Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Board of control and officers of...
 Farmers' institutes
 Corn: By P. H. Rolfs, director...
 Cotton: By P. H. Rolfs
 Cane grinding and syrup making:...
 Winter cover crops: By C....
 Profitable and unprofitable dairy...
 The home dairy in Florida: By C....
 Raising grade cattle in Florida:...
 Poultry raising on the farm: By...
 The water supply of the farm: By...
 Water contamination: By E....
 Different grades of fertilizers:...
 Fertilizers and their sources:...
 Good roads: By G. A. Danley,...
 The home orchard: By C. K....
 The farmer's kitchen garden: By...
 Books and bulletins useful on the...

Title: University record
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075594/00004
 Material Information
Title: University record
Uniform Title: University record (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the State of Florida
University of Florida
Publisher: University of the State of Florida
Place of Publication: Lake city Fla
Publication Date: 1906-
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: College publications -- Gainesville -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Universities and colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Agricultural education -- Gainesville -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
University extension -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Teachers colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Law schools -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1906)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issue for Vol. 2, no. 1 (Feb. 1907) is misnumbered as Vol. 1, no.1.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Imprint varies: <vol.1, no.2-v.4, no.2> Gainesville, Fla. : University of the State of Florida,; <vol.4, no. 4-> Gainesville, Fla. : University of Florida,.
General Note: Issues also have individual titles.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075594
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000917307
oclc - 01390268
notis - AEM7602
lccn - 2003229026
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Catalog and admission bulletin
Succeeded by: College of Medicine catalog
Succeeded by: University record of the University of Florida. Graduate catalog
Succeeded by: University record of the university of Florida. Undergraduate catalog

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Board of control and officers of university extension
        Page 4
    Farmers' institutes
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Corn: By P. H. Rolfs, director of the experiment station, and superintendent of Farmers' Institutes
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Cotton: By P. H. Rolfs
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Cane grinding and syrup making: By C. K. McQuarrie, assistant superintendent of Farmers' Institutes
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Winter cover crops: By C. K. McQuarrie
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Profitable and unprofitable dairy cows: By J. M. Scott, animal industrialist
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    The home dairy in Florida: By C. K. McQuarrie
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Raising grade cattle in Florida: By J. M. Scott
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Poultry raising on the farm: By C. E. Pleas, Chipley
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    The water supply of the farm: By E. H. Sellards, state geologist
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Water contamination: By E. H. Sellards
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Different grades of fertilizers: By R. E. Rose, state chemist
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Fertilizers and their sources: By R. E. Rose
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Good roads: By G. A. Danley, Chipley
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    The home orchard: By C. K. McQuarrie
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    The farmer's kitchen garden: By C. K. McQuarrie
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Books and bulletins useful on the farm
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
Full Text

University Record
Vol. V. NOVEMBER, 1910 No. 3
Published Quarterly by the University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

Farmers' Institute
Bulletin 3

Gainesville, Florida

Entered September6, 1906 at the Postoffice at Gainesville, Florida. as
second-class matter, under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894.

-j ~





, 4w.-.

University of Florida

Farmers' Institute
Bulletin 3

CORN: By P. H. ROLFS, Director of the Experiment
Station, and Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes .... 17
COTTON: By P. H. ROLFS....................... 32
C. K. MCQUARRIE, Assistant Superintendent of Farm-
ers' Institutes ................................. 42
COWS: By J. M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist ...... 57
QUARRIE .......................................... 64
J. M SCOTT ...... ............................ 73
PLEAS, Chipley .............................. 79
H. SELLARDS, State Geologist .................... 87
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist......................... 97
E R OSE ...................................... IOI
GOOD ROADS: By G. A. DANLEY,Chipley ........ 108
M CQUARRIE ......................... ........... 118
FARM .............. ..................... 124




Hon. P. K. Yonge, Chairman Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript
of lectures delivered at the Farmers' Institutes in various
sections of Florida. I respectfully recommend that these
lectures be published as Farmers' Institute Bulletin No. 3.
Very respectfully yours,

Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes.

Board of Control

P. K. YONGE, Chairman .................. ... Pensacola
T. B. KING ................. ................ Arcadia
E. L. WARTMANN .............. ............... Citra
F. P. FLEMING, JR. ......................... Jacksonville
W. D. FINLAYSON .......................... Old Town
J. G. KELLUM, Secretary to the Board.

Officers of University Extension

President of the University.

P. H. ROLFS, M.S.,
Director of Experiment Station, Superintendent of Farmers'

Assistant in Extension Work.

Assistant Superintendent Farmers' Institutes.

J. J. VERNON, B.Agr., M.S.A.,
Dean of College of Agriculture, (Short Course in Agriculture
and Correspondence Course).

Professor of Secondary Education.

Professor of Philosophy and Education, (Chairman of the
Lecture and Literary Bureau).



Systematic work in connection with the Farmers' Insti-
tutes was taken up during the year 1908. It was carried
along for two years in a formative way, owing to the lack
of available funds for doing the work on an extensive plan.
The general scope of the Farmers' Institutes is as broad
as agriculture itself, though, owing to the lack of funds and
men available for carrying on this particular kind of work,
it has had to be somewhat limited. During the present
fiscal year, Farmers' Institutes were held in every place in
the State that requested them, with not more than two or
three exceptions. In these particular cases it seemed to be
impracticable to fix a date which would be mutually advan-
The following table shows the dates, locations, names
of speakers, and attendance at institutes held during the fis-
cal year ending June 30, 191o.


S Date. Place. Speakers. Attendance.

I July 24, A. M......... Duncan ......... G. A. Danley...........20oo
C. K. McQuarrie

2 July 24 P. M ......... Duncan .... ....C. V. Gilbert...........250
G. E. Robertson.
C. K. McQuarrie.

3 Aug. 20 .............Lemon City .....Dr. E. W Berger.......22

4 Aug. 21 ............. Miami ..........Dr. E. W Berger.......42
E. L. Brady.

5 Oct. 15, 8 A. M.......Jennings ........ Prof. P. H. Rolfs........68
C. K. McQuarrie.


a .Date. Place. Speakers. Attendance.

6 Oct. 15, TO A. M......Jennings

7 Oct. 15, 2 P. .......Jennings

8 Oct. 16, A. 1 ......... Jennings

9 Oct. 16, p. .........Jennings

10 Oct. 19, A. M ......... Wardville

II Oct. ID, P. x ......... Wardville

12 Oct. 20, A.

........A. S. Meharg.............65
C. K. McQuarrie.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.

........ A. S. Meharg ..........38
C. K. McQuarrie.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.

....... C. K. McQuarrie........34
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
A. S. Meharg.

........Prof. P. H. Rolfs........28
C. K. McQuarrie.
A. S. Meharg.

. .......J. J: Bingham......... .125
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
C. K. McQuarrie.

S........ Prof. P. H. Rolfs:......68
C. K. McQuarrie.
J. J. Bingham.

Af......... Cottage Hill .....G. A. Waterman........45
R. W. Storrs.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
C. K. McQuarrie.

13 Oct. 20, P. Mr..........McDavid

........ R. W Storrs.......... ..36
G. A. Waterman.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
C. K. McQuarrie.

14 Oct. 21, A. M.

Whitmire School
House .......

G. A. Waterman....... 95
F. F. Bingham.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
C. K. McQuarrie.

I5 Oct. 21, P. -..........Myrtle Grove G. A. Waterman.........53
School House.. Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
C. K. McQuarrie.


SDate. Place.. Speakers. Attendance.

16 Oct. 21, P.

M ......... Pensacola Cham- R. W. Storrs ...........37
ber of Cor- Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
merce ......... C. K. McQuarrie.
F. F. Bingham.

i7 Oct. 25, A. M......... Jay ............C. H. Simpson...........25
R. E. Rose.
C. K. McQuarrie.

18 Oct. 25, P.

M ......... Jay ............ R. E. Rose............. .26
C. H. Simpson.
C. K. McQuarrie.

19 Oct. 26, A. M.........Milton

20 Oct. 26, P. M.......... Milton

21 Oct. 27, A. M.........Cobb

22 Oct. 27, P. M... .....Cobb

..........R E. Rose..............30
C. H. Simpson.
C. K. McQuarrie.

.......... C. H. Simpson...........23
R. E. Rose.
C. K. McQuarrie.

........... C. H. Simpson..........66
R. E. Rose.
C. K. McQuarrie.

........... R. E. Rose............. o01
C. H. Simpson.
C. K. McQuarrie.

23 Oct. 27, .............Arcadia ......... W. Cannon......... 27
T. E. Pritchett.
Dr. E. W. Berger.

24 Oct. 28, A. M......... Laurel Hill ...... Hon. J. F. Richbourg.....42
R. E. Rose.
C. K. McQuarrie.

25 Oct. 28. P.

M......... Laurel Hill ...... R. E. Rose............. 33
C. K. McQuarrie.
Hon. J. F. Richbourg.

26 Oct. 29, A. M......... Glendale ...... J.W. Henderson........43
R. E. Rose.
C. K. McQuarrie.


o Date. Place. Speakers. Attendance.

27 Oct. 29, p. M........ Glendale ........R. E. Rose ............ 45
C. K. McQuarrie.

28 Nov. I, A. M......... Newhope......... R. E. Rose..............83
C. K. McQuarrie.
W. G. Watford.

29 Nov. i, P. M.........Newhope.........R. E. Rose..............85
C. K. McQuarrie.

30 Nov. 4, A. M......... Greensboro

31 Nov. 4, P. A.. ....... Greensboro

32 Nov. 5, A M......... Greensboro

33 Nov. 5, P.

34 Nov. 6, A.

35 Nov. 6, P.

36 Nov. 8, A.

37 Nov. 9-13

...... Prof. P. H. Rolfs........95
Dr. E. H. Sellards.
C. K. McQuarrie.

...... Prof. P. H. Rolfs...... 142
C. K. McQuarrie.
Dr. E. H. Sellards.

...... Dr. E. H. Sellards...... 129
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
C. K. McQuarrie.

M........ Greensboro ...... Prof. P. H. Rolfs....... 132
C. K. McQuarrie.

M......... Bristol ......... Prof. P. H. Rolfs........97
CC. K. McQuarrie.
Dr. E. H. Sellards.

M......... Bristol .......... Prof. P. H. Rolfs........ 26
C. K. McQuarrie.

M......... Blountstown .....Max Wilson ..........32
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
C. K. McQuarrie.

.......... Pensacola-Tri- Prof. P. H. Rolfs....... -
County Fair.... C. K. McQuarrie.
Prof. A. W. Blair.

38 Nov. 23 ............. Bartow ..........Dr. E. W. Berger........40

39 Nov. 30, A. M......... Carrabelle ...... Prof. P. H. Rolfs .......20
R. E. Rose.
A. S. Meharg.




Speakers. Attendance.

40 Nov. 30, P. M......... Carrabelle ....... Hon. E. R. L. Moore.... Io5
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
A. S. Meharg.
R. E. Rose.
C. K. McQuarrie.

41 Dec. I, P. M......... Apalachicola ...... A. S. Meharg .........39
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
R. E. Rose.
C. K. McQuarrie.

42 Dec. 3, A. M......... Quincy

43 Dec. 3, P. M.........Quincy

4- Dec. 4, A.

45 Dec. 4, P.

.......... Hon. F. E. Broom ...... 31
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
R. E. Rose.
C. K. McQuarrie.

......... R. E. Rose............. 107
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
C. K. McQuarrie.

M ......... Madison .......... L. Fonda .......... io7
A. S. Meharg.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
C. K. McQuarrie.

M......... Madison ......... A. S. Meharg .......... 45
Prof. P.-H. Rolfs.
C: K. McQuarrie.

46 Dec 7, A. M........ Clearwater .......Dr. E. W. Berger.......40
F. L. Tenny.

47 Dec.. 7, P. M......... Clearwater .......Prof. H. S. Fawcett.....30
Dr. T. J. Julian.

48 Dec. 10,.A. M..........Old Town....... Prof. P. H. Rolfs.......28
C. K. McQuarrie.

49. Dec. 10, p. M......... Old Town....... Prof. P. H. Rolfs........32
C. K. McQuarrie.

50 Dec. II, A. M ....... Trenton .........A. S. Meharg..........34
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
C. K. McQuarrie.


& Date. Place. Speakers. Attendance

51 Dec. II, P.

M......... Trenton ......... Prof. P. H. Rolfs........28
C. K. McQuarrie.

52 Dec. 15, A. M......... Tallahassee

...... G. B. Perkins............70
C. K. McQuarrie.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
E. B. Casler.

53 Dec. 15, P. M ......... Tallahassee ......A. S. Meharg............36
R. E. Rose.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.
E. B. Casler.

54 Dec. 23, P. M.........Pierson

55 Feb. A. M.......... Chipley

56 Feb. 4, P.

..........O. W Conner........... 15
W. W. Others.
Dr. E. W. Berger.

....... .. Mayor Britt ...... .64
W. D. Owens.
C. E. Pleas.
C. K. McQuarrie.
H. F. Sims.

M......... Chipley ......... J. R. McColsky........58
G. A. Danley.
S. H. Gaitskill.
C. K. McQuarrie.
W. T. Owens.

57 Feb. 5, A. M......... Chipley

58 Feb. 5, P. M.........Chipley

59 Feb. 7. A. M..........Havana

60 Feb. 7. p. m..........Havana

......... S. H. Gaitskill .........29
C. K. McQuarrie.
T. D.. Owens
G. A. Danley.

.........C. K. McQuarrie.......23
J. R. McColksy.
C. E. Pleas.

......... C. K. McQuarrie ........17
S. H. Gaitskill.

......... C. K. McQuarrie ........ z
S. H. Gaitskill.


n Date. Place. Speakers. Attendance.

61 Feb. 8, A. M...........Gretna ..........C. K. McQuarrie......132
S. H. Gaitskill.

62 Feb. o, P. M.........Gretna ......... C. K. McQuarrie......128
S. H. Gaitskill.

63 Feb. 10, A. M......... Lecanto ......... Prof. J. J. Vernon..... 60
C. K. McQuarrie.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.

64 Feb. o1, P. M......... Lecanto .........C. K. McQuarrie......250
Prof. J. J. Vernon.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs.

65 Feb. IIP.p. M......... Morriston .......C. K. McQuarrie.......22

66 Feb. 12, A. M ..........Morriston .......C. K. McQuarrie.......32

67 Feb. 24, P. M......... Live Oak ...... A. C. Meharg.........21
C. K. McQuarrie.

68 Feb. 25, A. M.......... Wimauma .......W. L. Buchholtz........64
Prof. J. J. Vernon.
C. K. McQuarrie.

69 Feb. 25, P. M.........Wimauma .......W. L. Buchholtz........59
C. K. McQuarrie.
Prof. J. J. Vernon.

70 Mch. I, A. M..... ... New Harmony ..C. K. McQuarrie....... L
J. H. Grant.

71 Mch. Ir. P. ......... New Harmony ..W. H. Moore........ ...3
C. K. McQuarrie.

72 Mch. 4. P. M..........DeFuniak SpringsProf. J. J. Vernon..... -7
Prof. P. IT. Rolfs.
C. E. Pleas.
R. W. Storrs.

73 Mch. 5, P. M ........DeFuniak SpringsC. K. McQuarrie.......76
G. A. Danley.
C. H. Simpson.
Prof. 1. J. Vernon.
Prof. P. H. RAfs.


Date.' Place. Speakers. Attendance.

74 Mch. 8, A. M..........St. Petersburg ...Judge J. D. Bell....... t
Prof. A. F. Bartlett.
C. K. McQuarrie.

75 Mch. 8. P. M .........St. Petersburg ...Prof. H. S. Fawcett... 17
W. E. Heathcote.
C. K. McQuarrie.

76 Mch. 8, M., night.. St. Petersburg ... Capt. Daggett..........23
Prof. Fawcett.
C. K. McQuarrie.

77 Mch. 8, A. M......... Trenton .........Prof. J. J. Vernon.....29

78 Mch. 8, A. M.......... Trenton .........Dr. J. L. Kelley.... .. 14
Prof. J. J. Vernon.

79 Mch. 8. P. M......... Cherry Sink .... Dr. J. L. Kelley....... 25
Prof. J. J. Vernon.

80 Mch. 8X M.......... Trenton ......... Dr. J. L. Kelley...... .04
Prof. J. J. Vernon.

81 Mch. 9, A. ......... Alachua ........ Dr. J. L. Kell'y... 117
Prof. J. J. Vernon

82 Mch. 9, P. M......... High Springs .... Dr. J. L. Kelley....... 74
Prof. J. J. Vernon..

83 Mch. 12, A. M......... Waldo ........ C. K. MQuarrie........47
Prof. T. T. Vernon.
T. K. Godbey.

84 Mch. 12, P. M.......... Hawthorn ...... Dr. J. L. Kel'ev. ......22
C. K. McQuarrie.
Prof. J. J. Vernon.

85 Mch. 12, P. M......... Island Grove .... Dr. J. L. Kelley........ o8
Prof. J. J. Vernon.

86 Mch. 14, A. M......... Archer ..... ... C. K. McQuarrie........73
Prof. J. J. Vernon.
Dr. J. L. Kelley.


- Date.


Speakers. Attendance.

87 Mch. 14, P. M. ........ Newberry .......Prof. J. J. Vernon......63
Dr. J. L. Kelley.

88 Mch. 16, P. i .........Gainesville ......Prof. P. H. Rolfs......85
Prof. J. J. Vernon.
Prof. Cassels.

89 Mch. 17, p. M......... Micanopy .......Prof. J. J. Vernon......91

90 Mch. 26, A. M......... Lacrosse ........Dr. J. L. Kelley........38
Prof. J. J. Vernon.
C. K. McQuarrie.

91 Apr. 2, A. Mi.........Donnie .........C. K. McQuarrie...... 14
Prof. J. J. Vernon.
J. G. Osteen.

92 Apr. 2. .........Donnic ..........J. G. Osteen..........97
C. K. McQuarrie.
Prof. J. J. Vernon.

93 Apr. 5, A. M.......... Halsema ........ C. K. McQuarrie....... 5

94 Apr. 5, P. M......... Halsema ........ C. K. McQuarrie.......58

95 Apr. 7, P. .......... Bell .......

96 Apr. 7, A. i ......... Lily .......

97 Apr. 7. P. M......... Lily .......

98 Apr. 16, A. M ......... Lake Butler

99 Apr. 16, P. M......... Lake Butler

.... Prof. J. J. Vernon.


.... Capt. Rose...... ..... 30
C. K. McQuarrie.
J. H. Brown.

.....C. K. McQuarrie......339
Capt. Rose.
C. S. Bushnell.

.....C. K. McQuarrie......218
A. C. Meharg.
Prof. J. J. Vernon.

....'.Prof. J. J. Vernon .....178
C. K. McQuarrie.

Ioo Apr. 18, A. M......... Gainesville ......Prof. P. H. Rolfs......33


IoI Apr. 19, A. M......... Gainesvil

1o2 Apr. 19, P. M......... Gainesvi

Apr. g9,

Apr. 20,

P. M. eve.... Gainesvi

A. M..........Gainesvi

105 Apr. 20, P. M........ Gainesvi

io6 Apr. 20. P. M. eve....Gainesvi

107 Apr. 21, A. M......... Gainesvi

o08 Apr. 21, P. M......... Gainesvi

1og Apr. 21, P. M......... Gainesvi

ino Apr. 22, A. M......... Gainesvi

iI Apr. 22, P. M......... Gainesvi

112 Apr. 22, P. M. eve.... Gainesvi

113 May 7. A. M......... Pop-Ash

lle ......Prof. P. H. Rolfs......22
Prof. A. W. Blair.
Prof. B. F. Floyd.

lie ......Dr. E. W. Berger......28
Prof. H. S. Fawcett.

lie ...... Dr. E. R. Flint........36

lie ...... Prof. B. F. Floyd......28
Prof. A. W. Blair.
Dr. E. W. Berger.

lie ...... Prof. H. H. Hume......32
Prof. H. S. Fawcett.

lie ...... Dr. H: G. Keppel........48

lie ......Dr. E. W. Berger......30
Prof. H. H. Hume.
Prof. P. H. Ro!ls.

lle ...... Prof. B. F. Floyd.....36
E. O. Painter.
Prof. H. S. Fawcett.
W. S. Hart.

lle ...... Dr. J. R. Benton........62

lle ...... Prof. A. W. Blair......26
Prof. J. J. Vernon.
Prof. H. S. Fawcett.

lle ...... Prof. P. H. Rolfs......28
Prof. B. F. Floyd.
C. K. McQuarrie.

lle ...... J. A. Stevens...........02
R. F. Tillinghast.
E. O. Painter.

........ Prof. A. W. Blair......230
C. K. McQuarrie.



Speakers. Attendance.

~~ _~


1 Date. Place. Speakers. Attendance.

114 May 7. P. M......... Pop-Ash

115 May 23, A. M..........Glendale

116 May 23, P. M......... Glendale

.......C. L. Goodrish ........228
Prof. A. W. Blair.
C. K. McQuarrie.

........ R. W Storrs ...........26
W. Murphy.
C. K. McQuarrie.

...... W M urphy.... ....... 19
C. K. McQuarrie.
R. W. Storrs.
J. W. Henderson.

117 Jun. I. A. M......... Bushnell ....... C. K. McQuarrie.......84

118 Jun. I, P. M.........Bushnell ....... G. T. Lynch ............86

119 Jun. 3, A. M......... Nocatee ........ C. K. McQuarrie......320

120 Jun. 3, P. M........ Nocatee

........ G. T. Lynch ...........380
W. B. Hare.

121 Jun. 4. A. m ........ Dade City ...... C. K. McQuarrie........21

122 Jun. 4, P. M .........Dade City ......G. T. Lynch............85
C. K. McQuarrie.
Dr. Roberts.
Dr. Corrigan.


Total attendance............ ................ ....... ........9,o21
Average attendance........ ......... .. ...... ... ..... ..... ........ 74
Number of addresses........................... ................. 323
Addresses from University................... .. .. ..... ....... 193
Total number of sessions ......... ........... .... ........... 122

From the general total it will be seen that the average
attendance stands very high; in fact, in many States where
Institutes have been carried on for a much longer period than
in Florida, the average attendance is not greater. The total
attendance is gratifying to those who have had charge of the


work. If mere numbers had been the object sought, fully
twice as large a showing could have been made. But the
Farmers' Institutes have been carried to the farmers, the meet-
ings for the most part being held in country school-houses,
churches, sometimes in country stores, and not infrequently in
the open air. From the table of contents it will be seen that
the Institutes are concerned directly with farm work of a
practical, ever-day nature.
Wherever possible, it has been our policy to hold the InT
stitutes in co-operation and connection with local organiza-
tions. In many places local organizations do not occur, and
there the Farmers' Institutes have to be held without the as-
sistance or co-operation of local organizations, but with the
assistance and co-operation of local men of influence and




The quantity of corn produced in Florida is much
greater than is realized even by those who are actively en-
gaged in farming. According to the Bureau of Statistics
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, the Florida crop
for 1909 is 8,379,
ooo bushels; ex-
ceeding the crop
of 19o8 by nearly
two million bushels.
The average yield
for Igo1 is 12.6
bushels per acre,
while for 1908 it
was 10.5 bushels.
While this increase
is creditable, the
average yield is still
too low, as it leaves
us at the foot of the
column of State
yields of corn per
acre. For the year
1907-8 the Commis-
sioner of Agricul-
ture reported that
Florida produced
4,35i,ooo bushels of
corn, valued at $3,-
409,000; thus ex-
ceeding in value any
other single farm
Fig. I.-Cubgn corn, showing large embryos
and spaces between grains. c r o p. The com-
bined crops of Up-
land and Sea Island cotton exceeded the value of the corn
produced in 1907 by only $244,000. Ordinarily, much more


is thought of the cotton crop in Florida than of the corn crop.
Even the orange crop for the year 1907-8 exceeded the corn
crop by only $812,oo0--less than 25 per cent.
While the total amount of corn produced in the State
of Florida is very large, the average yield per acre is only
12.6 bushels. This yield is altogether too small for profit.
Half a crop of corn leaves little or no profit for the farmer.
It can safely be stated that a crop of corn that falls below
15 bushels per acre does not return to the farmer more
than the cost of making it. In contradistinction to this
very low average yield, we have the very large yields that
have been obtained by certain progressive farmers in re-
cent years in Florida. Eighty bushels per acre have been
produced repeatedly. Yields approximating, or even sur-
passing, the hundred bushel mark, have been produced.
These, however, are exceptional cases. Nor have these
extremely large yields been produced at exorbitant cost.
In one case where the data were kept, it was found that
the corn cost forty-two and a fraction cents per bushel to
make. At 42 cents per bushel, the average crop of corn
for Florida should not cost over $5.29 per acre; while as
a matter of fact it costs us from $8 to $15 per acre to pro-
duce a crop.
During the last few years considerable interest and
rivalry have occurred in corn production in a number of
counties in the State; notably in Walton, Marion, and Her-
nando. The corn exhibited in 1909 at the Tri-county Fair
at Pensacola was judged by an Illinois corn expert, and
the exhibit that won first prize was marked only 60 per
cent. of the maximum by the score-card method. In the
same year the highest award given to any corn exhibited
at the Marion County Fair was only 69 per cent. This
shows to us that the best corn produced is still open to rev-
olutionary improvement.
Figures I, 2 and 3 show sections of the ear (natural
size) and three grains (magnified twice) of Cuban, Com-
mon Florida, and Blitch corn; showing how the Blitch has
more closely set grains and smaller embryos than the
two others.


Fig. 2.-Common Florida corn,
with large embryos and wide Fig. 3.-Blitch corn, with smaller
spaces between grains, embryos and close-set grains.


Choice of Land.-In choosing land for corn we have
considerable latitude as to quality. Ordinarily, land with a
clay subsoil will be found to be better suited for corn pro-
duction than sandy land without a clay subsoil. So long as
cotton was king with our farmers, any sort of land was
thought to be all right for corn. "It didn't amount to much,
anyhow;" and consequently any land with any kind of
preparation was sufficient. All that the farmer wanted was
acres of land in corn. Since the advent of better work an-
imals, better cattle, better hogs, and the beginning of poul-


try raising, we have learned, however, that corn is more
profitable than almost any other farm crop that we can
raise, provided we give it the proper attention. The land
chosen should have an abundance of humus, and be suffi-
ciently well drained naturally to prevent it from becoming
waterlogged during the heavy rains which are likely to
occur just at the time the ears are filling out.
Preparation.-Before one can raise corn profitably,
and in fact before ohe can really consider himself a corn
farmer, all the stumps must be removed from the land. It
requires only a small number of stumps per acre to reduce
the area by ten per cent. Farming stumps never did pay
and never will. It is much easier to cultivate 6 or 8 hills of
corn than to plow around a single stump, and with our
long winter season, together with an abundance of idle la-
bor during this time, there is really no good excuse for
having stumps in our fields at all.
Deep Plowing.-To make a maximum crop of corn it
is necessary to make a proper beginning. The only proper
beginning is to plow the land deeply and early in the year.
December is none too early. If one wishes to get the max-
imum yield it is absolutely necessary to have all the vege-
table matter turned under before the middle of January.
The sections of Florida which are noted for their deep
plowing are, at the same time, the banner corn-producing
sections. Near Muscogee a crop of o09 bushels of corn was
produced on land *that was plowed ten inches deep and
subsoiled eight inches below the plow furrow, thus giving
a soil depth of eighteen inches. In Gadsden County a num-
ber of farmers produced 90 bushels of corn per acre. All of
these farmers are advocates of deep plowing, and practice
it regularly.
If one puts off plowing for corn until planting time, and
then should break up the land deeply, his chances are about
nine out of ten to make a failure of it. If he also waits until
late planting time to plow at all, he has about one chance
out of twenty of making a good crop. It is, therefore, of
the utmost importance that we plow deeply early in the
year. Otherwise the raw soil which is turned on the top


will not have time to become properly oxidized or aerated
so as to make fit plant food.

Corn may be considered a quick-growing crop, that is
it requires the use of the land for only from 120 to 150
days. Yet it is not what we would call one of the shortest
crops, such as lettuce, or cucumbers. On account of the
length of the season through which corn grows, we can
use organic materials to a considerable extent for supplying
ammonia. The potash and phosphoric acid may be derived
from the ordinary sources. There seems to be little advantage
in using one form of fertilizer rather than another, for what
corn wants is a large amount constantly on hand.
Land well filled with humus and deeply cultivated, will pro-
duce a good crop with a much larger amount of fertilizer than
is allowable on poor land, not deeply prepared, and lacking
humus. On the ordinary poor land (such as is used for the
most part for producing corn, and prepared about three inch-
es deep) we cannot use successfully more than 400 to 600
pounds of ordinary fertilizer, in fact, during some years 600
pounds will be found excessive.Whereas, on well prepared soil,
containing an abundance of humus, 'three times this amount
will not prove deleterious to the corn, even during the driest
weather that we are likely to have.

Fertilizer Formula.-
Ammonia ...........................3 per cent.
Phosphoric acid ................... 5 per cent.
Potash ...................... .... 4 per cent.
Ingredients Needed to Make a Ton of the Formula.-
To secure the necessary plant food represented -in a ton of
the above formula, we should use:
Dried blood ....... ................ 350 pounds, or
Cottonseed meal, 72 per cent......... 800 pounds.
Acid phosphate, 16 per cent........... 660 pounds.
Muriate of potash..................... 16 pounds, or
Kainit ............................. 66 pounds.


It is a waste of good money to use cottonseed meal as a
fertilizer for farm crops. It should be first fed to stock, and
the manure used for fertilizer. In this way the farmer will
get a double value from the material purchased. If the field in
which corn is to be planted was covered with a good crop of
velvet beans, cowpeas, or beggarweed the year before, the
ammonia in the above formula may be omitted,. thus saving
about $Io per ton on fertilizer. Just before the corn is silking,
it is frequently profitable to apply broadcast 200 to 300
pounds per acre of nitrate of soda.
The chemicals necessary to make up the foregoing formula
may be purchased from fertilizer houses in Gainesville, Jack-
sonville, Tampa, and sometimes in Pensacola. It is more eco-
nomical to have the fertilizers mixed at the fertilizer houses,
especially if we purchase in less than 5-ton lots.
Application of Fertilizer.-Ten days or two weeks be-
fore the corn is to be planted, one-half of the above material
may be taken and applied broadcast to the field. Immediately
after the fertilizer has been applied, -we should run over the
field with a weeder. This will cause a fair distribution of the
fertilizer on.the field and a rather even mixing with the sur-
face soil.
A second application of the fertilizer may be made about
the time the corn is knee-high. This assures us that the corn
will have the fertilizer at the time it needs it. In case of un-
seasonable rains, a large amount of the fertilizer would be lost
if it were all put on in one application. Less trouble is exper-
ienced from this source in the clay soils than in the loose, sandy
ones; and less loss ocurs in lands well filled with humus than
in those that are rather sterile.


The only correct way to plant corn, when one is really a
corn farmer, is to use the planter. The one-horse planter,
somewhat similar to the cotton planter, will be found a useful
implement. This drops the corn and covers it, all in one oper-
ation. One man and a mule can easily plant eight or ten acres
a day, and do the work better than can be done by any number
of hand-dropping and hoe-covering laborers. Where one has


a small area of one or a few acres, it may be advisable to drop
the corn by hand; but if one has as much as twenty acres to
plant, it will certainly not be profitable to do the work by hand.
In this case, the corn planter will pay for its cost in the'first
year's work.
Frequently these one-row corn planters have attached to
them a fertilizer distributer. It is a mistake, however, to ap-
ply the fertilizer at the same time that the corn is being plant-
ed. For the most part our fertilizers of the present day are so
concentrated that they are likely to injure the young sprouts
as the corn is coming up. The fertilizer should have been Lip-
plied two weeks before planting.


When the land on which the corn is planted has been pre-
pared early and plowed deeply there is little need of deep culti-
vation. As a matter of fact, with the seed-bed properly pre-
pared, one is fortified against the driest weather that has been
experienced in the State, and all that is needed is to destroy the
few weeds that come up, and to keep a dust mulch on the sur-
face to prevent evaporation. During the year 1908, a number
of farmers in the State made a demonstration for the U. S.
Department of Agriculture, showing that a good crop of corn
could be matured with no other cultivation than such as may
be given with the garden rake.
As soon as the corn has been planted, we prefer to use a one
or two-horse weeder to go all over the ground. This implement
works over the surface of the ground, giving us a perfect
blanket of dust mulch; and thus conserves every bit of mois-
ture there is in the soil. The weeder may be used for cultivat-
ing the corn until it has reached the height of ten to twelve
Implements.--The best implement for cultivating corn in
Florida is the riding cultivator. Such an implement will pay
for its cost the first year one owns it. By using two medium-
sized mules, ten or twelve acres of corn can readily be culti-
vated in a day. This implement has the advantage of working
on both sides of the row at once, thus enabling the laborer to


kill any weeds that may have sprung up without injuring the
corn in the least. We prefer to use a riding cultivator with
six or eight small shovels, and one that does not go deeper
thah about three inches into the soil.
When the corn is beginning to make joints, or when it be-
comes about shoulder high, it should receive its last cultiva-
tion, not because it would be unprofitable to continue plowing,
but because our implements are likely to break down the stalks.
Shallow-working implements might be kept going with ad-
vantage until ithe summer rains begin. Just after the last plow-
ing it will be found advantageous, in almost all cases, to plant
a row of cowpeas between the rows of corn. During the sum-
mer an abundance of rain is pretty sure to occur to give plen-
ty of moisture for maturing a crop of cowpeas. Then after
the crop of corn has been harvested, a crop of cowpea hay may
be obtained, leaving the land much more fertile than would
have been the case if the crop of cowpeas had not been planted.
Velvet Beans.-The most profitable crop that we can
plant in a corn field for the second crop after corn is a crop of
velvet beans. These are planted in several different ways. Some
farmers prefer to plant the velvet beans after the corn has
come up, directly in the row. The velvet bean is a tropical
plant and so makes a rather slow growth until warm summer
weather comes on. It interferes very little with the corn dur-
ing the time the latter makes its root growth, and after the
corn has matured, the velvet bean makes a vigorous growth
and produces a heavy crop, using the corn stalks to climb upon.
Some farmers prefer, however, to plant the velvet bean
later in. the year and put it between the rows of corn. They
plant their corn rows farther apart so as to make it possible
to cultivate between the rows of velvet beans and the rows of
corn. This usually reduces the amount of corn produced per


To get the maximum profit out of a crop of corn it is nec-
essary to cut the stalks and keep 'them for winter forage. The
time for shockingcorn is just after the ears have fully matured
and before the leaves have become dry. The size of shock varies


considerably with different farmers, running all the way from
150 to 500 stalks to the shock. The latter number is rather
unusual. The great objection to preserving corn in this
way is that the fodder molds in the shock. We have, however,
a considerable number of farmers in the State who have over-
come this difficulty.' They do this by tying the top of their
shock so tightly that the rain cannot enter the middle of the
shock. To tie the heads of the shocks firmly they have a rather
unique device. A stick about five feet long sharpened at one
end has a cross-bar nailed to it about eighteen inches long and
ten inches from the large end. This has attached to it a half-
inch rope long enough to go around the shock. This rope is
thrown around ,the top of the shock and attached to a device
in such a way that by twisting the stick the rope is wound
around it and the top of the shock squeezed together very firm-
ly. After this pressure has been brought on the top of the
shock it is held in place by tying with ordinary binder twine.
The device for tightening the top of the shock is then removed
and used on the next one. As a further precaution against rain
getting into the top of the shock, fertilizer or feed bags that
have been ripped open on one side are stretched over the shock
in such a way as (to form a cover.
Few corn farmers realize, however, how much valuable
material is being wasted on the farm annually by allowing
the corn stover to go to waste in the field. Its fertilizing value
is not to be considered as compared with its feeding value.
Shucking.-Ordinarily the ears are removed from the
field and stored with the shucks on them, the general belief
being that the shucks prevent weevil attack. This, however, is
more imaginary than real. We like to make ourselves believe
that the easiest way of doing our work, even though it is a sort
of slipshod way, is the best, and we invent all sorts of argu-
ments to convince ourselves. Where the corn is shucked clean
and the ears placed in the crib without the shucks, it will be
found that it is not any more attacked by weevil and vermin
than where the ears have been left in the shuck. If we prepare
our store-rooms as we ought for treating our corn with carbon
bisulphide, there certainly is no good reason for putting the
corn in the crib unshucked.


Where velvet beans have been planted among the corn, it
becomes impracticable to harvest it until late in December or
about the beginning of January. At first this would appear
to be a very serious drawback. Scores of farmers, however,
have learned from practical experience that the corn left in
the field under velvet beans is rarely ever attacked by weevils,
and such a small amount of corn is lost from molding or rotting
that this is practically a negligible quantity. The weevil and
moth seem to be unable to find the corn in the dense velvet bean
field, and 'during December and January these little pests are
hibernating and consequently the corn gets into the crib with-
out being infested.


In the matter of storing corn we still have many improve-
ments to make. Ordinarily we think that any place that may
be called a bin or crib is all right for corn. Such a bin is fre-
quently without a floor, and often the roof is leaky. Both of
these conditions are such as no reasonable man should permit
for a single day. There is no sense in working hard all spring
and summer to make a crop, and then trying to store it on a
dirt floor and under a leaky roof. The annual loss to the State
from weevils and moths in feed corn is probably not less than
$300,000. At least 90 per cent. of this loss is preventable at
a small cost. The right kind of a bin in which to store corn is
one that has a tight roof, a tight floor, tight sides and a tight
door. The corn when it is thoroughly dry can be placed in this
bin, and if attacked by vermin or insects the bin may be fumi-
gated by the use of carbon bisulphide. If the sides, top, and
bottom of the bin are reasonably tight, that is, if they have
been made from ordinary No. 2 flooring, we can fumigate
about 500 bushels of corn with six pounds of carbon bisul-
phide. This usually retails at thirty cents a pound, but in large
quantities it can be had at a much lower rate. One fumigation
a year is usually sufficient. This, of course, would depend very
much on the tightness of the bin and on the length of time the
corn was in the bin. Where the corn is stored in the shuck
we waste much of the chemical, from the fact that the shucks
take up so large a space, and ,the work cannot be done so thor-


oughly because the shuck frequently encloses the ear very
tightly, thus in a measure preventing the fumes from entering
the shucks and getting at the weevils.


Too frequently our corn farmers forget all about
that they are going to plant corn until planting time arrives.
Then a hasty visit is made to the corn crib, and the best ears
that have not been fed out are quickly selected and used for
seed. Or a man may do worse than this. He may feed out all
his corn and then depend on the merchants in the neighboring
town to provide him with seed-corn, which may or may not be
adapted to his particular section. It may, perhaps, germinate
well, but it is more likely that a large percentage of it will be
dead before it is planted. The time to select seed-corn, if one
has not already done so in the field, is when one has a full crib.
Ordinarily a crib of 5oo bushels would not yield more than
ten bushels of good seed-corn. Of course, if we are contented
with raising 12.6 bushels of corn to the acre, which was the av-
erage for 1909, there is no need of worrying about selecting
seed-corn. Almost any sort of corn, a two-thirds stand, and
any careless way of taking care of it, will probably give us that
much of a crop. But there is no operation in the whole line of
corn farming that pays better for the time expended and mon-
ey invested than the careful selection and careful keeping of
seed-corn. In selecting seed-corn from the crib we should
always be careful to select the finest ears, taking only those that
have a symmetrical outline, whose tips are well filled, whose
butts are also well filled, and whose butts have their grains reg-
ularly set on them. An ear of corn that is much larger in di-
ameter at the butt than one-third of the length is not a good
ear to select for seed.
Field Selection.-The proper way to select seed-corn,
however, is to do this work in the field before the crop has been
gathered, the ideal time being when the ears have hardened, or
about the time when the corn ought to be cut for shocking. At
this time one can not only select the best ears, but can also
select ears from the best stalks. In selecting corn at this time
one will at once recognize that there are many stalks in the


field which have matured only one ear. These ears are usually
the largest; but by weighing one of these large ears and then
comparing the corn with that from a stalk that has produced
two, three, or four ears, one will find at once that the stalks
which are prolific, that is, those which have produced more
than one ear, have given a larger yield of corn. One will also
find pretty soon that those stalks that set an extra large num-
ber of ears will mature only a portion of them. So that as a
rule one finds that the stalks which bear two and three ears
produce a larger amount of corn than those which bear only
one ear or than those which bear four or five ears each.


After the seed-corn has been selected and has passed all
of 'the inspections which show that it is perfect to the eye, a
further inspection is necessary for germinating quality. This
can be done only by using a seed-tester. Such an implement can
be readily made by
anyone on the farm.
The simplest form
consists of a large
soup plate filled with
1-10 11-20 21o-0 31a-4o _- wet sand covered
Switch ordinary mus-
lin. Fitted over this
should be a smaller
soup plate. This
is to prevent evap-
oration of mois-
ture. An ordi n-
ary cigar box (Fig
Fig. 4.-A tester for seed corn, made from a a), about 5 by 7 in-
cigar box. 4 a
ches, with two inches
of sand in it, will also make an excellent seed-tester.
When we are ready for testing the seed-corn, the sand in the
cigar box should be thoroughly -wetted, enough water being
used to cover the sand. The box 'is then tipped on one edge
to drain off the surplus water. Hold 'it in this position four
oi five minutes, then wet the muslin rag, and we are ready



to set in place the kernels to be tested. For this purpose we
must number every ear. This can be easily done by taking
numbered strips of paper and tying them with ordinary twine
to the ears. After the ears have' all been numbered, we may
begin.with ear No. I, and remove one kernel about two in-
ches from the tip, and another kernel about two inches from
the butt; then by sticking them in pairs (Fig. 4) into the
sand, we will have this ear ready for testing. Follow the
same method with the second ear, and so on, until the kernels
from ten ears are placed in the first row. The number of ears
that carl be tested will depend largely on the size of the box.
An ordinary Ioo-cigar box will hold at least five rows, with ten
pairs in each row. The rows will then be numbered so as to
enable us to find the ears whose kernels failed to germinate.
By counting down the rows, and noting the kernels that have
failed to germinate, we will have no difficulty in locating the
bad ears.
After the seed-tester has received all the kernels that can
be planted conveniently, place over the kernels the wetted mus-
lin rag, then close the cover and place on it a weight to keep
mice out. Thi'j seed-tester should then be placed in the kitchen
or any other warm situation. It should be examined every
day to see that the sand and cloth are moist. In the course of
a week or ten days about all of the corn that is sound will
have germinated.


Over nine-tenths of the corn .crop in Florida is planted
from purchased seed; either of a local variety, or from some
out-of-State seed house. In buying seed, one should always
give preference to the local varieties.
Buy Seed Corn in the Ear.-If it is necessary for a
farmer to buy seed-corn, he should always demand that this
seed-corn be delivered to himin the ear. This practice is, un-
fortunately, not at all general. Less than one bushel out of a
hundred is bought in this way, and yet this is one of the most
important considerations in buying seed-corn. When one buys
kernels that are already shelled for seed, it is impossible to
reject the dead grains; and testing shelled seed-corn gives us


only an imperfect idea as to its vitality. Such a practice leads
to considerable annoyance after planting has been done. In
addition to this, the shelled seed-corn does not guarantee us that
the ears used were even approximately perfect and true to
type. Shelled seed-corn usually sells at about $2.00 a bushel,
when the ordinary feed corn is selling for a dollar a bushel.
As a bushel of seed-corn will plant from six to ten acres of
corn, we can readily see that $5.00 a bushel for perfect seed-
corn would be a small price to pay compared with other seed-
corn which would have in it ten to twenty per cent. dead seed.
Our home-grown seed-corn frequently has as high as twen-
ty-five per cent. of dead corn in it. We would make at least
500oo per cent on our investment if we bought perfect seed-
corn at $5.00 per bushel. So high a price is almost never
charged; consequently we can see the extravagance of paying
$2.00 a bushel for poor seed, when we can nearly always get
seed-corn that is nearly perfect, in the ear, for about $3.00
a bushel.


After the seed has been tested and all of the ears rejected
from which the seed failed to germinate, the corn may be
placed in a tight barrel, a large box, or a ceiled bin. A- large,
well-made dry-goods box is a convenient receptacle. This
should be papered inside to prevent the fumes of carbon bi-
sulphide from leaking out too rapidly. For every cubic foot
of space in the box allow one teaspoonful of carbon bisulphide,
to kill weevils. This carbon bisulphide should be placed on
top of the corn in a shallow saucer. After the saucer is in
place, the box may be carefully nailed up; taking care not to
upset the saucer containing the carbon hisulphide, as the
liquid coming in contact with the seed might destroy its vi-
tality. As a further precautionary measure, to repel insects
that might gnaw through the paper and infest the corn, it
may be well to place a considerable number of naphthaline
or moth balls in the box, using four or five for every cubic
foot. If these are scattered somewhat regularly through the
corn, they will prove very effective in keeping out insect



By proper preparation of the land, that is, removing the
stumps, deep plowing early in the year, turning under the
vegetable matter and allowing this 'to decay to form humus,
and shallow cultivation, we will be able to increase our corn
production at least fifty per cent. By proper and careful
seed selection and testing every ear before it is planted, we
will be able to increase our corn production immediately at
least fifty per cent. over what it is at present. We have corn
farmers in Florida who have carried out both these recom-
mendations thoroughly and who are now producing on the
average over two hundred per cent. more corn per acre than
the average for the whole State. They are the farmers who
can make corn much more cheaply than they can buy it. But
few of these farmers have any corn for sale. They, how-
ever, keep plenty of live stock, and have the finished pro-
duct from the farm for sale. They are satisfied and well-to-
do farmers of Florida.




The cotton crop of Florida holds one of the most im-
portant places in the agriculture of the State. It has been the
money crop for the farmer from the time of the first set-
tlement. The quantity produced has greatly increased, some-
times slowly and at other times somewhat rapidly. Our ear-
liest statistics go back about as far as 1830. In 1839 the cot-
ton.crop of the State, measured in bales, was exactly one-
half of what was produced in 1909, seventy years later. The
banner year for cotton production, in number of bales, was
in 1904, when 89,000 bales of 400 pounds each were pro-
duced, valued at $5,444,000. This cotton was grown on an
area of 267,000 acres.
The cotton crop of 1909 was 62,900 bales, valued at
$5,760,000, reaching the highest figure in point of value
ever produced. This cotton was grown on 266,000 acres. In
1907 the average production of cotton per acre fell lower
than it has fallen in any other year within the last decade. In
1904 the highest average production per acre was reached. It
will be noticed that the average production per acre fell off
in 1909, when it was only seventy per cent. of the amount pro-
duced in 1904. The reasons' for this falling off were various.
In a large measure the climatic conditions of 1909 were re-
sponsible for the low average production per acre. Anthrac-
nose, a disease which attacks both the plant and the bolls,
caused a very large loss. Careless methods, of preparation
of the soil and of cultivation also had their influence on
the reduction of the crop.


Deep Plowing.-In preparing the soil for cotton it
should be kept in mind constantly that the plowing or breaking
in the winter or early spring is the most important operation
of the entire year. Some of the other defects may be cor-
rected, but if this one operation is neglected we are nearly


certain to reap a small crop, no matter what our later work
may be. The land should be broken early in the year. Decem-
ber or the first two weeks in January are the most favorable
periods of the year. It should be broken deeply if a consid-
erable amount of vegetable matter occurs in the field. Ten to
twelve inches will not be too deep. If, on the other hand, the
soil has been cultivated for many years and contains only a
small amount of vegetable matter, it may be advisable to break
the land no more than two or three inches deeper than it was
broken up the year before.
The deep breaking early in the year provides ample space
for storing up moisture. The particles of soil are separated
by this tillage, allowing the air and the moisture to circulate
freely through that portion of the soil which is to become
a seed-bed later in the year.'If the soil is broken early in the
year it catches the winter rainfall and stores it up for spring
and early summer use. Having broken up the soil thorough-
ly in the spring, and pulverized it well, the loose soil forms
a blanket which prevents the escape of moisture from the
soil. The capillary moisture rises upward, but the surface
blanket stops its rise and so prevents it from evaporating into
the air.
Aeration of Soil.-Another important point that is usually
entirely overlooked is that by thorough plowing the lower por-
tion of the soil is brought near the surface and the surface soil
is turned down deeper. This brings a large portion of the soil
near the surface, where it can be aerated, and where the oxy-
gen of the air can get to the soil particles and put them in con-
dition to furnish the plant food for the coming crop. This
is forcibly illustrated by many instances. We have frequent-
ly noticed that when a well is dug on a farm, the earth thrown
out from the bottom of the well is usually a dead mass, on
which for the first six months hardly any weeds will grow. We
may think that this is due to the want of weed seeds in it.
This, however, is not the case, for plenty of weed seeds are
blown or otherwise distributed through it. It is simply too low
in available plant food to allow any of the weed seedlings to
grow. After this earthy matter has been aerated for a few
months, however, we find the tallest and rankest weeds spring-
ing up in this soil which was formerly deep down in the earth.


The same conditions occur when we break up our land. If we
break it up deeply and then plant our seed immediately we
will certainly be disappointed, unless the land has also been
broken up deeply and the surface soil aerated in previous
years. By breaking up the soil deeply in the late fall or
early winter, enough time elapses before the cotton has to be
planted to let this soil become thoroughly aerated, and then
we have a fresh vigorous soil. In a large measure this soil is
like newly broken land.
Soil that has been deeply broken, especially if it is twelve
to fourteen, or eighteen inches deep, makes an excellent seed-
bed, in which rapid growth of plants is greatly promoted.
Cotton is no exception to this rule. Anyone doubting this as-
sertion can readily prove it for himself if he will simply take
the trouble to dig out a dozen of the best cotton plants from
deeply prepared soil and then dig out a dozen cotton plants
from soil that has been prepared in the ordinary haphazard
way. The roots of the cotton plants that have been dug from
the deep soil will be found to be much more abundant, much
more vigorous, and deeper in the soil than those from the land
that has been prepared only three or four inches deep.
Deep Soil and Fertilizer.-Even if the important reasons
for deep plowing just given were not considered sufficient,
there is still another reason that makes deep plowing a necessi-
ty. Land deeply prepared has a much greater capacity for
holding fertilizer than land that has been only indifferently pre-
pared. Usually it is thought that the quantity of cotton pro-
duced on the acre will vary directly in proportion to the amount
of fertilizer that one can afford to apply. Definite tests have
been made by the Experiment Station which show that this is
altogether a mistake. An acre of land prepared in the ordi-
nary way and of only ordinary fertility cannot make use of
more than about six hundred pounds of fertilizer of ordinary
concentration, such as is given in the formula below. In our
experiments we found that the amount of cotton produced
from different applications of 200, 400, and 600 pounds,.in-
creased rapidly and gave handsome additional returns for the
larger amounts. In fact, in many cases it will be found that
an application of 400 pounds of fertilizer to the acre will
double the amount of cotton produced by an application of 200


pounds of fertilizer, thus making as much cotton on one acre
as otherwise would have been made on two. Our experiments
showed that 600 pounds of fertilizer was the maximum amount
that could be applied profitably on ordinary land. When 800
pounds was applied there was actually a decrease in the total
amount of seed cotton produced as compared with 600 pounds
of fertilizer. The land, however, was prepared in an ordinary
indifferent way.
Turning Under Vegetable Matter.-For years past,
and for generations, our forefathers have made it a practice
to wait until about time to plant cotton, and then to turn into
the old cotton field and burn off the vegetable matter. A man,
who in this day and age will burn off the vegetable matter in
the same manner as was done by our forefathers is nothing
but an agricultural criminal. He is taking comfort and pleas-
ures away from his family, requiring them to live in wretched
surroundings and leaving himself a miserable living. Our
criminal laws punish any one who sets fire to any building;
but the farmer, who intentionally and by design sets fire to
and burns up his vegetable matter, harms himself and his
family more than he would if he were to set fire to his sta-
bles; for it not only impoverishes the soil for that year, but
continues to have its detrimental effect for years to come.
Must Plow Early.-Plowing under vegetable matter must
be done early in the year. It cannot be put off until cotton-
planting time. The earlier in the year this can be done the
better. It should not, however, be delayed longer than the
middle of January.
Humus.-Plowing under the vegetable matter gives the
important and necessary element to the soil which we ordinari-
ly know as humus. Humus is not vegetable matter, nor is it
soil. It is the intermediate stage between vegetable matter
and soil. All vegetable matter when it decays goes through
much the same chemical process as when the chemist ignites it
in the crucible and reduces it to earthy matter, the difference be-
ing that the sun and air act more slowly than fire, and nature
takes her time to do this work. The burning process or oxi-
dizing process as the chemist calls it, goes on, however, just
as certainly as if it were in the chemist's laboratory. The
vegetable matter in the soil, as mere vegetable matter, is of no


value to us, nor is the vegetable matter of much concern or
value to us after it has reached its ultimate reduction and
has returned again to soil. It is on its transition from the ve-
getable matter towards earthy matter that it is of greatest im-
portance to us from an agricultural standpoint. In this tran-
sition period, that is, after the vegetable matter has been
thoroughly broken down and no longer has any semblance to
the plants from which it was derived, and before it has taken
on the condition of earthy matter, this once organic material
is what we call humus.
A soil abundantly supplied with humus has a very large-
ly increased water holding power. The humus in the
soil might be likened to myriads of small sponges distributed
through the soil. These small sponges will soak up the water
and hold it and give it up slowly to the soil. Our chemist in
his laboratory has found that soil rich in humus has a capa-
city for holding at least a hundred per cent. more moisture
than soil which is devoid of humus. When soil is completely
made up of humus and vegetable matter it is usually spoken of
as muck soil. Where the vegetable matter is not fully disin-
tegrated and is still of a fibrous character it is usually spoken
of as peat. Where the peat or muck is pure the water-holding
capacity of the soil is many hundred per cent. greater than
that of soil entirely devoid of humus.
Any condition of the soil which enables it to hold moisture
also increases the 'fertilizer-holding power. Sandy soil has so
little water-holding capacity that we usually speak of it as
leachy soil. When fertilizer is placed in such a soil the first
rain that comes washes it below into the subsoil. In the pres-
ence of humus, however, the fertilizer is retarded or entirely
stopped on the way down, and so the plants are enabled, later
in their period of growth, to absorb this fertilizer from the
Plowing.- Since the earliest time of cotton planting in
Florida it has been the custom to bed up for cotton in the
Smiddles of the same land where the crop had been grown
the year before. In this way only a fraction of the land is
broken up and prepared for the cotton plant. This is a most
imperfect and slovenly way to prepare a seed-bed. If the wea-


their and everything else is in the farmer's favor he may
make a crop, but he will find that nineteen years out of twen-
ty the weather is against him rather than in his favor. He
will therefore find that nineteen times out of twenty he has
lessened or ruined his chances of -making a good crop be-
fore he planted his seed. The only certain way 'to begin is to
begin right, and the right way to begin with cotton planting
is to break all the land; what we ordinarily speak of as break-
ing broadcast. This is a little more tedious than doing it in
a slovenly haphazard way and requires more labor and horse-
power. If, however, we keep it in mind that farming is a
business and not a holiday employment, we can readily get
plenty of time to prepare our cotton land. Ordinarily every
bit of lint cotton has been taken out of the field by the mid-
dle of December. At this time then we can begin breaking up
our land for the next year. This will give us ninety days time
in which to prepare our cotton land. Of course, to begin at
this time of the year would mean that we should have to do
a little less fishing, and probably not go hunting quite so fre-
quently. But to make a success of anything it is necessary
to give pleasure a second place and attend to our business


The cotton plant is not very fastidious about the source
from which the fertilizer is obtained. Of course, it has its
preferences and dislikes, but as a whole if a moderate amount
of fertilizer composed of the right elements be applied to
the soil, we may reasonably expect the cotton plant to make
use of it. The cotton plant is not a glutton and does not want
a big meal at any time; but it wants good wholesome food
every day in the month for about five months in the year.
A fertilizer composed according to the following formula will
be found to be fairly good, on the average, for clay land. By
comparing this with the formula for sandy lands it will be
noticed that the clay land requires less of the element potash
than does the sandy land.


Fertilizer for Clay Lands
Ammonia ......................... 4 per cent.
Phosphoric acid .................... io per cent.
Potash ............................ 4 per cent.

.The following ingredients will give approximately the
amount of plant food required for an acre of cotton according
to the above formula:
Cottonseed meal (7/2 per cent. ammonia) ....320 pounds
Acid phosphate (16 per cent. phosphoric acid) ... .375 pounds
Muriate of potash (50 per cent. potash) .......... 48 pounds
These ingredients will furnish the amount of plant-food
contained in 600 pounds of the foregoing formula.
For sandy land, that is, where the clay does not come near-
er than within twelve to eighteen inches of the surface, the
following formula will be found to give good results:

Fertilizer for Sandy Lands

Ammonia ........................ 3 per cent.
Phosphoric acid ............. .... .. 7 per cent.
Potash ........... ... ............. 7 per cent.

Ingredients needed to supply the plant-food in 600 pounds.
of the preceding formula for sandy lands:

Cottonseed meal (72 per cent.) .... 240 pounds.
Acid phosphate (16 per cent.) ....... 263 pounds.
Muriate of potash ................... 84 pounds.

The amount of fertilizer to be applied either to the sandy
land or to the clay land will depend largely upon the condition
of the soil. If the soil has been prepared only three or four
inches deep, as is the too frequent custom, 600 pounds of the
above formula will be the largest amount that we can safely ap-
ply under average conditions. If the land has been deeply pre-
pared and contains a large amount of humus, double the
amount of fertilizer can be applied with greater profit. It is
a great advantage to us to be able to reduce the acreage with-
out reducing the production as a whole. Consequently it is


necessary to increase the humus content, increase the depth
of our soil, and improve the grade of the fertilizer we are

Ask a dozen of your neighbors separately what is the ob-
ject of plowing, and eleven out of the twelve will tell you
that it is to kill weeds. A greater mistake could not well be
made. The killing of weeds is merely an incident along the
way. We cultivate !the land to improve the health of the plant
we are growing, to increase its vigor, to enable it to with-
stand insect attacks and ravages of diseases so that it will
produce a large crop of cotton.
The direct effect of cultivating the soil is to aerate it and
to conserve moisture. We have, therefore, two points to keep
in mind, primarily, in plowing the land and cultivating the
crop. First, we must aerate the soil so as to make it a fit place
for the habitation of the roots of plants. The roots of these
plants need air just as certainly as do human beings. They
do-not need the same amount, but in the absence of oxygen
the roots will be killed and the plants will die. The best way
to get this air into the soil is to put it in before the crop has
been planted. This is done by deep plowing. Second, we con-
serve the moisture by frequent and shallow cultivating. This
also helps to aerate the soil when 'the surface has become com-
pacted by heavy rains. Where the soil has been prepared
only three or four inches deep, it becomes necessary to cul-
tivate deeply in order that a certain portion of the soil at
least may be aerated. In doing this work, however, we mu-
tilate and kill thousands and millions of the roots of the cot-
ton plants. Our best friends are being ruthlessly destroyed
and slaughtered for the sake of getting a small amount of air
into our soil. No wonder that we have to run down one side
of the cotton plant one week and then wait two weeks before
it is possible for us to run down the other side. If we were
to run down both sides of the cotton plants at one time it
would unquestionably ruin thousands of the plants outright.
If destroying four-fifths of the roots at one titfme would
ruin the plant, how cati it be anything else but an injury to the
plant to destroy one-half of the roots?


The question as to the frequency of cultivation is often
asked. The frequency with which we should cultivate de-
pends upon the cost of cultivation. If we have to cultivate
with one mule and a hand it will cost us a great deal more
per acre than when we cultivate with two mules and a hand.
Two mules and a hand can do twice as much work and better
work than one mule and a hand. The more frequently we can
cultivate, the greater amount of moisture we conserve. Con-
sequently the more frequently we can afford to cultivate, the
more likely are we to have a good cotton crop.


The cotton crop is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, of
the agricultural crops that we are now producing. Yet in the
past comparatively little attention has been given to systematic
selection and breeding. Practically nothing in a systematic way
had been done up to twenty years ago. Everything previous
to that time had been done in a. sort of haphazard lucky-go-
easy way. Since then, however, experiments have been carried
on with sufficient exactness to allow us to lay down some gen-
eral rules that may be carried out profitably. First, we know
that the seed from a fine, well boiled, productive cotton plant
has immeasurably greater probabilities of producing a good
crop than seed from a half barren or a small and scrawny stalk.
Second, we know that the chance of crossing or cross-breed-
ing between different cotton plants in a field is not nearly so
great as in the case of the corn plant. Consequently the work
of selection is much more easily accomplished, and the pre-
cautions that we have to throw about our work are very
much reduced.
Knowing these general principles, it is a simple matter for
us to deduce methods for improving our cotton seed. All that
is necessary is to select a field of cotton that is being grown
on a rather poor or medium poor soil, then go through the
field and label or tag the best plants by the easiest method at
hand. A very simple way is to tie a bit of muslin to the top
of the desirable plants. In looking for desirable plants we
should be careful to, select ,those that are very fruitful, those
whose bolls open well, whose seeds are well covered with


cotton, and whose lint is of the correct length. Five hundred
such plants can easily be selected in a day from a five-acre
The seeds of these plants are then saved separately, the
first picking being taken off before the whole cotton field is
picked, the second picking is taken before the second cotton
is picked, and so on. The seed cotton is then saved separate-
ly, ginned separately, and stored for next year's planting. The
selected seed should be planted by hand to make it go as far
as possible. The second year we should save seed only from
the best plants in the field of selected cotton.




The sugar-cane is one of the oldest fariw crops in this
State of which we have any record. It dates from the ear-
liest settlement of the country on the East Coast. The
Jesuit Fathers imported the seed-cane from the West Indies,
where it had been extensively grown as early as the year
1518. It was first brought over by Columbus, on his second
voyage in 1493. But the methods of growing the crop and
the extraction of the juice for syrup-making have not been
much improved upon by the general farmer in all the years
since then. This explains the lack of popularity of this crop
as a money-maker. With proper cultural methods and the
use of improved mills and evaporators, sugar-cane can be
made one of the most profitable crops that any of our far-
mers can grow. It is suitable for all sections of our State,
as it thrives under proper treatment on all kinds of soil, from
our thin black-jack land to our heavy hammocks. After a
number of years of practical experience with this crop, our
preference is for high pine lands with a red clay subsoil.


In the natural course of crop rotation, sugar-cane should
follow a sweet potato crop. which has been liberally fertilized
with stable manure. This would put a great amount of hum-
us in the soil, and this is necessary in growing a cane crop.
Failing to get this rotation, the next best would be to grow
velvet beans as a preceding crop, and have them grazed off
by live stock. But whatever rotation we practice, and on
whatever kind of soil we grow sugar-cane, we should take
care that the soil is put in the best condition possible by deep.
plowing and thorough pulverization. On old land that has
been in cultivation for a number of years, we should use a
subsoiler, in addition to deep plowing by either a turning or
disc plow. This subsoiler should immediately follow the
other plow in the same furrow, using two teams at the same.


time. Above all we should see that our land is clear of
stumps; for one cannot conduct profitable farming on stumpy
land, because improved tools cannot be used. If one has to
use the old .antiquated tools, he is not earning the wages he
would were he to use modern implements. Along this line
I would like to remark that, as a class, farmers never figure
the wages per day they are earning when making a crop, which
oight to be the one thing that they should have in view. And
another point they overlook is the most profitable crops to
grow. For instance, it is a well known fact that one acre of
a good crop of sugar-cane yielding about four hundred gal-
lons of syrup (which is below the average) will put more
money in the farmer's pocket (and with less than one-fourth
the labor) than will fifteen acres of cotton, even if sold at
ten cents a pound and producing the average crop of two
hundred and twenty pounds of lint per acre.
The land intended for sugar-cane should be plowed late
in the fall, and all decayed vegetable matter left over from
previous crops plowed under to form the necessary humus.
This plowing should be completed before the first of January.
If washing rains should occur through January and Feb-
ruary, soil that is deeply plowed will not be affected
by them; but, after these rains, if a dry period should come,
the crust on the land should be broken by running a cul-
tivator or weeder over it, so as to form a soil mulch and pre-
vent evaporation of soil moisture, and also to aerate the soil.
Some of our most progressive farmers sow rye on land in-
tended for cane, and this acts as a winter cover crop. This
practice is specially recommended where the land is rolling
and subject to washing, as the rye roots help to bind the soil,
and it is an easy matter to plow in the young rye when cul-
tivation of the cane begins.


Fertilization is an important point for a successful crop.
The necessary plant foods must be supplied in proper pro-
portions to get the best results. The analysis of the sugar-
cane crop shows that it is a heavy feeder on ammonia and
potash.. It does not require much phosphoric acid. It is


a difficult matter to set down a rigid formula to be observed
in all cases, because every farmer's soil differs from those of
his neighbors in so many ways, in moisture, or in chemical
and physical conditions, that considerable latitude must
be allowed. Under ordinary conditions, on soil plowed not
less than ten inches deep, we would apply not less than one
thousand pounds per acre of a fertilizer analyzing, 5 per
cent. ammonia, 4 per cent. phosphoric acid, and o1 per cent.
potash. In the application of this fertilizer care should
be exercised to apply it broadcast on freshly worked soil,
as uniformly as possible, and to mix it thoroughly with the
soil by harrow, weeder, or cultivator. This had better be
done a week or so before planting the seed-canes. The com-
position of this fertilizer should be along the lines of slow a-
vailability, particularly the ammonia ingredients of it. High-
grade cottonseed meal is really the most suitable raw material
for the purpose; because, being an organic fertilizer, it takes
longer in forming the necessary plant food, and as the cane
crop is a long season crop this suits it best. The source of
potash should be the sulphate, because the chlorine in muri-
ate and kainit injures the flavor of the syrup to a certain ex-
tent. The method, in general use, of applying the fertilizer
in the furrow is not to be recommended; because in so doing
the fertilizer is all in one place, which prevents the healthy
action of the root system of the cane. Our farmers in most
cases overlook the fact that the root system of every crop is
the foundation on which the crop is made, and if the method
of fertilizer application is towards the retarding of the root
system, the results in production will not be so satisfactory
as if the fertilizer was broadcasted all over the soil and
thoroughly mixed in before planting the 'seed-cane. We
therefore urge upon farmers the necessity of broadcasting all
the fertilizer.


When ready to plant the crop, lay off furrows six inches
deep, six feet apart. In these furrows plant the canes, cut
in three to four-joint lengths, laying them in the furrow so
as to lap a few inches. Cover slightly at first, gradually


working soil in to this furrow in further cultivation. If the
seed-cane is covered deeply at first, as is often done, the prob-
ability of getting a good stand is lessened; though a deep fur-
row should be made, so as to insure as far as possible the
deep rooting of the crop. This prevents its blowing down in
wind storms late in the season, when the canes are heavy
and high winds prevail. One of the best tools is a weeder,
run across the rows, thus filling in the seed furrow gradually.
In the further cultivation of the crop, shallow running tools
are necessary, because the roots feed quite close to the surface
and a deep running tool would injure them considerably.
In the first stages the weeder is the best tool for the purpose,
and if an adjustable one is used it can do the work success-
fully all the way through. If a weeder is not available, a
sweep to run very shallow is the next best. After the crop
is half-grown, a top-dressing of about two hundred pounds
of nitrate of soda per acre is recommended. This should
be mixed with the soil at the time of application, to get the
best results.


Early in October stripping should begin. All dead leaves
should be removed, so as to admit sunlight to the stalks,
which helps to sweeten the juice. This can be done at odd
times, and so one will be so much work ahead when the rush
of harvesting sets in. The crop should be allowed to stand
as long as possible before cutting, because immature canes
make inferior syrup.


From the middle to the end of November is time enough
to harvest the sugar-cane anywhere in the State. In the
preparation for harvesting the first consideration is the top-
ping. The immature joints contain much glucose, and to
prevent sugaring of the syrup we need to leave some green
joints on the cut cane. About one immature joint to every
eight mature ones is a good proportion to maintain in the
topping process. After topping, the cane should be cut and


windrowed as soon as possible, and in the event of a cold
snap, the canes should be covered with leaves or trash of any
kind to protect them from the frost.


When preparing to grind the crop, a heavy mill should be
used; because with a light mill the extraction will be low.
The location of the mill should be where the juice can be
run by gravity to the evaporator. If an inch pipe connects
the juice tank with the evaporator, considerable time and
trouble will be avoided when making syrup.


The juice tank demands our close attention, and the
straining of the juice as it runs from the mill must be done
thoroughly. The best juice tank is made from the half of a
barrel, set on a platform right below the mill spout. If
black moss is available as a filter the tub should be filled with
it. On the top of the juice tub a double layer of cheese
cloth should be placed, held in position by a hoop so as to
be easily removed for cleaning. Right under the mill spout
a piece of common window wire screen should be placed.
This will catch the rough trash that runs from the mill with
the juice, and it can readily be cleaned as often as desired.
In fitting the tube to the bottom of the tub it should be in-
serted so as to be flush with the bottom, and a piece of wire
gauze should be fitted on the mouth of the pipe to act as a
strainer. These strainers and the moss filter will require
cleaning several times a day when in full operation. It is
best to have several tubfuls of moss, and when one tnbful
gets foul to remove, wash and dry it before using it again.
This saves waiting for the moss to dry; for to clean it
thoroughly, it must be first dried.


The kind of evaporator to use is of importance, and our
aim should be to have an evaporator with a large skimming


surface. If one is going to use a furnace, the evaporator
should be constructed so that it is easy of manipulation.
A long box 18 ft. by 30 inches, divided into three compart-
ments, will be found satisfactory. It should be made of
2-inch poplar or cypress, about ten inches deep and fitted with
a bottom of No. 20 galvanized sheet iron. This is divided
into three compartments, the first one a foot or so longer than
the others, so as to have plenty of skimming surface for the
green sap when it goes in at first. The kind of skimmer is

Fig. 5.-View of home-made syrup evaporator, showing skimming barrel to
left and syrup gate to right, on Mr. P. M. Colson's farm, west of

also of importance. The strainer skimmer, generally used
in syrup-making on the Florida farm, is not a perfect skim-
mer; for most of the material that it is supposed to remove
escapes through the perforations in the bottom and mixes
with the boiling juice, thus giving a dark cloudy product of
inferior flavor. When the first compartment of the evapora-
tor is filled with juice, the heat should be applied gradually,
and it should never be allowed to come to the boiling point.
The heavy green scum that rises at first should be removed
by means of a board used like a scraper, and taken off into


a gutter fitted for the purpose on to the end of the evapora-
tor. When this heavy blanket is removed entirely, the juice
should be transferred to the middle compartment through
a gate for that purpose. Most of the evaporation should
be done in the middle compartment, the syrup being only
passed on to the next when is gets nearly ready to run off.

Fig. 6.-View of home-made syrup evaporator, with syrup discharge-pipe
in immediate foreground. On Mr. P. M. Colson's farm, west oi
Gainesville. Designed by C. K. McQuarrie.

The skimming of the boiling juice after the first blanket is
removed should be done by a board with a handle to it like
a mortarboard. This board should be of planed material,
about 14 inches square. By laying it flat on the boiling
juice all the scum on the surface adheres to it, and it can then
be raised and the scum scraped off by means of a piece of
lath into the skimming barrel. The impurities on the sur-
face of the juice are thus entirely removed, and the product
will be brighter and of a better flavor than that yielded by


the old method of the strainer skimmer. To get a syrup
uniform in density, a hydrometer must be used. This in-
strument costs less than a dollar, and no syrup-maker can
afford to be without one. The point of thickness to which
to boil is generally considered to be 34 degrees Baume; and
if care is duly exercised, any number of gallons can be made
to exactly the same density.


To get satisfactory prices and make the product more
valuable, syrup must be put in glass packages, sealed while
hot. If it is thus treated it will keep indefinitely. To put good
syrup in barrels or even tin cans is not to be recommended.
You cannot sterilize a barrel sufficiently to prevent fermen-
tation when warm weather sets in; and after a time, if put
in tin cans, the tin will impart its flavor to the syrup. But
when put in glass bottles of a quart capacity, and nicely label-
ed, the price is always satisfactory. It should be the aim of
every syrup-maker to make a good article, put up in air-
tight glass packages, sealed while hot, with an attractive label
giving the designation of the plantation or farm. When an
article is made that can be guaranteed, there will be no trouble
in marketing it. The supply of high-grade Florida syrup
is never equal to the demand, and if our farmers will co-
operate and build central evaporating plants, the industry
could be extended until we would have Florida syrup in
every market of the world, where the call for it is insistent.


Fig. 7.-Plan of syrup evaporator.






-n END



-rm rCAcE ZAgs.
...........-- .- ....- ............... _.. --F ...... ..- ... 7..- E" ..... .. ..

Fig. 8.-Syrup evaporator in section, and view of furnace end.



One of the prime necessities for profitable farming in
Florida is to have a winter cover-crop on the farm. This
will prevent leaching during the winter months, when the
rainfalls are apt to wash out a part of the fertility of the
soil, particularly in our most sandy lands. In our mild
winters we can raise profitable crops, and not only main-
tain but even increase our soil fertility while we are produc-
ing these.crops. The uses made of these crops, whether for
stock-feeding or for market, determine to a certain extent the
future crop-producing power of the soil. In all systems o{
crop rotation, we should try to arrange as far as possible so as
to grow leguminous crops in the fall, and to cut and cure these
crops for hay so that the land can be deeply plowed in Novem-
ber, plowing under all decayed vegetable matter, and then sow-
ing a small-grain crop, so as to have a cover during the winter.
This system of farming is all the time adding to our soil
fertility, and also making the farm earn more.

In determining the kind of small grain to be grown, one
has to consider the class of agriculture he is engaged in.
The corn and cotton farmer, as a rule, does not pay much at-
tention to the details that enter into the rotation of crops,
and the necessity of a cover crop in winter to protect his
soil. But no matter what system of farming one is engaged
in, the winter cover crop will add to the net gains of the farm,
whether fed to live stock, sold off the farm, or plowed under
before ripening to add humus to the soil. On all well ap-
pointed farms there should be enough live stock to use up
a considerable quantity of forage. The manure produced
in this way is the best addition that can be made to the gen-
eral fertility of the soil. The horses and mules on the farm
will thrive best with a mixed feed, such as small grains will
give. A- varied supply of such feeds will add much to their
powers of doing hard work.



Oats have been the favorite winter crop with most of
our farmers, and the Texas Red Rustproof is the variety
generally grown. To get the best results from this variety,
the seed has to be sown not later than the first of November.
In October is the best time, using about one and a half bu-
shels of seed to the acre. On land where cowpeas or velvet
beans have been grown and made into hay and the stubble
plowed under to a depth of ten inches, satisfactory crops
of Red Rustproof Oats have been made. This variety of oat
is a long season one, and makes an excellent winter cover
crop, because it is slow of growth and will not shoot up
quickly during a warm spell in winter, to be cut off when a
cold snap occurs. This variety, however, will not stand
grazing like the Virginia Gray Winter or Turf Oats: but it
is the best yielding variety of any, and the best adapted to
our sandy soils.
The Virginia Gray Winter or Turf Oat is a variety that
needs heavier soil than the Red Rustproof, and consequently
is not so well adapted to our sandy soils. On the clay soils
of Virginia, it is the best variety they grow. In that State
it is used largely to afford grazing for young stock during
the winter months. In Florida it does not get tall enough
to graze until April, at which time our pastures are in fair
condition for grazing.
The Burt or Ninety-days White Oat is another variety
that is grown in some localities; but if the spring months are
deficient in rainfall, it is subject to rust, and the grain is con-
siderably lighter in weight than that of the others. All of
these oats need some fertilizer at planting time, particularly
phosphoric acid and potash. The fertilizer should be broad-
casted at the rate of three hundred pounds of acid phosphate
and one hundred pounds of muriate of potash per acre, and
worked into the soil. In the spring, just as the plant runs
into the "boot" previous to heading, a top-dressing of two
hundred pounds per acre of nitrate of soda should be broad-
casted and worked into the soil with a weeder. This should
be done shortly before a rain if possible. To use a weeder


in a growing crop of oats will not injure it in any way. In
fact it will be equal to a good cultivation, and will material-
ly increase the yield.


Another grain, that is gradually coming into favor with
our farmers, is barley. This, however, requires good soil
to do well. On some of the clay lands of the Middle and
West counties it gives better results than oats; and as a gen-
eral rule, barley will stand more cold weather without in-
jury than any of the varieties of oats. The seed should be
sown early in October, and the land fertilized the same as
already suggested for the oat crop. Barley requires a little
heavier seeding than oats. At least two bushels of seed per
acre should be used. Barley is one of the must satisfactory
winter grazing crops. The live stock farmer should always
have a few acres of it growing in the winter time to graze his
young stock on, for it can be grazed closer than any other ce-
real crop that we know of. It the stock are taken off it by the
middle of March, a good cutting of grain can be had early
in May. One word of caution, however. In che grazing of
any kind of cereal.crop in winter, one should never turn
stock in the field -when the soil is very wet, and never leave
them to graze for more than an hour at any one time.


Rye is a favorite in some sections as a winter cover crop,
but unless on rich soil it does not yield as heavy crops as oats
or barley do. It is more suitable for orchard planting, to
be plowed under green in March or early April. Even if
allowed to mature, rye is not relished by live stock, and it can-
not be grazed in the winter for fear of sanding the stock. But
it has its own place in the crop rotation and that is for soiling
purposes. It should be sown not later than November Io,
and about one and a half bushels of seed will be required per



Rape is really one of the best winter crops for the far-
mers to raise for live stock. It should be planted in Sep-
tember, preferably in rows about three feet apart, using about
ten pounds of seed per acre. It is a good crop to follow corn,
where cowpeas were planted at the last working of the corn.
Rape is also a good crop to follow peanuts, or an early crop
of sweet potatoes. In every case the land should be well
plowed as deeply as possible, and about four hundred pounds
of complete fertilizer applied broadcast and worked into the
soil about a week or ten days before sowing the seed. When
sown in September it will be ready for feeding or grazing

Fig. 9.-Dwarf Essex rape, a winter cover crop. Six weeks' growth.

about the latter part of November, and will continue to grow
all winter. Where dairying is part of the farm system,
rape will give better results for milk production than any
of the other winter crops mentioned. Not that it is high
in protein content, but its succulence stimulates the appetite for
more concentrated feeds. It is also an excellent hog feed. For
grazing for young stock there is nothing to equal it; but
stock should not be allowed to graze it too closely, and never
allowed on it longer than an hour at any one time; nor should


it be used at any time in wet weather when there is danger of
the animals tramping the soil too much. One of the best re-
sults from rape as a winter cover crop is in its effects on
the future production of the soil in which it is grown. Its
root system will go very deep for moisture and fertility, and
I have often pulled up plants with roots upwards of three
feet long. When the crop is removed, the decayed roots
in the soil open up the subsoil better than any crop that we
know of.




For this occasion we will divide dairy men as follows:
First, the creamerymen, or butter-makers; second, the
cheese-makers; and third, the milkmen, those who deliver
milk from house to house in the cities or towns. I hear
some one say, What have we to do with the first and second
classes just mentioned? Perhaps just at present you are
not interested in butter or cheese-making, but I believe I am
safe in saying that the time is not far distant when the far-
mers and stockmen of Florida will say to the creamerymen
of the northern States: "We don't want your butter and
cheese any more, because we produce just as good at home;"
and this is as it should be. Why should the people of Flor-
ida contribute annually thousands of dollars to the dairymen
of other States for dairy products, when they can produce
these products at home just as cheaply as, if not cheaper than,
the northern farmer who must provide warm stables or barns
to protect his cows from the winter blasts? It also requires
more feed to maintain animals in a cold climate; hence, the
Florida farmer has two important points in his favor.
Another point in his favor is, that he can raise a greater varie-
ty of protein feed (such as cowpeas, velvet beans and beggar-
weed) than can the northern farmer. These are important
points that the dairyman should consider.


It is doubtful if there are half-a-dozen dairymen in Flor-
ida who can tell what it costs them to produce a gallon of
milk, or whether every cow in the herd produces enough
milk to pay for the feed given it. These are, however, two
important questions, and every dairyman ought to be able to
answer them. It is just as important to know the cost of


producing a gallon of milk, as it is to know how to combine
feeds so as to get the best results. Without the knowledge
of the cost for each cow, failure will often follow. The
only way to know this is to keep a daily record of the feed
given and the milk produced. The excuse given by most
dairymen for not keeping a complete record of their herd,
is that they cannot afford to do so, because it takes so much
time and because labor is scarce.


To make a fair profit, milk must be produced at the low-
est possible cost. To do this, the dairyman must know the
returns from each cow in the herd. It is not enough for
him to know how much milk each cow produces, but he must
also know the amount and cost of the feed eaten to produce
the milk. If the dairyman fails to get this information, he
is not likely to find dairying as profitable as he had expected..
The result will often be that he will condemn the business,
and say that Florida is no place for dairying, as there is no
money in it. The real cause of the failure is, however, the
poor method of conducting the .business. Any commercial
enterprise, if not conducted on business principles, will sooner
or later become a failure. The first question the business
man asks is, "Will it pay?" If he is convinced that a change
in his methods will pay he is apt to make the change. Dairy-
ing is just as much a business as is manufacturing or mer-
cantile work, and it requires just as close attention to de-
tails, if the dairyman is to make a fair profit.
Why is it then that the farmers of Florida have not made
dairying a success? Simply because they have not given the
business serious thought or attention. How many dairy-
men in the State have gone into the business in a systematic
and business-like way? How many know what it costs to
feed each cow per month, and what the net return of each
cow per month is? Not many I fear. How long do you
suppose a banker would stay in business, or how long would
we patronize him, if he did not conduct his business on busi-


ness principles, keep a complete and accurate set of books
and balance up each patron's account at the end of the
month? I fear you would be among the first to register a
"kick," and condemn his lack of method; and you would be
right in doing so. Well then, how about your own dairy
methods? How do you know whether or not dairying is a
profitable business? If you do not keep individual records
of your herd you can tell nothing about your cows as to which
are profitable and which are unprofitable.



must be remembered that some cows are not profitable
cows. That is, the amount of milk and butter they

Fig. Io.-Native Florida cow.

produce per month, may not equal in value the feed
they have eaten. Such cows should be sent to the block and
replaced by others that will make a profit. For instance,
if we are milking two cows, one of which gives two gallons,
and the other one gallon of milk per day, the gross income
from one cow is 60 cents and from the other only 30 cents per
(lay; and it costs just the same to feed each cow. Do you


suppose it would be hard to decide which cow is the most
profitable to keep? But can we find this out unless we keep

Fig. ii.-Pure-bred Jersey.

a record of the performance of each cow, and at the end of
the year, or month, balance up each cow's account? We are
then in a position to select the most profitable cow.


To impress the fact a little more strongly let me quote
from Circular No. Ii, of the Illinois Agricultural Experi-
ment Station.

In many ways herd No. 3 is the most interesting, and teaches a val-
uable lesson. After weighing the milk from each cow in his herd tut
two months and testing the same twice, the owner became convinced of
their inferior quality and sold seven of the poorest for $160, shortly af-
terward purchasing a registered cow for $150. This was heroic action,
and when questioned as to his conduct, he said, "I did not know my cows
were so poor; I cannot produce milk with them as cheaply as I should".
Pointing to the milk scales that had been furnished him, he added: I
would not take $Ioo for them; they have been worth that to me".
Herd No. 7.-This herd of ten cows contained several that were un-
profitable, and only one that was decidedly profitable. A record was
kept of the approximate amounts and values of the foods consumed by
this herd from which it is found that the average cost of food was about


$35 per cow per year. On this basis, estimating the value of the butter
fat at 25 cents per pound, two cows were kept at a loss of $2.76 and $0.86
respectively. One paid her owner a profit of $0.05, while the others paid
a profit of $2.15 and $3.88 respectively. The value of the butter fat from
the whole herd was $431.20; the cost for food, $350.00, leaving a total
profit for the year's work of $81.20 on the whole herd, or $8.12 per cow.
Omitting the best cow, the profit per cow was only $5.02, while if they
had all been as good as the best one, the profit on the herd would
have been $360. If the owner had been able to dispose of the five poorest
cows, retaining the five best ones, his total profit would have been $78.74,
as against $81.20 for the ten. His profit per cow would have been $15.74
or a gain of $7.62 per cow over keeping the whole herd.

The following are the records of a herd of seven cows on
the Experiment Station farm. These cows are only aver-
age dairy cows, and the results here given can be duplicated
by any good dairyman in the State. All the cows were fed
the same feeds, namely, 7 pounds of bran, 3 pounds of cotton-
seed meal, 25 pounds of sorghum silage per day, in two equal
feeds. No silage was fed after April I, as the cows had good
pasture after that date.
In the six months from January I to June 30, cow No. Io'
produced 3868.25 pounds of milk, at a cost of 7.3 cents per
gallon; cow No. 5 gave 3281.75 pounds at a cost of 8.6 cents
per gallon; cow No. 2 produced 3029.5 pounds of milk, cost-
ing 9.3 cents a gallon; cow No. 13, 2633 pounds, at a cost
of 10.7 cents per gallon; cow No. 4 produced 2058.25 pounds
at a cost of 13.7 cents per gallon; cow No. 7, 1949.25 pounds,
at a cost of 14.5 cents per gallon; and cow No. 8, 1805.25
pounds, at a cost of 15.6 cents per gallon. The average cost
per gallon for the herd was I1.3 cents. The average cost per
gallon for the best four cows was 8.9 cents, and the average
cost for the three poorest was 14.6 cents, showing a difference
in the cost of production of 5.7 cents per gallon. These re-
sults show plainly the need of keeping a daily record, and
in this way weeding out the unprofitable cows.
The total. amount of milk produced by these 'seven
cows in six months was 18625.25 pounds, or 2165.72 gallons.
With this herd of cows, it cost $244.72 for feeds to produce
this amount of milk. If all the cows in the herd had been
as unprofitable as cow No. 8, it would have cost $337.85 to
produce that amount of milk; but if all had been as profit-
able as cow No. o1, it would have cost only $158.10, or less
than half as much. Had the entire herd been as good milk


producers as the best four cows, the 2165.72 gallons of milk
would have cost $192.75, while if the entire herd had been as
unprofitable as the three poorest cows, the milk would have cost
$316.20, an increase of $123.45, or $17.63 per cow. These
figures should be convincing enough to show the profits to
be obtained by keeping a daily record of each cow in the herd.
The time required to keep the records is only about two
or three minutes a day for each cow. This amounts to only
a few cents a day for a herd of ten cows. Is not the in-
formation obtained worth more than the cost of securing
it? It certainly is.
Nothing extra is needed to keep the records but a few
sheets of paper properly ruled, and a lead pencil, all of which
can be bought for o1 cents. A pair of scales is already own-
ed by every dairy.


The testing of milk, which means the determining of the
amount of butter fat it contains, is a little more difficult task
than that of keeping a record of the cows; but any man with
ordinary intelligence can do the work. It only requires a
little accuracy and judgment on the part of the operator.
The apparatus required to do this work consists of a
centrifugal machine, of which there are a dozen different
forms and styles. For the ordinary use of the dairyman
with a few cows, a centrifugal which will hold four or six
bottles will answer the purpose. There are a few essentials
that the centrifugal should have. It should be substantially
made; should run smoothly and steadily, both with the load
on and off; and it should be capable of developing sufficient
speed. The glassware consists of a few flasks or test bot-
tles in which the determinations of fat are made, a gradu-
ated pipette for measuring the milk, and a short graduated
glass cylinder for measuring the acid. The essential point
with regard to the glassware is that it should be accurately
graduated. This can be secured by procuring the glassware
from a reliable manufacturer or dealer.
The readings should be made at a temperature of I20o
to I30o F. If the readings be made at lower temperatures,


there is danger of error, as the fat will solidify or shrink.
The temperature should not be too high. By measuring
the amount of milk produced by, any cow, and testing it oc-
casionally for percentage of butter fat, it car be told how
much butter each cow produces in a year, and the butter-
maker can determine which cows are operating at a loss.




The live-stock industry of our State is in a backward con-
dition. Why this should be so is a question that seems hard
to answer. There is no section of Uncle Sam's wide domain
where feeds for live-stock can be produced in greater varie-
ty and in larger quantities than right here in our State.
Every farmer who has embarked in this industry in Florida,
either for beef or dairy products, gives the same report of low
cost of production along his special line. The live-stock in-
dustry is the rock bottom foundation of agricultural pros-
perity the world over. Until the farmers of our Southland
embark in it to the fullest extent, our agricultural prosperity
as a section will not be of the highest grade. Corn alone,
or any other single specialty in crop production, such as cot-
ton or tobacco, never has made a country universally pros-
perous, and never will. We must have the live animal on
all our farms, and in sufficient numbers to maintain and in-
crease our soil fertility in a way that the contents of a
"guano" sack never can. The importance of the live animals
on the farm as a means of increasing agricultural prosperity
is clearly indicated by the history of nations. A compari-
son of the types of live-stock farmers found in the British
Isles, Denmark, and Holland, with the peasant wheat growers
of Russia, and the rice farmers of India, is ample to illustrate
the close relation between live stock and agricultural pros-


Live-stock farming necessitates rotation of crops and seed-
ing down some of the land for pasture. It requires activity
and skillful management the year round. It compels the far-
mer to keep an outlook on market conditions, at both the
buying and selling ends of his business. It brings him into
contact with his fellows as buyer and as seller. It enlarges
nis outlook on the world, and broadens his sympathies be-


yond the mere routine of sowing, cultivating and reaping.
Mere grain raising or special crop farming, on the other
hand, leads to continuous cropping, in most cases without
proper crop rotation. It does even worse, it eliminates the
meadows and pastures. It involves a strenuous life for a
short season of the year, followed by a long period of in-
activity. It tends to create an itinerant class of agricultural
laborers, and encourages tenant farming, rather than per-
manent farm ownership. It fosters the soil-robbing spirit.
Corn farmers, wheat farmers, cotton farmers, rice farmers,
and all grain farmers as a class are strongly led to over-
draw on their soil fertility account. The men engaged in
that class of farming, as a rule, show but a small interest
in the permanent prosperity of agriculture. The history
of agriculture in all countries in the world shows that the live-
stock producers have taken a leading part in maintaining and
increasing agricultural prosperity, and as a class they can
always be relied upon to lead the van of progress wherever
their lot may be cast.


The money sent out of the State every year for dairy
products is away up in the millions of dollars. This money
could well be kept in the different communities, if we had
enough live-stock farmers. The protein feeds necessary to
"feed dairy stock can be grown here in profusion and in great
variety. Our cowpea hay, analyzing 16 per cent. protein,
is equal pound for pound to the best bran on the market.
Our velvet bean hay, with almost as high a protein content
as the cowpea, and our never failing beggarweed, are also
equal to any other protein feeds. Then we have the soy
bean, the Kudzu, and a few others that go to make a varied
palatable feed, such as a dairy cow wants. We have also
carbohydrate feeds in abundance, such as Japanese cane,
sweet potatoes, cassava, and others, that make our dairy-
men independent to a certain extent in the matter of feeds
from outside sources.
Another advantage we have in the South over any other
section of the country is our climate. We do not have to


supply an extra 25 per cent. of feed for eight months of the
year to keep up the natural heat of the animal as is the case
during the cold weather that prevails in the northern States.
Another advantage that we have is freedom from flies and
insects of all kinds. While it may be difficult to believe, it
is nevertheless a fact that in Florida the flies do not become
the pest to cattle that they do in the northern States, and it
is a rare occurrence to see cattle tearing around in a half craz-
ed condition trying to get away from their tormentors. True
we have the tick, which'if allowed to get too numerous be-
comes a pest, but it is easily controlled if the proper methods
are used, such as keeping cattle well salted and well groomed
as all stock should be. We are also in a well watered section
of the United States, which is an important consideration
for live stock.


Every dairyman has his own favorite breed, but in Flor-
ida the Jersey seems to be the most popular. There are
several reasons for this; but the principal one that con-
cerns the man that makes butter is that the fat globules in
the Jersey cow's milk are larger than in the milk of the other
breeds. The butter made from the Jersey cow's milk stands
up better in warm weather, and will not turn oily as soon as
that from other breeds, while its texture is good all the way
through. From personal experience I prefer a high-grade
Jersey, about seven-eighths Jersey and one-eighth native.
This grade of cow will give you a hardy animal that is a good
forager when turned to pasture or on the range. Its milk-
ing capacity will, in most cases, equal that of the pure stock,
and as a general rule it will produce milk at less cost than the
pure Jersey. Such animals do not require the same care and
pampering as the thorough-bred, and cold and wet spells of
weather do not affect their milk production so much. Any-
one wishing to get good results and build up a herd of good
animals can easily do so by keeping a full blood Jersey bull,
and so grading up his herd. This bull should be changed
every four or five years to prevent inbreeding. Every dairy
man should raise his own cows by selecting the best of his


heifer calves. By doing this he can build up a herd of a
certain type, and can select the best milkers as they develop
their milking qualities, while those not coming up to the mark
can be sold off.


To get the best results and develop good milkers, the
calves should not be allowed to run with the cows. When
the calf is dropped it should be taken away and put in a dry
dark stall to dry off and get up its strength by resting. It
should not be disturbed for at least 24 hours, and then some
of its dam's milk may be offered it to drink. If slow to learn,
the middle finger dipped in the milk can be given it to suck.
If, however, it refuses to drink or suck, let it alone for an-
other 12 hours, when it will readily take what you offer it.
This seems at first rather a cruel practice, but in the end it
is the best method to pursue. A cow that is sucked by her
calf will never develop into a good milker, because she will
taper down her milk production as far as possible to the calf's
needs, and as the calf never can suck her dry, her flow of
milk will gradually decrease to the amount which the calf
takes. On the other hand, if the cow is milked, she will
naturally develop her full milking capacities in proportion
to the feed she gets, and will naturally look upon her milker
as the one she is providing for. It is right here that the
good dairyman that knows his business seldom fails to de-
velop the cow's full milk capacity by the proper treatment and
judicious feeding necessary at this time in her life.


One great consideration in connection with dairying in
this State is that we do not require the costly and elaborate
barns that are needed in the northern States. A lean-to on
the south side of the regular barn, entirely open on the south.
is all that we want. The stalls should be made 4 feet wide.
and 4Y2 feet long, with a cement gutter running behind the
cows to save all the manure made, both liquid and solid.


The floor on which the cattle stand, however, should be made
of board, and so should the platform outside the gutter.
The accompanying ground plan with end elevation show-
ing a barn to accommodate 15 cows and four horses, gives an
idea of the kind of barn that can be built at a moderate cost
and quite suitable for this climate. The lumber specifica-
tions at the end of this article show the lumber necessary to
build the same. The cost of the barn depends on the price
of lumber in the rough.
An airtight locker or cupboard should be provided in
which to keep the milk as each individual cow is being milk-


END View.

Around plan.
Fig. 12.-End view and ground plan of horse and cow barn.


ed, and then when the milking is done the separating should
be started right away, the cream put where it belongs and
the skimmed "milk fed to calves and pigs. If the dairy is
located near a market where the milk can be hauled twice
daily, the milk trade is the most profitable; but the dairy a
few miles from town has to cater to the cream or butter mar-
ket, and to get a high-grade article a cream separator must
be used. Cream produced by the gravity system is not of
as good quality, and the loss in butter fat is greater, since
much of the cream is not obtained from the milk. With the
separator this is avoided. Separator cream, being of a
smooth velvety texture, makes a high-grade butter, and the
butter fat is completely removed from the milk, thus making
the industry more profitable. It has never been successfully
contradicted that a man with five cows or over can pay sev-
enty-five dollars for a cream separator and be certain of
getting his money back in a year from the increased yield
of cream obtained by the separator method over the old grav-
ity system of cream collecting.


It is generally supposed by those who have not studied
the matter that we cannot make solid hard butter in Flor-
ida in the summer time without the liberal use of ice. This
is a mistake, for the natural temperature of the well water,
more particularly in our clay lands, is never over 66 degrees
and often 62.
This in itself shows us conclusively that we are in a
dairying section of the country. And having wells dug to
cool the cream in and cylindrical cans to hold it, we can churn
the cream into butter under the most favorable conditions.
The required temperature can be had by keeping the cream
in a well; and by using as a starter a tablespoonful of but-
termilk from the last churning we can get the necessary acid-
ity to make high-grade butter.
It is a well known fact that when one uses Lce for cooling
purposes the supply has to be kept up or the butter will get
oily. Cream cooled with water at the proper temperature


gives a firmer grade of butter than when ice is used, and
the butter stands up better, that is to say, it is not so apt to
get oily and seldom does so.
The kind of. churn used influences the quality of butter
very much. A barrel churn is best. One does not want a
churn with any devices on the inside to break the grain of
the butter, as a dasher in the churn will do. These barrel
churns are fitted with small glass disks on the lid so that one
can tell when the butter has come. Good butter is often
spoiled by churning too long. One of the greatest mistakes
in butter making is to keep churning so long as to gather all
the butter in one- lump. This should never be done, since
is can never be washed thoroughly under those conditions,
and in an effort to wash the buttermilk out of it the grain
of the butter is spoiled making it salvy and oily. Churn-
ing should always be stopped when the grains of butter are
about the size of a sorghum seed, The buttermilk is then
run off, and a couple of gallons of clear water added. The
churn is then turned a dozen revolutions or so and this water
run off. It will then be found that the residual buttermilk
runs off with it, not being mixed up with the butter as it
would be if the butter was gathered up into a lump. The
salting of the butter is of importance. The finest grade of
dairy salt is necessary. This is easily obtained from dairy
supply houses. The market calls for butter salted at the rate
of an ounce of salt to a pound of butter. As a gallon of
cream will produce about three and a half pounds of butter
we will know what amount of salt to use without having to
weigh the butter. The salting should be done immediately
after the butter is washed, sprinkling the salt over the but-
ter inside the churn and mixing it with a wooden paddle.
Then leave it in the churn for a couple of hours, when it can
be taken out and put on the butter worker to press out the
remaining water and mix the salt. It is then ready to print.
The print should be wrapped in parchment paper bearing the
name of the dairy and owner.
With fifteen years of experience in butter-making in Flor-
ida we can say we never have found much trouble in pro-
ducing the highest grade of butter all the year round, and
there is always an unlimited demand for it by the best fami-


lies in the community. This trade always calls for print
butter put up in pound prints or less, and when one uses his,
own special mold there will always be a sure market.

There are, however, a few minor points along the line
of successful dairying that some of our farmers are perhaps
not prepared for. A dairyman's temperament must be such
that he is universally kind to animals. Rough treatment
and loud talking in the dairy barn do not pay. The milk
cow is a lady in her own particular sphere, is the highest
type of the brute creation, and she must be treated accord-
ingly. Absolute cleanliness must be observed everywhere,
and the cows groomed every day, and before beginning-
milking their udders must be washed and wiped with a cloth.
The man that is not prepared to attend to these important
matters had better let dairying alone, and take up some
branch of farming more suitable to his make-up. And every
dairyman must not overlook the fact that strict attention to-
business is the keynote to success. Dairying means 365
days in the year of constant and careful work twice a day.
But at the same time it means a better system of farming,.
maintaining and increasing the fertility of the soil, and above:
all it means more dollars per acre than any other line of farm-
ing that can be engaged in.

Lumber Specifications for horse and cow barn, 60 feet
long, 24 feet wide, with a lean-to 12 feet wide.
12 sills ...........................8 by o1 in. 15 ft. long 1200 ft.
4 sills ............................ 8 by io in. 12 ft. long 104 ft.
92 main floor beams ................3 by 12 in. 12 ft. long 3312 ft.
92 second floor beams.................2 by 8 in. 12 ft. long 1400 ft.
128 pieces studding ................2 by 4 in. 16 ft. long 1400 ft.
130 pieces rafters ....................2 by 4 in. 16 ft. long 1430 ft.
46 pieces rafters for lean-to ........2 by 4 in. 15 ft. long 550 ft.
46 floor beams for lean-to ..........2 by 8 in. 12 ft. long 690 ft.
8 posts for lean-to ................4 by 4 in. 14 ft.. long 131 ft.
30 plates for whole building ........2 by 4 in. 15 ft. long 320 ft.
Io gable studs ......................2 by 4 in. 16 ft. long 120 ft.
300 pieces sheeting.................... by 4 in. 15 ft. long 1500 ft.
Flooring for main floor ...............2 in. rough boards 4350 ft
Flooring second floor .................I in. rough boards 1440 ft.
For siding and gables ............... I in. stuff 2400 ft.
For stalls, boxes, etc................... I in. stuff 3000 ft.
23347 ft.


Galvanized roofing 25 squares at $6.oo.........................$150.oo
Labor ......................................................... 100.00
Nails, bolts, hinges, etc. ......................................... 15.oo
Cement for gutter, say $25.00 .................................... 25.00
Rough lumber as per specifications at $12.oo per M............. 340.00






Formerly it was thought that the conditions in Florida
were such that a good class of live stock could not be raised
here. This opinion seems to have been strongly held until
the freezes of 1894-5, when the citrus-growers underwent
heavy losses. About this time a few men in the State began
to turn their attention to other lines of industry than truck-
ing and citrus-growing. One of these industries was the
production of a better class of live stock.
Of course as is the case with nearly all new enterprises,
the promoters had to face their early troubles with but few
sympathizers. There were those who contended that a better
grade of live stock was impossible here, and that this was
especially so in the case of cattle; for the reason' that Florida
being below the quarantine line, the losses from tick fever

Fig. 13.-Hereford bull on left, native Florida in center, Shorthorn
on right.

would be very heavy; in fact that it would be impossible to
bring cattle here and expect them to live. But it has been
abundantly demonstrated that as good cattle, and as good
hogs, can be raised in Florida as in any State below the
quarantine line. As a result of the efforts of these men we
now find in our State good herds of Shorthorns, Herefords,
and Jerseys, with a few Holsteins and Guernseys. It is evident
to those who are acquainted with the live stock conditions
in Florida that we now have a fairly good supply of founda-


tion stock, and that each year goodly numbers of well-bred
bulls of the different breeds, are offered for sale at reason-
able prices. The demand for these well-bred animals is keep-
ing pace with the offerings. In the next ten years the im-
provement resulting from the use of these good bulls will be
At the fair which was held in Marion County last Decem-
ber, there were entered 250 animals, all owned in Marion
County. Among these there were 84 head of thoroughbred
SShorthorns, Jerseys and Holsteins; 61 head of Berkshire
and Duroc Jersey hogs; Hampshire, Shropshire and Ram-
bouillet sheep; and 20 head of Angora and Milch goats. We
call attention to this to show what one county has done and
is doing. All other counties in the State can do equally

A native three-year-old steer off grass weighs about 500
pounds, and would yield about 240 pounds of dressed meat
worth 6 cents a pound, leaking its value $14.40. A grade
three-year-old steer weighs about 800 pounds and would
dress 450 pou:ds, which at 6 cents a pound is worth $27.00.
Thus there is a difference in value of about $12.60 per head
in favor of grade cattle at the present local market price of
meat. If.we take the Eastern market for a guide we find
that the grade steer commands at least one cent a pound more
than the native. At the price then of 7 cents per pound, a
three-year-old grade steer will sell for more than double the
sum that a native would fetch.
The grade herd will perhaps cost 25 per cent. more to keep
than the native herd, for a range that would support too
head of native cattle can only support about 75 head of grade
cattle. This is due to the grade being a larger animal, and
hence requiring more food for maintaining and building up
its body, just as a large horse requires more food than a pony.
That it costs more to raise a grade steer is no argument in
favor of the native. There is a profit at the present time in
keeping the native, but there is a larger profit in the grade.
After deducting 25 per cent. for the greater cost of keeping,.
the value of the grade is still nearly double that of the native..



Another of the reasons suggested for the past absence
of good cattle in Florida, aside from tick fever, was that the
improved breeds of cattle could not or would not hustle on
the range and make as good a living as the native cattle. But
though a native cow can eke out an existence on the range,
at the end of four or five years it will weigh only 400 or 500
pounds, while a good grade Hereford or Shorthorn cow,
properly fed and cared for, will weigh double that amount in
the same length of time. Blood alone cannot make the ideal
. animal, neither can feed alone, but a combination of blood
and feed will work wonders even with our native cattle.
The first cross, with plenty of feed, will double the size of the


One of the. best reasons for improving our cattle is that
'we might thus be enabled to produce enough beef to fully
supply our home demand. By home demand we mean the
beef consumed within the State of Florida. As already
stated the grade steer produces nearly double as many pounds
of beef as the native, and beef of a better quality. If Florida
produced all its own meat itself, this would mean the keeping
at home of several hundred thousands of dollars each year,
which would then be paid over to the stock farmers of the


The native cows or steers resemble animals of the dairy
breeds with regard to beef production. They lack the width
and thickness of loin, the round full quarter, and the thick,
well-covered rib, all of which are so characteristic of animals
bred for beef. The beef steer makes its increase in weight
in these parts that are valuable for meat. The frame of
the native is small and narrow, and though when it is fat-
tened it makes a good gain in weight, yet the gain is made
in those parts of the body that are of little food value, as


the fat around the kidneys and viscera. The animal that
makes the gain in weight in the valuable cuts, such as the
loin, quarter, and rib, is naturally the most profitable.


The improvement of cattle by grading-up is not difficult.
The one important point is the selection of a good sire. The
sire should be a pure-bred animal of one of the beef breeds
and not produced from a cross or mixture of breeds. The us-
ual objection is the cost of a pure-bred sire. This may be
$100 or. $I50. True, this does seems a great price to one
who is accustomed to purchase a native bull for $25. But
if a farmer has.a herd of fifty cows, the increased value of
the first lot of calves would more than pay for the pure-bred
sire. Suppose that the first lot of calves from the pure-bred
sire number thirty. At the end of three years the gain in
selling price over native stock would be more than $300, or
twice the cost of the sire. This leaves out of consideration
the younger calves, and supposes that all are sold for beef.
while in reality the heifers would be retained to improve the


We may often hear it said that in Florida we cannot pro-
duce a good class of live stock, because we cannot produce
the proper feed for them. This is certainly erroneous, for
no other State in the Union can grow such variety of ex-
cellent feeds for all classes of live stock. The velvet bean is
a crop well suited to Florida conditions, and is also one of
our best milk and meat-producing feeds. One acre of this
bean will produce more pounds of digestible protein (hone
and muscle-producing material) than will an acre of corn
yielding 70 bushels. Any Northern stockman would be
more than pleased if he could raise a small supply of vel-
vet beans every year; but they can only be grown as far as
a little north of Florida. One ton of cowpea hay will give
as much digestible protein as 18oo pounds of wheat bran.
We can raise three tons of cowpea hay for what 1800 pounds


of wheat bran will cost on the market. The same is true of
beggarweed hay. Aside from the feeding value of velvet
beans, cowpea hay, and beggarweed hay, the fertility of the
soil is greatly increased by all three. Any one of these three
crops will in one year add as much plant food to the soil as
will an application of six to ten dollars' worth of commer-
cial nitrogenous fertilizer.
Many farmers in the past have argued that good crops of
corn could not be raised under Florida conditions, but the
last few years have witnessed a change. Several farmers in

Fig. 14.-Japanese cane.

the State have increased their yield of corn from 15 or 20
bushels to 40, and some to as high a point as 80 bushels per
acre. What these few farmers have accomplished many
others can do. There are thousands of acres of land in Cen-
tral and Western Florida which, with proper care and treat-
ment, will produce each year 50 to 80 bushels of corn each.
Japanese cane is another good forage crop for Florida far-
mers. Yields of 24 to 30 tons can be obtained under favor-
able conditions. It may be used the same as sorghum.


Natal grass is a very promising hay crop. In feeding
quality it is as good as the timothy hay of the North, and bet-
ter than the timothy hay which is shipped to Florida. Two
good crops can be grown each year. The yield per acre will
be from 2y2 to 5 tons, depending on the quality of the land
upon which it is grown. Other hay crops are crab-grass,
Para grass and Guinea grass, all of which under proper man-
agement will produce large yields.




In the time allotted me I cannot undertake to go into the
details of poultry raising but rather to show the advantage
of better stock and better methods on the farm and to ad-
vocate only such improvements as can be put into practice on
the average Florida farm. On all farms we find more or less
poultry, mostly just common stock raised in a haphazard way
with little care, allowed to shift for themselves and exposed
to all kinds of danger and adverse conditions; with little
thought taken as to their improvement and whether or not
they are yielding the utmost profit. The business hen is one of
the most important factors in America's wealth today, the
annual income from poultry being six hundred millions of
dollars-almost equal in value to the wheat crop of the en-
tire country. This is well worth looking after, and I am
sure farmers would keep thoroughbred stock if they could
realize the advantages to be gained, and know how easy
it is to get a start and maintain it. It is not necessary to go
to several hundred or a thousand dollars expense in buildings
and fixtures to have thoroughbreds, and I would not advise
it to begin with; but any farmer can afford to buy a few chick-
ens or a setting of eggs to make a start.
Perhaps the first essential is a roomy, well ventilated house
for the fowls to roost in at night. There is enough old lum-
ber lying around on many a farm to build a comfortable
hen house (if one cannot afford better); or the farmer can
cut a few trees and have lumber sawed, or rive out boards
to make it. It should preferably have a close board or cement
floor, and the cracks in the walls should have strips nailed
over them to prevent drafts. The perches should be ar-
ranged low, and all on a level, so that there will be no crowd-
ing for the highest places. We prefer 3 by 3 inch scantling
for perches, laid loose on crosspieces 18 inches high; their
own weight holds them in place, and they can easily be re-
moved for cleaning out. I believe I can best illustrate my
meaning by describing our own methods. Not that they are


the best there are, but the best suited to our present conditions
and circumstances. And right here I wish to make it un-
derstood that whatever success has come from poultry raising
on our place is as much due to the efforts of Mrs. Pleas as
my own'; for we plan and work together in everything, and
in this particular instance the larger portion of the care and
management has fallen to her lot. Such is the case indeed
on most farms.


As to the best breed for one to start with, it is largely
a matter of choice, and one is more likely to succeed with
his favorite breed than with-some other. Our choice is the
Barred Plymouth Rock, and our aim is the best "utility
chicken." A year ago we bought 12 full-blooded hens from
a neighbor, and got a cockerel from Mr. Stanley here in De-
Funiak; today we have the finest flock in Washington County,
consisting of 60 odd laying pullets, three roosters, and 75
two-week-old chicks, with more to hatch.
We usually have two breeding pens with 12 to 15 hens
and one rooster in each, during the breeding season. At
other times we let all tle hens run together, keeping the
roosters by themselves and marking any special ones that we
want to keep for another season. Thus we get more eggs,
and they keep better.


The main house is o1 by 20 feet, with a 6-foot shed along
the south side, the shed being open along the side and closed
at the ends. The wall on the side next the shed is boarded
up 3 feet from the bottom, the upper part being open and
covered with heavy fencing wire, allowing free circulation
of air. The floor is 18 inches off the ground, affording
shelter without the chickens having to stay inside. This
also supplies the dust bath, as does the shed in front. The
space inside is sufficient for 75 hens, and has a partition from
front to back to accommodate two breeding pens. Rows of
nests with slanting tops, hinged to admit easy access, are


arranged along the walls with the openings toward the walls,
so that the hens can lay in seclusion and semi-darkness.
Pine straw makes the best material for nests and we use glass
nest eggs, costing about 20 cents per dozen. The main door
is in the near end of the house and is kept locked at night,
while the chickens go in from the shed, through holes just
large enough for them to enter. About an inch of clean saw-
dust is kept on the floor and is changed every week.


Under the shed are also nests, and feed hoppers .to hold
a week's supply, so that if .we wish to leave home for a few
days we will not have to call on the neighbors to care for
our poultry. However, we mostly scatter their feed on the
ground among litter, and make them scratch for their living.
In the mornings we give them a feed of mixed oats and bar-
ley; about a pint for every four hens in winter, and less in
summer. At two o'clock, they are given about the same
quantity of bran mash, with the table scraps mixed in; and
at night, a mixture of corn and oats. We do not consider
this the best ration for them; but having to buy all our grain,
we cannot always get what we want. But we expect to raise
our own feed in the future and shall endeavor to give them a
greater variety of grains. A water fountain is kept in the
runs, and boxes of charcoal, crushed oyster shells, sharp
grit and broken mortar or limestone, are kept by them all the
time. They also have free access to a coarse, dry bran mixed
with cottonseed meal, in self-feeding hoppers, under the shed.
We mix 1oo pounds of bran to 20 pounds of the meal. The
meal, to a great extent, takes the place of meat scraps, but
it is very important not to increase the amount of cottonseed
meal, as too much will cause them to shed feathers, or it
may kill them. We also give them an occasional feed of
cut bone, chopped fine with an axe. We keep green stuff
growing for them all the time; such as barley, oats, turnips,
mustard, kale, cabbage, etc., so they can either pasture it
or we can cut and throw to them.
Occasionally, we turn our poultry out and let them have
the run of the place, when there are no crops for them to


injure. Under no condition do we allow our chickens to
annoy our neighbors. This is one reason we like the Bar-
red Rocks, a 4-foot netting fence being sufficient to keep
them at home. They are also among the best layers. Their
eggs are large and of a rich brown appearance. And right
here is a point I wish to touch upon--demand. By having
thoroughbred stock, and keeping them away from all sorts
of filth, giving them clean, dry nests, and gathering the eggs
every day, we get clean, bright eggs of top-notch quality. I
notice that when I take a basket of them to market, the mer-
chant or his clerk sets aside a dozen or two for his own table.


I never take eggs to market packed in cottonseed, bran,
sawdust, or litter of any kind, as the eggs absorb the odors
and never look so nice. I notice that it is usually the packed
eggs that get broken. Last summer, I got 20 cents per dozen
for every egg I could furnish, when the market price was 15
cents. I am now planning to furnish a hotel regularly at a
uniform price for the entire year; which will net me a little
above the regular market price. I can do it, and so can any
other person, who can furnish a first-class article, guaranteed
to be absolutely fresh. There is much more in the care for
poultry than there is in the breed, for we were taking eggs to
the market by the basket-full, last season, from our 12 hens,
when none of our neighbors were getting any, and there
were none in the stores. There were only three days last
year on which we failed to get an egg, the 3rd, 5th and 7th of
November, and that was due to three or four feeds of musty
bran that made the entire flock sick. So much for the value
of clean, pure feed.
Aside from furnishing eggs for market, we also supply
many to private parties for hatching, at breeders' prices.
We also sell many chickens for breeding purposes, which
shows the advantage of keeping thoroughbred stock. We
never inbreed, and keep our flock healthy and vigorous by ad-
ding new blood each year. Of the 161 chicks hatched last
season, we raised 159 and never had a sick chick until we got
the unwholesome bran mentioned above. We watch them as


they are growing up, and pick out and mark the choicest,
thriftiest ones for breeders.


While we use incubators, it may not be advisable for
all to undertake to do so, as they require very close attention;
yet, in the most successful raising of poultry they are as
essential as good stock. When setting the incubator we set
one or more hens at the same time, and on testing the eggs,
on the 7th and 14 th days, we compare them with those under
the hens, to see if they are developing properly. All infer-
tile eggs are removed, as a dead egg stays colder than the live
ones and has a tendency to weaken them in vigor by
chilling them in spots. All chicks are removed from the
hens as soon as hatched, before drying, and are thus sure
to be free from lice or mites. Those in the incubator are
allowed to remain until dry, and all are placed in fireless
brooders, about 25 to the brooder, as that is about the limit
that will succeed well in one colony.


We use a modification of the Philo system, making our
own brooders and coops as best suits our needs. The Octa-
gon Soap box and the Ball Potash box can be made into ex-
cellent brooders with a little work. First, a 5 by 6 inch
hole is cut in one corner at the bottom. A lath frame is made
to fit loosely inside the top of the box. A muslin or other
cloth cover is tacked to the frame, with half-inch pleats taken
near the corners to allow the cloth to sag about two inches
below the frame. This frame rests on four small nails, par-
tially driven in near the corners, at such height as to allow
it to touch the backs of the chicks and so that it may be rais-.
ed as the chicks grow. About three inches of fine, dry, lrok-
en stuff from the hay-loft, or other similar dry substance, is
placed in the bottom and fashioned like a nest, to keep the
chicks from piling in the corners. A quilt is made large
enough to fit into the box and padded with about two inches
of cotton. It is to lie on the top of the frame. This box


is set inside a larger one with a hole in the same corner, and
a rain-proof lid is fixed over all, arranged so as to admit air.
The whole is set on strips to keep it off the damp ground.
The brooder coop, or run, is 2Y by 6 feet square, and
18 inches high, with a water-tight lid hinged at the back, and
a frame covered with wire screen resting just inside the
top. Half the bottom is floored over, with a partition at
the end and a door in it. On this platform are set the feed
boxes and water fount. The unfloored end serves as a
scratch-room and runway and is kept dug up. Glass is fitted
along the front, and the top can be raised to let in air and sun-
shine. A door in one corner, over the platform, admits the
chicks direct from the brooder, and they may be shut either
in or out by sliding a thin board between. The partition men-
tioned is to keep the chicks from scratching dirt into the water
and feed.


The first thing we give the newly hatched chicks is sand
and water, the sand being sprinkled on the floor of the run-
way. For a water fount we use a three-pound tin can with
the top melted off and holes punched about 2 inch from the
top. Whei filled with water and inverted in a dish or pan
just large enough to receive it, it makes an excellent foun-
tain, the water running out only as used, and the chicks can-
not run through it. (Fountains for the grown chickens are
made in a similar way, using one and two-gallon jugs in-
verted, with the mouths resting on a piece of broken crockery
to hold them up. The water rises in the pan to the mouth
of the jug.)
When the chicks are 28 to 36 hours old, dry bread crumbs
are sprinkled on the sand. Either light bread or corn bread
may be used or both, but sparingly at first. The bread should
be thoroughly baked for two hours or more., It is important
also to have dry wheat bran where they can get at it, in a
shallow box or dish, to keep them from wasting it.
When a few days old, the chicks will need some coarser
feed, such as hominy-grits, oatmeal, German millet, or pre-
pared chick-feed. They will also need coarser grit in the


form of crushed oyster shells, sharp gravel, lime rock, char-
coal, etc. It is well to give them an occasional feed of meat
in some form, as hard-boiled eggs or meat scraps chopped
fine. They will also relish green food, as lettuce, mustard,
turnip-tops, onions, etc. As soon as they are large enough
to swallow the grains, we keep oats by them all the time,
and cracked corn is given them at night. No special rules
can be laid down for feeding them, or just what to give; but
they should have all they will clean up well after the first few
days. The requirements of two different pens, even out of
the same hatch, will often vary greatly, for one pen may eat

Fig. 15 -Brooders and Coops.

twice as much bran per day as the other. It is always well
to give as great variety of feed as possible, as it is of the ut-
most importance to keep the chicks healthy and growing rap-
idly. It is in the quickly grown chick that there is the most
With some quick developing breeds it is possible to have
broilers ready for market in eight weeks; while with poor
stock and with poor care the time required is usually twice
that, and the cost of raising is about doubled. Also the de-


mand is always better for good stocky chickens than for
wings and tail-feathers.
It may not be possible or best for every one to undertake
to follow our plans to the letter. They are merely what
seem to be the best suited to our needs and conditions. We
believe that it pays to have better stock, better care, and bet-
ter methods, and that in the end it costs far more to raise a
scrub than a thoroughbred.

Explanation of Figure

To the left of the foreground is one of the broooders with cover and
pad removed, to the right is shown one in, position with tarred cover
weighted down with a brick. A thin board slips between and closes the
passage to the brooder coop. During the day this passage is closed and
brooder box uncovered to sun.
In the middle foreground are the contents of the coop removed (except
a half floor), consisting of perforated tin can inverted in 6-in. glazed flower
pot saucer for fount; three 8-inch saucers containing charcoal, oyster shell,
and limestone ground up; and a box with bran and chick feed'in compart-
ments. The fount is set on a brick, and all are kept on a board floor.
The screen cover is raised with the coop lid as shown in nearest coop.
The former is only used after chicks get large enough to fly out. Coops
and all are shifted about over the grass every week or so. When chicks
get crowded in these quarters they are removed to larger runs and roost on
floors under cover, but not in boxes. One-gallon jugs are used in place of
cans for water.





The chief source of underground water is the rainfall.
Water vaporized through the energy of the sun passes into
the atmosphere and is precipitated over the lafd as rain or
condensed as dew or fog. The vapor is supplied to the at-
mosphere by evaporation, principally from the ocean, which,
occupying three-fourths of the earth's surface, is continu-
ously exposed to the sun's rays. To the vapor from the ocean
is added that arising from inland waters, from the dry land
surface of the earth, and from the leaves of plants.
Small additions to the underground water supply may
come through any one of a number of other possible sources,
but the total amount thus added is relatively small and may
be omitted in a general discussion.


The annual rainfall is the measure of the column of water
that would accumulate at any one spot in the course of a
year, if all that falls should be preserved. The measure-
ment is commonly stated in inches. The average rainfall
for the State as a whole for the fifteen years, from 1892 to
1906 inclusive, as deduced from the U. S. Weather Reports,
was 53.17 inches annually. The year 1907 was a year of
less than average rainfall, 49.15 inches; and if this year is
included, the average for the sixteen years, 1892 to 1907,
falls below 53 inches, being 52.92. If longer periods be con-
sidered the variation from this average is not sufficient to
materially change the result.


Of the total rainfall of any area, (I) a part is returned
as vapor to the atmosphere without having entered the earth;


(2) a part is carried off by streams and rivers to the ocean
without penetrating the earth; (3) a part is absorbed into
the earth.
Water Evaporated Without Entering the Earth.-Im-
mediately following a rain the atmosphere is nearly or quite
saturated. The evaporation at that time is slow and the
part returned to the atmosphere directly from the land is an
almost negligible amount. This is especially true of a soil
into which the water enters quickly. Some of the water
,clinging to the leaves of plants is re-evaporated, as well as
a part of that which falls into lakes, ponds, and temporary
pools. While an estimate of the amount evaporated must
be regarded as only in the roughest way approximate, yet it
is probably safe to assume that not more than 2 or 3 per cent.
of the total rainfall is returned to the atmosphere by direct
Surface Run-off.-The relative proportion between the
surface run-off and the surface intake of water is dependent
upon the character of the surface and deeper formations, and
upon the fnpography. The former affects rapidity of intake
of water into the earth; the latter the rapidity of surface run-
With regard to topography, Florida is in general compar-
atively level or slightly rolling. The elevation increases
gradually from sea level at the coast to a maximum of scarce-
ly more than 300 feet inland, while large sections are so
flat as to present no perceptible slope. Topographically the
conditions are, therefore, very unfavorable to surface run-off.
On the other hand the conditions are exceptionally favor-
able to large surface intake. A mantle of sand, forming
the surface deposit, is almost universally present. This sand
receives the rainfall with great readiness. It is true that
the sand is underlaid, in certain areas of the flatwoods type,
by a clay substratum which, as a result of its impervious
nature checks the downward movement of water. Locally,
the sand may be largely absent. The flatwoods country,
however, is small in proportion to the combined extent of
rolling pine, hammock, and scrub lands.
The effect of these conditions on the drainage is very
evident. Over considerable sections, involving in some


cases whole counties, surface streams are entirely lacking.
The streams are supplied largely by springs rather than by
surface run-off. Wherever porous limestones lie near the
surface or are covered only by a surface mantle of sand
or of sandy pervious clay, surface streams are absent, and sur-
face run-off is nearly nothing. Such small surface streams
as are formed, run often only a short distance, when they dis-.
appear through one of the numerous sinks, thus gaining en-
trance to the underground water horizon. Examples of these
small disappearing streams are common to almost every sec-
tion of central Florida.
Water Absorbed Into the Earth.-The conditions in
Florida are such that, as previously stated, a very large part
of the total rainfall is absorbed into the eafth. Of the water
thus entering the earth a part is returned to the atmosphere
by evaporation. The water retained in soils is slowly given
up through evaporation during dry weather. As the evap-
oration takes place near the surface, capillary attraction
draws a new supply from beneath, thus maintaining to some
extent the moisture content of the soil. The amount of water
thus brought to the surface and evaporated, while varying
with climate and with soils, is, in the course of a year con-
To the evaporation from the soils must be added that
from the leaves of plants. This in turn varies greatly with
the different plants and with different climatic conditions.
King in 1892 in one experiment found that a crop of peas
evaporated 477 pounds of water for each pound of dry matter
formed, while corn under the same conditions evaporated in
one instance 238 pounds of water per pound of dry matter.
(20th Annual Report, Mich. Agr. Experiment Station, p.
320, 1904.) Assuming that a citrus tree evaporated approx-
imately as much as the European evergreen oak (Quercus
Cerris) the water evaporated from the leaves of a fifteen-
year-old orange tree is estimated by Hilgard at 2o,oo000 pounds
a year or about 1ooo tons of water per acre of Ioo trees.
(Soils, p. 263, 1906.) This is equivalent to about nine in-
ches annual rainfall over the same area. Water is the chief
vehicle for conveying plant food absorbed from the soil by
the roots. This enormous evaporation from the leaves is


in part for the purpose of disposing of the water thus taken
up by the plant. In addition, it serves the purpose of prevent-
ing, through the conversion of water into vapor, an injurious
rise of temperature during the hot sunshine and dry weather.
It is impossible to estimate within even approximate limits
the loss of water by evaporation from the surface of the
ground and from the leaves of plants. The atmosphere in
Florida is relatively humid. On the other hand the tempera-
ture throughout most of the year is high. Much of the coun-
try is uncultivated, and practically all of the soil is of medium
coarse texture. It is probable that almost one-half of the
rainfall entering the earth is re-evaporated from the surface
of the ground and from the leaves of plants, and that not
more than one-half of the total rainfall in Florida passes
through the soil and surface material to join the underground
water supply.
Amount of Water Available for the Underground Sup-
ply.-An annual rainfall of fifty-three inches is found by
computation to amount to 921,073,379 gallons per square
mile. Of this amount it is estimated that one-half or 460,-
536,689 gallons per square mile is added each year to the un-
derground water supply.


Underground water is found usually to be in motion,
threading its way through pores, breaks, crevices, joints, and
other openings in the rock. Its movement is ordinarily slow,
and varies with different rocks and under different conditions.
Cause of Movement.-The chief cause of movement
of underground, as of surface water, is gravity. Capillarity,
is an additional factor. The water returned to, and evapor-
ated from the surface of the ground, as well as that carried
to and evaporated from the leaves of plants, is moved by
capillarity in opposition to gravity. Gravity, however, is the
controlling force in the movement of water through the deep
zones of the earth. Pressure, which is an important secon-
dary cause of movement in the earth, is the expression of
gravity. Except in the case of capillarity, the movement of
water apparently in opposition to gravity is, upon close ob-


servation, found to be in reality movement in response to
gravity. The water which rises in a boring or flows from an
artesian well or spring is forced up by pressure due principal-
ly to the weight of water lying at a higher level. The fami-
liar observation that water seeks its own level has the same


The underground water supply available for general pur-
poses may conveniently be discussed under the two divisions:
(i) Water of the surface formations, and (2) water of the
deep formations.
Water of the Surface Formations.-The water of the
surface formations, often known as shallow or surface water,
is that occurring nearest the surface and is available for shal-
low wells. The water in -the surface formations is supplied
by comparatively local rainfall. Its occurrence depends upon
the permeability of the surface material and upon the exis-
tence of an impervious substratum. The surface material
may be made up of sand, sandy clay, or other porous sub-
stances. The impervious sub-stratum is usually a clay or
shale. Both of these conditions are necessary. In the ab-
sence of an impervious sub-stratum the water entering the
earth will pass through to a deeper zone. It is usually possible
to determine from surrounding conditions the probability of
the existence of water in the surface formations. Thus if in
any locality the surface formation consists of sand or saudy
porous clays underlaid by an impervious stratum of any
kind, water may be expected. If on the other hand, an
impervious sub-stratum is absent permitting the rainfall to
pass directly into the deeper formations, water in the surface
formations will be lacking.
Owing to great variation in surface deposits from place to
place, a similar variation in the character of the water must
be expected. Thus if the surface formations consist large-
ly of .sand and clay with little or no calcareous material, the
water may be expected to be soft; while if the surface material
is highly calcareous the water is usually found to be hard.
Since the water in the surface formations is supplied by local


rainfall it travels a comparatively short underground course,
and its opportunity for taking mineral solids into solution
is proportionately limited. The water from the surface for-
mation is, in general, characterized by a relatively small
amount of total solids in solution.

O~RAeAIL L~dZ~, d~fL~c5

Fig. 16.-Map showing areas of artesian flow in Florida.

The Water of the Deep Formations.-When water is
obtained in the deep formations it is, as a rule, more perman-


erit and occurs in larger quantities than that in the surface
formations. There may be more than one zone of deep water
at any locality, depending upon the structure and arrange-
ment of the underground formations. The term "deep
water" is applied to waters which are permanent and ordinari-
ly inexhaustible by pumping, and which do not conform to
local surface topography. This water is not necessarily ob-
tained only at a great depth. In many cases the water level
is near the surface. This is necessarily so, since the surface
descends gradually to sea level or to the springs which serve
as an outlet for the deep waters.


The term "artesian" has been variously used by different
writers. Flowing wells first became well known in the prov-
ince of Artois, France, and hence were called "artesian" wells,
and their waters "artesian" waters. The first meaning of
"artesian well," was, therefore, a flowing well; and of "ar-
tesian water," water under sufficient pressure to cause it to
flow. With the extension into other areas of.the use of deep
wells as a source of water supply, many instances were
found in which the water, although under pressure, and ris-
ing almost to the surface, would not flow. In some cases
perhaps,, it would flow in an area of low surface elevation,
and yet fail to flow in a slightly elevated area near by. Ar-
tesian water thus came to mean water under pressure causing
it to rise in a boring when tapped, regardless of whether or
not the pressure was sufficient to cause the water to rise above
the surface level, and hence to flow. In the same way, and
for similar reasons the term "artesian well" came to include
not only flowing wells, but also wells in which the water rises
when the water-bearing stratum is tapped, regardless of
whether or not the rise is sufficient to cause a flow. An "ar-
tesian well" is any well reaching to and tapping a stratum
bearing such water; a flowing well is an "artesian well" that
gives a surface flow.
Artesian wells are obtained in Florida along the Atlantic
coast from the northern boundary of the State as far south
as West Palm Beach, and in the valley of the St. Johns River


to and above Sanford. Another extensive flowing area oc-
curs. along the south gulf coast from the Pinellas Penin-
sula to Lee county. A number of flowing wells have been
obtained also along the Gulf coast in west Florida, from
Apalachicola to Pensacola.




A pure water supply is essential to the health of the fami-
ly or community. Some very serious diseases, particularly
typhoid fever, may be conveyed through impure water.
When shallow wells are used as a supply for household pur-
poses the greatest care should be exercised to
prevent local contamination. The conditions under
which such a water supply occurs render it readily suscepti-
ble to pollution. Such wells should never be placed near a
barn or other outbuildings; nor should the offal from the
house, or other organic material, be thrown near them. The
water being supplied from the immediate surroundings may
carry impurities into the well. A well, for instance, passing
through sand and terminating in an impervious clay, gathers
water from the surrounding area for a considerable dis-
tance. Many cases of typhoid fever and other diseases have
been traced directly to -contaminated wells. The fact that
the water has been used for many years without fatal results
does not preclude the possibility of infectious organisms find-
ing their way into the well in the very near future. Never-
theless, when properly located, shallow wells often yield an
excellent supply of soft pure water.
Open dug wells are much more liable to contamination in
this way than driven wells. The dug wells are often sub-
ject to overflow from the top, thus admitting unfiltered sur-
face water. They also receive water by seepage along the
sides unless properly cemented.
Driven wells which go to considerable depths are in much
less danger of contamination from organic sources than are
the shallow wells. The organic material, and with it disease-
producing germs, is filtered out as the water penetrates
through the sands and porous rocks. Comparatively deep
wells may, however, under certain conditions become con-
taminated. Most of the deep wells of Florida except those
of extreme west Florida, terminate in limestone or shell rocks.
The limestones are as a rule porous, and frequently contain


many cavities through which the water may circulate slowly.
In certain parts of the State, particularly in central Florida,
these limestones lie at or near the surface. Under these con-
ditions sink holes have been formed through which the surface
water gains entrance to the deeper formations. These sink
holes are due primarily to the dissolving effects of the un-
derground water. The cavity in the limestone is gradually
enlarged by solution until the overlying rock caves in, form-
ing a silk. Many of the sinks occurring in the limestone
area are passage-ways directly through to the limestone water
horizon. It not infrequently happens that small streams
flowing through a town find entrance into the limestone
through these sinks. These streams often receive trash,
rubbish and filth of various kinds. The impurities carried by
the streams often reach the underground water supply with-
out having been filtered or sufficiently exposed to the sunshine.
The water in such streams should be kept as free from or-
ganic impurities as possible. Wells from which a large a-
mount of water is pumped, necessarily draw on the water
supply from the surrounding area to some considerable ex-
tent, and may thus receive contaminated water carried into
the limestone by these streams.




The average composition of 127 complete fertilizers in
1908 was:

Ammonia............ ...... ........... 3.82 per cent.
Available phosphoric acid ......................94 per cent.
Potash ............ ....... .... ...... ... 7.08 per cent.

The average State value of the 127 samples of com-
plete fertilizer was $28.82 per ton. The average price
of various brands sold throughout the State was $33.04-an
excess over State values of $4.22 per ton.
It will be noted that there has been a decrease from the
average ammonia content of last season of 0.20 per cent.,
and an increase in potash of 0.24 per cent., showing a gradual
tendency towards a better balanced fertilizer. The excess
over State values is slightly greater than last season (o1
cents per ton more). While these averages are not con-
clusive as to all the various brands, they show generally
the conditions of the business, and the average values of the
goods sold. There are still a number of low-grade goods,
8-2-2, io-1-I, and similar so-called cotton goods, sold at
prices above their real value; goods that require
a filler to reduce them to the quality demanded. This is
more the fault of the consumer than the manufacturer or
dealer, who would prefer to sell a better grade of goods
for the same percentage of profit on the valuable material
used in the composition.
The economy of the high-grade goods being apparent,
I again earnestly recommend the use of the high-grade
mixed goods as the most economical, and again quote state-
ments made formerly.


The brands may be classified as to valuation in three
groups, and the composition, selling price, and valuation of
the average brand of each group are as follows:

0 W-

Low Grade ...... ..1.3 8.28 2.50 I1.91 24.50 16.85
Medium Grade.... 1 2.32 8.72 1 3.66 14.4 30.00' 24.84
High Grade ..... 4.00 7.00 10o.oo00 2r.o 36.50 | 32.70

It will be noticed how rapidly the relative excess above
State values decreases from the low-grade to the high-grade

Low-grade costs above State values .................. $7.65
Medium-grade costs above State values ............. $5.16
High-grade costs above State values................ .$3.80

Again, the percentage of cost above State values is as follows,

Low-grade ...... .......... ............. 45 per cent.
Medium-grade ................... ...... 20 per cent.
High-grade ......................... ... per cent.

I have previously urged the economy of the high-grade
materials, and again call attention to the poor economy of
buying fertilizers by the ton "because it is cheaper," when in
fact the "cheap" fertilizers are the most expensive in first cost,
and more costly to handle (value considered) than the higher-
grade concentrated goods.
The high-grade fertilizers, for but little more than a
third advance in price over the cost of the low-class goods.
furnish two-thirds more plant food and five-sixths more
commercial value.
To those consumers requiring the low-grade goods, the
8-2-2 of the cotton and corn planter, I would say, purchase
your acid phosphate as such; also your kainit, cottonseed
meal, blood, bone or tankage; make your own mixtures, us-

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