Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Oral historical traditions...
 Common themes found in the diversity...
 Visit to the Swahili-speaking...
 Journey to South Africa
 Physical features of southern Africa...
 Creative ways to teach colonia...
 Exploring the arts of west...
 Weaving Africa into the classroom...
 Popular culture in urban Afric...
 Loosening up the soul : festival,...
 African culture in the classroom...
 Back Cover

Title: Irohin
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075548/00013
 Material Information
Title: Irohin
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for African Studies
Publisher: Center for African Studies, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1991-
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Study and teaching -- Periodicals -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with Feb. 1991.
General Note: "Bringing Africa to the classroom."
General Note: Description based on: Feb. 1992; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075548
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001640153
oclc - 25762685
notis - AHR5232
lccn - sn 92022991


This item has the following downloads:


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Oral historical traditions of Africa
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Common themes found in the diversity of creation myths within Africa's traditional religions
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Visit to the Swahili-speaking countries
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Journey to South Africa
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Physical features of southern Africa and effects on human populations
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Creative ways to teach colonialism
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Exploring the arts of west Africa
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Weaving Africa into the classroom : an FCAT-based lesson plan
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Popular culture in urban Africa
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Loosening up the soul : festival, dance, and ritual in central Africa
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    African culture in the classroom : cash crops
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text








A Publication of the Center for African Studies
SUniversity of Florida


Taking Africa to the Classroom


A Publication of
The Center for African Studies
University of Florida
427 Grinter Hall
P.O. Box 115560
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-2183
Fax: (352) 392-2435

Editor/Outreach Director: Agnes Ngoma Leslie
With the assistance of Corinna Greene
Layout & Design: Qi Li Li

The Center for

Arican Studies
Otreach Pmgmm at the Unversty of Flonda

The Ceeris allyfunded under Title VI ofthe
federalHigher EducatonAct a a Natonal
Resource Ceiner on M ca One of 12 lesuce
centers, Flonda's is the oyCenter located m he
southeastemUnmtedStates The Centerdirects
deelo; and coornates mterdisciplmary
nstuction, research and outreach onAfnca

The OuteachPogram includes avanetyof
activities whose objecte is to rove Ihe
teaching ofM ca in pnayand secondary
schools colleges, umversites and local
conunutwes Followmi ae some oftlhe regular
activities which fall und r Ie OutreachProgram

Linary Teacheismaybonowvdeotapes and
booIs from the Cteach office

Comnumil and colPresentatons Faculty
and graduate students make pesentato ono fca
to local conunumtes and schools

ResearchAinteProgranm Two one-monh
apointinenis ate provided each suo ner The
program enables Afncan s, ciahsls at iswtlutons
whlch do not ih adequate resoures for Mncan-
related research to icease thei exetse onAfnca
throughcontacti f othlherAfncais Theyalso
have access toAfnca-related eoua es atthe
UnversityofFlonda lblanes

Teachers'Worshops The
Centle offers m-sevice
abouist ucton on Afnca
throughout the school ar

Summer Instittes. Each
surm er, Ihe Center holds
teaching msttutesforK-12

Phcatons The Center
publishes and dstabutes
teachig resources including
Irolnn In addition, Ie
Center has published a
monograph entitled Leaon
Plans on. Afncan Histor
and Ceography A Teachng

* dOne fi Iangos ofA Centers to esh Acan cure
Sadess and eahers panciapSe n leaIngandedmaingab
a? daspayngraedimiona cAem clothing madefeoring
niaroisja n asivs In this pcrHar ose S.anse an nsctol of
Xhoa t he Univesiy fFSi is eang a goup feletiary
siems aboiS. Somth Aica

Editor's Note

'Each summer, the center for lAfrican studies at the University of CFlorida hosts a -9(12 teachers' institute
The objective of the institute is to help teachers increase their knowledge about _Africa and develop lesson
plans to use in their classrooms. The creative lesson plans in this issue of Irohin were written by
participants in the 2002 institute. lease feel free to use these materials in your teaching and share them
with other teachers. 'Write or call the center for additional copies.


Agnes ggoma L.eslie

* Back row from left: Dr. Agnes Ngoma Leshe (Outreach director) with K-12 teachers in the 2002
summer institute: Kathryn Zara-Smith, Claretta Jones, Peggy Ferguson, Jennifer Gilbert, Floretha
Bryant, Elizabeth Frank, Brenda Whitfield, Chris Ott, Robert Morris. Kneehng: Andrew Wasserman,
Christine Aureho andDerek Hagler


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OralHistocal Tradtons ofAfica

Common Themes Found the Dremty of Creaton
Myths Withm Afrca's Tradtonal Rebans

AVsitto th astern Swaih-Spealng Counties

A Jouneyto SouthAnca

PhyscalFeatues of Southern Afca and Effectson
Human Populatin

ACreatnie Way to Teach Colomnah

Eplonia the Arts ofWest Afra

Weaving Anca mto the Clasmom An FCAT-Based
Lesson Plan

Popular Culture n UrbanAfnca

Loosenmg Up the Soul Festvah, Dance and Ratual m
Central AfEa

Afrran Food Cultu m the Clasom Cash Cuop



Oral Historical Traditions of Africa

......... .... By KathrynZara-Smithfi I I *******

"It is only the story that can continue beyond the war
It is the story that outlves the sound of war-drums and

brave fighters It is the st
like blind beggars into the
escort, without which we are
neither do we the story,

As Afican writer ChinuaAchebe
explains, the story does many things It
entertains, informs, and instructs The
stories ofAfrica are no exception The
oral arts of the content of Afca are
rich and vaned, developing with the
beginning of African cultures and re
meaning living traditions that continue to
evolve andflourish today In contrast to
written literature, Afncan orature' is
orally composed and transmitted, and
often created to be verbally and commu-
nallyperformed as anintegral part of
Afican dance andmusic (Agatucci 1) It
serves to relate the historical back
ground, traditons, or moral values that
are important to a particular ethnic group
or community
The assumption is often made particuk
Western cultures that this orature often lad
structure, organization, and even accuracy
it is true that many parts of African existed
written histories before the colonial period
only serves to make the existing oral histo
more important in efforts to delve into the
past In attempts to uncover this past, histo
have discovered two distinct types of story
referred to as fixed or free texts, as well as
ime periods into which these texts can be
It must be pointed out, however, that oral
"must be understood to represent only a lir
reality It must be carefully analyzed, alwa
within the wider cultural context of the soc
producing it, to decode the message it cont
(Lanphear and Falola 74)

and the warrior
the exploits of

t saves our progeny from blundering
of the cactus fence The story is our
Does the blind man own his escort? No,
it is the story that directs us "

T Many of th orat t'dratonsorgatedfrom the anc[ ent cMail Emre ro &ctured
Sr of the Moan depeopie sT data Kr th, c"ttura hro and ancestor of
the Mande peopi s anounder of the great Mail Empire s we kno'wnfor
bringing the ctu re oforai tradons to the word

qly in FxedT
ks IIn Afcan nations with either a highly central
Wile sized political system or powerful hereditary
without dynasties, such as the WestAfnrcan counties of
,this Mai, Ghana, and Nigeria, oral tradt ons are
ies even usually centered around what are known as 'fixed
Afican texts' These texts, or historical narratives, are
rians used to lend support to the ruling government and
telling are recited verbaerbam se gers or storytellers,
three known as gnots, are entrusted with the memonza-
divided tion, recitation, and passing on of cultural tradi-
istory ons from one generation to the next These griots
mited are seen as professionals within the community
ys and in addition to the trainmg they receive i the
iety oral arts, they learn to play the kora, a strnged
ans" instrument used to accompany their recitations
Fixed texts are referred to by historians as

* Griots are the gatekeepers of history and culture They assume the roles of historians, praise-singers
and musical entertainers Left: Papa Susso, an internationally known traditional griot and musician is
playing a kora Right: The students ofDuvalElementary School in Florida are learning from Papa
Susso, who is illustrating the importance of the Mandinka kora in praise-singing

functionalistss', meaning they serve a specific
function within the community. In this case, their
purpose is to reflect the 'official version' of a
particular cultural event or tradition. Neither
interaction nor interjection by the listeners is
welcome, as it is at other times, nor does the
personality of the storyteller come through in the
recitation. An example of this type of narrative is
the Sundjiata Epic, which traces the history of the
first emperor of the Mali Empire (1230-1255) and
is still recited by many West African griots.

Free Text
In contrast to the 'fixed texts', of the more
centralized African nations are the 'free texts'
found primarily in countries in which a structured
government or hereditary rule are notably absent.
Rather than being passed on by professional story-
tellers, as is the case with the fixed texts, free texts
can be told by any member of the community,
though usually it is the elder members who delight
most in undertaking this task. Free texts are not
recited verbatim, but instead usually change from

one telling to the next as a result of the emergence
of the differing personalities of each storyteller.
Free texts are referred to by historians as being
structuralistt' due to the fact that they embody the
"fundamental sociocultural concerns of the soci-
ety" rather than serving a particular function, as
does the fixed text. An example of the free text is
an East African narrative that depicts a young man
taking his livestock to the pasture and never return-
ing it to his community. This is meant to illustrate
the concern felt by the older members of the
society over the departure of the younger members
for more urban areas, the "pioneering role which
younger men often played in the migrations of
pastoral people" in addition to fostering a sense of
communal unity (Lanphear and Falola 75). Under
this heading of 'free text' are folktales, stories
essential to the development and perpetuation of a
system of ethics and morality within a particular
community. The content of these folktales is
usually closely linked to the physical geography of
the region, incorporating various natural occur-
rences, plants and animals into the stories.

The Periods of African Oral History
African oral traditions, including both the fixed
and free texts, can be divided into three historical
periods: origins, middle, and recent. While there is
no definite distinction between these three time
periods, they can be roughly defined as follows:

1. Origins: The earliest time period in which the
Earth was formed and the particular culture origi-
nated. Historians see this time period as the most
difficult to interpret due to the fact that there are
usually very few, if any, written records to confirm
specific dates and locations. This has led to the
argument over whether this lack of documentation
has led to "faulty transmission" of information
(Agatucci 3). However, the counter-argument claims
that these differences in accounts in oral tradition
often contain the most valuable clues for historians.

2. Middle: The era in which the particular culture
began to become more organized, interact with other
communities, experience migrations, conflicts or
famine. Much of the oral history common to this era
concentrates on "those traditions that deal with the
individual historical experience of a particular clan
or smaller kinship group" (Lanphear and Falola 76).
Many of these local traditions are more accurate in
terms of historical information than those traditions
known throughout the entire community. The narra-
tives are generally of a less structured nature, told
more to entertain rather than to instruct, and are
related to folktales.

3. Recent: This is the time period which occurred
just prior to the birth of the oldest living members of
the community and usually only extends two or
three generations back. Oral traditions of this chro-
nological period are communal participatory experi-
ences. Such participation is an essential part of
traditional African communal life, and basic training
in a particular culture's oral arts and skills are an
essential part of children's traditional indigenous
education on their way to becoming an adult mem-
ber of the community (Agatucci 3).
When looking at the various African oral tradi-
tions, as with the oral history of any culture, it is
important to realize that many Africans see the past

as being intimately linked to the present and that
the "revered customs and traditions find validity
in the present by being associated in oral tradi-
tion with important personages of the past"
(Lanphear and Falola 77). While almost all
African societies have a written language, it is
oftentimes this orature that fosters this sense of
community, conveys the morality, and brings to
life the voice of the particular culture.

Telephone game to illustrate 'free text' and how
the information changes from one telling to the next.
Memorization and recitation of a particular event
in African history as an example of a 'fixed text'.
Create your own proverb based on examples of
African proverbs.

Abrahams, Roger D, ed African Folktales. New York
Pantheon, 1983
Agatucci, Cora "African Storytelling Oral Traditions"
http //www cocc edu/cagatuccl/classes/hum211/
afrstory htm, 6/18/02
Johnson, John William, Hale, Thomas, and Belcher, Stephen,
eds Oral Epics from Africa: Vibrant Voices from a Vast
Continent. Bloomington Indiana University Press, 1997
Martin, Phyllis M and O'Meara, Patrick, eds Africa.
Bloomington Indiana University Press, 1995, 74-76
Parrnder, Geoffrey, ed African Mythology. New York Peter
Bedrick Books, 1986
Rowell, Charles H "An Interview with Chinua Achebe "
Callaloo 13 1, 1990, 18
Scheub, H, ed The African Storyteller Dubuque Kendall
Hunt Publishing Co, 1990
Schueb, H The Tongue is Fire: South African Storytellers and
Apartheid Madison University of Wisconsin Press, 1996
Soyinka, Wole Myth, Literature, and the African World
Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1990
Wilkinson, Jane, ed Talking with African Writers: Interview
with African Poets, Playwrights, andNovelists. London J
Currey, 1992, 132-133

"A variety of folktales"
http //artsedge kennedy-center org/aol/opps/spm/
storyarts html#folktales
"Information on the history of grlots"
http artsedge kennedy-center org/aol/opps/spin/
storyarts html#oral
"A variety of African myths"
http //www afroam org/children/myths/crocodile/intro

Common Themes Found in the Diversity of Creation

Myths Within Africa's Traditional Religions

********** -.- AndrewWasserman ********

The diversity of religion in Africa

It is important to note the diversity of the African
continent when discussing the religion and mythology
found within it. To begin speaking abut African religion
and mythology, especially in regards to the traditional
African religion and mythology, it is best not to ap-
proach the subject in a monolithic, generalized way.
Africa has over 600 languages and many traditional
religions. Four traditional African religions will be used
to provide examples of creation myths. However, one
may tap into the numerous other traditional African
religions for their own lessons.

Introduction of myth
One of the first logical questions to ask would be;
"what is a myth?" Myths can mean many things to
many people. An approach to understanding myths is to
know that they explain the human experience. They can
explain things that are beyond ordinary explanations.
These are the "unanswerable" questions such as "how
did humans get here and how was the universe created?"
When reading myths from other cultures (and even our
own), one often finds that what a myth is saying may not
be "literally" true. Despite this, myths have the power to
convey universal truths about the human experience;
ideas, emotions, philosophies, and concepts that humans
from all cultures can relate to. Some of these are the
explanation of a custom or practice, beliefs about God's
ancestries and legendary heroes, and cosmogonies.

Themes and aspects of creation myths

Objective: To introduce to the student the concept of
the African creation myths which have much in com-
mon with other creation myths from around the world,
including themes found in creation accounts from
Western/European areas. The lesson will help the
student to understand the vast diversity of traditional
African religions, and at the same time learn that
despite the differences, humans share common ideas
about their origins.
Subject Areas: English, History, Geography, Anthro-
pology, World Cultures
Materials: Creation myths from various African
traditions and the biblical account of creation found in
Genesis. These can all be found on the Internet.

There are certain themes found within the many
creation myths of human cultures. The first theme and
most frequent, is known as the cosmic egg, which
exemplifies the idea of a featureless, undifferentiated
universe. It can often be linked to a watery existence.
Greek myths referred to this initial formless state of the
universe as chaos and this is the origin of the term.
Many times, this primordial substance may contain
everything in the universe and a deity will be respon-
sible for separating the chaos, thus creating a thing.
A second theme is known as ex nihilo, which has a
deity creating the universe out of nothing. This theme
is found in most monotheistic religions, and the "some-
thing" that is created out of "nothing" can often re-
semble the chaos of the cosmic egg. It might be
beneficial at this point to note that creation myths may
involve one creative event, or have creation occur in
several stages. Sometimes a supreme deity will have
offspring or create lesser deities that will continue the
creation. Athird theme of creation myths involves the
separation of nature, such as the seas from earth, and
celestial bodies like the sun and moon. Another theme
that occurs within creation myths is the idea the earth,
parts of it, or the universe are the transformation of a
deity. For instance, a deity may turn into the sky or
The final general aspect of creation myths is the
creation of humans by a deity. This connects the
human world with the supernatural world. In addition,
it also establishes the place of humans in relation to
other creatures in the universe. Humans tend to be
found greater than animals or plants, yet below the
power of gods. Also, once created, these humans often
find themselves involved with some sort of behavior
that is unfavorable to the divine. These questionably
inappropriate, yet inevitable acts of disobedience will
then be used as explanations for "the way things are".
For example, a divinity might separate humans by
language or skin color, or make humans subject to
sickness or labor due to actions not desired by the
divinity. These themes illustrate the creation myths
ability to explain the world and universe, as well as
create some type of social organization.

rr~-,Uulrylmoi R-LI1IFImninnr


When Kam onu asks to have some of
Amblt's magic powers, A1 mbl is forced
to hide from K osnu A spider finds place
for Ab l in the sky and bnngs him there
on along thread of silk A~ pt pokes out
the spider's eyes so the spider will not be
able to show Kamov where he is hiding
Kanoin tres to build a structure to reach
Aambt, but it fell down In the end, Aabt
is seen as the su n the sky This myth
explains why the divine is not found on
Eath, but in the heavens

Comparism to Genesis
There have been many accounts of the "
comparison of the Genesis creation account Osu
and the Mesopotamia epic the Enuma deco
Elish (which coincidentally translates to "In
the beginning which is the same Enghish
translation of the word Beresht in Hebrew and he
word Geesis) Genessis 1 1 begns with ex mhilo
creation, as dos the Mande creation myth Out of the
nothingness, God createsthe heavens and earth h
Genesis 1 3, God begns to create and sep arate things
to create the natural order night and day, sun and
moon, seas and land, vegetation, animals This is
similar to the Bushongo account of Bumba's creation
of celestial entities and animals These again are both
creation accounts that work in stages rather that in one
single creative event
Genesis then moves on to tell ofhe creation of
humans There are two biblical accounts ofhuman
creation in Genesis Genesis 1 26 and Geesis 2 7
Genesis 1 26 has humans appear ex mhilo, with God
creating man in God's image, male and female in the
same event Genesis 2 7 can be compared to the Yoruba
account of Obatala creating humans out of clay, as God
does forming man out of dust fom he ground, and
woman from one of man's bs
Genesis also has the placement of humans in the
order ofthe world God lives the first humas domin-
ion over all of the creatures, but prohibits them from
eating from certain trees In compason to Afican
creation myths he Bushongo myth has a Bantu saying
"Behold these wonders they belong to you" to the first
humans Also, the ZaRnbian myth has Kanonu pun-
ished for defiant behavior These are some of he
comparsons one can draw from the biblical account of
creation with several African creation accounts

9une t Oso, gbo, Nigerv, wui so ohuses some

Ehade, Mircea Gods, Goddesses, My f Creaton A
Themad Sourcebook of the Hstory of Relgion, Pt
NewYork,NY Harper& RowPublishin Inc (p91-92)
Freund, Phip Myith of Creatin NewYork,NY Washlng
tonSquarePress, Inc (pl-17) 1965
Hamilton, Virgpnia In Tih Begrnag Creaton Sonesftom
Aromdthe hWorld SanDiego, CA Har court, Brace,
& JovanovichPubhshing (p65-67) 1988
MbitiJ S IntoductiontoAfrcanRehgion 2ndEd
Oxford, England Heinemann Educationa Publishers
(pl-11,28-30) 1991
Sproul,B A Pri m Myths Creating the World New York,
NY Harper & Row Publishing Inc (p 46-48,
122-125) 1979

Online Sources for African Myths
lHtp //wwwpantheon orgarticles/creatsonmyths liml
litp//dicking itrasu tcnj edudiaporajill html
litp//whwfanald eduldepartmets/Anthropology/Bastlan/
ltp //www afnkaworldsnetjafrel/
lItp //ww myhinghinks org/ct-creation html
ltp //ww artsmia orgmythology/Africantaml
ltp //www cybercomm net-grandpa/chapter2 htal
Htp //librarythinkquest org29064/
ltp//dir yahoo com/Society andCultre/
Mythology and Folklore/Mytholog/African/



Name the elevenAffican counties
that speak Swahili
Gain knowledge about the Swahili culture
Gain an understanding ofthe origin ofthe
Swahili language
SLearn to count in Swahili fom one to ten
SLearn some common Swahili words

There are many
aspects to the
Swahili culture To Sudan
some people, it is
only language
while to others it is a
wayoflife The term
Swahili is deved leiocratc
fromtheArabic Uga a
word wajl (plural
of &hl), which L
means coast" wan -.
Swahli culture may Bdun
be translateted literally Taz
as coastal cuture
Ibn Batuta. theArab Tn ka
writer and traveler
was the firstto use
the term Swahili Zambia \
Swathl is one of the
major languages a
spokeninAffica. Laae
second only to Kan
Arabic Over fifty bab CL Le
wo Copyght UCL La
million people in httpr Inr s
Eastern and Central
Afrca speak Swahili Alittle over one million
people speak Swahili as their first language, and
many others speak Swahil as a second, third, or
fourth language Swaili is the official language in
the three counties (Keya, Tanzama and Uganda)

............... t B

place of other languages of
its simplicity and no ethnic
holdon it Being a mixture

East Africa because of
group could claim a
of different languages

eena Jones An ********

that largely make up the east African community
It is also spoken in Rwanda Burundi, Malawi,
Mozambique Zambia, Somalia, Seychelles,
Ethiopia. Dlibouti Entrea, Congo, the Comoro
Islands, and the North of Madagascar
It is believed that the Arab traders began to
settle in the East Affica Coastal villages about the
ime of Chnist It is suggested that Swahiln s an old
language, dang back to the 2nd century AD The
Swahili people
are a mixture
Djib ou of Bantu and
Arab ancestry
Somaa Thelanguage
Ethlopia / originates from
Sthe Arabs and
some believe
kds tthat Persia
r Portugal,
l.adiac Germany
enya / Oces England and
countries left
mi Itheir mark on
OZainzbar boththe
culture and
languages of
I Swahlh lan-
Sguageis used
noamiique throughout
East Affica for
Madaga ar business and
nae Matermals PMe: walh w PiofTi C ommiunica-
ed /pofeapof l ntion among
vanous ethnic
groups Swahli is used as a ma fanca in the

of the coastal people made it an easy form of
Swahili native speakers are those who have
adopted the Swahili culture and use Swahili as
their first language. As the Swahili language
evolved and began to gain acceptance among the
coastal people, later generations of Arabs, Asians,
Persians and some Africans who had lost contact
with their mother tongues began to use Swahili
as their first language. Swahili is basically Bantu,
mostly related to Mijlkendas (Digo, Girama,
Duruma...) and in Camorian dialects of the
Comoro Island, with a mixture of many words
from Arabic, some European and Asian lan-
guages, which make it stand out as a language of
communication between the different peoples of
East Africa. Many words from Arabic are also
used as a result of the Swahili people using the
Quran, which is written in Arabic.

The Swahili vocabulary can be associated
with Arab and Persian, but the syntax or grammar
of the language is Bantu. The chart below dem-
onstrates the contribution of each culture to the
Swahili language.
There are some words absorbed from Portu-
guese as a result of their control of the Swahili
coastal towns around 1500-1700 AD. Some of
their borrowed words are: "leso" (Handkerchief)
"meza" (table), "gereza" (prison), "pesa"
(money). Swahili bullfighting, still popular on
the Pemba Island, is a Portuguese legacy from
that period. Swahili also borrowed some words
from the language of later colonial powers such
as Britian and Germany. English words include
"baiskeli" (bicycle), "basi" (bus), "penseli"
(pencil), machinen" (machine), and "koti"
(coat). The German words include "shule" for
school and "hela" for a German coin.

Here are a few Swahili words and phrases to acquaint you with the language:

Bantu in Origin
Moja one
Mbili two
Tatu three
Nne four
Tano five
Nane eight
Kumi ten

The African American celebration of Kwanzaa
uses Swahili words. Its 7 principles are:

> Unity
> Self determination
> Collective work & responsibility
> Economics
> Purpose
> Creativity
> Faith












Karibu nyumbane.
Welcome home.
Thank you.
How are you?
I am fine.
Habarn za nyumbani
What's the news from home?
Nzurl sana. Asante.
Very good. Thank you.
Jel Watota hawajambo?
How are the children?
Hawajambo wote wazlma. Asante sana.
They are fine. Thank you very much.
Haya. Kwahen.
Okay. Good-bye.
Kwaherl ya kuonana.
Good-bye. See you next time.

Arabic in Origin
Site six
Saba seven
Tisa nine

Persian in Orgin
chai tea
achani pickle
serikali government
diwani councilor
sheha village councilor


The colonial administrators pioneered the
effort to standardize the Swahili language. Zanzi-
bar was the epicenter of culture and commerce,
therefore colonial administrators selected the
dialect of the Zanzibar town Unguja as standard
Swahili. The Unguja dialect (kiunguja) was then
used for all formal communication taught in
schools, used in mass media (newspapers and
radio), in books and in other publications.
For centuries, Swahili remained the language
of the East African coast. Long time interaction
with other people, other countries, migration,
trade, and marriages during the 19th century
helped spread the language. Christian missionaries
used the language to spread the Gospel. A mission-
ary prepared the first Swahili-English dictionary.

In Kenya and Uganda, Swahili is the national
language, but official correspondence is still
conducted in English. Almost all Tanzanians speak
Swahili proficiently and are unified by it. Tanzania
has made a deliberate effort to promote the lan-
guage primarily because of the late Julius K.
Nyerere, its first President's campaign to have
Swahili as the official language.
Today Swahili is spreading inland. It is one of
the languages that have been accepted by the
former Organization of African Unity (now Afri-
can Union) as the official language. It is also one
of the few African languages being taught in many
universities of the world. Many radio stations in
Europe, Asia and and America broadcast news and
other programs in Swahili. It is becoming one of
the important languages of the world.



Aardema, Vema and Brown, Marc Oh, Kojo How Could You I
Aaderma, Verna and Pmkney, Jerry Rabbit makes a Monkey out
of Lion
Aklda, J Safari H Enghsh/SwahiliPocketBook Dictionary
Anderson, David, Wilson, Sankofa and Kathleen The Origin of
Life on Earth, AnAfrican Creation Myth
Bozylyinsky, Hannah Hentage Lala Salama AnAfrican
Corwin, Judith Hoffman Kwanzaa Crafts A Hohday Craft
Feehngs, Tom Jambo Means Hello, Swahih Alphabet Book
Haley, Gall E A Story an African Tale Retold
Haskins, Jim and Knutson, Barbara Count Your way through
Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane and Migdale, Lawrence Celebrating
Knutson, Barbara Sungura andLepardA Swahili Trickster Tale
Knutson, Barbara Why the Crab has no Head
Knutson, Barbara How the Guinea Fowl got her Spots
Medeans, Angela Shelf The Seven Days ofKwanzaa How to
Celebrate Them
Newton, Deborah M and Albers, Dave Talk, Talk an Ashanti
Newton, Deborah M and Albers, Dave Spider and the Sky God
anAkan Legend
Newton, Deborah M and Boles, Alex Iman in the Belly
Pmkney, Andrea Davis and Pmkney, Bnan Seven Candles for
Pomerantz, Charlotte and Tafun, Nancy If had a Paka Poems
in Eleven Languages
Sokom, Mcheshi Aenda Mcheshi goes to the Market
Sokom, Mcheshi Aenda Mcheshi goes on a Journey
Sokom, Mcheshi Aenda Mcheshi goes to the Game Park

Time Life's Lost Civilizations AfncaA History Demed, Time Life
The Kangaroos Who Forgot, Carol Munday Lawrence
Madupe and the Flood, Carol Munday Lawrence
The Tiger and the Big Wind, Carol Munday Lawrence
Ancient Civilizations for Childrens Ancient Afnca, Schlessmger


A Celebration of Songs 2, Kenny Loggms
Holy Cow, Holy Songs for Children, Anna Moo
20 Easy Lessons Swahili, Conversa-phone Institute


Allen, J de v Swahili Origins Swahili Culture and the Shungwaya
Phenomenon London N6 Villers Publication, 1993
Bnght, Willam Swahili International Encyclopedia of
Linguistics V4 Oxford Umversity Press, 1992
Haskins, Jim Count Your Way Through Africa Minneapolis
Carolrhoda Books, Inc, 1989
Middleton, John Swahili Africa an Encyclopedia for Students V
& 4 Pnnceton, NJ Charles Scnbner & Sons, 2002
Swahili Culture http//whc unesco org
Swahili or Kiswahil www Geocities com
Swahili Language www Ken wednet edu/curculum/soc studies/
kenya/swahil html
Swahili Tongue Twisters www Uebersetzung at/twister/sw htm
Civilizations inAfnca The Swahili Kingdoms wwwwsu edu 8080/
Learn Swahilu with Zanzibar Travel Network www zanzbar net/
swahili html
Swahili Languages History www zanznet org


A Journey to South Africa

o************** ',- FlorethaS. Bryant **************

Visit "A World in One Country" on one great classroom trip


Students will be able to:

* Recognize Africa as a continent
* Recognize South Africa as a country in Africa
* Locate South Africa on a map
* Identify which oceans border South Africa
* Gain knowledge about the people who live in
South Africa
* Understand what apartheid means
* Name some foods and drinks of South Africa
* Learn about South Africans' recreational activities
* Know what it's like to get an Education in
South Africa
* Understand what the economy is like in South
* Learn more about the arts in South Africa

Traditionally, at the elementary level, students have
always had the opportunity to learn how to spell Africa,
draw its shape and color it, know that it is one of the
continents and locate it on the world map.
This lesson is designed for the elementary and middle
School students to encourage a higher level of knowledge
about South Africa.

"Quick Picks"

South Africa is the average richest and most
developed country in Africa.
* South Africa generates more than half the
continent's electricity, about two-fifths of
its automobiles, and half of its telephones.
* The country is nearly three times the size of
* Johannesburg and Cape Town are South Africa's
largest cities.
* The climate is usually mild and sunny.
* South Africa produces more gold than any other
* The official languages are Afrikaans and English.
* Blacks in South Africa were granted suffrage in

Welcome to a land so vast and diverse that its inhabit-
ants proudly call it "A World in One Country."

Historical Background
Hunters and gatherers inhabited South Africa for
thousands of years. They left behind evidence of their
existence in rock art. More than 2,000 years ago, descen-
dants of the San people came from the north. The Khoisan
would be the first indigenous people to interact with
European sea workers along the coast from the late 15th
Small groups of farmers moved into the northern parts
of South Africa. They grew their own crops and the popula-
tion began to grow and develop into small kingdoms. Some
of the farmers experienced periods of wealth. Trading
routes were formed and the coastal areas were linked with
the interior. The farmers began to spread southwards to
what is now called the Orange Free State and the Transkei.

The Dutch and the English colonized South Africa in
the 17th century. England was able to gain control over the
Dutch descendants, also known as the Boers. As a result of
the domination of the British, the Boers established new
colonies called the Orange Free State and Transvaal.
Diamonds were discovered in these colonies in the early
1900's resulting in an invasion by the British, which started
the Boer War. To ensure that they would maintain control
of the colonies, the National Party comprised of Boers
legalized and enforced a sociopolitical movement called
apartheid, which means "separateness" in 1948. The
purpose of apartheid was to allow the European descen-
dents to maintain control of the native black South Afri-
cans. Apartheid enforced a class system based on race.
Black South Africans were given the least amount of
political rights and were banned from many establishments
that were reserved for "whites only". There was also race
segregation in public places, trains, buses, post offices,
hospitals and even ambulance service.

Apartheid Abandoned
After many years of bloodshed, demonstrations and
rebelling, apartheid ended with much reluctance under
General Louis Botha. The general met with African Na

heonl Coigs lader Nelson Madela and ecc-
nuzed huas tlenext posibleleader Bothahada
sr:oklae a esied psdeni FWde Klkw
elec lstai lepesidentml99 In FebF A y 199.
Nelon Maiel, ablck leader ad nenleroft
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Ffomtle tals he gol e agreed end it
banon allJ phoalprt B~ecaube oftuaew
Con.tilbonwawi fmd tlhatwldgem nute
ffllnght o at' i paicipat in gwo nelmi All
of e t aparieid la wee spealed InMay1994,
deni Hiam nlaugraon ceeonywas atteedbya
laige mlberl of iemilo1 digl Alth eFgh
lapariild hCbeenab l led, ma S ouAhAfncan
am tllcopig wtlthe e fecti ofit
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eaho erdl Mazdela tablis led a Tth ad Recon-
cilialion Comutte led b y Alcibihop Detd
itoi t addei myt ioa edbya3patlid

OnuickFnn s nn Smith Afnca

OfalNamie RepublicofSouthAfnca
NationlAnthem.'tod ElessAfnc3" az The

fimna aedtwo laige s Fo
Poulati~T 43,421l21 (the wi2CO)
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I R &tm- o s M D la s
-rt Fw" vi mvw n
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Irople Black,7%. I WT, e12 .colored ( xed EBleek
Wnlt, ard Aian9%. Aianw %
Relgn Chnlaa S ,66 M/,5ns. 2% Hu H, l%, lhei
a tradintome b ehe, 29%
TerraVast snlenor plainse ounded b hy Ihn nalow coa
ad udeettl
Government Deccrantse, nutt-paty govesnent
NaturalRseres nminsggold. dianond-, coa.ironore,
MoY I nd= 10SouthAfncan cent ($1 R9 25)
Cinnae Dbysinydasadwcoolsught
InqenleneDaysApl 27(wnitooef
MaunPRoulwis coi, wh3 wcol milWb pates, tobacco,
beef cattle, atinii fiui sgasasn
Mlanuaciunimotoirhiles, uonand te el netalpsod-
uct, nuchuezychnsualc, prceseis Ascdb ad b evageas,
ldohuigiandx teiles
Rereamion.S pots E'nts- scce, ugby, and oball,
beaches, mtiion l parlsegane serves ard heated
TheAr b allets, coret, opera plays, nsic, paltbissg,
wclpsue adi hieratue
Edalin n.S chol Atesdance compl soiy f rAldien of
allpopulaon groups beeen bheages of73dl 6ye3sE In
1999Phese wee 21 unvewit e 1andl5 teehologysseolsA
aid conunesiclIe caltonltz asmusg inlititons.

Suggested Activities

* Teacher teaches about South Africa
* Teacher shares common South African expressions
Lekker- good, nice, fun, cool, hip
Howzit- hi, hello, hey, how are you?
Lift- elevator
Flat- apartment
Robot- traffic light
Takkies- sneakers
Mobile- cell phone
Sharp- cool, okay, good-bye, thank you
Paw paw- papaya

Teacher reads South African stories to students
* South Africa by Ettagale Blauer and Jason
Laure (Ages 5 & up)
* Marriage of the Rain Goddess by Margaret
Olivia Wolfson (Ages 3 & up)
* South Africa by Garrett Nagle (Ages 6 and up)
* The novels of Beverly Naidoo
Journey to Jo'burg 1985
Chain of Fire 1990
No turning back 1999
Request guest speakers: Call the Social Studies Depart-
ment and they will arrange for a speaker to come visit
your classroom.
Encourage students to come in African dress on a selected

Music Teacher
* The music teacher could teach a selected song
* Play music heard in South Africa and compare
to music in America
* Show traditional musical instruments used by
South African musicians

Art Teacher
* Engage students to paint a picture or create a sculpture
* Engage students in a tie-dye cloth activity
* Arrange a field trip to the museum to see African

Media Specialist (Librarian)
* Display books from South Africa
* Read stories and encourage student to read them
* Select films and share available resources

Physical Education
* Teach students how to play rugby football, soccer, and

Lunchroom staff (See Manager)
* Prepare a simple South African dish.
(Ex: Cucumber and Yogurt Salad)
Cucumbers sliced in rounds, an amount of yogurt
equal to cucumbers. Mix cucumbers and yogurt. In a
hot cast-iron skillet, toast cumin seeds without oil until
brown. Don't bum. Put the seeds into the mixture.
Serve cold. Have a tasting party.

* Participate, help serve the meal, or help provide
items needed for this lesson.

* Class participation
* Keep daily journal
* Write paper on the country of what was learned
throughout the Curriculum Connection.

FCAT Questions for Reading & Writing
1. South Africa is a very rich country.
Name one thing that you learned about its richness and
write details about it.
2. There are many places to visit in Africa.
Think about a place in Africa that you could visit and write
a story about a day in that country.

Classroom Scenery
Set up your classroom with pictures and items from Africa.
Ask friends, librarians, or art teachers for things that may
be available or made.
Examples: pottery, sculptures, baskets, cloth, clothing,
jewelry, masks, pictures, literature books, cookbooks.

Large African Map
Current Events
Time Line of the Country in Topic

"Faces, People, Places, and Cultures" in South Africa Today,
V18 #6 A Cobblestone Publication, Feb 2002
Martin, Phills M & O'Meara, Patrick, eds Africa.
Bloomington Indiana Press 1995
Sauders, C, and Southey, N Dictionary ofSouthAfrican
History Capetown David Phillp, 1998
Nuttall, T, From Apartheid to Democracy: South Africa
1948-1994 Pietmritzburg Shuter and Shooter, 1998

Physical Features of Southern Africa

and Effects on Human Populations

Derek S. Hagler

The physical environment has traditionally
shaped the settlement patterns of human populations.
The southern portion of the African continent is no
exception to this fact. While encountering diverse
landscapes from deserts to mountains, the peopling of
this area has constantly been shaped by nature's

Physical Features

The physical features of this region have dictated
human settlement patterns. When Europeans began
navigating the surrounding oceans they discovered a
land with a smooth coastline and few navigable
rivers. The rivers that were encountered could only be
used for a limited distance before waterfalls or rapids
discouraged progress. As they moved inland, moun-
tain ranges and plateaus rose, which further increased
the difficulty. Additionally, they found few harbors, a
lack of a coastal plain and excessive offshore sand-
bars, which made interior exploration difficult.
Other conditions have complicated life in this
area. There is a lack of internal water transportation
mechanisms and along the coastline there are few
places that are suitable for agriculture. With high
temperatures and low rainfall, the emergence of large
urban civilizations was only possible in recent years.


It must be stressed that political boundaries in
Africa are largely the result of the Europeans. Histori-
cal land divisions between groups were largely
avoided when colonization occurred. The countries of
mainland southern Africa are Namibia, Botswana,
Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa, Lesotho,
Swaziland and Zambia.
To the east is the Indian Ocean, with a mixture of
the Indian and Atlantic Oceans to the south and the
Atlantic Ocean to the western coastline.


The Namib Desert lies between the Southern
Atlantic Ocean and the Great Western Escarpment.

With a length of 1,200 miles and a width of 70 miles, it
has the highest sand dunes in the world. There is
evidence that hunter/gatherer groups have inhabited the
area for 750,000 years.
The Kalahari Desert is located in South Africa,
Botswana and Namibia. The San people have adapted to
living in this locale, which receives about 9 inches of
rain per year. The San people change home sites about
once a month as food supplies dwindle. Historically,
they haved lived by hunting animals and by collecting
berries, nuts, fruits, and roots .


Located on the southwest corer of the continent is
the Cape of Good Hope. This hook-like peninsula
includes Cape Town, one of the major cities of South
Africa. The extreme southern point is called Cape Point.
The Cape of Good Hope is located about 100 miles
northwest of Cape Agulhas, Africa's southern tip.


The Limpopo River has been altered by the pres-
ence of many dams. These dams provide water supplies
to cities along the route and provide water for irrigation
in Zimbabwe. Along with the Save and Zambezi rivers,
the Limpopo has contributed to recent flooding in
Mozambique, which has caused over 1 million people
to be without their homes.
Survival in Africa is dependent upon strategic use of
the fresh water resources. Environmental problems such
as poor timber management, poor farming practices and
deforestation have led to extreme soil erosion. The
future of the region near these rivers will depend upon
the choices applied in using this water supply.


The Great Karroo Mountains run from the east to
the west along the southern portion of the continent.
The Drakensberg Mountains run north to south along
the southeastern portion of the continent. The small
countries of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this area, and
are enclosed by the nation of South Africa. This moun


20a 10*

O" 10* 20'

40' 50' 60W

0" 10*

thin range separates
the plateau from the
coastal regions These
mountains contain
paintings from the San
people which date
back to 1200 AD

Population Centers
The settlement of
a particular locale is
dependent on the
existing subsistence
patterns In a hunting
and-gathenng society,
25 square kilometers
are needed per
person Inatradi-
tional pastoralism
society, three
persons can live on
a square klometer
When small grain
cultivation is used,
such as the sa
vanna, eight per-
sons can live on a
square klometer

Solutions for Hu
Nqr. m an Needs

a CiHuman settlement
will always be deper
oIn', v dentonadequate wa
|i *r supplies Aspopula-
"'- r tionsare expected to
S double in the neo 2
rr years in This region,:

one of the not populated cities inA lca



is imperative that
conservation and
control measures are
used Currently the
vers and air are
threatened with
pollution and the
grovwh rate threats
to outpace the supply
When these factors
are accompanied with
the peodic pro-
longed droughts and
land degradation, the
only solution is
adopting practices of
conservation and

With permanent cultivation patterns, the land may
support 25-160 persons per square kilometer
The major centers ofpopulation are found near
the major commercial centers Thus. the areas
where production is the highest attracts the largest
number ofsettlers By companngpopulation
distribution, major production areas, railways, and
economic islands, a distinctive comdor orginates
inthe southeasternportion ofhe continent The
colonial history of southern Afficarevolves around
the mingindustry which has resulted in the
development of this southeastern condor
Afnca has the world's highest rateof urban
growth butis he least urbanzed fall heconti-
nents Insouthern Afca the population is concen-
trated along the coastal locales from Cape Town to
southern Mozambique In SouthAfca, approdx-
mately 65 percent of the population lives in urban
areas At the curentrate,the populationisgrow-
ing too fast for the economy to keep up Scholars
have suggested thatA fnca must control its popular
tion growth if it is to control poverty

nzed the importance o fthe environment, as it was the first
country in the world to include protection o fthe nviron-
ment inits constitution

AryeeteyAttDo. Samuel Geograv ofaSb-S&hcrnAfica
Kmght.C GregoryaidNewma, JamesL Contemiporry
Afica, Greogat aen Chg 1976
Martin PhyllisM Aca Third Edtion. 1995
htp //school discovery com/studetsiomeworkhelkiworldbook/
atcageography'cl93000 himl
http //ubhlripod com/bw/bhp7 Ihmotural
http //sibleearthnasa govci-bin iewrecorcd'2349
hitp //vw afncagtde cn/coutyhtim
http //,aw comtneynmlne com/nanibAaib html
http //vwm forunecity com/oasisnskegness394/geogritm
http //ww od, govca/putlicat io ns/factbook/ndex html
http// va t m ouismn- n orgpicttourberg html
http //a. zambezi co uktsafan/inakmianamib html
SoulhAfrica Chnstloher, AJ ,1976


HutingAnd Gatheng 1 PersonPer 25 Sq Km
Traditional Patoralisn 3Person Per SqKm
Small Grain Cultvaton Persons Per SqKm
Permanet Cutltivation 25-160 PersonPer SqKm

A Creative Way to Teach Colonialism

.............. By Christina Aurelio -- ***********

The following information and lessons should be used
after a unit (or units) on some of the original empires of *e
the African continent have been studied (Nubia and
Kush, Egypt, Great Zimbabwe, the Asante, Mali &
Timbuktu, Ethiopia, etc). This will allow the students to
visualize a rich, diverse and developed African conti-
nent prior to Western exploitation.

Students will understand the implications of draw-
ing lines across and dividing ethnic groups that had
existed in Africa for centuries.
Students will analyze the reasons the European
nations used to explain their colonization of Africa PresidentKenneth Kaunda (center), thefirstpresident ofZambra
and evaluate the true motives behind them. was among the first presidents tonight against colonialism inAfrica
He visited the University ofFlorida in the Fall of2002 to speak
Students will understand that forced African labor about the impact of "Children andAids in SouthernAfrica"
was used to create wealth for Europe and the Left- Dr Leonardo Villalon, Director of Centerfor African Studies
Americas. and right, Dr Agnes Leslie, Outreach Director

Students will evaluate how this forced labor created
poverty for the Africans and impacted the develop-
ment of African countries during and after the
colonial period.

Ethnic Groups


Cash Crops

Lesson Plan
The following ideas are provided in developing a unit of
study on African colonization. Any and all of them
should be modified for different levels, grades and time

1. Hand out blank maps of North America or any blank
map could be used. Students should be asked to draw
lines to divide the area of land in a new way-either by
the instructors choice or their own. The key idea here is
that the students be given parameters to guide them in
the activity. Ideas on division-based on geography,
areas they would like to own and to award to others, by
resource availability, or by whim.

2. A map showing where communities exist or did exist in
that region (could use North American groups with the
North American map to really show conflicts!) should be
handed out. A discussion over the effects of their dividing
lines should then be held. Topics for discussion- how will
these lines affect the groups, what might change in the
communities, how local people might handle these

1. Lecture and discussion of the factors that led to the
Colonization of Africa- Industrial Revolution, discov-
ery of gold and diamonds on the African continent,
competition among the European countries
2. Once the Berlin Conference has been discussed, hand
out the map of African ethnic groups and states prior to
colonization, the map of colonial control and the divisions
created by the Berlin Conference of 1884. Have students
get into groups of 3-5 and using tracing paper, draw the
lines created by the Berlin Conference over the map of
traditional African ethnic groups. The group should then
put together a short paragraph of some of the areas they
foresee will be problematic and the reason why. They may
also discuss some of the problems they think might occur.



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3. Using the map that each student individually drew
lines upon have the students try to come up with a way
to divide the map that satisfies each member of the
group. Students could also simply choose one person's
division of the area and then elect one person from their
groups to be a "representative" for their group. Each
representative then assembles at the front of the room to
construct a map of divisions that satisfies all of the
groups. This would be done in front of the whole class
with the different groups being able to react and adlib to
the decisions the "Board" is making.
4. Students could divide into groups to further investi-
gate one of the factors that led to the Berlin Conference.

1. Have students partner up with a neighbor for this
exercise, which will only take a few moments. Do not
organize into groups because that will take longer than
the actual activity. Hand out one example of an African
language to each set of partners. Ask them to spend five
minutes quietly figuring out what their paragraph says.
2. Begin discussion of why this is so impossible. Ask
students if they have any idea why they did this exer-
cise. This should then lead into a discussion of the
different ways that the European nations began to
enforce their rule, their languages, and their cultures
upon the Africans.

1. Have students read and discuss Rudyard Kipling's
"The White Man's Burden." Students should assess the
feelings of cultural superiority that many Europeans had
at this time and how this was used to justify the coloni-
zation of Africa.

1. Divide the class into three separate groups. Groups
should be planned out with care so that each has a good
balance of skills in reading, math, writing, and art.
2. Give each group written instructions on how to create
an African mask that must be measured to fit an average
person's head in the group. They must read the direc-
tions, measure heads, come up with an average, and
then create the mask.
3. As the groups are working, the instructor should take
one person at a time (for any reason to be contrived) to
help only one of the other groups (the same groups each
time). Meanwhile he/she should oversee the third group
very directly and very strictly.
4. The activity should not be stopped until after the
groups are done or the two groups which are being

manipulated become so thoroughly frustrated that no
one is getting work done.
5. Now a discussion/lecture can occur on the problems
that may be derived from taking people from the work
that provides for their family and using them to work
solely for the advancement of another group. Also the
slave-like situation of being forced to work on some-
thing with a harsh overseer can be discussed.

1. Discussion/lecture of the effects of colonialism on the
African continent.
2. Divide the class into groups and have them decide
upon an African country to research. The research
should focus on the development of that country after
independence. Botswana, Kenya, Zimbabwe, the Congo
(Zaire) should be used in order to provide adequate
contrasts. These four countries provide excellent
contrasts and examples of some of the information the
students have discussed.

Botswana was governed by indirect rule and no truly
valuable resources were discovered until after indepen-
dence (diamonds).
Kenya was very appealing to the British so there were
a great number of white settlers still involved there after
Rwanda illustrates the ethnic group divisions that were
strengthened by colonial rule.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo provides
a look at a western backed leader who continued to
run the country for profit rather than for success of the

Historical Background

The continent of Africa is home to a variety of ethnic
groups, all with their own distinct cultures, languages,
and religions. The continent's political boundaries,
however, do not necessarily reflect the true separations of
these culture groups. Amap showing the divisions of the
ethnic grouping of Africa provides a totally different
picture than a map of the country boundaries that we
generally see. These political boundaries did not originate
in the hands of the African people, nor their chiefs or
religious leaders but instead they were drawn in Europe.
They were drawn by hands that had no concern for the
people or their cultures but only for the increased wealth
of European states. This imperialistic attitude is what led
Europe to colonize the majority of the African continent,
except for Liberia and Ethiopia. The Berlin Conference of
1884 gave them the authority to do so.

Phsotos oyfpesen daay downtown Harar

The Search for African Markets and
By 1880, Brtain and France had already begun
to encroach upon the coastal count es of Western
Africa with impenalstic ferv or Impenal ism had a
strong tradition in urope since e Roman time and
the wealthiest families and classes had every reason
to push for it once again (ugard) Many economic
factors contributed to this push The Industrial
Revolution made it necessary to find new sources
of raw materials Not only was Africa proving to be
a wondrous wealth of these resources, chiefly gold
and diamonds, but it also could provide new
markets and more importantly new labor sources
Increased demand for raw materials, increasing
labor and new markets ledto a nse in imperialism
and in fact, imperalism has been defined by Lenin
as the monopoly stage of capitalism Along with
these historical and economic factors came cultural
influences that helped Europeans promote and
justify their impenalistic efforts Social Darinism
had developed from Darwn's theory of survival of
the fittest' just in time to help Europeans feel better
about what was happening to the African people In
addition to Darim' theory, feelings of cultural
supenonty made the Europeans feel obligated to
uplift the frican people from their"savage state"
These feelings can be seen in the wntings of those
times Rudyard Kipling's poem. "The Wthite Man's
Burden," is one example The first verse is provided


IMadpY t
- rlviuno ~< hw~ro

Take up the White Man's Burden-
Send forth the bestye breed-
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives need
To wat in heavy haness
On fluttered folk and wild-
Your new-caught, sullen peoples'
Half devil and half child Kipling)

The main cause for dividing Africa up was the economic
competition among the countries ofEurope Wanting to keep
up with his rvals, King Leopold II of Belgium began his push
and eventual conquest of the Congo Because the Congo held
some of the most valuable land i Afnca, the French, Portu-
guese and Brtish all began to challenge Leopold's claim This
growing conflict led Prince Von Bismark of Germany, whose
constituents had been pushing for a German role in the colonial
game, to call for the Berlin Conference The conference, which
began in November of 134 and ended mi February 1385, was
the final blow to the development of Afca for its own people
The decisions and lines that were drawn during those four fatal
months resulted the complete colonization ofAfca by
1914, excludng tLbena and Ethiopia
At the time of colonial conquest, the continent included not
only large-scale states such as Egypt, but also smaller
chiefdoms like e e Asante of Western Afca and decentralized
societies such as the Bangala ofthe Congo, reflecting different
levels ofpolitcal, social and economic development (Martin
and O'Meara 136) The new boundaries that were created cut
through about 177 ethnic cultures areas and often divided the
groups at one or more of these levels political, social and


W, T.- .. ad,- ** -U ..... :.....a
*Black South cans attained the eight to vote l994 Pctred abov- stdet soutsde Haward Colleg nvers ofata
at the rban COmpu Southth fca Copyright@ Unve rsity oftal isap.wwwna, acza/bkLdic ~dbiasp

Thetems of he Berln Conference required that the
European rations occupy the tertory before claiming
their sovereignty This occupation was obviously often
violent The leaders ofmany ofthese groups were forced
to sgn rates wttenin languages and wth implica-
tions they did not understand at the time Without
Imowng it, their land and power were being taken from
then Although at times the chiefs new exactly what
was going on, they could do nothing to stop it Many
actually did attempt to fight back such as the ulus of
Southern Afica but usually the results were only high
death numbers and ruthless domination of he people
Afcans lacked thenecessay means to fight back and
wn TheEuropeanmarkets were closedto themwithout
thehelp ofEuropeansandtheirtechnologies Basically
theyhad fewopportunties to gain themostimportant
tools neded-guns and gunpowder h 1884 the Maxim
machine gun was patented It could fire elev bullets
per seconds at the resistingAfhcan groups who, if they
were lucky, were aimed wth easily 19th century muskets
that took one minute to load and often misfired(Holmes

The imposition of colonial rle had forced both
leaders and the masses to become colonial sub ects wth
little human or political nghts It devalued and almost
completely did away wth additional authority except
where it benefited he colonial power and fulfilled the
economic pursuit of European nations (tatmin and
O'MeSia 136) In fact, the colonial states often used
traditional rulers to help govern other new conquests but
required them to perform duties such as tax collection
and encouragement oftheir people to produce cash
crops for the colornal regime When labor shortages
could not meet he demand for gold and diamonds,
rulerswere changed to force more Afcans onto the
labor market" (Rede 505)
Using Afican chiefs or otherlocalleaders often
caused problems Since he duties theywere asked to
perform such as tax collection were notwelcomed
people'sviews other leaders sometimes changedto
one of distrust Due to thenew lines that were dawn
some people were now not only separated from their
nghtful ethrc group and leaderbut alsoexpected to be

obedient to another group. In some areas, the colonial
governments would show explicit favor of one ethnic
group over another. Taking advantages of traditional
political and ethnic rivalries also proved to be an
effective means of undermining local efforts to form
alliances for the common purposes of resisting the
invader. Thus the basis for ethnic rivalries and regional
cleavages, which plague contemporary Africa, were
either created or exploited during the colonial era
(Martin and O'Meara 138, 146).
In the section of this paper entitled "Suggestions for
Student Research" there is a list of some of the many
groups which could be researched to discover the results
in post-colonial era of these conflicts.
There were many different types of colonies on the
African continent. The main situations that occurred
were the following: white settled colonies (Kenya and
Southern Rhodesia [Zimbabwe]), indirect rule colonies
(Nigeria and Botswana), and direct rule colonies
The indirect and direct systems both utilized tradi-
tional rulers. The British generally used indirect rule and
limited the numbers of administrators in a given area. In
northern Nigeria, for example, there was one British
administrator for every 100,000 Africans (Emeagwli).
They did not settle the area and did not allow the
indigenous population to gain the rights or the education
associated with being British subjects. But in areas such
as Kenya, where many British settlers wished to live,
they established an elite caste system. White settlers
held their economic and political supremacy in a basic
master-slave relationship.
The Europeans took over the best areas for farming
pushing the local populations to less desirable land. The
French used the method of indirect rule, educating and
attempting to "culture" the Africans in the French ways.
The Portuguese were the most distant and were severe
and harsh rulers. Although King Leopold's treatment of
those living in the Congo rivaled this severity, however
and even the European population found it abhorrent to
have the Belgian government take over control.

Results of Colonialism

In 1957 Ghana became the first African country to
attain independence. In the decades that followed, one
by one the countries of Africa would fight for and
eventually gain independence from their respective
colonial regimes. The effects of colonialism would not
be shed though. Colonialism had inhibited the develop-
ment of indigenous Africa to a large extent. Colonial
domination brought with it a shift to a cash crop
economy (Emeagwli). Crops like cassava and corn were

introduced, which began to change local food supplies.
Also, cash crops like cotton and coffee were forced
upon the people, taking away the ability to grow as
much for local consumption.
By 1987, Africa was producing a quarter of the
world's gold output with over 69,000 Africans working
in slave labor conditions to make that happen (Reader
519). Laws were created to deliberately suppress the
technical development of the indigenous population.
Meanwhile African markets were flooded with cheap
mass-produced textiles, glass, and iron products
(Emeagwli). Due to this shift to cash crops and the
suppression of technical advancement, the ability of
these countries to sustain themselves as independent
countries after the end of domination was completely
destroyed. A dependency was created upon the old
colonial powers, which in many ways still persists

Suggested Research Topics

* The French favor of the Fula over the Mandinka
and Susa in French Guinea
* The Tutsi domination of the Hutu in Rwanda
* The Creation of the "Bangala" and the "Bakonga"
and their rivalry in the Congo
* The Bemba and Ngoni of Zambia
* The Igbo of Nigeria

African timelines of independence and Post-colonial events
http //www cocc edu/cagatuccl/classes/hum211/timelines/
http //www cocc edu/cagatuccl/classes/hum211/timelines/
Boahen, A Adu Conquest and Colonalism Baltimore John
Hopkins University 1987
Davidson, Basil The Black Man 's Burden: Africa and the
Curse of the Nation-State. New York Random House,
Emeagwah, Gloria Colonialism andAfrican Technology.
http //www members aol com/afriforum/colonial html
Holmes, Richard Battle New York Alfred A Knopf, 1995
Kiplig, Rudyard The White Man's Burden. Aug 1997
http fordham edu/halsall/mod/Kiplmg html
Lenin, Vladimir Illylch Imperialism, the Highest State of
Captalism. July 1998 http //www fordham edu/halsall/
mod/19161enn-imperialism html
Lugard, F D The Rise of Our East African Empire. Vol 1
London William Blackwood and Sons, 1893, 379-82
Martin, Phyllis and O'Meara, Patrick Africa. Bloomington,
IN Indiana University Press 1995
Reader, John Africa: A Biography of a Continent. New York
AlfredA Knoff, 1998

Exploring the Arts of West Africa

..*.*.*.*.*.. BrendaWitfie .*.........

Afca is ih e secondlargest conmentmhe
world andit has the i old's thud large pou-
laton Anca is dividedin 54 different
dependent counMi es and fwe geographucal
egios We ar gong o take a close look
the ats ofthe Weste, region ofAfnca wuch
ncluds the couni es of Senegal, Gambia,
Guinea-Bissa Siena Leone, Loena. voy
Coast, Ghana, Togo, Bemn Nigena,
Cameroon Gabon Guinea, and Congo, aWest
Afncan counyhousg over 250 ethxc
groups andove300 different languages
Manydifferent s and cafs have bee n
deeloedlhtoughout Afna Among themare
basketiy cloth g a designs, pottei and
vanousbeadandjewehycreations West
Afncan aithstsundego special iamng to lean
howito make items employs the different at
fons Afncan an sevs several purposes such
as providing a mans of stonn food dunng
ceremomal practes, as well as ben used in
weddugs, funerals, and for sewmg goods

L. \\ RM

1 Viewg different tyes of Afncan a
2 Undestandig the defmtion ofAfncan at
3 Developmg an ae areness ofAfican at

A. Basketry
Both men and women inWestAfnca eifn
baskey, also known as basket making or weaving
The matenalsused forbasket ymclude,but are not
lmitedto, wood, psam leaves, reeds, grasses, and
roots Plaied basket andsewn baskeny are hei to
different techu ues of base making Themethiodof
plaitedbaskeymnvolves plant fibers hatare inter-
twmued, woven or listed together afler heyhave
beensoakedmwaterSome AfMncans use athmn,
contnuous ship ofgass that is sltichedonto telfm
acol msewn basket Some of the baskets ae
weavedso ltghtlythattheycanbe sedo store hqid
Afncans use fhe aiofbasketyto create many
items oheirthanbaskets Otherroducis include
blankets, bags, sees, rugs, mats. tent divider,

*~~ ~ ai he~iaicsss~* cdliisregso ic
(bnasek gmslnhu~d r h5t e 355, css 35 i5,rdsi ate sscsee5,a

pillows, umbrellas, hats, shawls, head -.
cloths, trousers, robes, and smocks.
Hats that are created by basketry are
accentuated with nature's finest fiber,
feather, fur, and leather. Atribe called veB=
Somali uses mats to cover the tops of E =
their homes or temporary shelters.

B. Beads and Jewelry
Africans wear beads and jewelry for --yaw
special ceremonies like weddings and
funerals, but they also adorn their
bodies in everyday wear. Jewelry can
include rings, necklaces, bracelets and -
various ornaments that are worn on or
around the body. Jewelry is made out of
all sorts of different material. In some
areas, jewelry is made out of bone, wood, or iron.
This type of jewelry can be placed in the nose or
ear. Jewelry can also be made from teeth, seeds,
and shells, along with materials that Americans are
accustomed to, such as strings, gold and diamonds.
In Nigeria, a glass bead industry was launched
in 1000 BC. Old trade routes produced beads of
bone, stone, ivory, seed, ostrich eggshell, metal,
and shell. Jewelry is also worn as a sign of wealth,
and in West Africa
beads are used to
decorate furniture,
sculpture, and different
types of clothing. In
Cameroon, Africans
dress up their pictures
by putting borders of
small colorful beads
around them. For some
rural cultures in Africa,
beads were the first
form of visual artwork.
Some people believe
that beads are magical, *Antque bronze necklace from
be worn for numerous celebr
and some children
wear beads on their
bodies as charms of good luck and health.

C. Different Clothing and Art Design
Africans have different styles of clothing just
like Americans do, and like many other parts of the

S-..--.... r


world, Africans have also been affected by West-
ern fads. It is not unusual in urban areas to see
Africans in a pair of blue jeans and sneakers. On
the other hand, there are still Africans, mostly in
rural areas, who prefer to dress in more traditional
clothing. West African men tend to wear a long,
loose, robe or baggy pants, with a loose shirt or
tunic. Men also wear loose fitting caps. Many
West African women are
usually seen in wrap-around
dresses. These dresses are
made out of a long cloth that
simply wraps around the
body in a variety of decora-
tive ways. West African
women also wear cloths
around their head in the
style of a scarf.
The way in which
Africans dress depends on
the occasion. West Africa is
known for tie-dye, wax and
lr Suchjewelery can starch resist. The raw mate-
yevents rial of these clothes comes in
the form of woven cotton or
imported cloth. Women usually buy two pairs of
cloth: one for a shirt, and the other for a wrap
around skirt and headscarf. Various types of cloths
are found in West Africa. Among them are
Bambara cotton blankets, which are made by male

weavers from Mali. There are also cotton covers,
decorative wool blankets, and the famous kente
cloth. Nigeria is greatly known for its cloth woven
from cotton and silk. Men weave long narrow strips
of cloth on horizontal looms and women use
broader vertical looms to make wider panels of
cloth. Women also use their cloths to make wrap
around carriage holders that hold their babies to
their chest.
West African art should not be underestimated.
Arts are used to perform many different tasks in the
West African culture, and serves domestic, social,
commercial, and religious purposes. Africans have
produced hand-made arts like cloth, baskets, and
jewelry for many years. The purpose of this lesson
is to develop an appreciation for the different arts
that we see and admire. Although there is nothing
wrong with admiring a beautiful thing, it is impor-
tant to learn its history and origins.

Adinkra Symbols:

S greatness, charisma, leadership




vigilance, wariness

mercy, nurturing

patience & tolerance

understanding, agreement

peace, harmony

intelligence, ingenuity

humility and strength

love, safety, security

friendship and interdependence

* Man displaying finished indigo tie-dyed cloth in Kano, Nigeria
Documented by Joseph Miller
Copyright 2000, University of Wisconsi System Board ofRegents

* Adinkra symbols are traditionallypromnent in Ghana They are
also found in numerous places including decorations on walls,
pottery, and numerous logos


Kente Paper Weaving

- Three 6 x 1/4 dowels
- One chopstick or 1/8 round metal rod
- Two ice cream sticks or tongue depressors
- Cotton thread or thin strong packaging string
- Awooden base

Make a triangular African children's loom by using three
dowels. Push the dowels into the wooden base forming a
triangle, two at a distance of eight inches for the back of the
loom and one centered between these two inches away.
Attach a thinner cross stick or metal rod horizontally close to
the tops of the first two vertical dowels. You can do this with
string or by making two holes through the dowels. Wrap
thread around the front dowel and bring it up and over the
cross stick and back around the front dowel until 15 to 20
threads are laid out at even distances from one another
forming a warp. Make a shuttle using a flat stick or a tongue
depressor to hold the cross thread, the weft, which will go
over and under the individual warp threads at right angles.
Use a second flat stick or tongue depressor to separate odd
warp threads from even warp threads to prepare an opening
through which the shuttle holding the weft thread can pass.
Pack the new weft thread into the warp with your fingers or a
comb. Now separate the opposite set of threads in the warp
to create a second opening thread, and then pack down
tightly towards the first weft thread. Continue by repeating
step one, then two.


- Recognize Kente cloth as an African ceremonial
cloth, handwoven in strips on a loom.
Define pattern as lines, colors, and shapes that
repeat or alternate.


- Rulers or 2-inch cardboard strips
- Scissors
- Glue sticks
- 12 x 18 inch construction paper (variety of colors)
- 1/2 inch strips of colored construction or fadeless
- Strip of kente cloth (optional)
- Kente reproductions and/or posters

- Kente
- Pattern

- Warp
- Weft

- Loom
- Strip

Marti, Phylhs M & O'Meara, Patrick eds Afrca. 3rd ed
Indiana University Pres 1995
Middleton, John Africa: An Encyclopeda for Students.
Vol I Charles Scribners Publishing 2001
Muir, John Kids Explore America's African American
Heritage 2nd ed Avalon Travel Publishing 1996
Shepard, Lisa Afncan AccentsFabncs and Crafts to
Decorate Your Home. Krause Pubhcations 1999
Wood, Peter H "Families Across the Sea" Video
Duke University
World Book Encyclopedca. Bookl Vol. A Chicago
London Sydney Toronto _,__SS

* Left: A traditional
African loom used
to create Kente
Right: Strips of
Kente cloth are
combined to
produce a larger
cloth, however a
strip can also be
worn as scarf

Small Loom Weaving

Weaving Africa into the Classroom:

An FCAT-Based Lesson Plan

************ -R Chris Ott


Textile-any loomwoven material such as cloth,
tent fabric, or
usually wooden,
that holds threads,
stings or other
spun fibers in
rows for weavers
Natural fibers-
the har-lke stnhngs
from cotton boles
palm leaves, tree
bark, sheep wool or
animal fur, spun into

Afncais a huge
continent, large
enough to holdfour An ampledofmxtdclotlazsfi
and one- half coun- triohIond cIdureusingsymboMs
tnes the area of the
United Stteca It is ofmeca I shometo hundreds of
different ethnme peoples who speak over seven
hundredlanguages Anthropologists have found
evidence that earth's earliest ancestors inhabited
Afnca before s me migrated out settling in other

Afrncan ethnic groups' creativity is demonstrated
in part by their adaptaton to their environment as
well as in their development of umque textiles After
food, the making of
textiles for clothing, food
storage, rugs, tents, etc
required the second most
amount of bime and effort
Throughout Afnca's five
geographical regions
North, West, Catr al,
South, andEast, woven
and decorated textiles
express the beliefs and
ideas of the various
indigenous Africans They
learnedto clothe and
shelter themselves with
the available natural fibers
found or culhvated in their
area These raw matenals
include cotton, rafia
fromn palm leaves), wool,
and silk cocoons

Iwca mtm for dtplang

Farns NorthAfnca
For centuries Tunisan
ethnic people have tended their sheep in temperatures
that fluctuate between extreme daytme heat and
below freezing nights These nomadc people must
move their sheep much of the year seeking forage
They depend on the meat, slans, and also process
wool for weaving into tents, robes, camel blankets,


1. Learn that Afn can people from different geographic regions have textiles they have adapted for
their comfort to suit the various climates
2. Appreciate the creativity of particular ethnic groups that have developed particular methods, de-
signs, and techniques to express their culture
3. Recognize and name two types of Afncan textiles Kente cloth and Mud cloth, and describe
similarities and differences in how they are made
4. Students will explore the meaning of colors and symbols for the ideas and beliefs they express


and thick rugs to survive low rainfall and sand
storms that blow from the northern deserts. These
textiles incorporate colors and designs that express
their beliefs:

"For the nomadic people and sedentary country
of the arid Maghreb lands, textiles were more
than just simple necessities in life. They were a
mode of creative expression, a way of recording
man's relationship with animals and plants, with
the earth and sky, and with the rhythms and
forces of nature." Reswick, 1985

Comparing two textiles
from Western Africa:
The Kente and Mud
The Bamana speaking
people of Mali and the
Asante of Ghana design
clothing for the rainy and
dry seasons in West Africa.
The Bamana make Mud
cloth, or bokolanfini, while
the Ashanti design Kente
cloth. While both cloths are
woven by men into narrow
strips that are later sewn
together to make larger
cloths, they express mean-
ing through geometric
patterns that are quite
Kente cloth is a very
tight and precisely woven
colorful fabric originally
made for royalty. Kente's Paramount chiefNanaA
geometric patterns are Kumase, Ghana, Photogr
woven into the fabric from 1970, Eliot ElisofonPho
a broad pallet of brightly Museum ofAfricanArt
dyed silk and/or cotton Copyright NationalMnu
threads. In contrast, Mud Inslitution
cloth is loosely woven
with a few earthtone colors applied as dye
to the cloth after weaving. Mud cloth is worn mostly
by rural men, since it is cheaper than imported or
machine made fabric. Kente is worn as a display of
status by the wealthy Ashanti and given as gifts on
special occasions such as weddings, funerals, etc.

Other Ashanti may own Kente outfit that they wear
only to commemorate special events.
Kente cloth's colors and geometric patterns
communicate meaning:

"The Ashanti name cloth after famous people (for
instance kings or queens), things from nature (like
trees and plants), and to express proverbs and
social commentary." Luke-Boone, 94



Traditionally, Mud cloth
is made from local materials
as follows: women process
cotton to remove the seeds
and then spin it into yam onto
.. a spindle. Men use wooden
looms to weave the yam into
narrow cotton strips. Next,
Sthe plain white strips are
stitched side-by-side to make
wider cloths. Finally, mud
gathered from local ponds is
combined with traditional
leaves and barks and cooked
ip or fermented to make strong
Black or deep-woven colored
mud dyes. Women apply the
mixture as a background
color, leaving the base color
to show through as geometri-
cal patterns that communi-
cate meanings: "The more
complicated patterns consist
of many different designs
~toAkowuah Dateh II n which together often repre-
by ElhotElhsofon,
hy EhiotEsofonl, sent a well-known historical
phtcArchtves, National
event (battle) or commemo-
rate a local hero" (Imperato

Conclusion: Desire for
Western factory-produced textiles is causing some
types of textiles production to die out. However,
interest in some traditional fabrics such as Kente
cloth and Mud cloth is being revived as designers
incorporate them into modern styles.

Ounrulum 6*6~smdiolr
Phlrllhnon~nm~~TrrhiniM rqu~rm~Uriil
nmdu~i ormrxur inpilitmi, T orKTmm

Popular Culture in Urban Africa

*************** -.- Jennifer Gilbert ***************

urban Africa are Western productions, the tide is chang-
ing. Many self-trained African filmmakers are creating
movies that depict African life and culture accurately,
"countermanding stereotypical views and assumptions
about the continent." Because these films are created by
and for Africans, those who support these films feel a
sense of pride and satisfaction at seeing positive portray-
als of themselves and their culture. This sense of fulfill-
ment and pride has catapulted this medium to popular
status. The social and political aspect of these films has
received much support from organizations who view
cinema as a means of social change (Martin and
O'Meara 284). The concept of social change and com-
mentary is a popular theme in many of the films.
Filmmaking is much more of a "raw" art form in
Ghana than in the Francophone countries. Since most
producers are self-trained, their continued success is
dependent on the popularity of their products. Therefore,
many of the Ghanaian videos screened in theatres in
Accra, the capital, revolve around themes prevalent in
urban life primarily the struggles which make life so
unforgiving and uncompromising. Issues of poverty and
the everyday struggle to survive are popular among
audiences. In addition, most films are Christian in
nature. In fact, the film industry was originally estab-
lished by Catholic missions as a means of promoting
Christian propaganda (Martin and O'Meara 283). Today
the film industry in Ghana has become so popular that
these videos compete with American and European films
shown in Accra, with the former being favored more
often, especially on weekends (Meyer 92). While
audiences are comprised of both men and women, the
popularity of these films is reliant heavily on female
viewers since women usually convince their partners to
go out to the movies or buy home videos. Most audi-
ences, regardless of their demography, are actively
engaged in the viewing experience, often shouting,
clapping, and laughing throughout a feature (Meyer 98).
Such reactions and engagement are quite similar to
audience engagement at theatres in the United States.

Theatre in Africa relies much on audience participa-
tion and is very different in structure and form from
Western theatre, which takes great strides to separate the
art from the spectator. Much of popular theatre in Africa
is actually "unrehearsed and unscripted" (Martin and

Popular culture is a global trend, influenced in
almost every part of the world by western technology
and ideals. In order to understand the identity of urban
Africans, a study of the African interpretation of this
global trend is imperative.
Popular culture is the everyday expression of
traditional culture. Whereas traditional cultural studies
focus on those aspects of a society which have been
passed down throughout generations, the study of
popular culture focuses on those aspects of society
which are constantly changing. Traditional culture is
"static" by definition--it seeks to relive the past and to
impart the fundamental values of society. Popular
culture, on the other hand, is about the present.
When preparing a unit on African culture and
history, it is as important to provide students with an
understanding of the popular culture prevalent through-
out the continent as it is to provide a historical over-
view of the region and its emergence from western
colonial rule.
The study of popular culture in Africa should
follow an examination of the history of colonization.
Students should be aware of the European invasion of
Africa and the oppressive and violent practices of those
nations which controlled most of the continent for
nearly 100 years. Because most countries in Africa did
not gain independence until late in the 20th century, the
European influence is evident in almost every aspect of
urban African identity. Therefore, any lessons) on
popular culture in urban Africa should be the culmina-
tion of a larger unit on African history.
While popular culture encompasses almost every
aspect of urban life, this paper will explore only
popular forms of entertainment, primarily popular
cinema, theatre, and music, as they are presented in
select urban centers of Africa. Because popular culture
is constantly changing, any teacher wishing to include
a lesson on popular culture in urban Africa will have to
do research independent of the information provided in
this article.

Cinema in Africa began as a tool for western
propaganda, both political and religious. According to
Phyllis M. Martin and Patrick O'Meara, popular
cinema in Africa today is "a medium for social
change". While many of the films popular today in

O'Meara 280). Performances, for instance, can take
place on city buses where riders first find them-
selves amidst a comedy of errors in which everyone
becomes involved. Not all theatrical performances
are unscripted, however. Theatre in Africa is evolv-
ing into an art form similar to that of Western societies,
with the phenomenon of the theatre artist beginning to take
shape. Theatre artists can consist of groups of professionals
who became known through school drama activities or
they can be individuals who received formal education and
training in theatrical arts. During the years when most
countries began to gain independence, theatre existed as a
medium for social and political satire and exists today to
fulfill the same agendas.

"Unlike Western theatre, which relies mainly on the
language of the colonizer, popular theatre speaks the
language-slang, effete mannerisms, and all-of the
person on the street and the neighbor next door. It
communicates with the struggling urban worker and
satirizes the boss/bossed relationship that towns-
people are only too familiar with." Martin and O'Meara

In this form of theatre, audience participation is common.
Comments from audience members during shows are
worked into the production, with the actors interacting
with the audience (Martin and O'Meara 281).
The prevalence of the struggles of urban life in
African theatre and cinema are examples of western
influence on African culture. With development and
industrialization come new struggles of poverty for
Africans. Africans have taken these influences and
through the artistic expressions of cinema and theatre
created an urban identity as much African as it is West-

* The community gathers around a local bandperforming in an open market
Performances such as this one are common in Africa The public is able to
participate by dancing and singing along

music as is the case with hip-hop. The hip-hop movement
in Cape Town emerged in the early 80's before hip-hop
became a commercial success in America (Faber 1).
Popular music in Africa is further fueled by popular
urban radio stations, which air everything from African
Reggae to Rock. Like popular cinema and theatre, pop
music in Africa is a medium of expression and opportu-
nity for Africans to explore cultural identity in their own
The hegemonic global culture has continued to feed
into Africa for years through the use of popular culture. In
the end, however, the hegemonic global structure is being
transformed and subdued to the popular culture of urban

Muic '-urces and References for Teachers
The popular music scene in the urban centers of 1, uth of the Sahara Radio Programs (June 21, 2002)
Africa is largely influencedby Americanism. MT http //wwwrsul sanford edu/depts/ssrg/Afnaca/radio html
nerealg gon, lla -eeigo eai ewga vry" Cole' Cathanne M "This is actually a good lnterp)retation of

day to urban teenagers. Although many of the pop and
rock stars appreciated by African youths are Americans or
Europeans, a new trend of western-influenced African
popular music is beginning to take root. The infusion of
western pop sounds are being infused by traditional
African beats and languages, and many musicians are
beginning to take their music abroad to the American and
European markets.
While popular music in Africa is greatly influenced
by the west, African pop artists are creating their own
identities through their music. They are creating African
interpretations of popular western musical art forms.
African popular music has also influenced American

modem civilization popular theatre and the social imaginary
in Ghana 1946-1966 Africa Summer 1997, v67, n3, p
East Afncan Music (June 21, 2002) http //hometown aol com/
dpaterson/eamusic htm
Faber, Jorg "Cape Town's Hip Hop Scene Journal ofAfrican
Music and Popular Culture http //ntama um-mainz de/hiphop/
Library of Afncan Cinema (June 2, 2002)
http //www newsreel org/topics/acme htm
Martin, Phyllis M and Patnck O'Meara, eds Africa Indiana
University Press 1995
Meyer, Birgit "Popular Ghanaian cinema and Afncan hentage"
Africa Today Spnng 1999, v 46, n2, p 92(22)
South Afncan radio station (June 21, 2002)
http //www 5fin co za/default asp

Loosening Up the Soul: Festival, Dance,

and Ritual in Central Africa

.............. 4k EhzabethFranksld_ ********

Humas need ntuals andcelebafons,these
acthiteshelp us to live oughsomber evensin
our hves and allow us tne ad spce m wch to
celebrate thejoyful events(Mit143) InAfncan
society hfe without music, song, dae and
worsup of Godis uima able e is no such
flung as anAfncanatheist(Aami) Afican
festival music and dance inteiweave wt spamtu-
alit and give people a chance to act out ter
emoions, thus satisfyng ther spnis (I t 67)
Although tadiional festals m smaller
commumties hv dwndled as natonaly-sn-
soredfestvals ae oiga edand Islamic and
Chnstan festivals become more widesread
manypople maintain tadionalbeliefs and
customs (Mit1i 143) Before wv gh se at a
buth festival m Cameroon the Obango L ce of
Gabo, or the NomoIo L ceofRwanda, its
unpoani t o undestandAfncan ntal and dance
tuals hv vital function msociey In a
sometimes confusng and tubulen world ntuals
can create a sense of ceiamts famihanty and
umtyamong people who needto feel a t of a
group Also, ntuals canbe a wayto teach chl-
dren though wods symols and acons The
words songs, dances and action ofAfcan
ntuals are hng beef systems No wntentexts
are needed when ntuals llowthe cele rationof
hfe and our creative pticipaton m t umvese
Afnican ntilscanbe dvded mto to
groups The fist e revolves around an
mdividual's hfe cle For example, bit or
funeral festivals, namig ceremonies, teethng,
pubety engagement manage, culbeanng,
eldeshp and old age These occasons tell
mdividual halt she mate, is valuable and
unique, and a member r of a commmy They al
provide a clear view of he cha of m easing
resy ibilit lp a view wch stmulaes courage
for challenges to come

The second tyie of ntal focuses onagio

ntual migh ceomle te change ng of sea

agnculually sed commumtes, lan-mang
celemonies canbe cenlia eR-madeibeam
iheupiaye snghlat the staro fhe lamy season
sancti iationo fhfe The enne fania pcess
i mewil he sa attde o ce Ce

emonies aie oianiaed whnafild cleied so
lhalthe slecnts of nhe feeswchwe cuo daou
wll be able to lrv peae fuly Trees of planting
seeds weedig and astg te hust fts ofoa
hais aie ntalied Haiestce emomes alow

people o ex o ssr hexgtle ude Tese fesui it s
aie lmes foi h eole m on laxl datce, ea ofs lea
a y mresn

he eanh lest anbd pe e o eenoy oter negative
achoes blr o13113, ) Aside fiem agnc luatr e
mhee ase ntr ls frli other sgicat es

suchashealthntuals tat esue good heall, tions become hke faihes for Pople m te ctes

heal event danger, cue baneness, remove
impulses, and protect arinals, people, and cropp
(MIiti 139) Fially thee ae nuals focusn on
homes andrgoup of people wo shae a common
rofeslion(Mli 140) Dunnr festvals, people
are entertamed and a sensitivityto umtyand
connonvalues is nounshed Expessions of
artstfiyandpranr inennmgle man atmosphere
where the
worlds of
the vwble
and the

exlt for
people at
the center

mor g to
uiban areas
are chal
lenged to
find ayr s
to balance
I g with
then need Lmamanka sza
fionr rc ad mu, a i00 t i
forntial CTyft@ v [,ma.*a
and celebration m
conurty Somenes people create a new
orgamzation to satsfythee needs The tenm
lrehgiioussnreLet li" ha~ beencreated tode-
scnbe churches wtch pular culte is med
withChnsamtr Because these churches are able
to mecoolrate element ofthee raditonalAfcan A
reiglorssuchasthe dc and musical stau
mentis msongs, theeyhave beenverysuceaful
(Jegede 276) Evensome Muslnchurches are
including sme si g andclapng dunng the
chanting of melodious verses Chuches tat used
to foibid danci g now use tfaditonalAfican
instruments in the services (We l]sh-Asante 172-
173) Byshowmg emBathyforreople and offer-
ing supp in ndvduals' manages, finances
and professional and social hvesthese orgaz-


(Jegede 27) Ofte people look foard to
rehing home for their former conumt,'s
annual fensals in oderto pledge loltyto the
communut's pactes and tobe renewed(Jegede
Afncan dance was ceaed toallowhuman
bodies to piiciae mthe sacred Dancg ges
pase, thanks asks forbles s, relieves bal-
ances psi-
tie and
nega ve
aspects of
hfe, ac-
pwer and
cates on the
levels of
tlme, space,
motgonr and
though all of
the human

dae aiego edoi t esl heleatg yle tes.
Isamn Giban Asante 16)
w.o..i* d g According to
Asante, all Afr dane ongmtes m sacred
masquerades hencient mass are where the spits
whom trodued sing, ing and music to
the world he New mastss~bobe heroesand
ancestors rassed nlctdbynew relhglons,
butenaoyedmcommumteswhere theynverfail
tofasinematechildren(Welsh-Asante 164165)
Ceremomaldancesmakeupthe maontof

becoming ar man or woman wel us andb s 169)
or orgrouswhoan share p an occupation Conununal
dances are relatedto harvests, celebrating heroes,
funeralsandcomonation (Welsh-Asante 167-169)
Inuiban area pulardances canbe called

* Thocal function careances an ocan shoot of Te skced

encompasses contemporary religious and8 cultural
as people pogress troughshedrife Ms ncandanes

akevvl pace sho s Snichas The vidllge parucapteo
Thted anirp iroer (2a001) Dawhhn national fest
vaas o fo a~ promote national erdetity reaction to

yhers of humanintion 0 f course, Afri n ances soal
ance forsthe coenwnidato epe ence

include night clb and recreational dances, and
masquerade This"social functional" category

entcompasses conteance ra ryle f iou hanse ch re

created to honor visitors to so not enteulauners' ctanc eS
(Welsh Asante 170 173)
rSince dance s s such an integral pai of rodciol l
entitledlp/M omb/(3001) Dazzlng national festi-

it s alyo s a paro of imponalnt itys celebrating
erscle evets (Eiiic of Donce S8) In Cameroon, at
a budenh c t reony, c e coand ty gcal dances, n do
teral m bom housdce) toe from th To e wmohe ar

mTher and baby People brnng a lot of fo od fGO a fast
crnedg e festival and toancsng, sont s re cttered

ontceously This sfehva reinforces rte values of a
comsalwanty beruse pfim ipants re ven cole plate
lifecycle events (Enc ofDance8) In Cameroonaat
a birth ceremony, the community gathers n the ndo
wayn ("bom house") to celebrate with the mother.
fatherandbaby Peoplebngalotoffood forafeast
Dunng the festival and dancing, songs are crated
spontaneously This festivalrenforcesthevaluesof
community because participants are given complete
freedom to praise or criticize others People who do
not want to be exposed at such gatherings vall avoid

behaving irresponsibly
The atmosphere ofthe
festival remains light
heao eda s everyone s
happy ab out he baby
which is now considered
the community's child to
raise (Mbeh)
The Obingo
LDnce is from the Fing
ethnic group i Gabon
The dance s said to
loosen up he soul wthin
he body i pre aration
for itsjoyful meeting
woth itances ncest One
voice songs solo as the
group echoes chorus The hao, which s the
most imp oant strument, is said to be played
by sints of ancestors or angels (mn Chostian
terms) It s he voiceofhe sisterof God and
hasthepowerto clean outhe chpelandcarry
prayers to heaven The sounding box symbolizes
a womb, the spintual source o life Anelop e
skin covering the har is panted red and white
to symb olize males and females while hehigh
and low pitches symbolize the female nd mae
voices haimoo lng in ceremomes The stings
of smnew symbolize ndutance and flebility
(Equatonall Miccosm, g oram notes)
In Rwanda, the Congolese Ndombolo loce
will always liven up a party Ndombolo means
"cazy" The philosophy of the dance is to make
the craziest motions imaginable The elegant
rhythms, wch ae best when produced only by
the hands and feet, balance this craziness The
ance transcends barners of age, class, group or
country (wanda 71)
In Afia, festival, dance and ntual are
interwoven in aly life From this beautiful and
vibrant tapestry e can learn that sometimes
life's most imp ortant values an lessons are
taught, without books or desks, though a
community celebrating wth rtual and dance

(Emphasis on Pre-school and Kindergarten)

* To study Africa, it is necessary to teach correct lan-
guage so as to support an atmosphere of mutual
respect. See the lesson in "Teaching African Heritage
to Pre-School Children" Black Books Bulletin W 74
v2, 3 & 4 p34-39 for lesson plans, specifically Lesson
2 entitled, "Oops! I Didn't Say That!"

SDiscuss ceremonies and why they are important. See
International Fall Festivals. Projects and Patterns for
Holiday Gifts, Greetings, Ornaments, Decorations,
and Classroom Displays. A Seasonal Idea/Activity
Bookfor Grades 1-6. New Jersey, U.S.: 1994.

Introduce the body as a rhythmic instrument (clapping,
stomping). Brainstorm ways to make percussive
sounds with body. Introduce rhythm. SeeAfrican
Songs and Rhythms for Children, Folkways: Cam-
bridge, 1978, and Makmg and Playing Homemade
Instruments, Cathy Fink and Marcy Marxer, Home-
spun Video, 1989. There are lots of activities and crafts
(including a way to make masks) in Learning Feb. 91,
Vol. 19, Iss. 6, pp. 32-39.

Listen to some African music and learn a song.
Explore the highly-rated African Lullaby CD of
various artists, released 1999 and above African
Songs cassette and teacher's guide.

Talk about dance in Africa as it relates to environ-
ment. A traditional Rwandan dance is called the cow
dance in which arms are held out like the horns and
feet are stomping (Rwanda 71). Make up a dance
imitating something in our environment. View
African Healing Dance, a video with lead dancer
Wyoma and the dancers and drummers of the
Damballa dance troupe. It is a step-by-step dance
course on healing traditions and spiritual movements
that are special to the African dance heritage (1997)
(Description from Amazon.com)

Combine dance with instruments. Model dance after
the dances in Chad in which children circle around
with instruments and take turns dancing in the
middle, oldest first. (JVC video Anth. Vol. 18
program notes)


Africa: An Encyclopeca for Students. Vol 2 "Festivals and Carnivals p 61 and "Central African Republic" Vol 1
Mukuna, Kazadi wa Afncan Children's Songs forAmercan Elementar Children. East Lansmg, MI African Studies Center and
Music Department, Michigan State Unversity, 1980, 1979
Ajam, Timothy Lecture onAfncan Religion for Center forAfncan Studies'Summer Institute for Teachers, Gainesville, FL, 2002
Briggs, Philippe and Janlce Booth Rwanda: the Bradt Travel Guide. Bucks, England Bradt Travel Guides, Guilford, CT
Globe Pequot Press, 2001
Fernandez, James W, Music from an Equatorial Microcosm, Fang Bwiti Music from Gabon Repubhc, Africa, with Mbir
selections [Sound recording and program notes] Recorded and annotated by James W Fernandez Folkways Library
FE4214, 1973
Jegede, Dele "Popular Culture in Urban Africa pp 273-278, m Africa Phyllis M Martin and Patrick O"Meara eds
Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1995
The JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance: Central Afnca, Vol 18 Program notes on Damblo Dance and Children's
Dances of Chad Tokyo JVC, Victor Company of Japan [production company], 1988, Cambridge, MA Rounder Records
[distributor], 1990
Mbeh, George Lecture on Afncan Art, Music and Culture for Center forAfncan Studies'Summer Institute for Teachers.
Gamesville, FL, 2002
"Rwanda International Encyclopedia of Dance AProject of Dance Perspectives Foundation, Inc Vol 2 Founding editor,
Selma Jeanne Cohen, area editors, George Dorris [et al ], consultants, Thomas F Kelly [et al ] New York Oxford
University Press, 1998
Song of the River : Harps of CentralAfrica (sound recording) (29 May 29 August 1999) / [curators of the exhibition and
catalogue design, Philippe Bruguire, Jan-Lodewijk Grootaers contributors, Monique Brandily [et al Paris Cite de la
Musique Muse6 de la Musique with the assistance of the Societe d'ethnologie, Nanterre, 1999
Thompson, Robert Farris African Art in Motion: Icon andAct. Los Angeles, CA University of California Press, 1974
Welsh-Asante, Kariamu African Dance: an Artistic, Historical, andPhilosophical Inquiry, pp 164-173 Trenton, NJ Africa
World Press, 1996

African Culture in the Classroom:

Cash Crops

.......... --4- Peggy Ferguson **************

Have you ever wondered while eating a delicious
Hershey's candy bar where that chocolate got its begin-
ning? What about the coffee beans that were ground to
make your coffee and that sweet-tasting sugar in it?
This article will discuss some things that may be
surprising about the origin of these products. As you
may know, the main cash crops of Africa include coffee,
palm fruits, rubber, cashews, tobacco, coconuts, cotton,
sugarcane, cocoa, and tea. The principal beverage crops
of Africa are tea, coffee, cocoa, and grapes.

Beverage Production

The largest producers of
tea, grown mainly in
highland regions, are
Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi,
Zimbabwe, and
Mozambique. Major
coffee producers include
Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya,
Tanzania, and Madagas-
car. Cocoa, best suited to
tropical regions, is
cultivated in West Africa.
Grapes, produced in
northern Africa and South
Africa, are used primarily

* Fully grown coffee plant Courtes

for making wine. These are all important cash crops,
grown mainly for export. This article will focus on
coffee, cocoa, tea, and sugar. A description of each as
well as information about where it's grown is given.
Finally, I will discuss the exportation and production of
Agriculture plays a central role in the economies of
nations throughout Africa, accounting for between 30%
and 60% of all economic production. In many African
nations, a majority of the people are engaged in farming,
producing goods for domestic use and sometimes for
export as well. Peasant and subsistence farming is the
basic form of agriculture in most parts of the continent.
Agriculture practices in Africa are extremely varied.
Many of the differences are related to the continent's
environmental diversity-it's great range of landscapes
and climates. Crops and farming methods are suitable

for the dry, desert regions of North Africa and are quite
different from those appropriate for the tropical rain
forests of central Africa.
Since colonial times, the export of raw materials
(agricultural and mineral commodities) has been the
mainstay of African economies. Most of the export
earnings of more than half of all African countries derive
from a single commodity, either a mineral or an agricul-
tural product. Some countries have fairly diversified
export sectors, especially South Africa, Zimbabwe,
Mauritius, Morocco, and Tunisia; they export manufac-
tured products in addition to
various primary commodities.

Trading Partners
The industrial countries
of the northern hemisphere
are Africa's principal trading
partners-notably France,
Germany, Belgium, Italy,
Spain, the United Kingdom,
the United States and Japan.
Among the African trading
nations, South Africa is the
main supplier to markets in
y ofwww coffeeresearch org southern Africa. C6te d'Ivoire
is an important supplier to
western Africa and supplies much of eastern Africa.
Agriculture remains the backbone of most African
economies, affecting the well being of virtually all
Africans in terms of household income, food security, and
the national economy.

Africa and U. S. Trade

Two-way trade between the United States and Sub-
Saharan Africa recovered strongly in 2000 from a lacklus-
ter performance in 1999, propelled by surging prices for
imported crude oil and modest increases in the U.S
exports to South Africa and Nigeria. Total trade (imports
plus exports) soared by 50% to $29.4 billion. The United
States is Africa's largest single market, purchasing 19% of
the region's exports in 1999.
Some mornings when you awake, what smell greets

wheneyiouf Htwakeupl The siell buyu lo y i feet
3id gelt y started fortheday Ts speillesguld the
entueb oupe


Coflee A aneeigreen slhb orsmal te, genr-
ally5mio 10mminheught, bdige.i toAsi.3nd
tiopicalAfa3 tll uees gw to Its, btlult aiced
ihriubs ie piunled lo a3mx1imof3 Tin he died
iseedsi (be.a ) up oied, gwund 3idbewed ti
waierio propietsewobd's astpopublariow-aklo-
hobalibeeage Coffee A citiresto t1AICa3,3adw
used fistE t inUiopc, altugh co A otlwidlely
iusedmAfn A wAzabswe. fle faictobew cofee
3id hue ise spied fioimArabia lo Egypt id e to
Europe Cofe ew upnticilelypopdla El
Coflee fiu antancesorybecy-lthe floralcup,
esuOccp,esocapn 3id edozp 3e Cblledo he ppedi-
miedi Eachfiut cotit iam iwo eed o sbeis), Goaily
eiidoepeimr Coffee is scradvicin tapecol and Ads
slides wihffiti Atni d 37 but, 3li o
lequiies a diryiseasorforflowerdeopei Tee
beginpiautlion dun I a pee-y3arpeziod and
pioducefor40 pars Cofee A usillypic:edbyhard
Iti priocimig began wit hle separation oft Heeds
firnithe fumitwhcha 3eihe femniedal 3ioalced
Bfial curnentlyledst f? world in ffee production
Ethopi weco y A basedpmnlyon3gcul-
was (putriasrygeo ds\whichaccounti forabt45% of
it GDP, 93% ofitD eprts, 3id 80% oflotal employ-
mnen Coffee u Ethiopis lirgeItexpztai3nd gzenies
60%ofalliteexport eamiis The coffeecbusmin
employs. butolo? of eryfirpeoplet in Hf csuliyo
Among flueniesAfbnhcaucusis thatgz coffee age up
Zaie, Sm 3Leone, Ugand3, Ghis, lB i, Ngen3,
Rwaid3 Apagola, Coeo, ad Coae d'faoue Cofe ewa
cosnideied apolentpmedicne, A well A 3aehgius
poionthtat helped people emaina We Debie d gpeayes
Plogrnt oflempreafdtlue coffee tuougglit the
MiudleEilfatndbye end oftl 15theez cowfee-ag
hiasesehad eplaed moquei isA Afodeneting
place I thtihe spaedofpElthioptincoffeefiroaAfica3
ioih nMiddle EastIndi3,FEzopea3iAmencas,
becmeoneoftheotipopulbled ofcoffeemt
wood Ev'engelatcoffeebufeesi 1e le MaxweR
Honue a3d Folge& 'hair fourth typ of colee blend
Hosidecallaose rod~lnou
Tinpioductionofcoffeehsmt chaned mch
ile t IlulthNcetduy NealyallofElhiopis coffee
beanpioluction iiiltlb yhar, fimtheplarhng of
newt ieeslothefml ictlaneiwhchatetlhniento

SRoaedLlffeebeea Coiesydaiewcafeelreearhrg
the b g warlbe mAdd Ab Aba
Ehopi psoduces mi A ly ab coffee fnoti il
tiees inae poidces ofDjemtiah, Sblamo, Lekept Iand
Salo ithwetdsatl Auihe Ethiopi3aubeheldo lobe
om ofl iwourt hplces of fiecoffee b esuAddlls
Ab ,its cpetl, th chiefideno eorffee reo etl The
pnmarynbiameforEthiopicoifalee 3e Abaysiman And
DnmmhuardoHra 3whiuch ialoknowd.3 Harderand
Haran Hawmi3nio It stioedcoffeeoft opi glown
minplatoion arthea3ncien capptalofHiaetwhluch
boh3acilyarldpiovncetinIh? uaiy
Efhopi rau l olucion of colee ibemween
140,00) 3ad lU000Ios About 44% ofthe coffee
ploducedim iffElhopl ia exped ooher counties (Itil
then dued Kingdomt he Net he e nds, D ib cutlGezm
Japcn, Su dlArs aboF i a l UniedSwl3tabp
EthopLans connie halfoofh coffee produced inEthio-


CocoaiA widelygown inthe topics uflly
alitiudespi lethn 30mabow sea leAdd, wie it ees a
fauilyhighraulffall And good st oilCoatoees Ctlleup
iofouiyan fom plantitbcefore podusoccufficient
futn forhre tinlg IThe le e hghly herable o peist
3nddi Adeio, and itAal o very sensitoi ochmile
change Duichcoo3 made by ptesing tflt(coco3
but io cielea3dzy pwder thalti telead witlh 33
Ts? contirm os sturncrg ofmxbiue ofc colale equo
comabutctring sitad mazessel niiU produces mulk
Cocoa tiees grow Abou 60 fet inhe wild, btin
olderifowor esi lozeachli? pads at hresittue,
plication oawe ltnmtismio ultc ft Sbce ti

cocoa tree prefers shade, banana trees, rubber trees, or
coconut palms are planted beside the cocoa tree in the
The pods take 5 to 6 months to develop When the
pods npen they tur from green or yellow to orange or
red Cocoatrees can be harvestedtwice year Workers
use a machete to cut the pods off the trees They are
placed on banana leaves in large wooden boxes They
are left to ferment for several days
After fermentation, the beans are sun-dned for
several days They are then packed in burlap sacks and
shipped to factories When the beans arnve at the
chocolate factory they are sorted, cleaned, and depend-
ing on the bean, roasted in large revolving drums at
2500 to 3500 degrees for 30 minutes to 2 hours
After roasting, the beans are winnowed, a process
that removes the outer shell The shells are sold as
animal feed Tner nib is theneristhen crushed, heated to
melt the cocoa butter and ground to a hick paste The
paste is called chocolate liquor, but contains no alcohol
If left untreated, the chocolate liquor becomes cocoa
powder To make cocoa powder, a large press extracts
all but 10-25% of the cocoa butter from the chocolate
liquor The remaining cake is then ground and sifted
through fine nylon, silk, or wire mesh Low-fat cocoa
contains between 10-13% fat where high fat contains
15-25% Low-fat cocoa is used to flavor desserts
Currently, ccoa beans are grown in tropical coun-
tries such as Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Brazil and Indonesia,
which together account for about 74% of world's cocoa
production Cocoa farmers receive only about 5% of the
profit from chocolate and little of this cocoa is actually
processedin theuese counties Oy six transnational
companies account for 80% of the world chocolate
market Five of the six are European Nestle, Euchred,
Mars, Cadbury and Ferran, which together account for
74% of the world's chocolate sales The EU consumes
40% of the world's cocoa
About half of the working population of Ghana
depends on cocoa in some way, and 43% of national
income is denved from cocoa production All West
African cocoa belong to the Amazonian Forester group,
which now accounts for more than 80% of world cocoa
production It includes the Maldonado vanety, which is
suitable for chocolate manufacturing and is grown in
Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire and Nigena About 90% of all
cocoa produced is used in chocolate-making, for which
extra cocoa butter is added, as well as other substances
such as sugar and milk in the case of milk chocolate
After coffee and sugar, cocoa is the most important
agncultural export commodity in international trade
The world's leading exporters of cocoa beans in 1997/98

SThe cocoaplantgrowsmarymnroplcd areas fthe world
Observe she shpe of e he cocoa

were Cote d'Ivoire (964,400 tons), Ghana (325,519 tons),
Indonesia (225,951 tons), Nigeria (143,150 tons) Pnncipal
importers of cocoa are developed counties with market
economies, which account for about 80% of cocoa imports
from developing counties The pnncipal importing
countries in 1997-98inc9luded the USA (with 426,873 tons,
representing 19 2% of the total), the Netherlands (320,173
tons) and Germany (308,759 tons)
Afnca produces as much as 2/3 of the world's cocoa
beans, which are often blended with those from other parts
of the world to create chocolate However, it is possible to
buy chocolate candy made entirely from African beans
For instance, a Lexngton, Kentucky firm, Chocolate by
Jamieson, Ltd, has recently begun selling chocolate bars
in the United States made entirely from Ghanaian cocoa
beans The chocolate is processed and blended in Ghana
and then exported to the U S in 12-lb blocks The molding
into individual bars and the wrapping are done in Ken-
Ghanaian beans usually command a premium pnce on
the London Cocoa Exchange and the New York Commodi-
ties Exchange, which set world cocoa pnces Today, with

the lwIy CoIatleang, Gha i ethe
world second largest ccoa poscer
Cocabeain ar elated prodcts, su.chs
cccoa butter ar piccessed clcolate, are
thi second lases tI bniexd ase
a.n. for Glraiss-eitug $S2i5
unulliod nmreame ereia Gold is t
filtean$mri2;n e aullon .

Sugcaru ies n onaibat9C(n0f
th csultoned atd ea al accunts bar

smlordtoofftllabor mcemMlsMSnds
ccnstruckionm *dull tr (3) selvies


(/.0), olln

table, Mg.

abu.a iae edsso ..ai,

pointed leavs awas
ongmally indigo lto
CliuaandIhda Init
wasms, ihind linute with
3rauinalloneauizns at
year Ideally, it lises deep,
Ight, acidicandwell-
draindun oil Guntuse
condtionstea will
althides aslgha- 2,100
noterssabonisea lel Tea
vnei rinflairand carrad-

eniylhu gwe
ea anddnnk Wha abat tat cake and ie camwhen
You celebrate aholday Ibet it came fma co in
Afnca Lai'i explore wonder ofbsgarandit'dbegn-
Sugar i a sweet cysitallines b stance, wch may
be deniedfstioihe ces ofarbs plaints Clenu-
cally, hebati ofbusesgarsu socre,om ofagaup of
solid uble cboldralei, whchaie mortanti sources of
enogintlk ic iidet It anbe obtained o ees,
dichindgmaple and aralam palns, butsilusally all
matiunfactimed swgarcome fion plants uch as ano
beetarn Sugarcans e Sugarcae, fud in topical aea.,
griowlstoal ighlofupto5 t Ma Afncan countnes
inculing Moanti aa Zamba gw isgascan It .
grownon daiut 9A% ofticultluated laraleaat
aceun B afr 25% ofexporteaidngs forMainto

teirnce acco diIo type of sa1, altitude azdelunate
considers oftlm ara mwhichit u saionwThewayti u
processed als oaff ects Itflanrad chlitate, a does
ihe blendingofdifferentte afmmi feient aeas
TodayeaY gownonesaors sllhold A
isllhosldm wi pnvtely o aayd canbealo llas 5
hectlisi orcancoerseveralhetatles Invwaoscounteids
wheie searl ga onl s llholdes s, o-operatvesl aest
onned o buildsea-pieceu n? factoycentaltloua
iisllholde& Ti o ne& ofthesnullholde&sellthe
phickedleafto tI? factolyfrpioceiing Anestale ii a
iselfconlauedit, ofnenhdimdiedofhectalesmsie,
himingit-iownfacloyt lea fieldsschcolsspitalstaff
hiise azd gardens, place s ofworup, ies iand guest
haise Many Afncan countneuhuing Malaviand
Kenya proda dexipoilttea

Teacher's Corner


= Students should be aware of import and export
= To understand the production of agricultural products
= The impact of production on economics
= Careers in agriculture impact every part of society
= Geographical make-up of Africa and its effect on
cash crop production
= The different cash crops grown in countries of Africa


1. Cash crop
4. Import
7. Root crop
10. Export

2. Cocoa beans
5. Coffee Beans
8. Seed crops

3. Pods
6. Subsistence
9. Savanna


1 Have students compare and contrast two cash crops
and then write a one-sentence summary.
2 Students may use a map of Africa to color in the
regions where the cash crops are grown.
3 Students may create tables including the names of
crops and countries where grown and an illustration.
4 Use graphs and tables showing cash crops data and
allow students to create at least two FCAT type
questions using the data found on the graph or
5 Use newspapers or magazines to find relevant
articles about agricultural production in Africa.
Then students should create at least 3-4 FCAT-type
questions in cooperative groups.
6 Choose literature titles that have a chocolate theme
for students to read and use CRISS strategies to
complete language arts, math, and social science
7 Chocolate Heaven-You may also want to serve this
with hot chocolate. Tell the students that cocoa and
chocolate are made from the beans of cacao trees,
which are found in the tropical rainforests of
Africa. Ask students to name some different kinds
of chocolate and ways in which it is used.
Recipe for Old-fashioned hot chocolate:
Mix together 1/3 cup of cocoa, 1 sugar and 3 quarts
of milk in a saucepan over medium heat (serves
-15 students) Enjoy!


Donnelly, J. "World wakes up to Ethiopia's coffee" 1996.
"Ethiopian Harrar Longberry." Los Gatos Coffee Roast-
ing Company. 1994.
Martin, P M. and O'Meara, P, eds. Africa: Third Ed.
Middleton, J, ed. Africa: An Encyclopedia for students.
NY: Charles Scribner & Sons, Gale Group, Thompson
Learning, 2002. Vol. 1, pp. 8-12.

Listing of websites
Agriculture & Economic Growth
US African Trade Profile. Prepared by: G. Feldman,
Department of Commerce, International Trade Adminis-
tration, and Office of Africa
http://www.newafricaation.org/das01/ecooo 1 lob.htm
African Cocoa
Agricultural News from Africa: Africa Coffee News,
2000. http://www.newafrica.com
Ethiopia. World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency,
Tea Plantation to Cup
http://www.hollandbymail.nl/tea tea manufacturing.html
Cocoa Growing Countries
cocoa growing countries.html
David Johnson. Ghana's Sweet Success Story
index 20000413htm.
The World Factbook 2001- Rwanda
Tea Producing Nations
How Chocolate is Made
Kwaanza Themes and Activities for Children
http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African studies/
country specific/Ethiopia.htm

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