Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Great African kingdoms : an FCAT-based...
 Slave trade : Goree and Bance...
 Sea islanders of Beaufort, SC :...
 African-European connection through...
 American blues and jazz : rooted...
 Names and naming practices in African...
 Let's visit Swaziland
 Everybody cooks rice
 Mufaro's beautiful daughters :...
 Children's picture books in an...
 Back Cover

Title: Irohin
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075548/00012
 Material Information
Title: Irohin
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for African Studies
Publisher: Center for African Studies, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1991-
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Study and teaching -- Periodicals -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with Feb. 1991.
General Note: "Bringing Africa to the classroom."
General Note: Description based on: Feb. 1992; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075548
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001640153
oclc - 25762685
notis - AHR5232
lccn - sn 92022991


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Great African kingdoms : an FCAT-based unit lesson plan
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Slave trade : Goree and Bance Island
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Sea islanders of Beaufort, SC : are they true descendents of west Africa?
        Page 6
    African-European connection through visual arts
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    American blues and jazz : rooted in African tradition
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Names and naming practices in African communities
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Let's visit Swaziland
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Everybody cooks rice
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Mufaro's beautiful daughters : a Zimbabwean tale
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Children's picture books in an African setting
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Back Cover
        Page 44
Full Text



A Publication of The Center for African Studies
University of Florida


Taking Africa to the Classroom


A Publication of
The Center for African Studies
University of Florida
427 Grinter Hall
P.O. Box 115560
Gainesville, FL. 32611
(352) 392-2183,
Fax: (352) 392-2435

Editor/Outreach Director: Agnes Ngoma Leslie
With the assistance of Corinna Greene
and Natalie Washington
Layout & Design: Qi Li Li


The Center for

Arican Studies
Otreach Pmgmm at the Unversty of Flonda

The Ceeris allyfunded under Title VI ofthe
fedealHigher EducationAct a a Natonal
Resource Ceineron M ca One of 12 lesouce
centers, Flonda's is the oyCenter located m he
southeastenmUmtedStates The Centerdirects
deelo; and coornates mterdisciplmary
unstuction, research and outreach onAfca

The OuteachPogram includes avanetyof
acimvities whose objecte is to ove Ihe
teaching ofM ca in nayand secondary
schools colleges, umversites and local
conunutwes Followmi ae some ofth e regular
actmiviles which fall undehe OutreachProgram

Linary Teacheismayborowvdeotapes and
booIs from the Cteach office

Comnumil and colPresentatons Faculty
and graduate students make pesentato ono fca
to local conunumtes and schools

ResearchAlihateProgran Two one-monh
aprointinenis ate poided each suwn ne The
program enables Afncan s, ciahsls at iswtlutons
which do not ih adequate resoures for Mncan-
related research to incease the exetse onAfnca
throughcontacti f othlherAfncais Theyalso
have access toAfnca -elatedesoures atthe
UnversityofFlonda lblanes

Teachers'Worshops The
Centle offers m-sevice
about i stucto on Afnca
throughout the school ar

Summer Instittes. Each
suam er, Ihe Center holds
teaching msttutesforK-12

Phcatons The Center
publishes and dstabutes
teac ng resources including
Irolnn In addthon, Ihe Center
has also published a monograph
entitled Lesson Plans on African
History an d geography A
Teachmg Resoicrce

* One fthe waniin gals ftle Centeris opr
esed cuhne Tis is a cuilsa gk.h which
visated Gaiesvillef tt the Garba

[Editor's Note

Each summer, the center for _African studies at the 9University of cFlorida hosts a -9(12
teachers' institute. The objective of the institute is to help teachers increase their knowledge
about ~Africa and develop lesson plans to use in their classrooms. The creative lesson plans
in this issue of 9rohin were written by participants in the 2001 institute. lease feel free to
use these materials in your teaching and share them with other teachers. Write or call the
center for additional copies.


ylgnes gfgoma L.eslie


Participants in the 2001 Summer Institute.
Back row from left: Agnes Ngoma Leslie (Institute Director), Kenya
Leggon, Cynthia Austin, James Arthur Booth II, Teresa Morgan,
Antoinette D 'Assomption (Presenter), Jonny Cromwell, Carol Bynum,
Reba Williams. Front Row from left: Adam Reinhard, George Chambers,
and Wanda Gallmon



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The GreatAfncan Kingdoms An FCAT
Based Lesson Plan 1
Slave Trade Goreeand Bancesland 4
Sea Islandersof Beaufort, SC AreThey
True Descendants of WestAfnca 6
AnAfrian-European Connection Through
VisualArts 7
AmericanBlues and .a Rooted inAfncan
Tradition Studyig Moder Day Musicuns-
AhFarkaToure(Mah)&DonaldByld( S) 10
Namesand Naming Practices African
Commumnies 16
Namethe Countries ofAfrica 21
Let'sVistSwaziland 22
Eveybody Cooks Rice 25
Clucken with Tomato Sauce 26
Mufaro's Beautiful Daughters A Zmbabwea Tale 30
Cludren's Picture Books m an African Settng 33

con a

cu In
tnnr s
G cs a,

The Great African Kingdoms:
AnFCAT -Biaedl Um eitissPlan
A Kenpa Leggmc


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cumculmis HoweliBifwecouldasttlK 3httle
initse onptttiln ipoztae ofgAflt3ooursshidezrt

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Afran Kingdoms An Oveiview

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ofalstenispiues le bygmat lsani qeens, pne sts
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6E6BC Kuloshiccont ol3dwa dnv5 T backbytfen
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power fiileFebecaeheholyciaoftIeYob
people Tie ftlughliofltheYoiilbpeoplewis
Oduduwaard itibelieii ebytie Yonibpesople tt
Tie Yob 3and Igbo peoplewa dyed clothaiii nde
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sffondmtiion'litston's tcday Bybee 16ltheety, ine
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Zmbintiawe Iiafi heligeslt3 st ttat eplIce
consuia c red iouihemAIcTlie GeatZmbAbaew.
eiclfi edmminsisti foewalls Only'pialedgedtcttiege
hmdminstidethiegmatemlcsuie Hvew 10,0COM 0moe
people hwdmithe suiounduiidiga3 dstruci with
blutdclhbofi GreatZmr bwew.as3poweze.lklngdom
UItcontlolledtler.Tiya3iigoldtliadettlatulnie lIth
beenisidutedes tuton ofti GrealtZmibGbweWdue



g spew n Sed

(Generalized Boundaries)

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AFRICA TODAY 1994 Revised Edition
111 King Street Littleton, MA 01460U S A
Copyright @1990 Worls Eagles Inc
by Charles Hardy

Kingdoms covered in this lesson:
The Kingdom of Kush
The Kingdom of the Yoruba People
Great Zimbabwe

Grade Level: 3rd and 4th grade

Sunshine State Standards covered:
LAA222- reading: author's purpose and meaning
LAA227- reading: compare and contrast
LAB 122- writing
LAB225- writing: narrative
LAE221- cause and effect
LAE224- major themes

~fl IYYLe


1.) To promote the education of specific African
Kingdoms including Kush, Yoruba, and Great Zimba-
2.) To reinforce FCAT skills through the use of quality
literature that relate to the Sunshine State Standards.
3.) To promote social studies learning of another conti-

Time needed: 30-45 minutes per lesson

Materials: Amap of the continent of Africa,
F-CAT rewarding inserts and journal topics.

*Note: Students will have to be aware of the
F-CAT standards and grading rubrics.

Lesson Introduction:


K- What do you know about African Kingdoms?

W-What do you want to learn about great African

L- What African Kingdoms did you learn about? What
did you learn about those kingdoms? Which Kingdoms
would you want to learn more about?

FCAT Reading Exert 1:

In Africa, in what is now Nigeria, a society known
as the Nok culture emerged around 500 B.C. It declined,
like Kush, around 250 A.D. The Nok were the first
people south of the Sahara to practice iron making. The
carefully crafted clay sculptures of the Nok are evidence
of an artistic culture, and the influence of their technol-
ogy and art was felt in other early kingdoms that
emerged in West Africa.

What was the author's purpose in writing this
passage? Use information and details from the text.

FCAT Reading Exert 2:

Modern archaeologists of Great Zimbabwe face
problems that were caused by early European explorers.
Some explorers were inexperienced and caused damage
to the site. Theft was also a problem; one group formed
the Ancient Ruins Company just to sell their plunder!
Even so, many artifacts have been saved- tools for

smelting gold, copper, and iron, instruments for making
fine jewelry, and imported goods from India and China.
Evidence of cotton spinning and weaving has also been

What is the main idea of this passage? Support your
answer with details and information from the

FCAT Writing prompts:

1.) Pretend you lived in the time of the Great Zimba-
bwe. What do you see here? What is your craft?
Now tell a story about your life in the Great Zimbabwe.
2.) Imagine you lived in the time of the Great African
Kingdoms. How would you protect your kingdom from
theft and invasion? Explain to the reader how you
would protect your kingdom from invaders.
3.) Pretend you could choose any Great African King-
dom to live in. Which kingdom would you choose and
why? Now explain to the reader about the kingdom you
want to live in and why?


Ayo, Yvonne. Eyewitness Guides-Africa. New York:
Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1995.
Koslow, Philip. Buiding a New world: The Kingdoms of
Africa. New York: Chelsea House, 1997.
Martin, Phyllis M. and Patrick O'Meara. Africa-Third
Edition. Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1995.
Murray, Jocelyn. Africa. New York: Oxford Facts on
File, 1990.
Sheehan, Sean. GreatAfican Kingdoms. Austin:
Raintree/Steck Vaughn, 1999.

Additional Children's Resources

Brownlie, Alison. Food and Festivals- WestAfrica.
Texas: Raintree/SteckVaughn, 1999.
Jacobsen, Karen. A New True Book Series: Zimbabwe.
Chicago: Children's Press, Inc., 1990.
Koslow, Philip. Yorubaland: The Flowering ofGenius.
New York-Philadelphia: Chelsea House
Publishers, 1996.
Nicholson, Robert. Journey into Civilization- The Zulus.
New York-Philadelphia: Chelsea Juniors, 1994.
Svarney, Patricia Barnes. Major World Nations-
Zimbabwe. Philadelphia: Chelsea House
Publishers, 1999.

Slave Trade: Gor&e and Bance Island
ByJohnnyL Cromwell

The continent ofAfrica is a diverse land rch in
natural resources, including diamonds, gold, ivory,
diverse cviizations, cultures and languages The
continent has 54 counties wth more than 600
different languages With su ch rchland and diverse
cultures, one would question why it is that the
counties ofAffica are among the poorest and least
developed in the world Affica is the only continent
to record negative growth in the past two decades
Some reasons forthese troubling statistics isthat a
large portion of the continent is still underdeveloped
lacking of ecology, political turmoil, and adverse
climatic conditions Howeverthelargest andmost
destructive factor can be attbuted to the transatlan-
tic slave trade There were several ports that were
docks forsl slave ships coming from Europe, but the
most notorious were B ance Island in Freetown
Sierra Leone, and Goree Island located in Senegal
While Affc is a s land of great wealth, culture, and
history, it is also a continent that has been plundered
and pillaged by the greed of explores and coloniz
ers This has negatively impacted the content's
political and economic situation
The slave trade took place primarily alongthe
western coast ofAfca The save traders established
relationships wth some monarchs and began trading
wth there The re were eight coastal regions that
brought in the maonty of the captured slaves dung
the era 1450-1900 The first Senegambia, m
cluded present-day Senegal and Gambia The second
stretched from Casamanca in the north to Cape Mount
inthe south, to present-day Serra Leone This also
included modem Guinea and Guinea-Bissau along
with small portions of Senegal and Liberia The third
region, the Windward Coast stretched from Cape
Mount to Assim in Western Ghana, whchincluded
Liberia and the Ivory Coast The fourth region is the
Gold Coast, which is presentday Ghana Farther
East was the fifth region, the Bight of Ben The
Bight of Bafa,. which included the igerDelta and
the mouths ofthe Cross and Douala rvers to the east
of Cameroon, was the sixth region of the slave trade
The seventh region was Central Affica, wchisc
composed of Angola, present-day Republic of Congo,
Congo-Brazzaville, parts of northern Gabon and
southern Nambia The eighth region used in the slave
trade was the southern coast, including Mozambique
on the east and the island of Madagascar

These eight regions became a busy departure
point for thousands captured into slavey G oree was
httle more than a barren rock when the Portuguese
discovered this 45-acre island offthe coast of Senegal
in the late 1400s Because of its high elevation, the
island seemed a perfect place to build a trad center
Towards the end of the 1400s the Portuguese built a
small village around the harbor Soon after theybuilt
the village, a military fortress was reacted on the
highest part ofthe island
The rapid rise in the export of cotton, tabasco, and
sugar to Europe and the desre for extensive labor to
cultivate this agriculture, propelled the slave trade In
theAmencas where these commodities were growing
the nomadic NativeAmercans were first captured and
enslaved However, making slaves out of theNative
Amencans proved to be a disaster Foreign diseases
and the blistenng heat ofthe region led to the death of
thousands of people A ficans were then brought in
fromthe Canbbean Islands ofEspanola These
Afficans came from cultures Awth a long history of
agriculture Thus, theywere skilled farmers They
were also able to withstand the grueling hours of
plantation labor Asa result, colonists saw Aficans as
the solution to their labor needs

The first Africans were seized by Europeans in
raids on small villages along the West African coast.
Men, women and children were kidnapped and carried
to ships offshore. Although this method brought in
thousands of captives, it soon proved to be inefficient.
European slavers then compelled African village
leaders to get the slaves they needed. In some cases,
Africans were enticed with material goods and in
other cases they were threatened with the destruction
of their villages if they did not cooperate with the
Europeans. The island of Gor6e grew from a small
trading outpost to one of the major slave posts with
international recognition. By the beginning of the 17th
century, thousands of Africans were removed from
their homelands and taken to Gor6e Island for trans-
portation to the Americas. Gor6e was so profitable
that many battles were fought to possess the island. In
the space of 200 years, the flag over Gor6e changed
19 times.
The most well-known and prosperous slave
traders on the island were a group of mulatto women
called the "Sefioras". This group of women controlled
the buying and selling of slaves throughout the island.
Theirjob was to act as agents between the African
merchants and the European slavers. The "Sefioras"
built large, luxurious houses where they entertained in
the upper quarters while below the dark dungeons
imprisoned hundreds of slaves. The Africans went
through a process called "seasoning" before the
arrival of the slave ships that would eventually take
them to the new world. The captured Africans were
transformed from being free Africans to being slaves.
What the slaves endured was to represent the treat-
ment that they would be subjected to in the new
First, their captors took the Africans' spiritual
talisman, thus robbing them of their spiritual power.
The slaves were put back in the dungeons where they
waited for the slave ships. Some of the captives were
marched hundreds of miles away from their homes in
chains and shackles. Many were branded with hot
irons. These once proud people languished in the dark
holes until enough of them had been captured. They
were then packed into ships with barely enough room
to move. They were given just enough food and water
to survive the long journey. They were also deprived
of fresh air, clothing and sanitary conveniences. There
are many stories of mutinies on board the slave ships
as slaves revolted against this type of treatment.
Gor6e still stands alive with marks of the slave
trade. Hundreds of tourists come to visit the island
each year. Many come tracing their ancestry back to

"The Door of No Return." Re-enactments of the slave
trade are performed regularly for visitors.
Another well-known slave-trading operation was
the small one-third of a mile island of Bance (now
called Bunce) on the rice coast of West Africa. Bance is
located on the Sierra Leone River about twenty miles
above modem Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone. A
group of European merchants formed "The African
Company of England" and established a commercial
fort on the island of Bance as early as 1672, but due to
poor management, the company abandoned its opera-
tion. In 1750, a London firm named "Grant, Sargent
and Oswald" took control of Bance island and made it
into a big success. The partners rebuilt the fort, built a
shipyard, and assembled a fleet of small vessels to
cruise the Rice Coast in search of slaves. They concen-
trated heavily on one particular area, South Carolina,
where local rice planters were eager to purchase slaves
from Sierra Leone and the neighboring areas.
During the early 1800's, Bance Island, "The
Factory" as it was called, included a "great house" for
the chief agent, a slave yard, slave houses, storerooms,
dormitories, watch towers, a jetty, and a fortification
with sixteen cannons. Richard Oswald was principal
partner in the London firm that operated Bance Island.
Along with Henry Laurens, Oswald was one of the
wealthiest rice planters and slave dealers in colonial
South Carolina. Laurens advertised the slaves, then
sold them at auction to local rice planters. Oswald and
Laurens continued their trading for years. Oswald's
agents dispatched several ships a year from Bance
Island to Charlestown, each containing 250 to 350
slaves. Like Gor6e Island, Bance Island is a living
monument of the slave trade during the 1500's through
the late 1800's. Tourists travel to Bance Island for its
history. Some visit the place in remembrance of their


Martin, Phyllis and O'Meara, Patrick (eds). 1995 .
Africa Third Edition. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press.
Gor6e Island: The Door of No Return. 1992. Video
Tape Films for the Humanities & Sciences.
Opala, Joseph A. 1987. The Gullah: Rice, Slavery,
and the Sierra Leone-American Connection.
U. S. Information Agency.
Pollitzer, W.S. 1999. The Gullah People and Their
African Heritage. University of Georgia
Press, Athens.

Sea Islanders of Beaufort, SC: Are They

True Descendents of West Africa?

S' I By Cynthia Austin

VI-1 Purpose:

1. Show the similarities in the craft of basket making.

2. Examine the ceremonies of West Africa and Sea Island.

3. List and explain some customs indicative of West Africa and Sea

a. Rites of Passage
b. Separate Housing
c. Funerals

d. Weddings
e. Ceremonies
f. Language

g. Food
h. Flag


Map of Africa, Map of South Carolina, Internet resources, printed
material on West African culture, colored pencils and plain white


a.) Divide the class into two cooperative learning groups.

b.) One group should locate West Africa on the African map, trace/draw and color West Africa on a plain sheet of
paper. On the back of the drawing, describe the area with special attention to climate, topography, presence of
water on the land and any other interesting feature. (Research West Africa).

c.) One group will locate Sea Island, S.C. on a U.S. map. Trace/draw and color the area on a plain piece of paper.
On the back of the drawing, describe the area with special attention to climate, topography, presence of water on
the land and any other interesting feature. (Research Sea Island).

d.) Once the research has been completed, the two groups will combine and compare information.

e.) Ask each group to prepare a dish indicative of the area they researched.

f.) Each group should practice and demonstrate a dance done by the people of the area they studied.

4 The Gullah inhabitants in the Sea
Islands of South Carolina and Georgia
make baskets similar to those crafted in
Sierra Leone.

An African-European Connection

Through Visual Arts
By James Arthur Booth II


* The Chokwe Mask represents an image of a woman's
beauty. It is found in the Luanda Museum, Angola.
Copyright 2000, University of Wisconsin System
Board ofRegents.

Europeans were first exposed to African art when
the Portuguese began trading there around 1440. The
European fascination with Africa was primarily finan-
cial. These travelers began collecting African artifacts
because of their novelty and the striking differences
found in African cultures. Early examples of African art
brought to the west were dated before 1650. Louis XIV
had an extensive collection of West African sculpture
that he displayed proudly.

Focus: African art and its connection to West-
ern Art

There were two early examples of European art that
were clearly influenced by Africa and the West African
slave trade.
The first example was Rembrandt Harmenszoon van
Rijn's Two Negros. Rembrandt, a Dutch painter, de-

picted two African men poorly dressed and obviously
scared and confused. The second example was Diego
Velasquez's Juan de Pareja. Juan de Pareja, according to
history, was Velasquez's personal slave. This painting
was very different from Rembrandt's. Juan de Pareja
was depicted as a wealthy man with equal standing
among European men.

Abstract Prove the theory: The European
Cubist Movement began with African
principles of design

Cubism was the major visual style of the twentieth
century that was co-founded by Pablo Picasso and
George Braque. This new style completely abandoned
traditional western techniques and concepts of perspec-
tive, foreshortening, chiaroscuro and modeling. Natural
representation of objects became unimportant. Instead
Cubism flattened objects and simplified them into
geometric shapes. Also with this style, showing multiple
perspectives at one time and overlapping planes were

Analysis: Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles
d'Avignon vs. Traditional African Sculpture

Approach: The students will view slides or reproduc-
tions of Picasso's Les Demolselles d'Avgnon, as well as
slides of traditional African sculpture. At a glance, Les
Demolselles d'Avignon looks like an ordinary posed
painting of women. Further, the name implies that these
are street women. One might think that Picasso does not
want the women to resemble anyone by masking them.
However, the style he uses is clearly African.
The poses are similar to Egyptian Bas-reliefs found
on temple walls. The bodies of the women are flat and
one-dimensional. The edges are angular and sharp and
The faces of the women are not recognizable
as human. The features of the faces resemble traditional
African sculpture found throughout the African conti-
nent. The cubist style of reducing forms or objects into
geometric shapes is evident in Les Demolselles

1 Airbt alCAm(1907-1914)
* Ceates firats miageiy
* Diply subdued colos
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Art Activities:
Making African masks
Portraits of masked people

Lesson One: Making Mbuya masks

- Who- Pende (ethnic group)
- Where- central Africa (Zaire)
- When- 19th century
- What- specifically Mbangu Masks/Lightning masks



1. The student will draw and then paint masked human
figures in the bas-relief style of Egypt.
2. The student will incorporate the art of African
masking in his or her painting with the style of
Picasso's Les Demoiselles dAvignon.


1. The student will create a Mbuya mask in clay using a
slabbing technique.
2. The student will become familiar with the Pende
people of Central Africa.
3. The student will utilize and demonstrate symmetry
and asymmetry in their pieces.


* Clay(white firing)
* 1/4-inch thick 3-inch wide wooden strips (several)
* Several rolling pins or pvc pipe 3-inch diameter
* Plastic forks and knives
* Plastic sheeting or burlap fabric
* Black and white glaze or tempera paints


1. Spread the burlap out on a flat surface
2. Knead and roll the clay
3. Using the wooden strips as a thickness gauge, flatten
the clay with the rolling pin
4. Use a stencil for the overall shape of the mask
5. Mark and cut the clay
6. Cut, score, and add the clay accordingly in a
symmetrical design in the Mbuya mask style
7. Let them air-dry completely
8. Kiln fire, and then glaze or paint

Lesson Two: Painting masked human figures

- Who- Pablo Picasso
- Where- Paris, France
-When- 1907-1914
- What- Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, by Pablo Picasso
and Egyptian Bas-reliefs from temple and tomb walls.

* Pencil
* Watercolor paint
* 3 inch brushes
* baby food jars

* 9x12 Watercolor paper
* Watercolor brushes
* Blotter (phone book)
* Newspaper


1. Place newspaper on the tables to reduce mess
2. Draw the figures flat and one-dimensional in profile:
1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 only (no frontal poses)
3. Draw the masks on the figures
4. Paint with watercolor paint.


- Martin, P. M. & P O'Meara. 1986. Africa.
Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
- Miki, Tamon.1976. Cubism. Tokyo, Japan: The
National Museum of Moder Art.
- Gonzales, M., Jose Reyes, Hector Sevilla & Eric
Mercier. African-American History Through the
Arts. http://cghs.dade.kl2.fl.us/ African-Ameri
- Pioch, Nicolas. 1995. Cubism. Paris Web
Museum. http://www.lblb110.org/wm/
- Cole, P & Gonzalez, E., Perez, J., Latino, F.,
Montez, C. & Sequeira, C. African-
American History Through theArts.
europe/Juan de pareja.htm
- http://www.urtonart.com/history/cubism.htm
- http://www.civilization.ca/members/traditio/tervuren/
- http://www.middlebury.edu/-atherton/

American Blues and Jazz: Rooted in
African Tradition
Studying Modern Day Musicians- Ali Farka Toure (Mali) & Donald Byrd (U.S.)
................ aa aa ByAdam Reinhard .*..*..**.*@**a

* Two siudar rhyins AL Tr (left) aj Drald Byrd (rgt)

Objective: To introduce the idea to students that
Amencan traditional and modem blues andjaz did not
develop independent of different cultures, especially
Afncan This lesson incorporates bnef historical discus-
stons of blues and jazz in Amen ca and their connection to
Afncantraditional music It then provides a brief discus-
sion ofAfncan tradtonal music from one Afncani
country, Mal Examples are then provided ofAmencan
and Afncan musicians One can then hear the direct
connection between the African tradton and what is
sometimes mislabeled as ite Amencan tradition of blues

Subject Areas: History, music, geography,

Materials Needed: Two CDs All Farka Toure, Tal-
g Tiadfl and Donald Byrd, A NewPenrecw Both
can be ordered from the Internet Other examples of CDs
are given at the end of the article They can be used as

Terms: Blues, calabash, haste, field holler, gurkel, Jail,
jazz, jump-ups, Mal, Malinke, Njarka, and oral tradition

"An elderly black man sits astride a large cylindrical
drum Using his fingers and the edge of his hand, he jabs
repeatedly at the drumhead-- which is around a foot in
diameter and probably made from an animal skin--
evoking a throbbing pulsation with rapid, sharp strokes A
second drummer, holding his instrument between his
knees, joins in, playing with the same staccato attack A
third black man, seated on the ground, plucks at a string
instrument, the body of which is roughly fashioned from a

calabash Another calabash has been made into a drum,
and a woman hits at it with two short sticks One voice,
then other voices join in A dance of seeming contadic-
tons accompanies this musical give-and-take, a moving
hieroglyph that appears, on the one hand, informal and
spontaneous yet, on closer inspection, ritualized and
precise It is a dance of massive proportons A dense
crowd of dark bodies forms into circular groups-perhaps
five or six hundred individuals moving in time to the
pulsations of the music, some swaying gently, others
aggressively stomping th eir feet A number of women in
the group begin chanting
The scene could be inAfnca In fact, it is nineteenth-
century New Orleans Scattered firsthand accounts
provide us with tantalizing details of these slave dances
that took place in the open area then known as Congo
Square Today Louis Armstrong Park stands on roughly
the same ground--and there are perhaps no more intgu-
ing documents in te history ofAfrican-Am en can music
Benjamin Latrobe, the noted architect, witnessed one of
these collective dances on February 21, 1819, and not
only left a vivid wntten account of the event, but made
several sketches of the instruments used These drawings
confirm that the musicians of Congo Square, circa 1819,
were playing percussion and stnng instruments virtually
idenbcal to those e charactenstic of indigenous Afncan
music Although we are inclined these days to view the
intersechton of European-American andAfncan currents
in music as a theoretical, almost metaphysical issue,
these stoned accounts of the Congo Square dances
provides us with a real time and place, an actual transfer
of totally African ntual to te native soil of the New
World" (iola 1)

Bref Histry of the Blues n Amea BEf Hstory of Jazz m Amerca

Twod s'b hie"h ..been 3.o.ted wAihtiidea
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w eiiiuallybecet iebhies, bhe shloes sig
ateime^sifeanwd pnv7iton= Ta 56)
siI enmoinesilesultmed ihe field holler
nhi feld ller gan we to le pmbtal, en
t| Osbhe, "tlabIe ansg Ballh luanworls
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bloia sweie often iily contend to wonk on ti?
nleve and lei-clean gsonewwhebet nywe ofeen
abisiied or poilywoed to death (Lomax2)
Follwing tis C Al accordingg to Rolng
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gewoutofthebhes (Hask. A6) Teody, Bess e S nth i
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peamion zehedontIh? bhiesfoerethantIchords
exchanged Marnrofthese]3aniiiciaouttied lbhies
forthie dmunv mofthii miicalemotions, suchati ?
work of Dan RedmnSiffSnutlhM3Rundy3the
elaywor iofLcii Amistiozanl 3i ezCriler
(H ilaskn. 71)
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sdualbsl icwin pbruepst he not sneportant lwes
whbnnt oumsicalaend olliral fluences meged to eatee
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Visezm nAbeo TspoplarmsusieoftIehdiaybdsiple
hiianmes nd iiplerlis Tblctaditon

depended n8 eon03litarnina ionba3w srepieientle
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SimilaritiessBt been Jatl, Blues and won

AfricaFoundatxms ]
litieasytoieetI? mulantle behveen]3a
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en ddunm eas 3llplyed spent Tenwas as3ynlhei of
culienesis onfimmaneprtis oftenwoed Andtiosnmlto
t? snesltg pos often lsh tade
Hundiedis oflhi sofVstAfinc, 3llwiththe
wentwralidiomon, irhgousceietnezes worhup ntes,
wele taenbod bhe tba 3 3dcotlwtonfiel ofth?
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diAene gRp Ti Pteostaentsmoftl Bnthled to 3abn
oadn3nd ngan dummin T? CBssoons-Poiguesee,
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* The sweet tunes from the 2 Neck, 6
espec -.

with that of the Africans. In Cuba, the rumba, conga,
mamba and cha-cha were mainly African in origin.
Trinidad's calypso stems from West Africa. French and
West African cultures produced a sound in Martinique
remarkably similar to jazz.
In West African music, rhythm dominated melody
and harmony, the opposite being true of European music
(Locke 3). Spoken languages, dependent on pitch and
intonation as much as vocabulary for meaning, intro-
duced subtleties of sound that had no place in the Euro-
pean musical traditions-for example, singing in falsetto
or bending or eliding notes rather than trying to hit them
with a chorister's purity (use with Ali Farka Toure and
Donald Byrd). The significance of drum choirs and
percussion music in African religious ceremonies had,
over the centuries, resulted in a sophistication of rhythm-
often with sounds grouped in triplets, set slightly out of
phase and overlaid on each other (use with jazz music
where percussion is a primary focus, see Herbie Hancock
and Pharaoh Sanders)...all of which was unthinkable in
the West.
Music was in all things: there were songs for court-
ship, for gossip and abuse, songs with rhythms suited for
particular tasks, songs of seamanship, worship and war.
The work song found its parallel in the clang of the
hammer and pickaxe. Work songs (use with Ali Farka
Toure), in particular, with its compelling rhythms and
call-and-response patterns, provided vital ingredients for
the structures of early jazz. Eventually, European and
West African music started coming together in church
and at work, creating odd hybrids of melody and lyrics.
The jazz sound arose out of the confrontation
between tonal Western music and indigenous African
music. From the Western tradition, jazz took its instru-
mentation, melody and harmony. From its African roots
came its rhythm, phrasing and production of sound.
Harmony was considered less important than the song
and its unique sound from an African perspective-
typically an emotional swerving and soaring of pitch, the
falsetto cry or holler, and the pragmatic shorthand lyric
with its ironies, tragedies and mocking punch lines.

The African Tradition in Mali : History

Mali is so old that it has rock paintings dating back
to a time when the Sahara desert was covered in lush

forest. Islam arrived in about the seventh century A.D.,
shortly after the death of the Prophet Mohammed. One of
e region's early empires was the Malinke Empire which
ay in the region under Sundyata Keita and whose
influence, especially in music, is still obvious today. The
best years of this empire were under Mansa Moussa,
from 1312 to 1337. He dominated the gold and salt trade,
and the cities of Djenne and Timbuktu became important
trading centers for the whole of West Africa. Evidence
suggests that he spent so much gold and gifts while
traveling to Mecca that the price of gold dropped world-
wide for several years.
By the 15th century, this empire was ending. It was
followed by the Songhay Empire, which was created by
Askia Mohammed on the edge of the Sahara and the
Niger River in northern Mali. At its height the Songhay
empire saw Timbuktu with a population of around
100,000 people. This empire ended shortly after a
Moroccan invasion in 1590, by the Sultan of Morocco,
which soon led to disarray in the Mali area (Kwadjovie).
Mali became a French colony after 20 years of
resistance between 1880 and 1900. It gained its indepen-
dence in 1960. Modibo Keita was the first president of
the Mali Republic. When Mali's economy weakened, he
was ousted by a 1968 military coup and replaced by
Moussa Traore. Moussa Traore led Mali from 1968 to
1991. The 1970s and 1980s were a time of terrible
drought and famine. Moussa Traore was eventually
toppled in 1991 when the military took control. The
country had its first elections in 1992 and Alpha Konare
was elected president, a position he still holds today.


In the 13th century Sundyata Keita, a warrior prince,
founded the Malinke Empire in Western Mali. The
Malinke culture and its music date back to that time.
There are three main Malinke musical styles: Maninka,
Bamana, and Mandinka. The first two are found in Mali:
Maninka, the most classical, is not very fast, with flow-
ing ornamental melodies over slow-moving harmonies.
Women usually sing Maninka songs. Bamana is based on
a five-note scale where melodies are stark and often slow.
All musicians learn a number of core songs in the
Malinke style, such as the legendary African epic song,
Sundyata. Some melodies are repeated with different
words and in different arrangements (use with Ali Farka
Toure.) Musicians improvise on the main melody and are
accompanied by 'the main way' or 'big meeting,' a two-or
four-bar phrase, very much like the blues are played. 0)
Traditional musicians belong to a cast known as the
Jali. They used to entertain the Malian nobility, telling
epic stories in song. Until relatively recently, historical

knowledge was passed on from one generation to another
by the Jalis, whose oral tradition was based on song.
Most Malian musicians are Jalis. It has been very hard
for people who are not Jalis to be accepted into the
profession. Ali Farka Toure, the Mali guitarist, is a rare
exception. (4)
Mali guitarists are active players in this unbroken
and still vibrant tradition that goes back to the 13th
century founding of the Mali Empire. That tradition is
primarily guarded by the Jalis. The acoustic guitar was
first picked up in the 1920s or 1930s by Jalis who began
an Africanization process by adapting their
balafon(xylophone), nkoni(flute) and kora(harp) reperto-
ries and playing styles to it. The rise of modem Mali
music and of the electric guitar began with the indepen-
dence of Guinea in 1958 when the new government
launched a sweeping modernization policy in which
European musical instruments (including electric guitars)
were handed out and a network of regional and national
orchestras were established. Mali soon followed suit in
1960. Jalis used the electric guitar as the main vehicle for
transferring their local repertories to these new urban
electric groups. (5)

Ali Farka Toure

"For some people, when you say 'Timbuktu,'it is
like the end of the world, but that is not true. I am from
Timbuktu, and I can tell you we are right at the heart of
the world."-Ali Farka Toure
Ali Farka Toure is one of the finest blues guitarists
and singers in West Africa, combining traditional Malian
songs and rhythms with many outside influences to
produce a highly individual style. Toure was bom into
the noble Sorhai family in the Timbuktu region of Mali in
1939. Being of noble birth and not part of the Jali class,
he should never have taken up music as the profession is
normally inherited in Malian society and the right to play
belongs to the Jali. However, being a man of fierce
determination and independence, once he decided to take
up music, there was no stopping him.
In 1950 he began playing the "gurkel"- a single
string African guitar that he chose because of its power to
draw out the spirits. He also taught himself the "n'jarka,"
a single string fiddle that is today a popular part of his
performance. Then in 1956 he saw a performance by the
great Guinean guitarist Ketita Fodeba. He was so moved
that he decided then and there to become a guitarist.
Teaching himself, Toure adapted traditional songs using
techniques he had learned on the gurkel.
During a visit to Bamako in the late 1960s, Toure
was introduced to African-American music by such
artists as Ray Charles, Otis Redding, and most impor-

tantly John Lee Hooker. At first, Toure thought that
Hooker was playing Malian music, but then realized that
"it has been taken from here," noticing the use of African
retentions in Hooker's work. Toure was convinced that
American blues was rooted in traditional Malian music.
He was also inspired by Hooker's strength as a performer
and began to incorporate elements into his own playing.
For many years he followed a successful career in
West Africa adapting traditional songs and rhythms in ten
languages from Mali's enormous cultural wealth. This
career was combined with a life rooted in his village.
Although Toure toured widely in Africa and occasionally
in Europe and America, he preferred the security of
village life, family, friends, crops and livestock. (6)
Toure was almost 50 when he came to the attention
of the world music community in the West. Since then
he's toured often in North America and Europe, and
recorded frequently, sometimes with contributions from
Taj Mahal and members of the Chieftans. 1994's Talking
Timbuktu, on which Roy Cooder joined him, was his
most well received effort to date. It was a Grammy
Award winner as well as the first album to debut at #1 on
Billboard's World Music Chart, remaining at #1 longer
than any other release, and winning Down Beat's Critics
Poll for Beyond Album of the Year. However, Toure
didn't release a record on American shores for five years
afterwards; he finally broke the silence in 1999 with
Niafunke, which discarded the collaborative approach in
favor of a return to his musical roots (Unterberger).

Donald Byrd

The son of a Methodist minister and amateur musi-
cian, Donald was playing classical trumpet works and
also performing while in high school. At 18, he joined the
Air Force and was stationed in New York. In addition to
playing in air force bands, Byrd backed vocalists includ-
ing Mel Torme and Nat King Cole. He spent his free time
sitting in with sax man, Charlie Parker and piano great,
Thelonious Monk.
In 1955 Byrd's performance with pianist George
Wallington's group earned him a job with Art Blakey's
Jazz Messengers, and he went on to work in the Max
Roach Quintet. Recognized as a virtuosi and lyrical
trumpeter, Byrd recorded prolifically over the next few
years. At different times he worked as a sideman for
Thelonious Monk, John Coltrane, Sonny Rollins, Horace
Silver, Jackie McLean, Red Garland, Art Taylor, and Phil
In the 1960s Byrd toured internationally with his
own groups and pursued a career in music education. He
earned a master's degree in teaching from Colombia


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Byld, Domiii ComeIlniuveilyAfraicanS~Idimi
Research Center Discussion wih Dr Bil1Tihylor,
Dr Georgea ii Dr Donld.yrd, d. DrDere
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teNogh* People omasY Croaw.NY,
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Names and Naming Practices in

African Communities
By George T. Chambers

The continent of Africa hosts thousands of cultures,
each with a distinct and separate set of beliefs, customs
and ceremonies. To attempt a generalized survey of
African communities and the ceremonies they practice
would be a lesson in futility. Therefore, I am concerned
primarily with the Yoruba people of Nigeria, Benin and
Togo, with comparisons made with other African
cultures. The information presented here should not be
taken as inherently representative of any specific ethnic
group, nationality or region.
Even though Africa is a continent of immense
diversity, many African ethnic groups hold similar
beliefs in relation to the value of their traditional
practices. Africa is a continent whose societies have
endured many hardships. Yet throughout the rise and fall
of great civilizations, external religious and cultural
influences, mass European colonization, a demoralizing
and wide-stretching slave trade, and widespread civil
unrest, numerous African societies have maintained
their unique traditional identities. Africa is a continent
of great diversity and in this diversity lies great strength.

The Significance of Names

African names hold special meaning and the giving
of names is of utmost importance. A name may tell
about special characteristics of a person. it may show
royal or sacred lineage, as in the Igbo (Nigeria) name
Nze (male)- "sacred leader" or the name Adanze (fe-
male)-"daughter of Nze" (Brown 4). It may give an
historical account of social or political happenings at -i
time of birth. A person may also have names that
divulge personal attributes or circumstances:

"Many Africans believe that the name a person
bears is sometimes a key to the understanding
of his character and behavior. This is espe-
cially true with nicknames and praise names.
Thus, among the Igbos, for example, a nick
name like Nwaagankwo, calls to mind a
particular skill in wrestling whereas among the
swazis of Southern Africa, a man called mona
(unmona-jealousy) displayed jealousy traits in
his conduct (Madubuike 9)."

As the passage suggests, a personal name is thought
to signify, influence and even determine how an indi-
vidual will develop over time.
The choice of a name is a serious responsibility. In
some cultures, such as the Swahili societies, a child's
name is given before birth and accompanies the child
into the world of the living (Zawawi 1993). However,
Yoruba people reserve the time soon after an infant is
born to initiate the new individual into existence by
delivering his or her new name in the form of the first
rite of passage, the naming ceremony.

Some Yoruba Names and Meanings
(f=female, m=male)

(f) Ayodele Joy enters the house, Joy comes home.
(m) Akinlawon Bravery sustains them.
(f) Dada- A child with curly hair.
(m) Ojo A difficult delivery.
(f) Ayoluwa Joy of our people.
(m) Omotunde -A child comes again.
(f) Babatunde- Father has come again.
(f) Yetunde Mother has come again.
(m)Obataiye King of the world.
(f) Jumoke Loved by all.

* Friends andfamily gather together to rejoice in a naming
ceremony. Naming ceremonies are common throughout
Africa. Copyright 2000, University of Wisconsin
System Board ofRegents.

In the Youba la ge, words yb e conb red to
chae or empoie meag In he examples above,
the wold Ay- "Joy" luseid nhe nne Ayodele and
Ayohbwa to exrps t o hfeien mplicadlde Snmu-
larly, the ruse oftie eding-"ude" mYonba mes
conmotei yevous 1e o he famly, pernap death
Ifa father diey, for an, he chld could be nanted
"Broauade" orfIher mde cod ogan"t o eovoe the
merneyoftl Cinld' fslletr
Sometmei clldrenare green moueral mes
mnaddcion to speral tradidoml rmes TheAddeand
Ewes ofGhaomibelievechildrenbononle samedayof
thewkeel fai theae beypeofs.l fouiseven
connnonmeaeni are een to Ak children ( different
isetlofisevennanes .ibedbytlEwe)

tradilom0io Ai MolefiKeteAadewne,
Tomnilan Afticanel cld iary,""Jas,"'Rct"
"M.ao, "RomAld,""Arthr" 'ar "Donald,"
"Betty,"0r"S ahi" tindrodce3 pathailacullral
anagetinothefamly Nandedlohayernearu
Winnyularnmet Dri.MaulamiKangaandyet
hu,' HoelorMaulam" yorae saynr' Hello, Matle-
fuilTeddh r "'Ilsenwrenee as ay "Moefi" re
saynr I"KeeperaoftlTradito. "WnIcalltonre
wfewiesemne iKaIU,'TPlea0e1rnee" I
amiayng withgreatrsKtpedOewlaletti
Inaiditant irthe nli amofabgicusacespmass
xKlirconsuenle names orenamnple, durigtecolonial
aTilatlnabiddytionofAfhcaulai ta, e thgemad
pAople we. eacedtoteg Stoed f3cei 'Iheaenopean
syste of mungallo nt gooi ly 3utu ddle, a(ilA]t
mnbywdidAdenyi raditoml Afhcantame 3enot ranked
fdami onrearbnunetafoo Inarnedrgiour pe eopnd
wlo idmtpmieoulyo0m tedtlo Chnstiatut we e
Ricedtlo adopti3wetemmnun?,wchbecarnethirst

Trblgiclly dumnig Die thasatllanre slasb tre, taoy
Afecarawe rcoay letelyntdnppdofthimnusan1

ithgiouyer t asa anigb nzwAgloidezl(A3,
r301) STla'eta rde aeiteo deimmme apiuredila
bytakualanvaay e'iythingtha apres ened AfIC3aTi
fatl liatarnAfitwan slawretundtleral n&and
behefti hoiigothaul liadwrsitilyez? 3a 3tesiuticmrot/oIh?
ipnmiualsitength and detemuonofAftwanbehef

in-Trail ialN aml

Mrnlav y( &D

raly h)d|

S day n.I aml

Toiadtmoonal Afncannan ha been. roonindu
usefrtiiandoofyear Duetot helped ofChn-
tiatutysldam,and otherriehgiousi enceidunngth
medievealpenod, peoplebegan o inegrate tyw meds
unto heoradito lnngyten Namer le fDavid,
Janual orKns mhnarae conm onlybfund Afrcaa. n
Euope, Amerca, Austalia, or arooer contmnt, yet
these mesi Affcado et zcessoanlysupecede

Awadedowet ad

,dAe~tud .

manabasha Y

e. inn e ode
gunare diryn



me Namn g Ceremony

Tr a itonal ymuba mtmin ceieir/i a sced
rlt hetiaccl E cudoors It.is m ltatit a clld i
coomdlelte to nplae ofl for er bul The faler will
u uallyplace inlan$rd oton efla saymbolof
comentrot Guests bnggift and nrnytlo present tbo I
nfaorIn additionniual fods andced objects are
placed on atle be tibA y ani motl lT? be,-
enraiyii conhitaedby aichgous officialorspmiual
leale posiiibly afamlyonner eor fieni, w synboh-
callyexplaunt Il? npotari e ofeachsaced itent lI
nfanrf Tlese icudewaer salt palm otlan bany
Wter soirtfle tlanroboarreofthecronmneil Saol

means the person will be "palatable" to the community
bringing happiness Palm oil means that the child will
make a positive contribution and honey means that the
child will be as "sweet" as honey (The rest of the items
and meanings are included at the end of this article) These
items are introduced to the child so he will make good use
of them later in life The ceremony leader prays for the
child's good fortune The items are subsequently passed so
each guest may taste or touch them
The names of the child are announced to the crowd and
the significance of each is explained A child must be named
within the first nine days of his/her life or the child could
suffer the fate of dying before the parents of the same sex
Before the ceremony, a name is carefully chosen by the
parents (traditionally the father would choose a name), grand-
parents, and relatives or close friends Each of these names
holds a special meaning and is chosen with the future pros-
perity and/or identity of the individuals in mind Later in life,
names that exemplify one's personality or chronicle an im-
portant event may be given by relatives and friends or may
be adopted by the individual
When the ceremony is complete, the family and guests
eat, sing and dance throughout the evening and often well
into the next day Community members or professional praise
will make up songs proclaiming the glory of the community
and the newly named child

Special Names for Twins

Twins are considered special in many African cultures
Among the Yoruba, mothers of twins or praise singers will
walk the streets and sing the praises of the twins, collecting
gifts and money from the community Each twin, or "Ibeji"
is given an exact and equal portion of the gift or money If
the gift is not divisible, it is not acceptable (Poyner, Lecture
In the case of twins, the children will actually be born
with a name The first twin, regardless of sex,is named
"Talwo" (he who prepares the way) and the second twin is
"Kehinde" Even the children born after twins will be affected
by this naming pattern The child born after twins will be
pre-named "Idowu" and the next child will be "Alaba" These

* These twin dolls
symbolize ferthlty
and birth. Most
Africans hope for
decendents to
continue the
ancestral line.

children will also have chosen names that will carry their
own unique identity (Madubulke, 1976)
In Guinea, twins are given another special name, "Bo "
Both individuals share the name (in addition to their indi-
vidual names), but do not necessarily share the equality in-
herent with Yoruba twins In the book, The Dark Child,
Camara Laye tells about his uncle whom he used to visit in
the country

"Since my uncle Lansansa (also known as
Bo) was the eldest son, he had inherited the con-
cession when my grandfather died Actually, he
had a twin who might have inherited it, but
Lansana had been born first Among my people,
the twin born first is the elder On occasion, the
rights of the elder twin may be abrogated, for
when there are twins one of them always has a
stronger character than, the other, and when this
is the case even if he is not the first-born he
becomes the heir" (Laye, 1954)

Unlike Yoruba tradition where the children are named
differently yet treated as equals, the tradition in Tindican,
Guinea, where Camara Laye's mother was raised, favors one
twin over another yet gives them the same title

Names for Twins (Yoruba)

Taiwo First of twins
Kehinde Second of twins
Idowu Born after twins
Alaba Born after Idowu

The Community

In Africa, each individual belongs to a community.
Various family and community members carry out
parental responsibilities and hold themselves account-
able for the well-being of children in their society.
Children represent the future of any culture. Most
African societies go to great lengths from the beginning
of a child's life to help him/her achieve his/her goals.
The naming ceremony and choosing a name represents
the first rites of passage in which people may help a
child on his/her path, but it certainly will not be the last.
The following activities, coupled with the informa-
tion presented above are intended to help students
realize the importance of their names and the impor-
tance of understanding the names of others. Names are
our identity. Names let other people know who we are.
The more we understand about ourselves and each
other, the more we will be able to function together as a
global community.


Activity 1: Name Research
(Etymology, one two days)

1. Discuss with students the importance of African
names and share some African names with them. Ask
them to reflect on their own names and discuss
meanings that they already know.

2. Ask students to use an etymology dictionary (most
libraries have these) to research their names and the
personal, cultural, and familial importance of them.
They could research the history and national origin
of their names as well.

3. Students can make an oral presentation of their
names and significance.

Activity 2: Naming Ceremony
(one two weeks)

1. Give students a general overview of the naming
ceremony, the sacred items and food involved, and
discuss the reasons to have such a ceremony.

2. Compare African naming ceremonies to American
ceremonies (or rites of passage) such as baby showers,
graduation, and birthdays.

3. Discussion/comparison topics could include:
* Sacred beliefs Dance Songs
* Gifts Food
* What kind of sacred items or practices do we use
for our ceremonies?
* How are American ceremonies similar to African
* How are they different?

2. Ask students to choose an African name they feel
represents their personality or an important event in
their lives.

3. Possibly choose names you feel are appropriate for
each child.

4. Depending on the size and community structure of
you class, ask students to choose names for each other.

5. Culmination- Prepare and conduct a symbolic
"naming ceremony." Encourage students to actively
participate by introducing sacred items or announcing
names. If facilities allow, music, dance and food would
add to the festivities.


(1) Students will gain knowledge of African (specifically Yoruba) names and naming ceremonies.
(2) Students will gain a better understanding of their own names and their meaning.

It is important to emphasize to students that Yoruba societies represent only a fraction of the cultures of
the continent of Africa. While it is important to look at the similarities in African names and naming, it is
equally important to point out the vast diversity of African peoples.

NOTE: For listings of African or Yoruba names,
you may wish to consult web sites such as The
Name Site at www.namesite.com. Books of
names such as A Handbook ofAfrican Names by
Ihechukwu Madubuike might be even more

For similar activities aimed specifically at grades
2-4, visit the Utah State University lesson plan
site at http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/
aindex.htm and follow the links under African

Ceremonial foods & items; Festive foods
By Reverend Fred Ogunfiditimi

Yoruba people generally believe that when they introduce these materials to the child at the beginning of his/her life, he/she
will make positive use and not negative use of them when he/she becomes an

Ceremonial foods and items
Water As water is important to people, so must the child be important to his/
her family
Salt Salt is important to food for its palatability, so must the child be to his/her
community When any person is said to be like salt to his/her people, it means Kola nuts are eaten at numerous family and
social gathenngs The Kola nuts are broken
he/she brings joy, happiness, and even sweetness where there is bitternessalgathengs The Kola nuts e broken
and prayers are directed to "spirit beings"
Palm Oil African palm oil is used for a series of medicinal purposes, both to invite them to joining the festivities
positive and negative This is used for naming the child so that when the child
grows up, he/she will make a positive use and not a disuse of it
Cola nut Some colanuts have two carpsels, some three, some four some five, and some six which is the highest number
of carpsels they can have Usually we use the one with four carpsels It is the one with four carpsels that are most usable
They are used for both good and bad medicines By introducing them to the child, we pray for the child not to use it
negatively against anybody neither will anybody use it negatively against him/her
Bitter cola This has the same reason as the colanut above
Alligator pepper This also has the same reason and significance of the two above
Honey For the child to be as sweet as honey to the community and most importantly for the child not to be ostracized by
the people when he/she grows to adulthood
Wine Wine brings happiness to people so also shall the child bring happiness to his/her community at all times
Pen For the child to use his/her pen only for good things and not to destroy people
Book To use his/her position of authority to better the people and not to oppress them Also the Bible will be introduced
to the child so specifically, so that he/she will read the Bible meaningfully to liberate and not to imprison his/her people
Money Money will be introduced to the child so that he/she will not use or make money in a negative way Also for the
child not to allow love of man to overshadow love of God
Text taken from http //wwwfolklfe s edu/vfest/Afica/foods htm

Ajam, Tim, Lecture. Summer Institute. 2001. Gamesville, Florida
Asante, Molefi Kete (1991) The Book ofAfrican names. Trenton, NJ Africa World Press, Inc
Brown, Roger K & FelixN Eburuoh African Names: The Case of the Igbo of Nigena African Studies Program, University of
Illinois, pp 4-5
Damal, Nia (1986) Golden Namesfor an African People Atlanta, GA Blackwood Press
DeFriez, Jennie Africa: What's in a Name ? Utah State Unlveristy lesson plan site [online]
Available http //teacherlmk ed usu edu/TLresources/longterm/LessoPlans/africa/andex htm
Drewal, Margaret Thompson (1992) Yoruba Ritual: Performers, Play, Agency Bloomington, IN Indiana UnversityPress
Jensen, Anitra Yoruba Naming Ceremony. Utah State University lesson plan site [online]
Available http //teacherlmk ed usu edu/TLresources/longterm/LessonPlans/africaindex htm
Laye, Camara (1954) The Dark Child New York, NY Farrar, Strass and Giroux
Madibulke, Ihechukwu (1976) A Handbook ofAfrican Names. Washington, DC Three Continents Press
Ogunfiditimi, Reverend Fred (1996) Ceremonial Foods and Items. African Immigrant Folklife Study Project [onlme]
Available http //www folklife si edu/vfest/africa/foods htm
Ogunfiditimi, Reverend Fred (1996) A Nigerian Ceremony in the Washington DC Area. African Immigrant Folklife
Study Project [online] Availale http //www folkhfe si edu/vfest/africa/photo2 htm
Poynor, Robin (2001) Lecture. Summer Institute. Gamesville, Florida
Sanyika, Becktemba Know and Claim YourAfrican Name. Dayton, OH Rucker Press Publishing CO
Website Africa Focus [online] Available http //africafocus hbrary wisc edu/
Website The Name Site [online] Available http //www anamesite com
Zawawl, Sharifa (1993) What's in a Name ? Unaitwaje? A Swahili Book of Names. Trenton, NJ Africa World Press, Inc



1 Algeria
2. Angola
3. Benin
4 Botswana
5 Burkina Faso
6. Burundi
7 Cameroon
8 Cape Verde
9. Central African Republic
10. Chad
11 Comoros
12. Congo, Republic of
13 Congo, Democratic Republic of The
14 Cote d'Ivoire
15. Djibouti
16 Egypt
17. Equatorial Guinea
18 Eritrea
19. Ethiopia
20. Gabon
21 The Gambia
22. Ghana
23. Guinea
24. Guinea-Bissau
25. Kenya
26. Lesotho
27 Liberia
28. Libya
29. Madagascar
30. Malawi
31 Mali
32. Mauritania
33. Mauritius

34. Morocco
35. Mozambique
36. Namibia
37. Niger
38. Nigeria
39. Rwanda
40 Sao Tome and Principe
41 Senegal
42 Seychelles
43. Sierra Leone
44 Somalia
45 South Africa
46. Sudan
47. Swaziland
48 Tanzania
49. Togo
50. Tunisia
51 Uganda
52 Western Sahara
53. Zambia
54. Zimbabwe

Let's Visit Swaziland

By Wanda Gallmon

Here are a few key greeting phrases to kick off your The s nts will abl to
visitto Swaziland on justthe right note
(Greetng) Samnbonan GoodDay 1. Locate Swaziland on an Afrcan map
(Response) Yebo "Ys good day'" 2. Name the capital of Swaziland
(Greetng) injan "Howareyou?" 3. Namethepresentking of Swaziland
(Response) Sikhona "We are all well how are you? 4. Explain at least two Swaziland customs
(Response) Natsl slkhonal We are also well" 5. Nam afewresourcs in Swailand
(Question) Likuphillhovisiletivakashl? Where is 6. Namete holidayscelebratedin Swailand
tto r t7. Name the crafts made in Swaziland
the tourist office
(Appreciation) Syabonga "Wethankyou'" 8. Name some sports children enjoy
(Appreciation)Nglyaonnga Ithankyoul' 9 Namethe instr mentsplayedinSwaziland
farewell ) Salakahle "Stay wel 10. Name the staple food Swazi people enjoy

Facts About Swaziland
Capital: Mbabane
Language: Siswati andEnglish
Religions: Christian 60%, other40%
Ethnic Groups: 97% African, 3% European
Climate: Vanes from tropical to near temperate
* Flag odopted October 6, 968
Terrain: mostly mountains and hills, some
Moderately sloping plains
S, N- .
The kingdom of Swaziland, Africa's best-kept
secret, is nestled snugly between South Afica and
S--Mozambique It is one of the smallest counties in
S-Af nca Itisthe onlycountryin southern Afnca
/r- without a multi-paly democratic system and is
.-~ | proudofit' Swaziland wasgranted independence
,^ .from Bitain on September 6,1968 Student and
labor unrest during the 1990s have pressured the
monarchy (one ofthe ofthe oldest on the conti-
.- 8 H .r nent) to grudgingly allow polical reform and
: greater democracy
IL' -f % ,-, .. }His Mamesty King Mswat I leads Swaziland
A. ?l / ) '- -. Today, only a descendant from royalty (Dlamini)
can become King of Swaziland The country
Srejoices in its traditions and is committed to
S- safeguarding its nch cultural, social and natural
i heritage for future generations

Edlauea Educ Aist compuls caymSwandan
Pnmady eiuconb gnm atsix sofaeadl 1st
for sevenyoas S eonio y educahonbesu atturen
yeas o fage fa ls fRr up tof a azs TIe Unu,-
sits of Swaadandith fcapes m Lyno Are
Kwtsoaisr a tlm WsatCArdl Kas a Ufnd Worln
CoellgeofSuftem AfncamMboe promode luer
as ..u, =

Econmye In as sms mla lllanorked economy, ubs
lence agonuliiie occupems oth6an6(0 oftme ppula-
hon Manfaciura features a mber of pcess n?
tfacones Mnmgha decluned muportarre mecent
yep a,lugh -grade ono depoib wei depleted by
1978and health coicen iha culworld dennd fr
aestosi Expoli ofsoftd nl~ i ccen ateg
wocd ulp, cotton ya lefrgeraoi cis i camd
fiuit ae tlm ah inea of ai .cure cy

Agrulturalprotlgs garcame, cotto c
tobacco, nce, cisteii appes, soglnum, peanuts,
cattle, goai, and hep

Inport ci~ m ie tol revelers, mhuley,
otanpol eqipent, odsi fe, petoleun picducts,
and eesnucal1

Ingiorpartneta S thAfnca 8f/ ,EU 60,
UK, Sngape (1997)

sldsleand Culture: Dove alongart roai mn
Swaeland a you wil 1ely see 11ar Swt (people
of Swaslan) iressed m olo1fl cosnest, feaiunag a
colofil toga-11e ga roset, "a luy" Y mayalso
mieelt SwoEwa l enocanyglAelds, sorb-istl, andl
somnateli iee pea andbatle-axe Tiwoment hat e
encslurnreiiysipottitet adittoml' beelvIe"haIurler
Theiea ie onie oftie ulwa d andviiblesignsof
compiexaz ddeep-seated ocial ytem.A Swazad
becomes reailymfleiedbyf. eigfeven and
cuistom-both goodadiibad-laliolwayill
afnlmold Moilpeoplen Swaelandaluaistl-
ecrotins ealue of protect Tagit adaptigt
Ilawlytot ined ofnmdemlfe
ThiesedDame 0a irgean in lldnmSeptember
eachyear Tle daoe i aweek-long senem ofev enb, all
oftihemi cuiin ont1?iunaed gls ofth kingdom
kwnas "mafre. "F.om all ovr stiatosgoun
cone to the regionwheie tall eds maybe gaeedsto
anbuild hefenm acudteii queen tnz'es idence
The tumrng oflt Reaed Da.e i td to tie aimurns, of
Ihli oait

Darseda sEns gameras e cwmenere

TheDcldoa cre.wy efthetft..iusl orls the
beginung ofhi i Iarmtseason, a. ent ofeuctral
munptmance n Iilhfeofevzyagoculturalperson ItA
also celeb atedA a aremwalofferls wl embodies
tIhe ftiiibness offthe kingdom ThiA ceemonyi. hedto
aresw Ihltientuofl isn e and he Swa. Naton Ar
the conungsyaW
Swafro clden fromt ?i aungest agee areequed to
contribute o acfovitis of tne farmly grp Smallboyn
hedl thecattle, ayenguai prelim done s stchore or
cami fl riityunger s ibneng An npota ofrattsidet
tlaughalan early age A s.pectArthee des
Swasi weirsi a also a o occa ion for
celebration Thee a.e ftnt Btles gom oguuatip
Man agemossels lobola, a dowrys0ogiftat lIbnde's
paenb spayab le b y te gromThis paynantiA usually
tIhe fn iofcattle InAfhrcacattlearetadmitonally
conidedtobeas gnofwealthandt Imberof
cattle paid b yt ie g om denotesthesta oflfamly
Atewiylstageofhfen hidiagndancy, adole cetre,
pub ely, manage, adultodandoldage,tlreate

Houap StWron \Ian mor homes placed on the
pernseterofoomnncattleareas TheKraallnes are
builtfomlocalmate naliand differfomoegnto
aitler Plaled at specific po alcudti ?Klaal ae
fepae nileni for sleepig, col, and stong food
AsWhen aSwa manman e sh builds hihomenearI
mothei'is, f hn onrnes oe tain once te krael gaws
Mo a little village

Food: Maize (corn) is the staple food. It is ground into
meal that is then cooked into porridge, which is the staple
dish for most Swazi people. Corn is also eaten roasted,
boiled or straight off the cob.

Sports: There are very few organized sports activities.
Swimming is popular among school children if they have
access to a swimming pool. Traditional music plays an
important role in the Swazi social life. Popular instru-
ments are rattles, shields, buckhorn whistles and long-
reed flutes.
Arts and Crafts: Some of the kingdom's greatest
attractions are the art and craft outlets and traditional
markets of Swaziland. There are wooden sculptures,
painstaking soapstone carvings, mohair, tapestries,
imaginative pottery, and silk-screened batiks are just a
small number of products found at the markets. The truly
traditional Swazi craft is grass weaving. Mats of alle
sizes and baskets for every use are available. One type of
basketwork is so closely woven that it can hold liquids.
These handcraft shops are found in many parts of

The "Cuddle Puddle" is housed in a series of dome-
shaped concrete buildings modeled after the Swazi
thatched home. Facilities include sauna, massage and
therapeutic bath of agitated spring water, gymnasium and
beauty treatments for the ladies.

Spas and Health: There are a number of thermal springs
in Swaziland, ranging from warm to very hot.

The Spa at the Royal Swazi Sun overlooks the Royal
Swazi Sun Golf Course and a magnificent mountain
view. The facilities include a gymnasium with cardiovas-
cular exercise equipment as well as circuit training

Africa South of the Sahara 2001, 30th edition, Europa
Publications, pp 1127-1145
Enchantment of the World "Swaziland" Ettagale Blauer and
Jason Laure
http //travel state gov/Swaziland html
http //www cia gov/cla/publications/factbook/geos/wz html

r - - - ---
New Year's Day- January 1
Good Friday- April 2
King's Birthday- April 19
National Flag Day- April 25
Ascension Day-May 21
Umhlanga Reed Dance- August or September
Somholo (Independence) Day- September 6
Christmas Day-December 25
Boxing Day-December 26
Ncwala Day- December or January
Moveable religious holidays are Good Friday, Holy
Saturday, Easter Sunday, and Ncwala (National)

1. Read and discuss orally Learning to Swim in
Swaziland: A Child's Eye-View of a Southern
African Country by Nila K. Leigh.
2. Students can write or draw what they have learned
about Swaziland. Students can make a simple
pop-up book about Swaziland.
3. Teacher can ask parents to prepare corn for the
4. Students can play games that Swazi children enjoy.
(Jump rope, clapping games, making cars from

Possible Ouestions for Discussion:

Where is Swaziland located?
What size is Swaziland compared to the state of your
home state?
Who is the present king of Africa?
Compared Swaziland's school calendar to the one at your
What are the two official languages?
What is the job of most boys and girls?
What games do boys and girls play?
How do children extend the life of their pencil compared
to your pencil?
How are the traditional homes built in Swaziland?
Where are the animals located?



Scrub Hare Zebra Eland Kudu Nyala Impala Caracal Cat Serval Cat Blesbok Red Duiker
Giraffe Blue Wildebeest Warthog Crocodile Bushbuck Maanhaar Jackal Buffalo Hippo Gray
Duiker Reedbuck Steen Buck Baboon Vervet Monkey Ratel Cane Rat Ant Bear Civet Cat Porcupine
Klipspringer Vaal Rothebuck Bush Baby Red Rock Hare Cape Polecat Cape Wildcat


ver o oo ice

By Tersa Morg0
O@ilve The goal ofhis unit is
to increase cldren's awarnessof
[he coninentl oAtfcaihrough AFRICA'SREGIONS
lessons based on family life,
cooking and iction ad noniction
literature Mnot

Introduction, Teacherintroduces
a, LK r chardoy ou i

totii l5tai's aareniss Aa /to
WAN i toknowWhatdidyou, R I

lesoI Ui aseon0 i Sil fli~eIII
c1, osioolf adictfAriocnas ,,ion
boWoilrllhow31113atwnspaancy3 /, am M A ,

Riuodh t.is W st fA fa ff'i

Unlite t s c Alfl ca ; 168 @ 's !av, "?!!? 54&7961
i ni
ollf A fica m stnd l s il tsnieytll

w/lie hli sas fro Lfriu Riu t^ Ill
ofNorthfriia Weyst a, East k
Afica, Cntral Ab, and iuth.(,,,- ,i l ,,mf

d,ln History o c eAansh ave .11,-
been groplng nee for centu nies ^
people ofA Hstorians mo

elievene wasintrodueodto [he m W^ad 22
through Charleston, South Card.
lia most likely by a shlp captaln

world including Ltiinmeica, ihe Canbb e, and

the United Sitates ( Ruisaconaon oarossk es ii c

SHoppin' John
osn cor ee peas
2 cups waeir
on"2-te pon alt
112 Iteipon flesihy gn black peppe|
| 1/4 teiporn gond mce or0 ineg(optonl)
2 tblepoon rgetible onl|
Scup log- gram wlu nce
12-cupcon kernels
C ook blmk-eyed pausing 12 poud smoked
luky r ise3oig msead of ha Dra1rwhen do
Ab o 20 mi esbefore i peai donecon nm
nartlerelge potinwatealtpeppermace0ortnneg(if
desed), ard egeable ol
EnBngoabol Add le n, cove end cook ovr
ned.nu-1ew neat Ar 15 nmutes, orundl the nee is
alinstt der
Sti cod ad diecokeda edblck-eyed peai ndl corn
io dI? peowithl nee Covr and s nner ovr lowe neat
unlIalllhe hqaidii ab.obed adlhence ad comad e

Spiced Rice
2cupinee p cumm

4 cups wle 3-4 peppeco
5 cadaomn needs

SAddall ngitedienti oapo r iengtoabol, stand
riduce hat t olow Coverand co l 15 -2 mtesunt all
wateraii ab sobed and ce ender 'r c ue

k Chicken With Tomato i
S) Sauce

clicken,ctltiopiece I easpconofsalt
3tl lespoon ofoil 1 tp enerloor0chln peppIer
I onthmuyced 2stalsofcelezycutio
3loaget lomato, mned tln ouindr -

e Flyt chicken mnho oluntl golden Remove pes '
end cookomon mtles iamepoo When ly too are
I goldenbiro, r ermn chicken peces tti t peardadd ar;
tomates, sceley ialtadhod pepper Reduce eatand 'I
Siunnruntil chckeni lender
k 1n lm

sson 1 Eveybody Cooks Rice
* Re-readt e ntory EvRybaly Ce R!e This
istoiy.i au b .g iu entto finr a unger
b other at dunnri ni The siblngs oe rnno
duced lo 3a net of alte Ihioughezour- e
tenigarange of diterent nce dohel 3at .
horreo tliy nsit
Show e countnes irepresentedt re s toy on
D oissiwhatkn dofncediho childreneat
In.tbterildmnto wnte theu ownecipe for
cookg nce (lise wfi1vay3ccodidngtot I
child' isit 3xnd knowledge)
Into Bctcldentoobrn a mfeavotence xre rpe
friomnlone,nmakea ie coobookwilthtI
collectonofrepesmrnkecopes r echchild

n Cooka3no? cpewiticlssu ch asHoppn


Lesson2 CentralAfrica

ReadGabor Phah pegneom'sann f r
Fmaly Gos heMwerwl Thi bookusesa
pinrg b y3Goneseboya3i ilhtstraon3nd
diciiisesdallyhfernl cuntryofGabon
Dilsic hesinlanttesi 3nd dutaenreibeleen
sloppgrmaGabonese nd maUntedSttes
FndCCenltralAfnca3nGabon on3 p
ReadoUierbooksa bouCentral Afnciasuchas A
WalkThrough~af Foes!tTnusbook
createi3n exciulrg oppoirnluyut o explor3nd
ganuzdeinsuandrng ofapungboyandlhi
grmadparwetrnma quea3dvitalfaW
C ompprea3nd contrasttIhulaf:reiltwithtIhe
foeis inFlooda
Readl bhua! s ReefMat Thitonyi.
ablcut a3yc; glI hrgen m Zanb endllge,
whosperm it r tnewitler fnly
Inlstruto. ae povidedR f.ornmokaro3ed
nartanl a repe r n.i (conne. l nsWi

9 C ok S iced Rce fom Gaxbon

Lesson 3: West Africa

* ReadA Family in Liberia This book descnbes the
home, work, school, customs, and entertainment of
ten-year-old Iamu and his family in the village of
Motubu, Liberia
* Compare how life in Liberia would be similar to
and different from life in Amenca
* Show West Africa, Libena, and Motubu on a map
* Read other books about West African countries
including folktales One example is Koe andthe
Kola NitT This WestAfrican folktale is about the
son of the chief who must survive in the world with
only a sack full of Kola nuts and with the help of
some creatures that he has treated kindly

Q2 Cook JollofRice, a type ofWestAfncan

S 7V

Lesson 4: Southern Africa

* Read Thzs is Mozambique Thetext and
photographs in this book take the reader on a
journey through Mozambique and capture its
people in the most unique way
* ReadA Familyfrom South Afnca Atypical
black South African family living in Soweto
is the focus of this book It describes the daily
activities of this extended family of eight
* Compare how life in these countries would be
similar to or different from our lives
* Find Mozambique, SouthAfrica, and other
southern Afnca counties on a map
* Read other books about southernAfrica,
including folktales Abyoyo is an example This
folktale is based on a South Afncan lullaby A
little boy and his father are banished from town for
causing trouble They are welcomed back when
they find a way to make the dreaded giant Abyoyo

2 Cook Geel Rys, a nce dish from South Afnca

b Jollof Rice

1 tsp Salt 6 tomatoes, chopped
3/4-cup carrots, chopped 1/4-1/2 lb Srimp
Oil for frying 1/2 tsp Pepper
1-2 tsp Cayenne pepper 34 cups rice
1/4-1/2 cup tatato paste 3/4cup peas
6 medium onions, chopped
1-2 chickens, chopped into small pieces
4 green bell peppers, chopped
3/4-cup string beans, broken into pieces
Sprig of thyme, crushed or 1 tsp dried thyme

In a heavy pot large enough to hold everything,
brown the chicken in oil Add onions and peppers
and cook over medium heat for 510 minutes
Meanwhile in a separate skillet saut6 the slrimp in a
small amount of oil Pre-cook the ca rots, beans, and
peas- orothervegetables ofyour choice untilabout
half done, 5 minutes or so (You may boil them all
together if you like) Drain the vegetables and add,
along with the shrimp, tomatoes, salt, pepper, and
Thyme to the chicken pot Reduce heat to low and
simmer for 5 minutes
Combined ce th ththe tomato paste, which
should coat the nee grains without drowning them (In
the finished dish, rice should be tinted orange, too much
tomato paste will make it red) Stir into the pot and
continue to simmer, adding water sparingly to avoid
burning until meat, rice, and vegetable are tender
Stir in raisins and heat anotherminute or so before

Geel Rys

4 tablespoonsbutter 1 tsp Salt
2 cups long-grain white nce 1 tsp Tumeric
2 sticks cinnamon 1-cup raisins

Melt the butter overmedium heat in a heavy, me
dium-size pot Add rice and stir until each grain is well
coated Then add cinnamon, salt, and tumeric plus 2
cups water Bnng to a boil, cover and reduce heat to
simmer Add raisins
Cook 20-30 minutes until water is absorbed and rice
s tender


Lesmn5 EastAf rica

* Read ChaldrLen of m hi boo nicduce
the people, od, lotli,and dailyheofaE
* D.icuii Hr in leai diffeeebe ween
Ta orAana oi An an ld a
ShtaE IEastAfr 3 ai Taaaraaonaman t
Readoletbooki about Ea.tAfncacoune,
Aichlii Anktale AnexavpleA Y.ng M2aue and
Elephnt In htolilktale, Yaung Meese tions Ie
the stliroes t auna on thie AICa savatnah ai
goeies seaihof Eleht

Ydlow Coconut Rice 40

Ina2qt aticepanaadd 2 cupcoo t le k
and 3 cupiamiitand bgt o boil Add retatng
|4 iiedienti
t pgeaciter
| 2 cups ac
I bp Salt
112tp Grauitumaeric
14 bip Gicuiioni |
| 14tp Gcuriiclow
1 t4sp Grani adamom (optonal)

Coverandcol untdilqaidiabobed
azd nee i -dlaitu20mnites Add 2tlab lesyconii
butt ov


I1 cup darkldt.in, p- taldt An
Sl cup a nn- enai nc |
| -tcaps~po salt|
| 3mihumn m-adorifielry chpp-d|

* Putlentd and mcc IP eparatcptol^mreuh
bialngwater Dvift helentil^ Is srtlemAddI1/2
cnpesbmIingwater I ncfcr white nc, or 2 MpnifyWu
* .uiSirieicr bothmndlil, csomd, overlowheat

Add abitmltetwaterifrmi.saryt.Ispre-rtlrazng
o* umiwanyile, ently fy hie BB a u ty a
go)ldaribr.sttrt ^lrmmtiotls ths I andmcbefoic


I lotwh anhild o wne 3ltnphemonstratag anemthhqe Idneaam malutff
I1'utna1teamn am llegtheo mMh a censs aaout f' Too as, a odas-
amnl ofiwhatl student.l rnami llout iptca D a a ntlt / lil .,Av

a. ats uo nolusm i m BCU Ithat metrthahKweh hat l manyd dfiaceswei areu a t man
a"lie We llp Lto at, "-al .r1 Aml d ha a lattolim ormagtto a.,
ifE-ma! .Aoah; asa Mo onme farcndme litatlo erand 1 am tll A th M all
I asntso I their Is

Lesson6 NorthAfrica
Read The Daf Ai e'sSecre!Alned ii a
ulng EgypttianboywI jcameytuougheCao
delh.ienng butanegasion doneycart Onhii
tiple decsnbei the iglts andsiound ofCao
Attlebook edii, Alaned hI a speaal secett
tella fantly
S Iv NorihAfnca, EgyptaiCao ona map
Discuss ti sulanties adi Iffereates behveen
Alaned'n ltfe ai An.eMan ldren
Discuss booksabout pyrads, Egypt andmoAter

Q Pepa lKausly (ce and lent) and eat it tcgethr



Bennett, Olivia. A Family in Egypt. 1985. The Lerner Publishing Company.
Bickman, Connie. Children ofEgypt. 1996. ABDO Publishing Company.
Climo, Shirley. The Egyptian Cinderella. 1991. Harper Collins.
Heide, Florence and Judith Gilliland. The Day ofAhmed's Secret. 1995. Morrow, William and Company.
Hermes, Jules M. The Children ofMorocco. 1994. The Lerner Publishing Company.
Honan, Lillian. Spend the Day in Ancient Egypt. 1999. Wiley, John & Sons, Inc.
Stewart, Judy. A Family n Morocco. 1986. The Lerner Publishing Company.

West Africa
Aardema, Verna. Koi and the Kola Nuts: A Tale from Liberia. 1999. Simon & Schuster.
Gale, Steven H. West African Folktales. 1994. NTC Publishing Group.
Hetfield, Jamie. The Yoruba of WestAfrca. 1996. Rosen Publishing Group.
Humphrey, Sally. A Family in Liberia. 1987. The Lerner Publishing Group.
Tchana, Katrin and Louise Pami. Oh, No, Totol 1997. Scholastic, Inc.

East Africa
Arrington, H. J. The Heart of a Friendship. 1997. Pelican Publishing Co., Inc.
Bickman, Connie. Children of Tanzania. 1996. ABDO Publishing Company.
Farris, Pamela J. YoungMouse and Elephant. 1996. Houghten Mifflin Company.
Feelings, Muriel L. JamboMeans Hello: Swahili Alphabet Book. 1981. Puffin Pied Piper.
Feelings, Muriel L. Moja Means One: Swahili Counting Book. 1976. Penguin USA.
Griffin, Michael. Family in Kenya. 1988. The Lerner Publishing Group.
Margolies, Barbara. Rehema 's Journey: A Visit in Tanzania. 1996. Scholastic, Inc. Mollel, Tololwa. Kele's Secret. 1997.
Stuve-Bodeen, Stephanie. Mama Elizabeti. 2000. Lee & Low Books, Inc.
Waterloo, Julia. A Familyfrom Ethiopia. 1997. Steck-Vaughn.

Southern Africa
Day, Niki. Not So Fast, Songololo. 1995. Simon & Schuster.
Green, Jen. A Familyfrom South Africa. 1997. Steck-Vaughn.
Isadore, Rachel. At the Crossroads. 1994. Morrow, William & Company.
Lewin, Hugh. Jafta and the Wedding. 1983. The Lerner Publishing Group.
Lewin, Hugh. Jafta's Mother 1983. The Lerner Publishing Group.
Lewin, Hugh. Jafta's Father. 1988. The Lerner Publishing Group.
Michler, Ian. This s Mozambique. 2000. New Holland Books.
Seeger, Pete. Ablyoyo: Based on a South African Lullaby and Folk Song. 1994. Scholastic, Inc.
Steptoe, John L. Mufaro s Beautiful Daughters: An African Tale. 1987. Morrow, William & Co.

Central Africa
House, Janie. Mthunz 's ReedMats. 1995. Woman's Missionary Union.
Jenike, David and Mark. A Walk Through the Rain Forest. 1994. Watts Franklin.
Ngome, Philippe. Gabon: Philippe Ngome's Painting: 'My Family Goes to Market. 1997. The Rosen Publishing
Tchana, Katrin and Louise Pami. Oh, No, Totol 1997. Scholastic, Inc.

African News Service, Inc. The African News Cookbook: African Cooking for Western Kitchens. 1985. Penguin Books.
Dooley, Norah. Everybody Cooks Rice. 1991. Scholastic, Inc.
Hachten, Harva. Best ofRegionalAfrican Cooking. 1998. Hippocrene Books.
Nabwire, Constance. Cooking the African Way. 1988. The Lerner Publishing Company.
Sandler, Bea. The African Cookbook. 1993. The Carol Publishing Group.
Van der Post, Laurens. African Cooking. 1970. Time-Life Books.
Van der Post, Laurens. Recipes: African Cooking. 1970. Time-Life Books.

Mufaro's Beautiful Daughters:

A Zimbabwean


Pivndr amr Ff elff Av Aftyoaffblf

I Id.,tfythk ialtr'slmapose

3 Lranthit f ro g ] l^fT a*3
tl:e plue m Z ab, cun
umfilanm Ara
4*Iirwisse cenes fr5n tlb blec

Mfao, a i weanllage an,ha svo
beatSlildauMesi, M.ayaraand Nysa Mpmyara
gedy Yandelfhand Nyhageneo
When GatlKing decideockoe aw&e,
Mfalos esiibolh a i daugiu abbtbepaofthe

ianyara andNa.lu es on "tets bym magical
beni fgslldtiNHyoha"thelnae,1anit
hatiof each daughtershavn Thlghchooies
Nyaiha, and Mamyarabecome lerezva
Tllus folltalewas mipindbyan easier foltale
byG M Talpablied l895 Tie sme of ti
chiiteiae fm heS k nalaage andtralate
nio t folwi

"c FA o)
NyusbcoAI aere
m.,ahuWr.aLIY N .Iusae
Nyela -OI Yf k ~are

larghoflrLnom 3A511i

Flordrula Cnunmrrrln raeok

Dup(.astrand Readall
St'dardl Tie iideoii t etnna froma
wide zange oftexb
Benchniaric4IA.A.22)Identtify Heatllr'spipoers

SDarmlnd2 Tie tidenti ie hitemugstategies
BenkhnrcA.C I) Recllspeciffdeaof

Kwlep Shi G.i sidenta b.ackguiif-
itbon on Zinbwe, and odcs Afan.1 f e
the tiden w1ill ten ilten l twy a pply
nfomialnionglnto actouticene fromte stozy

1 Intm iside1 4 Itflut yae 3goangto, ead1 JI.Mo's
BeiafuliDDi ters anthaiti3Zimbabwe an Tale
2 Review facti on iadonAfnca ailZmb>e
with tdent while Afnc un u applying ofshy n

3 S w tsidentwhe Z'mtwea located using
allied owhaneads nsp

* Co peraHne Larng: Ha s hid.itwork mmllgips to
mipoie sces famm faro's BeuDauglhte Dmctd
goups o rie l ltoy z d tldt nclocee sces o mibpovie
Allow t glomups t b tole lrsems, end3 timi l a tha

feabiieof maiyAfiicaiiernenz u pos ifib le oohv sbidenbt

p ofAEnkao* datoh t
,b h enpro idaeacll =idel wllal rbn npap e rbag

2 ntist tlung11,~ i A odhhpomM. @Sogt f t

Location SouthemAffica
Capital Harare
Population 11,342,521
Prune Mmister Robet Mugabe--Hehas been
the country's only ruler since 197
National Hohlday Independence Day s Apnl 1
Language English (official), Shona and Ndebele
re the other major languages
Agriculture Very well developed Crops include
aaize, sugar, wheat, coffee, tea and cotton
Flication Pnmary education beginsattheage of
, S Students can continue their education by
attending college
Higber Education Institutions
a University ofZimbabwe
b) University of Science and Technology
c) Afrca University
d) Technical Colleges
e)imbabwe Open Universty

SStepo e, John Mufaro Bea uSIful Dughters An ,ican
Tale NewYork Lotlop Lee andShlepard
Books, 1987 (ISBN-0-688-04045-4)
}frca South ofthe Sahara 20013 0h Edion London
Europ Publications NewFeter Lane, 2000
Robet E Leswn Plans on Afcan, Hstory and
geography A Teachng esouce
ainesville, FL The CenterfoAfncan Studies,
Umlverstyof Flo nda
bfalbox ntlermediate The Education Center JunelJuly
CMssfs ofSrand New Jersey Moslton, Needlii Sik

Suggested African Folklore to Include m the
Elementary Curriculum

Ashan to Zulu Africa Tradiaons byMargaret Musgome,
AStory, AStory AnAfrican /TalbyGailE Haley
Antheum 1970
TheAdventures of .Sder A WistAfrican Tale Reold
byJoyce CooerArkldui Little B ob 1964
Anansa the Sidr A a r ATale f anha Adapltdby
Gerald Mc Deott Holt 1972
The Fylng Tortoise An Igbo Tale ReoldbyTowala M
Mollel Claxion 1994
How Many pot Does a Leopard Ha veAnd Other
Tales byJulius Lester, Scholastic 199
The village ofRound and Square HousebyAnn
Gnsfalcor, Little Bown 1986
Traveling to Tondo A Tale ofthe undo of Zair by
JoahnSteploe, Lee and Shephad Books
The Fortune Teleri. by loyd AlexanderScholastic 1992
How the Gumaea Fowl got her 4Sots A STahid Tale of
Friendship byBabama Knutson, Camllohoda 1990
The Magc Tre A Talefrom the Cngoby Geald
McDemottHolt 1973
The Otphan Boy A Maasai sory byTololwo M
Mollel Clarion 1990
Why the Sky s F LarAwy A Mgenan Folktale Retold
byMalyJoan Gersan. Joy/Little Blow 1992
Cn One Cowry A Dahomean Tale eloldbyPhluhs

Children's Picture Books in an African Setting

By Carol Bynum



Darkness and the Butterfly

Grifalconi, Ann (Author)
Little, Brown Company: Boston, 1987

Osa is afraid of the dark. During the day, Osa is
afraid of nothing. She can do anything she chooses to
do. Osa's mother gives her some red "worry beads" to
help overcome her fears. When she becomes lost while
wandering in the woods one day, she holds on to the
beads for comfort and notices sparkles of light coming
from the trees. The lights are bottles the Wise Woman
puts into the trees to catch the sun. Osa and the Wise
Woman become friends. Osa tells the Wise Woman
about her fears. The Wise Woman tells Osa about tiny
butterflies which are safe at night. Osa falls asleep.
She dreams she is a butterfly and discovers the "night
lights" in the sky. After that she is no longer afraid of
the dark.

Osa's Pride

Grifalconi, Ann (Author)
Little, Brown and Company: Boston, 1990

This story takes place in the village of Tos in
Cameroon. Osa has lost her father in a war but
refuses to believe that he is never coming back. She
makes up wonderful stories about her father and
prances around the village declaring that her father is
a hero, brave and tall. Osa begins to lose friends
because she no longer listens to what her friends say,
think, or feel. Gran'ma Tika uses a hand sewn
"picture cloth" to tell Osa about a prideful woman
who drops eggs as she carries them. Gran'ma Tika
has sewn the cloth with no ending. When Osa asks
about the end of the story, Osa finishes it and as she
does, Osa realizes that she too is prideful. Osa learns
everyone is equal.

Food: eggs, corn, coffee
Possessions: baskets, round and square houses, blue cloth,
soldier's guns, soldier's uniforms, broom, clay pot

The Elephant's Wrestling Match

j Sierra, Judy (Author)
Pinkney, Brian (illustrator)
Dutton Children's Books: NY, ~' I

As the monkey beats tlhedruift, 11.. .1.141 hl chat
lenges the animals to a wrestling match. I he leopard,
crocodile, and rhinoceros are defeated by the elephant.
Finally a tiny bat challenges the elephant and wins by
flying into the elephant's ear. The elephant is angry about
his defeat that he smashes the monkey's drum. This story
explains why monkeys do not beat drums in trees.

The Fortune-Tellers

Alexander, Lloyd (Author)
Hyman, Trina Schart (Illustrator)
Dutton Children's Books: NY, 1992

A young carpenter wonders about his life. He goes to
a fortune-teller to learn about his future. The fortune-
teller talks in circles and really does not say anything
revelant. However, the young man hears what he wants
to hear. The carpenter leaves the fortune-teller's shop in a
hurry to get on with his life. In his rush he forgets to ask
all his questions. He returns to the fortune-teller's shop
and finds him gone. Curious he picks up the fortune-
teller's hat and crystal ball. The owner of the shop comes
in and thinks the "old" fortune-teller has turned into a
"young" man and tells his family. The carpenter tells
their fortunes the same way the old fortune-teller does,
which is to talk in circles and say nothing.
The carpenter falls in love with the merchant's
daughter. His dreams come true, and he lives a long,
happy life with his new family.

* Ukamba with Imbenga, by Bianca Willis, Lake Forest Elementary

The Village of Round and
Square Houses

Gifalconi, Ann (Author)
Little, Brown and Company: NY, 1986

This story takes place in the village of Tos, which is
a real place in the hills of Cameroon. Osa learns why
men live in square houses and women live in round
houses. It tells of the eruption of the volcano near the
village and how the event changed the lives of her
people and begun traditions that remain today.
Foods: fish, rabbit, ground-nut stew, yams, white cassava root
used to make fou-fou
Possessions: wooden stool, grass mats, rakes, bowls with
handles, pipe

-I Z A I R E

Traveling to Tondo: a Tale of the
Nkundo of Zaire

Aardema, Verna (Author)
Hillenbrand, Will (Illustrator)
Scholastic, Inc.: NY, 1991

Bowane the civet cat meets his
future wife in Tondo and travels back to his home to
acquire the copper bars and ornaments needed to give to
the bride's father. Bowane needs some friends to go with
him so he choses pigeon, python, and tortoise to be at
his wedding. Along the way each animal causes a delay
for good reason. Due to the delays, the trip takes so long
that his future bribe marries another civet cat.
The moral: "Sometimes there is too much consenting
between two friends."


How Giraffe Got Such a Long Neck
and Why Rhino is So Grumpy

Rosen, Michael (Author)
Clementson, John (Illustrator)
Dial Books for Young Readers: NY, 1993

During a terrible drought in which there is nothing to
eat, human beings prepare a magic herb that results in
Giraffe's long neck so he can reach the high leaves on the
trees. Grumpy Rhino arrives too late for the magic.

Young Mouse and Elephant

Farris, Pamela J. (Author)
Gorbachev, Valeri (Illustrator)
Houghton Mifflin Company: NY, 1996

Young Mouse is bragging to everyone that he is
the strongest of all. An older wiser mouse tells him
that the elephant is the strongest. Young Mouse has
never seen an elephant so he asks all the animals he
meets if they are elephants. Something happens each
time he meets an animal to frighten them. Thunder
frightens lizard, a bolt of lightning scares zebra, and a
large rain cloud darkens the sky and frightens the
giraffe. When Young Mouse finally meets an elephant,
the elephant squirts him with water. Young Mouse
thinks a storm has chased the elephant away and
considers the elephant lucky not to tangle with him.
Young Mouse still thinks he is the strongest of all.

Imani in the Belly

Newton-Chocolate, Deborah M. (Author)
Boies, Alex (Illustrator)
Bridge Water Books: USA, 1994

Many of the villagers have been disappearing in
the dense forest. The King of the Beasts has been
devouring them. inani needs to go to the marketplace
so she warns her three children to be careful. Unfortu-
nately, they are also swallowed. Inani is so distraught
when she returns, she cries herself to sleep. The spirit
of her ancestor comes to her in a dream to help and
gives Inani a plan. She tells Inani to sharpen two
sticks and rely on her faith to guide her. Imani finds
the lion and confronts him. He devours inani, and she
joins her children and the other villagers in the belly of
the lion. She starts a fire with the two sticks and
rescues everyone.

Moja Means One: Swahili
Counting Book

Feelings, Muriel (Author)
Feelings, Tom (Illustrator)
Dial Press: NY, 1971

The numbers one through ten in Swahili are
accompanied by two-page illustrations of various
aspects of East African life. The subjects covered are:
Kilimanjaro, mankala, coffee trees, babies, animals,
clothing, Nile River, markets, musical instruments, and



This book gives an
explanation for the guinea
fowl's protective coloration, .-.
which enables it to hide from "-' ,
its natural predator, the lion.
Nganga, the guinea fowl, has
a cow friend. Nganga and Cow eat together. But one eats
while the other keeps an eye out for Lion. The first two
times, Nganga helps Cow escape. To repay her, Cow
speckles Nganga with flecks of milk. Lion does not
recognize the guinea fowl because she is spotted.

Jambo Means Hello: Swahili
Alphabet Book

Feelings, Muriel (Author)
Feelings, Tom (Illustrator)
Dial Press: NY, 1974

This book presents a word, with English translation,
for each of the twenty four letters of the Swahili alphabet.
There is a brief explanation of each word, which intro-
duces an East African custom or idea.
The subjects covered are: marriage, fatherhood, growing
and harvesting food, medicine, mangos, brooms used to
keep the houses clean, clay jars, and other utensils,
respect, worship, greetings, trade, teaching of households
tasks, dance and music, animals, work and play of chil-
dren, school, and beauty.

Rabbit Makes a Monkey of Lion:
A Swahili Tale

Aardema, Verna (Author)
Pinkey, Jerry (Illustrator)
Dial Books for Young Readers: NY, 1989

With the help of his friends, Bush-rat and Turtle,
smart and nimble Rabbit makes a fool of the mighty but
slow-witted king of the forest. Bush-rat and Rabbit are
getting honey from a tree when Lion hears them. He
thinks only Bush-rat is in the tree and allows himself to be
tricked by the quicker rabbit while Bush-rat escapes. Then

How the Guinea Fowl Got Her Spots:
a Swahili Tale of
Friendship ,&

Knutson, Barbara (Author)
Carolrhoda Books: Minneapolis,

lion hunts Bush-rat and finds him digging yams.
Bush-rat throws a yam at Lion and while he has his
mouth open to catch it, Bush-rat escapes. The next day
Rabbit and Turtle are eating honey. Lion hears them
and allows himself to be tricked again by Rabbit. This
time, however, Lion figured out there were two
animals in the tree and waits for the second animal to
come down. Turtle's shell protects him until he can
trick Lion. Each time Lion says, "That little rascal
made a monkey out of me!" Finally Lion gives up.

The Orphan Boy

Mollel, Tolowa M. (Author)
Morin, Paul (Illustrator)
Clarion Books: NY 1990

An old man looks into the night sky and notices
that a star is missing. While he wonders about it, a
small boy appears. The boy claims to be an orphan.
The two become friends, and each morning the boy
does all the chores. A drought covers the land. Yet the
boy seems to find water and green pastures for the
animals. When asked about it, he says that he has a
secret that no one else can know. If someone finds out
his secret, the "magic" will no longer work. The old
man cannot stand his own curiosity and spoils his
good fortune. The boy finds out the man has learned
his secret and goes away leaving the man alone again.

Possessions: simple houses, beaded necklaces and brace-
lets, colorful clothing and hats, staff, cows, beaded earrings.

AN&E T H I 0 P I A

Pulling the Lion's Tail

Kurtz, James (Author)
Cooper, James (Illustrator)
Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers: NY, 1995

A little Ethiopian girl is having trouble relating to
her new stepmother. She goes to her wise grandfather
for advice. He tells her how to solve her problem
using patience.

Food: wat (peppery stew), injera (thin bread), onions,
corn, salty dried meat
Possessions: clay pots, thatched house, woven

SK E N Y A te park in a Land Rover. The picnic spot is a high place
overlooking a plain where many animals are grazing.
Bringing the Rain to Kapiti Plain The idea that a child in Kenya would need to visit a
(A Nandi Tale) game park to see wild animals should be interesting to
any American child.

Aadema, Verna (Author
Vidal, Beatriz (Illustrator)
Dial Books for Young Readers: NY, 1981

This story tells how Ki-pat helps stop a drought by
using his bow and arrow.
Food: grass
Possessions: bow, arrow, eagle feather, leather thong, houses

I Am The Eyes: Ni Macho

Ward, Leila (Author)
Hogrogian, Nonny (Illustrator)
Scholastic, Inc.: NY, 1978

A little girl names every-
thing she sees as she walks
across the savannah.

The Lonely Lioness
the Ostrich Chicks

Aardema, Vema (author)
Heo, Yumi (Illustrator)

* Ukamba Women Artist, by
Lake Forest Elementary

Alfred A. Knopf, NY: 1996

This book tells the Masai
tale about an ostrich whose chicks are stolen by a
lioness. She tricks the lioness to get her chicks back.

Mcheshi Goes to the Market

Kitsao, J. (Author)
Sironka, mathenge, Wanijku, and Okello (Illustrations)
Jacaranda Designs, Ltd.: Nairobi, Kenya, 1991

Mcheshi goes to an open-air market with her
"'mummy" to buy things the family needs. While
"mummy" is shopping Mcheshi is hiding, chatting,
investigating and experiencing all she can.

Mcheshi Goes to the Game Park

Kitsao, J. (Author)
Averdung, Koinange, Okello, and Mathenge (Illustrators)

The game park Mcheshi goes to has open areas of
natural habitats for the animals. Mcheshi travels through


Masai and I

Kroll, Virginia (Author)
Carpenter, Nancy (Illustrations)
Harcourt Brace & Company: NY, 1992

A little girl in America imagines what her day would
be like if she were a Masai.

Possessions: Simple houses, staff, weaving, gourd, stool,
Cooking pot, cowhide, cow, spears,
feathered headdresses, cloth, beads, horns
made from animal hornms or tusks, kraal
S (animal pen) buffalo hide sandals.

Rhinosfor Lunch and
for Supper: A Maasai Tale

Morrel, Tololwa M. (Author)
Spurll, Barbara (illustrator)
Clarion Books: NY 1991
Tiffany Porter,
A variety of animals try to help a
hare get rid of the mysterious intruder
who has taken over her house.


Kele's Secret

Mollel, Tolowa M. (Author)
Stock, Catherine (Illustrator)
Lodestar Books: NY, 1997

Kele is a chicken who has a secret hiding place for
her eggs. Yoanes tries to find out where the eggs are
hidden and faces his innermost fears while doing so.

Food: eggs, chickens, beans, sweet potatoes, bananas, nyafu
(wild, bitter spinach), avocados, rice cakes, mandasi (deep-
fried buns that taste almost like doughnuts), dates, roasted
peanuts, fried cassava, fish
Plants: bamboo, coffee bushes, eucalyptus, fig trees
Possessions: outhouse, mud houses, car, floopy hat, shoes,
beautiful cloth, baskets, sewing machine, umbrella, furniture,
kerosene lamp, bowls

My Rows and Piles of Coins

Mollel, Tololwa M. (Author)
Lewis, E.B. (Illustrator)
Clarion Books: NY, 1999

A Tanzanian boy named Saruni saves his coins to
buy a bicycle so he can help his parents carry goods to
the market. But he discovers that in spite of all he has
saved, he still does not have enough money. His father
buys a motorbike and sells the bicycle to Saruni for
exactly the amount of money he has. When his parents
find out why he wanted the bicycle, they are so touched
by his generosity, they give him the bicycle and return
his money.
Foods: roasted peanuts, chapatti (dried flat round bread made
from layered rolled dough), rice cakes, samoosa (little
triangular sealed pouch of dough stuffed with spiced veg
tables, meat, or both deep fried), dried beans, maize,
pumpkins, spinach, bananas, eggs, peas, sweet potatoes,
vegetables, fruits

Possessions: coins, bicycles, wooden toy trucks, kites,
slingshots, marbles, lantern, wooden wheelbarrow, motorbike

Shadow Dance

Mollel, Tololwa M. (Author)
Perrone, Donna (Illustrator)
Clarion Books: NY, 1998

Salome was singing and dancing among the shad-
ows when she heard a cry for help from a crocodile.
Salome freed the crocodile from the gully. She helped
the crocodile to the riverbank and even into the water.
In a swift movement, the crocodile grabbed the girl and
threatened to eat her. Salome begged for her life. To be
"fair" the crocodile said that he would let her go if he
heard "one good reason why he should spare her." They
asked a tree, a cow, and a pigeon. The pigeon helped
the girl by getting the crocodile to show how he was
trapped. Of course the crocodile became trapped again.
The girl and the pigeon became friends as she sang and
danced home.

Rehema's Journey: A Visit in Tanzania

Margolies, BarbaraA. (Author)
Scholastic: NY, 1996

Rehema, a nine year old girl who lives in the moun-
tains of Tanzania, accompanies her father to Arusha City
and visits the Ngorongoro Crater.


P T -_

An Enchanted Tale

De Veaux, Alexis (Author)
Hanna, Cheryl (Illustrator)
Harper & Row, Publishers: NY, 1987

An American boy named Sudan is upset because his
hair is unruly. He goes on a imaginary trip to Egypt.
There he learns to accept himself and his differences
with pride.

The Egyptian Cinderella

Climo, Shirley (Author)
Heller, Ruth (Illustrator)
Harper Collins Publishers: NY, 1989

Rhodopis (rosy-cheeked), a Greek maiden, was
stolen by pirates and sold as a slave in Egypt. She was
more beautiful than the other slave girls and was ordered
around by them. As a result, Rhodopis had no friends.
Shortly she befriended the animals. One day when
Rhodopis was dancing with the animals, her master saw
her but did not know who she was. He had a pair of
dainty rose-red gold slippers made for her because she
was so beautiful. The other servant girls went to the river
bank to see the Pharaoh but Rhodopis had to stay behind
to do chores. A falcon stole one of her slippers and
dropped it into the Pharaoh's lap. The rest of the story is
about the Pharaoh's quest to find the owner of the slipper
and make her his queen.

Possessions: slaves, papyrus sandals, plain blue tunic, rosy
red gold slippers, masters: necklaces, bracelets, linen, chariot,
throne, barge, silk, ships, gongs

The Day ofAhmed's Secret

Heide, Florence Parry & Judith H. Gilliand (Authors)
Lewin, Ted (Illustrator)
Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books: NY, 1990

Ahmed goes about his daily chores to help the
family. He delivers fuel and he can write his name. He
thinks all day of the secret he has.

Foods: beans, noodles, rice, bread
Possessions: trucks, cars, carts, buses, bells, caravans, sandals,

^--j E

Kondi wants to make a galimoto (car) out of wire.
He goes around his small town and asks for wire. Some-
times he is laughed at and he almost gets into trouble.
Finally, he trades, begs, and finds enough wire to make a
beautiful galimoto for all to admire.

Possessions: bicycle, handmade toy, clay brick houses with
thatched roofs, cloth, baskets, junk, chain-link fence, mortar
and pestle


Armien's Fishing Trip

Stock, Catherine (Author)
Morrow Junior Books: NY, 1990

Armien brags to his friends that he will go out on his
Uncle's fishing boat to fish the next day. Armien was too
young to be taken out on the boat so he became a stow-a-
way. He intended to come out of the "hold" after it was
too late to turn back. As he was coming up on deck, he
saw Sam fall overboard. He called for help and Sam was
saved. Armien became a hero.

At The Crossroads

Isadora, Rachel (Author)
Greenwillow Books: NY, 1991

South African children gather to welcome home their
fathers who have been away for several months working
in the mines.

Possessions: water tap, buckets, cart on wheels, books, school
drum, guitar, wire, unicycles, cars, trucks

Charlie's House

Schermbrucker, Reviva (Author)
Daly, Niki (Illustrator)
Penguin Books Ltd.: NY, 1989

Charlie watches his house being built with a cement
floor, corrugated iron, scrap walls and roof. It has two

Jafta's Father

Lewin, Hugh (Author)
Kopper, Lisa (Illustrator)
Carolrhoda Books, Inc.: Minneapolis, 1981

Jafta's father is away working in the city for the
winter. Jafta thinks of happier times and things his father
has done with him as he waits for his father to return.

Jamela's Dress

Daly, Niki (Author)
Farrar, Straus &Giroux: NY, 1999

Jamela gets in trouble when she takes the material
intended for a new dress for Mama, parades it in the
street, and allows it to become dirty and torn.
Possessions: cloth, modem clothing, cars, bicycle, camera,
newspaper, radio, sewing machine, clocks

Ndebele Breadwork: Africa Artistry

Stalcup, Ann (Author)
The Rosen Publishing Group: NY, 1999

This craft book tells about the Ndebele people, their
way of life, costumes, ceremonies, craft of beading,
beaded aprons, neckpieces, dolls.

Not So Fast Songololo

Daly, Niki (Author)
Macmillan Publishing Company: NY, 1985

Malusi accompanies his granny to the city to shop.
His granny surprises him with a new pair of tennis shoes.
Malusi and granny call them "tackies." The "tackies" he
had were handed down from Gogo.
Possessions: modern clothing, furniture, bus, cars, parking
meter, stores, motorbike



small windows. Charlie shares the house with his mother
SOUTHERN AFRICA and granny. The house was not built well and leaks in
the rainy season. Charlie builds his own house between
M A L A W I two houses. Charlie's house has big enough rooms to
-: *' entertain friends and watch TV. His mother and granny
Galimoto have a bedroom with twin beds and Charlie has his own
room. It has a kitchen with a refrigerator, an indoor
ms, Karen Lynn (Author)
Catherine (Illustrator) bathroom, a bathtub, sofa and chairs, and carpet. Charlie
p, Lee, & Shepard Books: NY, 1990 even makes a car to go with his house. At dinner he
pretends to be the driver of the car.

f S W A Z I L A N D

Kessler, Cnstina (Author)
Stammen, JoEllen M. (Illustrator)
Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers: NY 2001

A baby rhmo becomes an orphan early m life. He
wanders aimlessly until he is found by and adopted by an
old rhmo.

Learning to Swim in Swaziland

Leigh, Nila K. (Author) ,
Scholastic, Inc.: NY, 1993

Nila moves to Swaziland
at age eight and begins
writmg about her expert- _- -.. -..
ences. This book is written m
a child's handwritmg and
reflects differences between
Swaziland and America.
Swaziland is ruled by a Kmg.
Winter starts m June, summer
starts m December, the school The Young womans apr
of intricate beadwork sy
year begms m late January, Reprnted others
Reprintedwith permissi,
the school has no running Museum ofArt
water or electricity, the stars
are m different positions,
water goes down the dram differently (counterclockwise
north of the equator, and clockwise south of the equator
some English words mean different things, both boys and
girls have their heads shaved when they are m school,
boys and girls have their ears pierced, and the children
make their own toys.

Over the Green Hills

Isadora, Rachel (Author)
Greenwillow Books: NY, 1992

This story takes place m Transkel on the coast of
South Africa. Mpame is a village near the Indian Ocean.
Zolani, who lives m a rural black homeland m South
Africa, goes with his mother to visit his Grandma Zmdzi.
Foods: mussels, dned fish, rmehes (corn), pnckly pears,
Possessions: bag to collect mussels, painted mud houses with
thatched roofs called
rondavels, baskets, cars,
merchant buildings, donkey
cart, pennywhistle, books

n from SouthAfrca consists
mbolzing culture and unity
on @ Samuel P Harn

Somewhere in Africa

Mennen, Ingnd, and Daly, Niki
Mantz, Nicolass (Illustrator)
Dutton Children's Books: NY,

Ashraf lives ma city m
Africa much like any city. He
has only seen wild animals m
books he gets from the city
library. Ashraf s city is a lot
like ours except there are
open-air markets to buy things
from, and there is a store that
sells elephant tusks, tortoises,
and stools with elephant toes.


Mufaro's Beautiful Daughters

Steptoe, John (Author)
Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books: NY, 1987

Mufaro has two beautiful daughters. But they were
not equal m beauty from within. Nyasha is kind, and
considerate but Manyara is selfish, bad tempered, and
spoiled. The king is seeking a wife and Manyara expects
to be chosen. The two maiden's characters are judged
secretly by the king. He becomes a snake, a boy, and a
woman to test Nyasha and she passes the test every time.
She is chosen to be queen and Manyara becomes her


Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People's Ears

Aardema, Vema (Author)
Dillon, Leo and Diane (Illustrators)
Dial Books for Young Readers: NY, 1975

Mosquito is so annoying that he starts a chain
reaction of events that causes an owlet of a mother owl
to die. The owl brings the problem before King Lion.
Each animal blames another until the mosquito is blamed
for starting the whole affair. This story explains why
mosquitoes buzz m people's ears.

Food: yams


? t Rabbit a TricksterTe fj)-mN
"v "rI WestAfca

S hh f iY 1992
to be mmt e He ask the Sky
[he Sky God imshrbc Zort o s
N. impo sible tasks In orderto
Sky GAd Zomo tncks Big Fish,
In the end, Zomo ireceYs
* -zeemanimal sargef The Sky
Som-to titree himgs are orh having
soe go ens e, ar a little cahuton He wans

Princess Godla cd a New Ki.nd of
Writer A Mpongwe Ti
Aascimae Make (Author)
CNear cmona (Illutratowr)
DIl Eaol for Yung Reabbr NY 1998

ming Go nlla decrees tha no one may many his
daughter until a oitor is found who is strong enough to
conr meabairelof strange, inm ocatng aer The
"soaer" is really vinegar Seeral aJimal;s Aytodnkthe
water butfal Fmally a bunch of monkeryspretendrng to
b one m onkey fol m ekng ad empy ta barel
Leopard is ag% nl a Ihecheaers nch r he wasy
The kingtlhen allows his daughter pick her o n husband

I B E N I N i4
I THakes a Vs.ase

Cown-Fledtter Ja.e |Author
Scholastsc no NY 1994

Yemr is vena tas konmake dayShe isto help

Yems gets busy land Kokou anders away He is never in
danger because earezone is watching out for him
Everyone t akes responsibility for every child

rf G A M B I A
Bouedless Grace

Hoffarn MInar (Aullr)
Iach Caioline llstator c
Dialool for YungReaber NY 1995

Grace'ramolherandfathersae divorced GAte';
father l; inAfnca. with anw wife and baby Graoe

feels hI keshe dos not have a flAther ad is otrtered by her
situation As a. supnse, Grace's father send; her tickets o
visit Afcab EveninAfnca, Grace struggle; wslthte
concept of a "tiepmoaher" and keep; reading fairytales
about kicked lstepmothers Eventually, Grae begins; o
hae a deeper under s dandirg and aeeptance of her f amily

-G H A N A 4.
Amoko ad Efuxa Bear
Appla Sorn (Aut or)
Easnon CArol (Illutrator)
Mvacrllan NY 1989

A little rl living in Ghanetaker her favnrote Bddy
bear everywhere he goes and is heartbroken when she
thinks it is l0st

Afrnas GoesFzshirg
Kanrcne1 EncA iAuthol|
Staeens .anear aIltusrior|
Holiday Houe. NY 1992

Thi brlkstertalexplamns why spIders pin webs
La.yAnansit lto a rck TurtH but i outilatted andr ends
up doing al th, morkhtmelf Recotraizng the m]utlce of
the situation Anai consults a wrhog udge atthe
JustliceTree" whodrea rmsnotbelleAnain' story During
theday's fishing An a1 ha learned wave afishing
net Heue theis knowledge to begm prnmg webs

Oh, Koro How Could Yout
Aardero Vema (Autlour|
Brrn Maic (Illautrator)
Dial Books for YoungRe aders NY 19S4

Thi tle aboutAnanti eplainswhycal; y
aretIre aed bettrthandogs In thiss oryxAnansi s
(not a pider) but is till a rckoer
IPansIOI khichedhose goldldut mfgt tin

AnanS the Spsader (A Tal fron
Ivieremott Gerald i.Athn az')^'
Scholastn I.c NY 1972

The tle emplakns why the moor .
i s afolklore hero of the A;hsant peo
wth human oh aractun ;sos andi a -
lost arndhi; s sons sam 3him Hew
to Ihe dn who ar eled the most ff(
cannot decade which son did themmstl wrk \pb
s l ----'^ ".

Big Mama and Grandma Ghana

Medearis, Angela Shelf (Author)
Russell, Lynne (Illustrator)

Miles is an American boy who has two grandmas.
One grandma lives in Ghana and one lives in the United
States. Grandma Ghana visits America, and Miles learns
that all grandmas are the same in many ways. Grandma
Ghana brings a mancala game with her to teach Miles
how to play and a basket as a gift to Miles American
grandma. Miles asks Grandma Ghana if she has ever seen
a lion. Grandma has only seen a lion in the zoo because
she lives in the city. She teaches Miles an Ashanti song.
For dinner the family has a combination of African and
American food.

'1 N I G E R I A 3

Beat the story-Drum, Pum-Pum

Bryan, Ashley (Author)
Atheneum: NY, 1987

This book contains five Nigerian tales: "Hen and
Frog," "Why Bush Cow and Elephant are Bad Friends,"
"Why Frog and Snake Never Play Together" and "How
Animals Got Their Tails." This is a well written book to
read to children and contains few illustrations.

Emeka's Gift (An African
Counting Story)

Onyefulu, Ifeoma (Author)
Cobblehill Books: NY, 1995
A child tries to choose the best gift for his grand-
mother. He sees a spinning top game called Okoso (using
anything that spins with the objective to spin the long-
est). He sees other things like a handmade mortar made
from a tree truck. The woodcarver hollows out the trunk
carefully to make the mortar.
Foods: mango, oranges, tomatoes, yams,
Possessions: bicycle, markets brooms, sun hats, beaded
necklaces musical instruments (beaded gourds)

Why the Sky is Far Away

Gerson, Mary-Joan (Author)
Golembe, Carla (Illustrator)
Little, Brown and Company: USA, 1992

In the beginning the sky was so close to the ground
that you could reach up and take a piece of it. The sky

was angry because the people were wasteful. They took
more than they needed. The People were warned and
were more careful for a while, but soon the sky was
"wasted" again. The sky became so angry it moved far
away from people. People have had to work the land for
their food ever since.

"A" is for Africa

Onyefulu, Ifeoma (Author)
Cobblehill Books: NY, 1993

This book uses the alphabet and photographs to
inform the reader about Africa.
Igbo chiefs eagle feathers are handed down from a
father to his middle age son. Women can be chiefs too!
But they do not wear feathers. The blue powder from the
indigo plant is used to dye cloth. The people leave it to
soak in a deep hole in the ground. Air drying helps to set
the color. A favorite game is jumping over a stick
suspended in the air. Kola nuts are offered to guests to
show warmth and friendship. The nuts grow on pods on
tall trees and they keep well after they have been picked.
In many parts of Africa, on an important occasion, old
men and women say prayers, and the oldest male present
breaks the kola nuts. Turbans are worn by Muslim men
if they are knowledgeable about the Islamic religion.
Women wear turbans also to help them carry things on
their heads. Yams are bigger than potatoes and take
longer to grow. The people boil or roast them and eat
them with palm oil.

Food: kola nuts, fish, yams, palm oil
Plants: cotton
Possessions: beaded headbands and necklaces, hats, turbans,
special cloths, canoes, drums, eagle feathers, mud houses with
thatched roofs, stick houses with thatched roofs, dye made
from the indigo plant, stick games, lamps burning oil, paraffin,
or kerosene, masquerade masks, earthen pots to store water or
use as a musical instrument, umbrella, woven fabrics, rugs,


Africa Dream

Greenfield, Eloise (Author)
Byard, Carol (Illustrator)
Harper Collins, Publishers: NY, 1997

An African American child's dreams are filled with
the images of people and places in Africa.

Africa Brothers and Sisters

Kroll, Virginia (Author)
French, Vanessa (Illustrator)
Four Winds Press: NY, 1993

Jesse asks his dad why he does not have brothers and
sisters. In his answer, Jesse's dad tells Jesse that he has
thousands of brothers and sisters in Africa. Jesse learns
that many live in cities just like his, some are farmers,
and some wear special clothing for particular celebra-
tions. Special ceremonies are celebrated, crafts are
learned, and dances are performed by them. His brothers
and sisters in Africa have a special history, and Jesse
shares in that history.

The Black Snowman
Mendez, Phil (Author)
Byard, Carole (Illustrator)
Scholastic, Inc.: NY, 1989

At the beginning of this book, a short history of the
kente cloth is told. The cloth passes on magical story-
telling powers when worn. When people are taken as
slaves to America, the cloth is stolen and passes down
through the years from owner to owner.
Two African-American boys live in an apartment
building in a poor area of a big city. The boys have only
dreary hopes for a wonderful Christmas. The oldest,
Jacob, is very angry about his life and circumstances.
Jacob hates being African-American. He argues with his
mother and makes his younger brother sad. Jacob thinks
that anything black is bad (White House, white knight,
and white tornado clean your sink, while black magic is
bad, etc.) Mama tries to convince Jacob that "happy has
no color," but Jacob is not convinced. The boys go
outside and Peewee tries to get Jacob to build a
snowman, but the snow is black from being trampled on
by people passing by. The boys build a black snowman.
While looking through the garbage cans to find clothing
for it, Peewee discovers a kente cloth and a tattered hat.
When the kente cloth is put on the snowman, it comes to
life. Even this event does not bring Jacob any delight. He
is still angry. The snowman tells Jacob about good things
that are black (black words and the black universe that
cradles the Earth). At night they talk before going to
sleep. Peewee thinks the black snowman is magical, and
Jacob thinks he is a figment of their imaginations.
Peewee makes a plan to collect bottles to turn in for
money to buy Mama a gift in the morning. As they
sleep, Jacob dreams of African warriors, a majestic black

queen, and other brave African people. In the morning,
Peewee goes to the abandoned building hunting for
bottles and is trapped when the building explodes.
Jacob saves his brother with the help of the kente and
the black snowman. The black snowman melts and
with his last words, tells Jacob to believe in himself.
The black snowman is destroyed but the Africans lead
Jacob and Peewee to safety. A fireman finds the color-
ful kente cloth and takes it home to his little girl.

A Country FarAway

Gray, Nigel (Author)
Dupasquier, Philippe (Illustrator)
Orchard Books: NY, 1988

Through pictures and a simple text, this book
compares a day in the life of a child in America with a
day in the life of a child in a village in Africa.

Possessions: houses with thatched roofs, rectangular buckets
for carrying water, machete, baskets, tea kettles, bowls
farming utensils, books, chalkboard, book bag, school with
tin roof, bicycle, furniture, suitcase, kerosene lantern,
telephone poles, bus train, market areas attached to mud
buildings, drum, small fishing boat

A Promise to the Sun

Mollel, Tololwa M. (Author)
Vidal, Beatriz (Illustrator)
Little, Brown and Company: Boston, 1992

This tale explains why bats are nocturnal. When
there was severe drought, a bat made a deal with the sun
to help bring rain to the land. In return, the Sun wanted
a nest built for him to rest in at night. The Sun kept his
part of the bargain but the animals did not keep their
part. As a result, the bat was so ashamed, he will not
come out of his cave during daylight hours.

Faraway Drums

Kroll, Virginia (Author)
Cooper, Floyd (Illustrator)
Little, Brown and Company: NY, 1998

Jamalia Jefferson and her little sister, Zakiya are
bothered by sounds at night. They are comforted by
remembering their great-grandmother's stories about
their ancestors. The two children can "feel Africa inside."

Now Let Me ly The Story of
a Slave Famly

Johone Dolores (Author)
Mcmilla BooksforYouns Reaers NY1993

This book tells the story of a young girl Mia, who
is kidnapped from Aflic a nd sold as a slave m the
South She and a young lave boy Amad, are sold to a
cotton plantation owner Minna and Amadi grow up,
"ump the broom, and have children Later, Aad is
sold to another over It becomes Mmna's quest lfe to
help each of her children become free through th
"underground railroad


Cowher, Helen (Author)
Fanrar, Straus and Giroux NY 1991

This story takes placeon a wildlifesanctuay A
herdman is c oncemed for his flock At th same time, a
ranger is c oncemed for the tiger, which is the predator
The two men work together to savethe tiger and the
other ammals

The Tortose and the Tree

DomankaJanna (Aufthor)
Greenillow Books NY, 1978

This tale explains why tortoises have a patchwo
shell There was a fame in Arica and the animals went
one-by-one to the High Gd for hlp The amals were
given a secret name that would allow uit to be released
from a aee amals were warned not to look back or
they would forget the name Each amal looked back
and forgot the name except Tortoise Tortoise was able to
remain from looking back because the High God had
given him a bell to remind him When the fint was
passed to the ammals, they were so geedy that they
trampled onTortose and killed him Ants putTortoise's
shell together and he came back to li As soon as he
was strong enough, he uprootedthe tee causing itto fall
and kill all the greedy ammals

Flyaway Girl

GnfalcomAn (Author)
Little, Bron and Company Boston, 192

Nsa is collecting light and dark colored red to
bnng to her mother Her mother is gong to weave a
basket for the Cereo.ny ofBegonu gs Nsai has trouble
finding dark reeds and her ancestor spirit help her

The Tger'sBreakfast

Mogensen,Ja (Author)
Crocodile Books NY 1991

Elephant andTiger make abet Each one thisthat
he is the fierce and biggest of all If Tiger won, he
would ea Elphpat Elep E hant won he would trample
Tiger The conestensues andTiger wins Elephantgces
home t yo sa his wfe They ask Mouse Deer
to help them out ofthe situation Mouse Deer gathers all
the forest animals to help him trck Tiger Tiger receive
help from Ape Mouse Ieer's plan works From then on,
Apelives m the trees, and Tger hides the dens forest

One Sun Rses AnAfran WildlIfe

Hrataramnn ndu (Author)
Maritz,N cholas (Ilustator)
Duton Children's Books NY 1984

Daytime and mghttime Afican wildlife is described
using num ers Thi yrical book contains a diversity of
armals from ce to kestrel
Annmis kestrels, elephan,teetles, suncat.,impalas, erets,
lions, hyenas, volutes,reed frogs moths, bat, cnckets, olds,
mice genets, ipidersfish, eagles

Bashi, Elephant Baby

Butler, Joh (Illustrator)
Scholastic,I NY,197

This book is about a babyelephnt's first day and th
dangers t faces It also shows the protectionth elephat
herd gves a calf

When Africa Was Home

Wilh am Karen Lym (Author)
Cooper, Boyd (Mustrator)
Orchard Books N, 1991

Peter's father works m Africa But when his job
fishes they gobackto America Peter and his family
miss Aflc a so much that Peter's father looks for another
job m the overseas content so they can live there Afer
findg a job, Peter's father and h family return to their
home and fiends
Foods con paste, fish sauce (eye and all), sugarcane, m a
Animals giraffes, antelopes, monkeys, anthlls, hippis,
hyenas, goat, chickens, moquiitos

* Cover: Zulu people ofSouthAfnca utilize the uKamba, a clay pot made for
the purpose of stonng water and various other lquids. Along with the pot,
women also make the imbenge, a coil hd weavedfrom grass adorned with
beads. Reprinted with permission. @ Samuel P Harn Museum ofArt


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