly were club members in the counties. Its purpose is to encourage other 4-H club girls to enter college; to develop an appreciative interest in college life; to promote the pl'ogram of 4-H club work in the State; and above all, to give the members a greater appreciation and better understanding of their responsibilities and opportunities for im'proving rural Jiving in Florida. The club develops n regular study program during the year. Its members participate actively in campus life and hold offices .in other clubs and classes. One of their most valuable services is given during the annual 4-H Short Course and at county camps where they serve as group leaders or instructors for the younger girls. Four past members of this club now serve as agents or assistant agents in Florida and show the . value of the training received in their 4-H club work and this college club. Rural Youth Conference.-For the secor.d consecutive year the members of the College 4-H Club and the young men of the Agricultural Club of the University of Florida have jointly ar-ranged a Rural Youth Conference which was held on the campus of the University. A week-end so spent provides a fine social experience for both the young men and women, i::cquaints them with the State educational institution, and contributes to their cultural development in college life. The conference ' program planned and carried out by the young people on the subject "Using Our Opportuni ties and Resources for Better Rural Living in Florida" has proved far reaching in its effect on the attitude of these young people regarding their responsibilities and opportunities. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Recreational activities have received new impetus. Two recreational training camps were held for adult leaders, and 75 training meetings were conducted by community leaders. Libraries were started and improved, pageants and plays presented , and club houses or community centers were built. The development of local leadership in rural communities, encourage ment of family recreation and guidance in a program of community recrea tion was emphasized during the year. To this end: 75 training meetings were conducted for community leaders. 358 community groups were assisted with programs of activities. 185 communities developed recreation according to recommendations. 1,283 families followed recommendations as to home r e creation. 95 community or county-wide pageants were presented. 37 community houses, club houses or community rest rooms were established. 32 communities were assisted in providing library facilities. 52 4-H club encampments were held with 1,631 club girls in attendance. 2 sectional recreational training camps for adult leaders were held through the cooperation of the National Recreation Association. HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING Industries developed affected individuals rather than community groups. Home. products were standardized and assistance was given in securing

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension markets and packaging marketable products. Road s ide markets were operated by women and girls and many sales made by individuals. Marketing.-The need for standardization _ of all marketable home pro ducts and establishment of standard prices as a means of increasing or s upplementing the income has been emphasized by home demonstration workers for a good many years. During the past year agents have concen trated their efforts on standardizing a few articles that could be made well at minimum cost of time and money. Native products and surplus food products have been featured. Recently developed State markets have given impetus to the marketing program already underway. The following results are reported: 803 4-H club members received instruction in marketing. 946 individuals were as s isted with marketing problems. 157 farmers were assisted in developing supplemental sources of income. 497 club members were a s si s ted in standardizing products for market. Product s sold: Fresh vegetables .... . .. ..... . ..... . .. .. . ... . ..... . .. .. .... .... . .. .. . . . $ 24,657.212 Fr es h fruits ... . . ...... : . ....... . . . .. ....... .... . . ... ... . ....... ......... . . . 6,904.87 Poultry and eggs ... . . . . ..... ............ . . ...... . ..... ............... . . 88 , 788.40 Dairy products ....... . . . .... ... .......... . ..... .... . . ................ .. . 28,360.18 Food products . . .. ... . .. . . . . . .. ... . ...... . .. .. . . . .... . . ..... .. ...... . .. ... 15 , 617.14 Canned goods . .. .. . ..... . ........ . .. .. . .. . . ... . .... . .... .. . . . .. . .. .. . ... . 6,476.42 Mi s cell a neous . ................ . . . .. .... ... .. . . .......... . . . . . ... . .. . .. . .. 18,904.49 $189,708.72 HEALTH DEVELOPMENT A positive health program was recognized as a necessity and was pro moted by home demonstration agents, farm women and girls to the extent that: 2,583 4-H club members were enrolled in special health projects. 1,799 4-H club members completed a special health demonstration. 4,353 4-H club niembers participated in some definite health improvement . 3,630 4-H club members and others had health examinations on recommendation s of extension workers. 5,343 individuals improved health habits. 3,794 individuals improved posture. 946 adopted better home-nursing procedure. 946 sanitary closets were installed. 1,143 families followed recommended methods of controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects. 12,835 individuals adopted recommended positive preventive measures to improve health. POULTRY . AND HOME DAIRYING Encouragement of other productive phases resulted in 2,060 poultry demonstrators in the state who reported: 199,191 chickens rai s ed in 1939. 1,712,767 dozen eggs produced at home. 211,504 dozen eggs used at home. 279,299 dozen eggs sold to supplement family income. 11,58"3 quart s of chicken canned for family food budget.

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Annual Report, 1939 There were 5,209 home dairy demonstrators and they reported: 585 milk cows added during the year. 2,125 families used standard quota of milk daily. 1,133 homes adopted improved practices in home dairying. 21,998 pounds of surplus butter sold. 75 ACTIVITIES OF COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS County home demonstration agents with the help of State workers super vised definite programs in the counties. They developed county plans of work, as rural people indicated their needs and desires, holding 6,714 meetings with an attendance of 236,373. They directed the activities of 1,157 volunteer leaders; held 8,741 method demonstration meetings with a total attendance of 162,229. They distributed 65,584 bulletins and carried on extensive correspondence, writing more than 29,900 personal letters and 1 , 866 circular letters. Negro home demonstration agents directed 213 volunteer leaders; held 1,480 method demonstration meetings with an attendance of 26,355; dis tributed 3,761 bulletins; wrote 2,688 individual and 138 circular letters. HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH NEGROES The number of Negro agents remains the same but the quality of work done improved noticeably. The Negro district agent, guided by the State agent, gives close supervision to the counties. An annual conference and a Short Course attended by 309 girls served as training meetings. The Negro agents assisted with a series of one-day farm and home institutes for Negro farm leaders from 47 counties to secure important data on farm living in Florida. The 1939 program was planned around the theme, "Supplying the Needs of Florida's Rural Negroes," with foremost aims of supplying the Negro family with adequate food, shelter and clothing. Other major problems worked on during the year were home sanitation, healthful living, and . home ownership. ' There were 2,528 girls enrolled in 123 clubs; 1,446 women enrolled in 83 clubs. Negro agents report work directly with 2,853 Negro families of the 5,518 Negro farms reported in the 1935 census, or 51 percent. One-sixth of the entire enrollment of girls have been in club work more than four years; 2,441 of the 2,528 Negro club members are in school. Progress was noted in the food conservation program for the year, which resulted in 35,502 quarts of food being canned by the homemakers and 4-H club girls . . A program for health and home sanitation received ,emphasis during the year with 193 families installing sanitary closet~ , en:: , . outhouses, and 82 dwelling houses being screened. , From the records compiled, 2,463 Negro families improved health as a result of the health and sanitation program. Home marketing of garden, orchard, and farm produce together with handicraft ' resulted in cash sales amounting to $59,912.08 during the year. This money was spent largely for food, clothing and house furnishing.

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Clarine Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles Purpose of the clothing and textiles program is to assist rural women and girls in establishing in their homes demonstrations in careful planning, wise selection, skillful making and efficient care of clothing and textiles for the family and the home. Rural women and girls learn much that is cultural as well as practical through participation in the clothing program. Artistic clothing and home furnishings offer the opportunity for development of self-expression and appreciation of beauty. Pride, satisfaction and self~assurance are qualities developed among both women and girls from presenting an attractive personal appearance. With continued low cash income for Florida farmers, and clothing and textiles taking fourth place in the family pattern of spending, all economies are encouraged. The buying of ready-to-wear garments and articles on an increased scale has necessitated consumer education in the clothing and textile program. Wise selection is emphasized. Of the 10,223 rural women and girls who received help in making cloth ing, the juniors made 31,543 articles, of which 7,198 were dresses. Although the trend is towards buying more ready-to-wear articles, home sewing continues to hold an important place, and the clothing work is among the most popular with 4-H club girls. CORRELATION WITH OTHER PROGRAMS A unified program for better family living is the goal of the Agricultural Extension Service, and the clothing and textiles work is correlated with other activities with this end in view. The clothing and textiles program contributes to better family relationships through a fair apportionment of the money available for clothing between members of the family, and through the pride and satisfaction engendered by being attractively dressed. Horne Managernent.-Taking inventories, making plans, and keeping accounts of expenditures and other features of wise home management are encouraged in all wardrobe and household textiles demonstrations. Selec tion and use of sewing equipment, apportionment of money to be spent on the wardrobes of members of the family, and efficient care of clothing and textiles also blend with home management. Health.-Proper selection of shoes and undergarments is stressed as important in developing correct posture and avoiding fatigue. Good groom ing is used to emphasize the need for good health and food habits. Sani tation, protection from disease and control of body temperature and moisture are among the clothing factors which contribute to health. A successful method demonstration on shoe selection was developed and presented to adult and older junior ,groups. It included a discussion of the health, aesthetic and economical aspects of footwear, and concluded with the group judging four pairs of shoes on display. The use of more cotton continues to be a part of the clothing teaching for health as well as economy. Cotton use was encouraged in sewing courses, exhibits of new fabrics, finishes and costumes, -and inconsumer education through the study of fabrics. Improvement in health and food habits has resulted from demonstrations in good grooming and the bodily measurements for pattern selection. Interest in the individual's physical condition was increased through 60 pattern alteration demonstrations.

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Annual Report, 1939 77 Home Improvement.-The relationship of the clothing and textiles pro gram to home improvement is expressed through home furnishings. At tractive and adequate textiles required for the various rooms of the home are constructed as one part of the 4-H club girl's clothing work. Through the establishment of household textiles demonstrations in the home by women, further unity is added. Principles of art as learned in dress are applied successfully to home decoration. The Farm.-The clothing and textiles program bears a direct relation ship to some of the agricultural programs. In the study of proper land u s e, specific information about clothing practices within the counties has been determined and used in program planning. Cotton, the principal textile t,sed for Florida wear, is of prime import in the AAA program. BEAUTY IN TEXTILES The satisfaction which comes to the individual as a result of wearing artistic clothing and living in attractive surroundings justifies the time devoted to the aesthetics of the clothing program. The principles of color, line and design are learned and applied to everyday living by home demon stration club members. In the 59 dress revues conducted this year both women and girls who modeled outfits which they had constructed, and those who. viewed them, learned effective methods of improving the artistic aspects of clothing. Sixty-nine girls were chosen from the 725 modeling in 28 county revues for girls to represent their counties in the 13th annual State Dress Revue held during Short Course. A quarter century of clothing and textile work in Florida was featured in a simple pageant celebrating the Silver Anni versary of Extension work. Clothing work by rural women and girls today expresses more careful planning through harmony in color design and texture. This is partly a result of 38,345 individuals receiving help in clothing selection during the past six years. ECONOMY IN TEXTILES Extending the farm income through economical clothing and textiles practices remains as important today as in the past. To improve further the management of the clothing dollar, skillful sewing and efficient car e have been emphasized. Rural women and girls to the number of 946 received help from the Clothing Specialist in wardrobe planning, making an inventory, a three-year clothing plan, and keeping records. Through this year's program 2,395 individuals have been assisted in keeping accounts of clothing expenditures, as compared with 1,822 last year. There was an increase of 203, to 1,148, in number of rural women and girls budgeting their clothing money. This year's savings resulting from the clothing program are estimated at $73,815.78, due in part at least to 2,068 familie s following clothing buying recommendations made by the agents. The clothing program has had its part in increasing satisfactions obtain ed from cash spent on this essential item of family living. Helpful hints on buying household textiles have been prepared and distributed to club members. Information on buying wardrobe items has been included in a recent publication for junior members. Twenty exhibits of good and poor buys have been displayed, and 35 method demonstrations on better buying have been presented. Clothing judging is ,another activity encouraged in the 4-H club girls' work. A clothing judging contest is conducted during Short Course to develop appreciation and judgment of clothing qualities.

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78 Florida Cooperative Extension Construction continues to be an important feature of the work, since a saving is realized from home sewing. Remodeling and renovll,ting clothing continues to be an economical practice for rural families. CARE OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Efficient care is essential to economical and artistic clothing. Since better cleaning and storage practices are urgently needed among rural families, all possible aids for developing this part of the program are employed. Improvement is being made gradually, as indicated by exhibits of better laundered clothing and increasing numbers and improvement of storage facilities. Laundry demonstrations have received greater emphasis this year, particularly methods used with rayons and fine cottons. A 4-H _ WINNER Elsie May Knott of Volusia County was awarded the trip to the National Club Congress in Chicago as State clothing winner. In addition to her outstanding clothing work, Elsie May has conducted a well rounded pro gram, including profitable canning and poultry demonstrations.

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Annual Report, 1939 79 FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist The plan for food, nutrition and health work in Florida took into consideration the relationship that existed between all phases of family living and farm enterprises. The general program developed was based upon the needs of the people themselves, the physical, climatic, and economic conditions in the various farming areas. The plans were made using factual information, and, through state, county, and community program 'planning conferences and councils, all activities were integrated in order that a unified program could be developed to meet the farm and home needs. Through this cooperative planning it was possible to furnish interested farm people with reliable information and to assist them to recognize their own problems, and, in this way, to help them develop a program through their own efforts which met their individual and family needs and conditions. The food, nutrition and health work for 1939 was a continuation of the fundamental program of planning, 'providing, conserving and utilizing the family food supply necessary to meet nutritional needs. No outstanding changes in the program were made but the plans were adapted to meet changing situations and the varying conditions of the individual farm families according to income levels and dietary needs of the different areas in the state. PLANNING, PROVIDING AND UTILIZING FAMILY FOOD SUPPLY Since food needs represent one of the primary demands made on the family income the goal for each farm family was the production as far as practical of an adequate food supply. For the past five years women and girls have worked towards achieving this goal. Both the home location, the soil conditions, and the status of the family were considered in making the food supply plan. It was recommended that each farm family plan, produce, and conserve the year's food supply based on nutritional requirements in order to safe guard the health of the family and to insure a satisfying distribution of the cash income to meet the needs and desires of the family. This included the live-at-home idea, every farm family to have dairy cows, year-round garden, calendar orchard, backyard poultry flock, home produced meat supply, cereals, syrup, sugar, etc., where practical and possible. This program also included the planning and wise buying of foods which could not , be economically produced, as is very often the case in specialized farming areas. Since in these specialized areas the families are potential consumers rather than producers, emphasis was placed on wise buying, selection, prepara~ion, and better use of the foods purchased. Demon strations have . been given and exhibits in wise buying of foods have been arranged by the Nutritionist and home demonstration agents. The home demonstration women following this work have made definite studies, collected, and discussed this information in groups. A special effort was made this year to have a greater number of more adequate records from individual demonstrators. In some counties those who did not keep records were asked to write a story which included certain specific information. FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING-ADULTS It was recommended that each farm family appreciate the importance of standards in food selection, preparation and meal planning necessary

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Fig. 5. Ii"ome gardens and canned products enable Florida farm w :, m e n to pr ov id e their families with ad quate and nourishing foods. 00 0

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Annual Report, 1939 81 for building and maintaining health, since utilizing the foods that are produced is equally as important as their production. A garden of vege tables, a pantry of canned products, or a yard full of poultry cannot improve family health unless they are properly utilized. Demonstrations by the Nutritionist and home demonstration agents in food preparation and meal planning were given as means of leadership training in order to raise standards. HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL NEEDS' It was recommended that each farm family have an understanding and appreciation of the outward signs of good health and nutrition and a knowledge of proper selection and preparation of foods necessary to growth and health. This was done through a physical check of individuals to determine physical needs other than food and by cooperation with other health agencies. Discussion and method demonstrations of factors neces sary for good nutrition, including adequate food, preparation and uses of classes of food have been given to stimulate interest and build a back ground for 'plannfng and providing the family food supply . Meetings were held at which club members appraised their family diets to see how they met the health needs of the family. WORK WITH GIRLS Special attention was given in the 4-H club program to helping the girls understand the necessity for farm and home cooperative planning, , because the farm women of the future need to understand the parallel between animal nutrition and human nutrition, the relation of a balanced food supply to the health and prosperity of the farm family, and the inter dependence of farm and home management while they are still in the formative age. HEALTH IMPROVEMENT At th e beginning of the demonstration each girl made a definite check on her posture, using a chart and score furnished by the agents to note necessary improvements and to list means for making these corrections. Another check was made at the end of the year to note improvements. Demonstrations in food selection, good posture, contests, both county . and state, exhibits, etc., served as means of motivation and teaching. Often younger club girls enroll in this demonstration and continue it through their club work in coordination with other demonstrations. Splendid coop e ration of other agencies such as school nurse, county nurse, county health units and civic clubs has greatly assisted this demon stration. Through this work very often the entire family realizes the need for positive health. FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING-GIRLS In addition to continuing the health improvement and posture work this demonstration included selection and preparation of foods, meal planning, and table service. Activities included individual and team food preparation demonstrations, judging of products, making recipe file s , food scrapbooks and exhibits. As a means of stimulating and motivating this program, community, county, and state food preparation contests were conducted. These were natural developments within the program and not unrelated activities. At the annual Short Cours-; the five girls scoring highest in the State food

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82 Florida Cooperative Extension preparation contest continued their work and added to their demonstrations and records during the summer. From this group one girl was selected to represent Florida at the National 4-H Club Congress. This year Catherine Barnes of St. Johns County won this out-of-state trip and was one of four regional winn,ers of $400 scholarships. BAKING AND JUDGING BAKED PRODUCTS This demonst.ration was planned for girls who have completed at least three years of food preparation work and are at least 14 years old. It is a continuation of the . health improvement, food preparation and meal planning demonstrations and the activities are somewhat similar. Girls satisfactorily completing at least three years' requirements are eligible to participate in bread baking and judging contest which offers an out-of state trip. THE YOUNG HOMEMAKER The needs and interests of the . older 4-H club girls are planned for in this demonstration. Some of the activities are assisting with the family food supply demonstration, planning parties, entertaining, assisting with younger members of the family and selfaim'provement. SUMMARY OF STATISTICAL REPORT All counties participated in the feeding the family and healthy living programs. In each of the intensive counties demonstrations were establish ed. Each community is working on at least two of the feeding the family programs. Each county entered at least one girl in each of the four phases of the food, nutrition and health work at 4-H Club Short Course and all counties included some of this work at 4-H club camps. During 1939 club women adopted improved practices in food preparation: a. baking, 1,629 women in 34 counties; b. meat cookery, 1,379 women in 29 counties; c. vegetable cookery, 2,793 women in 33 counties; d. dairy products, 1,887 women in 31 counties; e. poultry products, 1,502 women in 29 counties. Also 5,522 families served better balanced meals in 35 counties; 2,464 families improved home packed lunches according to recommenda tions in . 34 counties; 146 schools followed recommendations for hot dish or school lunches in 23 counties; 1,098 families followed recommended methods of child feeding in 34 counties; 1,128 families planned family food budgets for year in 32 counties; 2,296 families followed food buying recom mendations in 28 counties; 1,878 families followed recommendations for storage of home food supply in 31 counties; 2,578 families assisted in using timely economic information as basis for re adjusting the family food supply in 32 counties; 4,~59 individuals improved health habits according to recommendations in 32 counties; 1,789 individuals adopted recommenda tions for corrective feeding in 30 counties; 2,721 individuals improved posture according to recommendations in 27 counties; 12,835 individuals adopted recommendations for positive preventive means to improve health in 31 counties; 779 families adopted better home nursing methods in 24 counties. Statistics for juniors reveal that 4,447 4-H club girls enrolled in 36 counties; 3,164 4-H club members com ' pleted in 36 counties. Dishes of food products prepared 65,932 in 35 counties; meals planned and served 22,128 in 35 counties; 494 4-H club girls from 37 counties attended method demon strations in . the healthy living program at Short Course.

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Annual Report, 1939 83 GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION Isabelle , S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation Statistics and all other recent factual information show that the large majority of the Florida farm families do not have the supply of fruits and vegetables, meats and fishery products that soil, climate and unusually fine water resources warrant and which optimum health requires. In order that the farm family have a more balanced and healthful year-round food supply, the promotion of all-year gardens, permanent and varied fruit and berry plantings and their adequate cultivation, and the preparation and conservation of the surplus products according to the latest canning methods have received in 1939, as in past years, the active support of the Economist in Food Conservation. For what shall it profit the farm family to gain from cash crops and lose it an in having to purchase needed foods and feeds at prices far above what it would have cost the family to produce them? GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLA.t~TINGS Promotion of all-year gardens, permanent fruit plantings adapted to the varied soil and climatic conditions and areas, and their improved cultivation compose a large part of the program of the Economist in Food Conserva tion, since preparation and utilization can follow only where there is production. All agents endeavor to interest farm wo~en and girls in exte~ding the gardens throughout the year and in establishing calendar orchards :w,herever soil and other conditions permit, realizing as they do the urgent and funda mental need for more home produced fruits and vegetables in the diet. Records submitted on gardening activities for the current year show 36 counties reporting 3,888 year-round gardens planted, with a cash valua tion of $24,657.22 for vegetables sold, and 781 homes growing new vege te . bles. THE FLORIDA CALENDAR ORCHARD The home fruit supply from year to year, so records show, with the desire for general improvement of the home surroundings and development of a better rounded diet, slowly takes on more adequate proportions. Like wise, records show how the orchard directly and indirectly makes a contri bution to the family income. However, the fact remains that hundreds of homes in Florida ha,;e no fruit except that which is purchased, or at the best, there is a great lack of variety. The need for more fruit plantings and more variety is still being convincingly demonstrated when working on the canning budget. The problem of increasing the family fruit supply is necessarily a long-time objective. In the northern and western counties the fig, peach, pear, plum, persimmon, pecan, muscadine and bunch grapes, blueberries, strawberries, youngberries and other berries grow with very little persuasion. The satsuma, the kumquat, the Thomasville citrange, the quincadoni, and in some counties a fine summer apple, thrive if given fair treatment. In southern Florida in addition to the wonderful variety of citrus fruits, there is the marvelous mango, avocado, papaya, surinam cherry, and many other economic ornamentals that grow well usually with but little attention. Records show that 548 calendar orchards have been planted. These plantings include 24,092 fruit trees, 36,028 berry vines, and 5,053 grapevines. Fresh fruit having a cash valuation of $6,904.87 was sold fro ' m 447 homes.

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension FOOD CONSERVATION While food conservation ever stands out as a major activity of interest and importance in the farm home, and reports show progress made, it requires a continuous campaign to convince the average woman of the fact that canning should be done scientifically. Only by the . use of fine, fresh products, canned by the latest methods known, can be achieved quality canned products of high nutritive value. Striving to bring about a quality consciousness has also been the aim of all home demonstration agents. GIRLS' CANNING PROGRAM There were 2,567 4-H club girls enrolled in canning during the current year, 'and they reported 105,191 containers filled. As with the gardening requirements for girls, the canning is also set up for a logical development into the budgeted and canned family food supply. A new canning guide and record book for the younger girls was published in June. This leaflet contains detailed directions for canning berries and tomatoes as called for in the First Canning Demonstration. It also includes directions for making simple "spreads" and relishes which appeal, perhaps, more to the younger club girl than does plain canning. GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS BY GIRLS There were 4,693 girls enrolled in gardening in 1939 and 2,803 were reported as completing the demonstration. The Garden Record Book with its suggestions for fruit plantings and vegetables for the beginning year is included with other instructional material for club girls. It is seen that the girls' gardening demonstrations lead on to the time when they will be enrolled in the women's 'program and assist with the planning and care of the home garden and calendar orchard. MISCELLANEOUS From a demonstration in wreath making given to the home demonstra tion agents some 10 years ago, wreath making in many varied and interesting forms has become very popular. County-wide annual wreath festivals for special days have been made stimulating, instructive and remunerative. The highly attractive foliage of tropical and other plants is used along with fruit, berries and many interesting kinds of seedpods . . In one county the wreaths were labeled with the name of the plants used in their construction. These wreaths not only presented seasonal exhibits which taught many people in a beautiful way to send special Christmas and other greetings, but served to create interest in plant material in a most unusual way. Wreaths are made for decoration at liome and for the cemeteries as well as for sale. One 4-H club girl reported selling $5 worth to friends. This year 293 individuals are reported making specific . plantings for Christmas wreaths in 18 counties. _ The "county" flower demonstration is another project which began to develop alqng with wreath making as a means of adding more interest r,nd color to the prosaic vegetable gar
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Annual Report, 1939 85 annual, and 19 counties repol't 1,909 individuals being interested in the growt h of a perennial county flower. It is felt that the beautification work needed all over Florida could be greatly extended if every club home in every county planted generously their adopted annual and perennial flower. The fifth competitive educational exhibit of citrus by-products was set up at the Florida Orange Festival in Winter Haven located in the heart of the citrus industry. This exhibit consisted of canned grapefruit, marma lades, preserves, spiced pickles, crystallized citron of commerce, kumquats, calamo ndins , tangelos, tangerines, Seville ora nge s and baked products such as cit ru s pastries, cakes and cookies. Well made citrus products are always highly co lorful, spectac ular and attract considerable attention. Eighteen counties of the citrus growing area and individual from 21 counties sent in choice exhibits. The beauti ful display featuring a wide va riety of Florida's citrus fruits in all their many delectable ways of serving tends to do much to bring about a greater appreciation of their many healthful and delightful uses. The exhibit is instructive not only for Florida' s own folk, but also for the many winter v i sito r s in the State. The valuable experience gained in the pre ' paration of the products for the Orange Festival may be a means of increasing the cash income by marketing tho e preserves and baked goods at other times. In addition, Florida housewive and others may be encouraged to include these healthful fruits and fruit products more generally in the diets of their own families. Fig. 6. Home demonstration ,vomen ar e ~iv1ng more attention to planning the year ' s food supply for their families. Exhibits at fairs call attention to this work .

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME IMPROVEMENT Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement Extension home improvement activities had their usefulness further broadened during 1939 by the house building and furnishing which Florida farm families found they could do with aid from sundry federal agencies. Farmers whose houses are up-to-date , kept in repair, given paint when needed, and furnished tastefully have a better standing with bankers and business men than their less progressive neighbors .. In home improvement work thinking and planning are of first import ance; action follows a good plan. Tours, working bees, magazines with good exterior beautification plans, and good house plans with interior decorations were used by the agents in stimulating interest and crystalliz ing thought. During Better Homes Week home demonstration ' clubs cooperated with local merchants in displaying certain items and also by having exhibits on the subjects which were stressed in the county, such as health, comfort, beauty, and convenience. IMPROVING THE HOUSE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS County Home Demonstration Agents and the Home Improvement Specialist gave attention to the improvement of both homes and their surroundings. They helped in the remodeling of old houses and the building of new homes; in improving the architecture of the house to suit the countryside, with thought given to health and comfort and conveniences for the family. Also, consideration is given to the placing of the house so that prevailing winds may reach the bedrooms, and large windows are built to let in the Florida sunshine as well as air. Home Demonstration Agents for many years have encouraged and aided rural families in remodeling their homes. This work has shown ra ' pid advances during the past year, as a 1esult of small loans for the purpose made by the Federal Housing Administration. The same agency is en couraging the erection of new farm homes. More thought is being given to natural and artificial lighting as related to the health of the homemaker. Many home demonstration women have cut windows in the kitchen so that the women do not have to work in their own light and so that a current of air can be furnished. Insulating houses to keep out heat or cold, dampness and sound is encouraged. In the surroundings of the house, home sanitation is the first point of attack because of Its relation to health. Screening, filling in low places, and oiling stagnant streams, lakes or pools where mosquitoes breed have been consistently recommended by Extension workers as well as public health authorities. Many times these things have been done on a community basis for greater effect. Farm folks are better citizens because they have good health and comfortable surroundings, which constitute the underlying motive for all Extension home improvement undertakings. Following the establishing of desirable homes and provision for adequate sanitation comes beautification of home grounds, or exterior home improve ment. In this, emphasis has been placed on the use of native shrubbery and other materials. Plans and suggestions for 'planting home and school grounds furnished by the College of Agriculture and the U. S. Department of Agriculture have been of valuable assistance to the agents in this connection.

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Annual Report, 1939 ELECTRIFICATION ADVANCES 87 Where 10 years ago electricity, except that supplied by home power plants, was a rarity in rural Florida, now it is noticeable in many areas. Since 1937, encouraged by the Rural Electrification Administration, at least five different cooperatives have made the "juice" available to customers along hundreds of miles of rural lines in many counties. Because home demonstration women have become interested in and talked electricity, the advance during the past two years has been noticeable. There has been an awakening to the need of electricity, running water, more adequate storage space, baths, indoor toilets, and making working surfaces the proper height. All of these things tend to lighten the load carried by rural women and give them more time for cultural things, their families, their communities, and recreation. Business principles are being increasingly ap ' plied to h-0me-making activities. Good equipment is appealing to those who can make wise investments in equipment which saves labor, time and money. Since rural electrification has made such rapid strides, electric pumps in large numbers are being installed to provide running water in rural homes . The sunshine water heater is another valuable asset becoming more widely used in Florida homes. JUNIOR HOME IMPROVEMENT Girls were still embarked upon the four-year program of definitely planned home improvement. In the first year emphasis is laid on the various chores each girl should do around the home in the best possible manner, such as washing dishes, setting the table, making a bed, and 'properly cleaning a room. After learning pointers on these at their club meetings and from literature, the girls are required to practice them in their homes until they become habits. In this way it is hoped to give the girls a start towards developing a fine art of homemaking. In the second year emphasis is put on the outside of the house. The girls improve the porch and its furnishing s and make foundation plantings around their own homes. First requirement -0f the third year is a drawing of the yard as it is and another plan of what it can and should be. This brings about a fine family relationship where all members of the family work together in the planning. A green yard usually is the first visual demonstration. Then come steppingstones or walks, which in many cases have been made by the girls. The fourth year the girls may choose a room in the home to be improved. Usually the living room or the kitchen is selected. First considered are floors and walls, then come furniture rejuvenation and the making of thrift furniture, and lastly wise and thrifty buying -0f furniture and furnishings is stressed. This home improvement work is coordinated with sewing in making dish cloths, dish towels, table mats, table cloths and napkins, curtains, rugs, porch pillows, chair backs and cushions, table runners, and similar materials.

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension PART IV-NEGRO EXTENSION WORI( ACTIVITIES WITH NEGRO FARMERS A. A. Turner, Local District Agent Nine local farm agents served 10 counties during the year. Home agents were assigned in four additional counties. DISTRICT, STATE AND NATIONAL MEETINGS Annual conference of agents and farmers took place December 6 to 8, 1938, at the Florida A. and M. College, 'rallahassee. In March 1939 an Agricultural Adjustment Act conference was held at the same institution, attended by agents representing 12 counties. Boys' and girls' 4-H club 21st annual Short Course occupied the first week of June at the A. and M. College, bringing out 14 agents, 31 adult leaders, 111 club boys and 153 girls. District farm and home institutes held for the fourth year during August, September and October in one-day meetings at eight centrally located places assembled 1,350 farm men and women. Cotton allotment and referendum matters were discussed in another conference with Agricultural Adjustment Administration officials, which convened at the A. and M. College November 13. Florida was represented at the National Conference of Farm Agents, Vocational Teachers and farmers, in Washington, D. C., October i2 to 14, for study of the problems confronting the rural Negroes of the cotton belt. FAIRS AND EXHIBITS Negro farm agents in seven counties put on an exhibition at the Florida Fair, Tampa, during February 1939. Boys' 4-H club work was s pecially !'tressed. Space in the Florida Exhibit at the New York World's Fair was made available to Negro citizens and a variety of products and materials was shown. PROJECT ACCOMPLISHMENTS Typical were the results in Alachua County when one far'mer in each of 45 communities was selected to plant five acres of soil-improving crops during the fall of 1938, to be plowed under and followed with corn in the s pring of 1939. Records kept disclosed that 6,041 bushels of corn came from the 225 acres, or better than 26 bushels per acre. Local county agents spent 31 days in 64 communities and received assistance from 84 voluntary leaders in furthering fall and winter grazing crops. Sea Island cotton raising was fostered by the Leon County local agent. Method demonstrations were repeatedly given in the flue-cured tobacco counties and most Negro farmers had more leaf to sell this year. In Gadsden County 15 farmers grew a total of 31,500 pounds of sun tobacco under contract and received $4,252.50 or an average of 13c per pound. Thirty-six Alachua County farmers grew 68,127 pounds of bright

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Annual Report, 1~39 89 tobacco which was sold on the open market for a total of $10,211.68. Fifteen Sumter County farmers received $4,501.52 for their tobacco crop. Truck crops production was assisted by the Sumter and Alachua local farm agents. Sumter County truck growers realized $14,045.06 for their cucumbers, $12,032.00 for tomatoes, $10,049.03 for strawberries, $2,030.03 for beans and $10,042.98 for watermelons. Alachua County truck growers realized $23,798.06 for their beans, cucumbers and squash. Eight agents carried on work in 152 communities for improved home gardens among Negro farmers. Local county agents spent 125 days assisting farmers in nine counties with their pork production. Dairying received special attention in several counties. Sixty milk cows in Jefferson County are returning their owners an average of $270.00 monthly from the sale of milk to a cheese company at Thomasville. The skimmed milk is afterwards returned to the farmers free of charge. Leon County farmers are also receiving a substantial cash income from the sale of milk to the same company. George Philpot, a farmer of Hamilton County, operates the only Negro dairy we have 'record of in the State. During the year he maintained a herd of 12 Jersey cows and sold 6,000 gallons of whole milk, 4,800 gallons of skimmed milk, and 200 pounds of butter for a total of $3,460.00. After deducting $1,266.00 for feed and $848.00 for labor, Philpot had a profit of $1,346.00. In nine counties 123 days were devoted by eight local farm agents to poultry flock improvement. According to the Alachua County agent, Haynes Brooks of Arredonda community operates a small poultry farm with 450 birds . This farmer supports his wife and five children from this flock. Brooks sold $742.51 worth of poultry and eggs. SWEET POTATOES AND SUGARCANE In its third season, the four-year plan for demonstrating sweet potatoes and sugarcane as safe cash crops for small farmers had some noteworthy developments. Study of the out-of-State market for these products, begun at Cleve land, Ohio, in 1938 by a Florida Farmers' Cooperative Association repre sentative, was continued through the current period. Sugarcane syrup made by Negro farmers in Florida has been introduced into 110 Cleveland retail grocery stores during the two years, the Associa tion representative giving out samples in his house-to-house canvassing. Fifty thousand certified Puerto Rico plants were ordered from the Louisiana Sweet Potato Growers' Association and taken through the local farm agents by farmers in several northern Florida sections. Bankers and business men became interested in the possibilities of sweet potato growing as advocated by the Extension Service workers. Cashier P. B. McDougall of the Lewis State Bank, Tallahassee, donated 1,000 of the Louisiana plants to each of two Leon County Negro 4-H club boys. The report of John Mizell of Jasper, Hamilton County, is used as showing the most outstanding result with the sugarcane and sweet potato crops the past year. Mizell reported having made a net profit on his 10 acres of sugarcane and four acres of sweet potatoes totaling $1,456.75. The report of Mizell could be verified by the fact that he received $226.00 net profit from his second carload of chewing sugarcane shipped to Detroit, Michigan, grown on three-fourths of one acre. He made and marketed 450 gallons of syrup which he sold at 50c per gallon and has 75,000

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension stalks of seed sugarcane banked for sale from which he expects to receive $10.00 per thousand stalks. He has a record of saving 95 percent of his sweet potatoes banked and only offers them for sale when the price ranges are from $1.25 to $1.50 per bushel. His average yield of sweet potatoes the past year was 225 bushels 'per acre despite the unfavorable climatic conditions for that crop. WORK OF BOYS' 4-H CLUBS Boys' 4-H clubs among Florida Negroes enrolled 1,906 members this year, 1,097 of the number completing their projects. Corn projects were started by 862 boys and finished in 480 instances. Jefferson County boys averaged 451/2 bushels to the acre. Sixty 4-H club boys enrolled for cotton projects, with 35 completing them. Sea Island cotton was planted by 17 Alachua County members, 14 of whom completed their projects. Peanut projects enrolled 319 boys, 122 completing theirs. Six Sumter County members raised 13,100 pounds of the Florida Runner variety on eight acres. Adult farmers bought their crops at 75c per bushel. A total of 183 boys enrolled for the poultry projects, and they were completed by 76, with 52,784 birds. Girls' club members have heretofore shown the greatest interest in this project but the local farm agents report that boys are rapidly taking it up. Home and market garden projects were enrolled in by 223 boys, 110 completing. In the swine project, 166 members enrolled and 118 completed their work. Leon County put on a pig contest, which ended with a show at the county fair. CAMP AND ACHIEVEMENT DAYS Next to the annual State Short Course for 4-H Club Boys and Girls, the boys' camps are regarded as the most important group events. Three were held during the year, with the total attendance of boys reaching 114. Leon, Gadsden and Alachua counties had encampments. Achievement Day was celebrated in Alachua, Columbia, Hiamilton, Jefferson and Leon counties. Altogether, 4,498 persons were present for the exercises. Number of 4-H clubs in State .... . ............. ... ......... . ............. .. .......... 110 Number of 4-H club boys enrolled .................. . .. . ... ... .. .... . ......... 1,906 Number of club members completing 'projects .............. .. ............ 1,097 Number of Achievement Days held ........ .. .............. ... ..................... 5 Total attendance at Achievement Days .................................... 4,498 Number of encampments . . . ....... ... . . .......... ..... .... ... .. . ... . . . .... ...... ........ 3 Total attendance at encampments . ........ ..... ........ ...... .................... 114 Number of tours conducted ....... . ............. .. ..................................... 7 Number attending tours ... . ........................................................... 188

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Annual Report, 1939 91 NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Beulah S. Shute, Local District Home Demonstration Agent Local home demonstration service during 1939 extended regularly into eight counties which have a high percentage of Negro population. Supplying the needs of Florida rural Negroes was the central aim sought, provision of adequate food, shelter and clothing coming first. Home sanitation and healthful living, proper family relations, farm ownership and good citizenship were other objectives. Supervisory programs aimed to obtain a more abundant life for rural Negro families. Harmony in farm homes was striven for, through im provement of the dwelling, the furnishings and the surroundings. Practices advocated would lead to the more effective use of time, income and energy. PERSONNEL PROBLEMS Phases of the plans were taken to 10 counties where agents were not working by the Local District Home Demonstration Agent, at different times during the 12 months. Meetings called jointly by the State Agricultural Extension Service and the Federal Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the Annual Boys' and Girls' Short Course and the series of six one-day farm and home institutes furnished opportunities for giving agents further training. County local home demonstration agents were encouraged by regular visits from the District Agent. Needs of individual farm families received study on these trips. Planning was done in advance that the endeavor might supply the demand for information and inspiration to the fullest possible extent. FARM HOME UNDERTAKINGS Progress was made on most of the 'projects that the program featured. Reports from the several counties giving the results in detail furnished a mple evidence of accomplishments. In the State, 1,847 individuals made clothing for themselves and members of their families. 461 women planned and carried out family food budgets. Poultry products value at $9,406.'55 were used in the home. There were 661 family cows owned and milked, and 385 club women improved their practices in home dairying. A total of 35,502 quarts of food were canned by homemakers and 4-H club girls; this food was valued at $7,515.20. Better planned, more nutritious and more attractive meals are being served to Florida's rural Negro families as a result of food selection, meal planning and preparation. Improved practices in some phase of food preparation this year were made by 1,043 women, while 593 women served balanced meals. School children from homes carried lunches that had been planned according to recom mendations and in 680 homes methods in child feeding were improved. CAMPS, PICNICS AND EXHIBITS Camps carried on for from three days to a week each furnished instruc tion and amusement for Negro young people in four counties. Picnics on a neighborhood or county-wide basis were among the more popular community events in eight counties during the year. Exhibits directed by Negro women and 4-H club girls were shown at the Florida Fair , Tampa, and the Strawberry Festival, Plant City. Displays of like nature appeared at county fairs and festivals in four places. Com munity exhibitions were put on in numerous instances.

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension BOYS' AND GIRLS' SHORT COURSE The 21st Annual Boys' and Girls' State Short Course was held June 6-9 at the Florida A. and M. College. The total enrollment, 309 this fear, was less than the two ' previous years. This was due partly to the fact that the registration fee for each person attending was slightly higher, and to the fact also that a number of eligible 4-H club girls were finishing high school and had gone to other necessary expenses this season and were unable to finance their trip to Tallahassee. Eight agent:s, 153 4-H club girls, and 27 leaders made a total of 187 girls and women in attendance at the Short Course. The Contests held and their respective winners are as follows: First Place Song Contest ...................................... Alachua County Bedmaking Contest ....... ...... ............... Gadsden County Poultry Judging ....... . ... ........ ............. Madison County Record Books ... ..... .. ..... ...... ... .. .... . .. .. . .. Gadsden County Second Place Duval County Duval County Putnam County Marion County Teams composed of two girls represented each county. No one team entered two contests; therefore, many more girls were able to participate in the contests and receive the value of this type of training.

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Annual R e port, 1939 STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK (Men and Women) GENERAL ACTIVITIES Total days service rendered ... . .. .... ..... .. . . . ... . . .. . . . ........ . . .. . . . .. .... .. ... ... .... . Members in Extension associations or committees ... .. . . . . . ... ....... . . . . Communties in which Negro Ext e nsion program has been planned .. .. .. ....... ..... ....... ..... ....... ... .... .. ....... .... . .. ...... ..... .......... .... . . .... . Clubs or other group s organized to carry on adult home demonstrati on work . .. .... . .. . ... .. . .. .. . ... . .... ... . .. ... . . ...... . . .... ........... .. .... . ... .. ... . Members in such clubs or groups ...... . ... ....... ....... .......... . ............ . ....... . 4-H clubs ... .... .......... ..... . . .. . ... ...... . .... .. . .. . ........ ...... .. . .... .. . .. . . . . .. ..... . . .. . . ...... . . 4-H club members enrolled . . ..... .. ....... . .... . . .. .. . ...... .... . . . . ... .. . .. . . .. . ........ . 4-H club members completing .... ...... ....... ... ... . ........ . . ... ......... .... ..... . 4-H club teams trained . Farm or home visit s ... .... ..... .. .. . . .... .. .. .... . ..... ... .. . .. . .. ....... .. ... .. . . .... ... ..... . Different farms or homes visited .. .. . ... ...... .... .. . ..... . . .. . . .......... .. . ... ... . Calls relating to Extension work . . .. .. . ...... . . ..... ...... .. . .. .. . . . ..... . . .. ... ... . News articles or stories published and circular letters issued . .. . Letters written ....... .. .. . .. . ..... . . . . .... ... ... . ...... ........ . . ... ...... .. . . .. .. . . ..... . . ... . .. .. . Bulletins distributed . . ...... .. , ... . . ....... .. . ..... ..... . . ... . . . ....... . .. ..... ..... .. .. .. ..... . Extension exhibits . .... .. . .. . . . .. .... . .. ..... . . . ...... . . . .. .... .. . . .. .. . ......... .. . . .. . ... . ..... . Meetings held . , .. .... ... . .. . .. .. .... .. .. . ... .. .. ... ....... .... ... . ...... ....... . . . ... . . . .. . .. ...... . . (Attendance .... .. . ... ......... ..... ... . Achievement days and encampments . .. .. . .. . .... .. . . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . (Attendance . .. .. . .. . . ... .... .. . ...... . . Homes and farms influenced by program .. . .. .... ....... .. . .. ......... . . . . . .... . Homes with 4-H club members enrolled . .......... .... . .. .. . ... ... _. .. . .. . . . .. . . CEREALS Communitie s in which work was conducted .. . . . .. .. ..... . ... . . ... ....... . . ... . Result demonstrations conducted ........ .... .. . ........ .... . . .. .. . ..... .... . .. ..... . Meetings held ........ .. , .. ....... ...... . . ...... . .. . . . ........ ........ ..... ... .. . .. . ....... ...... ... . News stories published and circular letter s issued . ....... .. . . . .. . . . ... . . . 4-H club members enrolled ... .. . . .. ....... . ... .... ... ... .. . . .... ........... ... .... . . .... . . . 4-H club members com pleting . ...... .. . . . ........... . . .. . ........ . . . . .. ....... . . .. .. . ... . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing .. . . Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing . . .. .. .... . . LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS 4,587 590 232 83 1,446 233 4,479 2,925 86 6,911 3 , 432 10,842 589 7,399 6,981 49 2,505 50,401 37 28,342 7,330 2,042 263 56 91 23 1,090 695 941 13,828 Communities in which work was conducted .. . .. . .. ... . ... ...... . . . . . ...... 400 Result demonstrations conducted ... .... ......... . . . .. ..... . . . .. . .. . ...... . . . . .. . .... 111 Meetings held ... . ... .... . .... . .. .. .... . .. .. . .. . . . ..... . . . .. . . .. ... .... . . .. .... . ... .. .... .... .. . . .. ... 80 News stories published and circular letters issued ,... ... ... .. .... ... . 31 4-H club members enrolled . ... ........... ..... ........ .... . ........... .. . ...... :: .. . . :. : .. :: 399 4-H club members completing ..... ...... . . ..... .... . . ....... . . ......... ... . . . .. .... .. . . . . 178 Acres in project s conducted by 4-H club members completing . . . . 209 Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing . . ... ... 5,256 93

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94 Florida Cooperative Extension POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Others Cotton Tobacco Communities in which work was conducted .... 245 87 79 Result demonstrations conducted ..... ................... 29 12 13 Meetings held ..................... . ......................... .. . ........ 57 34 56 News stories published and circular letters .... 46 16 15 4-H club members enrolled .. .. ........... .. . . ... ....... ... 306 61 22 4-H club members completing .............................. 184 36 18 Acres in projects conducted by 4-H members .. 124 .5 45 17 Yield of crops grown by 4-H members . ... . . .......... 4,490 bu. 18,027 lb. 18,625 lb. l<'RUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS Communities in which work was conducted .... ..... .... ........ . .. .. ......... . Result demonstrations conducted ... .. ... . .. . . ...................................... . Meetings held ..................... . .. .. ................... . .. .. ...... .. . . ... . . .. ..... .. . .. ..... .. ... .. . News stories published and circular letters issued ..... ............. . .. .. . 4-H club members enrolled .... . .............. ....... ................... ... . ...... . .... ... . 4-H club members completing ................... ... ....................... ....... . ..... . . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing ... . Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing .. ... ...... . FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING 767 1,610 560 81 3,207 2,082 422 5,058 Bu. Communities in which work was conducted .. ..... . ... ...... .... . . . . ... .. ...... 120 Result demonstrations conducted ............ .. ..................... ............... .. 71 Meetings hek~ ............. : .................................... : ................. . .. .... . . ... ...... .. 57 News stories published and circular letters issued ......... .. . ..... .. .... . 9 4-H club members enrolled ... . .... ......... .. .... . ........................................ 16 4-H club members completing ...... ..... . ........ . ............ ... . .... .. . .............. .. 1 Terracing and drainage, farms ...... .... .... ................. ... ...... . ... ... .. ....... 66 Acres ........................................................................................................ 1,712 Land clearing practices ........................................................................ 86 Acres 338 Better equipment practices ................................................................ 328 Buildings erected or improved ....... . ....... .. . . .... : ............ ....... .... :.... ... . 490 POULTRY AND BEES Communiti es in which work was conducted ................... : . .... ...... . Result demonstrations conducted ........... ........... ............ ... .............. . Meetings held ..................... . .. ... ... : ................ . ............................ . ........... . News stories published and circular letters issued .......... ............. . 4-H club members enrolled . ... ......... .... ..... . ........ ................. .............. . . 4-H club members completing .. .... ..... ..... . . . .. .. ... ... . ... . ..... .. . . ......... . .. . Number units in 'projects conducted by 4-H club members completing ......................... .. .......................... ... ...... .... ........... .. ..... . . .... . .. . Families following better practices for poultry ............. .............. . 205 379 198 43 753 531 52,784 3,917 DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE AND HORSES Communities in which work was condu~ted .... .......... ............ . .... ..... 402 Result demonstrations conducted .. . ...... . . . . ... ... . ....... . . ................. : . . .. ..... 270 Meetings held . .. ......... ..... ... . .... . . .......... .. . . , ......... . ..... . . :.................. . . .......... 203 News stories published and circular lett~rs is rued .............. . ........ . 62 4-H club members enrolled . ... ......................... . . . ................ ... . ...... ........ 617 4-H club members completing ........... .... .. . ...................................... 486 Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 518

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Annual Report, 1939 95 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS R es ult d e monstrations condu c ted . .. ..... . .... . ..... .. .. .. .... . ........ . . . ..... . . . ... 4 M e etings held ....... . . . ... .... ....... . ... . . .. . .. ......... . . ....... . ............ ... ... ... .. . ..... . .. .. 2 8 News stories published and circular letters issued . .......... .... . ... . 4 3 Farmers obtaining credit and m a k i ng d e bt adjustm e nts ....... . .... 467 Families assisted iu . getting established ...... . . ... ............... .. . . .. . ....... 31 Individuals affected by marketing program .... . .. .. .. . ... .. .. .. . .... ..... .. .. . 306 Organizations assisted with problems .. ........ ...... .... . ....... ....... ... . ... .. 140 Individual s as sisted with problems ....... . . . . ..... . . ........... . .... ... ..... ........ . . 764 Value of products sold by association and individual s ........ . . ..... . $219;406.48 Value of supplies purchased by organizations and individu a ls . ... 51,226.05 FOODS AND NUTRITION Communities in which work was conduct e d . . ..... . . ............ ... .......... . . R es ult demon s tration s conducted ... . .. . .................. . . . .............. . . . .. . . .... .. . Meetings h e ld ... . .. . ... ... .. ... ........ . .. ... .. .. ..... . . ... . .. .......... ... . ..... . . .. . .. . .. .. ... . . .. . News stori e s published and circular lett e r s issued .......... .... ....... .. . 4 H club members enrolled ...... .... ......... .... .. ... .............. ..... ......... ....... . 4-H club members completing . .. ............. .. . ........ ... .. .. . . ... . .. . . ...... . .. ...... . Families adopting improved food practices . .. . . . .. .. . .... ...... . ..... .. . .. ... . Schools following recommendation s for a hot d i sh or school 299 8 9 6 391 31 3,582 2,600 7,366 lunch ... . .......... ... . ....... ....... .. . ... .. ..... ... ... . .... . ..... ...... ... . ......... ..... .... . .... . 34 Children involved ... .... ........... . ... . . . ... . ............ .. ............... . . .. ............ . . ..... . 2,256 Containers of food s aved by non-members of 4-H clubs ..... ... ..... ... 41,502 Value of products canned or otherwi s e pre s erved ,........ .. ............ . 7 , 609 . 12 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION Communities in which work was conduct e d .. ......... , . ....... ........ .... ... . 121 Result demonstrations conducted . .. . . ........... . . ..... ...... . ........ .... .... . .. ... 225 Meetings held .. .. ...... . .......... ... ............. .. ..... ....... .. .. .... . .............. . .... . ..... . 151 News stories published and circular lett e rs issued ....... ... . .. . .... .. .. 6 4 -H club members enrolled . ........... ...... ......... ............ .. . . . .. .. ....... .... .. .. . 1,023 4-H club members completing ................ .. ................. ........ ........ ... . .. ... 935 Other 4-H club members who participated .. ........ . . .. ... . .. . ..... .... . .... . 670 Families adopting better child-develo"pment practices .. . . ............ 2,329 Individuals participating in child-development program .......... .. 880 Children involved ..... . .. . .. ...... ....... .... . ......... ..... ... .. ...... ......... . .. ....... ......... 1,542 CLOTHING Communitie s in which work was conducted .. ..... .. .. ............. .... .. . ... .. Re s ult demonstration s conducted .... ... . ... ... .. . . . . .. . . .......................... .. Meetings held ..... . . . .. . ... . ............. .. ............. . .. ... .............. ...... . .. ........... .... . News stories published and circular letters issued .. ...... ....... ........ . 4-H club members enrolled .. .. ...................... . ..... . ...... .... .. . . . .. .... ... . .... .. 4-H club members completing . ..... . ... ................ . ................. . ......... . . Articles made by 4-H club members .. .. .. .. .... . ........ ... . ... .. .... . .... . .... .. .. Individuals following better clothing practices ..... .. .... ........ .. ... .. . . Savings due to clothing program ........ ..... . .... ....... .. . ..... ............. ... .. . 150 514 241 18 1,920 1,373 5,076 , 10,975 $5,783 . 67 HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS Communitie s in which work was conducted .. ................ ... .. . ...... .. Result demonstration s conducted . ....... ........... ...... .......... ........... .. .. .. . lVI e etings held ...... .. ... .. ............ . ... ... . . ..... . . . ... . . . ... ... ....... . ... ....... ..... . . ....... . . News storie s published and circular letters issued . . .. , .. ... . .. ..... .. 4-H club members enrolled . .. ... .... . .. . . . .. . ... . ... ..... .. ........................... .. .. 4-H club members completing .. ........... . ... . . . ... . ......... . .. . .............. .. .. . Units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing .. .. Families adopting improved home-management practices ...... . . Saving clue to home-management program ... .......... . ........ . .... ...... . .. Families making improvements in hou s e furnishings ..... . . ........ . Savings due to home-furnishings program .. ....... . .... .. .... . .... . .. ..... .. . Families following recommendations regarding handicraft . . .. ... . 420 1,131 338 75 3,322 2,690 8,838 7,735 $ 5 ,518.20 3,559 $3,045 . 00 891

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96 Flo r ida Cooperati ve Extension HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION Communities in which work was conducted .. . . .. ....... . . . .. . .. . . . ... ..... .. . . Result demonstrations conducted ...... .... .. . ... ... . . ..... , . .. . ........ . . . .... ... ... . . Meetings held .. . . . . . ... . .. . ..... .. ... . .. . . .. . .. .. . .. . .... .. .... . .. .. . .. .... .. . .. . .. . . . ..... ... .... . . . New s stories published and circular letters issued .. .... . ............ . . .. . 4-H club members enrolled ............. . .. . . ... . .. . .... . . . .. .. . .. . . ................. . . ... . 4-H club members completing ............. .... . ... .............. .... ... ......... .... . Individuals having health examinations .. . .. . .. ........... . .. .. . . . .. . .... ..... . Other 4-H club members who participated . . .... . ......... . .. . . ... .. . . .... ... . Individuals adopting better health habits . .. .... . .. . .... .... . . . . . . . ....... . . Familie s adopting better health habits .... . . . . .. . . .. . . .... ..... . .... . .. ... ....... . 195 582 213 31 2,177 1,308 1,112 740 5,712 1,909 EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Meetings held .............. . . . ... . . . .. . ................... . . .... ..................................... 282 News stories published and circular letters issued ..... .. .. ... . . ... . ...... 102 Communities assisted with community problems .... . .... . . .. . . ... .. . . ...... 494 Training meetings conduct e d for community leaders ....... . .. . .. . . ... .. 83 Families following recommendation s a s to home recreation . . . . 441 4-H clubs engaging in community activities . . .. . .... . ... . . . . . . .. .. . ... . .... . ... 67 Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or oth e r relief agency ...... ..... .. .... .. . .................. . . ... . . .. .. ............ . ..... ...... . . . . ..... 201

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Annual Report, 1939 INDEX 97 Acreage allotments, 21 Agents' activities, 11, 75 Agents, county and home demonstra tion, 5 Negro, 6 Agricultural Adjustment Adminis tration, 6, 71 Agricultural Conservation, assist ants in, 6 report, 21 Agricultural economics report, 26 Agronomy report, 32 Animal husbandry report, 37 Anniversary programs, 19, 66 Associations, poultry, 48 Baking, 82 Bankers' scholarships, 57 Beef cattle, 37 Board of Control, State, 2, 4 Boys' 4-H club work, 10, 50 contributors to, 58 Negro, 90 State Short Course, 57 Bronze leaf control, 62 Bulletins and circulars, 17 Bull 'pens, 43 Calendar flock records, 47 orchard, 83 Camps, club, 10, 52, 57, 72, 90, 91 Canning, 84, 91 Cattle, beef, 37 clubs, 42 sales, 42 sheds, 43 Citrus, bronze leaf control, 62 costs, 26 cover crops, 60 cultivation, 60 fertilizer demonstrations, 59 frenching, 61 fruit culture, report, 59 grove management, 26 Growers' Institute, 63 irrigation, 60 marketing, 29 melanose control, 61 rust mite, 61 scale control, 61 stem-end rot, 61 Clothing and textiles, 76, 78 Clovers, 34 Club camps, 10, 52, 57, 72 Club work, 10, 50, 65, 66, 72 College 4-H club, 10, 73 Community work, 73 Cooperation with State Institutions, 9 Cooperative council, 31 Corn, peanuts and velvet bean s , 32 Cotton marketing quotas, 22 Sea Island, 35, 88 seed tests, upland, 35 Councils of girls and women, 69 County agent activities, 24 County and home demon s tration agents, 5 Cover crops, citrus, 60 Crop rotation, 32 Culling poultry, 47 Dairying , report, 41 Dairy breed clubs, 42 demonstration team, 58 farm accounts, 27 feeding, 41 herd improvement, 42 home, 74 sales, 42 work, home, 41 Director and Vice-Director, report of, 7 Economics, agricultural, 26 Economic outlook information, 28 Editorial and mailing report, 17 Egg-Laying Test, Florida National, 44 Electrification advances, 87 Farm accounts, 27 Farm forestry report, 64 Farm management, 26 Farm record books, 27 Fat Stock Show and Sale, 39 Feed prices, poultry, 44 Fertilizer demonstration, citrus, 59 Financial statement, 12 Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., 29, 62 Florida National Egg-Laying Test, 44 Food conservation, 83, 84 Food, nutrition and health, 79 preparation and meal planning, 79, 81 Forage demonstrations, 41 Forage and hay crops, 33 Forestry clubs, 65 fire protection, 64 marketing farm timber, 64

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98 Florida Cooperative Extension reforestation, 65 timber stand demonstrations, 64 Frenching, citrus, 61 Fruit supply, home, 83 Gardening, 83, 84 Giris' 4-H club work, 10, 66, 71 councils, 69 State College Club, 73 State Short Course, 72 Grades and standards work, 31 Grading tobacco, 36 Hay and forage crops, 33 Health development, 74, 79, 81 Herd management, cattle, 37 History of Extension Service in Florida, 7 Hog prices, 30 Home demonstration councils, 69 handicraft, 84 planning, 69 report, 66 with 4-H club girls, 71 with Negroes, 75, 91 Home dairying, 74 Home improvement, 77, 86 Home meat curing, 40 Home products and industries, 74, 84 Industries, home, 74 Irrigation, citrus, 60 Land-use planning, 9, 28 Marketing agreements, 29 citrus, 29 farm timber, 64 home products, 74 livestock, 30 quotas, 22 specialist's report, 29 swine. 40 veget~bles, 30 Meat curing, 40 Melanose, citrus, 61 Men's work, 24 National Poultry Improvement Plan, 49 Negro county and home demonstration agents, 6 extension work, 88 4-H clubs, 90 home demonstration work, 75, 91 statistical report, 93 Newspaper and farm journal service, 18 Nutrition, health and food, 79 Oats, 35 Organization and personnel, 67 Pasture development, 33 tours, 38, 43 Peanuts, corn and velvet beans, 32 Peanut spacing, 33 Potato study, Dade County, 27 Poultry associations, 48 calendar flock records, 47 culling demonstrations, 47 feed prices, 44 home flocks, 74 im ' provement, 47 Improvement Plan, National, 49 Institute, second annual, 47 keeping, report, 43 products prices, 44 State 4-H Club show, 48 Price fixing, grapefruit, 29 Program planning, 68 Projects added during year, 9 Radio programs, 19 Record books, farm, 27 Reforestation, 65 Review of 1939 work, 8 Rural electrification advances, 87 Rust mite control, 61 Scale control, 61 Scholarship winners, 57 Sea Island cotton, 35 Shows, exhibits and ' contests, 56 Silos, 43 Silver Anniversary, 7, 19 Soil conservation district, 9 Spacing peanuts, 33 Staff members, 2 Statistical report, 12 Negro, 93 Steers for market, finishing, 38 Stem-end rot, citrus, 61 Sugarcane, 36, 89 Sweet potatoes, 36, 89 Swine production and marketing, 40 Terracing, 32 Textiles, 77 clothing and, 76, 78 Timber marketing, 64 stands, 64

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Annual Report, 1939 99 Tobacco, flue-cured, 36, 88 marketing quotas, 23 Tours, pasture, 38, 43 Truck crops production, 89 Vegetable marketing, 30 Velvet beans, peanuts and corn, 32 Watermelon marketing control, 30 Women's councils, 69 Works tock on farms, 40 World's Poultry Congress, 48 Wreath making, 84 Writing training, 18 Youth conference, 73