Title: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075732/00001
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Board of Conservation
Publisher: The Board
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1935-1936
Frequency: biennial
Subject: Natural resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Conservation of natural resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1932/34)-2nd (1934/36).
Numbering Peculiarities: First biennial report covers the period from July 1, 1933 to Dec. 31, 1934; 2nd biennium ending June 30.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075732
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002706779
oclc - 01569422
notis - ANH4182
lccn - 36027765
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Full Text


first Biennial Rep



tO State Board of Consetrva#



DECEMBER 31, 1934

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First Biennial Report

To State Board of Conservation

DECEMBER 31, 1934

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State Supervisor of Conservation

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Topic Page
Letter of Transmittal 4
Foreword 5
Conservation Board Created 6
Transfer of Accounts and Obligations ......... 6
State Conservation Fund Established 7
Organization 8
Fishing Waters-Steinhatchee River (Illustration) 9
Fishing in Florida Waters 10
Black Bass Need Protection 11
Fish Hatcheries 13
Welaka Fish Iatchery and Game Farm 14
Aquarium 17
Game Farm 17
Camp 17
Cost to State to Operate 17
Federal Expenditures, Donations 18
Winter Haven Fish Iatchery 18
Wewahitchka Fish Hatchery 10
Game 20
Deer 20
Bobwhite Quail 21
Tallahassee Farm 22
Wild Turkey 22
Squirrels 23
Migratory Waterfowl 23
Breeding Ground and Refuges 24
Myakka State Park 27
Federal Refuges 28
Everglades Park 20
Educational Program ** :.** 30
Work Accomplished ....... .... *'- 30
The Florida fCvpseyvarpr *' o**" 30
Aid on PgamJi ** 30
Fair lib& i, ."' 31
Paintingiof Florida BirL -31
Nede. Law Enf(rcement ; .. 32
Convictions Secured for Violations 33
Statement, Prosecution by Counties 36
Classified List of Licenses Sold, Biennium 42
Significance ................... 43
Values of Wild Life Resources ........... 43
Recommended Policies for Handling 43

I I .



Topic Page
Spanish Mackerel for the Market, (Illustration) 46
Commercial Fisheries 47
Production Falls 47
To Increase Consumption 48
Federal Survey Promised 49
Further Federal Cooperation 50
Output for Biennium, Wholesale Dealers 51
Oysters ................. 52
Planting and Harvesting 52
Seed Oyster Cargo, (Illustration) 53
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Investigates Leech 54
Florida Shrimp 55
Sponge Industry 57
Sponge Boats at Dock, (Illustration) 58
Tarpon Springs Sponge Exchange Report 59
Fish Fertilizer Factories 61
Recommended for Consideration 61

State Geological Survey 62
Field of Work 62
Investigations Primarily Economic 64
Stratigraphic and Structural Investigations 65
Mineral Wealth 66
Fullers Earth 66
Kaolin 67
Limestones 67
Other Minerals ...... 68
Cooperation 68
Geological Survey Prior to Creation Conservation Dept. 69
Publications 70
Members of Survey 76
Projects in Progress 76
Water Resources Studies 76
Kaolin Investigations 76
Other Clays 76
Geological Research 77
Building Stone 77
Uses of Phosphates and Mining Methods 78
Geological Survey, Division of Conservation Dept. 78
Activities Suspended 81
Kaolin Investigations 81
Water Resources Investigations 81
Federal Cooperation 82
Recommendations 82-83
Funds Needed 83

Financial Statement 86-101


Tallahassee, Florida,

March 30, 1935.

To His Excellency,
David Sholtz,
Governor of the State of Florida,
Chairman State Board of Conservation,


I have the honor of submitting, herewith, the biennial report of
work for the development and conservation of the wild life re-
sources of Florida; the promotion of the commercial fisheries of
the State; the researches in the geological field in this area for the
period ending December 31, 1934, together with a few significant
events occurring in 1995.

Respectfully submitted,

Supervisor of Conservation.

- The natural resources of any populated section largely answer
the query as to why men settle and remain there. The values of
climate, soil, topography, mineral and metal deposits, power sites,
rainfall, extent of water courses or areas, forests, wild life re-
sources-birds, animals, fish-relationship to trade centers, recre-
ational facilities, particularly with reference to outdoor sports,
attract men. Invaluable, they are often lost sight of in the bus-
tle men make in their use of these factors of potential wealth. As
a result they are often sorely depleted..
Florida is fortunate in the number and variety of natural re-
sources possessed. Much of the prosperity of the State is derived
by marketing direct, products from these sources. Lumber, naval
stores, fish and other seafoods, sponge and mineral products are
among them. The State's largest source of income, the tourist
trade, is based largely on climate and outdoor recreational resour-
ces. Florida is fortunate in the fact that many of the resources
may be classed as "renewable"; that is, where depleted, the re-
sources may be brought back, rebuilt, by wise usage.
The opportunity to restore these resources calls not only for
able executives; for conservation agents familiar with the con-
servation law, and who can secure from the public cooperation
expressed in the observance of law and support in its enforcement;
for leaders in the conservation field with a fundamental knowl-
edge of the laws of plant and animal life, particularly as it affects
the environment and feed of birds, animals and fish, and their life
habits; for an extension of such knowledge; for cooperation from
the courts wholehearted and sure; but for interest on the part of
the citizens of Florida as a whole that will demand and support a
real conservation program. The measure of success that will be
had in this work will be determined by the contribution from each
source named. The conservation of wild life resources is the
responsibility of all.
The values involved, the extent to which Florida's future wel-
fare is affected by the preservation or loss of these resources,
should make their conservation the concern of every thoughtful
citizen. It should lift the conservation program to a plane where
it would be undisturbed by the turns of political fortunes.

This narrative report on conservation activities in Florida
covers the biennium which closes December 31, 1934, in some
instances carrying over into the activities of 1935. The finan-
cial report except where specially noted, covers transactions
through the biennium that closes June 30, 1934.

.During the first six months of the calendar year 1933 Conser-
vation work in Florida was carried on through three Departments;
The State Shell Fish Commission, The State Department of Game
and Fresh Water Fish, The State Geological Survey. On July
1, 1933, these three Departments ceased to exist, having been
abolished by an Act of the Legislature of that year. The law
abolishing them set up instead a State Board of Conservation.
The Governor of Florida, the Secretary of State, the Attorney
General, the Comptroller, the State Treasurer, the State Super-
intendent of Public Instruction, and the Commissioner of
Agriculture comprise this Board.

All properties, accounts and obligations of the three Depart-
ments were transferred to the State Board of Conservation. as
shown in the following excerpts from Chapter 16178 Acts of
1933, Laws of Florida-

"Sec. 3. The Department of State Geologist, the Department of Game
and Fresh Water Fish, the Office of State Game Commis-
sioner, and the Office of Shell Fish Commissioner, are hereby
"Sec. 4. All properties, accounts and obligations of the several de-
partments or offices abolished by this Act, shall upon the
effective date of this Act, be transferred to the State Board
of Conservation.
"Sec. 5. All moneys in, amounts of moneys due and afterwards accru-
ing to the various funds handled or controlled by the De-
partments or Offices abolished by this Act, shall upon the
effective date of this Act, be transferred to one fund, desig-
nated as the State Conservation Fund, and shall be used
exclusively for carrying out the provisions of this Act as the
State Board of Conservation may direct. The said funds
shall be paid out upon warrant of the Comptroller as other
funds in the State Treasury are disbursed.

"Sec. 6. All appropriations made for the biennium beginning July
1st, 1933, for the several departments, commissions, offices,
agencies, and employees mentioned in Section 3 of this Act,
shall be transferred to the State Conservation Fund to be
used as necessary for carrying out the provisions of law in
relation to the work and duties mentioned in Section 2 of this

A statement of receipts and balances shown by the Departments
combined July 1, 1933, from which the State Conservation Fund
wvas derived follows.

June 30, 1933


Appropriation and Balances in all Shell Fish De-
partment Funds June 30th, 1933 $ 43,313.73
Less the following Shell Fish Department Bal-
ances not transferred to State Conservation
Fund July 1st, 1933:
*Special Shell Fish Commission
Planting Fund $ 13,823.87
*Three Cent Privilege Tax Fund.... 20,024.45 33,848.32 $ 9,465.41
*These amounts not transferred, held to repay previous loan.


June 30, 1933
Balance in State Game Fund June 30th, 1933........ $ 56,536.28
Less the following amounts included in State
Game Fund balance but not transferred to
State Conservation Fund July 1st, 1933:
*Loan to General Revenue $6,000.00
*Loan to State Board of Health Tax
Fund 7,500.00
Checks on hand for collection-..............--. 113.00 13,613.00 42,923.28
*These amounts never transferred.

Amount transferred from Shell Fish Department .................... $ 9,465.41
Amount transferred from Department of Game and Fresh
Water Fish 42,923.28

State Conservation Fund, July 1, 1933 $ 52,388.69


Under authorization given in Section 2 of this Act the Gover-
nor named George W. Davis as State Supervisor of Conservation,
administrative head of all work under the Board. July first the
newly created department began operation.

In process of organization:
M. O. Harrison was made Assistant Supervisor, Fresh Water
Fish and Game.

N. D. Lloyd, Assistant Supervisor, Shell Fish Department.
Herman Gunter, Assistant Supervisor, Geological Department.
Cary A. Thomas, Director of Education and Publicity, succeeded
Sept. 1, 1934, by Sarah W. Partridge.

W. N. Dunson was made Superintendent of the Welaka Fish
Hatchery, and Game Farm. Three helpers are employed.
R. G. Garrett, Superintendent of the Winter Haven Fish Hatch-
ery. Two helpers are employed.
B. H. Smith, Superintendent of the Wewahitchka Fish

District Commissioners are:
1st District-I. N. Kennedy
2nd District-B. F. Mizell
3rd District-J. P. Anthony
4th District-J. A. Black
There are twelve deputies assigned to special enforcement of
the commercial fishing laws; and, from forty to sity men as depu-
ties in the Game and Fresh Water Fish Division.
One bookkeeper, two secretaries, and four stenographer-clerks,
complete the organization.
Work has been carried on in divisions suggested by the fore-
going appointed heads. It will be reported under these divisons-

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Fishing Waters-Steinhatchee River.

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Sporty Fish of Atlantic and Gulf.
Comparable with the Big Game Hunting of the North Woods
is the Big Game Fishing of Florida that brings men to match
their skill with the sporty fish of the Atlantic and Gulf waters
along the Florida coasts. From the mouth of the St. Johns River,
down through the blue waters of that salt river that makes its way
out of the Gulf of Mexico to flow northward, along the reefs and
keys of the lower east coast, up the west coast and on to Pensa-
cola, there is found such sport as furnishes the consummation of a
fisherman's brightest dreams. Tarpon, sailfish, kingfish, amber-
jack, barracuda, bone fish, wahoo, bonita, red fish, blue fish, span-
ish mackerel, and many others abound in Florida's coastal waters
to make it interesting and tempt alike those experienced in the
sport and those who aspire. And not infrequently the novice
lands the prize. This source of sport fishing seems reasonably
safe. Though the fine sportsmanship shown by those who go after
these fish, in releasing them immediately to the waters as taken.
unless they are to be mounted as trophies, is timely and should
receive recognition as the high type of sportsmenship needed
if these and other wild life resources are to be preserved for future

While species of fish prized for sport fishing on the deep sea
seem safe from depletion, not so that premier sport fish of Flor-
ida's lakes and streams, the lordly BLACK BASS.
That the lure of Florida's bass waters has probably drawn
more tourists to Florida than any other attraction offered seems
borne out by reports from all parts of the State. One chamber of
commerce in Florida reports that an inch advertisement calling
attention to the bass fishing of the section, carried in a magazine
of limited circulation, brought 1,128 inquiries. Many of Florida's
most desirable residents have located in the State because of the
good bass fishing once had here.
These facts demand consideration for the long cry of the con-
servationists of Florida that under present usage the supply of
these fine fish is diminishing. The latest evidence in support of
this claim is found in the report of the commercial fishing indus-
try. This report, (found in the section of this publication devoted
to the commercial fishing industry), shows that while the catch by
the industry for the biennium dropped approximately one third,
the amount of Bass taken fell approximately fifty per cent. So
great a drop as this can be accounted for in but one way, a de-
crease in supply.
This condition has intensified the long campaign to take Black
Bass from the list of species of fish that may be sold or purchased
or shipped from Florida for sale into other States. The Conserva-
tion Committee of the Junior Chamber of Commerce, C. D. Kirk,
chairman, during the past year has lead this fight. This cam-
paign has been supported by the Orlando Chapter of Florida
Sportsmen's Association, that has contributed largely the finances
used for clerical help, postage, etc., the organized press of the
State, the State Chamber of Commerce, the State Hotel Associa-
tion, The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, all of which have
gone on record as asking for legislative action that will stop the
sale of Florida Black Bass. The Conservation Department strongly
urges such action and will work to secure it.
A further measure for the protection of Black Bass in Florida
waters needed is a closed season of not less than sixty days during
the spawning season. In support of this the following from the
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries is offered:

"The natural conditions in Florida are such that if the Bass
and other interior species of fish are given protection during the
spawning season they will reproduce and maintain themselves in
the streams and lakes to a very satisfactory degree if the State
provides reasonable bag limits and size limits. Florida waters
are well provided with natural food and Bass will reproduce at
two years of age, at which time they will have reached a length
of 12 to 14 inches."

Stop the sale of Florida Bass; close during the spawning season
and Florida Black Bass are safe for all time.

Make Florida's Waters Safe for Bass.

The Federal Bureau has this further to say regarding coopera-
tion with the State in the protection of Black Bass:
"As black bass are more valuable to the State of Florida for
recreation and as an attraction to tourists than when sold for a
few cents a pound by the fishermen, the Bureau of Fisheries has for
sometime been advocating the promulgation of laws by the Florida
legislature that will prohibit the sale of black bass at all times
regardless of where taken and provide a closed season covering
the main part of the spawning period. To accomplish this repre-
sentatives have visited Florida in connection with the enforcement
of the Federal law regulating interstate transportation of black
bass. Fishermen and others interested have been interviewed and
various conservation association meetings have been addressed
with a view to educating the people of Florida to the importance
of preserving the black bass for angling.
The Bureau has two deputy black bass law inspectors located
in Florida. A number of seizures have been made of black bass
shipped from Florida contrary to the Federal Black Bass Law.
Florida maintains three fish hatcheries, one at Welaka, one at
Winter Haven and the third, which is under construction, at We-
wahitchka. Reports of the three follow:


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Bass Rearing Ponds-Welaka.

Yi :

-The earliest fish hatchery established in the State was located
on the banks of the St. Johns River at Welaka in 1925. Bass,
bream and shad were successfully produced in quantity. Since
so small a per cent of bass released as fry reach maturity a lack
of breeding ponds where the fry could be held until of fingerling
length was realized to be a serious handicap. When work projects
were called for under Civil Works Administration in 1933 it
offered an opportunity, not just for supplementing what was at
Welaka in the way of a hatchery but in building and equipping
a thoroughly modern plant, and in establishing here a small but
well equipped aquarium where, in twenty glass tanks, may be
seen the principal species of fresh water fish found in Florida
waters, a quail farm and deer park.

Excavating Rearing Ponds.
To W. M. Dunson, Superintendent of the hatchery, credit is due
for interesting the CWA Board of Putnam County in the un-
dertaking and to the Board and Mr. Dunson for securing the ap-
proval of FERA and CWA state officials for the project.
Engineers of the Civil Works Administration together with the
Conservation Department designed and developed the project, of
which Florida is justly proud.

It is an established fact that black bass cannot be propagated
artificially must be spawned under natural conditions. To
provide for this two well conditioned brood ponds have been
established at Welaka where approximately three thousand brood
bass can be used. Supplemented by this there are twenty-four of
the best type of rearing ponds, square in shape and with re-
enforced sides, an acre each in extent. These, together with the
brood ponds cover some thirty-five acres.
The building of these ponds necessitated a vast amount of
excavation. This not only provided thousands of man days of
work where CWA and FERA labor found employment, but
opened avenues for cooperation from Putnam and Marion Coun-
ties. The County Commissioners of Putnam county furnished the
ditching machine used. The train of cars used for hauling and
dumping the soil excavated, together with the engine and portable
tractor, were loaned by the request of Superintendent Dunson by
a lime rock company of Marion County. It is interesting to
note that the engine, cars and tracks were loaded on trucks and
trailers and transported from Marion County to Welaka for this

Shad Hatchery-Welaka.

A unit has been built and equipped for the hatching of shad.
The design suggested by Superintendent Dunson has not only
proven its efficiency but is an object of interest to those who visit
the hatchery. It is equipped with 24 fifty-ounce jars where shad
eggs, stripped when the roe is ripe and in prime condition and
artificially fertilized by milt taken from the buck shad, are placed
for hatching. Each of the 24 jars will contain from 4 to 5 quarts
of shad eggs. Each quart represents 28,000 eggs.
The Welaka shad hatchery is so constructed that the process
of incubation from the time the eggs are placed in the jars,
through the different stages of development, to when the eggs
incubate and are released in the river may be observed. The tiny
fish may be seen to pass from the jars into a receiving trough and
to drop from one plane to another until they reach the final decent
into the receiving vat from which they are released direct into the
St. Johns.
As these fish grow they make their way down the St. Johns River
and out into the ocean to return when their spawning season
comes, some three or four years later, to the spot where they
themselves were spawned. Due to this fact the shad hatchery at
Welaka is a guarantee for maintenance of the supply of shad
in the river, though great numbers be taken by the commercial
industry. During the 1934 season thirteen million shad fry were
planted at this point.
The output for 1934. due to the fact that construction was in
progress, was far below what will be its normal yield. The hatch-
ery delivered to Florida's lakes and streams 578,200 fingerlings,
95,000 fry, 13,000,000 shad. The fact that Putnam County re-
ceived the largest allotment from the Welaka Hatchery during
the 1934 season is justified by the fact that, but for the Putnam
County Board, improvements and developments at Welaka
through the use of labor and funds supplied through CWA and
FERA would probably never have been accomplished. A
wider distribution of the output from the 1935 season is scheduled.
Approximately one half of the fingerlings from Welaka planted
during 1934 were planted in Putnam County.

Another unit of the Welaka plant that has been developed is
the small well equipped aquarium where specimens of the prin-
ciple species of fresh water fish taken in Florida may be seen. This
aquarium although small, is beautifully equipped. It not only
is interesting but of educational value to those who visit Welaka.


A third unit of the Welaka hatchery is the quail farm which
is being put in operation. Brood pens for a hundred pair of birds
have been built and stocked. From these it is expected to keep
the high type incubator placed in the incubator room, electrically
equipped and operated with the best modern devices, filled and
in operation. While the quail farm in Welaka will hardly reach
maximum production in the present season, it is anticipated that
birds will be available from this source for distribution during
the present year, 1935. It is impossible to count these quail before
they are hatched and brought to maturity. No estimate is offered.

Adjoining the game farm is an area where a transient camp was
established. These barracks are well planned and have been well
built. When they are no longer needed to house FERA transients,
it is planned to make of them a recreational camp open to Boy
Scouts, Girl Scouts, and other kindred organizations, where
those particularly interested in the wild life resources of the
State may camp for vacation and have an opportunity to study
at first hand the life habits of some of the species of fish and game
found in Florida.


The operation of the Welaka Fish Hatchery from July 1, 1933,
to June 30, 1934, cost the State $12,941.95. Expenditures here
July 1, 1934, to December 31, 1934, were $5,098.95. The total for
the period of eighteen months, was $18,031.90.
The cost of buildings and the source of funds for the same

Labor $ 98,637.91
Material 31,704.30
Equipment 30,129.79
Other (90% gas and oil) 5,532.09

FERA $ 44,185.21
CWA 94,484.56
Donations 27,334.32



With operating costs to the State at Welaka for a year totaling
but $12,941.95 the average cost of fingerlings distributed from this
hatchery has been low.
Representatives from the United States Bureau of Fisheries who
have visited the hatchery during the past year have been lauda-
tory, indeed, of the work that has been done at this point and of
the plant owned by the State at this point.

The Winter Haven Fish Hatchery built in 1929 has been devoted
exclusively to the hatching of Black Bass. Rearing ponds built
when the hatchery was built has made it possible to bring fish
hatched here to fingerling size before releasing them to lakes and
streams. During 1934 the fingerlings from this hatchery, 502,500
in number, were planted in the following counties:


Santa Rosa

Number County

19,000 Highlands
28,000 Polk
15,000 Pinellas
44,000 DeSoto
7,000 Hillsborough ................
2,000 Marion
3,000 Seminole
4,000 Lake
5,000 Osceola
15,000 Pasco
25,000 Sumter
17,000 Hardee
11,000 Volusia



The fact that forty per cent or more of fingerling bass are
estimated to reach maturity gives significance to these figures.
The cost to the State of operating Winter Haven Hatchery, in-
cluding cost of delivering fish totaled $3,746.17 during 1934.
Improvements made on this property by CWA and FERA
were the building of a caretakers house and garage; cleaning
grounds around the hatchery; raising dyke across the lake; re-
building tool house; constructing road around west side of hatch-
ery; cleaning out canals. The plant has been efficiently managed
by R. G. Garrett, superintendent.
In 1933 it was decided to develop a fish hatchery in Gulf County
near Dead Lakes. To date $31,979.07 has been expended on this
plant and in its operation. Of this amount Gulf County has sup-
plied $6,631.29, the State of Florida $2,939.17. From Federal
funds (FERA and CWA) $22,408.61.
For this investment the State has a property to which it holds
title, comprised of 140 acres, on which there are located
two lakes, one covering forty acres, one covering sixty acres. In
the lake sixty acres in extent one brood pond for bass has been
completed, fenced and is stocked with 500 breeders; and Pond No.
2 is practically completed, fenced on three sides and partially
stocked. An eighteen inch pipe line connects the two ponds. The
pump house is completed with pipe lines running from the Dead
Lakes to pond No. 1. Pump and engine are installed and in good
running condition. The gas and oil house is completed.
On the property is located a house formerly used as a fish camp
which it is planned to remodel and use as a dwelling for the super-
intendent. The outlying cottages, six in number, will be renovated
for use and the water tank supplying the house and cottages will
be conditioned. The pond of water covering some forty acres,
will be divided into nine rearing ponds. In an anticipation of a
public works program, to be financed by cooperation with the
Federal Government, Gulf County is making the completion of the
fish hatchery at this point the one and only county project which
will be submitted.
B. H. Smith, superintendent, is making every effort to carry this
work to successful completion.

Other Fishing Waters.

The fish produced in this hatchery will be used to keep Dead
Lakes, west Florida's famous fishing grounds, well stocked, and
as a feeder for other fishing waters.

Florida is noted for its good hunting and sport fishing-its
wealth of plumage and song birds. These have made of the State
a mecca for sportsmen and other outdoor lovers. Its non-game
animals add interest to its woodland life. A number of species have
furnished a basis for the trapping industry.

Deer have increased in a number of sections in the State. The
notable increase in the Ocala Forest is a fine example of what
could be had throughout the State with the cooperation of those
who go into the woods to hunt, the courts and the people as a
whole. It demonstrates the value of an inviolate sanctuary. A
strict observance of the law prohibiting the killing of doe deer will
materially help. This law is more generally observed than in
former years with the exceptions of the few areas where violations
have been frequent.

Good Hunting.

Reference to the report on convictions for violations and fines
imposed for this offense will show that in some instances fines were
fixed at a sum less than that for which the carcass would have sold
in the market for meat. Such facts suggest the advisability of
fixing by law the minimum fine for killing doe deer.

The past nesting season was particularly favorable to bobwhites,
and reports from many parts of the State have been that they have
been found in goodly numbers. It is believed that due to but little
rainfall during the winter and the resulting tendency of the birds
to go to swamps for water, that an abundant seed stock in such
areas is carrying over into the nesting season just ahead. There are
other sections where, due to over shooting in the past the supply is
low. Quail are being trapped in closed areas in counties to be
transferred to depleted areas in those respective counties.


On invitation from the Division of Vocational Teachers of Agri-
culture, Florida Education Association, the Director of Education
of the Conservation Department appeared on the program of this
Division at the annual meeting of the Association held in Jackson-
ville early in the year, to speak on Game Management on the
Farm, a subject that essentially belongs to agriculture. The fact
that under farming the management of farm lands affects the
environment and feed of wild life, and so determines in a large
measure its abundance or scarcity on the farm, suggests the logi-
cal place of game management in such a course.
The interest on the part of trained agricultural teachers in the
subject leads to the suggestion that consideration be given to
placing in the field an agent, trained and experienced in this line
of work, to cooperate with this group of teachers and with farmers
who wish to undertake to increase the supply of game on their
respective farms. It is believed that this could be made one of the
most effective means of increasing the general supply of game on
the farm lands of Florida. Such an agent added to the educational
division of the Conservation Department could render excellent
No species of game would be more directly affected by such
a program than would bobwhite quail.
A small experimental quail farm has been established on a 360
acre tract owned by the State Supervisor, near Tallahassee. Mat-
ing birds have been taken some from the wild, some from hand
reared birds. It is too early as yet to forecast any expected yield.
It is hoped that the 1935 season will yield a limited number of
birds than can be placed on selected areas.

Found in abundance in all parts of this state, wild turkey
today are decreasing and their occurrence is spotted. This
marked decrease has occurred within the past few years. It is coin-
cident with the opening up of their natural breeding grounds by
the building of good roads and the almost universal use of cars.
These have not only made it possible for man to easily penetrate
such sanctuaries, it has brought these areas within a few hours

drive of his home or place of business. Where an annual camping
trip was the peak event of the year, today the week-end trip or
several camps within a season are included in the average sports-
man's schedule. The marked decrease in the supply of wild tur-
keys in Florida, in all sections, the entire elimination in others is
the result. Unless better protection is afforded, a continued de-
crease is all that can be reasonably expected. A shortening of the
season is recommended.


In most sections the grey cat squirrel is holding its own and fox
squirrels under the period during which it was not lawful to kill
them have increased. These last named have not yet increased
sufficiently to be placed on the list of game that may be shot. The
time when protection was given them expired with the opening of
the hunting season of 1934-35. It is recommended that a closed
season on fox squirrels again be declared.

Florida's supply of these birds, particularly of wild ducks, has
shown the result of the general reduction in the continental flock.
Reports from sportsmen in the Fourth District were to the effect
that those going out for ducks more frequently brought back coots,
so few ducks being found to shoot. From the First District comes
the report in a number of sections that ducks were scarce. The ;
warden employed by the National Audubon Society to patrol the
waters out from Tampa reported that where it was customary to
see thousands of ducks only a few hundred were observed during
the season just past.- In the lake section around Tallahassee, lying
partly in the Third District and partly in the Second, an area
that has ordinarily afforded some of the best duck shooting in the
State, sportsmen, without exception, have reported a marked short-
age of these birds. Many of Florida's leading sportsmen have ex-
pressed themselves as favoring a closed season on ducks.
Without a doubt the most serious situation in the bird world
today, the one that has been the subject of more controversial dis-
cussion in this field is the question of steps that should be taken

to save the fast diminishing supply of ducks in America. The
seriousness of the situation is everywhere acknowledged. The
matter of controversy is as to needed measures for saving these
wonderful birds.
There is a
strong and
growing senti-
ment through-
out t h i s coun-
try, shared alike
by naturalists
and thousands
of leading
sportsmen ev-
erywhere, that
absolute protec-
tion must be
given ducks un-
til they shall
have rebuilt the
rapidly declin-
ing supply, if
ducks are not to
b e numbered
among the "lost
species" of the
bird world.

There is a
movement o n
foot to secure a
moratorium o f
o ne e a r on
duck shooting.
Such a move-
These Wonderful Birds. nent is the only
sure guarantee that can be offered. This matter will be handled
by Federal authorities, and Florida stands ready to support such
a regulation, should Federal authorities deem such a measure


The trapping industry in Florida has been on decrease for the
last five years as is indicated by the drop in the sale of licenses.
For the 1929-30 season there were 4,588 licensed trappers oper-
ating; during the following season this dropped to 2,921; in the
season of 1931-32 to 2,348; in the season of 1932-33, 1,127; in the
season of 1933-34, 1,016. This has been due in part to market con-
ditions, in part to a decrease in fur bearers in Florida. The build-
ing of good roads throughout the state which has jeopardized, to a
large extent, birds and game animals has also given easy access to
the haunts of the fur bearers. The industry which at one time
brought a revenue that possibly neared the two million dollar
mark, brings now less than one million.
The raccoon is Florida's chief fur bearer. It has decreased
greatly under the trapping of the past five years. The otter
which yields the most valuable pelt, never very numerous, in-
creased under the closed season provided during
but is dropping to its lower level again. The opossum, fox, cat-
squirrel and skunks taken in scattering numbers are worth but
little as fur bearers. They make but a negligible contribution to
Florida's supply of pelts. Rabbit and squirrel taken in the wild
have no commercial value as fur bearers in Florida.
Should the hunting season be shortened, it is recommended that
the trapping season be made as of the same dates. Under the
Florida law trappers are required to visit their traps every twen-
ty-four hours. This law seems to be generally observed. Enacted
as a humane measure, climatic conditions are such that the trap-
pers will hardly disregard it. The danger of loss or injury to the
pelt through spoilage should the animal be held longer, is too
States everywhere recognize breeding grounds and refuges as
the surest guarantee for the preservation and re-establishment
of wild life. The tendency in the States has been to secure these
through gift or purchase. Florida recognizes the desirability of
preserves of this type and is working toward this end. The limited
sums available for conservation in Florida, however, and the vast

areas to be protected would necessarily make this a slow process
in this State. To meet this situation Florida evolved a plan of
closing selected areas by mandate. Under this plan there are at
the present time seventy-five such areas closed in the State. Sixty-
eight closed by the governor on recommendation of the Conserva-
tion Department, seven by legislative action.
In locating these breeding grounds sections have been selected
where seed stock was most abundant. While every effort is made
to secure the approval and cooperation of county officials and
owners of land, the fact that the title to wild life is vested in the
State makes this closing possible. There are above three million
acres included in these breeding grounds.
Nothing has marked the growth of conservation in Florida
more definitely than the development of support for the protection
of these breeding grounds by those who live in proximity to them.
With but few exceptions there is a growing demand on the part
of these people for the observance of the law protecting the wild

In a Protected Area.

life and breeding grounds. This has come as the result of the
increase in wild life in the closed areas.
These protected areas have, almost without exception been
marked by an increase in deer.
It is recommended that the section of the law pertaining to
breeding grounds and refuges be changed so as to more clearly
define boundaries and the method of establishing.
A sanctuary for wild life of the permanent type is found in the
creation of Myakka State Park in Manatee County. The State
Conservation Department will direct the work affecting protection
of bird, fish and animal life. The following account of the ac-
quisition of this is by Fred C. Elliot, Secretary, Internal Improve-
ment Fund:--"' The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund
have recently acquired lands in Manatee and Sarasota Counties
amounting to 18,990 acres, of which 17,070 acres were purchased
and 1,920 acres came by gift. To the above, 6,240 acres adjacent,
already owned by the State were added, making up an aggregate
composite tract of 25,230 acres.-These lands have been set aside
by the Trustees and designated a reforestation project and a
game and fresh water fish preserve to be open to the use of the
public as a state park under such rules and regulations as may be
necessary for the protection and conservation of the area for the
purpose described.
"This is one of the tracts acquired by the Trustees under Chap-
ter 16142, Laws of Florida, Acts of 1933, commonly known as the
Reforestation Law.
"Since the lands are state owned, they are available under the
National Industrial Recovery Act for emergency conservation work,
and for that purpose there has already been allocated a C. C. C.
Camp of 200 men for undertaking such work in the area as may
be desirable. The work will consist generally in the erection of
fences, building of simple forest roads, drainage ditches, and pro-
viding fire lanes, together with the various detail going with the
above for the improvement and protection of the land-all without
cost to the State.
"The work relating to forestry will be carried out by the State
Forest Service. The protection of wild life and game will be under
the Conservation Department.

"A large part of the tract is valuable for reforestation. The
entire tract is among the best grazing lands of the state. Running
diagonally through it is the Myakka River, a beautiful stream
attractive for improvement and lending desirability for camping
grounds and for park purposes. A paved road traverses the area
connecting with Sarasota to the northwestward about 20 miles away
and with Arcadia to the southwestward about 25 miles.
"It is anticipated that work will begin at an early date upon
improvements and that within two years it will be in condition to
be offered to the public for use and enjoyment.
"The 17,070 acres acquired by purchase will be paid for through
a period of years out of the proceeds received from the sale of
timber products, from the lease of grazing privileges, and from
reasonable fees to be charged for the use of the area and its facili-
ties as camping and picnic grounds and other recreational features.
"It is hoped that other desirable tracts can be procured by the
State through the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund for
similar purposes, and to this end plans are under way.
"For facilitating the expansion of the state's plan for refores-
tation, for parks, for game preserves, and for other purposes for
the use of the public, the Trustees invite owners of land who may
desire to dispose of their holdings by sale or by gift to communi-
cate with them."
M. O. Harrison, Assistant Supervisor of Fish and Game ren-
dered valuable assistance in the establishment of the Myakka
State Park.


Refuges for wild life or preserves maintained in Florida by the
Federal Government total 12. One of the largest of these is the St.
Marks refuge for migratory birds. It embraces 22,000 acres, lying
across the lower part of Jefferson County and extending into
Wakulla. This area was acquired by the Federal Government
through purchase. It is in the heart of the wintering grounds for
Canadian geese and embraces some good deer and wild turkey
territory. Closed to hunting at all times it has not only served as
a preserve for migratory birds but breeding grounds for deer and
other game. The increase in deer has been notable.

Lying in the heart of Ocala Forest is an area of some 70,000
acres that is under Federal Supervision as a preserve. The in-
crease in deer that has followed the closing of this area has main-
tained, not only the supply in the forest, but in the surrounding
territory in such abundance as to provide the best deer shooting
found in the State.

During 1934 the request came to the Conservation Office from
the State Audubon Society to close certain small islands lying in
Tampa Bay, adjacent to lands where a full time warden was em-
ployed by the organization, as these islands were nesting places for
numerous resident water fowl. Since it was possible to have the
warden already employed patrol the area, these islands were closed.

Not only is Florida, but the nation at large, interested in the
establishment of the proposed Everglades Park in the far southern
part of the State. This project has not only received strong en-
dorsement from many National Organizations but in the summer
of 1934 the Bill authorizing its acceptance by the Federal Govern-
ment when titles to the property should be patented by the State
to the Federal Government was passed. On a recent visit to
Florida Secretary Ickes, of the Department of the Interior, is
quoted as saying he hopes to see the Everglades Park an accom-
plished fact before his term of office expires. At the present time
approximately a million acres of land in the section under con-
sideration have reverted to the State because of delinquent taxes.
This should greatly hasten the completion on the part of the State
of the necessary steps that must be taken in the matter. When
Everglades Park is established it will be to Florida and America
a national park of tropical beauty that could not be duplicated.
Interesting because of its native tropical flora and fauna which it
will save from the desecrating hand of those who seem not to think
beyond the present hour, it will serve also as a vast preserve for
migratory waterfowl. It will be possibly the vastest area in
which the rebuilding of the wild life pictures of early days will
be undertaken.
Everglades National Park will have a dual appeal. Those who
are attracted by a life that is different will come to enjoy life in

the tropics here: and here in the heart of the wild, and yet but a
few hours distant from the busiest streets of America, men will
come for that renewing found only in areas which men have left
Men must know the life habits of birds, fish and animals before
they realize the necessity for laws that protect them. The wider
spread is this knowledge, the keener is the conviction as to the need
for protective laws and for their rigid observance. It is this fact
that has led every state to include in its Conservation Program pro-
Svision for educational work.- When the Department of Game and
Fresh Water Fish was established in 1925 provision was made for
such work in Florida.
Activities in the educational division have included the writing
of bulletins adaptable for use in Florida's schools; lecture work in
schools and in clubs; the preparation of exhibits used in this work
and for fairs; the writing of newspaper releases; and the editing
of a department magazine. This general program has been carried
forward under the State Conservation Department. It is at the
present time under the direction of Sarah W. Partridge, who
handled such a program for the State Department of Game and
Fresh Water Fish from the time that it was established in 1925.
Since the Conservation Department was organized, June 1, 1933,
there has been issued the Compilation of Conservation Laws, nine
issues of The Florida Conservator, a monthly magazine, one leaflet
on Florida Wild Life Resources and a leaflet on the Welaka Fish
The numerous requests for "The Conservator", particularly by
schools, libraries and those interested in Florida files have been
gratifying. The magazine is proving an effective agency for edu-
cation regarding wild life resources. Since the publication is held
to a very limited edition, it is impossible to care for the numerous
requests for it.
In cooperation with the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs
and the State Chamber of Commerce, special material was prepared

and furnished for Out-Door-Florida-Week and Know-Florida-Bet-
ter- Week. Under plans prepared for club activity during the week
some fine Conservation work was inaugurated in Women's Clubs
in 1933 and again in 1935.
During the fair season of 1933-34 the Conservation Department
placed exhibits at the State Fair held in Tampa, the Central Flor-
ida Exposition in Orlando, and the Volusia County Fair in Deland.
Exhibits not only included displays of wild life resources but of
mineral resources of the State, these being arranged by the Geo-
logical Division, and of the products of the Commercial Fish Indus-
try. They afforded an excellent opportunity to advertise the com-
mercial products, on which is based one of the greatest industries
of the State.
These exhibits were under the direction of Carey A. Thomas who
was at that time in charge of the educational program for the Con-
servation Department. The cooperation of the fair associations
made it possible to place fine exhibits that were attractive and of
great educational value.
In the 1934-35 season of fairs exhibits were again placed in
Tampa and Orlando. They were under the direction of M. O.
Harrison, Assistant Conservation Commissioner, and Mrs. Dan
Carlton, Clerk in the department. These exhibits not only at-
tracted attention, they offered an excellent opportunity for broad-
ening contacts in the field.
In October, 1934, through the co-operation of FERA, an artist
was added to the educational division, Warner Sanford, of Quincy.
His time is given to preparing material that will be used in Edu-
cational lines. He has undertaken the painting of Florida birds.
The pictures that have been completed were used in exhibits at
the fair held in Tampa and Orlando in 1935. They were shown in
Winter Park at the time of the state meeting of the Audubon
Society, and, on request from the Chamber of Commerce and Wo-
man's Club of Sanford, they were placed on exhibit there and, im-
mediately following, on request of the Florida Federation of
Women's Club, shown in Melbourne at the state meeting of this
organization. They have been appreciatively received. The work

gives promise of developing not only into an outstanding contri-
bution in the educational field, but a work of art that will be prized
as such.

In 1931 the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish in co-
operation with the State Department of Agriculture published a
bulletin, "Florida Birds", and issued 15,000 copies most of which
were placed in Florida schools. The last 1,500 were distributed
by the State Conservation Department. The results from the copies
placed in the schools have been outstanding.
A companion book on fish is greatly needed, as is a third bulle-
tin that would give authentic information on the game and non-
game animals of Florida.
Calls for educational material on Florida wild life are constant
and insistent.
A number of calls have come from the C. C. C. Camp for ma-
terial adapted for use on the Educational Program of the camps.
Florida's Conservation program could be advanced by many
years were the material asked for by schools, clubs and camps
provided. Bulletins, and unit loan exhibits, in small portable
cases, showing Florida's wild life resources would greatly
strengthen the program. Every effort is made to give what is
called for, and much is being done, but the calls for help are too
numerous to be handled by the one worker supplied by the De-
partment. When and if finances are available it is recommended
that provision be made for the loan exhibits and for the printing of
bulletins needed.

The Law Enforcement Division of the Conservation Department
operates in two sections. One division under N. D. Lloyd, com-
prised of twelve agents, or deputies, give special attention to the
enforcement and observance of the laws protecting and regulat-
ing the commercial fishing industry.
The other section, comprised of forty agents during hunting
season of sixty agents, or deputies, operates under the four Dis-
trict Commissioners; I. N. Kennedy of the First; B. F. Mizell of
the Second; J. P. Anthony of the Third; J. A. Black of the Fourth.

Florida as a whole needs a deeper conviction in regard to the
obligation that rests upon all to observe and enforce the laws
regulating the commercial fishing industry of the State and the
protection of wild life resources. This applies to citizens and in
some instances to courts, as is shown by penalties assessed on law
violators. Proper protection through the breeding and maturing
period, with moderation in taking during open seasons would
assure for all time fish, game and other wild life in such abund-
ance that there would not only be a sufficiency for those who
make their home here, but for the many visitors who come to share
what is here. Such law enforcement will only be had when the
people as a whole demand it.
There follows a summary of cases handled in court where fines
were levied, through the period discussed.


Fiscal Year, July 1st, 1932, to June 30, 1933


Hunting closed season
Hunting without license ...................
Hunting breeding grounds ....-..........
Illegal hunting
Over bag limit-game
Killing doe deer
Possession non-game birds ................
Fishing without license ......................
Illegal fishing
Over bag limit-fish
Undersize fish
Selling fish without license ................
Trapping without license ...................
Trapping closed season ....................
Selling furs without license ...............
Possession Egret plumes .................
Selling black bass


*These funds only accrue to State
go to County.

lumber of Fines
Offenders Assessed
75 $ 980.00
33 515.00
19 215.00
5 50.00
2 90.00
4 35.00
2 25.00
55 750.45
82 666.00
2 45.00
10 80.00
4 50.00
2 .......
2 15.00
2 10.00
1 ......
1 ...

301 $3,526.45

Conservation Fund. Fines assessed

*Fees and
$ 424.66



Fiscal Year, July 1st, 1933, to June 30th, 1934


Number of Fines *Fees and
Mienders Assessed Coleage
Offenders Assessed Collected

Hunting closed season
Hunting without license .....-............
Hunting in breeding grounds ............
Illegal hunting
Over bag limit; game
Killing doe deer
Dismembering deer without
Fishing closed season
Fishing without license ..............-......
Illegal fishing
Over bag limit-fish
Undersize fish
Selling fish without license................
Trapping without license ................
Illegal possession of and selling
Having in captivity fur bearing
Trapping closed season
Illegal trapping
Selling furs without license ................
Buying alligator hides without
Securing license by false statement
Failing to exhibit license when
Impersonating game warden ...........
Renting boats without license............
Selling oysters without license .......
Operating boats without license........
Possession of stone crabs closed


$ 339.00


3 100.00



1 10.00

407 $3,032.55

*Only fees and mileage for services of conservation agents paid to State
Conservation Fund. Fines assessed, to Counties.

$ 183.42










Fiscal Year, July 1st, 1934, to December 31st, 1934.

OFFENSE Number of Fines
Offenders Assessed
Hunting closed season 12 $ 112.50
Hunting without license .................... 61 575.00
Hunting in breeding grounds ............ 7 70.00
Illegal hunting 23 325.00
Killing doe deer 5 25.00
Fishing without license ................. 42 233.90
Illegal fishing 23 105.00
Possession game closed season........ 6 38.00
Undersize fish 24 115.00
Selling fish without license.............. 7 10.00
Trapping closed season ................ 6 12.50
Seining in Fresh Water ................... 8 123.50
Renting boats without license......... 3 ........
Failing to show license 3 .....

*Fees and
*$ 35.38

Totals 230

$1,745.40 $ 779.49

*Only fees and mileage for services of conservation agents paid to State
Conservation Fund. Fines assessed, to Counties.

The following is a statement of prosecutions for violations of Conserva-
tion Laws from July 1st, 1932, to June 30th, 1933

Alachua .................... 11 4 4 .... 3 $ 125.00 $ 18.24
Baker 5 5 .... .... .... 30.00 18.14
Bay 1 .... .... 1 .... ................ 17.25
Bradford .. .... .... .... .... .................
Brevard .................... 11 10 1 .... .... 75.00 ................
Brow ard ...- -............ .. ........ ................
Calhoun .................... 7 5 .... 2 .........
Charlotte .................. 5 5 .... .... .... 215.00 6.12
Citrus 2 .... .... 2 .... ............... 19.00
C lay .... .... .... .. .. ............ .............
Collier ...................... 12 12 .... .... .... 260.00 -------
Columbia .................. 9 8 1 .... .... 85.00 52.75
Dade 14 8 3 3 .... 25.00 56.00
D eSoto ...................... ... .... .... .... .
Dixie 15 9 3 3 .... 155.00 84.13
Duval 2 2 .... ... .. 20.00
Escambia .................. 4 3 .... 1 .... 10.00 7.75
Flagler ...................... 1 ... .... 1 .... ............ 9.50
Franklin ......... .... ... .. .... ................ 17.50
Bradford .................. ---- ..-- ---- ---- .... --------------- ----------------

G adsden ....... ... .... .... .... .... ................ ...............
Gilchrist .................... 2 2 .... .... .... 20.00 17.61
Glades .... ...... .. .... .... ............... 9.87
Gulf 19 10 6 3 .... 20.00 ------19.00
Hamilton .................. 8 8 .... .... .... 18.00 23.95
H ardee ..................... ... .... ..... .......
Hendry ...................... 12 9 3 ....- .... 90.00 183.07
Hernando ................ 4 2 2 .... .... 50.00 7.75
Hlgernno--------------1 4 2 1-------- 5000----------------95

Highlands ................ 7 3 4 .... .... 25.00 18.87
Hillsborough ............ 14 2 .... 12 .... 50.00 17......61
Holmes ................... 10 8 .... 2 .... 40.00 8.13
Indian River........... .... ... .... .... ................ ................
Jackson .................... 48 30 .... 18 .... 110.00 12.48
Jefferson .................. 2 1 .... 1 .... 15.00 12.15
LaFayette ................ 1 .... .... 1 .... ................ 10.52
Lake 19 12 6 1 .... 100.00 92.65
Lee 5 4 .... 1 .... 90.00 ........

Indian River----------------------------. .. .. .. ..-.-------------......

La~ayette----.......-...1 .. ... 1-----------------------10.52


The following is a statement of prosecutions for violations of Conserva-
tion Laws from July 1st, 1932, to June 30th, 1933

St. J
St. I


ty ..................... 2
son ................. 7
Ltee ..................
on ................... 7
in .................. 7
oe ..... ..........
au ......... .......... 4
oosa ................ 3
chobee ............ 4
ge ...................... 5
ola .................... 17
Beach .......... 18
o 8
las ..............
am .... ........
ohns ................. 8
iucie ..............-
a Rosa ........... 14
sota ................... 7
inole ............... 12
ter ..................... 4
annee ............... 3
or 6
sia ................. 12
ulla ................. 24
:on .....-........... 10
hington ........... 15
Totals.............. 494

Note: This department receives only fees and

servation agents. Court cost and fines are retained in the counties in
which the arrests are made.


10.00 43.50
20.00 283.99

............... 28.98
90.00 16.00
50.00 76.35

45.00 10.50
--..------- -... 17.62
30.00 ....
--- .----------- 7.63
191.00 73.50



.--. -------.... 64.49

95.00 216.25
50.00 76.35
30.00 55.68
....... ... 8.25
11.00 7.37
115.00 104.09
--. -----. -------. --. -----. -.....
..... ........ 13.25
355.95 59.00
................ 8.50
$3.526.45 $1,969.18
mileage made by Con-

"^' ^ o "

The following is a statement of prosecutions for violations of conserva-
tion laws from July 1st, 1933, to June 30th, 1934.

B aker ........ .... ................ ................
Bay 7 6 1 .... .. ......... 39.72
B radford .................. 1 .... ................ ................
Brevard .................... 19 19 .... .... .... 95.00 88.85
Broward .................... 3 3 .... .... .... 30.00 21.00
Calhoun .................... 11 4 3 4 .... 10.00 5.00
Charlotte .................. 5 2 3 .... .. 20.00 19.00
Citrus 43 21 19 1 2 179.00 80.26
Clay.. .. .... ............ ..
Collier ...................... 16 13 2 1 .... 541.00 66.26
Columbia ................ 13 4 9 .... .... 30.00 13.80
Dade 23 10 6 7 .... 100.00 19.85
DeSoto ...................... ... .. .... -- .... ----.- ----... ---
Dixie 31 22 4 5 .... 135.00 29.25
Duval 11 3 5 3 .... 11.00 7.74
Escambia ................ 27 10 9 8 .... 30.00 18.90
Flagler ......................- .. .... .- ---- .--- .......-
Franklin .................. 8 8 .... .... .... 72.80 19.00
Gadsden .................... 20 19 1 .... .... 80.00 62.99
Gilchrist .................... 3 3 .... .... --.... 30.00 11.50
Glades ...................... 2 2 .... --.. ..-- -50.00 18.50
Gulf 11 5 3 3 .... 40.00 16.20
H am ilton .................. 1 .... 1 ...............
Hardee ........... ... ---- --- -- ............. ......---
Hendry ...................... 6 6 .... .... .... 50.00 15.11
Hernando ................ 4 3 1 ... .... 30.00 ....
Highlands ............. 14 7 1 6 .... 100.00 33.50
Hillsborough ........ 12 2 9 1 .... ............... 7.35
Holmes ................... 2 .... .... 1 1 ..........
Indian River ...........- ... ... ---- -- .............. ...--------
Jackson .................. 17 16 1 ............ ......
Jefferson ................ 13 2 3 8 ...- ... ............
LaFayette ................ 6 1 3 2 .... ...............
Lake 7 3 .... 4 .... .............
Lee 6 5 .... 1 .... 5.00 38.15

The following is a statement of prosecutions for violations of Conserva-
tion Laws from July 1st, 1933, to June 30th, 1934.

C rC Z C C
U j -t ^ -: -C-.-'

Leon 28
Levy 12
Liberty ...................... 9
Madison .................... 7
Manatee .................... 6
Marion ...................... 14
Martin ...................... 10
Monroe .........
Nassau ...................... 10
Okaloosa .................. 22
Okeechobee ............ 4
Orange ..... .....-----...
Osceola ........----............ 10
Palm Beach ........... 3
Pasco 48
Pinellas .................... 8
Polk 6
Putnam .................... 13
St. Johns .................. 8
St. Lucie ...............
Santa Rosa ........... 12
Sarasota ................. 3
Seminole ............... 4
Sumter ...................... 2
Suwannee ................ 5
Taylor 8
Volusia .................... 8
Wakulla ........ ........... 29
Walton ..................... 34
Washington ............ 16

Totals ............-... 693

20 3
6 6
8 .1
6 ....
11 2
4 6

1 8
12 9
1 2

1 ....
2 1
24 20
6 ....
13 ....
2 6

2 4
2 1
1 3
2 ....
3 5

8 ....
22 4
30 3
13 2

407 195

5 .... 207.00
S 60.00
.... .... ........
.. ... .. ....... .
1 .... 30.00
.... 30.00
.. .... .... ..........
1 .... 1.00
1 ---....- ....-..........- -
1 20.00

.... .... ................

1 3 195.00

.... .... 125.00
.... .... 25.00
.... 75.00

6 .... 15.00
.... .... 10.00

.... ....26.00

.... .. 35.00

.... .... 60.00
3 .... 207.75
1 .... 129.00
1 .... 25.00

75 16 $3,032.55

Note: This department receives only fees and mileage made by Conser-
vation agents. Court costs and fines are retained in the counties in
which the arrests are made.











The following is a statement of prosecution for violations of Conservation
Laws from July 1st, 1934, to December 31st, 1934.


Alachua .................... 12 7 1 4 .... $ 103.00
B aker .... --- -- ... ...... .....
Bay 4 2 2 .... .... ............. 12.50
Bradford ......... .... ... .... .... ... ................ ................
Brevard .................... 4 3 .... 1 .... 150.00 93.90
Broward .................... 6 5 .... 1 .... 50.00 27.50
Calhoun .................... 12 6 1 5 .... 90.00 6.75
Charlotte .................. .... ....................
Citrus 6 5 .... 1 .... CO.00 39.70
Clay .... .... .... .. ...........
Collier 4 1 1 2 .... 45.00 ......
Colum bia .................. .... .. .... .... ................ 7.00
Dade 16 9 .... 7 .... ............... 6.00
D eSoto ...................... .... .................... ...............
Dixie 24 18 .... 6 .... ..... .............
Duval 9 4 5 ..--.. .... .............. 5.20
Escam bia ................ 17 8 .... 9 .... .... ........... -46.25
Flagler ...................... 1 1 .... .... .... .10.00 .......
Franklin .................. 3 3 ........
Gadsden ................... 6 5 1 .... .... 50.00 7.61
Gilchrist .................. 2 .... 2 .... .... ......... ... 5.60
Glades 7 7 .... .... .... 395.00 21.62
Gulf 9 8 .... 1 .... 50.00 46.20
H am ilton .........-........ .... ... .... .... ................ 15.39
H ardee ...........--- ........... 2 .... 2 .... ................
Hendry ...................... 1 .... 1 .... .... 10.00 9.50
H ernando ................ 1 .... 1 .. .... ..............
H ighlands ................ .... .. .... ..........
Hillsborough .......... 5 2 2 .... 1 10.00 5.25
H olm es ................... ................
Indian River............ 4 4 .... .... .... .........
Jackson .................... 2 .... .... 2 ................
Jefferson .................. 5 ... .... 5................
LaFayette ................ 13 12 1 .... .... 40.00 48.00
Lake 11 9 .... 2 .... 45.00 .......
L ee .... ........................


The following is a statement of prosecution for violations of Conservation
Laws from July 1st, 1934, to December 31st, 1934.

Leon 13 10
Levy 2 1
Liberty ..................... 2 2
Madison .................. 2 ....
Manatee .................... 1 1
Marion ...................... 6 6
Martin .................. ... .
Monroe ............ ........... .
Nassau ...................... 9 7
Okaloosa ............... 20 2
Okeechobee .............. .
Orange ...................... 3 2
Osceola .................... 3 2
Palm Beach ............. 1 ....
Pasco 27 19
Pinellas .................... 4 4
Putnam .................... 1 ....
St. Johns .................. 1 1
St. Lucie ....... ..... .
Santa Rosa....--......... 25 6
Sarasota .................. .. ...
Seminole .................. 8 8
Sumter ...................... 2 ....
Suwannee ................ 4 1
Taylor ...................... 11 7
Union i
Volusia ...................... 3 2
Wakulla .................... 12 6
Walton ...................... 18 7
Washington ............ 19 17
Totals.................. 383 230

S 3 .... 51.00

1 .... 5.00
.... ... .... 20.00
2 .... .--. ................
.... .. .. 10.00
.... .... 45.00

2 .... .... ...............

1 17 ... ...............

S .... .... ................
1 ..7 .... ...............
5. --- ---- --- -- -- -- --

.. .... .... .-..-....- .....
.... --- ----------------..
5 3 .... 65.00
.... .... .... 0.00


--- 17 .... -----------

.... 2 .... ................
.... 3 .... ................
2 17 .... 15.00

1 .... 150.00

.... 1 1 ................
2 2 ... 145.50

1 .... .... 30.00
1 5 .... 50.90
11 ... 30.00
1 1 ................
38 113 2 $1,745.40

Note: This department received only fees and mileage made by Con-
servation agents. Court Costs and fines are retained in the Counties in
which the arrests are made.








$ 779.49



Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1933,

Hunting Licenses: Price
Series A-Resident County--..$ 1.00
Series B-Resident Other
than Home ........ 3.00
Series C-Resident State...... 7.50
Series D-Non-resi. State...... 25.00
Trapping Licenses:
Series N-Resident County....$ 3.00
Series O-Non-resi. Co. ........ 25.00
Series P-Resident State...... 25.00
Series Q-Resident Other
than Home Co..... 10.00
Fishing Licenses:
Series E-Resident Other
than Home Co....$ 1.00
Series F-Non-resi. Co. ........ 3.00
Series-G-Non-resi. State...... 10.00
Series R-Resident State..... 3.00
Receipts-No Licenses Issued
Total Sales by County Judges............

No. Issued Amount
30,088 $ 30,088.00

2,339 7,017.00
5,973 44,797.50
373 8,075.00
38,793 $ 89,977.50

1,098 $ 3,294.00
1 25.00
2 50.00

26 260.00
1,127 $ 3,629.00


$ 1,857.00
$ 21,511.00

47,585 $115,117.50

June 30, 1934

No. Issued Amount
33,217 $ 33,217.00



$ 94,448.00

$ 2,967.00

18 180.00
1,016 $ 3,372.00

2,446 $ 2,446.00
3,368 10,104.00
310 3,100.00
2,348 7,044.00
8,472 $ 22,694.00
51,513 $120,718.50


In 1932-33, there were sold 38,793 hunting licenses-Residents
bought 30,400 of these; non-residents, 373. Residents paid $81,-
902.50; Non-residents, $8,075.00.
In 1933-34 there were sold 42,025 hunting licenses-Residents
bought 41,709; Non-residents, 316. Residents paid $88,548.00;
Non-residents, $7,900.
When the liberal bag limits and season in Florida are considered
the charge to a non-resident of $25.00 for a state-wide game
license, good for the entire season is conservative. It is recom-
mended that this be continued, but that a special license sold for
$10.00, good for three days of consecutive hunting in Florida, be
authorized. Greater satisfaction and increased revenue, it is be-
lieved, will result.

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1933, there were 7,685 sport
fishing licenses sold. Residents bought 4,289, paying $9,153. Non-
residents bought 3,396, paying $12,358.
In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1934, Residents bought 4,794,
paying $9,490. Non-residents bought 3,678, paying $13,204.
It is believed that the reduction in the cost of the Non-resident
State Fishing license will add to the happiness of visitors and at
the same time increase revenue to the Department, likewise the
issuing of a trip license.


In no state have the recreational possibilities based upon nat-
ural resources a greater value than in Florida. Aside from the
wholesome recreation afforded residents of Florida they attract
thousands of tourists, giving rise to a trade that is the greatest
source of revenue of any industry in the State-a revenue more
widely distributed among the people of Florida than is that de-
rived from any other source. This monetary value in many in-
stances far exceeds the material worth of the resource were it
devoted to any other purpose.
Above this, Florida is the source of welfare and happiness of
many people not only to her own citizens but to thousands who
come annually from other States seeking health and recreation
in Florida's Great Outdoors-the strengthening, the rebuilding of
those inner forces, often strained to the breaking point by the
terrific tempo of life today. From all walks of life, the lowly and
the high, men and women whose daily routine keeps them long
hours in the marts of trade, those of many leisure hours, men and
women of the professional and political groups come to Florida
for their re-creation. The State holds a large place in the heart of
How long can Florida hold this high place in the affections of
the people of her own and other States? Just so long as she holds
the recreational facilities of her Great Outdoors-forests, wild
flowers, clear streams and lakes, good hunting, good fishing,
birds of beautiful plumage and song. Enjoyment without loss of
these resources must be the goal set in the field of conservation. /

This fact emphasizes the need for perspective when determining
public policies that will shape the handling of these resources.
Foundations for the future prosperity of the State should not be
sacrificed for the promotion of individual enterprise, it matters
not how worthy that enterprise may be within itself. What be-
longs to all should be utilized for the benefit of the whole, or as
nearly as it is possible to do this. As it applies to forests and
waters, wild life resources, natural beauty, ingress and egress to
recreational areas to which title is held by the State, and other
facilities in which the State holds a claim, the policy that would
insure the preservation of the values of these resources to people
as a whole should prevail.
In trying to shape policies for the conservation of the wild life
resources of Florida the Conservation Supervisor recommends:
1. That the sale, purchase, shipment within or without the State
for sale of Black Bass be prohibited in the State of Florida.
2. That the head of a deer killed shall remain upon the carcass
or be kept intact until inspected by a conservation agent.
3. That a law making night hunting in the woods with lights
or snares illegal; to provide that possession of such devices in
the woods will be prima facie evidence of violation of the law.
4. That a law to protect the alligator in all Florida waters be
5. That Sections 4 and 7, Chapter 13644 Acts of 1925 be
amended so as to more clearly define the manner of establishing
and protecting breeding grounds for game, fresh-water fish and
fur-bearing animals.
6. That the Open Hunting Season in Florida be made November
20th through January 15th, that the season be uniform for all
game birds and game and fur-bearing animals.
7. That Section 20, Chapter 13644 Acts 1929 with reference to
license fees be changed for hunting and fishing in Florida as
Resident hunting licenses
Home County $1.00
County other than county of residence -................ 3.00
State at large 5.00

Non-resident hunting licenses
State at large $25.00
Three day (continuous) trip 10.00
Resident Fishing Licenses
Home County No charge
(County Judges certificate required for identifi-
State at large $ 1.00
Non-resident Fishing Licenses
State at Large $ 5.00
Three day (continuous) trip 1.50
Florida, with her vast area of unsettled parts, with a program
of development that has set the pace for many States far more
closely populated than Florida, with a resident population that
could be accommodated within a few large cities, has, in her eager-
ness to bid for new settlers and permanent industries, too often
overlooked conservation. To her ulitmate hurt she has permitted
the private exploiting of natural resources with no adequate re-
turn, priceless resources that destroyed represent a loss that
strikes at the foundations of well being and prosperity-a loss for
which no amount of wealth poured into the coffers of a few can
possibly compensate.


-:--:~~'d. A


Spanish Mackerel for the Market


TU- ,,'Wigf

\y ^H~ics


The monetary value of Florida's Commercial Fisheries, includ-
ing revenue derived from the sale of fish, shell fish, sponge, fish
fertilizer, places the industry among the basic ones of the State.
Varying with fluctuating markets and economic conditions in the
country the annual income from this source has approximated
$20,000,000 in favorable years; to drop as low as $8,000,000 under
unfavorable conditions. Florida's income from fisheries repre-
sents about ten per cent of the returns to the industry in the
United States.
The investment in this industry in Florida has been placed at
approximately $10,000,000. The numbers of boats licensed at the
present time totals 3,028. Of these 216 are sponge boats.
Through the biennium just closing production and price levels
have been low. The decrease in production came, not from a
reduction in supply of fish and sea foods, or in fishermen available
to take them, but from economic conditions. Ordinarily employ-
ing 11,000 men the industry has seen a reduction of approximately
331-3 per cent in numbers employed. Prices paid for fish
were so low they did not cover the cost of taking. The market
demand fell with the falling income of the people. At the same
time, the low price of meats from the packing houses brought their
products from the farm into sharp competition with fish and sea-
foods. Depression in sales necessarily curtailed activities and
worked a hardship on fishermen and wholesale dealers. The year
1933 marked the lowest ebb. The following year, 1934, and the
opening months of 1935 have shown some improvement. It is
believed that the rising cost of meats in 1935 will further improve
the demand for fish and seafood products as these palatable foods
can be substituted in the menu for the more costly meats without
affecting the nutritive value of the diet. Florida fish should find
a larger place on the Florida table. At the same time every ef-
fort should be made to send larger quantities to out-of-state mar-
kets. Were the marketing end of the industry better organized
fluctuations would not be so great.

47 .


The first effort made by the State to aid in solving this problem
was made in the previous biennium when the Shell Fish Commis-
sion, the State Marketing Bureau and the Federal Government
cooperated in placing Agnes I. Webster, a Florida woman, in the
field to teach, through demonstrations, lectures and news releases
the value of fish and seafoods in the diet, new and better methods
of preparation, and where possible, to make new contacts for
marketing. The success of this work was sufficient to lead the
Federal Bureau of Fisheries to call Miss Webster to the Wash-
ington office in August, 1934, to work along similar lines.
An emergency step to alleviate the situation which had thrown
hundreds of fishermen out of employment, was made in 1934 with
the timely cooperation of Congressman Millard Caldwell of the
Third District, who succeeded in having a limited amount of salt
fish included on the list of excess commodities that would be
purchased by the Federal Government for distribution among
relief clients. Under this provision, according to a late report
from Mr. H. E. Goodwin, Florida Director of Commodity Dis-
tribution, 325,800 pounds of salt fish were purchased with Federal
Funds, 60,300 with State funds, making a total of 386,100 pounds.
The Purchasing Department of the Board of Commissioners
of State Institutions has placed Florida fish in its list of commodi-
ties regularly purchased for State Institutions. This practice was
begun in 1932. Purchases during 1933 and 1934 amounted to
$32,611.15. This action and that of the Emergency Relief Admin-
istration are to be strongly commended. A greater use of these
nutritious, palatable foods of moderate costs is urged.


Due to economic conditions resulting in a large number of un-
employed fishermen in the State, there has been distress and
unrest among those who are usually busy and happy about their
work. Under these conditions, with fish at the lowest ebb in the
history of the industry, these men, in 1933 organized the Fish
Producers Association, determined to secure a better price for
their fish. Alvah Clark of Naples was elected president, and, in
December 1934, re-elected.

Due in part to the organized effort, in part to the better busi-
ness conditions, prices have risen on all species of fish. There are
many vexing questions, however, to be worked out as between
the producers and the organized Fish Dealers.
/ The Conservation Department succeeded at one critical period
during the fall of 1934 in effecting a truce between the two
groups. In February 1935 a representative from the Conciliation
Division of the Department of Labor was called in and is still
working with the two organizations in an effort to try and work
out plans mutually satisfactory/ It is hoped that a fair and
equitable adjustment will be reached. The welfare of the fish-
eries industry in Florida is the welfare of many. The welfare
of any one branch of the industry is the welfare of the whole.
Better methods of handling, new methods of preparing for the
trade, new markets and increased consumption of fish taken in
Florida would aid in the solution.
Recognizing the fact that back of any real solution of the
marketing problem must lie a thorough knowledge of underlying
facts pertaining to production, methods of handling, means of
transportation, possible new markets, increased consumption, dis-
tribution of returns, the Conservation Department sent the pres-
ent Director of Education and Publicity to Washington in October
1934 to carry Florida's problem to the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries
and ask for the help that might be had from that source. The
offered cooperation in a far reaching survey that came as a result
of this, was highly gratifying. While giving consideration to
Florida's needs the Bureau determined to make the Survey nation-
al in scope. This will greatly increase the value of the work, though
it has delayed action. A recent letter from Commissioner F. T.
Bell, of the Bureau of Fisheries, states that plans for the Survey
are going forward. It is believed that this will soon be under way,
and that results will be of great value to the industry in market-
ing its products and possibly in opening new markets.
The Federal Bureau has proposed a National Fisheries Congress
to be held in Washington, to work toward a National Fisheries
Policy and to promote national advertising of the products of the
industry. Indications are that this will be carried to a successful
conclusion. It should be of great value to Florida.


The Bureau cooperates with the State of Florida in the collec-
tion of fishery trade statistics. For the past several years mem-
bers of the Bureau's technological staff have cooperated with the
University of Florida, the Florida State Marketing Bureau, and
other State agencies in Florida, in carrying out various technical
investigations designed to improve the production, preservation,
and marketing of fishery products produced in Florida and to in-
crease the consumption of these products in the State. A study
also has been made of the preservation of fishing nets in the fresh-
water lakes of Florida. Chemical treatments for these nets have
been worked out in order to prolong their useful life. Certain
marketing and fish cookery studies and demonstrations have been
conducted from time to time in Florida.

Though runs of fish have been unusually large during the active
seasons of the biennium, particularly during the 1934-35 season,
there has been a reduction in the total catch. This has been due
to conditions just discussed, demoralized markets and conflict be-
tween producers and dealers.
Section 12, Chapter 10123, Acts of 1925, provides that data re-
specting the amount of fish taken during the biennium be col-
lected. Since no provision is made to make this effective, returns
to a questionnaire are those voluntarily filed. The filing of infor-
mation by dealers, of general interest to the State, and offering
no ill effects to the industry should be compulsory.
Florida's wholesale salt water fish dealers number................. 211
Retail fish dealers number 1,204
Wholesale and retail oyster dealers number 1,159
N. D. Lloyd. assistant supervisor of commercial fisheries for
20 years, estimates the reduction at not less than thirty per cent
of the total of the previous biennium. Detailed reports received
from 65 of the wholesale dealers in the State, in response to a ques-
tionnaire sent to the 211 wholesale houses, indicate this to be a
correct estimate. Reports from the sixty-five (30.8 per cent of
whole) appear in first column of census.
Based on the replies of the 65 dealers, which seemed to offer a

fair cross section of the whole, the following estimate of the whole
for the biennium is offered for the organized industry-no amount
being included for the fish transported by trucks.


handled by
65 wholesale
Mullet 20,891,864
Trout ............... 2,847,106
Mackerel ................. 5,771,403
Blue Fish ......... 774,818
King Fish ............ 1,644,172
Red Fish 683,432
Flounders .......... 19,164
Red Snapper 798,071
Grouper 758,148
Pompano ....... 649,939
Shad 479,402
Herring ......... 335,333
Cat Fish ........... 3,474,038
Bream ........ 1,438,060
Black Bass ........ 359,260
Crappie ........ 536,622
Crayfish 168,358
Shrimp 2,573,795
Other Bottom Fish ... 2,725,382

Total reported by 65 dealers ....... 46,928,367

Unintentionally sheephead were omit-
ted from report called. Estimate as
per previous biennium used................



Estimated Yield
Based on Reports
from 30.8% of
Dealers in Fla.




Florida oyster beds are among the large producing areas in
the United States. Not only are these bivalves produced in abund-
ance, but they have a wide reputation for their fine flavor and
size. Federal inspection from time to time has given to Florida
oyster beds a fine rating as to sanitation. Found in abundance
in their natural condition, through oyster culture, practiced in the
Apalachicola Bay on West coast and Halifax tidal waters on the
east coast effort has been made to retain a high rate of production
here. Oyster culture consists in planting clean oyster shells in
producing area to which the young or spat, spawned freely in
Florida from April until October, may attach themselves, to ma-
ture in from eighteen months to two years in Florida, about half
the length of time required in northern waters.
To aid in maintaining oyster beds Florida, over a number of
years has carried on a program of oyster planting and harvesting.
168,657 bushels oysters planted in Franklin County.
9,984 bushels oysters planted in Citrus County.
6,444 bushels oysters planted in Walton County.
185,085 bushels oysters planted in Franklin, Citrus and Walton
counties during the above period.
No oysters planted by Conservation Department during this
6,900 bushels oyster Shell Planted in Franklin County during
the above period.
14,400 bushels oyster shell planted in Choctawhatchee Bay dur-
ing the above period.
Total of 21,300 bushels.
JUNE 30TH, 1933
55,3391/2 barrels oysters harvested during above period.
11,842 gallons of clams harvested during the above period.

Seed Oyster Cargo-Ready for Planting.

JUNE 30TH, 1934
86,729 barrels of oysters harvested July 1st, 1933, to June 30th,
22,336 gallons of clams were harvested July 1st, 1933, to June
30th, 1934.
DECEMBER 31ST, 1934.
20,4881/2 barrels of oysters harvested July 1st, 1934, to Decem-
ber 31st, 1934.
14,972 gallons of clams harvested July 1st, 1934, to December
31st, 1934.
Oysters can live and breed in waters varying in salinity from
20 percent to 50 percent. The female oyster will lay from sixteen
million to sixty million eggs in a year. The spat is cast into the
water where the sperm of the male drifts or is cast to fertilize it.
From this the life cycle is begun. With the cilia that appears on
the developing oyster it keeps itself suspended until it finally
develops a pair of tiny shells, which, as they grow heavier, cause
it to drop to the bottom to attach itself to some hard, smooth,
clean surface. The young that fall in mud or in soft bottoms are
smothered. Millions of them are lost. The mature oyster has no
power of locomotion. Its food must come to it in microscopic form
in the water. The cilia that are in the tiny larvae keep them sus-
pended, in the mature oyster keep currents stirred that bear food
to them.
In the summer of 1934 a parasitic natural enemy of the oyster.
called a "leech" was recognized as a menace in the Apalachicola
oyster beds, as it was completely destroying seed and adult oys-
ters on some of the beds. In response to an appeal made to the
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Dr. H. F. Prytherch was sent to investi-
gate. Dr. Prytherch reported that this pest, having a dark grey
flat body a half or three quarters of an inch in diameter, to be a
turbellarian flatworm, (Styloch us inimicus), a wafer like para-
site. The infestation occurs on bars where, due to drought, the
decrease in the discharge of water from rivers is marked, and the
salinity of waters is greatly increased. Former records of occur-

rences following or during periods of prolonged drought suggest
the probability that the high salinity of the water in Apalachicola
Bay is the principle factor responsible for the rapid spread of
the wafer. Dr. Prytherch states that the situation would be
greatly improved if the beds where oysters have been destroyed
and which serve as a harbor for the parasite during its breeding
season could be cleaned of the old shells. This would involve
intensive dredging over an area of 700 acres. Dr. Prytherch sug-
gests it as a worthy Federal Emergency Relief Project. Financial
aid for this has been sought.
In January the State Conservation Supervisor, accompanied by
Honorable Don McLeod and Mr. George Hiles carried this report
to Washington, where Florida's delegation in Congress brought
the matter before that body. The Federal Bureau of Fisheries
gave all possible aid in handling.
A Bill in U. S. Congress favorably reported carries a $100,000
appropriation for this purpose.

Florida is the second most productive State in the shrimping in-
dustry according to Mr. Milton J. Lindner, acting director of
shrimping investigations for the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. Mr.
Lindner places the catch for Florida in 1932 at 18,136,000 pounds,
17,000,000 of which were landed on the east coast of Florida. The
value of the whole he places at $535,000.
Investigations of the Federal Government show that there are
three species of shrimp taken by the commercial industry, all of
the family Penaeidae. The common shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, it
is stated, yields about 95 percent of the catch. This shrimp and
the groved shrimp, so similar to it that fishermen make no dis-
tinction between the two, are the two species taken by the Florida
industry. Mr. Lindner gives the following interesting facts de-
veloped in the researches made by the Federal Bureau of Florida's
East Coast:
"These researches show that the common shrimp along the east
Florida coast spawn in the open waters of the Atlantic Ocean
during the spring and summer. Spawning does not occur in the
inside bays and sounds. The eggs are not carried around by the

mother as in crabs and crayfish but are laid directly into the water
where the young shrimp soon batch. Upon emerging from the
egg the young shrimp is only about 1-75 of an inch in length and
appears at first glance much like a red spider or a mite. At this
stage it is far removed from the adult as it possesses only one eye
and has for swimming organs little oarlike structures which later
develop into the whiskers and jaws of the adult. After passing
through a number of molts it finally takes on the adult or shrimp-
like form at about one-third of an inch in length. At this period
of development the young shrimp moves in from the sea and
occupies the wide expanse of warm, shallow, inside waters that
are so typical of the northeastern coast of Florida. Here in the
sheltered sounds, bays and rivers the young shrimp feed and
grow. By July some of these individuals have attained sufficient
size (about four inches in length) to enter the commercial fishery
and by September they have appeared in such abundance as to
supply practically the entire fishery. As they increase in size they
tend to seek larger bodies of water. At the approach of winter
and the onset of cold weather the larger shrimp move to deeper
and more stabilized masses of water with only the smaller ones
remaining in the inside waters. With the coming of spring and
the associated warming of the waters, the shrimp begin to mature
and are soon spawning.
"After spawning, the vast majority of shrimp disappear. Since
only small numbers of spent shrimp are found, it is presumed that
they die very shortly after spawning. Hundreds of hauls with
various types of fishing gear have been made and thousands of
shrimp have been examined, but there yet remains to be found a
common shrimp which is two or more years old. If the shrimp
lives but one year, and of that there is little doubt, there is a defi-
nite cause for anxiety, for if a single year class is seriously deplet-
ed it will be difficult for the shrimp to again regain their former
abundance unless stringent regulations are enforced. That is a
statement can be explained by the fact that with the animal living
only one year there are no older shrimp to act as carry-over breed-
ing stock; consequently, if one year group is badly depleted, either
due to natural or man-made causes, the stock in the ensuing years
will be dependent directly upon the success of spawning of that
year and if there are not sufficient number of shrimp to produce

a successful spawning, the population is likely to decline quite
rapidly under the strain of heavy fishing imposed upon it.
"Up to the present time, there are no definite evidences of seri-
ous depletion occurring in the supply of shrimp, consequently it
is not necessary at this moment to apply additional rigid restric-
tions on the take of shrimp. Because conditions are such at the
present, the assumption is not warranted that stringent regula-
tions will not be needed in the immediate future. On the contrary,
they most probably will be needed for whenever man with his
machines of harvest has taken it upon himself to utilize a living
natural resource there has usually resulted a depletion of the
supply of this resource. Man's efforts in many instances have
been climaxed by the extermination of the supply upon which he
was drawing-a condition which the Bureau of Fisheries, through
its various fisheries investigative agencies, is attempting to
The low prices and uncertain demand of a depressed market
seriously crippled the shrimp industry in Florida during the past
two years.
Dealers reporting showed but 2,573,795 pounds of shrimp taken
during 1933-34. Using this as a basis upon which the whole was
completed for 211 dealers, the output would be a little above eight
and a quarter million pounds for the biennium, as compared with
seventeen million pounds taken in 1932. This decrease came as
the result of the demoralized market and not a decrease in the
supply available.


Florida possesses the only commercial sponge industry in the
United States.
The sponge industry in Florida operates from Key West up the
Gulf Coast to the St. Marks area, with markets at Key West, Tar-
pon Springs and Perry-Tarpon Springs handling, by far the
bulk of the business. Here, more than a quarter of a century ago,
a colony of Greeks settled, attracted by the climate, so like that of
their Mediterranean home, and by the vast areas where sponges
grew. Familiar with the sponge industry back in the Old Coun-



Sponge Boats at Tarpon Springs Docks.

try, it was natural that they should turn to it here. At Tarpon
Springs they have developed the world's largest sponge market.
Two methods of sponge gathering are practiced. One is through
deep sea diving, the other through the use of bucket and hooks.
Under the law the divers must operate beyond the three league
line, as determined through a ruling of the United States District
Court, recently made at New Orleans.


During the biennium the value of sponges handled by the Tar-
pon Springs Sponge Exchange totaled $1,091,004.33. The itemized
report of the sales follows:

per Bunch
Large Wool 30,755 Bunches $184,967.60 $ 6.01
Small and Medium 17,351 Bunches 23,982.88 1.08
Small and Large Rags................ 57,851 Bunches 143,548.03 2.49

105,957 Bunches $352,498.51

per Bunch
Yellow 64,131 Bunches $ 51,486.91 $ 0.82
Grass 20,105 Bunches 9,493.73 0.47
Wire ...... 8,942 Bunches 7,002.28 0.79

93,178 Bunches $ 67,972.92

Rock Island Sheepswool ....... 105,957 Bunches $352,498.51
Yellow Grass and Wire........... 93,178 Bunches 67,972.92

Totals 199,135 Bundles $420,471.43
Diver and Hooker goods were not kept separate during the year.
Note:-During the first five months of 1933 the Tarpon Springs Sponge
Producers Association handled 32,210 pounds of dry sponges which did not
pass through the Exchange. (R. I. S. W.-Sponges).


per Bunch
Large Wool 39,394 Bunches $287,062.21 $ 7.29
Medium and Small Wool........ 23,001 Bunches 34,653.88 1.50
Small and Large Rags.............. 81,758 Bunches 250,857.91 3.06

144,153 Bunches $572,574.00

Yellow 84,458 Bunches $ 70,649.55 $ 0.83
Grass 29,391 Bunches 19,503.21 0.56
Wire 9,391 Bunches 7,806.14 0.80

123,240 Bunches $ 97,958.90

Rock Island Sheepswool............ 144,153 Bunches $572,574.00
Yellow-Grass and Wire........ 123,240 Bunches 97,958.90

267,393 Bunches $670,532.90


Wool: Middle Range goods $290,009.26
Middle Deep 164,435.36
Deep Water 55,056.00

Total of R. I. S. Wool ..... $509,500.62
Yellow $ 50,149.00
Wire 7,806.14

Total Divers $567,455.76

Inshore Wool $ 63,073.38

$ 63,073.38
Yellow $ 20,500.55
Grass 19,503.21

Total Hookers ..................... $103,077.14
Grand Total $670,532.90


Fish fertilizer factories have been operating during the bi-
ennium at two points in the State, Port St. Joe, where the factory
at this point processed during the biennium, 27,460,000 menhaden;
and in Fernandina, the factories operating processed 93,000,000
pounds of menhaden, making a total of 120,000,000 utilized at
these two points during the time.
Due tothe enterprise of Clearwater's Mayor, fishermen at that
point have a plant to which they may carry their catch for con-
version into fish scrap and meal.

1. That the oyster dredging law applicable now to Franklin
County be made state-wide in effect.
2. That the license tax applicable to commercial fishing boats
be made to apply to those pleasure boats that sell fish, there-
by entering the commercial field.
3. That dealers shall be required to keep accurate records of
fish handled, and such information be made available to the
4. That the length of nets that may be legally used be increased.
5. That the law against stop netting be strengthened.
6. That the closed season on sea trout be changed from June 15-
July 15, to read May 1-June 15.
Florida's commercial fishing industry holds high place among
the industries of the State.
No industry has suffered more during the period of depression
than has the commercial fishing industry for reasons shown in
the body of this report. That the problems of the industry shall
have due consideration, and every effort be made to promote the
welfare of those who are engaged in the fishing industry in Flor-
ida, is strongly urged.


Field of Work
Mineral Wealth and Statistics on Production
Organization Previous to Creation of Conservation Department
Briefly Historical
Appropriations and Expenditures
Financial Statement
Projects in Progress
Geological Survey as a Division of Conservation Department
Projects Suspended
Federal Cooperation

The functions of a geological survey are of a very broad char-
acter as signified by the word geology itself which means a history
or study of the earth. This being true it follows that an intelligent
understanding of the occurrence of mineral deposits, and related
natural products is based on a knowledge of the geology of the
region being considered. The procuring of this basic data necessi-
tates the studying of rock outcrops and other exposures, natural
and artificial, in order to become familiar with their fossil con-
tent, character, thickness, areal extent, whether these character-
istics are variable or constant, whether minerals, either metallic
or non-metallic, are present and if so their associations and occur-
rence in particular formations and other details. It is through
such studies and examinations that the age and relationships be-
tween formations are determined and the geology made known
and mapped. With such information available the task of work-
ing out the origin of commercial deposits of minerals is much
facilitated and it is the easier to direct or to suggest where further
prospecting for such might prove most advantageous. For in-
stance in working out the geological occurrence of our phosphates,

fullers earth and white-burning clays it has been determined that
each of these are of a certain geologic age and that they bear
definite relationships to other formations and their places in the
geologic column have been made known. Furthermore the sur-
face formations of Florida have been mapped in a general way
so that their areal distribution is quite well known. With such
data at hand it is then possible to state with some definiteness that
such and such will or will not occur within a certain region. This
is true also of many other deposits but from the application given
it is seen that a knowledge of the geology should precede the
study of individual mineral deposits or the two worked out simul-
taneous. This is the practical application of geology and is but
another way of stating the axiom that: "The pure science of
today becomes the applied science of tomorrow".

The functions of a geological survey or its field of work might
be briefly outlined as follows:

1. To study the geology and map the structure and stratigraphy of
the various formations of the State.
2. To study the different individual mineral resources or deposits.
3. Through the knowledge thus gained to guide industrial and com-
mercial development of the mineral resources.
4. To assist various construction and engineering enterprises in
procuring reliable data on the nature of the formations present where
such construction is contemplated.
5. To study the water resources of the State in detail, both surface
and underground.
6. To encourage and assist in every possible way the topographical
mapping of the State.
7. To encourage and assist the agricultural development and land
utilization through adequate soil surveys of Florida.
8. The collection of mineral statistics.

Through all the years of its establishment the Florida Geologi-
cal Survey has endeavored to cover the above outline in so far as
has been possible. As shown by the list of publications accom-
panying this report many investigations have been made and re-
ports issued. While there remains yet much to be done the sub-
jects treated in the reports that have been released indicate the
Survey has contributed in no small way to a more complete under-
standing of the geology of Florida and its mineral resources.


That the work of the Survey has been directly helpful in dis-
seminating data and the establishing of industries can perhaps
best be shown by briefly mentioning an instance or two. Real
tangible assistance was rendered at the time investigations were
being made for materials used in the manufacture of Portland
cement. A plant was established at Tampa which procures its raw
materials, limestone and clay, from Hernando and Citrus coun-
ties. Although investigations were made of the available raw
materials in an area in central peninsular Florida for the manu-
facture of cement a plant was not established but it was deter-
mined that the materials were available. A fullers earth plant
was established in Marion County as the results of leads given by
the Survey. A small, modern plant has been operating there for
several years and producing a high grade product. Information
was recently likewise given to parties interested in pottery clays.

Tampa limestone in pit of the Camp Concrete Rock Company, 5 miles
east of Brooksville.

Investigations of these later developed into actual location of a
plant in Escambia County. More recently data and suggestions
from the Survey caused investigations to be made of deposits of
phosphate in an undeveloped region. Prospecting these deposits

in detail has resulted in favorable report and it is anticipated that
development will follow within a reasonable time. Other instances
could be enumerated, as for example the services given those
who are interested in development of adequate water supplies,
sands, gravel, or other materials, but these need not be elaborated
upon. Mention, however, should be made of the work on the
white-burning clays of the State. This type of clay has been
known and worked for years in peninsular Florida but investiga-
tions by the Survey has extended the probable workable area not
only in that part of the State but also over into western Florida.
Deposits have been located in western Florida that are of high
quality and give promise of possible commercial importance.
There has recently been reported (see The Florida Conservator,
March, 1935) the finding of another valuable mineral deposit
in Florida which was done through a knowledge of the relation-
ship of such a deposit to a certain geological formation in a near-
by state. Bentonite, a clay-like mineral which is used in the re-
fining or filtering of crude oils, has been located in Jackson County
by the U. S. Geological Survey through an allottment from the
Public Works Administration for the purpose of investigating the
bleaching clay resources of the State. Bentonite is a type of clay
that is not naturally active as a bleaching material as is fullers
earth, but by treatment with dilute acids does become so, some-
times even becoming a better medium than the fullers earths.
The result of this investigation, among others, was the discovery
of these deposits in the Jackson County region, and they are of
reported high grade and favorably located with regard to
transportation. Thus geological research has again proven of
tangible, commercial value.


Geological formations are not confined to or limited by state
or other artificial boundary lines. It is therefore expedient to be
familiar with the extension of formations from other states as well
as to have a knowledge of their occurrence in regions more remote.
This the Survey has attempted to do and correlations of forma-
tions of Florida have been made with those of other states and
countries. This line of research is particularly important in rela-

tion to the possible occurrence of oil or gas in the State. There
are, of course, other factors too that must be given consideration
besides the extension of formations, such as for instance the struc-
ture found, character and thickness. It is this fundamental,
basic data that should always be procured in advance of actual
development or prospecting for mineral resources.

Florida's mineral wealth is composed almost entirely of the
non-metallics. Deposits of limonite, a spongy variety of hydrated
iron oxide commonly termed bog iron ore, occur in various parts
of Florida but these are usually thin and of rather local extent,
and have not proven of commercial importance; and it is also
true that iron-titanium-bearing minerals have been produced from
the beach sands along the Atlantic Coast south of Jacksonville
Beach, but while such occurrences of metallic minerals are of
real interest and have contributed in a small way to the mineral
output of Florida, still they are only incidental to the vastly
important non-metallic deposits of the State.

The mining of phosphate is the leading mineral industry of
Florida. Phosphate was first produced in 1888 from deposits on
Peace River near Arcadia. Then came the discovery of the hard
rock phosphate near Dunnellon, Marion County, where operations
were begun in 1889. A little later, in 1890, development of the
land pebble deposits in Polk County began and have continued
almost at an unabated pace since.\ Soft phosphate occurs in both
the hard rock and land pebble fields and has been utilized princi-
pally for direct application to soils or as one of the ingredients
in fertilizer mixtures. The principal commercial varieties are,
however, the Land Pebble and the Hard Rock.

Second only in importance to the phosphate are the fullers earth
deposits of the State. Fullers earth is a clay used in the filtering
and clarifying of crude oils, mineral, animal and vegetable. The
deposits in Florida have been worked since 1895 and for many

years Florida was the leading state in the Union in the production
of this clay. It is still a very important industry and the Florida
clay is considered the standard filtering clay of the United States.
Gadsden County in western Florida is the principal producing
area, although there are developed deposits in Marion County and
formerly Manatee County was likewise a producer.

Kaolin, a white-burning, highly refractory clay used in the
manufacture of porcelains, semi-porcelains and white wares of
various kinds, is produced from deposits in Putnam and Lake
Counties and has been a long established mineral industry.

Dipper on dredge boat dropping crude clay into bin from which it is
pumped up to washing plant. Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company.

The various limestone formations of Florida have formed the
basis for large industrial developments in different sections. The
product of these mines have been used largely in the construction
of roads throughout the State but large quantities have gone into
agricultural uses and also industrial, such as the building and
chemical trades.


Other minerals produced in Florida are Cement, Sand, Gravel,
Common Brick, Pottery, Peat and Mineral Waters. These items
have been reported upon in more or less detail in different reports
of the Survey and suffice it to say here that they have all con-
tributed to the mineral development of the State.


The Geological Department cooperates with the U. S. Geological
Survey in the collection of mineral statistics, both as to the output

Cutting building blocks from Marianna limestone in pit of R. D. Daffin,

and value. According to these statistics there was a decided
decrease in the value of output of minerals for 1932, it being the
lowest since 1917. This was, however, not peculiar to Florida,
nor to the mineral industry alone. It was a general condition. It
is, however, a satisfaction to record partial recovery in 1933 for
by the returns for that year an upturn is decidedly indicated.
The year 1933 is the latest for which complete data are available
but from some returns for 1934 it is seen that this 1933 upturn is
continued through 1934.

The following table summarizes the mineral production in Flor-
ida for the years 1932 and 1933:

Mineral Product 1932 1933
Phosphate $4,779,612 $6,417,110
Limestone, Lime, Flint 837,114 682,961
Sand and Gravel 178,654 202,679
Kaolin, Fullers Earth 804,237 774,808
Common Brick and Clay Products 21,943 56,445
Cement, Peat, Mineral Waters 624,519 937,619

Total $7." .,i i;; $9,071,622


SBriefly Historical.-With the passing of June 3, 1933, the State
Geological Survey had functioned as a separate Department of
State work uninterruptedly for twenty-six years, having been au-
thorized by the Legislative Assembly of 1907, the Act creating
it being approved by Governor N. B. Broward June 3, 1907. Dr.
E. H. Sellards served as State Geologist from June 19, 1907, to
April 18, 1919, resigning in order to accept a more lucrative posi-
tion offered by the State of Texas, and Herman Gunter, who had
been connected with the Survey since August 15, 1907, was ap-
pointed his successor and was serving as State Geologist when
the Survey, together with the Shell Fish and the Fresh Water Fish
and Game Departments, was merged into the Conservation De-
partment by the Legislature of 1933, the Act becoming effective
July 1, 1933. Since that time Mr. Gunter has remained the active
head of the Geological Survey under the title of Assistant Super-
visor, State Board of Conservation.
Appropriations and Expenditures.-The last report issued
by the Geological Survey, previous to being made a division of
the Conservation Department, was the Twenty-third, Twenty-
fourth Annual Report published May 8, 1933. The administra-
tive section of this report contained a detailed statement as to
the available appropriation and the expenditures to the close of
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932. For the fiscal year July 1,
1932, to June 30, 1933, only a condensed or summary financial
statement will be issued. All bills and itemized expense accounts

are, however, on file in the Comptroller's office and duplicates are
retained in the office of the State Geologist where they are readily
available for reference. With the exception of regular salaries
all accounts for the year under consideration were approved by
the Governor and were paid, as was always customary, by war-
rant drawn upon the State Treasurer by the Comptroller. No
monies were handled by the State Geologist. The condensed
financial statement follows:
FISCAL YEAR JULY 1, 1932-JUNE 30, 1933
Unexpended balance carried forward from 1931-1932.............. $ 1,417.31
Appropriation available for 1932-1933......... 20,160.00

Total available $ 21,577.31
Total expenditures during year 1932-1933 $ 21,224.20

Unexpended balance $ 353.11
Publications.-The publications by which the results of the
investigations of the Geological Survey have been made available
in permanent form comprise, twenty-four annual reports, twelve
bulletins and thirteen press bulletins which total about 6,000
printed pages of facts and conclusions about the varied mineral
and other natural resources of Florida. In order to make the re-
sults of certain investigations more promptly available to the
public generally than would be the case if printed in annual re-
port form, the issuing of bulletins has been resumed. The annual
reports are issued not only as a whole volume but also in the form
of separates, that is, each paper composing the whole volume may
be had as a separate. This has proven an economical practice, for
frequently one may be interested only in a single paper appear-
ing in the whole report and when such is the case the additional
expense of sending the larger report is avoided. All reports of
the Survey, whether bulletin or annual report, are free to the
citizens of Florida, and to certain exchange libraries of the United
States and foreign countries. By placing the publications in
libraries the Survey reports serve permanently as reference books
and thus become available to many who otherwise would not have
access to them, for the editions of each are limited, thus soon be-
coming exhausted for general distribution. Requests for publica-
tions from residents of States other than Florida should be accom-
panied by postage.

Following is a complete list of the publications so far issued,
the subjects treated are indicated by the titles of the separate
papers listed under each annual report which make up the whole
volume and the explanatory matter under the several bulletins.
Those annual reports followed by an asterisk (*) are no longer
available as a single whole volume, owing to the exhaustion of

Gray phosphatic sand above workable bed in the Penbroke mine of the
Coronet Phosphate Company.

supply. It may, however, he that even though the report in whole
volume form is out of print some of the separate papers from it
may be obtained. When this is the case, such separates making
up the respective annual reports as are still available are indicated
by the dagger sign (f).
First Annual Report, 190S, 114 pp., 6 pls.*
This report contains: (1) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a chap-
ter on mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay, brick-
making clays, fuller's earth, peat, lime, cement and road-making ma-
terials; (3) a bibliography of publications on Florida geology, with a
review of the more important papers published previous to the organiza-
tion of the present Geological Survey.
Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures, one

This report contains: fl) a preliminary report on the geology of Florida,
with special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and geo-
logic map of Florida, prepared in co-operation with the United States
Geological Survey; (2) mineral industries; (3) the fuller's earth deposits
of Gadsden county, with notes on similar deposits found elsewhere in the
Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 28 pls., 30 text figures.*
This report contains: (1) a preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate
deposits; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian water
supply of eastern Florida; (4) a preliminary report on the Florida peat
Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures, one
This report contains: (1) the soils and other surface residual materials
of Florida, their origin, character and the formation from which derived;
(2) the water supply of west-central and west Florida; (3) the production
of phosphate rock in Florida during 1910 and 1911.
Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures, two
This report contains: (1) origin of the hard rock phosphates of Florida;
(2) list of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply of eastern and
southern Florida; (4) production of phosphate in Florida during 1912;
(5) statistics on public roads in Florida.
Sixth Annual Report. 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries and resources of Florida;
(2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) relation between the Dun-
nellon and Alachua formations; (4) geography and vegetation of northern
Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four maps.*
This report contains: (1) pebble phosphates of Florida; (2) natural
resources of an area in Central Florida; (3) soil surveys of Bradford
County; (4) soil survey of Pinellas county.
Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pls., 14 text figures.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) vertebrate fossils,
including fossil human remains.
Ninth Annual Report 1917, 151 pp., 8 pls., 13 figures, two maps.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) additional studies
in the Pleistocene at Vero, Floridat; (3) geology between the Ocklocknee
and Aucilla rivers in Florida.
Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 130 pp., 4 pls., 9
figures, two maps.*
This report contains: (1) geology between the Apalachicola and Ock-
locknee rivers; (2) the skull of a Pleistocene tapir with description of a
new species and a note on the associated fauna and flora; (3) geology

between the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola rivers; (4) mineral sta-
tistics; (5) molluscan fauna from the marls near DeLand.
Twelfth Annual Report, 1919, 153 pp., four maps.*
This report contains: (1) literature relating to human remains and
artifacts at Vero, Florida; (2) fossil beetles from Vero; (3) elevations in
Florida; (4) geologic section across the Everglades of Florida; (5) the
age of the underlying rocks of Florida as shown by the foraminifera of
well borings; (6) review of the geology of Florida with special reference
to structural conditions.
Thirteenth Annual Report, 1921, 307 pp., 3 pls., 43 figs.*
This report contains: (1) Oil prospecting in Florida; (2) statistics of
mineral production, 1918; (3) foraminifera from deep wellst; (4) geog-
raphy of central Florida.
Fourteenth Annual Report, 1922, 135 pp., 10 figs., one map.*
This report contains: (1) statistics on mineral production, 1919 and
1920; (2) on the petroleum possibilities of Florida, including a geologic
Fifteenth Annual Report, 1924, 266 pp., 2 pls., 55 figs.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1921 and 1922; (2) a contribution to the late Tertiary
and Quaternary paleontology of northeastern Florida; (3) a preliminary
report on the clays of Florida.
Sixteenth Annual Report, 1925, 203 pp., 52 figs., two maps.*
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1923; (2) a preliminary report on the limestones and
marls of Floridat.
Seventeenth Annual Report, 1926, 275 pp., 5 figs., two maps.*
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1924; (2) History of Soil Investigation in Florida and
Description of New Soil Mapt; (3) Generalized Soil Map of Florida (in
colors)t; (4) Elevations in Floridat; (5) Review of the Structure and
Stratigraphy of Floridat.
Eighteenth Annual Report, 1927, 206 pp., 58 figs.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1925; (2) Natural resources of southern Florida.
Nineteenth Annual Report, 1928, 183 pp., 5 pls., 36 figs., 9 tables.
This report contains. (1) Administrative report and statistics on min-
eral production, 1926; (2) Sand and gravel industry of Florida; (3)
Beach deposits of ilmenite, zircoo, and rutile in Florida; (4) New species
of Operculina and Discocyclina from the Ocala limestone; (5) New species
of Coskinolina and Dictyoconus from Florida.
Twentieth Annual Report, 1929, 294 pp., 40 pls., 4 figs., 1 map.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on

mineral production, 1927-1928; (2) Geology of Florida, with geologic map;
(3) Extinct land mammals of Florida.*
Twenty-First and Twenty-Second Annual Report, 1931, 129 pp.,
39 figs.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 192.9-1930; (2) Need for conservation and protection
of our water supply; (3) The Possibility of petroleum in Florida; (4)
Beaches of Florida; (5) Fossil palm nut.
Twenty-Third and Twenty-Fourth Annual Report, 1933, 227 pp.,
11 pls., 23 figs., 3 tables.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 193')-931.; (2) Northern disjuncts in northern Florida
and cypress domes; (3) Notes on the geology and the occurrence of some
diatomaceous earth deposits of Florida and diatoms of the Florida peat
deposits; (4) Ground-water resources of Sarasota County and exploration
of artesian wells in Sarasota County.
Bulletin No. I. The underground water supply of central
Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 p]s., 6 text figures.*
This bulletin contains: (1) underground water, general discussion; (2)
the underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, spring
and artesian prospects; (3) effects of underground solution, cavities,
sinkholes, disappearing streams and solution basins; (4) drainage of
lakes, ponds and swamp lands and disposal of sewage by bored wells;
(5) water analyses and tables giving general water resources, public water
supplies, spring and well records.
Bulletin No. 2. Roads and road materials of Florida, 1911, 31
pp., 4 pls.*
This bulletin contains: (1) an account of the road building materials
of Florida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads
built by the counties of the state to the close of 1910.
Bulletin No. 3. Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of the
Choctawhatchee formation of Florida, 1930, 189 pp., 21 pls.*
Bulletin No. 4. The foraminifera of the Choctawhatchee for-
mation of Florida, 1930, 92 pp., 12 pls.*
Bulletin No. 5. (I) A fossil teleost fish of the snapper family
(Lutianidae) from the Lower Oligocene of Florida; (2) The fo-
raminifera of the Marianna limestone of Florida, 1930, 67 pp.,
11 pls., 2 figs.
Bulletin No. 6. The Pliocene and Pleistocene foraminifera of
Florida, 1931, 79 pp., 7 pls., 3 figs., 2 tables.
Bulletin No. 7. The Pensacola terrace and associated beaches
and bars of Florida. 1931, 44 pp., 8 figs., 1 map.

Bulletin No. 8. Miocene pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee for-
mation of Florida, 1932, 240 pp., 34 pls., 3 figs.
Bulletin No. 9. The foraminifera of the Upper, Middle, and
part of the Lower Miocene of Florida, 1932, 147 pp., 17 pls., 2
tables, 1 map.
Bulletin No. 10. (1) Miocene land mammals from Florida; (2)
New heteromyid rodents from the Miocene of Florida; (3) Aphe-
lops from the Hawthorn formation of Florida, 1932, 58 pp., 30
Bulletin No. 11. Ground Water Investigations in Florida, 1933,
33 pp.*
Bulletin No. 12. New Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods
from Alaqua Creek Valley, Florida, 1935, 50 pp., 5 pls.
In addition to the regular reports of the Survey as listed above,
press bulletins have been issued as follows:
No. 1. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.*
No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1912, March
12, 1913.*
No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at the
Atlanta Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of
Science, December 31, 1913.
No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913, May
20, 1914.*
No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains Found Em-
bedded in the Earth, January, 1915.
No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915.
No. 8. Phosphate Production for 1917, May 2, 1918.
No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May 10, 1918.*
No. 10. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1918, June 5. 1919.
No. 11. Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida during 1918, October
6, 1919.
No. 12. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1920, May 9, 1921.
No. 13. Ground-Water Resources of Florida, April 4, 1931.*
Report of Investigations No. 1. Mimeographed report on
Ground Water in Seminole County, Florida, 1934, 14 pp.
There has also been received through the U. S. Bureau of Soils
and Chemistry a limited number of the following soils surveys of
Florida which are for distribution:
Soil Survey of Polk County.
Soil Survey of Lake County.

Personnel.-The members of the Survey, in addition to the State
Geologist, have been Mr. G. M. Ponton and Mr. Frank Westen-
dick, Assistant Geologist, Mr. J. Clarence Simpson, Museum and
Laboratory Assistant and Mrs. Mary H. Carswell, Secretary.
Special temporary services were rendered by Mr. C. R. Asche-
meier and Miss Margurite Lee.
Projects in Progress.--Cooperatively with the United States
Geological Survey investigations of the water resources of Flor-
ida were in progress and bad been for some time actively prose-
cuted. A detailed report has been issued covering Sarasota
County and other bulletins relating to the State in general and
certain areas in particular have appeared. From the information
obtained it is certain that these studies should be continued for the
ground waters of certain sections of Florida present problems
that ultimately may result in their complete ruination if measures
are not instituted to safeguard and protect them. It may now be
too late to reap the benefit from protective measures as would
have been the case if they could have been instituted earlier.
A careful and comprehensive study had been conducted of the
white-burning, high grade clays of Florida and the field and
of the Conservation Department. The manuscript for this report
has been partially assembled. Numbers of physical tests are in-
cluded and some complete chemical analyses have also been made.
It forms the most complete research yet made of those refractory
Florida clays. In the course of these investigations some new
deposits were discovered and these may prove to be of commer-
cial importance.
During the progress of the field work incident to the kaolin in-
vestigations notes were also taken of other clay possibilities.
There are deposits of clays that have promise of making good
pottery and other clay wares. With a view to developing indus-
tries along that line a search should be made for such particular
type of clays. Especially in western Florida clays of this class are
known to occur and one pottery has been established.

Research should also be conducted with a view to assisting the
fullers earth industry of the State. Clays other than fullers earth
suitable for the bleaching and refining of oils have lately been
discovered in the State. The extent of these should be more accu-
rately determined and their possibilities defined.

The Geological Survey is continuously engaged in research and
has revealed many facts important to unraveling the geology of
the State and in making correlations with formations elsewhere,
with the result that such studies have markedly contributed to the
development of the natural resources of Florida and a more
intimate knowledge of their possibilities. As must be evident all
research work may not result in immediate economic value but
it must be borne in mind that the pure science of today becomes
the applied science of tomorrow, and therefore it is an unwise and
unsound policy not to study in as great detail as possible all
phases of the State's geology and structure.
Much of the stratigraphic work has been carried on independ-
ently but at different times the Florida Survey has most advan-
tageously cooperated with the United States Geological Survey
and other organizations in geologic, paleontologic and strati-
graphic studies. There are obvious advantages in such coopera-
tion since in a small institution it is not possible to maintain a staff
of trained specialists but -within the Federal Survey, for instance,
operating as it has for more than half a century, is found a tech-
nically trained personnel and through cooperation with such an
agency superior results are assured for the work will be per-
formed by experienced men. The Florida Survey has also been
fortunate in its relations with other scientific institutions of the
country, since a number of contributions have come from recog-
nized authorities in such organizations.

It is highly desirable that research be continued for without
it progress will not be made. The Survey has plans for making
investigations of the limestones of Florida especially with a view
to determining their adaptabilities as building stones. There have
already been extensive use made of the limestones of the State

for building purposes and this should be extended. It is with the
view of encouraging the use of native materials in construction
that a report of this kind should be issued.

It is also timely to prepare a report dealing with the mining of
phosphate. The geologic origin of the Florida phosphates has
been determined and reported upon but it is of intense interest
also to know how these are worked and prepared for market, and
the different uses made of phosphate.

During the 1933 Legislative session a general conservation law
was passed creating a State Board of Conservation composed of
the Governor and his Cabinet. In the passage of this Act three
departments formerly operating as separate units were abolished
and merged into the newly created Conservation Department,
namely, the Shell Fish, the Game and Fresh Water Fish and the
Geological. The Act became effective July 1, 1933, since which
time the Geological Survey has been a division under the direction
of the Supervisor of Conservation.
Personnel.-After the Geological Survey was merged into the
Conservation Department the personnel was greatly reduced.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist since April 18, 1919, and con-
nected with the Florida Geological Survey since August 15, 1907,
was continued as head of the Geological Department under the
title of Assistant Supervisor. Mr. G. M. Ponton's services were
terminated October 15, 1933. Mr. Frank Westendick continued
in the service of the new department until November 15, 1934,
when further reduction in the personnel was necessary on account
of reduction in finances. J. Clarence Simpson on account of ill
health was forced to give up work during the early Fall of 1933
but since November 1934 has been rendering part time service.
Irvin Grissett was with the department during the months of
June, July and August 1934, Mrs. Mary H. Carswell has con-
tinued in the capacity of secretary.
Appropriation.-From the organization of the Survey in 1907
to July 1, 1923, a continuing appropriation of $7,500 was annually

available. The Legislature of 1921 passed an Act creating a
Budget Commission for the State of Florida, which became oper-
ative July 1, 1923. Since that date the biennial appropriation bill
has been based on the report of the Budget Commission. The
Geological Survey has had moderate increases in its maintenance
appropriations, which were paid from the General Revenue fund,
but during the Legislative session of 1933 a decided decrease
was not only recommended by the Budget Commission but like-
wise made available through Legislative Act. The amount ap-
propriated totaled $12,500.00 annually during the period July 1,
1933, to June 30, 1935. This although necessitating curtailment
of a number of activities of the Survey would have nevertheless
permitted it to operate on a somewhat satisfactory basis. It was
of course appreciated that times were most abnormal and sacrifices
were made cheerfully and in full accord.
With the creation of the Conservation Department, however,
the appropriation for the Geological Survey from the General
Revenue Fund was not available so the new geological division
had to be supported from funds collected by the Conservation
Department. Thus the Survey financial support was further re-
duced, practically to the limit. The financial statement of the
Department indicates the amount allotted to the Geological Di-
vision for the period covered by this report. (See pages 95, 100).
Activities.-The personnel of the Survey has been so reduced
during the current biennium that it has not been possible to prose-
cute the work that had been planned nor that which was in
progress when the consolidation took effect. The Assistant Su-
pervisor has devoted his attention to the usual office routine,
answering correspondence, giving personal interviews and doing
some field work and collecting. Some assistance has also been
rendered the Department in the matter of exhibits at the south
Florida fairs. Attention has been devoted to the collections and
displays in the museum as well as to records of various kinds in
the Survey offices. With the reduction in assistance it has been
most difficult to attend to many matters that demand attention,
as a consequence of which there is a constant accumulation of cer-
tain materials that should receive attention. We have done the
best we could under prevailing circumstances.

Publications.-During the current biennium one paper has been
issued as Report of Investigations No. 1, entitled, Ground Water
in Seminole County, Florida, by V. T. Stringfield of-the U. S.
Geological Survey, which was prepared in cooperation with the
Florida Survey. This came ont in mimeographed form since funds
were not available for publishing otherwise. It has been dis-
tributed especially to the citizens of Seminole County whose citi-
zens are particularly concerned, also to others interested. There
is now in press a bulletin (Geological Bulletin No. 12) relating to
invertebrate fossils from one of the well known shell marls of
western Florida. This supplements data obtained and published
about the fauna of this formation in previous reports of the Sur-
vey and will add completeness to the literature about that rich,
shell marl. The author is Dr. W. C. Mansfield, U. S. Geological
Survey and comes as a contribution without cost other than that
of publication. It is entitled, "New Miocene Gastropods and
Scaphopods from the Alaqua Creek Valley, Florida."

In addition to the above a number of contributions have regu-
larly been made to the Conservation Department's official maga-
zine, The Conservator. Among these are the following: Diatomite
is New Product, May, 1934; Coquina-Historical Limestone,
November, 1934; Florida's Disappearing Lakes, December, 1934;
Ocala Limestone, January, 1935; Mineral Resources of Florida,
February, 1935, and in the March, 1935, issue Geological Surveys
in Florida, State and Federal by G. R. Mansfield of the U. S. Geo-
logical Survey. There have also appeared from time to time
informative articles in the press prepared at the request of the
Florida Survey by various Governmental agencies doing work in
the State. These have been appreciated and the cooperation in
this respect has been gratifying. Among the agencies thus con-
tributing have been: The U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey; U. S.
Geological Survey; War Department, Corps of Engineers; U. S.
Bureau of Mines; U. S. Department of Agriculture, Weather
Bureau and Bureau of Soils and Chemistry; and the U. S. Bureau
of Fisheries. Many of the articles contributed were used by the
press either in whole or in part and have been instrumental in
acquainting the citizens of the State generally somewhat with the
activities of the several agencies mentioned.

Projects Suspended.---One of the investigations carried on by
the Survey at the time of consolidation with the Conservation
Department was that of the kaolin or white-burning clays of the
State. These highly refractory clays are used in the manufacture
of various kinds of white wares, porcelains, semi-porcelains,
enameled wares and the like. Some of the highest grades of this
clay occur here in Florida and have formed the basis of a sub-
stantial industry for years. Regardless of this fact, however, but
little research has been carried on so that the actual qualities of
these clays are not so well known. The Survey therefore deter-
mined to learn something of the physical and chemical qualities of
the deposits and thus be in a position to disseminate dependable
information about them.
Extreme care was exercised in the collection of the samples in
the field and ample notes taken covering manner of occurrence.
In the laboratory this same painstaking method was followed so
the results of the physical tests would all be comparable since
both the field and laboratory work were performed by the one
investigator. The results of this work were in process of com-
piling and drafting into manuscript form when reduction in per-
sonnel of the Survey became necessary owing to lack of funds.
Also at the time of the reduction in the Survey staff there was
in progress studies of surface and ground waters of the State.
Such studies were begun in cooperation with the U. S. Geological
Survey in 1930 and one detailed report covering Sarasota County
and two general bulletins have been issued. Also one mimeo-
graphed report dealing with Seminole County has appeared. iRe-
gardless of the apparently inexhaustible and limitless supplies
of surface and ground waters in Florida many do not realize
that these resources are one of Florida's greatest assets and that
problems have arisen confronting the ground waters that are
becoming progressively more serious. Certain sections where
flowing wells have been obtained with such comparative ease and
slight expense and used for the irrigation of truck crops are facing
the impairment or ruination of their supplies through the gradual
encroachment and infiltration of salt water. Only through a study

of such local regions as will give definite knowledge.of the geology
and the manner of occurrence of ground water, and the quality of
water yielded at different depths, can it be hoped to make recom-
mendations that will possibly offer remedial measures, if such can
be made.
For numbers of years the Florida Survey has cooperated with
the U. S. Geological Survey in various matters relating to the
geology, surface and ground waters, paleontology and mineral
resources. Such cooperation was suspended July 1, 1933. Co-
operation has also been carried on between the U. S. Bureau of
Mines and the U. S. Bureau of the Census in the collection of
statistics on mineral production. This is being continued at the
present time.
I. It is recommended that provision be made for completing the
manuscript and publishing the report of investigations completed
regarding the kaolin deposits of Florida, and now partially in
manuscript form. It should be made available to everyone
2. Since many sections of the State are now confronted with the
impairment of the quality of water yielded by wells, and since
such conditions may become progressively worse, a conservation
law applicable to the whole State should be in force which would
adequately and effectively conserve, protect and safeguard this
resource. As the sustaining substance of all life is water, the im-
portance of this asset to Florida can not be overestimated. The
investigations that were in progress should not only be continued
but enlarged upon.
3. There has been a constant and growing interest from the
schools of Florida for information regarding minerals and other
natural resources of the State. Data of this kind is available in

printed form but it is usually found in more or less technical lit-
erature. It would be highly desirable and informative to prepare
handbooks or booklets dealing with subjects of this nature in a
popular, non-technical language, yet scientifically accurate. These
could be distributed especially to the schools with the assurance
that much good would result in acquainting the youth of the
State with many facts about which they are now more or less
uninformed. It is recommended that such booklets be prepared
and distributed.
4. As a further step in such an educational program small cases
exhibiting representative specimens of minerals, invertebrate fos-
sils, vertebrate fossils, recent shells, marine, fresh-water and
others, and other related materials, should be prepared and dis-
tributed to the schools. Such traveling exhibits could be wonder-
fully educational and the cost would not be prohibitive.
5. Another recommendation worthy of every consideration is
the matter of soil surveying. All soils are derived from products
of weathering of rocks or the transportation and subsequent de-
position of such products. They therefore have a direct relation-
ship to the geology of the State and their origin and character is
better understood by one versed in geology. Florida is an agricul-
tural, horticultural and truck growing State. The soils of the
State can not be too intimately known. Therefore a continuing
fund of generous proportion should be made annually available
for the prosecution of detailed soil surveying and mapping. Thus
through, such information being available the land utilization
problem of Florida would be materially benefitted and advanced.
6. During the past two years the Geological Division has been
seriously hampered in its work through inadequate funds being
made available for its maintenance. The appropriation as passed
by the 1933 Legislature was not available after the combining of
the several departments into a Conservation Department and the
Survey has operated on a very reduced basis. It is urged that
more adequate funds be made available for the operation of the

Survey during the incoming biennium. There are plans for active
and aggressive work to be accomplished if funds are available and
it is of necessity that such request is made.

It is a satisfaction to record the general sentiment expressed in
many quarters that the Geological Survey has accomplished much
work in a most creditable manner and this in spite of the ever
modest appropriations made.



The financial statement that makes up this part of the report is based
upon figures released by the State Auditing Department from the records
kept in the office of the Supervisor of Conservation. The audit of all
records is not yet complete.
State Game and Fresh Water Fish Department 86
Financial Statement for First Year of Biennium
Receipts 86
Disbursements 87

State Shell Fish Department 87
Financial Statement for First Year of Biennium
Receipts 87
Disbursements 88

Summarized Statement Receipts and Disbursements of State Depart-
ment of Game and Fresh Water Fish State Shell Fish Department
for July 1, 1932-June 30, 1933
Receipts 89
Disbursements 90

State Conservation Fund Established
Balances and Receipts, June 30, 1933-State Department of Game
and Fresh Water Fish, State Shell Fish Department .................... 90
State Conservation Fund Established 91

State Conservation Fund-July 1, 1933-June 30, 1934
Receipts-Game and Fresh Water Fish Division 91
Salt Water Fish Industry 91
Oyster Industry 92
Sponge Industry 92
Disbursements-Administration and Office Division 93
Game and Fresh Water Fish Division 93
Salt Water Fish Division 94
Geological Division 95

Summary Receipts and Disbursements-July 1, 1933-December 31, 1934 95

From Game and Fresh Water Fish Division 96
From Salt Water Fish Division 96
Administration and Office Division 97
Game and Fish Division 98
Salt Water Division 99
Geological. Division 100

Summary-July 1, 1934-December 31, 1934
Receipts 100
Disbursements 101

July 1st, 1932 to June 30th, 1933.
Loans Due June 30th, 1932:
Loan to General Revenue Fund ............$ 10,000.00
Loan to State Board of Health
Tax Fund 7,500.00 $ 17,500.00

Balances in Banks as of June 30th, 1932:
Lewis State Bank-State Game Fund....$ 4,157.32
Lewis State Bank-Florida Woods and
Waters 648.94 4,806.26

Comptroller's Balance as of June 30th, 1932:
Balance in Comptroller's Office..............$ 32,367.44 32,367.44 $ 54,673.70

County Judge Remittances on Old Balances as
Shown by Audit of June 30th, 193' $ 8,238.87
Licenses Sold by County Judges During Fiscal
Year 1932-1933 114,222.25 122,461.12

Commercial Licenses Issued by Commissioner's
Court Costs
Interest on deposits paid by Lewis State Bank..........
Fishing Permits-Osceola County
Refund on Insurance Policy
Balance J. C. Sale Check, County Judge Levy Co.....
Attorney Fee returned by Judge Jno. R. Willis-.........
Refund on Joe Edge's Bond
Refund Fish Hatchery Operation Account bills
paid in error D. M. Woodward
Sale Confiscated Guns
Dividend on Certificate of Volusia County Bank
and Trust Company No. 2201 for $24.00...................
Sale of Confiscated Seine
Refund stamps used in forwarding "Florida Bird
Life" Books

Less: Protest Fees & Telegraph $
County Judges-Refunds
Commercial Licenses (Refunds) ...................
Court Costs- (Refunds)




36.42 6,722.53

10.00 31.66

Total to be accounted for $183,825.69



Salary Assistant Commissioner $ 2,250.00
Salaries Other Office Employees 5,817.02
Salaries District Commissioners and Deputy Game
Wardens 60,773.80
Traveling Expenses Commissioner and other Office
Employees 1,344.00
Traveling Expense-IDirector Education ................... 591.36
Traveling Expenses District Commissioners and
Deputy Game Wardens 43,070.51
Printing and Supplies 3,003.74
Office Equipment 142.11
Field Equipment 312.38
Maintenance Field Equipment 467.54
Restocking Game 1,165.18
Restocking Fish Other than Hatchery 3.00
Miscellaneous Legal Expense 85.00
Construction Fish Hatchery $ 127.75
Operation Fish Hatchery 8,130.02 8,263.77 $127,289.41

*Due from General Revenue Fund 6,000.00
*Due from State Board of Health Tax Fund 7,500.00
Checks on Hand for Collections 113.00
Balance in State Game Fund June 30th, 1933 42,923.28

*Note-These amounts shown in credit balance have never been trans-
ferred to State Conservation Fund.


July 1st, 1932 to June 30th, 1933


Balance in all Funds of the Shell Fish Division
July 1st, 1932:
Shell Fish Fund $ 5,282.43
Two Cent Privilege Tax Fund 2,289.89
Three Cent Privilege Tax Fund 18,580.68
Special Shell Fish Commission Planting Fund........ 36,582.82
Special Shell Fish Fund for Counties 99.91
Fish Hatchery Fund 4,213.78
June 1932 Collections Not included in above
Balances 498.06 $ 67,547.57

Collections July 1st, 1932, to June 30th, 1933:

Fish Dealers Licenses $ 16,118.00
Salt Water Fishing and Oystering Vessel
Licenses 5,842.10
Alien or Non-resident Fishing Licenses.................... 1,755.00
Alien or Non-resident Boat Licenses 930.00
Purse Seine Licenses 575.00
Dredge Boat Tax 25.00
Excess Net Tags 17.00
Miscellaneous Collections:
St. Johns River Line Company-Jacksonville
Payments on Dredge Boat "Franklin" $300.00
Sale of Confiscated Fish 10.00
Sale of Confiscated Nets 12.50
Miscellaneous Sales 15.70
Part payments on 1931-32 Licenses........ 72.15 410.35 $ 25,672.45

Canning Factory Licenses $ 50.00
Oyster Dealers Licenses 5,935.00
Lease Rentals and Fees 3,819.67 9,804.67

Two Cent Privilege Tax $ 1,225.21 1,225.21

Three Cent Privilege Tax $ 1,439.54 1,439.54

Sponge Boat Licenses $ 482.10 482.10 $ 38,623.97


July 1st, 1932 to June 30th, 1933

Administration and Office Salaries $ 5,579.92
Salaries Deputy Patrolmen and Inspectors.............. 13,582.59
Salaries-Seamen 674.19
Traveling Expenses Commissioner 1,138.67
Traveling Expenses Deputy Patrolmen and
Inspectors 8,422.82

Postage 620.00
Printing, Stationery and Other Expenses.............. 1,062.80
Rent, Purchase, Operation and Contingent
Expenses of Boats 1,913.90
Refund, Leases, Licenses, Legal and Miscellaneous
Expenses 805.87 $ 33,800.76

Expenditures from Two Cent Privilege Tax Fund:
Miscellaneous Expenses, Dockage and Re-
pairs to Boats used in Enforcing Shell
Fish Laws 830.78
Expenditures from Special Shell Fish
Commission Planting Fund:
Re-planting Oyster Bars in Franklin, Citrus
and Walton Counties 22,758.95
Expenditures from Fish Hatchery Fund:
Salaries $ 3,703.83
Maintenance and Operation 1,763.49 5,467.32 $ 62,857.81

Total Balances in Shell Fish Department Funds
June 30th, 1933, as follows:
Balance in Shell Fish Fund $ 6,318.35
Balance in Special Shell Fish F'und for Counties.... 99.91
Balance in Fish Hatchery Fund 224.09
Balance in Two Cent Privilege Tax Fund................ 2,823.06
Balance in Three Cent Privilege Tax Fund............ 20,024.45
Balance in Special Shell Fish Commission
Planting F'und 13,823.87 $ 43,313.73


July 1st, 1932, to June 30th, 1933.

Total Balance in State Game Fund July 1st, 1932.. $ 54,673.70
Collections State Game Department July 1st,
1932, to June 30th, 1933 129,151.99 $183,825.69

Total Balance in Shell Fish Department Funds
July 1st, 1932 67,547.57
Collections Shell Fish Department, July 1st, 1932,
to June 30th, 1933 38,623.97 106,171.54 $289,997.23


Total Expenditures Game and Fresh Water Fish Department
July 1st, 1932 to June 30th, 1933 127,289.41
Total Expenditures Shell Fish Department July 1st, 1932
to June 30th, 1933 62,857.81

State Game Fund-Balance June 30th, 1933
Shell Fish Department Funds-Appropriations
and Balances as of June 30th, 1933:
Special Shell Fish Commission Planting Fund.... $ 13,823.87
Three Cent Privilege Tax Fund 20,024.45
Special Shell Fish Fund for Counties ................... 99.91
Two Cent Privilege Tax Fund 2,802.64
Fish Hatchery Fund 224.09
Shell Fish. Fund 4,283.39
June Receipts-Shell Fish Fund (Not Included in
Above Balance) 2,034.96
June Receipts-Two Cent Privilege Tax Fund
(Not Included in above Balance)...................... 20.42


$ 43,313.73 $ 99.850.01



July 1st, 1933, to June 30th, 1934


Appropriation and Balances in all Shell Fish De-
partment Funds June 30th, 1933
Less the following Shell Fish Department Bal-
ances not transferred to State Conservation
Fund July 1st, 1933:
Special Shell Fish Commission
Planting Fund $ 13,823.87
Three Cent Privilege Tax Fund.......... 20,024.45

Balance in State Game Fund June 30th, 1933........
Less the following amounts included in State
Game Fund balance but not transferred to
State Conservation Fund July 1st, 1933:

$ 43,313.73

33,848.32 $ 9,465.41

$ 56,536.28


*Loan to General Revenue $6,000.00
*Loan to State Board of Health Tax
Fund 7,500.00
Checks on hand for collection.................. 113.00 13,613.00 42,923.28

*These amounts shown in balance of State Department of Game and
Fresh Water Fish June 30th, 1933, were never transferred to Conservation

Total amount transferred from Shell Fish De-
partment Funds and State Game Fund to
State Conservation Fund July 1st, 1933 $ 52,388.69

July 1st, 1933, to June 30th, 1934
Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Licenses................ $120,718.50
Resident Retail Fish Dealers Licenses .................. 1,135.00
Resident Wholesale Fish Dealers Licenses............ 595.00
Resident Commercial Boat Licenses 130.10
Boat for Hire Licenses 1,068.00
Wholesale Fur Dealers and Agents Licenses........ 905.00
Game Farm Licenses 75.00
Guide Licenses 10.00
Local Fur Dealers Licenses 150.00
Court Costs 1,456.04
Miscellaneous Collections:
Payments by County Judges on old
Balances $452.25
H. A. Rider-Hendry County-Pay-
ment on Certificate of Deposit No. 135 .55
Payments on checks on hand for col-
lection July 1st, 1933 96.04
Refund on Telegram .40
Sale of Confiscated Seines 150.00
Sale of Confiscated Hides 58.54
Refund on Transportation Requests
by S. A. L. Railway 6.72 764.50

Sale of "Florida Bird Life" Books 167.73
Refunds 4.65 $127,179.52

Shrimp Canning Factory License $ 50.00
Wholesale and Retail Fish Dealers Licenses ....... 20,337.50
Salt Water Fishing and Oystering Boat Licenses.... 8,769.35

Alien or Non-resident Fishing Licenses................. 1,610.00
Alien or Non-resident Boat Licenses 890.00
Purse Seine Licenses 425.00
Dredge Boat Licenses 125.00
Excess Net Tags 29.00
Court Costs 66.26

Miscellaneous Collections:
Sale of Confiscated Fish $ 73.45
Sale of Confiscated Shrimp ..................... 5.00
Sale of Confiscated Nets 60.00
Payments on unpaid checks ............... 69.00
Re-deposit Warrant No. 24617-Dallas
Paulk, Eagle Lake 52.00
Donation by Spongers in Pinellas Co..... 215.67
Payment by Deputy Paul Thompson for
Tires and Tubes 13.68
Miscellaneous Sales 39.75 528.55

Payments on 1932-1933 Licenses.... 30.50
Re-deposit Old Shell Fish Department Warrants 114.43
Refunds 20.45 $ 32,996.04


Canning Factory Licenses $ 50.00
Oyster Dealers Licenses 6,115.00
Lease Rentals and Fees 23,453.28
Sale of Oyster Measures 11.50
Refunds 321.06 $ 29,950.84


Two Cent Privilege Tax $ 1,957.94 $ 1,957.94


Three Cent Privilege Tax $ 2,385.46 $ 2,385.46


Sponge Boat Licenses $ 645.30 $ 645.30

Total Receipts July 1st, 1933, to June 30th, 1934 $195,115.10

Total to be accounted for $247,503.79

July 1st, 1933, to June 30th, 1934

Administration and Office Division:
Traveling Expenses
Printing and Stationery
Office Supplies
Office Equipment
Miscellaneous Office Expense
Purchase, Maintenance and Operation of
Equipment other than Boats
Premiums on Bonds-Insurance and Subscrip-
Clipping Service
Publicity and Educational Expenses ....................

Game and Fresh Water Fish Division:
Salaries-Game Wardens
Traveling Expenses-Game Wardens ..................
Printing and Stationery
Miscellaneous Office Expense
Miscellaneous Field Expense
Purchase, Maintenance and Operation of
Equipment other than Boats
Purchase, Maintenance and Operation of Boats
Construction of Dam at Lake lamonia ................
Expenditures Winter Haven Fish Hatchery at
Eagle Lake, Florida:
Miscellaneous Supplies and Expense..$ 347.17
Labor 496.00
Gasoline and Oil 217.34
Operation and Upkeep of Trucks.......... 349.78
Salaries 2,335.88

Expenditures Game Farm, Tallahassee, Fla.:
Miscellaneous Supplies and Expense.. $ 87.35
Construction 183.41
Labor 89.25
Game 68.00
Feed 74.25

Remittances for "Florida Bird Life" Books........

$ 18,740.55


749.32 $ 27,788.53



$ 3,746.17


11.40 $106,097.57

Salt Water Fish Division:
Salaries-Wardens $ 20,306.73
Traveling Expenses-Wardens 10,886.79
Printing and Stationery 620.50
Miscellaneous Office Expense 366.92
Miscellaneous Field Expense 1,033.68
Purchase, Maintenance and Operation of
Equipment Other than Boats 165.81
Purchase, Maintenance and Operation of
Repairs $1,369.15
Subsistence of Crews 1,446.28
Gasoline and Oil 721.69
Miscellaneous Expense 559.47 $ 4,096.59

Expenditures at Welaka Fish Hatchery,
Welaka, Florida:
Miscellaneous Supplies and Expense-.$3,656.76
Labor 473.66
Gasoline and Oil 1,632.68
Brood Fish 1,062.26
Repairs and Upkeep State Road
Trucks 278.73
Repairs and Upkeep Conservation De-
partment Trucks 587.89
6-GMAC Model T-18A Trucks Purchased from
Thornton-Leach, Inc., Palatka, Florida (Two
of these Trucks were sold to Florida State
Hospital, Chattahoochee, August 3rd, 1934,
for $1,000.00) $2,994.87
Insurance, Tags and Title Certificates
for Trucks 266.50
Salaries 1,988.60 $ 12,941.95

Expenditures at Wewahitchka Fish Hatchery,
Wewahitchka, Florida:
Miscellaneous Supplies and Expense.. 18.00
Labor 45.00
Gasoline and Oil 470.96
Repairs to Truck 39.85
Salaries 525.00 1,098.81

Expenditures at Okeechobee Fish Hatchery,
Okeechobee, Florida:
Miscellaneous Supplies and Expense.$ 15.70
Labor 183.20

Gasoline and Oil 53.02


Geological Division:
Traveling Expenses
Printing and Stationery
Miscellaneous Supplies and Expense....................


500.73 $ 52,270.43

$ 6,574.28
594.71 $ 7,579.07

Total Disbursements July 1st, 1933. to June 30th, 1934............
Balance Credited to State Conservation Fund in State Comp-
troller's Office June 30th, 1934
Balance Credited to State Conservation Fund in Lewis State
Bank, Tallahassee, June 30th, 1934


$ 39,767.52

14,000.67 $ 53,768.19


July 1st, 1933, to June 30th, 1934
Balances Transferred and Receipts
Shell Fish Department Funds Transferred to
State Conservation Fund July 1st, 1933:
Special Shell Fish Fund for Counties...$ 99.91
Two Cent Privilege Tax Fund................. 2,802.64
Fish Hatchery Fund 224.09
Shell Fish Fund 4,283.39
June Receipts-Shell Fish Fund (Not
Included in above Balance)................. 2,034.96
June Receipts-Two Cent Privilege Tax
Fund (Not Included in above Bal-
ance) 20.42 $ 9,465.41

State Game Fund Transferred to State
Conservation Fund July 1st, 1933........$42,923.28

Total Receipts Game and Fresh Water Fish
Total Receipts Salt Water Fish Industry..............
Total Receipts Oyster Industry
Total Receipts Sponge Industry

42,923.28 $ 52,388.69

645.30 $195,115.10


Total Expenditures Administration and Office
Division $ 27,788.53
Total Expenditures Game and Fresh Water Fish
Division 106,097.57
Total Expenditures Salt Water Fish Division........ 52,270.43
Total Expenditures Geological Division ................ 7,579.07 $193,735.60

Balance Credited to State Conservation Fund in
State Comptroller's Office June 30th, 1934........ $ 39,767.52
Balance Credited to State Conservation Fund in
Lewis State Bank, Tallahassee, June 30th, 1934 14,000.67 53,768.19 $247,503.75

July 1st, 1934, to December 31st, 1934


Balance in State Conservation Fund July 1st, 1933.................$ 53,768.19
Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Licenses............... $ 92,130.50
Resident Retail Fish Dealers Licenses......................... 615.00
Resident Wholesale Fish Dealers Licenses............. 445.00
Resident Commercial Boat Licenses 74.00
Boat for Hire Licenses 420.00
Wholesale Fur Dealers and Agents Licenses........ 710.00
Game Farm Licenses 50.00
Guide Licenses 30.00
Local Fur Dealers Licenses 60.00
Court Costs 779.49
Miscellaneous Collections:
Payment Old Balance by Ex-county Judge G.
C. Durrance, Okeechobee County....$ 289.00
Payment Old Balance by Ex-county
Judge Robert P. Stout, Estate,
Escambia County 2,828.00 $ 3,117.00

Sale "Florida Bird Life" Books 66.00
Refunds .25 $ 98,497.24

Wholesale and Retail Fish Dealers Licenses............ $ 12,840.00
Salt Water Fishing and Oystering Boat Licenses .4,235.85
Alien or Non-resident Fishing Licenses....................... 1,015.00

Alien or Non-resident Boat Licenses 400.00
Purse Seine Licenses 300.00
Dredge Boat Licenses 150.00
Excess Net Tags 17.00
Miscellaneous Collections:
Payment by Deputy W. O. Dalton for Tires
and Tubes $ 22.88
Sale Two GMAC Model T-18A Trucks
to Florida State Hospital, Chatta-
hoochee, Fla., August 3rd, 1934.......... 1,000.00
Re-deposit Shell Fish Department
Warrants 114.43
Sale Confiscated Shrimp 5.07 1,142.38

Refunds 14.54 $ 20,114.77

Oyster Dealers Licenses $ 5,640.00
Lease Rentals and Fees 191.71
Sale Oyster Measures 7.80 $ 5,839.51

Two Cent Privilege Tax $ 559.49 $ 559.49

Three Cent Privilege Tax $ 558.68 558.68

Sponge Boat Licenses $ 530.40 $ 530.40

Total Receipts July 1st, 1934, to December 31st, 1934..............
Total to be accounted for

July 1st, 1934, to December 31st, 1934
Administration and Office Division:
Salaries $ 9,464.69
Traveling Expenses 451.84
Printing and Stationery 567.35
Office Supplies 179.61
Miscellaneous Office Expense 1,285.80
Purchase, Maintenance and Operation of Equip-
ment other than Boats 298.70

Premiums on Bonds-Insurance and Subscrip-
tions 36.00
Clipping Service 180.00
Publicity and Educational Expenses.................... 442.76 $ 12,906.75

Game and Fresh Water Fish Division:
Salaries-Game Wardens $ 30,726.36
Traveling Expenses-Game Wardens................. 14,804.64
Printing and Stationery 1,305.45
Miscellaneous Office Expense 365.30
Miscellaneous Field Expense 771.45
Purchase, Maintenance and Operation of Equip-
ment other than Boats 59.19
Expenditures Winter Haven Fish Hatchery
at Eagle Lake, Florida:
Miscellaneous Supplies $ 173.45
Miscellaneous Expense 141.86
Labor 208.00
Gasoline and Oil 209.74
Operation and Upkeep of Trucks ......... 289.03
Salaries 600.00 $ 1,622.08

Expenditures Welaka Fish Hatchery,
Welaka, Florida:
Miscellaneous Supplies 428.23
Miscellaneous Expense 802.43
Labor 264.00
Gasoline and Oil 1,131.89
Furniture and Fixtures 794.80
Electric Light Plant 1,200.00
Repairs & Upkeep State Road Trucks 143.60
Salaries 325.00 5,089.95

Expenditures-Deer Farm at Welaka,
Deer Purchased for Farm 200.00
Feed 6.90 206.90

Expenditures-Quail Farm at Welaka,
Feed 12.38 12.38

Expenditures Wewahitchka Fish
Hatchery, Wewahitchka, Florida:
Miscellaneous Expense 15.00
Gasoline and Oil 212.21

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