Citation
Irohin

Material Information

Title:
Irohin
Creator:
University of Florida -- Center for African Studies
Place of Publication:
Gainesville FL
Publisher:
Center for African Studies, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Study and teaching -- Periodicals -- Africa ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with Feb. 1991.
General Note:
"Bringing Africa to the classroom."
General Note:
Description based on: Feb. 1992; title from cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
025053186 ( ALEPH )
25762685 ( OCLC )
AHR5232 ( NOTIS )
sn 92022991 ( LCCN )

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Full Text






Sprin


g 1999


TakingAfrica to the Classroom


A Publication of
The Center for African Studies,
University of Honda












Sring 1999
Taking Africa to the Classroom
Taking Africa to the Classroom


Agnes Ngoma Leslie,
Editor/Outreach Director

Layout & Design
Robynne Miller


Publication of
The Center for African Studies,
University of Flonda

427 Grinter Hall
P.O. Box 115560
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-2183
Fax (352) 392-2435
Web: hftp.1/nerpnersidc,u:feduoutreach/

@/AA








Center for African Studies

Outeach Pogn at the Unersit of Floida

T heCenteris mat federally
funded uder Title VI of the
higher educatonact as a Natonal
Resurce Center onAfnca One ofm ne
Resource Centes, Flonda's is the only
Centerlocated m the SoutheasteinUmted
States The CenterdectsdeveloE, and
coordUates mterdsciplmasyitnsc tion
researe and outreach onAfnc a

The Oueach Programincludes a vanetyof
actvites h ose objected is to rove the
teacrng of Aficam scoolsfrom K 12,
colleges, urversities and the commumty
Below awesome of the regular actvites AkEen ntary schoolboy of
wlachfallundeirtr OireachFPogram Luzamo Shooi Lusa.,
Zanhma


TeacklrsWorshops. The Centeroffers m-
seivice workshops forK-12 teachers on te teach-
Ng of Anca

Summer Institutes Each summer, the Center
holds teaching msti utes forK-12 teachers

Pub hcatn. The Center publshes teaclang
resources including Irohln, wuchis dstbutedto
teachers InaddIto, the Center has also ubhshed
a monograph entitled Lesswn Pins on Aftican
History and Geography A Tachg Resource

Conm unty and Shool Presentations Faculty
and graduate students make pcesentations on
Afnca to the conunurty and schools


LI ary Teache s mayboow videotapesand
books from the COreach office

Research Aiate Progran The program en-
ablesAfncanspeciabsis at mstiut ons, who do not
have adequate resources forAfncan-elated
lesearc, to increase their expertise onAfnca
thioughcontac twlthotherAfmncars as wAll as
access toAfncan-related resources of the
UnversityofFlondalibranes Two one-month
appointnens aie ovided each summer

| For mnre infornialik contact*
| The Ouheech Diloi'
Tel 02) 392-2183
Fax (352)392-24 5
aEmald aille(oafiwa ml edI
U Webdntpl.6neisyneracuffer.youtreal








Editor's Note


ach summer, the Center for African Studies at the
: University ofFlorida hosts aK-12 teachers' institute The
Subjective of the institute is to help teachers increase their
: lkowledge about Africa and develop lesson plans to use in their
classrooms The creative lesson plans in this issue of Irohm
were written by participants in the 1998 institute
: Please feel free to use these materials n your teaching and share
them with other teachers Write or call the Center for additional
copies


Sincerely,



Agnes Ngoma Leslie,
Editor/Outreach Director


a1998 Sum ner Institute
parlicpantsand contributors to this
issue Agnes Ngom Leslihe
(Institte Director), amela Sue
Hall, Gal VWilliams, Antoinette
D'Assompion Presenter),
Cynhia S Ross,Jan Carnker,
Momque Flermn ngLeath, Jarnette
Covat, Lillian Osal (Presenter),
Shellie Berkelharaner, and Tomn
Armeda





Contents


An African Environment


Let's Travel to Africa 10
Creating a One-Act Play: 14
African Literature in Middle School 18
The Struggle for South Africa 22
Story-telling and African Music 26
Gainesville-Lusaka School Partnership 28


rji*










r An African Environment

A look at climate and vegetation

Amencans The eacherneedto foser psive and factual
perectves oft he coninen The teachermaybegmbygving
the students statements that canbe usdto assess he esence
of misconception aong the class The background ionna
ton is provided o give students psttve niages of Afica as
opposedto the negative stereotyes that ae widely available
from manysouces


Students wilbe able to
recogne factualand fiional
ironnatnon about Afnca,
understand le basis clnate of
Afnca, applygeograucal
ionnation to lthe detayhabis
ofAfc an people m dffeent
legions, and create vanous
mapsofAfnca


Introduction
Ts thematc umt lesn is
designed for dle school
students Howeve~, the
actitescan als be adaptedto
gh school levels Asan
mtroduction to te geography
vegetation, andculture of
Afnca, e teacher needsto be
aware of the stereo about
Afnca that a re ent among


UIe efoowingfquto tesr t ltustudets knowledge about
Afnca"s lanedndultwe

.Pnrcptesns osf4kc T4e o.Fawse

TF Muchai fAfhoag aroresis

T F ARAftcassaseblack

T F Afna isw base otesn ism eoftle UmredSatees

T F Afincansreuaedst eingwilr aeenals, le he
elephants, oaming aoumdhem

TF Afnca is ybaig conaluent

T Desselsae foundunV ostpnis ofAfic

T F One can eesnoerinAfinc

TSF inomefhanaraesrmneis


Slnlw f









Afinca at a Glance
cGograipll
Afrca is t.e second largest content m the world,
Asiabeing the largest The middle ofAfica lies on
the equator ( 0* latliude), nth most of the
content in the topic al zones (low laitudes)
between 23 12 northand south ofthei equator
Only ohe nohem and south t of Africa fall
in the middle latitudes

Climate and Vegetalon.
The chmate ofAfica s erydifferent, defending
on thelatitude ofan area There are the mane
cliaite regions ofAfnca

I laiforess
I savannas
Ideseits

Rainforesis are found in tiose aeas near the
Equalor and are hot and mmnyall of the tlme Even
thoughmost p ople thm ofAfnca asbe n
mostlya"lopcal]ungle this is frfr om the
tuth Less than one fifth ofAf nca i topical In
those areas that rceie consisent lra, the people
glow tuberous cose such as ranms


Savannas, or gralands make up ltee-fifls of
Afnca's chomate regions, making it he largest aea
Savannasbolder the lainfoest on the nor n east
and soutl The chmate vanes fom one exteme to
another The summers are hot and wet The people
raise cattle as w as c chickens, sheep and goats for
food

Desets are found to areas ofAfica The
Sahara desed is in the noilt handtheNaeib and
Kalhandesei sae inthe south They e on the
border ofheavannas ofhe s n Theyar ceneiednmthe
low latudes and ae te hottest and dnes place
mthe world There is less than 10 inches of
rainfall a ar Some place likf e Sahsel region
of he Sahara have not seen rai for 20 ars This
lack of rainfall creates drought where no food wll
glow Mos oft o i, Iheme hedIy chale makesit
difficult for people to hve inthe desert Cmos can
onlybe grown byingatong, owter anng the land
There are sme areas, called oases, which are
fertile because underground wiercomes to the
surface tloceale weiterholes Cmoswhiachrequue
htlle moisture including, figs, fruits, ohvesand
nus are grown


Did You Know?

Didyoulmowthata gaffe's neck

cannot bend? So in order to drink

the giraffe must slowly slide his

front feet apart tolowerhimself


lmhin 7







8 A Afc Evr


Nigeria
Egypt
Ethiopia
Zaire
South Africa
Tanzania
Sudan
Algeria
Morocco
) Kenya
Uganda
2 Ghana
SMozambique
SCote d' Ivoire
SMadagascar
SCamaroon
i Zimbabwe
SMalawl
) Angola
) Mall
Burkina Faso
2 Somalia
SZambia
4 Tunisia
Niger
SSenegal
7 Rwanda
SChad


29 Burundi
30 Guinea
31 Benin
32 Libya
33 Sierra Leone
34 Togo
35 Central African
Republic
36 Liberia
37 Congo
38 Mauritania
39 Eritrea
40 Lesotho
41 Namibia
42 Botswana
43 Gabon
44 Mauritius
45 Gumea-Bissau
46 The Gambia
47 Swaziland
48 The Comoros
49 Djibouti
50 Cape Verde
51 Equatorial Guinea
52 Sao Tome and
Principe
53 Seychelles


Middle School Activities


Pictures of people ofAfrica
Objective: Given the various pictures of African
people, the students will be exposed to the
diversity of African peoples.
Materials: Teacher-chosen representations of
African people of different cultures and
backgrounds.
Comparing climate maps
For this activity, refer to the political and climate
maps ofAfrica.


Objective: Given a political and climate map of
Africa, the students will be able to make an
overhead transparency overlay of the climatic
regions. Students should identify which countries
fall in each climate region and list them.


Materials: Copy sheet of political and climate
maps of Africa, transparency (tracing paper may
be used as a substitute), overhead markers, tape
and an overhead projector.
Foods in Africa
For this activity, refer to the climate map and the
Africa at a Glance section of this lesson.
Objective: Students will be able to determine
which foods are found in certain climate regions of








S As the climate map

.: *. *indicates, Africa consists of

'.' .. *. three main climate regions:

'- ..;.. '. .. ..rainforests, savannas and

'.....*i .: '. deserts. Contrary to popular

belief, less than one fifth of

s Africa consists of rainforests.
If( Savannas, or grasslands, make

Climate Map up most of Africa's climate

regions. Deserts are the last
AFRICA
climate region found in Africa,

S Desert/Desert Scrub *receiving less than 10 inches
( Savanna '.*.*, I
S. S-va // of rain a year. Three deserts
[E Tropical Rainforest \. /
are found in two areas of

Miles Africa. Can you name them?
0 o800


Africa based on information from various library Rainfall in Africa
sources and the Internet high school activity


Materials: samples or pictures of foods men- Students can use the newspaper to
tioned in the lesson, map of climate regions of chart rainfall in a country in each
Africa, Internet access. climate region. How are the climate

regions differ
Clay map ofAfrica
Objective: Students will create a clay model of
Africa to provide a 3-dimensional perspective of
the countries of Africa.


Materials: political map of Africa, flour, salt,
water, tempra paints, cardboard mats, glue and
scissors.











Let's Travel to Africa

A look at Africa's physical,

cultural and economic features


Objectives
The Students will:

gain a general understanding of
Africa's diverse physical,
cultural and economic features.

be exposed to other cultures and
geographic areas which will
enable them te acquire and
organize information about
places, people and cultures.

work in groups to research,
record and describe the
geographic characteristics of
particular regions in Africa.

understand arts expression of
culture.


Teaching Strategies
Teaching strategies include
class discussions, mini-
lectures,visuals, map work,
research groups, writing assign-
ments, group presentations, and
art activities


Background
The teacher will ask students several questions to get an idea
of their prior knowledge of Africa. The following questions are
examples:

Can you guess what types of people live in Africa?

Is it hot or cold in Africa?

Is Africa a state, city, or continent?

Is Africa larger or smaller than North America?

Where is Africa located?

What are some of the resources found in Africa?



Transition

Show students a map of the world. Ask a student to point out
the continent of North America. Then ask the same student
point to the state where they live. Discuss the difference in
size. Now show students exhibit A. This picture will show the
students how large Africa is in comparison to other continents
and countries. Explain that Africa is much bigger and diverse
than what they have previously thought.













1ot4


Tc following colld
wnihin Afrca

Country SN
Cina 3,705
U.S.A 3.618
India 1.266


11,700,000
sq.nu.

Som0 ofd0 1Thu a9utar

* Tau lad J&twer. 50 ,es
"* 1 989llmnf M
Aflm Iludes -ld
EcludeS e -Sovi Um a-d
Ibotay


SOURCEE A t Today.- An Juas of
ReproduciNt Ptag. Rcpinlted with
permission Further ,reprntin U no
patted.


Irohn 1







12 et' Tave t Afica


Activities


Procedure


Divide the class into five groups that will
represent the five regions of Africa.
Several books of the countries from a
particular region will be available to the
students. In cooperative groups the students
will research, record, and then present the
information to the entire class. Each group
will be responsible for completing the
activities outlined.


S.Trayvel Brochures ......


Materials: Drawing paper or construction
paper, markers, pens, pencils,
crayons.


Procedure:


Each group will design a travel
brochure containing specific
information about their chosen
region.


Each brochure must include at least five items from the following list:


Name of country

Colorful cover*

Landscape and climate patterns

Cultural features (language, relion, etc)

Attractions

Flag

Population

Currency

Principle imports and exports

Map of country

Capital cities

* The cover should depict an aspect of that region.


Above is an Cve)
example of a brochure about Kenya
Each student's brochure should include a map and
flag on the front cover.







Sr hi 1


\ Postcards


Materials: construction paper, index cards,
markers, pens, pencils, scissors,
glue.


Procedure:


Each group will design and write
a postcard for someone that they
know, telling them about the
things they have seen. Students
can draw or use information and
pictures from books and
magazines to help with the
assignment.


S.A to Z .oo.k...................


Materials: Jean Bond's A is for Africa,paper,
pens, pencils.


Procedure: Each group will receive a copy of
A is for Africa by Jean Bond to
follow as an example. Students
will create their own Ato Z book
using events, landmarks,
traditions, animals, and customs
within their own neighborhood or
community.


African Drums

African drums are a very important part of
African culture. They come in many sizes
and shapes, which give them different sounds.
Students will experience these sounds by making
drums out of a variety of household materials.


Materials
Coffee cans, oatmeal containers, Pringles potato
chip can, felt, construction paper, fabric scraps,
paint, yar, scissors, glue, tape.


Procedure
1. Students will choose a container to use as
a drum.


2. Set out a variety of arts and crafts
supplies.


3. Students will decorate their own drums.


4. When the drums are finished and dry,
students will practice playing them.

*IuKk






4 et to Aic


Creating a One Act Play

.In Interpretation of Camara Laye s
The Dark Child


Goals
After reading the novel The Dark Child by Camara Laye, the
students will be expected to:

1. Recognize the significance of African names in
African culture.


Objective


Students will increase their
knowledge of Africa through
reading the novel The Dark
Child. The students will be
expected to create and write
their own version of the novel
The Dark Child by Camara
Laye as a one act play that they
will perform before an
audience.


Resources Needed

Novel The Dark Child,by
Camara Laye, Internet access or
African name books,
encyclopedias, maps of Africa
and/or atlas.


2. Identify major Cities of Guinea with special emphasis
on Conakry.

3. Create and demonstrate their knowledge of the
"ceremony of the lions."

4. Recall facts about the novel and its major themes.

5. Write a one act play based on one or more of the major
themes of the novel.

6. Perform the one act play before an audience.


Other Considerations


S African Music (Fela Kuti, Manu Debango, Thomas
Mapfuno, Kiofiolomide, Abdullah Ibrahim, Lady Black
Smith Mambazo Shaka Zulu).

S Power point African artwork or African drawing that
the students create.

S African poetry from various regions of Africa.







S1


Overview
The Students will look at an African map to identify
Guinea, then Conakry to get a realistic picture of the
specific locations that Camara experienced.



Procedure

* Show the continent of Africa and point out
Guinea.


* Show Guinea's major cities, including
Conakary.


* Discuss language, ethnic groups, resources,
population, foods, and size of Guinea.


* If available, show a video of the people and
country.


* Share basic themes of the novel.


* Play African music for the students.


* Share African poetry with the students.


* Share highlights of the novel with the class.


* Place novels around the room for the
students to browsethrough.


* Have students bring in or make drums or
other instruments from Africa.


Guinea at a Ulance

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16 Cratn 6n One *cPa


What's in a Name?


SAfter reading the novel
The Dark Child, the students
should be encouraged to do the
Following:



* Use the Internet to find the meanings
often African names found in the
novel.
* Choose the name that you like most
from the list.
* Create an improvisation expressing
how you think the person in the novel
might have carried out their daily
responsibilities.
* Work in groups of five to find the
meaning of specific words in context
from the novel.
* Share definitions with the class.
* Create your own board to attempt to
get the sound that the young men
might have heard that night during the
"ceremony of the lions."
* Demonstrate your board to the class.
* Recall basic themes from the novel.
* Write a one act play based on one or
more themes) in the novel.
* Perform the play in front of an
audience


African names have a history behind them. Most
children are not named until they are at least a
week old. Read the names below that are found in
italics in The Dark Child:


Camara Laye (page 11)
I 1,, 1 11 4N
Sidafa (page 66)


Kouyate' Karmoko (page 84)
Himourana (page 85)
Kadoke' (page 93)
Daman (page 125)
Manadou (page 150)





Directions:


1. Use the Internet to find the meanings/origins
of the ten names.


2. Choose the name that you like most.


3. Create an improvisation (to make or invent
without preparation) revealing how you
think the person in the novel might have
carried out their responsibilities.


Activites
















































SAfctndressconmsma vneu ofsles and deszg In thisprtre thesfrom
Alachua coui, Archer and Treton nmdel sone Afrcon clothing dunnga teaher's
sxsnmer ins held at the Uners of Flord.


Word Acttvity
Sfinee these words 2 co2ite fiom the nove, andt henshare these definmtons with tle class Work
mgroupr o five (according to our assignedcolors) to fid the meaning ofthe following wurds

Red Velow Grcen Black
Gnots Wagadu Concesion Boubous Kapok
Cora Smeltmg of gold Euga Praise Singers Bo
Koran Canacal law Coba FadyFady Se'ma
Sayon Tomtom Kondens RWapers Coros
Soli Totem Gemi E'lan Couscos










African Literature in Middle School

Looking at The Dark Child and the Sundiata Epic


Objective
The following lesson plans
were created with two specific
texts in mind: the Sundiata epic
(from the ancient Mali
kingdom) and Camara Laye's
The Dark Child. These
selections were made to allow
students to gain a better
understanding of African
history and culture through the
study of literature. The epic
genre provides students with
the opportunity to learn about
heroes and historical events
important to a culture; the
memoir provides an authentic
voice of experience from a
culture


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tuir I gl c .r gn-c ,,r i .* Ur .i I V.l it
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A Look at the Sundiata Epic
Sundiata was the legendary king of the old Mali Kingdom
during the 13th century. He is also the grandfather of Mansa
Munsa, the most famous Mali king who made the grand
pilgrimage to Mecca. Sundiata's story is one of overcoming
obstacles, living in exile, and returning to reclaim the Mali
kingdom strengthening and consolidating it into a powerful
empire.
Senegalese scholar, Djibril Niane, wrote the epic by recording
the words of the griot, Djeli Mamoudou Kouyate.



Pre-reading Discussion
Points of discussion that should precede the reading of the epic
include:

Location and time period of the ancient Mali empire in
West Africa

- Oral tradition in literature

- Explanation of the role of the griot in West Africa

- Supernaturalism / spiritualism in culture


Xl r1il IC-*I nfl Ill \1LI IFllid


- The nature of an epic







Srohin 19


Point ioffiH.-\
..................


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Possible Activities


) Concept Mapping
A concept map is a graphic organizer that allows
students to analyze a plot, character, setting, etc.
through the use of symbols, illustrations, and
selections from the text. Concept maps are an
exploration of a particular concept and can be used
as a prewriting organizer or a small group activity
that precedes the class discussion.


Students work in small groups of three or four and
create a concept map for one of the epic's points of
focus identified above. Students are responsible for
illustrating examples and providing appropriate
passages from the story that support their assigned
topic. Students must also have a creative title for
their concept map. Students then present their
maps to the class, initiating discussion.


) Film: "Keita: The Heritage of the Griot"
Show the film after reading and discussing the
story. Have students discuss how the film added to
the understanding of the story and culture.


) Illustrated Timeline
Students will work together to illustrate the
Sundiata epic on a large banner. Students should
choose the most significant events to be illustrated.
The finished product can be hung inside or outside
the classroom.


) Discussion of the Epic Hero
Sundiata is considered an epic hero. Students may
discuss his heroic qualities and actions, write about
a personal hero, or research another hero in
African history. If appropriate, compare Sundiata
to other epic heroes (for example: Ulysses, King
Arthur, etc.) a


A look at The Dark Child
Camara Laye's The Dark Child is an
autobiographical novel of a boy's childhood years
in the village Koroussa, French Guinea during the
early 1900's and his eventual departure to study in
France.
Use selected chapters from the novel to highlight
certain themes and cultural practices.







20 Afia Lieatr in Middle Scoo


Pre-reading Discussion
Prior to reading the novel, the class should discuss:


- Setting: time and place (West Africa,
1920s/30s)


- Rural/ village life vs. city life


- Memoir/ autobiography as a nostalgic
voice


- Education in West Africa


- Religion (traditional/ Islam)


Chapter Selections


Chapter One
Childhood. The snake as the guardian.
Father 's powers.

Chapter Two
Gold smelting. The praise singer.

Chapter Three
Visiting Tindican. Grandma and uncles

Chapter Four
Rice harvest. harmony with nature and
community.

Chapter Five
Family life. Mother 's powers.

Chapter Six
School life. Education

Chapter Seven
Ritual

Chapter Nine
Leaving homefor Conakry.

Chapter Twelve
Separation. Departing for France.


Puiiits off'oiU1


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C Li1mi.nIlll. L imiiuni l pir


C L'L 'I .I1I d Ll tilrrC



Possible Activites


) Comparison / Contrast
Since the novel is the story of a young boy from
childhood through adolescence, it will be
interesting to have students make comparisons and
between their own life experiences and Camara
Laye's experiences. This reinforces the bond we
all share called the human experience.


One chapter that would work well with a
comparison/ contrast discussion is the school
chapter. Students may also compare the family and
community relationships with their own.



) Concept Mapping
Students should work in small groups to create a
concept map for one of the novel's points of focus
mentioned above. Students should illustrate
examples and support their assigned topic with
passages from the story. When concept maps are
completed, each group should present their map to
the class.







Sh 2


) Postcard Activity
This activity reinforces setting and storyline, and
allows students to contemplate a character's
reactions and responses.


Using indez cards, students create postcards from
Camara Laye addressed to themselves. Students
design the front of the postcard to illustrate setting
or an appropriate scene from the story. Students
write the postcard so that it recounts a part of the
plt as well as Laye's emotional responses to the
events (see example below).


Making Connections
After reading both pieces of literature,
comparisons can be made. Some of the key
elements that are shared in both Sundiata and The
Dark Child are:


- Supernaturalism/ Spiritualism
- The Backsmith's powers
- The Griot in West African society
The mother/ child relationship








Pamela Hall


The Struggle for South Africa

as seen through its poets, writers, and musicians


Goals
The student will be able to:


I Understand historical events
that shaped South Africa.


I Compare and contrast the social
and political realities of black
South Africans and African
Americans as presented through
literature and music.

Identify different literary forms
such as: Oral tradition, poetry,
praise poems, essays, short
stories, fables, and speeches.

I Compare the literature of
rebellion from South Africa,
Jamaica, and the United States.

Apartheid:
The official policy of
segregation in the Republic of
South Africa. This policy was
abolished in 1994. Shortly
thereafter, Nelson
Mandela was elected as
President.


apartheid
nationalism
Afrikaans
Bantustans
ethnic group
resettlement
township
homeland


boycott
African National Congress
Steven Biko
Nelson Mandela
Cecil Rhodes
Paul Kruegger
Shaka Zulu


Lesson 1
Text
Students will read You Can't Get Lost m Cape Town, by Zoe
Wicomb.


About the Author
Zoe Wicomb was born in a Griqua settlement in the Western
Cape region of South Africa. She is the first contemporary
Griqua author to write of her own community. The Griqua
are descendants of the Khoikhoi whose land had been taken
by the Dutch.


Discussion and Writing
1. Analyze the feelings that dominate the narrator on her
long bus ride.


2. What is the connection between the woman's handbag
and the man's purse?


Key Words and People









South Africa

In 1948, South Africa's Afrikaner Nationalist Party formalized the policy of segregation in
which people were categorized and identified according to race and color. Blacks, people of
mixed descent, Asians, and whites were separated, and elaborate regulations controlling the
lives of black South Africans were instituted. The Africaner government established nine home-
lands, called Bantustans, which relocated people onto reservations, effectively dividing black
South Africans. Under apartheid, these people were prohibited from voting, owning land, travel-
ing, and working without a permit. In addition, wives could not relocate with their husbands to
urban or mining areas, thus the government effectively fractured families and communities

Much of South Africa's most poignant literature deals with the harsh realities of apartheid. Thou-
sands of black South Africans were illegally detained and tortured by the ever-present police. Too
frequently, prisoners were murdered and reported as suicides. Although apartheid has officially
ended and great strides have been made by Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress
toward a new and free South Africa, the search for peace and equality continues. The literature of
this nation is as diverse and beautiful as its geography and people, and is truly illuminating.


3. Discuss the significance of the references
to other young couples in the narration.


4. Analyze the importance of Tiena's virtual
monologue to her silent listener. How are
the details of what Tiena says relevant to
the main story?


5. Using In the veld you can always find your
way and You can't get lost in Cape Town,
discuss the two perspectives within the
South African experience: black and white,
female and male.


6. What do the images of the bus, the train,
and the car symbolize?


7. Analyze the symbolism of the following
images: the bone, blood, the Cross, Judas,
and the coins.


Research and Comparison
Research the legal position on interracial mar-
riages in South Africa. Discuss the social implica-
tions of interracial marriages in the U.S. and
compare to South Africa.

Lesson 2
Text
Students will read the poem, Nightsong: City, by
Dennis Brutus.


About the Poet
Dennis Brutus was born in southern Zimbabwe
and was raised in Cape Province, South Africa. He
taught English and Afrikaans for ten years before
studying law. He fought apartheid by officially
protesting South African participation in the
Olympic Games. As a result, he was banned from
teaching, studying law, and publishing in South
Africa. Eventually he was detained and held on
Robben Island as a political prisoner for eighteen
months.






24 Th Stugl of Sot Afric


Nightsong: City


Sleep well, my love sleep well:
the harbor light glaze over restless docks,
polce cars cockroach through the tunnel streets;


from the shanties creaking iron-sheets
violence hke a bug-infested rag is tossed
and fear is imminent as sound in the wind-swung bell;


the long day 's anger pants from sand and rocks;
but for this breathing night at least,
my land, my love, sleep well.


The sounds begin again;
the siren in the night the thunder at the door
the shriek of nerves in pain.


Then the keening crescendo
offaces split by pain
the wordless, endless wall
only the unfree know.


Importunate as rain
the wraiths exhale their woe
over the sirens, knuckles, boots;
my sounds begin again.


Discussion and Writing
Use the poem to answer and discuss the following
questions:
1. What images in the poem indicate a South
African city?
2. What aspects of this city might be shared
by many cities around the world?
3. How would knowledge of the history of the
land enhance the meaning of the poem?
4. What may breed love for the land in the
midst of pain and grief? Comment on the
bond with the land in the colonial context.

Research and Comparison
1. Research the issue of nationalsim for South
Africans of all races and colors. Analyze
the ironic nature of the racial and political
situation in South Africa during and after
apartheid.
2. Examine the issue of nationalism as a
catalyst in the fight for liberation from
colonial rule with regard to any African
country.


Extension Activities

I Create a topographical map of South Africa
to include location of ethnic language
groups.


) Create a representation of the new South
African flag and discuss the symbolism of
color array.


I Create travel papers for an imaginary
society.


I Compare Jamaican reggae and American
rap to music from the South African
townships. What similarities do the
different types of music share?







Jan Carricker

Story-telling and Music


An introduction to African Music


Objectives


In Part 1 the student will:


Goals
Part 1: The introductory lesson
will emphasize Africa as a
continent with different
countries. Students will also be
introduced to African
instruments, African music,
pictures of people, animals
habitats, politically-correct
terminology, and greetings.

Part 2: Students will have an
opportunity to internalize an
African story with song, to
understand the relationship
between African music and
African culture.


sing familiar African songs
discuss some countries in Africa
listen to music from different areas of Africa
match music, words and instruments
match pictures of dress styles with different regions


In Part 2 the student will:


learn the Nyangara song from Zimbabwe
re-create the story by acting out the parts
create sound effects with drums and shakers
sing a solo for the Chief and Nyangara
create additional speaking or singing parts as needed
find Zimbabwe on the map
discuss the importance of the characters


Part 1: Introduction

Activities
1. Unpacking
2. Decorating the room for the African Unit
3. Singing songs and finding their country of origin
4. Watching a video of African life and culture


Y~iqf






Srhn 2


Teaching Techniques
Unpacking
To create interest for the students, pack a trunk
(suitcases or boxes may be used) with materials
you will be using to teach the unit in the form of
packages. These "packages" might include:


-CDs
- Videos
- Musical instruments from Africa
- Pictures of African peoples
- Pictures of African animals and habitats
- Maps of Africa
- Games and other activities


Open each package with the class, explaining the
relevance of the contents.


Decorating the room
Divide the class into small groups. Each group
would be responsible for one of the following
activities:


) Selecting and playing cds of various types
of African music for the class.


) Displaying the maps of Africa, as well as
the pictures of African peoples, animals,
and habitats on a bulletin board.


) Displaying various African musical
instruments on a display table.


) Displaying pictures of African instruments
and their names. Students will later match
each instrument with its correct name.


atchingGame


n"e
Pict


Africa s ia.ll- Oi tho oth
the Iu wst r.,, ".1 '.
match ,,. ', ,. ,, .L As
Seach) '"b"' j'. ,,
each ins, U ne, 1 i

s ,J ,, ..l "" '-as


Singing of Songs
After decorating the classroom for the African unit,
students will sing familiar African songs and learn
each song's country of origin. Some African music
resources include:

CD AFRICA, Never stand still (includes a 24 page booklet),
Ellipsis arts PO Box 35, Roslym N Y 11576 This CD offers
a variety of African modem music The artists featured include
Thomas Mapfumo, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, and Stella
Chiweshe

Catalogues
West Music, PO Box 5521, 1212th Street, Coralville,
IA, 52241 1-800-397-9378 FAX (888) 470-3942
This catalogue offers music resources, authentic and
kid-proof African instruments

Audio-Forum, the Language
Source, Guilford, Connecticu'
USA, 1-800-243-1234, FAX
(203) 453-9774 This
catalogue offers CDs from
various African countries
and videos /


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Gainesville-Lusaka School Partnership Blossoms


Trne years ago,
Terwiliger Elemenary in
Gamiesvil, and
Lumunof Primnary School in
Lusakt Znambia started a
partersip in which Su-
de learned abt each
other tho ug lette pte-
tograph at and citu
atifacts. Th excane be-
gan when Dr Ltnny Rhine
from the University of
Florida's Health Library
took a box of letters from
Terwiliger students to
Lum o Primary School.
A few months later, Ms.
Regma Shakaluta, a medi-
cal librarian at the Univer-
sity of Zambia, brought
back a box of replies.
Since that time, fourth
grrs at Uthe to schools
hav communmicated regu-
larly and learned that they
are more similar than dif-
ferent
This year Terwilg
students arc donating
books they have read to
Luamno so that the stu-
dents can read the same
books ad discus Iteir re-
actions. Ms Janice Bcike,
til kirhrr who ha been
ins antal in tertwr-
ship at Terwiliger, said
there is great enthusiasm
fom students as well as ib
parents for the project. It
is planned that Lumuno
primary will also send
baookswhich studentshave
read, to Terwiligr. The
objective of he leading
Peni Pas" is for the stu-
dents to learn anm about


each other
how they re
ideas expir
tore "The
muanicat,
Iearn owsi
said M Be
dents at Te
that Lunamo
so that they


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by discussing car mra regularly. I is plan leaea exchanges de-
lae to certain possible for Launo to ge pending upo thei aiaila-
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mno we corm- ot ave a cooper The if yourschool is in-
the mor we CeOnlroRAfc Studies, rterr d in having an ex-
ilar weree" which is facilitating the change program with a
rke. The st- partnership would a e. school in Afica contact
wiliger hope cia iaca omput donatin the Center for African
can getemail to srcngthn lbe puazt- Studies for inormaaio on
an c communi- SMmh The two schools a"lo bow to start one.


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Full Text

PAGE 1

Iro hinSpring 1999T aking Africa to the ClassroomA Publication of The Center for African Studies, University of Florida

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IrohinSpring 1999 T aking Africa to the ClassroomA publication of The Center for African Studies, University of Florida427 Grinter Hall P .O. Box 115560 Gainesville, FL 32611 (352) 392-2183 Fax: (352) 392-2435 W eb: http://nersp.nerdc.ufl.edu/~outreach/ Agnes Ngoma Leslie, Editor/ Outreach Director Layout & Design Robynne Miller

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The Center is in part federally funded under Title VI of the higher education act as a National Resource Center on Africa. One of nine Resource Centers, Florida's is the only Center located in the Southeastern United States. The Center directs, develops, and coordinates interdisciplinary instruction, research, and outreach on Africa. The Outreach Program includes a variety of activities whose objective is to improve the teaching of Africa in schools from K-12, colleges, universities and the community. Below are some of the regular activities which fall under the Outreach Program. T eachers' Workshops. The Center offers inservice workshops for K-12 teachers on the teaching of Africa. Summer Institutes. Each summer, the Center holds teaching institutes for K-12 teachers. Publications. The Center publishes teaching resources including Irohin , which is distributed to teachers. In addition, the Center has also published a monograph entitled Lesson Plans on African History and Geography: A Teaching Resource . Community and School Presentations. Faculty and graduate students make presentations on Africa to the community and schools. Library. T eachers may borrow video tapes and books from the Outreach office. Research Affiliate Program. The program enables African specialists at institutions, who do not have adequate resources for African-related research, to increase their expertise on Africa through contact with other Africanists as well as access to African-related resources of the University of Florida libraries. Two one-month appointments are provided each summer. For more information contact: The Outreach Director, T el: (352) 392-2183 Fax: (352) 392-2435 Email: aleslie@africa.ufl.edu W eb:http://nersp.nerdc.ufl.edu/~outreach/ Center for African Studies Outreach Program at the University of Florida Elementary school boys of Lumuno School in Lusaka, Zambia.

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E ach summer, the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida hosts a K-12 teachers' institute. The objective of the institute is to help teachers increase their knowledge about Africa and develop lesson plans to use in their classrooms. The creative lesson plans in this issue of Irohin were written by participants in the 1998 institute. Please feel free to use these materials in your teaching and share them with other teachers. Write or call the Center for additional copies. Sincerely, Agnes Ngoma Leslie, Editor/Outreach Director 1998 Summer Institute participants and contributors to this issue: Agnes Ngoma Leslie (Institute Director), Pamela Sue Hall, Gail Williams, Antoinette D'Assomption (Presenter), Cynthia S. Ross , Jan Carricker, Monique Fleming-Leath, Jannette Cowart, Lillian Osaki (Presenter), Shellie Berkelhammer, and Toni Armeda Editor's Note

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Contents An African Environment Let's Travel to Africa Creating a One-Act Play African Literature in Middle School The Struggle for South Africa Story-telling and African Music 6 14 18 10 22 26 Gainesville-Lusaka School Partnership 28

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GoalsStudents will be able to recognize factual and fictional information about Africa, understand the basic climate of Africa, apply geographical information to the dietary habits of African people in different regions, and create various maps of Africa.IntroductionThis thematic unit lesson is designed for middle school students. However, the activities can also be adapted to high school levels. As an introduction to the geography, vegetation, and culture of Africa, the teacher needs to be aware of the stereotypes about Africa that are present among Americans. The teacher needs to foster positive and factual perspectives of the continent. The teacher may begin by giving the students statements that can be used to assess the presence of misconceptions among the class. The background information is provided to give students positive images of Africa as opposed to the negative stereotypes that are widely available from many sources. Use the following quiz to test your students' knowledge about Africa's land and culture: Perceptions of Africa: True or False T FMuch of Africa has rainforests. T FAll Africans are black. T FAfrica is three times the size of the United States. T FAfricans are used to seeing wild animals, like the elephants, roaming around them. T FAfrica is a very big continent. T FDeserts are found in most parts of Africa. T FOne can see snow in Africa. T FSome Africans are farmers. T FAll Africans hunt their food with spears. An African EnvironmentA look at climate and vegetation6 An African Environment

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Africa at a GlanceGeography Africa is the second largest continent in the world, Asia being the largest. The middle of Africa lies on the equator ( 0o latitude), with most of the continent in the tropical zones (low latitudes) between 23 1/2o north and south of the equator. Only the northern and southern tips of Africa fall in the middle latitudes. Climate and Vegetation The climate of Africa is very different, depending on the latitude of an area. There are three main climate regions of Africa: rainforests savannas deserts Rainforests are found in those areas near the Equator and are hot and rainy all of the time. Even though most people think of Africa as being mostly a "tropical jungle," this is far from the truth. Less than one fifth of Africa is tropical. In those areas that receive consistent rain, the people grow tuberous crops such as yams. Savannas, or grasslands, make up three-fifths of Africa's climate regions, making it the largest area. Savannas border the rainforest on the north, east and south. The climate varies from one extreme to another. The summers are hot and wet. The people raise cattle as well as chickens, sheep and goats for food. Deserts are found in two areas of Africa. The Sahara desert is in the north, and theNamib and Kalahari deserts are in the south. They lie on the borders of the savannas. They are centered in the low latitudes and are the hottest and driest places in the world. There is less than 10 inches of rainfall a year. Some places, like the Sahel region of the Sahara, have not seen rain for 20 years. This lack of rainfall creates drought, where no food will grow. Most of the time, the dry climate makes it difficult for people to live in the desert. Crops can only be grown by irrigating, or watering, the land. There are some areas, called oases, which are fertile because underground water comes to the surface to create water holes. Crops which require little moisture including, figs, fruits, olives and nuts are grown. Did you know that a giraffe's neck cannot bend? So in order to drink, the giraffe must slowly slide his front feet apart to lower himself.Source: African Animals (Anew true book), Purcell Did You Know? Did You Know? Did You Know? Did You Know? Did You Know?Irohin 7

PAGE 8

Middle School ActivitiesPictures of people of AfricaObjective: Given the various pictures of African people, the students will be exposed to the diversity of African peoples. Materials: T eacher-chosen representations of African people of different cultures and backgrounds.Comparing climate mapsFor this activity, refer to the political and climate maps of Africa. Objective: Given a political and climate map of Africa, the students will be able to make an overhead transparency overlay of the climatic regions. Students should identify which countries fall in each climate region and list them. Materials: Copy sheet of political and climate maps of Africa, transparency (tracing paper may be used as a substitute), overhead markers, tape and an overhead projector.Foods in AfricaFor this activity, refer to the climate map and the Africa at a Glance section of this lesson. Objective: Students will be able to determine which foods are found in certain climate regions of1 Nigeria 2 Egypt 3 Ethiopia 4 Zaire 5 South Africa 6 Tanzania 7 Sudan 8 Algeria 9 Morocco 10 Kenya 11 Uganda 12 Ghana 13 Mozambique 14 Cote d' Ivoire 15 Madagascar 16 Camaroon 17 Zimbabwe 18 Malawi 19 Angola 20 Mali 21 Burkina Faso 22 Somalia 23 Zambia 24 Tunisia 25 Niger 26 Senegal 27 Rwanda 28 Chad 29 Burundi 30 Guinea 31 Benin 32 Libya 33 Sierra Leone 34 Togo 35 Central African Republic 36 Liberia 37 Congo 38 Mauritania 39 Eritrea 40 Lesotho 41 Namibia 42 Botswana 43 Gabon 44 Mauritius 45 Guinea-Bissau 46 The Gambia 47 Swaziland 48 The Comoros 49 Djibouti 50 Cape Verde 51 Equatorial Guinea 52 Sao Tome and Principe 53 Seychelles8 An African Environment

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Africa based on information from various library sources and the Internet. Materials: samples or pictures of foods mentioned in the lesson, map of climate regions of Africa, Internet access.Clay map of AfricaObjective: Students will create a clay model of Africa to provide a 3-dimensional perspective of the countries of Africa. Materials: political map of Africa, flour, salt, water, tempra paints, cardboard mats, glue and scissors. s As the climate map indicates, Africa consists of three main climate regions: rainforests, savannas and deserts. Contrary to popular belief, less than one fifth of Africa consists of rainforests. Savannas, or grasslands, make up most of Africa's climate regions. Deserts are the last climate region found in Africa, receiving less than 10 inches of rain a year. Three deserts are found in two areas of Africa. Can you name them? Rainfall in Africa Rainfall in Africa Rainfall in Africa Rainfall in Africa Rainfall in AfricaA high school activity Students can use the newspaper to chart rainfall in a country in each climate region. How are the climate regions different? Irohin 9

PAGE 10

ObjectivesThe Students will: gain a general understanding of Africa's diverse physical, cultural and economic features. be exposed to other cultures and geographic areas which will enable them te acquire and organize information about places, people and cultures. work in groups to research, record and describe the geographic characteristics of particular regions in Africa. understand arts expression of culture. Let's Travel to AfricaA look at Africa's physical, cultural and economic featuresT eaching StrategiesT eaching strategies include class discussions, minilectures,visuals, map work, research groups, writing assignments, group presentations, and art activitiesBackgroundThe teacher will ask students several questions to get an idea of their prior knowledge of Africa. The following questions are examples: Can you guess what types of people live in Africa? Is it hot or cold in Africa? Is Africa a state, city, or continent? Is Africa larger or smaller than North America? Where is Africa located? What are some of the resources found in Africa?T ransitionShow students a map of the world. Ask a student to point out the continent of North America. Then ask the same student point to the state where they live. Discuss the difference in size. Now show students exhibit A. This picture will show the students how large Africa is in comparison to other continents and countries. Explain that Africa is much bigger and diverse than what they have previously thought.10 An African Environment An African Environment10

PAGE 11

Irohin 11

PAGE 12

Activities ProcedureDivide the class into five groups that will represent the five regions of Africa. Several books of the countries from a particular region will be available to the students. In cooperative groups the students will research, record, and then present the information to the entire class. Each group will be responsible for completing the activities outlined.Each brochure must include at least five items from the following list:Name of country Colorful cover* Landscape and climate patterns Cultural features (language, relion, etc) Attractions Flag Population Currency Principle imports and exports Map of country Capital cities *The cover should depict an aspect of that region. Above is an example of a brochure about Kenya. Each student's brochure should include a map and flag on the front cover. (Front Cover) (Back Cover) T ravel BrochuresMaterials:Drawing paper or construction paper, markers, pens, pencils, crayons. Procedure:Each group will design a travel brochure containing specific information about their chosen region. 112 LetÂ’s Travel to Africa

PAGE 13

PostcardsMaterials:construction paper, index cards, markers, pens, pencils, scissors, glue. Procedure:Each group will design and write a postcard for someone that they know, telling them about the things they have seen. Students can draw or use information and pictures from books and magazines to help with the assignment. African drums are a very important part of African culture. They come in many sizes and shapes, which give them different sounds. Students will experience these sounds by making drums out of a variety of household materials. Materials Coffee cans, oatmeal containers, Pringles potato chip can, felt, construction paper, fabric scraps, paint, yarn, scissors, glue, tape. Procedure 1.Students will choose a container to use as a drum. 2.Set out a variety of arts and crafts supplies. 3.Students will decorate their own drums. 4.When the drums are finished and dry, students will practice playing them. African Drums A to Z BookMaterials:Jean Bond's A is for Africa,paper, pens, pencils. Procedure:Each group will receive a copy of A is for Africa by Jean Bond to follow as an example. Students will create their own A to Z book using events, landmarks, traditions, animals, and customs within their own neighborhood or community. Irohin 13

PAGE 14

Resources NeededNovel The Dark Child,by Camara Laye, Internet access or African name books, encyclopedias, maps of Africa and/oratlas.Other Considerationss African Music (Fela Kuti, Manu Debango, Thomas Mapfuno, Kiofiolomide, Abdullah Ibrahim, Lady Black Smith Mambazo Shaka Zulu). s Power point African artwork or African drawing that the students create. s African poetry from various regions of Africa. Creating a One Act PlayAn Interpretation of Camara Laye's The Dark ChildObjectiveStudents will increase their knowledge of Africa through reading the novel The Dark Child. The students will be expected to create and write their own version of the novel The Dark Child by Camara Laye as a one act play that they will perform before an audience.GoalsAfter reading the novel The Dark Child by Camara Laye, the students will be expected to: 1.Recognize the significance of African names in African culture. 2.Identify major Cities of Guinea with special emphasis on Conakry. 3.Create and demonstrate their knowledge of the "ceremony of the lions." 4.Recall facts about the novel and its major themes. 5.Write a one act play based on one or more of the major themes of the novel. 6.Perform the one act play before an audience.14 LetÂ’s Travel to Africa

PAGE 15

OverviewThe Students will look at an African map to identify Guinea, then Conakry to get a realistic picture of the specific locations that Camara experienced.Procedure• Show the continent of Africa and point out Guinea. • Show Guinea's major cities, including Conakary. • Discuss language, ethnic groups, resources, population, foods, and size of Guinea. • If available, show a video of the people and country. • Share basic themes of the novel. • Play African music for the students. • Share African poetry with the students. • Share highlights of the novel with the class. • Place novels around the room for the students to browsethrough. • Have students bring in or make drums or other instruments from Africa. Guinea at a glanceLocation: W estern Africa, bordering the North AtlanticOcean between Guinea Bissau and Sierra Leone. Languages: French (official); and indigenous languages, including Mande and Fulani. Coastline: 320 km Area: Slightly smaller than Oregon T errain: generally flat coastal plain; hilly to mountainous interior. Irrigated land: 930 sq. km Population: 7,405,375 (July, 1997 estimate) Birthrate: 41, 956 births/1,000 population (1997) Deathrate: 18,230 deaths/1,000 population (1997) Infant mortality rate: 131.5 deaths, 1,000 live births Ethnic groups: Malinke, 40% Susu, 23% Fulani, 30% Smaller groups, 7%Irohin 15

PAGE 16

ActivitesAfter reading the novel The Dark Child, the students should be encouraged to do the following:• Use the Internet to find the meanings of ten African names found in the novel. • Choose the name that you like most from the list. • Create an improvisation expressing how you think the person in the novel might have carried out their daily responsibilities. • W ork in groups of five to find the meaning of specific words in context from the novel. • Share definitions with the class. • Create your own board to attempt to get the sound that the young men might have heard that night during the "ceremony of the lions." • Demonstrate your board to the class. • Recall basic themes from the novel. • W rite a one act play based on one or more theme(s) in the novel. • Perform the play in front of an audienceSuggested Time One MonthWhat's in a Name?African names have a history behind them. Most children are not named until they are at least a week old. Read the names below that are found in italics in The Dark Child: Camara Laye (page 11) Lansana (page 48) Sidafa (page 66) Fanta (page 78) Kouyate' Karmoko (page 84) Himourana (page 85) Kadoke' (page 93) Daman (page 125) Manadou (page 150) A wa (page 149)Directions:1.Use the Internet to find the meanings/origins of the ten names. 2.Choose the name that you like most. 3.Create an improvisation (to make or invent without preparation) revealing how you think the person in the novel might have carried out their responsibilities.16 Creating an One Act Play

PAGE 17

W ord ActivityDefine these words in context from the novel, and then share these definitions with the class. Work in groups of five (according to your assigned colors) to find the meaning of the following words: Red Griots Cora Koran Sayon Soli Y ellow W agadu Smelting of gold Canaical law T om tom T otem Gr een Concession Douga Coba Konde'ns Genii Blue Bou bous Praise Singers Fady Fady Reapers E'lan Black Kapok Bo Se'ma Coros CouscousIrohin 17 •African dress comes in a variety of styles and designs. In this picture teachers from Alachua county, Archer and Treton model some African clothing during a teacher's summer institute held at the University of Florida.

PAGE 18

African Literature in Middle SchoolLooking at The Dark Child and the Sundiata EpicObjectiveThe following lesson plans were created with two specific texts in mind: the Sundiata epic (from the ancient Mali kingdom) and Camara Laye's The Dark Child. These selections were made to allow students to gain a better understanding of African history and culture through the study of literature. The epic genre provides students with the opportunity to learn about heroes and historical events important to a culture; the memoir provides an authentic voice of experience from a cultureA Look at the Sundiata EpicSundiata was the legendary king of the old Mali Kingdom during the 13th century. He is also the grandfather of Mansa Munsa, the most famous Mali king who made the grand pilgrimage to Mecca. Sundiata's story is one of overcoming obstacles, living in exile, and returning to reclaim the Mali kingdom strengthening and consolidating it into a powerful empire. Senegalese scholar, Djibril Niane, wrote the epic by recording the words of the griot, Djeli Mamoudou Kouyate.Pre-reading DiscussionPoints of discussion that should precede the reading of the epic include: Location and time period of the ancient Mali empire in W est Africa Oral tradition in literature Explanation of the role of the griot in West Africa Supernaturalism / spiritualism in culture The nature of an epic Find the continent of Africa on our globe or in your atlas. What countries are within the West African region? Can you find T ogo?18 Creating an One Act Play

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Possible Activities Concept Mapping A concept map is a graphic organizer that allows students to analyze a plot, character, setting, etc. through the use of symbols, illustrations, and selections from the text. Concept maps are an exploration of a particular concept and can be used as a prewriting organizer or a small group activity that precedes the class discussion. Students work in small groups of three or four and create a concept map for one of the epic's points of focus identified above. Students are reponsible for illustrating examples and providing appropriate passages from the story that support their assigned topic. Students must also have a creative title for their concept map. Students then present their maps to the class, initiating discussion. Film: "Keita: The Heritage of the Griot" Show the film after reading and discussing the story. Have students discuss how the film added to the understanding of the story and culture. Illustrated Timeline Students will work together to illustrate the Sundiata epic on a large banner. Students should choose the most significant events to be illustrated. The finished product can be hung inside or outside the classroom. Discussion of the Epic Hero Sundiata is considered an epic hero. Students may discuss his heroic qualities and actions, write about a personal hero, or research another hero in African history. If appropriate, compare Sundiata to other epic heroes (for example: Ulysses, King Arthur, etc.)A look at The Dark ChildCamara Laye's The Dark Child is an autobiographical novel of a boy's childhood years in the village Koroussa, French Guinea during the early 1900's and his eventual departure to study in France. Use selected chapters from the novel to highlight certain themes and cultural practices.Points of focusSundiata's Childhood Magic / Supernatural elements in the epic Sundiata's ememies Mother Sogolon vs. Sassouma (stepmother) The griot Customs and culture Irohin 19

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Pre-reading DiscussionPrior to reading the novel, the class should discuss: Setting: time and place (West Africa, 1920s/ 30s) Rural/ village life vs. city life Memoir/ autobiography as a nostalgic voice Education in West Africa Religion (traditional/ Islam) Chapter Selections Chapter One Childhood. The snake as the guardian. Father's powers. Chapter Two Gold smelting. The praise singer. Chapter Three V isiting Tindican. Grandma and uncles Chapter Four Rice harvest. harmony with nature and community. Chapter Five Family life. Mother's powers. Chapter Six School life. Education Chapter Seven Ritual Chapter Nine Leaving home for Conakry . Chapter Twelve Separation. Departing for France.Points of focusEducation Family relationships Importance of music, dance and song Supernatualism / Spiritualism Community / Communal spirit Change Customs and culture Possible Activites Comparison / Contrast Since the novel is the story of a young boy from childhood through adolescence, it will be interesting to have students make comparisons and between their own life experiences and Camara Laye's experiences. This reinforces the bond we all share called the human experience . One chapter that would work well with a comparison/ contrast discussion is the school chapter. Students may also compare the family and community relationships with their own. Concept Mapping Students should work in small groups to create a concept map for one of the novel's points of focus mentioned above. Students should illustrate examples and support their assigned topic with passages from the story. When concept maps are completed, each group should present their map to the class.20 African Literature in Middle School

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Greetings from Koroussa! To: Fr:Place Stamp Here Dear Shellie,Today I learned an amazing thing! Usually my mother will kill a snake. Today, however, I saw a little black snake that my mother said is my father's guiding spirit. She said I must never harm it. I asked my father about it and he said the snake brings him good fortune! Camara Postcard Activity This activity reinforces setting and storyline, and allows students to contemplate a character's reactions and responses. Using indez cards, students create postcards from Camara Laye addressed to themselves. Students design the front of the postcard to illustrate setting or an appropriate scene from the story. Students write the postcard so that it recounts a part of the plt as well as Laye's emotional responses to the events (see example below).Making ConnectionsAfter reading both pieces of literature, comparisons can be made. Some of the key elements that are shared in both Sundiata and The Dark Child are: Supernaturalism/ Spiritualism The Backsmith's powers The Griot in West African society The mother/ child relationship This activity will make an excellent display bulletin board: Postcards from Guinea.Irohin 21

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Pamela Hall The Struggle for South Africaas seen through its poets, writers, and musiciansApartheid:The official policy of segregation in the Republic of South Africa. This policy was abolished in 1994. Shortly thereafter, Nelson Mandela was elected as President.GoalsThe student will be able to: Understand historical events that shaped South Africa. Compare and contrast the social and political realities of black South Africans and African Americans as presented through literature and music. Identify different literary forms such as: Oral tradition, poetry, praise poems, essays, short stories, fables, and speeches. Compare the literature of rebellion from South Africa, Jamaica, and the United States.l l l l Key Words and Peopleapartheid nationalism Afrikaans Bantustans ethnic group resettlement township homeland boycott African National Congress Steven Biko Nelson Mandela Cecil Rhodes Paul Kruegger Shaka Zulu T ext Students will read Y ou Can't Get Lost in Cape Town , by Zoe W icomb. About the Author Zoe Wicomb was born in a Griqua settlement in the Western Cape region of South Africa. She is the first contemporary Griqua author to write of her own community. The Griqua are descendants of the Khoikhoi whose land had been taken by the Dutch. Discussion and Writing 1.Analyze the feelings that dominate the narrator on her long bus ride. 2.What is the connection between the woman's handbag and the man's purse?Lesson 1 22 The Struggle for South Africa

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3.Discuss the significance of the references to other young couples in the narration. 4.Analyze the importance of Tiena's virtual monologue to her silent listener. How are the details of what Tiena says relevant to the main story? 5.Using In the veld you can always find your way and Y ou can't get lost in Cape Town , discuss the two perspectives within the South African experience: black and white, female and male. 6.What do the images of the bus, the train, and the car symbolize? 7.Analyze the symbolism of the following images: the bone, blood, the Cross, Judas, and the coins. Research and Comparison Research the legal position on interracial marriages in South Africa. Discuss the social implications of interracial marriages in the U.S. and compare to South Africa.Lesson 2T ext Students will read the poem, Nightsong: City, by Dennis Brutus. About the Poet Dennis Brutus was born in southern Zimbabwe and was raised in Cape Province, South Africa. He taught English and Afrikaans for ten years before studying law. He fought apartheid by officially protesting South African participation in the Olympic Games. As a result, he was banned from teaching, studying law, and publishing in South Africa. Eventually he was detained and held on Robben Island as a political prisoner for eighteen months.South AfricaIn 1948, South Africa's Afrikaner Nationalist Party formalized the policy of segregation in which people were categorized and identified according to race and color. Blacks, people of mixed descent, Asians, and whites were separated, and elaborate regulations controlling the lives of black South Africans were instituted. The Africaner government established nine homelands, called Bantustans, which relocated people onto reservations, effectively dividing black South Africans. Under apartheid, these people were prohibited from voting, owning land, traveling, and working without a permit. In addition, wives could not relocate with their husbands to urban or mining areas, thus the government effectively fractured families and communities Much of South Africa's most poignant literature deals with the harsh realities of apartheid. Thousands of black South Africans were illegally detained and tortured by the ever-present police. Too frequently, prisoners were murdered and reported as suicides. Although apartheid has officially ended and great strides have been made by Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress toward a new and free South Africa, the search for peace and equality continues. The literature of this nation is as diverse and beautiful as its geography and people, and is truly illuminating. Irohin 23

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24 The Struggle of South AfricaDiscussion and Writing Use the poem to answer and discuss the following questions: 1.What images in the poem indicate a South African city? 2.What aspects of this city might be shared by many cities around the world? 3.How would knowledge of the history of the land enhance the meaning of the poem? 4.What may breed love for the land in the midst of pain and grief? Comment on the bond with the land in the colonial context.Nightsong: CitySleep well, my love sleep well: the harbor light glaze over restless docks, police cars cockroach through the tunnel streets; from the shanties creaking iron-sheets violence like a bug-infested rag is tossed and fear is imminent as sound in the wind-swung bell; the long day's anger pants from sand and rocks; but for this breathing night at least, my land, my love, sleep well. The sounds begin again; the siren in the night the thunder at the door the shriek of nerves in pain. Then the keening crescendo of faces split by pain the wordless, endless wail only the unfree know. Importunate as rain the wraiths exhale their woe over the sirens, knuckles, boots; my sounds begin again. Extension Activities Create a topographical map of South Africa to include location of ethnic language groups. Create a representation of the new South African flag and discuss the symbolism of color array. Create travel papers for an imaginary society. Compare Jamaican reggae and American rap to music from the South African townships. What similarities do the different types of music share? 1.Research the issue of nationalsim for South Africans of all races and colors. Analyze the ironic nature of the racial and political situation in South Africa during and after apartheid. Research and Comparison 2.Examine the issue of nationalism as a catalyst in the fight for liberation from colonial rule with regard to any African country.

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Story-telling and MusicAn introduction to African Music ObjectivesIn Part 1 the student will: sing familiar African songs discuss some countries in Africa listen to music from different areas of Africa match music, words and instruments match pictures of dress styles with different regions In Part 2 the student will: learn the Nyangara song from Zimbabwe re-create the story by acting out the parts create sound effects with drums and shakers sing a solo for the Chief and Nyangara create additional speaking or singing parts as needed find Zimbabwe on the map discuss the importance of the charactersGoalsPart 1 : The introductory lesson will emphasize Africa as a continent with different countries. Students will also be introduced to African instruments, African music, pictures of people, animals habitats, politically-correct terminology, and greetings. Part 2 : Students will have an opportunity to internalize an African story with song, to understand the relationship between African music and African culture.Part 1: IntroductionActivities 1.Unpacking 2.Decorating the room for the African Unit 3.Singing songs and finding their country of origin 4.Watching a video of African life and culture 25 Story-telling and Music Jan JanJan Jan Carricker r

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T eaching Techniques Unpacking To create interest for the students, pack a trunk (suitcases or boxes may be used) with materials you will be using to teach the unit in the form of packages. These "packages" might include: CDs V ideos Musical instruments from Africa Pictures of African peoples Pictures of African animals and habitats Maps of Africa Games and other activities Open each package with the class, explaining the relevance of the contents. Decorating the room Divide the class into small groups. Each group would be responsible for one of the following activities: Selecting and playing cds of various types of African music for the class. Displaying the maps of Africa, as well as the pictures of African peoples, animals, and habitats on a bulletin board. Displaying various African musical instruments on a display table. Displaying pictures of African instruments and their names. Students will later match each instrument with its correct name. Matching GameOne group of students will display pictures of various African instruments on one side of a bulletin board. On the other side, students will place the names of the African instruments in a dif ferent order. As the unit continues, students will be able to match instruments with their correct name as each instrument is taught in class. Singing of Songs After decorating the classroom for the African unit, students will sing familiar African songs and learn each song's country of origin. Some African music resources include:CD: AFRICA, Never stand still (includes a 24 page booklet), Ellipsis arts: P.O. Box 35, Roslym N.Y. 11576. This CD offers a variety of African modern music. The artists featured include Thomas Mapfumo, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, and Stella Chiweshe. Catalogues W est Music , P.O. Box 5521, 1212th Street, Coralville, IA, 52241. 1-800-397-9378 FAX (888) 470-3942. This catalogue offers music resources, authentic and kid-proof African instruments. Audio-Forum , the Language Source, Guilford,Connecticut USA, 1-800-243-1234, FAX (203) 453-9774. This catalogue offers CDs from various African countries and videos. Irohin 26

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Irohin 27 with Lumuno School in Lusaka, Zambia. In this issue, we publish some letters from their sister school. We also feature an article on the partnerhip on page 28.Letters from Lumuno School, Zambia T erwilliger Elementary students in Gainesville, Florida, are engaged in a partneship