Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Africa's matriarchal traditions...
 After Things Fall Apart : incorporating...
 French language in Africa
 Teaching Swahili in the elementary...
 Malian puppet traditions : reflecting...
 Beauty in African history
 To market, to market
 Passport to Botswana : a wonderful...
 Folktales of Ethiopia

Title: Irohin
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075548/00016
 Material Information
Title: Irohin
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for African Studies
Publisher: Center for African Studies, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1991-
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Study and teaching -- Periodicals -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with Feb. 1991.
General Note: "Bringing Africa to the classroom."
General Note: Description based on: Feb. 1992; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075548
Volume ID: VID00016
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001640153
oclc - 25762685
notis - AHR5232
lccn - sn 92022991


This item has the following downloads:


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Africa's matriarchal traditions : a key to the past and present
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    After Things Fall Apart : incorporating African literature by women into the curriculum
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    French language in Africa
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Teaching Swahili in the elementary school
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Malian puppet traditions : reflecting on self and society
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Beauty in African history
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    To market, to market
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Passport to Botswana : a wonderful retreat
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Folktales of Ethiopia
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text


RTakH g A Na to t Cl
^^tk tak'lg Africa o lie Classroom

A lubilic ionofthe Kenter farfrkcn tudies
9wwrlyof Flida
irnesoille. L 3261
135213922183 phionet f{352)3 2435 f
lilip iAwmr afr un ed4A Kurach

S uirech Drecor Dr Agne Ngonk lelie


r Outreach Program at the University of Florida

The Cerer is partially funded under Title
a National Rerource CenreronAfrica
only Cener located in the outheatern
and mcordnae interdiciplinary inruc
Outreach Program incud a vanety of
teachingofAfrica in pn mary and second
local cornmmuntie The fo
activities which fall under

TheCenterota ireerve aorlhrp for
K-12 teacher about i nrction onAnca f
throughuatthe school year

Summer I nttitutes
ach aummee t Cener hold teaching
icatuce for K12 eache.

Public alons
The Center publiee and d tnb I e achl
maource inlclding mohiir In addition, he Cenler
hai published a monogurph enailtd Lemon Ram on
AfIfci Haeofry i3Geogn.pdly A Teocng

VI ofthe federal Higher Education Act a
One ofonly nre in the U S Floridas i the
United States The Cener di rect, develops
tion, research, and outreach onAfrinca The
activiies whoe obective i to improve the
ary chol, college universities and
loving are some ofthe regular
the Outreah Program

Pue fro m dil Bmngroupin al
imai eour f of Hamil alli

Teacher. Nay bo now ideolape
and bcoo rom the 0 mach office

Community and School
Fac ulyr ad graduate itudcnE e p ee nation on
Arca t local co mmuni le t and c hool

Reearch Affiliate Proram
Twoone -mnh aFpoinmen aam provided each
asumre r The p mgarmenableAf ncanemcialiot at
irtliutiondwhchdo no have adequa u reoumaefor
AFrcan-rekted heaaho inheaie lheirade~ne on
Aridca th rgh hcon et wth other Afncanielt They alo
hare accea toAfnca-rebted aeouame atthe
Unive.itryofFlo ndar libcrer


fclh summer iheCele' ftor Airan SIlules at Ihe ULnvsIty lo mls I 1 I teachers li
The olrecnve of heih inslituiso elp Weachs increse e knowledge abou IAfric and develop
leIonI pla o u se ,n hr class s in. U irea.. iflessorpoisaa an rles 'i5t h issue of Iohn
ewe srilten by panicpants. ii 2005 itiLue Please fle 0eet !uSee be ieal, s vo r
riac inad 5l ? Hdi.nnth ether teachers Wrea cawll die Cocer Hr AnfrcnO %Sidvs
for add iiionoI opies 0l downloadhti issue as w as previous, oi n F Forma a
hup/ww,larfca An edufOuheach

p'icpa .s 1i 200 S Saindl h& onn os Dckioi, Sa.h
PacI/ &rgn, D0 Pose Ltugao ,eoae;,), DK alS 4oikdMoh.dmd, c ,Moey, cqiuelw
aSni, Cekese Boozogo rp resener 7 ielwdichle, Beaiod Hoe.1o= aWd
D AgM3 lI (0r3tfrseddcl Nat 0 1I pc'ur pohb Dbd

Thr latIh *uepr ram uldft

llCH 6,
Ch1ia 3.705 0 sW pqrt r
USA 3.ia,7i 1
EhrU 1,66 S 6,~

N-e Z-ears a i

1- Jl a n ismr i
N E. g mlU im
ilMl lu r d -

haniii liia i iim l~ae


Africa' Matriarchal

Traditions A Keytothe Pastand

Literature by Women into the Curriculum

French Language in Africa

Teaching Swahil inthe Elementary Sch

Malian Puppet Traditions


Self and Society

Beauty in African History

To Market To rMket To Market

Passportto Botswana A Wonderful

Folktales of Ethiopia



The frstrelationshp we have is wi our the quees of Meroe wlhch grew promnentas Egypp
mothers itbegis before we enterhe world 'a1ie of declined-Candace Bailare Amanennas Amatere
e commnonestnames w give o children is ie andsevealothers (Sweetman 1-16) The Kiuuof
or Motheris Supreme (Achebe 133) Family Kenyat race teirnre lans back to e nne daughters
relalonships are the basic mits for building coun- of the pariarch Givouyu and tadilionally all Kiuyu
ttes andsaes InmanytraditionalAfncansicieies girlswere given one of he names ofthese mnema-
manarchal andmaallmeal social sitctures provide a archs ( unt Kenya') These are oly a few of he
keyto hlship ownership and womenwho have wielded poitt-
leadershp In the ast the status cal power in the past
of womenfluctuateddung the Nigenan sociologist I Amadi-
coloral penod asthe mrfoluence me asserts that ihe m donal
ofpatnarchal Eoipean pow- power of ncan women had an
ers changed eve Iyaspect of ife e conoc and ideological basis
mi nca Today groups wiach anddenvedfromthe sacredand
continue to follow naalmeal almost divme importance ac-
andmatearchals rictmres ae corded tomotherhood eiadi-
believedbysme scholarsto pmi 146) In pracle women
expenenceie fewerofthesocial e conormc unpoince came from
and econormac woes which my her a fripreoc-tulrais
cupywestem media coverage home-keepers and market sell-
ofAfnca Achorowledg her tite Frmey r thermoltate
roleyofAfnca ma narc ha of m erhood came mio play
edibonesr conta butesto a more whenquestionr ofwealth l en-
well-roundedundersiand of tanceandlines of succession for
Afncas complex societies and con ty leaders were ad
such anunderstand is an es- dressed Du the pre-coloal
sental fol aunda for the sty penow even in patnarcal society
ofAfnciianr teate and cultmre ies where he line of descent was
Througou ut Afncan s- palmeal-thatis totheoldest
story womenhaveheld position s sonohe father-the mother
of great luxalenc e many of m Elen h non-S he a L he ranthe theoldest son might ave con-
in paarchal maceties For sideella ble political mxauencem over
example dunr the early 1800l YaaAe aawas the cormmantyaffers Hovever the legacyofpatalineal
Asnte queen motherwho negoliatedwttethe Bntit krmap stactmes intodays stgglingeconomes
(Berger 6-88) Nea handa of Zimbabwe was a spinal becomespaiEinflyclearwhenrelativesinpatalineal
leaderwho he held erpeoplo ruvle oeTher d ng a violent famies grb property fromwidowsand their c-
asault bytheBnrtish (Syetemnan91-95) Fromthe drenafterthe fatherhasdiedd (LFraere "AIDS
pre-colomalpeno, Hatshepsutof Egyt is probably Althoughdisutes anse overmentance underany
the beslmow butshe was outmberedby amsp system amaalmeal or bilmeal system allows

womenownership of wealth andu tus the soial satus cntlie Okourwo's behavior towad hs wives

tat goes along wi'i unproved econonc status
In some societies paiarchy and matnarchy
co-exst to the advanrge of the enie commnunumty For
example the Chafla in Nigena have a double descent
system for inrentance 'In Ohafa, agncultuia land
is held by matemal descent groups, while residential
land is held by patemal descent groups "(McCall 80)
Among the Chewa of Malawer the wealth of men goes
to the sisters son (Holden) Likewse m the Igbo
village of Nnobi Nigena women control the market-
place whloe men con-

(Amehdiume 864-5)
Thus womenrs power
is based ona cent' l
econonc role in the
Scommu a y ma nhune
argues that European
coloral leaders could
notre ogrze women's
sttusminAfncan socrlet-
lesa because there were
fewr precedents among
European women-
most stayed at home
and had no public
econonuc rolFee (1I02 C
Furtheumore she says "


continued tlhs lack of understanding in her profiles of
Afncan societies
With mnsconceptons about radittonalAfncan
societiescontunmngto shape perceptions of Afnca
fill ing cultural andlsonical background is essential
mihe stdyofAfncanhteratuie Forexample Clinua
Achebe's sFuns ap hasbeehe en ne femost
Afncan novel o reach wesem readers for over fort
years The hero ko showslittleregardforthe
social status of womeLn equati the mwit men of
low rank 'Tha was why (Okoho ) hadcalledlhm
a woman Oikordoo nmew how to kll a man's spmin
(26) Okorh~ m 's clanmenexpnress disapproval mandy
of ls pnde areaderwhois no aware of the strong
tadittonal roles of Igbo women night assume that
Okorwo'sattltdes owaid women ae typical of
Nienan me n
Thee incidentsin ThunenksF a reveal
that Okoroe is out of step with the respect accorded
women in traditional Ibo society Fist the elders

Your wife was at faul but you would still have
comrmn ed a great evil to beather (3) Second the
pnestessChelo'sholdsa respected dual ole in he
commuir y 'I tas no te same Cluelo who sawith
her nthemarket Iwasadifferentwoman-the
pnmesesofAgbala, he Oracle of the Hls and Caves"
(107) T hum when Okorwoo is exiled o his mother's
village foraa emle e"ci ne lOs uncle Uchendu
scolds him for ls self-piy Yourmother is there
to protect Is it night hat you Okondwos should
.b inn to your mother a
Heavy ce ad re fuse
to be comifo tedBe
displease the dead
(134) e espliteallhese
subtle clues for read
ers outside Nigeb n
Okordouwo personality
is so powerful that ls
viewpomt donates
the novel In the enl
we e hinm as aflawed
but great man Vthout
undersanding pre-co-
lomal Nigfa n westem
hf ftla k aosldn oka. reader mayn otcunder-
Sh co staid the states of women

Iroically Okordo's views of the status of women
have more in conmon wih the Bnash coloal gov-
emmene that condemns him whereas the views of hs
clan reflect he balance of gender roles many pre-colo
nial societies achieved
Tiditonally and even today these balanced
roles include hematihne alde scentsystems which
help keep ownership of land witun the comunuty
andavoidsquabblesaboutland use nghs TheAs-
ante of Ghana t herewa of Malaw, and the Hereo
of Botswana and Namibia are nscieties which irce
descentlue oughthe mother Among the Bembaof
Zambia manlineal descent grows ou of a cosmology
which honors motherhood Their God is both mother
andfather The Bemba view he earth as awomb to
which we retmat death The seasons of the year
reflect human conception and buth-the female earth
is a womb that receives the male an dung the grow-
m% season P mong the Bemb, there is a ceremony
at puberty for girls bu not for boys and at anage

q ns

a husband moves in with his wife's family Similarly,
land rights for women are more secure among several
other groups in Zambia which follow a matrilineal
descent system (Kajoba, 1992).
Where matrilineal descent is followed even
in patriarchal societies, it is more than a vestige of
Africa's traditional matriarchal past. Matrilineal
descent provides women with a social structure that
can help protect them from exploitation as agricultural
laborers and home-keepers. Ownership of property
and its accompanying economic status give women a
chance to vie for political influence as well. The future
success of African societies may well depend on each
country's ability to accord a strong place for women
again both economically and politically. Amadiume
points out how ironic it is that post-colonial African
states formed independent governments that were
modeled on the centralized political systems of their
former patriarchal colonial oppressors (89-90).
A hopeful example may be found in Botswa-
na's Kgosi Mosadi Seboko, first female paramount
chief (kgosi) of the Baletes. As the daughter of a chief
in a patriarchal society, Mosadi Seboko has waited
patiently since 1966, while first her uncle and then her
brother led the Baletes. In 2001, with the support of
her mother and seven sisters, Seboko stood up to cous-
ins and elders to claim her right of succession, based
on the Botswana constitution's promise of freedom
from discrimination. "She has endeared herself... by
balancing calls for change with respect for tradition.
Some men-and women-suggest quietly that she is
too outspoken in defense of women's rights. But many
say she has proved herself with her straightforward
manner, accessibility, and focus on the problems of
Ramotswa's youth" (LaFraniere, "Tribe'). The most
important difference between Kgosi Mosadi Seboko
and her male counterparts seems to be her willingness
to speak for the interests of all members of her com-
Acknowledging the social roles of women as
well as men leads to a greater understanding of how
a state may succeed or falter. Political leaders follow-
ing the patriarchal model might adjust their thinking
to accept women as partners, looking to the traditional
matrilineal and bilineal social structures for inspira-
tion. As governments struggle with economic and
political pressures, history shows that there is much to
be gained. Meanwhile, our understanding of the social
setting for studying Africa's literature and culture
is greatly enhanced by recognizing that the place of

women in many African societies has grown out of a
rich matriarchal tradition.

Works Cited

-Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: An-
chor Books, 1959.

-Amadiume, Ifi. Reinventing Africa: Matriarchy, reli-
gion and culture. London: Zed, 1997.

-"Bemba Religion." Overview of World Religions. St.
Martin's College. June 15, 2005. http://philtar.ucsm.

-Berger, Iris and E. Frances White. Women in Sub-Sa-
haran Africa: Restoring Women to History. Blooming-
ton: Indiana University Press, 1999.

-Holden, Clare, Rebecca Sear, and Ruth Mace. "Ma-
triliny as daughter-biased investment. "June 15, 2005.

-Kajoba, Gear M. "Women and Land in Zambia: A
case study of small-scale farmers in Chenena Village,
Chibombo District, Central Zambia." Eastern Africa
Social Science Research Review._Vol. 18, No. 1 (Janu-
ary 2002). June 15, 2005. http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/

-LaFraniere, Sharon. "AIDS and custom leave African
families nothing. "New York Times. February 18, 2005.

- "A tribe in Botswana follows a leader called Wom-
an."New York Times. December 11, 2004.

-McCall, John C. "Social Organization in Africa, "In
Africa. Phyllis M. Martin and Patrick O'Meara, eds.
Third Edition. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,

-"Mount Kenya: Cultural Safari." Magi-
cal Kenya. September 3, 2005. http://www.
magicalkenya. com/default.nsf/doc21/


Afncani erature allows the young stdenti o see
Afnca-not thoughthe pieudies of reporters or the
preoccupations of the anthopologists not toughhe
obseations of ave les or the ales of ossionanes
but in the words of the Ancanh s emselves In their
lieratueie they express heii concerns theiraware-
ness their response o the paiaril and
complicated usoIy ofthe colomalism
ihai has been the fncana exenence
dunng the twentieth century -oa
Almost thuay years ago Jolp
Povey then teaching at UCLA made
the stiongccase that Anan lite rate
byAnglphone wnieIs belonged m
our English cuculuin In hisarcle
"AfncanLitematuire inPaperback,"
Povey discusses benefs of inclusion
such as 'oviding evidence ofwhat
is happen to the Englih language
itself" ie awareness of literature
beyond the naow connhes of the Chinuach
Bntish-Ai encan novel and the anShorol
provision of "ome sense of the great nces of
another culture appreciation and undersandng for its
pnciple sand needs Povey then goesonto suggest
anthologies novels poet anddramas aat bs peers
mght find adaptable to then courses
Acareful examirnaton of he authors men-
troned reveals catlheyae allmale These 'nany
voices of Smen offered students in he lae 1970san
inoad o Afncan culture generally but many have
argued that they eft women's voices unheard Fortu-
nately the last three decades have produced a wealti
ofAfncan hlerature wnten by Ancan women These
novels not only respond to the ole of women often
produce dmearer works by male authors buthey
alao provide iigh mio the emoon and perspectves
of women themselves



All Afncan novels provide a lens by which we
canminfoduce our students to Afnca The additonof
Afncan novels by women will provide students wioh
stul grealerperspecuve I suggest here a beginmaing
cuculumn for using four Afncan novels to teach
about Afnca from the late 19the entuiy to te pres-
ent begun g with Clhnua Achebe '
Tungs Fail Apan followedbyBuchi
Emechela's i TheBne Pnce and rThe
Joys of Motherhood, and culinating
swirt Manama Ba's So Lony ,a ter
There is good reason to begin a
studyofAfncanihterature wit Chinua
Acheb a 7sensealAptar ZThuas
Parl kari is oftenthe only Afncan
novel tat makes it onanAmencan
student 's readinlig 1st The books
very accessible and a quick search of
the Intl Ietwifll I mkteachers witl a
mynadof le onplaa study guides
and instructonal suaegies using
Sthe NWra te chnollogy that are meshed wi tlhe
etw Adp book Thenovel hasbeen thor-
oughly tested on high cool students Its praises are
so many thal I will not elaborate anymore However
as typical of many male writers of Itaditsonal novels
publishedmee 1950s and 1960s T7vngs Fal AiSa
touches on women win a 'tonventonal attude"
castmg '11 women mtme stnct axistrole ofmoters
and wives, submissive lo e nonms and regulations
ntat reslct them Rendenng women voicele s was
not Achbe's intention in the novel His true goals
were to showAfncans themselves and the world at
laSe the ncahness of culture m pre-colomal time sand
to combat tle st reotype s of savagery and backward-
ness Achebe spoke of tus role as ateachei zI would
be quite satisfied if my novels (especially the ones I
have setinthe past) didno more thanteachmy (Afn-
can) readers ltha their past--wit all itsimpeifectons


was hint ones lon enom of savagery firm which the modmil the an oly am-~on papers culture was

frs Euopeans acn ng on God's behalf delivered
The novel should be honored before is dis-
sected (for is portrayal of women) Tines Fail Aps i
is the sorry of the Ibo village of Umuofia m pre-colo-
ral Nigena The protagost of the story is Okonwo
asto ngindividual te ngo overcome the legacy of
his lazyanddrunkenfaher He stugglesto attamthis
goalbecaue ofaninadvertentshootgofa clansman
butalso because he Umoufia society iselfchanges
from wihnthrough encounters with Chs-
tan missionanes Tings Fall Apanoi l ot
onlyrevealshowthe ieditonalvillage life
was affected by the coming of the white
man (vWat next green? one charece r okes
mthe novel) buti also lendsus acanca
tue of whaan bo village ay have been
like m he 188s s e 90s and and the values
andcustoms that e3re held dear v
FllAe ris anexcellen portrayalof one
village's isth encountes with coloal pow-
Aswithalmost all hingsAfncan, i
would be important remindyourstudens
thas the perpeectie of the Ibo village m
Nienaof iT ings FallApai is icon and
no representative of the content There is
always time for a qck geography lesson
Afnca has 54 counties is several times the
size of the UniedStes an ishome to more ian
600 spoken languages several eligios and a muli-
tude of people and places The diversity of Afncacan
nobe stressed enough
Buchi Emecheta's The BSde Pnce picks up
close to where pas Fail a ends The story be-
gi s m Lagos m Nigena an we are introduced o the
leadcharacter Akunon a thteen-year-ol dgul The
opeong chapters deal wit the tiagedyof herfaher's
death resulti from anmuy he suffered fightigm
the wars of Euope) and hermother's absencedu nng
his last day as sshe sought o rechage her ferlilty
Emecheteuses the discussion of the funeral to ito-
duce Ihe impact I of coloralism on radittonal culture

'ezee Odia's funeral was like all sch c emormes
in colosal Afnca a aixbe of the taditonal and the
Euopean Emphasis was always placed on he Eu-
ropeanaspec The European ways were considered

such anunfortuae conglomeraon of both tha you
endedup hnot lowing o wichyou belonged" The
Bde Pnce 29)

Tis would be an excellent place to itoduce coloal-
ismwithyourstudents Youcoulddiscussthe fc-
tors hat brought Europeans to Afnca, the division of
countnes by Eurpe and the varg ways in which
coloraal poeis conducted themselves in the Afncan
Continuing on in he
novelan A ieandherMa
Blache andbothermus
retumi o the village of Ibuzk
where they wie be tiken to
herunclev Oiikonos as
compound Upontheiren-
hnce into the village Ma
Blache mustgo to mourng
m her house for e months
Inadispute over the clothes
she wi i e armmourri
her uncle makes it cle r tha
he will tke Ma Blacle as
ios fol wife whe n she is
throuh mour ani o s lafe
Meanwbule Akouia and
her brother Nnarno ar doui
well Bothe are atten i school an this sets hem
ahe ad other 'seyes some are even ea lous includ-
Sokoinons wafe who beheves it is a wase to send
a girl to school even though it is Ma Blane herself
who unwor io pay the ciln e ens schoolfees Okolmk
wo sees te value of the ed uato as it wll irease
her nde prn e 'aethmore moneyhe hopes o fir-
ther hs attemptsto become an Of (a respected ite)
Houelvers Uwfe mows thai Ma Blacne will want
to us the moneyfor fuihenn Nnando s educahon
Inherbitte ess shedislosesherideathatAoa
is anoao ue or hving dead" In the Ibo tmditio
an od aue is someone who is exec ed to de young
because the oheer world ca is them back Bytradi-
ion gils often die at the bu of then frst baby This
same outcome is alaso elected for girls whose suors
do notpay their rbnde pnce In this ay it ons out
thatAunea shal bei iumsed by ust such a conditio
for oiuneafn s m love wih a tlave
Thisslave'sname isC h ike andckheisiA nas

teacher at her school. Despite warnings from both
families that such a love will be forbidden by soci-
ety, the two fall in love anyway When Akunna is
kidnapped and married off to a cruel and crippled
schoolmate, Chike rescues her after she escapes
consummating the marriage by taunting her husband
of her previous liaisons with the sullied slave. Chike
rescues her and they leave the village and are married
themselves. Akunna becomes pregnant but is haunted
by the curses she knows are on her by Ibo traditions.
She begs and reminds her husband to pay her bride
price, but her uncle Okonkwo will not accept it. In the
end, Akunna does die giving birth to a daughter which
she quickly names Joy. The book ends in a way that
Emecheta has been sometimes criticized for, in that it
is believed to reflect a backwardness to Ibo society:

"So it was that Chike and Akunna substantiated the
traditional super-station that they had unknowingly
set out to eradicate. Every girl born in Ibuza after
Akunna's death was told her story, to reinforce the
old taboos of the land. If a girl wished to live long
and see her children's children, she must accept the
husband chosen for her by her people, and the bride
price must be paid. If the bride price was not paid, she
would never survive the birth of her first child. It was
a psychological hold over every young girl that would
continue to exist, even in the face of every moderniza-
tion, until the present day. Why this is so, as the say-
ing goes, anybody's guess. "(The Bride Price, 168)

The traditional curse surrounding the bride
price does come true in the novel, but it is a work of
fiction. Its strength lays not in its ending, but in Em-
echeta's depiction of a traditional Ibo village (Ibuza),
Ibo customs, and the inclusion of a woman character's
emotions and frustrations. The Bride Price is set at a
time when Nigeria is on the cusp of the modern world;
however, the village is sheltered from most of these
outside influences. Emecheta's The Joys of Mother-
hood, acclaimed as "her most crafted novel", takes us
on a reverse journey from the village to the city, and
shows the impact of colonialism in Nigeria's urban
The Joys of Motherhood begins with a woman
running toward a wished-for death. She is in Lagos,
and the year is 1934. She blames her grief on her
chi, her personal god, "a slave woman who had been
forced to die with her mistress when the latter was
being buried." We do not know what Nnu Ego is run-

ning from, and to find out the story commences again
with the story of Nnu Ego's mother.
Nnu Ego's mother was called Ona. She was
not her father's only child but she was his great joy,
despite her gender. He maintained that she must never
marry, but that she was allowed to have men. "And
if she bore a son, he would take her father's name,
thereby rectifying the omission nature had made." Ona
had a lover, a wealthy chief named Nwokocha Agbadi
who loved her but was upset that she would not marry
him. When Ona became pregnant, a deal was struck
that if Ona had a son, he would belong to her father,
but if she had a girl, she would belong to Agbadi.
The love child born was Nnu Ego. Ona passed away
a couple of years later after bearing a premature son,
and her dying words to Agbadi were of her daughter,
"Allow her to be a woman."
Nnu Ego had a happy childhood and when she
came of age, she was married to a man named Ama-
tokwou. Despite all her prayers, Nnu Ego did not be-
come pregnant, and Amatokwou took on a second wife
who became pregnant almost immediately. Nnu Ego
helped to care for second wife's son and was caught
breast feeding him. Amatokwou beat her and took
her back to her father's. Agbadi understood that Nnu
Ego would be unhappy to return to Amatokwou, and
returned her bride price to him. Nnu Ego was given a
second chance with a new husband. Unfortunately, he
was not in the village of Ibuza, so Nnu Ego was taken
to live with her new husband in Lagos.
This new husband, Nnaife, had a job for a

white couple washing their clothes. He was round
and pale and Nnu Ego was not impressed. She found
him womanly and in these first few years would berate
him so. She did perform her wifely duties and became
pregnant soon after. Nnu Ego also began a petty trad-
ing business in the city markets, selling matches and
cigarettes to buy her additional lappas to wear. She
bore her son, but at four weeks old, she awoke to find
him dead. It was at this point we encountered her first
running towards the bridge and her chi.
Nnu Ego was rescued from her jump and went
on to bear eight more children, seven of which sur-
vived. Nnaife lost his job washing clothes but found
work around Lagos before being kidnapped into the
white man's army. Nnu Ego struggled to raise her
children in the traditional ways she believed were
correct, which was harder than ever to do in a city like
Lagos, the capital of Nigeria. Her eldest surviving son
Oshia, who Nnu Ego put all her toils and hard work

into, to keep him in school, ended up going on to the
United States for a higher education and did not take
care of her as Ibo tradition would have expected him
to. Nnaife spent most of his time with palm wine; Nnu
Ego did not reprimand this habit as she felt it was an
expected part of his life since he was a man. In the
end, Nnu Ego dies alone in a ditch back in the Ibuza
village, and women afterwards come to pray to her
for their own fertility. The Joys of Motherhood is an
ironic title, for a novel about a woman who nearly
committed suicide over the death of her first child but
who was aggrieved by her living children in her later
The Joys of Motherhood opens up several
themes for discussion in the classroom. First, you can
consider the role of Ona, Nnu Ego's mother. She is
an oddly independent woman on the surface, yet she
is still tied down between her father and her lover.
Second, the contrast between life in the village and life
in the city can be considered. How does the environ-
ment affect the expectations and lifestyle of both men
and women? One well-made point by T. A. Ezeigbo is
Emecheta's depiction of the evils of polygamy in the
modern context.

"In the past, polygamy seemed to have been sup-
ported by both men and women because a large and
polygamous household attracted high social status.
There were few conflicts between co-wives because
of the 'hut complex' which enabled each wife to own
her own hut and become the matrifocal centre of her
children and other dependents. But this is not
the case today, as we see in The Joys of Motherhood,
where a household has to share a single room in the
city." (Ezeigbo, 161)

Another theme is the impact of colonial-
ism. A discussion can be built around the changes
it brought to men such as Nnaife, to women such as
Nnu Ego and Adaku (the second wife), as well as to
the children. Is the impact for better or for worse,
and for whom? What conflicts are there between the
two cultures and what are the effects? This conversa-
tion could be brought up to the present day and would
make for excellent research for students.
In bringing the conversation up to the present
day, we leave Nigeria to look at Senegalese author,
Mariama Ba's, So Long A Letter. This is a short
book, but it is incredibly rich and beautiful and brings
in so many threads of the discussion on modern Af-

rica. The novel is a reflective letter from Ramatoulaye
to her good friend Aissatou, on the event of the death
of Ramatoulaye's husband Modou. In the letter she
records the ups and downs of the five years since her
husband abandoned her emotionally and physically for
a second wife as young as her daughter.
One of the interesting features of So Long a
Letter is that the story is so contemporary that you
forget you are even reading about a place in Africa.
It paints a picture of modern Dakar and the heartfelt
feeling of a middle-aged woman in such a sympathet-
ic, realistic way that you feel as though Ramatoulaye
might be a neighbor next door. The entire novel sets
an important example for students that Africa is not
exotic, nor are its people and their lives.
Ramatoulaye and her correspondent, Aissatou,
are products of modern Africa themselves. Both were
educated, trained to be teachers, and became carica-
tures of today's working mothers. Both were married
to men of their own choices, despite concerns from
family in the case of Ramatoulaye and society in the
case of Aissatou (she was in a lower level of society
than her husband Mawdo). The women both lived
well and worked hard. One was married to a lawyer,
the other to a doctor; neither had needed a dowry to
marry. Aissatou gave birth to four sons and Ramatou-
laye had twelve children. They were both Muslims and
devoted on various levels. And yet what befell these
two women?
Both Aissatou and Ramatoulaye were struck
down (at least temporarily) by the choice their hus-
bands made to take second wives. Although allowed
according to their religion, this was still unacceptable
to the women personally. Aissatou's husband took a
second wife first. Her reaction again reveals this New
Africa; she left him taking her four sons with her. Ais-
satou left her husband a note:

"I will not yield to it. I cannot accept what you are
offering today in place of the happiness we once had.
You want to draw a line between heartfelt love and
physical love. I say that there can be no union of bod-
ies without the heart's acceptance, however little that
may be. If you can procreate without loving, merely to
satisfy the pride of your declining mother, then I find
you despicable. At that moment you tumbled from the
highest rung of respect on which I have always placed
you. "(So Long a Letter, 31-32)

Aissatou left her husband and went on to form

an iidepeident life she worked for the Senegalese rejects Daouda's offer of mnae

Embassy in the UntedStates Bycontast when
after twenty-five yeals of manage Raimaoulaye's
husband mal ed a young girl is eldest daughter's
fnendl) mee secre nt his fnends o tell hi first
wife the news i) Ranioulaye did ot leave ii She
shares her emotons dunng the five years of er ear-
abandornent m her letter ao Aissalou she discusses
the changes t me and chldbirth have made to her
body the way men glae over their wife shoul-
ders the tlps of her gnot (praise sger) neighbor her
children's encourage meant o leave and
theidisgust at their fate r behavior
And yet Ramatoulaye remained with A
herhusband She found newdelghts So Lo
matuediu t cinema and pending wr
ttme with her children lWhen her hus-
band gave the young wfeacac Aisa-
iou ou ght one for Ramatoulaye
The cond half of the book
focuses onRamatoulaye's life after
moumnng her ale husband She takes
suiors mi ludingDaoudaDiengi te
manshe spumned o manyModou He
is a member of Senegal's NationalAs-
semblyand she enjoys ve rbally oust-
ib with uhim on issues of th day

'W have anght ust as you have to
education which we ought to be able o pursue to the
furtlsi mL of our mtellectual c apacittes e F have a
night io equalwe-d ep A mploymnent to equal opportu
ties The nght fo vote is an important weapon And
now the Family Code has been passed estowrto the
most humble of women the digrty that has so often
bee n trapled upon

"When will education be decided for children on the
basis not of sex but of talent?"

'Developit a country is not easy The moe e spon-
sibiliy one has the more one feels it poverty breas
your heart but you have no control over it "(So Isn
a Lee 6 1-62)

There are so many discussion slters found in tese
pagesforuse with yourstudens ManamaBa is an
excellent exm pleof awnterwhowites not usto
enteitai, but also to i each In the evn aatoulaye

You tlunk the pmrblem of polygamy i a simple one
Those who are evolved minowl heconstains the
lies e inLustices lat awig down heir consciences
mIreuiforthe ephemeral oys o change Iam sure
you're motivaledbylove a love thatexsled well
before your manageandtlat fae hasnotbeenable o
satisfy Iis with in ae sadness and tear-filedeyes
that offer you my fendship "(So Loia Le e 68)

sie novel with nch hemes such as
iB A prlgress fiendshp love educatton
a Letter reflection family compassion and
,n 4 the earchfor appiness Italmex-
cels as pmvidi an m-depth portrait
of a woman m mode Senegaland
is areflecttonofwomenalloverAf-
nca For students it maychallenge
their presiumptions of Africa and wil
hopefully help them rethink about
Afnca ma ew light
The fou novels discussed
DTuas Fall Apra, The BRue Pce,
The Joys of Motherlood, ad So
SLo I ieer trace parts of Afca
Sfom mthe pre-colomalvillage o the
modemcity Above all they are
all beauful works of ierature that could easily and
appmpnalelyfind home inoday's cumculum It is
our ob as teachers o prepare our students to be global
citizens and exposig them to literature byAfnc an
authors of both genders is astep toward mnceasi
knowledge about the content


-Achebe, Chinua. (1959). Things Fall Apart. New
York, NY: Anchor Books.

-Ba, Mariama. (1989). So Long a Letter. Oxford:
Heinemann Educational Publishers.

-Emecheta, Buchi. (1976). The Bride Price. New
York, NY: George Brazilier.

-Emecheta, Buchi. (1979). The Joys of Motherhood.
New York, NY: George Brazilier.

-Ezeigbo, T. A. (1990). "Traditional Women's Institu-
tions in Igbo Society: Implications for the Igbo Female
Writer. "African Languages and Cultures, 3(2), 149-

-Mbele, Joseph. Study Guide by Professor Mbele on
Things Fall Apart. Retrieved online from http://www.

-Mezu, Rose. Ure. (1995). Women in Achebe's
World. Retrieved online from http://www.uga.edu/

-Povey, John. (1976). "Pick of the Paperbacks: Afri-
can Literature in Paperback." The English Journal,
65(4), 103-107.



One cannot help but notice that many of he comuies abolihon of the slave tade on moral grounds es
m Afnca use French extens vely In specially as ideas of equality spread throughout the
fact wenly- to co untles mAf- content The midusalsector sw he need for
ncauseFenchasheioficial lawmaenals from Afnca suchas
language Forsome le bbei gum oils andcoffeebut
Coe d'Ivoiu FreFnch the supplywas mdangedue lo
is tfe only official bte violence of te slave rade
language while oter Bnlam abolished lte slave Irade
local languages e m most of is colomes m 1833
used among etlmc The Fench soon followed
groups Foroth- m 184 The slave
ers like Madagaa sc I ade contnruedby
French shares official traders of otfer
language status wi one countnesr and te
or more other language s Bntshand Frech
such as rabic or Englsh navies paroled te
Vhile still others he coaswo enforce their
Momcco use French rrrr ban Thetrdeof raw
as the official tsade maenals from Afca led to
Th .i h.la e rh thbe establishment of
tf+ap.b) Fraeid Oi- stauffa coastal sttle-
Sments Aneconomic
language While teachngFrenchopensup depression m Europe
muchof the worldto students andspeakers of att he end of te 19th
le languages te re asns for ihe wide use of century ad economic
French are not so positive The two major avenues instability Afnca led to
forte spread ofmte Frenchlanguagewere slavery anmcreasigulyhosttlescramble o se-
andcolo zatton cure Europe an iteresis m fnca Busi-
ness and government leaders m Fiance
Fre nchColuiilEiJ m mAfnca believed tatt e developmentand promectonofmar-
The hsloryof French cololzatnoninAfnca ketsoutside of Europe would Solve the utade problems
began m 1659 win founding of te travdi post at created by the shaenlng market is of its neighbors
Samt-Lous anislandat bte mouthof the Senegal In 1884-1885 the European po ersheld the
River Fromtbisstsaegicpomt theFrenchwere able BerlmCornferenceto stupregulatonsforthe forma
loconductprofnlable tradingslaves andrbber The tonofcolomesm Afncaanddiplomat promecon
Enligenmen e IndustnalRevolutionmE rope offree tade along hecoastsandnvers Untl is
andr he Amencas provided motives for te abolh on of momentous event exploratton ino the tenor of the
slavery Many European campaigned forthe content ofAfnca hadbeenhmlted but soon Euro-

peanmern srohns olvsreandnasionnoauces, v rnov- axdJom bsrotsdtap

Rapidly inand These explorers andsettlers wre
dnvenbydifferent ideologies but the commonly held
notonof 'tivillg" savage culune stlhoughmrod-
enmiation or Chstalmaton as vey prominent
The philosophy of social Darwism also provided the
excuse of a stronger c ultue conquenng and civil
g a morebackward one The Europeans were no
able to partitlonAfca amongso themselves without
meet ngresisance from the differentAfc an groups
Most groups we re unuccessful at resisting mpic-
ly except those tat used
guenll tactc a such as the
generalSamonwho engaged
the Fe nch for seven ye as m
Even before the Be,
linConelence Fiance had
already gamed control of Al-
genaand lTumsa NorthAf-
nea In 1870 Algenan who
applied for French i itershp
were so gianed and Jews and
Eurpeanisboen m the county
were also gianiedcitiership
Because of continuig con-
flict withthie Mooccans the
French found that they were
dawn furhe r nlani as they
sought o protect newly occu-
piediem ioy Inbm sAfneca Lop 1 ad eanhortu
thealready established tad- 6lo He6-

g post of Senegal provided
bases from wlah ade sand forces could estblish
control over the land abitanis especially those
along the souther nvers Afierte ir al expan-
sion, fueledbygrandiose projects suchas uamlg
the FrenchAfnc anEmpie byrailroadorattempti
o dislodge te Bnt shfrom Egpt Frenchcolonmsts
faced Ihe taskof formnggovenmnenal systems m
theirnew lemrones Itproveddifficullo combine the
ideals beland the Republicof uaversal humannghs
and the goals of Frenc hatoalis and commercial
Fance favored the methodof ect rule
which de-emphased and even ignored loalindig-
enous leaders The direct rule method was pracrsed
differenrelyinderen colomnes Alge forexample
was made adparementof Fance with representa-
ton in the Senae and Chamber of Deputtes Morocco

national anihems and monarchs thought he Mroccan
and Tunusian mislshadFe nchra F officials atachedio
their offices Sub-SahaanAfncawas divided io two
fedematons-French st fc a and French Equato-
nalAfnca The counnestodaytlat made up French
stAfnca are Maunania, Senegal, Mal Niger
Bemn COed'Ivoire and Guinea French Equaonral
Afnca consisted of Chad CenalAfnc anepublic
Republic ofCongo and Gabon These federaton
were admiustered by a governor-general who had no
legislative autontybut could
Secommendlegislationio the
r Miuser of Colonies in Pans
Each colony lh a d eutenaint
governor winechoversaw the
politicalsibuaton Afncan
chefs de canton were respon
bible orr the oad atO of
Sth he ncanpopulat o who
were considered 'ubects
butnot cilz ensThese clefs
rechosen eitherbased on
aditionally held authonty or
because of perceived loyalty
or French ltercy
The generally accepted
philosophy of French coo-
ralism was 'ssimilatio,"
that is mang Frenchmen
-dth senae Ecrora and women of thecolozed
pad-nt 19 population This was sup-
poed by a French sysetm of
education l wchicaught Frlenchhstryand ideas At
terindependence there has beenan ongoingstimggle
mthe formerAfcan colomes to define the role of the
Frenchlanguage m tlheircountnes ingovenment in
literature andmeducaton Guinea'sfirst president
Sekou buri eliminaled French rom the educa ton
system leaving a generatonwitti poor knowledge of
the language Frenchwas reintoducedto tie pnrmary
educatonsysem m 1984 InSenega however the
firt president Loopold Seda Senghori a w 1-kown
poet andwnter stnardrciaedte ind ienous languages
of hs county wle also retang French as anof-
ficallanguage He was laternductedino theAcad-
me Franraise

(Conuanned onpsg 28)


Examples of Altered French in West Africa

Word Definition
Small inexpensive

Countrv I

A stand or small
restaurant that sells
grilled meat and,
specifically, dibi, a
dish of grilled lamb
with hot mustard

A street food stand

To give a gift

To take a nap

22 seat 1 ton mini-


Gas station

Origin/comparison to standard French
The word maquis means bush or scrub in French
Maquis were originally clandestine establishments
that served alcohol Now the word is used for a
small restaurant that serves dnnks and cheap local
cuisine The word maquis was used in France dur
ing WWII to talk about the underground resistance

The word dibi originates from the French verb
d6biter, which means to sell Those familiar with
French will recognize that the suffix riene mdi
cates a store that sells the product (or is run by the
person) that is represented by the base noun For
example afromagerie has fromage (cheese) for
sale Thus a dibiterie sells dibi

Chantier literally means construction site Perhaps
a street food stand is called a chantier, because it is
not an actual fully constructed building

The verb cadeauter has been formed from the noun
cadeau [a gift] The standard way to express this
concept would be offrir un cadeau [to offer a gift]

This is another example of a verb being formed
from a noun The standard French expression is
faire une sieste. Siester has made expressing this
concept more efficient

Mille kilos means 1000 kilograms This numerical
phrase has been adapted to describe an object

The term Americain, which means Amencan in
French is used here to refer to a missionary regard
less of nationality or religious affiliation, because
the first missionaries to arrive were English speak
ing Protestants
This word again combines a noun, in this case
essence (gasoline), and the suffix erie to indicate
that gasoline is sold here The creation of this
word is attributed to the Senegalese president Lo-
pold Sedar Senghor The usual term for gas station
is station service

Belgian Colonialism
When speaking of the use of French in Afri-
can countries, it is necessary to mention the former
Belgian colony, Democratic Republic of Congo. The
Belgian expansion into Africa was at the impetus of its
king, L6opold II. Concerned with economic profit and
supported by Belgian merchant bankers, he convinced
his colleagues at the Berlin Conference to recognize
his Congo Free State (the product of his Congo As-
sociation) as a sovereign state. This area, therefore,
became basically a privately owned company and not
a free state. King L6opold encouraged Belgian firms
to form companies in league with the Congo Free
State to monopolize the rubber exploitation. Armed
mercenaries under Belgian supervision inhumanly car-
ried out the rubber trade. Under heavy criticism from
independent and missionary observers, the Congo
Free State was ceded to Belgium in 1908, just as the
rubber trade was waning and mineral exploration was
beginning. The Congo Free State was ruled under the
philosophy of creating productive and efficient Bel-
gianized Africans. There was a push for Belgian edu-
cation, embodied in state-subsidized Roman Catholic
mission schools. The Belgian state was most con-
cerned with an exploitation type of trade, manifested
by removing the resources it could from the Congo to
the profit of Belgian business and to the detriment of
people indigenous to the Congo area. Many Congolese
people died during this time.

Although the French language unifies the topic
of Francophone Africa, it is important to point out
that it is an artificially applied commonality. Students
of French should also be made aware, apart from the
exploiting aspects of colonialism, that unique and
developed cultures existed and indeed still exist in the
areas of French and Belgian colonization. Although
much of the population in these countries speaks
French, opening a vast world for communication by
speakers of French, students must be aware that they
also speak many other languages including Wolof,
Sangho, Yoruba, and Somali. These cultures should
not be mistakenly grouped as one African culture as
was done during colonialism. One way to introduce
these concepts is through the variation of French in
each country, especially where the local languages
and cultures have altered the ways in which French is

Differences in French in Africa
Just as English is spoken differently in dif-
ferent English speaking countries, French has also
evolved in the different Francophone countries. While
changes in vocabulary are more drastic in some coun-
tries, the indigenous or other official languages have
influenced the spoken French. A different cultural
setting may also necessitate the development of new
vocabulary or alternate definitions to existing words,
as well as different standards for formality in spoken
language. Certainly, this phenomenon happens within
France itself in the development of slang, etc.
When teaching standard French, it is important, but
also fun, to point out how real speakers throughout
the world have adapted the language. Because of-
ficial French is regulated by the Acad6mie Franqaise,
alternate words from other francophone countries may
not be included in a students basic dictionary. A good
source for discovery of this kind of vocabulary and
usage is, of course, French speakers from the Franco-
phone countries themselves, especially those who are
aware of "official" or "textbook" French. Some other
sources are tourist guides, both in printed and Internet
forms, which usually include a section on common
or useful phrases. Also, there are dictionaries dedi-
cated to "Francophone" French, which include terms
used by French speakers worldwide. The examples of
altered French are numerous and vary from country
to country. Please refer to the chart on pg.17 to see
examples of the alterations made to French in Franco-
phone West Africa.

-Demougin, Jacques, ed. Dictionnaire Universel
Francophone. Paris: Hachette, 1997.

-Hudgens, Jim and Richard Trillo. West Africa: The
Rough Guide. London: Rough Guides, 1999.

-Martin, Phyllis M. and Patrick O'Meara, ed. Africa.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

-Oliver, Roland and Michael Crowder, ed. The Cam-
bridge Encyclopedia of Africa. Cambridge: Cam-
bridge University Press, 1981.

-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French language
-httn://www cia. ov/cia/nnublications/factbook/



Study of a foreign language mthe element
zhoolallows sdeni loe am anewlanguage atthe
optmum age Researchshows that there is a diec
coielatonibetween the lene lgtof tune spent study
language andlhe language profnciency the stidenis
st,11s are
when leamr
study ma
foreign lan
guagebullds Attheuhea~Lu.henP ahkIhool
elfesteemi rd inahilbutie children akotaus
andcolif~ Ir u cu d aor Kkda i L ul Luth

sos W are hope fi l tha our stdens will be hgly
moivatedandenthusiastc about leannganother
V acknowledge tatagreatinjustce was
done to Af&cansdmng and after slavery Tis pm-
Sei affolds us the opportuxty to include
anAfnc an language in ourcuculunand
provide ourstuidenis wih a velhcle lha
maypositively impact the interculiral
S vews and relattorbonps

& aimini-
t English
nChu ah

There are several positive benefits of teachng
a foreignlanguage inte elemenlay school ersonal
expenence and te resources available led us to select
Swahli as our foreignlanguage The foreignlanguag
cumlculawillbe inegraed into the aferschoolpro-
gram Facultyparicipationwillbeakeycomponent n
thesuccess of lheprogram
I spentamont Kenya several years ago
Most of my tte was spentnLamu Though many
peoplepo o Englishtere were many who waned
to converse e but were ablee to because I did not
speak Swahil Thatwas afrustratngexpenence Ire-
gretted tat I did no leam more of the language before
going to Kenya
LearngIKisvwallh wll allow us to ncopo-
rae a second language min our core cuaculum les-

Enye Umbo La Ya
Bumlu, SamawaMt

Dnect Instructon Lesson Plan Gued Practce

Grade K5
Ifearmng OIectives
1 Studentswillleamnew Sw'ahi words
2 Students wll le a o say the numbers 1-0 inSwa-
3 Students will mathemacal operation andwnte
the answer m Swahi
4 Students will drw label and colorgeome

Sunsline Slate Sladards
Mater ylsp
cabulary list colored pencils paper worksheet

The M uhc aLuthean Frh School n Tanzcn
Irm ge cu has oFa u rMa&fi St be aul a he an church

Student Grouping
Introducton Whole Group
Presentation Whole Grup
Guded Practe Wole Group
Independent ractie Individual

Today we are going to leamsome new Swahil words
andleamohow to countfiomone throughtenmSwahl-
i Alsowe aidosome athematcal operations and
wnte theanswer in Swah Thene l draw color
and label some gomeric shapes

Sayeachof the vocabulary words Then repeatthem
agamn having the students my each word after you

Handout worksheets to te students Guide them
throughpproblems number 7and 10

Independent Practie
Instruct students to solve e remain g problems on
theirworksheeindependently Cuculate around e
class for individual help

Collect e worherets at the end of he class
and asess each student individual


Snpe Math Swalh


I) sil + mbl=

2) no e + atu=

3) ajmo+nmbOi


4) slas- mban =

5) nae- sbal

6) kunui-bt


8) laho*mnih=

9) iatuf*atl-

Draw, color, and label the following
geometric shapes.

10.) Square

12.) Circle

11.) Triangle

13.) Oval

Students from the summer 2005 Jambo Institute try on
different types of African clothing. This institute is a two week
long Swahili language and culture program hosted by the Cen
ter for African Studies at UF for high school students.


-Curtain, Helena, et al. (1988). Languages and Chil-
dren, Making the match: Foreign Language Instruc-
tion in the Elementary Classroom. Reading, MA:
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

-Fuchsen, M. (Spring), 1989). "Starting Language
Early: A Rationale," in FLESNEWS 2 (3), ppl, 6-7.

-Haskins, James. Count Your Way Through Africa.
Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1989.

-Perrot, D. V. Teach Yourself Swahili Dictionary.
Kent: McGraw- Hill, 1965.



InSeptember 2004 the Handsping Puppet etnc group mcentlr Mali Theyare one of the
Company of SouthAfnc aand the SogolonPuppet largest etnc groups today win 25 million people
Troupe of Maliopened the collaboramve show Tafl The generalfonn who peifos thetunime of year
Horse "The show uses many types ofpuppety live even the ie of dayofthe puppely radittonswas
actors music dance and video producon The well established by the end of the nineteenth
tour began in SouthAfnca andtaveledt iough century Mary Jo Amoldi aSmithsomanschol-
Europe and the USA An exlhbit of Malian pup- ar of Afncan Arts and a specialist on Mahlan
pets asheldconcunently puppetry refers to the practice as Iasquer-
The sumaery of the produce on as provided ades' since there is no distnctton between
by the Handspnng Puppet Company is as masks full-body costume and puppets in
follows Tall Horse is based on the life of a Malian culture The practice of peiforming
giraffe thatwas caughtinsouthe I Sudan Uaken masquerades became part oft he Banana
up the River Nile in a felucca (a narrow boat) tradition only after the y sufted from a waror
andslupped across Ithe Medi eirnean bythe lifestyle to anagragnanhunterwayof life
Viceroy of Egypt to be presented as a git to the l he BosO an ethmc group livn in the Segou
Knof France ItwineredinMarselles andinm regionofMall iscreditedwim having first
the spnngof 1827 ook severalmonths to walk peiformnned the masquerades The Boso have
to Pans creating a sertonalong he roue tIaditsonally been fisher people Theirmas-
an inme say inspired the designof te Elffel querades considered theoldestbyallgroups
Tower The story of this extraodinary oumney who engage in masqueradesqueradeaditto were
is told by the giraffe's handle Alit who with made of never grss The Bnana naovated the
wit anduony te prets ls hisdiscovery of France mrntcate camin of the adminedrodpuppets sill
in thus multimedia production being made today
For Adnan Kohler and Basil Jones The Bamana were compelled to shift from war-
founders of Handspig the giraffe represents e nor acivittes to agnculture and huntm with the
all hngs Afncanbonoedand /or taken by onset of French colomalisim Before the French ar-
Europe from the artists ongos of Cubism nvedd the Bamana peifonnme d e keleko np&e, a
and modem dance and ]azzto the natural wardance The Bamana incoiorated hei values
ressuices (gold diamonds hu- PuFeromsthe eaanasoupd Mald adstones ih o the masquer-
man beings) taken before and ima fcumainT mi aml ltheam11was adea wiach were less thrieat-
dunng colomalism ForSouth emngand drew less attention
Afncans the endeavoralso represents re-coruectton from the French
with the rest ofAfnca Seems anemottona highly There are and have been many pup-
charged topic To address such a topic no method pet peifonnances that occur duni the diy season
may be better qualified to open the discussion than the November to May but te most public is the sego
BambaraBamana) puppet raditton peifonned by the ealento, or young men's ass-

B mumana Pu pery
The Bamanau also called Bambara are an

clarion The produchon of te puppet masquerades is
part of larger cumcinr l for the young men (there is
a parallel orgarzatron for young women) wluch

mcludes public works projects and conuiunt l agn- life force Mary Jo Amoldi arguesh tat becauseofthe

culture or fishg actlvite depending on the pnmary
occupattonof ones ethuc group Each ethuc group
mamlains tleir own knlen on Te umque aspects
ofeachetucity ae proudly mc orporatedmto the
masqueiade peifo dances however mceraindo-
maims suchas he workplace schools or mosques
etc affiation does not play a major rolem affe ct
n socialrelationlshps Although the malkn o hee
puppets is done entirely insecre however te creators
will discusscasuallywtfnends andotherpuppetee rs
he mnovations or seek te cncal advice DuEingl he
performances the men perfornmwith he puppets and
the women fonn the chorus tat
tells the story (th puppet are
voiceless andvanother group of
men perform with drs)
Each year the young men
create a new masquerade based
on what hey lea ned about te
puppets that caame before New
stonesare old based on he
stones hatms ce before andale
updated aciordg to what the
puppeteer and the choirs be-
lieve o be relevant topics There
is so much specific sybolista
unpared by the design of the
masquerade the moverments of
the puppeteer the tempo of thee
smpn g and druiang that thee
unpressioi o any given audi-
enc e me ber depends heavily on
s etouncity occupation age I
andender These masquer- Annufm I o
ades fu inon as what V way a ri
Idenfy as a town hall meeting snasecwrn
but because the presentation
is theatuical everyone m th con urty across age
gender etna and cil boundaries can be part o
the conversation because everyone has other own eyes
endears Nw th which to wness the same aquede
Recent masquei des have mcorporated such subjects
as divorce anr polygaamy while amtang references
to coenuonher eang de tlauscity
The masquerades also communicate mncstal
nonas and expectation to the young They evoke a
connectronat i tl past Hunter sare portrayedas
heroes The sogofnor darkanruialsofthe bushare
fearedand respected because of elr greatrsenth or

heroic role of hunters mhemasqueades the Bamana
easly adapted thenr waors to these roles
Masquerades also have played an iportant
role m indigenous religious practices however these
aie kept secret Piacftioners at the highest spitual
levels of theee masquerade pefo olyfor oer
masters because of the powerful nature of he pup
pets and the act of involkng vanous spints The nature
of the masqueade especially the most public soo
oa changes wthe hem uies The perforances attract
attention from tounsts and scholars alhe a goupof
business people inhe Segou region have orgar ed
Ua yearly festival (www festi-
valsegou org) nmc oroiatng the
performances i to the discussion
on how to create a sustainable

TnlHois, aman ,and world

Yaya Coulibaly is a Baanan
puppet master and founder of the
SogolonPuppet Troupe of Mal
The members of lis family have
beenmaster puppeteers for seven
generations He began lis ap-
prenucesulp to lhs father when
he was ten He later studied at
the Bamako National nusts ute of
the Ars and at the Institute de la
Manonnetle miFrance Besides
being a maser puppeteer he
is oftencited as he cusodian
of the largestcollecton (over
1000) of mdenous puppets

k nth Abw

in he world some datg from
the neteenth century The publicity he has received
as aresultof l Ni Horse has caused lhimto begin the
enormous project of budding and solictng funds for
center to restore nainiL, and provide educational
opportumnb es base d around lns collect ton of puppets
The collaboration of SouthAfnca Hand-
spnng Puppet Company and Coulibaly' Sogolon
Puppet Troupe has lasted ive to sven years Melding
he styles was not a process that anyofthe collabora-
tors wanted o gloss over The Mahan puppet tra-
ttonsare m general much more physical and impro-
visational hanl anhe Russian and Eropean lruenced

Handspring styles. The actual making of the puppets
also had to be done in person, as opposed to the new
norm of electronically or physically sending sketches
and comments back and forth. Coulibaly described the
collaboration as "two lungs with one heart. "Coulibaly
does not make any sketches or plans, he goes directly
to carving the puppets out of wood. The political and
controversial nature of the subject matter, that is,
Africa's gifts to Europe through the eyes of Africans,
fits right in with the Bamana puppet traditions of
encouraging tolerance and acceptance of diversity. The
Bamana masquerade performances also promote a re-
flection by the individual of her role in society, as well
as the dynamics of the society as a whole. In a new
century, when the oldest members of society recall co-
lonialism in their furthest memories, and most people
have vivid memories of a post-colonial era, we must
use the past as prologue to form new relationships,
both between African countries and between Africa
and Europe and the United States. There are issues to
be addressed, but, as Coulibaly said, "When you want
to change history, all of history must have a say."
Every culture in the world has developed some
form of puppet theater. One reason, generally held to
be true by puppeteers is that puppets are allowed to
say things that human actors could not as easily get
away with, therefore they are a means of critical com-
mentary. Also, the puppets can portray acts that are
impossible for human actors, from acrobatics to gruel-
ing fight scenes to flight. Puppets also represent the re-
lationship of man and god and are therefore a conduit
to the supernatural. We may invoke our connection
to the divine by exploring our
connection with the puppet.


-Kennedy, Dennis, ed. Oxford Encylopedia of Theatre
and Performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2003, pp. 1083-1087.

-Kennedy, Dawn. "Puppetry is the Soul of the People
of Mali." Cape Times, September 14, 2004. Accessed
at The Independent Online, http://www.iol.co.za.

-Asch, Leslee. "The Giraffe that Conquered Paris."
American Theatre, May/June 2005, Vol. 22, Issue 5, p.

-Arnoldi, Mary Jo. African Material Culture: African
Systems of Thought. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana
University Press, 1996, pp. 167-187.

-Arnoldi, Mary Jo. "Somono Puppet Masquerades in
Kirango, Mali. "African Arts, Spring 2001, Vol. 34
Issue 1, p. 72.

-Arnoldi, Mary Jo. "Political History and Social Com-
mentary in Malian Sogbo Theatre. "Africa Today,
1994 2nd Quarter, Vol. 41 Issue 2, p. 39.


A South African Masquerade
Image courtesy of http//www joburg org za/


Hioal BcKgoudn l
Forover 5 000 years the peoples ofAfnca the
Middle ast and India have used hen for a myncad of
purposes HeNla is conside red to be a symbol of love
eternalyout hfless property andlong life In 1998
henna as an ait fonm beeaie more popular in the st
when celebntaes such as Madoma sported it nl her
music video "Ray of Light Hem vwas brought as a
gift from the Egyptans to Queen Multaz who ruled
India m1ne 1600'
She was the first Idian

withhem nna Eptian
mumnuesfrom 1200
BCwere found to have
hem on their wingers
andtoes Atthe IBnt
ishMuse uiLondon,
you can view paintings
from the New Kingdo
Penoa cuca 1050 Be
where the songtreses
of mun-le are depict
ed with hema painted
naels Amamucer l
fledscnbe (1400 BC) Ihadfn- Afin.
genael stained with m te hm e s aa
Phaaoo' hands and fe et were
dippedmnhema pnrtom m fc patonto deter fn-
galloorand male L thcam ppearmore Iafeble It
lo condithonedthe s and prevented it from drw-
ixfback The yoae fiunOd evidence thatgroup of
Neolituc people mCatalHuulL from the he 7mlen
mum BC i Iose a te Sinae usedhemiamfestivals
to honor the ferttyoddess Itwas also usedma
Si fu~ nerl iln io~~Gn Medievalpamttngsh
porifayedtheieenofSheba decorated wit hem ion
her lourbey to meet Solomon Hiea led



'Camplre"mtllhe Bible is mentonedlmthe Song
of Solomon aswellas mtie Thamud Hema is also
Smownas "Al-Khanna," "Almemia "amaicaMi-
gnonette "'Meehnd> 'eendee "'EgyptanriPnvet
and "Smooth Lawsona "Lawsoa Inenmsis its
botanical name It was named after Issac Lawson an
8thcenituryScotlshalmydoctorwho was afnend
of Carl Linnaeus Carl Linaeus (1707-1784) was
a famous doctor and
botamnst who livewI
stdie Iand traveled
in purut of fwndmg
plant for rnew me dical
brealthroughs erHemias

mals out of vulnerable
or valuable gardII ne
The siribI can grow up
to 7 meters mheight
andproduces extremely
Sg ntf o d owners and
heln ( cna ahoe p es wich lander and persuade
levas ncrease huer e planinals to goyelsewhered
ass eHe rae grows in are as we re in-
mumptemperatuces are above 50 F (11 C) It thmves
pinmanlymlow moistucee areas wt lghheat life
NortheArn onld the Middle East and parts of India
Itwellgrow mother mited areasbut he tam le
els (which cause pigmientathon) wel be lower Faman
levels inerease after the plant is to years old and the
laghest wahnilevels are foundinthe youngerleaves
Flowing will not tape place unil the plant is fve
to sixyears old and the thors grow durmxgdonnant
penods after two years


The Prophet Mohammed's favorite scent wvs heia and olive oil ae aidio work best Once the powder

He used henna in hs hair and beard and liked hIs
wives to color the nails wiv it People around the
worldconiue to use helnna for cosimeic purposes
suchashairdye InAfnca whereitis rooledmi a-
dition, people sll use itforedicinalhealing and
spintual purposes Hea is inexpensive and readily
available andis us dthoughoutNorthIemAfnca

Over the centunes henna has become
knownas an inmtncae art fonn nch min
symbolism uen d pinanlyf
emonies and to ward off evil
spints Henna as probably
applied as a method of cool
mi the body te ipermfae
Many believe that fon r

mi that body de co
tlon came about by

hi s or f a inL Mo roc CO
chance dunngamiredi-

However as CmLodemL day soclel IS wipIng OUl old CU
calfominction Tle eoslty
being the fapoaton of e de pi
tis andalisnt pand beaupo

fue of lhenn ir fessironal
hfe devawsts are oi calvedr

s an pimpo haaart ofwedingceeihes w hee we
inde's h ads i cl eeor an decoaas ed e made of

poweehenardw loves ixed whn at mascui nede

sin s ae uskallyd c be replied o mall i dakegn
However asmodemday societyiswipingoutoldecus-
toms itisusedmostlybywomerL chcldrenanditeens

Thhennapoplicawonf be mh aed woe otreqsuberc
io gandisernt paicolorosoosa l er ls samostpopular
use of shubi is for'meeddixgs and bndal preparmton

Thove desio arfe moe onate an cover lale areas
of athew body especially these a and e edHend Sart
is an impoitant part of my ddio ceremomes where the
bnde hands and feetare decorated Apasce made of
poweredheancleaves nuxedwithbot waterisapplied
to the shin and allowed to dry Vflien pushed it will
stain the ship and can be reapplied to neae it darker
The hanci powder can be mixed with other substances
to get different colors or a longer lastng stion Sugar
olive oi coffee tet indigo cloves and lemon juice
are a few of the substances that can be added Sugar

is thoroughly mxed, you should wan at le ast an hour
(but no more than 24) before applying it Some for-
mulas lake days for the dye o be released and the n
it can be applied Some say it can be refrigerated to
increase the longevity Henpa needs to be stored ma
cool dry placewhere itwill notbeexposed o the sun
which weakens the potency It is then usually exruded
through a cone shaped bag The siam can last any-
where from 2 lo 12 weeks depending on the quality
andcannot be removedwit soap andwaler As your
sklmexfoliates the design will beminto fade away
kicker ski like
t Many Afncans
pae nis tend to
rge geometical
M "ample Swaplii
Len use designs
sting of large bold
tteis while other
tend to be based
people and aramels
o fish Some
uuqu1' u o'uuuuck, proleclon
from the Evil Eye and in (desert
spins orgemes) female camara-
denre andbeauty Stencils are available forthose who
are astically challenged Patenis were also pamted
onio anmual skins to make drums and lamps as well
as on horses during festivals or warfare Henna was
usedto dye fabnc andextles Sil wool and other
maenals are dyed by makg a decoction (boiled
extract) Diferent colors could be attained by adding
pigments and mmerals such as indo The common
colors arevarying shades of yellow ed and brown
The exilesare givenabathmi wlch thy are sb-
meged and healed to set te color The dye is perma-
nent whenapplied o fabric texlles and wood Egyp
ttan heroglyphs were made by using pigments and
mineralsfoundinnature Egyp)tan usdhenna, clay
and urnne o form some of the pamt they used in the
tombs Sometmnes sip or amal fault were used instead
of unne as the binder

Althoughno one knowsexactly when hnnan was
first usedio decoralte the body they know thiatancient

Egyptians as early as 3400 BC used it to dye their
nails, hair, lips and beards. Many Egyptians shaved
their heads for hygienic reasons and wore wigs dyed
with henna. Working class Egyptians had their hands
and feet dipped into henna to form a solid cover-
ing, which differed from the ornate designs used for
weddings and other celebrations. Historians arguably
claim that it's been used for at least 5,000 years in
cosmetics and for medicinal purposes. When chewed,
the twigs would form a brush which whitens teeth
and the bark would then stain the lips red. Oil derived
from the henna flower was used to scent the hair and
skin. Henna blossoms have been used in perfumes
since 1500 BC. The oil is used in perfumes that sup-
posedly smell similar to jasmine, rose, and mignon-
ette. This oil is also used to groom hair and massaged
onto the face and body to improve the complexion
and alleviate aching muscles. The most widely use of
henna cosmetically is in hair dye. It's now used world
wide. African women use henna in a paste form to
dye their graying hair. It also serves as a conditioner
that improves the shine and strength. Henna was used
to cover scars and to treat vitiligo (pale patches on the
skin where pigment is lost). Dying the nails not only
prevented infection, it made nails smooth and stronger,
which was important when sewing or weaving. Henna
is revered as one of the safest cosmetics ever used.

Spiritual/ Celebrations
The art of henna is now practiced in some nine
religions including Hindu, Sikh, Jewish, Muslim,
Christian and Pagan. Berber tribes of North Africa
were known to use henna tattoo designs to ward off
evil forces that could enter through the eyes, nose and
mouth. They painted their feet also, to protect them-
selves from evil spirits left behind in footprints called
'soul material'. Researchers believe Ancient Egyp-
tians, believed that the naturally derived substances
of ochre, blood and henna had qualities that improved
human awareness of the earth's energies. Therefore
they applied it to help keep people in touch with their
Throughout time, henna has been associated with
celebrations such as weddings, naming ceremonies,
circumcision, rites of passage, war, pregnancy, the
eighth month of pregnancy, birth of a child, the 40th
day after a child's birth, Eids and other religious
holidays. During Eids, women tried to look their best
by wearing new clothes, 24 karat gold and applying
henna to their hair, hands and feet. In Northern Ni-

geria, they dye horses' tails, manes and hooves red
to celebrate Mohammed's birthday, Eids and the end
of Ramadan. The Zar in North Africa used it in their
healing ceremonies. Weddings are probably the most
common celebration where Moslem and non-Moslems
alike used henna. It is said that a wedding without
henna is no wedding at all. It's like a birthday with-
out a cake or balloons. The 'Night of Henna' parties
practiced by Sudanese women are where the bride is
pampered, washed, and her hands and feet are deco-
rated with intricate patterns or symbols. Sometimes
these patterns cover large areas of her body. These
are believed to bring love, health, prosperity, safety in
childbirth, protection from harmful spirits, and assure
happiness in death. In some countries like Morocco,
they hide the initials of the bride and groom in the pat-
terns. If he is able to find them on the wedding night it
will bring him luck. If he's unable to find it, it signifies
that the bride will dominate their relationship. It is also
believed that the darker the dye is the more she will be
loved by her mother-in-law. The bride isn't expected
to work until the henna stain disappears. The married
women share the secrets of marriage with the bride-
to-be the day before she is to be married.
When a child was born in Siwa Oasis, Egypt, they
would keep her secluded from everyone except her
midwife. Seven days after the child's birth relatives
would bring food to eat in honor of Saint Sulayman.
The child would be named by the mother, if it was a
girl. If it was a boy, the father would name him. Once
the child was named, the people were allowed to have
a look. The midwife would mark the child with hen-
na on the child's cheeks, nose and legs to protect him
from the Evil Eye, which could attack him through
their admiring gazes. The marks would appear as im-
perfections to the Evil Eye making him less desirable.
Women would bring a large clay bowl to the mother's
room and fill it with silver and water. The silver and
water were to distract the Evil Eye. They believed the
Evil Eye was attracted to the blood of childbirth, the
health and fertility of the mother, the joy of the family,
as well as the beauty of the child. They then recited
blessings to bring good health and happiness. The
women would then raise and lower the bowl seven
times and then smash it. After it shattered, the Evil
Eye was expelled and the mother and child were safe.
Siwan families celebrated circumcision by
shaving shaving the boy's head, and applying henna to
his hands. They would invite friends and family to eat
and receive gifts. The parents would sacrifice a sheep


to celebrate this rite of passage. If they were wealthy,
they would invite the whole village. They would take
him the following day to Tamusi Spring for cleansing
and return him home, dress him in his finest clothes
and place him on the bed. He would then be circum-
cised by the barber or someone skilled with knives and
have henna smeared on the circumcision to ward off

Henna is sometimes called the 'Magic Plant'
because of its healing properties. Henna was used
to treat a vast number of ailments from beriberi to
infections. Mixing fresh leaves with vinegar or lime
juice and bandaging them to the soles of the feet
had a cooling effect for a symptom of beriberi called
'burning feet'. It was used as a sunscreen, to treat
burns, ulcers, insect stings and wounds. An ointment
made from the small fruit was used for itching. It also
was used to treat dandruff, eczema, jaundice, scabies
and fungal infections. Staining fingernails kept away
infections due to exposure to soggy irrigated fields.
Oil derived from the henna flower when applied to
the forehead treated headaches. The seeds were used
to cure fevers. Ground leaves could be applied to sore
joints to cure rheumatism. Powdered leaves have been
used to treat intestinal amoebiasis- a protozoan infec-
tion of the intestine. The oil of the flower was used
to relieve muscular pains and bruises. It was used as
an astringent, detergent, to cool the scalp and skin.
Some Africans stained their hands and the bottoms
of feet during the summer months to keep cool. Also,
the henna flower was used as a sedative and to induce
sleep. Henna leaves, seeds and oil were used as a de-
odorant, anti-perspirant and to regulate menstruation.
Henna bark was used to treat jaundice, enlargement of
the liver and spleen. Henna bark as well as the shoots,
leaves and flowers were used to treat smallpox and
leprosy. Sterility and loss of passion is said to be cured
by simply inhaling the flowers scent.
In rural Morocco, some women were known to
wash their babies only with henna and olive oil until
they were two years of age. This was done because
they believed evil spirits were in the water bringing
death and sickness. Later, they realized the infec-
tions, diarrhea, and cholera came from pollutants in
the water. It's used today in Africa and around the
world as part of the Ayurvedic System to treat certain
forms of cancer and protect sickle cells from damage.
The henna is also used throughout the world to mark

the body for radiation. It doesn't leave a permanent
reminder, and ensures accuracy in treating isolated
tumors. The United Kingdom has a patent on its anti-
microbial uses. Ancient civilizations had to use herbal
medicine to survive. The African people's ingenuity
and skill is still being unraveled today. Traditions, left
unwritten, handed down from generation to generation
are becoming the marvels of modern day science.

Suggested Activities

- Plan a Kwanzaa Celebration
Plan to incorporate parents and community. Have eth-
nic food, music, clothes, book discussion and speakers
if possible; do a KWL chart on Africa and its celebra-

- Make a cartouche
This one could be adapted. Use the Egyptian symbols
for numbers instead of the alphabet. Great for alge-
braic thinking and expanded notation.

-Make paper hennaed hands

Florida Sunshine State Standards
Applications to Life
Standard 1: The student makes connections between
the visual arts, other disciplines, and the real world.

Creation and Communication
Standard 1: The student creates and communicates
a range of subject matter, symbols, and ideas using
knowledge of structures and functions of visual arts.

Standard 1: The student engages in conversation,
expresses feelings and emotions, and exchanges opin-
ions. FL.A.1.2

Standard 1: The student recognizes that languages

have different patterns of communication and applies
this knowledge to his or her own culture. FL.D. 1.2
Standard 2: The student recognizes that cultures have
different patterns of interaction and applies this knowl-
edge to his or her own culture. FL.D.2.2

Standard 1: The student understands the relation-
ship between the perspectives and products of culture
studied and uses this knowledge to recognize cultural
practices. FL.B.1.2

Standard 1: The student reinforces and furthers knowl-
edge of other disciplines through foreign language.

Standard 1: The student uses foreign language within
and beyond the school setting. FL.E.1.2

Time, Continuity, and Change [History]
Standard 1: The student understands historical chro-
nology and the historical perspective. SS.A. 1.2

Standard 2: The student understands the world from
its beginnings to the time of the renaissance. SS.A.2.2

The Nature of Science
Standard 3: The student understands that science,
technology, and society are interwoven and interde-
pendent. SC.H.3.2
Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations
Standard 2: The student understands number systems.
Listening, Viewing, and Speaking
Standard 2: The student uses viewing strategies effec-
tively. LA.C.2.2

profile. html
ries/0, 1413,212-829877,00.html
text=ethiopia_axum. htm

-Shanks, Hershel. In the Temple of Solomon and the
Tomb of Caiaphas. Biblical Archaeology Society,

-Fakhry, Ahmed. Siwa Oasis. The American Univer-
sity in Cairo Press, 1973.

-Beauty in History

-The Encyclopedia of Henna


Theoughoutpre-colonialAfncagoods were
produced and consumed while excess goods vwe sold
ortraded In early time stadingmarkets developed as
places where exchanges could be made more easily
Markets were of two types small village mar-
kets and larger markets situated on the borders be-
tween different geographical zones (forest and savan-
nai for example) or between two ethic groups such
as the Gkoyui
and the Masal
(iVcms 1981)
en ou markets
were prevalent
fewe xceptionl
Liberina south
west Ivory Coast
and the plate au
Even m these
areas people
and benefited
of contsguous
areas (SInrainer 1964) h erhe
Some ple-coloraal
rural markets of )bwst Afnca operated dailly In Nige-
na every vifulage and town lhad a market which oper-
ated thoughout the day Dally markets were local
exchange points Penodic markets were held on a
cyclical basis which allowed traders to attend different
markets on different days (alola 1986 105)
Markets msouthem nca were mtially not
as well developed as in )bst nca (BohaQlon, 1964
p2A06) but there vasmuchtsade The Tsong coast

alpeople traveled by canoe up e Limpopo C(icis
"The basic foirmand function of markets
(especially open-air makes) re in a stung contnu-
ityacrio both time andplace (SplerandBaum
1994) Marke sa eacustomarypailoflfe throughout
muchofthe world They are gathering places People
visit markets for many reasons A market is a hub of
socialactvity as
well as a place
toexchange or
purchase goods

of Ghana re
ar ngedin a
poenrm a so
ci rldfncton by
maln it easy to
ftndones fnenda
to have a drnns
S to ndo iames-
sate io a village
orto fidhlp
when needed
(Slinner 1962)
eas the Shoaw u l have dalsoplayed a
role meducatng
culdren ClefrAyonnde who peciabzes inmoroba
folklore indicates m attemarketwasim portantin
teaching cialden about numbers counttngand money
Cidrn leamed o buy andsellm thecompany of
their mothers and were simeties allowed to sell
wares of the i own to help gain confidence and as a
testofthe r understnd nofthe value of money
Market are stu promient inmany modem
Afncancitsels aAbidla, Cote D voe is home to the



National Musem m and te National Umversity of the have mdepeidesntalls Makets are colorful vibrant

Ivory Coast Here you wll find apartments over mod-
em stores as well as a large openmarket The market
m the Trichville district is famous for it extensive
vanety offoods vendors called'inaqus" hawk
fresh flit and spicy dishes SShoppers are expected
o bagamin or haggle One can also find i doctors
whomaske m nsg3s orgoodluck chaums fromsuch
objects as fuliandaranal teeth Thistrs ie m Kwa-
zulu-Naal as well where VWArwickSteetTangle
and Multi-Market the
largestof its and intlle
southemhenusphere .
offers igmht intoe many ,
haditonal be e fa lnd
cultural practices Some
vendors come from
deep rural areas al nd
poseas a wealth of
boteianal and zoolovl
calrmowledge whach is
ofmereasg interest e
westem rphannaceutal H
companies s (erwent
Daore is a
majorportand capital vA o modern
of Senegal Atthe city eenI
ter teres anopena all market where shoppers can
puchase locallygrownfiootstditsonal medicines
hanTd woven aebncs and art work tamen ainve by
bus and some on rot fom nearby famunng and fush-
imga ages balancmg straw baskets and plastic basint
filed vtli pimeapple peanuts and fsh ontheir head "
(Claaory 1987) Their vares ar displayed nextto arll
cornditlonedbans offices and restaurants
InI l904Durbam SouthAfncahadxtAf- d
ncantstders and twsenty-fve eatmg stIlls m tle Grey
Steetaea "A l924census showedover220oAfn-
caintereders themajontyofwhom eremeatlsellers
herbats andgewnereal hawkersThilhman 2005) Tmday
almostevery townha it little craftmarket some
markets are 11 Imown Cape Town' Green Mbarket
Squareisalegend HereyouwillfndcClotlng shoes
jeallyandrmore Brui Marketisreputedtobe
tle largest in tlee southemh smisphere You willfifd
piecesfom all overAfnca
The marketplaysanimportantrole mfood
distibuthoninpar0ofAfnca Someurbanmarkets
can cover several squaome miles Urie emallp vendors

and excixg At tunes some markets may seem cha-
otc but there is usually some orgazatlion or her-
archyandlocal customs andpractces varywidely
wiiun ite contnentof4 counties fhat isfoiund
atone market place would not necessary be found
at another The people of NorthAfnca are sikled m
pottery-marg and carpet eavng In Taingier locally
producedodranges and other fruits and vegetables are
forsale InSenegal melor nspeppers exotc fruits
and vegetables are sold
..: Bargaipmngis expected
hmmanry mrkels but in
some places, prices may
be hxed In some areas
w vendors may be pushy
bywestemstndardes m
other areas tela vswuld
h .beconsidered rde In
Cal eroont a wealley
person would be e xsect
ed to pay more han an
average school teacher
w and a poor person may
be given things for free
a A market may be ditn-
bA ond aepona gof gishedbyhavmingordyl
women sellers or ordy men
sellers In sme a eas omen and men sell together In
Senegaland MaII it is usual for women to sell texales
clothes fimsh and foo wl men sell ele ctioic goods
religious effect houaholdfinuse ngs andtounst art
Tradiuonally markets in meey areas have been pre
dovemnantly the doman of wo men and have se died as
an avenue of social lpmobflty for women Those who
ad adept can become quite affluent
In some traitional marketplaces a slhme can
be fund The purpose of the slcrue is to mamtam
peace in the marketplace Hovwvee most markets
have a leader in care of setting disputes In Kuas
Gha rhetonc al strategies busdmhand mgmarket
disputesmarknslogelders as candidates forfut ure
leadership posdtiors
Markets are meeting places for diverse groups
of people Here too there maybe a meeting of the
iundas diffeg thoughts andideas ar exchanged
Markets idrew people together rcral and uba young
and old Manly social exchanges take place m the
course of bu)ring and sell m the marketrlace At
the marketcialrlen leam throughUeexosuet o dif-

ferent kinds of people, useful lessons about life and
society (Langdon, et al, 1990).
When choosing children's literature to teach
about markets, beware of stereotypes! In addition, be
certain that you include not only the rural and tradi-
tional, but the modern, urban setting as well. Listed
below are some good choices for early elementary. A
lesson plan designed for kindergarten

Book List
-Alakija, Polly. Catch That Goat. Cambridge, Massa-
chusetts: Barefoot Books, 2002.

-Bulion, Leslie. Fatuma's New Cloth. West Rockport,
Maine: Moon Mountain Publishing, 2003.

-Chocolate, Debbi. Kente Colors. London: Walker
Books, 1997.

-Cowen-Fletcher, Jane. It Takes a Village. New York:
Scholastic, 1994.

-Daly, Niki. Jamela's Dress. London: Frances Lincoln
Ltd., 2000.

-Daly, Niki. What's Cooking, Jamela? London: Fran-
ces Lincoln Ltd., 2002.

-Daniel, Jamie, Stillman Rogers, Barbara Radcliffe
Rogers. South Africa is My Home. Gareth Stevens
Pub, 1992.

-Kitsao, Jay Mcheshi Goes to the Market. Rio Vista,
California: Jacaranda Designs, Ltd., 2002.

-Stuve-Bodeen, Stephanie. Elizabeti's Doll. Lee &
Low Books, 1998.

-Stuve-Bodeen, Stephanie. Mama Elizabeti. Lee &
Low Books, 2000.

-Winter, Jeanette. My Baby. New York: Farrar, Straus,
& Giroux, 2001.

-Ayittey, George. "A Free Market and Free Trade Tra-
dition in Pre-colonial African Society. "

-Chiasson, John. African Journey. New York: Simon
& Schuster, 1987.

-Derwent, Sue. Cultural Tourism in South Africa. Cape
Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers, 1999.

-Devine, Elizabeth and Nancy L. Braganti. The Trav-
eler's Guide to African Customs and Manners: How to
converse, dine, tip, drive, bargain, dress, make friends,
and conduct business while in sub-Saharan Africa. St.
Martin's Press, 1995.

-Kummer, Patricia K. Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast).
Children's Press, 1996.

-Langdon, Phillip, Robert G. Shipley, and Polly
Welch. Urban Excellence. New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold, 1990.

-Martin, Phyllis and Patrick O'Meara. Africa. Bloom-
ington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1995.

-Spitzer, Theodore and Hilary Baum. "Public Markets
and Revitalization: Chapter One."http://www.openair.

-Tichman, Paul. "Grey Street, Durban: Champion &
the ICU."

-Wickins, Peter L. An Economic History of Africa
From Earliest Times to Partition. Oxford University
Press, 1981.

-Zaslavsky, Claudia. "The Yoruba Number System, "in
Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern, edited by Ivan
Van Sertima, Transaction Publishers, 1983.


-www. southafricantourism. nl/exp/urban-_markets.
at49.1 html

Fatuma's New Cloth by Leslie Bulion
Lesson Plan

1. Students will be able to name some items found in a
2. Students will identify the purpose of a market.
3. Students will learn the word "kanga" and be able
to describe patterns found on some kangas and on the
pages of the book (math).
4. Students will learn the word chaii" and will de-
scribe its taste.
5. Students will identify the lesson Fatuma learns.


1. Ask students if they have been to a market. List
things found at a market or things they think might be
found in a market.

2. Show the cover of the book, Fatuma's New Cloth by
Leslie Bulion. Discuss the following question:
Who is Fatuma? Do you think she lives in our town?
Where might she live? What might she find in a
market? etc. Read the story and discuss. Read about
the author and illustrator. Look at a map of Africa and
name some east African countries.

3. Make and drink chai using the receive in the back
of the book. As children drink their tea, have them de-
scribe its taste and have them use descriptive language
to tell what color kanga they would choose. Students
can also have a snack with their chai.

4. Have the following activity areas set up for children
to use following their snack:
* Dress up have pieces of fabric for the students to
use as kangas and a teapot with cups for chai.
* Art supply strips of inexpensive fabric (such as
muslin), fabric paints or even tempra (warn parents
not to wash with clothes.), kitchen implements such as
mashers ricers, or potatoes cut to use in making pat-
* Painting let children use watercolors to create the
"colors of the deep sea and sky", "the color of toma-
toes and the night sky," etc.
* Drawing/writing have students draw and write
about their favorite part of the story.
* Blocks/writing Students can build a market and
make signs to tell what is for sale.

5. After cleaning up, bring the children back together
to add to their list of things found in a market. Talk
about what they learned today.

6. Follow up later in the day or later in the week with
other stories about marketing (such as Mcheshi Goes
to the Market included in the book list provided).




pnncipal of
(your school) as called spe-
cial assembly She/he tells th
children that tbHe school has been
givenas umpnse gift The school
has received a gift of 35 000 for
students to travel to Boiswana,
Afnca, to parcipate m the appre-
clationof tleiiwondeijlclt ue .
The requirements before ,
the tpal that t students need 1
to mase a passport and lean' as -
much as they can about Botswana 1 a
and of course get parent penms (
slon Teachers will be chaperones* S
fortherip ith/

Lesojin Obljectives
Students wllbe able to
locate Botswana on the map
*mlow the countles mAfnca
recognize a passport
* lean' what a retreat is
* keep a oumnal
* follow a research mrbnc In Im
*reportfindm gs
*create a Jeopardy game
* lean' facis about the Botswaman
people there economy money educatonr food wild-
life and culent events
* leant how to appreciate another r culture

Passport to lwana-A WoerfulRetreat
Actinty l ?ni eachAfrancoutry

Look at te map on the previous page and label
all of te Afncan counties You may use a book to
find the answers

GradngRubnc A=45-54 conect B 44-37 conect
,= 6-25 clne tl= 2.4-212. cet F= 11-0 nirpet

I Olerif

ca *o orh-u
1 M. .
I *Eli Btl 4


IT .


2 JIra

33 MIai

31 la- il
I Iwome


I art

sa t,

1 are goi to complete 8 open ended staeents
You have 5n minutes to compslee these responses
Wnite the fisst thag tat comes to your umnd

I Afncan

7 I wouldhke o gotoAfncabecause _

8 I woldnotlket o gp o toAncabecause

Folbow upActivy

VWnie the defibton lb r the word stereotype
Discuss inis You mayalso include a athlesson
and mae a graph

Dnecamtisfor doig research about Aim

Use us nbnc to anwer question aboutAfnca when
doi you research *Each stdentwill choose teir
ownArneanca ounyto research

The Peoples ofAfrcaWorisheet

Afncais hee seconlai connttnen It is tlhee
times Ihe size of Ihe UltedStates It is dividedmto 54
dependent counbles and has hee hrd largestpopula-
ttonmi e world The landis as vanedas is people
wilh stirkm contrast and great natural wonders

Use complete seenenc es to answer he follow quest
ttons as you disc over more about the diverse people
across fis vast continent

Ae ter sme important cere rmomes or cele ba-


Isthere any other intere stn npor
tant nfoinauton ou have found?

flat is the me aing in context of the word repeat?
Sentence Botswana is a special re eat
Meang A placeaffodingpeace quiet pnvacy or
secunty or apenod of seclusion or solitude

Boswana is perfect holiday choice if you
want fo be removed from a roume ou willhave a
naturalexpenence of tanquility and peace connected
o he cosmos Anoher answer to he cll of adven-
ture isto ake anAfncansafan Whele onsafanyou
may also get a fascantng view of wildlife without
any crowds around you Your mode of transportation
would be a large beautiful elephant The route wll be
across he Kalahan e sert You can also enjoy the nv-
ersflown the crocodiles, hippos and bds Canoe-
ng is al available

For the local Baswana sport are a very
mportani part of he county s social life Soccer is
called football inBoswana There ae i en e rnvalnes
between e villages Baswana also enjoy storytellin
dancing and movie-gorn

Botswana has its own cunency Boswana has main-
laiedone of the world's highest economic growths
since there indepedece in 1966 Through fiscal
and sound
Q** ; Botswana has
t nansnfonned
itself from one
_of sth poorest
1 n l countnes m
the world to a
iuddle come county Most EBatswana wer depen-
dent on franrng until the discovery of diamonds Four
decades ofw unteiripted civilian leaders progres-
sive social policies and sig fcant capital evolve
ment has created one of the most dnaic economies
mAfnca Mineralexitrctions pmnanily diamond
mming donunates econonoc activity The people did
not go cray when tley founds te diamonds instead
hey reimvested he money in their counumse es The
people there keep reserves and do not tae wealth for
granted The people and the government work hand in
hand Tibuns is a growing sector due to consrivatton
practicesandextensrive nature reserves
On the downside the government must deal
wilthahiraes ofunemploymentandpoverty Twenty
fourpercentofthe people are unemployed butunoffi-
cialesttmatesplaceitcloserto40% HIV/AIDS also
tlneatens Boswana's impressive economic gains

People ofBolwana
There ae eightmajoretinic groups in Botsa-
na They haveaconunonhstory language andisocial
The San whose ancestors were he ongsialm-
habitanis of the count, spoke a click language which
got its name be cause of the sound produced when
the tongue its agams l the roof of the mouth The
Batswana now speak Seswana (he official language)
There are black and whiae people livn in Bo-
tswana The zeba on the coat of arms represents his
Most of Botswana's population live min smavillages
or towns Over 20% live in Gaborone he modem
capital city The first president of Boiswana was Sir
Seretse Khama He was succeeded at hus death by Sir
Ketumile Masne

The classes are small and 80% of the children
attend elementary school. Wealthy people send their
children to private schools. The University of Botswa-
na offers undergraduate education in several fields,
including educational and medical degrees.

African Jeopardy Game
By Mitchco Inc.
After the research is completed, you will create
and make your own Jeopardy Game using at least 20
of the facts learned. Note: You will read your findings
orally to the class before the game is played and your
classmates will write facts in their journal about your
African country as you read.

Directions to make and play the game:
You will need 3x5 index cards, scotch tape, a pen or
computer, and a box of markers/crayons to color the

1. Write the question on the front of the index card.
2. Make 20 small colored flags from your country
(about 1/4 the size of the index card).
3. Tape the flag on the back of the index card (top of
the flag only).
4. Write the answer to the question under the flag.

Playing Rules:
* You may divide the class into teams. The researcher
reads the question and the first person to raise their
hand (from any team) will have a chance to guess the
answer. If the response is correct, that team wins a
point. If the response is incorrect the next person to
raise their hand gets a chance to answer. If any per-
son shouts out the answer or tells their teammate the
answer, then the opposite team gets an automatic point
for their team. The team with the most points are the
* The game can also be played as a class. Students
will number their own paper from 1-20 and when the
question is given each student will write his/her own
response to each question read. After all questions are
read, students can exchange papers and all answers
will be read. The person with the most correct re-
sponses wins the game.

Jeopardy Questions (Cut and Paste Q & A -3x5 cards)
Questions and Answers

How many major ethnic groups are their in Botswana?

Who was the first president of independent Botswana?

Who was the second president of independent Botswa-

Is it true or false that black and white people live in

What is the capital of Botswana?

What percentage of children attend elementary school
in Botswana?

Is it true or false that the government and the people of
Botswana work well together?

Name three countries that border Botswana.

How many parks are there in Botswana?
Name the two parks in Botswana.

When did Botswana gain its independence from Brit-

What kind of mines are found in Botswana?

What threatens Botswana's economic growth?

What is the money from Botswana called?

Name two types of birds found in Botswana.

True or False: Gaborone is a modern capital?

True or false: Most of the San men were hunters and
the women gathered plants.

True or false: The people from Botswana give half of
the money earned from the sale of diamonds to the

What do kings hold in their hand as a traditional Afri-
can symbol of authority?

What is the national language of Botswana?

True or false: Tourism is now an industry in Botswana
to help the economy.

8 ethnic groups / President Seretse Khama / President
Ketumile Masire / True / Gaborone / 80% / True /
Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa / 2 parks /
Chobe Park and Gemstone National Park / 1966 / Dia-
mond and mineral mines / HIV/AIDS / Pula / Ostrich,
pelican, flamingo / True / True / False / A fly whisk /
Setswana / True /

Now write below what you saw in the poem, what you
heard and what you felt (you have only three minutes).

Listen to the Poem
Use three of your senses. *HEARING* SEEING*
After hearing the poem write a few sentences describ-
ing what you heard, imagined, and felt.

A Poem About a Journey
By Th6rese Mitchel

My journey to Africa
A safari of a lifetime...
Riding an elephant in the grasslands
An odyssey of all times

On the edge of the world
My heart soared
And lions roared

The wilderness was powerful!
All of my senses aware
Aware of the peace
Beauty and art everywhere

Peaceful people warm and true
Calmly welcoming me and you
Rivers, deserts, and burning sands
Rekindle spirits in the land

Cassava and grilled corn
Millet turned into a porridge called bogobe
Eat it now, and they ate it then
Batswana eat it today and everyday.

Botswana, Botswana, a jewel in this world
Minerals, diamonds and people that care
Working together as people
That is rare.


-O'Toole, Thomas. Botswana in Pictures. Mineeapo-
lis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Company, 1990.
Martin, Phyllis and Patrick O'Meara. Africa. Bloom-
ington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1995.

-Calvia Olympics Official Website
Alexandra Kosteniuk Chess Grandmaster



What are FolDlaks'
Folktales are tones" that grow out of the
lives and imagmatuons of the people They are a fonrm
of laditlonalliteratire which began as an attempt to
explain and understand the natural and spintual world

Categories of Folales
I Cmuhiitive Tas- not much plot mvolvedI but
theycanya lot of rhythm Events are
ma pattern of cadence andrepettlion

2 deImg Beast Stor stones m
wloch animals andcreatiiestal j]Ist as
humans do The stones teach a lesson
such as the rewards of courage ipgenu-
ity and independence

3 Drollsorhuimoroiales- tales
meant for fun and nornsres-sillysto-
nes They are revolved around a char-
acter that makes unbelievably fumy

4 Realicstorrsdealwithcharacters plots setlings
let are possible

5 Relbguisialesalreanother nof lhteratur efom
the oral tradition

6 Roianes- magic reurne separate lovers

7 Talesof magic- fairy lales that deal wthmagic or
enchanted m plot character rs and setlng

Elnemenits of Foilas
1 The mitoductonwichmtroduces the characters
ttme place of the story and the coraloct or problem

2 The development- actions orevents unttlit reaches



the clima where the problem or coraict will be

3 Conclusion-everying is resolved

Going BeyoiI the Follale
Throu ghout islory folkalles have been passed
on from one generaon to the next
i Folltales prepare young people for
S mlife as there are many lessOns lo be
A leanedfromtheales Folktales
0 feaires human beigs and anuinals
Individually or grouped together The
aramal take son human characteinstecs
of greed, jealousy honesty loneliness
Sand other charaltenstcs Through
he irbehaviors mearangftullessons
are leased Also the suoundings
Smwiuchtetales take place ughlight
...-.-- fl tH lustoryofaparticularculture
,BT Infolduig the history of Etlhip
In tis lesson you will see that
Etliopia has a very diverse and soplastscated folklore
Each grouphas avanetyof myths legends folktales
nddles proverbs and sayngs tlat embody culture and
faditon wihch are ilmportantelements imEtliopan
cultial hentage

Silly Majnmo M Lithopuians Tie is a wildly color-
ful and ente tainl gfoltale retold by Gebregeorgis
Yoharnes and illustated by Bogale Be lac hew lt
children of many different agesand backgrounds wil

SiMy Manmo is the name of a county boy
whose ei intentionedefforts to help hs mother by
contnbutingto the house, hold is ruined by s silliness

With each mistake, his mother advises him on how to
do better the next time. But Mammo takes it too liter-
ally and continually repeats his dramatic errors. In the
end, however, his silliness pays off when he makes the
beautiful but sad daughter of a rich businessman break
out into peals of laughter. Mammo emerges the hero
when his reward is to wed the lovely Tewabech.

Reasons for using Folktales in the classroom
There are many ways to use folktales in the
classroom. They inform of the history and tradition
of other cultures. Secondly, values are taught that are
essential to the existence of groups. Also, folktales
validate the oral culture that has traditionally been
slighted, and they provide a context for language.
Lastly, students go beyond the textbook and actively
use what they have learned. As educators, we need to
inform students that African culture has contributed so
much to American culture.

Effective uses of folktales
1. Teach on universal themes of love, family, responsi-
bility, obedience, human error and good intentions

2. Cultural diversity.

3. Instructional value for children learning Amharic
or just being introduced to languages other than their

4. The illustrations in the book contain many other de-
tails of Ethiopian culture and society that children can
discuss with each other, parents and teachers. For ex-
ample, children can talk about traditional food, houses
and clothing illustrated throughout the story.


1. Introduce the topic of folktales by having children
recall several favorites. Brainstorm what makes these
stories alike. Tell students that you will begin your
folktale lesson with a story from East Africa.

2. Draw an outline of Africa on the board and ask the
students to guess what it is? Ask them what they think
of when they hear the word "Africa." Write responses
on chart paper and use them later as a resource for
vocabulary exercise.

3. Do features of the African Continent (handout A).
Use the Africa outline you drew on the board to model
where to put some of Africa's geographical features.

4. Introduce the history of Ethiopia. Groups will
research different aspects of Ethiopia and present to

5. Read the story in groups. When groups are finished,
students can map the story. (Handout B)

6. Focus on different aspects of the story (setting,
characters, etc.). Complete a game called "Guess the

7. Do Mapping the Continent (handout) and discuss
why map makers use different colors to distinguish the
borders of countries.

8. Quartering the story creating their folktale. (Hand-
out C)

9. Use Scramble Summary after reading the story.
Students will be given sentences from the story that
are not in order. Students must put in the correct

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs