Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 African environment
 Let's travel to Africa
 Creating a one act play
 African literature in middle...
 Struggle for South Africa
 Story-telling and music
 Gainesville-Lusaka school...

Title: Irohin
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075548/00009
 Material Information
Title: Irohin
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for African Studies
Publisher: Center for African Studies, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1991-
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Study and teaching -- Periodicals -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with Feb. 1991.
General Note: "Bringing Africa to the classroom."
General Note: Description based on: Feb. 1992; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075548
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001640153
oclc - 25762685
notis - AHR5232
lccn - sn 92022991

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    African environment
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Let's travel to Africa
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Creating a one act play
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    African literature in middle school
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Struggle for South Africa
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Story-telling and music
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Gainesville-Lusaka school partnership
        Page 28
Full Text


g 1999

TakingAfrica to the Classroom

A Publication of
The Center for African Studies,
University of Honda

Sring 1999
Taking Africa to the Classroom
Taking Africa to the Classroom

Agnes Ngoma Leslie,
Editor/Outreach Director

Layout & Design
Robynne Miller

Publication of
The Center for African Studies,
University of Flonda

427 Grinter Hall
P.O. Box 115560
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-2183
Fax (352) 392-2435
Web: hftp.1/nerpnersidc,u:feduoutreach/


Center for African Studies

Outeach Pogn at the Unersit of Floida

T heCenteris mat federally
funded uder Title VI of the
higher educatonact as a Natonal
Resurce Center onAfnca One ofm ne
Resource Centes, Flonda's is the only
Centerlocated m the SoutheasteinUmted
States The CenterdectsdeveloE, and
coordUates mterdsciplmasyitnsc tion
researe and outreach onAfnc a

The Oueach Programincludes a vanetyof
actvites h ose objected is to rove the
teacrng of Aficam scoolsfrom K 12,
colleges, urversities and the commumty
Below awesome of the regular actvites AkEen ntary schoolboy of
wlachfallundeirtr OireachFPogram Luzamo Shooi Lusa.,

TeacklrsWorshops. The Centeroffers m-
seivice workshops forK-12 teachers on te teach-
Ng of Anca

Summer Institutes Each summer, the Center
holds teaching msti utes forK-12 teachers

Pub hcatn. The Center publshes teaclang
resources including Irohln, wuchis dstbutedto
teachers InaddIto, the Center has also ubhshed
a monograph entitled Lesswn Pins on Aftican
History and Geography A Tachg Resource

Conm unty and Shool Presentations Faculty
and graduate students make pcesentations on
Afnca to the conunurty and schools

LI ary Teache s mayboow videotapesand
books from the COreach office

Research Aiate Progran The program en-
ablesAfncanspeciabsis at mstiut ons, who do not
have adequate resources forAfncan-elated
lesearc, to increase their expertise onAfnca
thioughcontac twlthotherAfmncars as wAll as
access toAfncan-related resources of the
UnversityofFlondalibranes Two one-month
appointnens aie ovided each summer

| For mnre infornialik contact*
| The Ouheech Diloi'
Tel 02) 392-2183
Fax (352)392-24 5
aEmald aille(oafiwa ml edI
U Webdntpl.6neisyneracuffer.youtreal

Editor's Note

ach summer, the Center for African Studies at the
: University ofFlorida hosts aK-12 teachers' institute The
Subjective of the institute is to help teachers increase their
: lkowledge about Africa and develop lesson plans to use in their
classrooms The creative lesson plans in this issue of Irohm
were written by participants in the 1998 institute
: Please feel free to use these materials n your teaching and share
them with other teachers Write or call the Center for additional


Agnes Ngoma Leslie,
Editor/Outreach Director

a1998 Sum ner Institute
parlicpantsand contributors to this
issue Agnes Ngom Leslihe
(Institte Director), amela Sue
Hall, Gal VWilliams, Antoinette
D'Assompion Presenter),
Cynhia S Ross,Jan Carnker,
Momque Flermn ngLeath, Jarnette
Covat, Lillian Osal (Presenter),
Shellie Berkelharaner, and Tomn


An African Environment

Let's Travel to Africa 10
Creating a One-Act Play: 14
African Literature in Middle School 18
The Struggle for South Africa 22
Story-telling and African Music 26
Gainesville-Lusaka School Partnership 28


r An African Environment

A look at climate and vegetation

Amencans The eacherneedto foser psive and factual
perectves oft he coninen The teachermaybegmbygving
the students statements that canbe usdto assess he esence
of misconception aong the class The background ionna
ton is provided o give students psttve niages of Afica as
opposedto the negative stereotyes that ae widely available
from manysouces

Students wilbe able to
recogne factualand fiional
ironnatnon about Afnca,
understand le basis clnate of
Afnca, applygeograucal
ionnation to lthe detayhabis
ofAfc an people m dffeent
legions, and create vanous

Ts thematc umt lesn is
designed for dle school
students Howeve~, the
actitescan als be adaptedto
gh school levels Asan
mtroduction to te geography
vegetation, andculture of
Afnca, e teacher needsto be
aware of the stereo about
Afnca that a re ent among

UIe efoowingfquto tesr t ltustudets knowledge about
Afnca"s lanedndultwe

.Pnrcptesns osf4kc T4e o.Fawse

TF Muchai fAfhoag aroresis

T F ARAftcassaseblack

T F Afna isw base otesn ism eoftle UmredSatees

T F Afincansreuaedst eingwilr aeenals, le he
elephants, oaming aoumdhem

TF Afnca is ybaig conaluent

T Desselsae foundunV ostpnis ofAfic

T F One can eesnoerinAfinc

TSF inomefhanaraesrmneis

Slnlw f

Afinca at a Glance
Afrca is t.e second largest content m the world,
Asiabeing the largest The middle ofAfica lies on
the equator ( 0* latliude), nth most of the
content in the topic al zones (low laitudes)
between 23 12 northand south ofthei equator
Only ohe nohem and south t of Africa fall
in the middle latitudes

Climate and Vegetalon.
The chmate ofAfica s erydifferent, defending
on thelatitude ofan area There are the mane
cliaite regions ofAfnca

I laiforess
I savannas

Rainforesis are found in tiose aeas near the
Equalor and are hot and mmnyall of the tlme Even
thoughmost p ople thm ofAfnca asbe n
mostlya"lopcal]ungle this is frfr om the
tuth Less than one fifth ofAf nca i topical In
those areas that rceie consisent lra, the people
glow tuberous cose such as ranms

Savannas, or gralands make up ltee-fifls of
Afnca's chomate regions, making it he largest aea
Savannasbolder the lainfoest on the nor n east
and soutl The chmate vanes fom one exteme to
another The summers are hot and wet The people
raise cattle as w as c chickens, sheep and goats for

Desets are found to areas ofAfica The
Sahara desed is in the noilt handtheNaeib and
Kalhandesei sae inthe south They e on the
border ofheavannas ofhe s n Theyar ceneiednmthe
low latudes and ae te hottest and dnes place
mthe world There is less than 10 inches of
rainfall a ar Some place likf e Sahsel region
of he Sahara have not seen rai for 20 ars This
lack of rainfall creates drought where no food wll
glow Mos oft o i, Iheme hedIy chale makesit
difficult for people to hve inthe desert Cmos can
onlybe grown byingatong, owter anng the land
There are sme areas, called oases, which are
fertile because underground wiercomes to the
surface tloceale weiterholes Cmoswhiachrequue
htlle moisture including, figs, fruits, ohvesand
nus are grown

Did You Know?

Didyoulmowthata gaffe's neck

cannot bend? So in order to drink

the giraffe must slowly slide his

front feet apart tolowerhimself

lmhin 7

8 A Afc Evr

South Africa
) Kenya
2 Ghana
SCote d' Ivoire
i Zimbabwe
) Angola
) Mall
Burkina Faso
2 Somalia
4 Tunisia
7 Rwanda

29 Burundi
30 Guinea
31 Benin
32 Libya
33 Sierra Leone
34 Togo
35 Central African
36 Liberia
37 Congo
38 Mauritania
39 Eritrea
40 Lesotho
41 Namibia
42 Botswana
43 Gabon
44 Mauritius
45 Gumea-Bissau
46 The Gambia
47 Swaziland
48 The Comoros
49 Djibouti
50 Cape Verde
51 Equatorial Guinea
52 Sao Tome and
53 Seychelles

Middle School Activities

Pictures of people ofAfrica
Objective: Given the various pictures of African
people, the students will be exposed to the
diversity of African peoples.
Materials: Teacher-chosen representations of
African people of different cultures and
Comparing climate maps
For this activity, refer to the political and climate
maps ofAfrica.

Objective: Given a political and climate map of
Africa, the students will be able to make an
overhead transparency overlay of the climatic
regions. Students should identify which countries
fall in each climate region and list them.

Materials: Copy sheet of political and climate
maps of Africa, transparency (tracing paper may
be used as a substitute), overhead markers, tape
and an overhead projector.
Foods in Africa
For this activity, refer to the climate map and the
Africa at a Glance section of this lesson.
Objective: Students will be able to determine
which foods are found in certain climate regions of

S As the climate map

.: *. *indicates, Africa consists of

'.' .. *. three main climate regions:

'- ..;.. '. .. ..rainforests, savannas and

'.....*i .: '. deserts. Contrary to popular

belief, less than one fifth of

s Africa consists of rainforests.
If( Savannas, or grasslands, make

Climate Map up most of Africa's climate

regions. Deserts are the last
climate region found in Africa,

S Desert/Desert Scrub *receiving less than 10 inches
( Savanna '.*.*, I
S. S-va // of rain a year. Three deserts
[E Tropical Rainforest \. /
are found in two areas of

Miles Africa. Can you name them?
0 o800

Africa based on information from various library Rainfall in Africa
sources and the Internet high school activity

Materials: samples or pictures of foods men- Students can use the newspaper to
tioned in the lesson, map of climate regions of chart rainfall in a country in each
Africa, Internet access. climate region. How are the climate

regions differ
Clay map ofAfrica
Objective: Students will create a clay model of
Africa to provide a 3-dimensional perspective of
the countries of Africa.

Materials: political map of Africa, flour, salt,
water, tempra paints, cardboard mats, glue and

Let's Travel to Africa

A look at Africa's physical,

cultural and economic features

The Students will:

gain a general understanding of
Africa's diverse physical,
cultural and economic features.

be exposed to other cultures and
geographic areas which will
enable them te acquire and
organize information about
places, people and cultures.

work in groups to research,
record and describe the
geographic characteristics of
particular regions in Africa.

understand arts expression of

Teaching Strategies
Teaching strategies include
class discussions, mini-
lectures,visuals, map work,
research groups, writing assign-
ments, group presentations, and
art activities

The teacher will ask students several questions to get an idea
of their prior knowledge of Africa. The following questions are

Can you guess what types of people live in Africa?

Is it hot or cold in Africa?

Is Africa a state, city, or continent?

Is Africa larger or smaller than North America?

Where is Africa located?

What are some of the resources found in Africa?


Show students a map of the world. Ask a student to point out
the continent of North America. Then ask the same student
point to the state where they live. Discuss the difference in
size. Now show students exhibit A. This picture will show the
students how large Africa is in comparison to other continents
and countries. Explain that Africa is much bigger and diverse
than what they have previously thought.


Tc following colld
wnihin Afrca

Country SN
Cina 3,705
U.S.A 3.618
India 1.266


Som0 ofd0 1Thu a9utar

* Tau lad J&twer. 50 ,es
"* 1 989llmnf M
Aflm Iludes -ld
EcludeS e -Sovi Um a-d

SOURCEE A t Today.- An Juas of
ReproduciNt Ptag. Rcpinlted with
permission Further ,reprntin U no

Irohn 1

12 et' Tave t Afica



Divide the class into five groups that will
represent the five regions of Africa.
Several books of the countries from a
particular region will be available to the
students. In cooperative groups the students
will research, record, and then present the
information to the entire class. Each group
will be responsible for completing the
activities outlined.

S.Trayvel Brochures ......

Materials: Drawing paper or construction
paper, markers, pens, pencils,


Each group will design a travel
brochure containing specific
information about their chosen

Each brochure must include at least five items from the following list:

Name of country

Colorful cover*

Landscape and climate patterns

Cultural features (language, relion, etc)





Principle imports and exports

Map of country

Capital cities

* The cover should depict an aspect of that region.

Above is an Cve)
example of a brochure about Kenya
Each student's brochure should include a map and
flag on the front cover.

Sr hi 1

\ Postcards

Materials: construction paper, index cards,
markers, pens, pencils, scissors,


Each group will design and write
a postcard for someone that they
know, telling them about the
things they have seen. Students
can draw or use information and
pictures from books and
magazines to help with the

S.A to Z .oo.k...................

Materials: Jean Bond's A is for Africa,paper,
pens, pencils.

Procedure: Each group will receive a copy of
A is for Africa by Jean Bond to
follow as an example. Students
will create their own Ato Z book
using events, landmarks,
traditions, animals, and customs
within their own neighborhood or

African Drums

African drums are a very important part of
African culture. They come in many sizes
and shapes, which give them different sounds.
Students will experience these sounds by making
drums out of a variety of household materials.

Coffee cans, oatmeal containers, Pringles potato
chip can, felt, construction paper, fabric scraps,
paint, yar, scissors, glue, tape.

1. Students will choose a container to use as
a drum.

2. Set out a variety of arts and crafts

3. Students will decorate their own drums.

4. When the drums are finished and dry,
students will practice playing them.


4 et to Aic

Creating a One Act Play

.In Interpretation of Camara Laye s
The Dark Child

After reading the novel The Dark Child by Camara Laye, the
students will be expected to:

1. Recognize the significance of African names in
African culture.


Students will increase their
knowledge of Africa through
reading the novel The Dark
Child. The students will be
expected to create and write
their own version of the novel
The Dark Child by Camara
Laye as a one act play that they
will perform before an

Resources Needed

Novel The Dark Child,by
Camara Laye, Internet access or
African name books,
encyclopedias, maps of Africa
and/or atlas.

2. Identify major Cities of Guinea with special emphasis
on Conakry.

3. Create and demonstrate their knowledge of the
"ceremony of the lions."

4. Recall facts about the novel and its major themes.

5. Write a one act play based on one or more of the major
themes of the novel.

6. Perform the one act play before an audience.

Other Considerations

S African Music (Fela Kuti, Manu Debango, Thomas
Mapfuno, Kiofiolomide, Abdullah Ibrahim, Lady Black
Smith Mambazo Shaka Zulu).

S Power point African artwork or African drawing that
the students create.

S African poetry from various regions of Africa.


The Students will look at an African map to identify
Guinea, then Conakry to get a realistic picture of the
specific locations that Camara experienced.


* Show the continent of Africa and point out

* Show Guinea's major cities, including

* Discuss language, ethnic groups, resources,
population, foods, and size of Guinea.

* If available, show a video of the people and

* Share basic themes of the novel.

* Play African music for the students.

* Share African poetry with the students.

* Share highlights of the novel with the class.

* Place novels around the room for the
students to browsethrough.

* Have students bring in or make drums or
other instruments from Africa.

Guinea at a Ulance

I iH .Irii ll: k... LI Ir,. I'.-.rd. i rn L,_ [I,
Si lli ,_1 I ,I It ili 1 l, illlli0 i

r i ** 111 Lil 1 11l I i il l

1. i111 1'. I 1 li_11 i .'. I.II l l I ilid. J lr l
i i ,il

.\1i.: 1 1._ill

1 11 .llll: _Lii, r i I I il ,. i. 1 11 I[ J l ll
I.* I 1 *Ill l ll ll II. IIII. I .. I

II'r lo_.ll-d 1.ind : '* I1 .* i l.Ili

Popul.lliion: 4-1 1 i ,li

. I.lll i F il. I

IIi ll ir.ii -: -4 "** I..i, ti.. I iiii i

I) a lilllu : !> ,i ill,.. I iiiiii

Inl'ini l noi ialin r.ilt: I*1 *! iih

I 111 I,. Lh. I,,llhI..'
I- illic ur..up:
h I ill -i .
SI '1,, ,I "
i l i ll... i _. i. -" .

(111~111111.: ~' I 1 111

.l iI r Ili jii I 1i _. .li


16 Cratn 6n One *cPa

What's in a Name?

SAfter reading the novel
The Dark Child, the students
should be encouraged to do the

* Use the Internet to find the meanings
often African names found in the
* Choose the name that you like most
from the list.
* Create an improvisation expressing
how you think the person in the novel
might have carried out their daily
* Work in groups of five to find the
meaning of specific words in context
from the novel.
* Share definitions with the class.
* Create your own board to attempt to
get the sound that the young men
might have heard that night during the
"ceremony of the lions."
* Demonstrate your board to the class.
* Recall basic themes from the novel.
* Write a one act play based on one or
more themes) in the novel.
* Perform the play in front of an

African names have a history behind them. Most
children are not named until they are at least a
week old. Read the names below that are found in
italics in The Dark Child:

Camara Laye (page 11)
I 1,, 1 11 4N
Sidafa (page 66)

Kouyate' Karmoko (page 84)
Himourana (page 85)
Kadoke' (page 93)
Daman (page 125)
Manadou (page 150)


1. Use the Internet to find the meanings/origins
of the ten names.

2. Choose the name that you like most.

3. Create an improvisation (to make or invent
without preparation) revealing how you
think the person in the novel might have
carried out their responsibilities.


SAfctndressconmsma vneu ofsles and deszg In thisprtre thesfrom
Alachua coui, Archer and Treton nmdel sone Afrcon clothing dunnga teaher's
sxsnmer ins held at the Uners of Flord.

Word Acttvity
Sfinee these words 2 co2ite fiom the nove, andt henshare these definmtons with tle class Work
mgroupr o five (according to our assignedcolors) to fid the meaning ofthe following wurds

Red Velow Grcen Black
Gnots Wagadu Concesion Boubous Kapok
Cora Smeltmg of gold Euga Praise Singers Bo
Koran Canacal law Coba FadyFady Se'ma
Sayon Tomtom Kondens RWapers Coros
Soli Totem Gemi E'lan Couscos

African Literature in Middle School

Looking at The Dark Child and the Sundiata Epic

The following lesson plans
were created with two specific
texts in mind: the Sundiata epic
(from the ancient Mali
kingdom) and Camara Laye's
The Dark Child. These
selections were made to allow
students to gain a better
understanding of African
history and culture through the
study of literature. The epic
genre provides students with
the opportunity to learn about
heroes and historical events
important to a culture; the
memoir provides an authentic
voice of experience from a

F inId IlK ,.ill 'o"n \.11 lrila ,n
tuir I gl c .r gn-c ,,r i .* Ur .i I V.l it
^.OuuLrii-, .ar, ,, iLhin the A\,-t

A Look at the Sundiata Epic
Sundiata was the legendary king of the old Mali Kingdom
during the 13th century. He is also the grandfather of Mansa
Munsa, the most famous Mali king who made the grand
pilgrimage to Mecca. Sundiata's story is one of overcoming
obstacles, living in exile, and returning to reclaim the Mali
kingdom strengthening and consolidating it into a powerful
Senegalese scholar, Djibril Niane, wrote the epic by recording
the words of the griot, Djeli Mamoudou Kouyate.

Pre-reading Discussion
Points of discussion that should precede the reading of the epic

Location and time period of the ancient Mali empire in
West Africa

- Oral tradition in literature

- Explanation of the role of the griot in West Africa

- Supernaturalism / spiritualism in culture

Xl r1il IC-*I nfl Ill \1LI IFllid

- The nature of an epic

Srohin 19

Point ioffiH.-\

'iLIdaLi l C- l lJliuhd
I.tc i.i SupLn.mLiu.Il CICI.IL, III11 III hc CpIeC
i' dllidlI i I l iiiC ; il l
,,.'t ,li _,l n SsjnI aii I .,tepnif,'IIt e I

ihx- I-it
LL'L I'iltTII .IIJ .lll lllC

Possible Activities

) Concept Mapping
A concept map is a graphic organizer that allows
students to analyze a plot, character, setting, etc.
through the use of symbols, illustrations, and
selections from the text. Concept maps are an
exploration of a particular concept and can be used
as a prewriting organizer or a small group activity
that precedes the class discussion.

Students work in small groups of three or four and
create a concept map for one of the epic's points of
focus identified above. Students are responsible for
illustrating examples and providing appropriate
passages from the story that support their assigned
topic. Students must also have a creative title for
their concept map. Students then present their
maps to the class, initiating discussion.

) Film: "Keita: The Heritage of the Griot"
Show the film after reading and discussing the
story. Have students discuss how the film added to
the understanding of the story and culture.

) Illustrated Timeline
Students will work together to illustrate the
Sundiata epic on a large banner. Students should
choose the most significant events to be illustrated.
The finished product can be hung inside or outside
the classroom.

) Discussion of the Epic Hero
Sundiata is considered an epic hero. Students may
discuss his heroic qualities and actions, write about
a personal hero, or research another hero in
African history. If appropriate, compare Sundiata
to other epic heroes (for example: Ulysses, King
Arthur, etc.) a

A look at The Dark Child
Camara Laye's The Dark Child is an
autobiographical novel of a boy's childhood years
in the village Koroussa, French Guinea during the
early 1900's and his eventual departure to study in
Use selected chapters from the novel to highlight
certain themes and cultural practices.

20 Afia Lieatr in Middle Scoo

Pre-reading Discussion
Prior to reading the novel, the class should discuss:

- Setting: time and place (West Africa,

- Rural/ village life vs. city life

- Memoir/ autobiography as a nostalgic

- Education in West Africa

- Religion (traditional/ Islam)

Chapter Selections

Chapter One
Childhood. The snake as the guardian.
Father 's powers.

Chapter Two
Gold smelting. The praise singer.

Chapter Three
Visiting Tindican. Grandma and uncles

Chapter Four
Rice harvest. harmony with nature and

Chapter Five
Family life. Mother 's powers.

Chapter Six
School life. Education

Chapter Seven

Chapter Nine
Leaving homefor Conakry.

Chapter Twelve
Separation. Departing for France.

Puiiits off'oiU1

I- dLlI, .Ill0
i am l\l rJlatiow-ihip-
I plllln.ll .11n ii ILL' I,. d.Jll.C .lild ,-iI. 1
Sup rnl.t-m La I I- ll Spin tiaLlim1
C Li1mi.nIlll. L imiiuni l pir

C L'L 'I .I1I d Ll tilrrC

Possible Activites

) Comparison / Contrast
Since the novel is the story of a young boy from
childhood through adolescence, it will be
interesting to have students make comparisons and
between their own life experiences and Camara
Laye's experiences. This reinforces the bond we
all share called the human experience.

One chapter that would work well with a
comparison/ contrast discussion is the school
chapter. Students may also compare the family and
community relationships with their own.

) Concept Mapping
Students should work in small groups to create a
concept map for one of the novel's points of focus
mentioned above. Students should illustrate
examples and support their assigned topic with
passages from the story. When concept maps are
completed, each group should present their map to
the class.

Sh 2

) Postcard Activity
This activity reinforces setting and storyline, and
allows students to contemplate a character's
reactions and responses.

Using indez cards, students create postcards from
Camara Laye addressed to themselves. Students
design the front of the postcard to illustrate setting
or an appropriate scene from the story. Students
write the postcard so that it recounts a part of the
plt as well as Laye's emotional responses to the
events (see example below).

Making Connections
After reading both pieces of literature,
comparisons can be made. Some of the key
elements that are shared in both Sundiata and The
Dark Child are:

- Supernaturalism/ Spiritualism
- The Backsmith's powers
- The Griot in West African society
The mother/ child relationship

Pamela Hall

The Struggle for South Africa

as seen through its poets, writers, and musicians

The student will be able to:

I Understand historical events
that shaped South Africa.

I Compare and contrast the social
and political realities of black
South Africans and African
Americans as presented through
literature and music.

Identify different literary forms
such as: Oral tradition, poetry,
praise poems, essays, short
stories, fables, and speeches.

I Compare the literature of
rebellion from South Africa,
Jamaica, and the United States.

The official policy of
segregation in the Republic of
South Africa. This policy was
abolished in 1994. Shortly
thereafter, Nelson
Mandela was elected as

ethnic group

African National Congress
Steven Biko
Nelson Mandela
Cecil Rhodes
Paul Kruegger
Shaka Zulu

Lesson 1
Students will read You Can't Get Lost m Cape Town, by Zoe

About the Author
Zoe Wicomb was born in a Griqua settlement in the Western
Cape region of South Africa. She is the first contemporary
Griqua author to write of her own community. The Griqua
are descendants of the Khoikhoi whose land had been taken
by the Dutch.

Discussion and Writing
1. Analyze the feelings that dominate the narrator on her
long bus ride.

2. What is the connection between the woman's handbag
and the man's purse?

Key Words and People

South Africa

In 1948, South Africa's Afrikaner Nationalist Party formalized the policy of segregation in
which people were categorized and identified according to race and color. Blacks, people of
mixed descent, Asians, and whites were separated, and elaborate regulations controlling the
lives of black South Africans were instituted. The Africaner government established nine home-
lands, called Bantustans, which relocated people onto reservations, effectively dividing black
South Africans. Under apartheid, these people were prohibited from voting, owning land, travel-
ing, and working without a permit. In addition, wives could not relocate with their husbands to
urban or mining areas, thus the government effectively fractured families and communities

Much of South Africa's most poignant literature deals with the harsh realities of apartheid. Thou-
sands of black South Africans were illegally detained and tortured by the ever-present police. Too
frequently, prisoners were murdered and reported as suicides. Although apartheid has officially
ended and great strides have been made by Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress
toward a new and free South Africa, the search for peace and equality continues. The literature of
this nation is as diverse and beautiful as its geography and people, and is truly illuminating.

3. Discuss the significance of the references
to other young couples in the narration.

4. Analyze the importance of Tiena's virtual
monologue to her silent listener. How are
the details of what Tiena says relevant to
the main story?

5. Using In the veld you can always find your
way and You can't get lost in Cape Town,
discuss the two perspectives within the
South African experience: black and white,
female and male.

6. What do the images of the bus, the train,
and the car symbolize?

7. Analyze the symbolism of the following
images: the bone, blood, the Cross, Judas,
and the coins.

Research and Comparison
Research the legal position on interracial mar-
riages in South Africa. Discuss the social implica-
tions of interracial marriages in the U.S. and
compare to South Africa.

Lesson 2
Students will read the poem, Nightsong: City, by
Dennis Brutus.

About the Poet
Dennis Brutus was born in southern Zimbabwe
and was raised in Cape Province, South Africa. He
taught English and Afrikaans for ten years before
studying law. He fought apartheid by officially
protesting South African participation in the
Olympic Games. As a result, he was banned from
teaching, studying law, and publishing in South
Africa. Eventually he was detained and held on
Robben Island as a political prisoner for eighteen

24 Th Stugl of Sot Afric

Nightsong: City

Sleep well, my love sleep well:
the harbor light glaze over restless docks,
polce cars cockroach through the tunnel streets;

from the shanties creaking iron-sheets
violence hke a bug-infested rag is tossed
and fear is imminent as sound in the wind-swung bell;

the long day 's anger pants from sand and rocks;
but for this breathing night at least,
my land, my love, sleep well.

The sounds begin again;
the siren in the night the thunder at the door
the shriek of nerves in pain.

Then the keening crescendo
offaces split by pain
the wordless, endless wall
only the unfree know.

Importunate as rain
the wraiths exhale their woe
over the sirens, knuckles, boots;
my sounds begin again.

Discussion and Writing
Use the poem to answer and discuss the following
1. What images in the poem indicate a South
African city?
2. What aspects of this city might be shared
by many cities around the world?
3. How would knowledge of the history of the
land enhance the meaning of the poem?
4. What may breed love for the land in the
midst of pain and grief? Comment on the
bond with the land in the colonial context.

Research and Comparison
1. Research the issue of nationalsim for South
Africans of all races and colors. Analyze
the ironic nature of the racial and political
situation in South Africa during and after
2. Examine the issue of nationalism as a
catalyst in the fight for liberation from
colonial rule with regard to any African

Extension Activities

I Create a topographical map of South Africa
to include location of ethnic language

) Create a representation of the new South
African flag and discuss the symbolism of
color array.

I Create travel papers for an imaginary

I Compare Jamaican reggae and American
rap to music from the South African
townships. What similarities do the
different types of music share?

Jan Carricker

Story-telling and Music

An introduction to African Music


In Part 1 the student will:

Part 1: The introductory lesson
will emphasize Africa as a
continent with different
countries. Students will also be
introduced to African
instruments, African music,
pictures of people, animals
habitats, politically-correct
terminology, and greetings.

Part 2: Students will have an
opportunity to internalize an
African story with song, to
understand the relationship
between African music and
African culture.

sing familiar African songs
discuss some countries in Africa
listen to music from different areas of Africa
match music, words and instruments
match pictures of dress styles with different regions

In Part 2 the student will:

learn the Nyangara song from Zimbabwe
re-create the story by acting out the parts
create sound effects with drums and shakers
sing a solo for the Chief and Nyangara
create additional speaking or singing parts as needed
find Zimbabwe on the map
discuss the importance of the characters

Part 1: Introduction

1. Unpacking
2. Decorating the room for the African Unit
3. Singing songs and finding their country of origin
4. Watching a video of African life and culture


Srhn 2

Teaching Techniques
To create interest for the students, pack a trunk
(suitcases or boxes may be used) with materials
you will be using to teach the unit in the form of
packages. These "packages" might include:

- Videos
- Musical instruments from Africa
- Pictures of African peoples
- Pictures of African animals and habitats
- Maps of Africa
- Games and other activities

Open each package with the class, explaining the
relevance of the contents.

Decorating the room
Divide the class into small groups. Each group
would be responsible for one of the following

) Selecting and playing cds of various types
of African music for the class.

) Displaying the maps of Africa, as well as
the pictures of African peoples, animals,
and habitats on a bulletin board.

) Displaying various African musical
instruments on a display table.

) Displaying pictures of African instruments
and their names. Students will later match
each instrument with its correct name.



Africa s ia.ll- Oi tho oth
the Iu wst r.,, ".1 '.
match ,,. ', ,. ,, .L As
Seach) '"b"' j'. ,,
each ins, U ne, 1 i

s ,J ,, ..l "" '-as

Singing of Songs
After decorating the classroom for the African unit,
students will sing familiar African songs and learn
each song's country of origin. Some African music
resources include:

CD AFRICA, Never stand still (includes a 24 page booklet),
Ellipsis arts PO Box 35, Roslym N Y 11576 This CD offers
a variety of African modem music The artists featured include
Thomas Mapfumo, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, and Stella

West Music, PO Box 5521, 1212th Street, Coralville,
IA, 52241 1-800-397-9378 FAX (888) 470-3942
This catalogue offers music resources, authentic and
kid-proof African instruments

Audio-Forum, the Language
Source, Guilford, Connecticu'
USA, 1-800-243-1234, FAX
(203) 453-9774 This
catalogue offers CDs from
various African countries
and videos /


BEtte4am /bmf BZaunSc ,
TgEr smnd En v, Sondr aeigedn apwlneskp
m& Linno Sco in Lnsakz Za in In ms I ,.puish k from
mrsistedooL We alsof ma eon mepflaq &onp pge 2&

1 ~. d

yr~ iaon


Gainesville-Lusaka School Partnership Blossoms

Trne years ago,
Terwiliger Elemenary in
Gamiesvil, and
Lumunof Primnary School in
Lusakt Znambia started a
partersip in which Su-
de learned abt each
other tho ug lette pte-
tograph at and citu
atifacts. Th excane be-
gan when Dr Ltnny Rhine
from the University of
Florida's Health Library
took a box of letters from
Terwiliger students to
Lum o Primary School.
A few months later, Ms.
Regma Shakaluta, a medi-
cal librarian at the Univer-
sity of Zambia, brought
back a box of replies.
Since that time, fourth
grrs at Uthe to schools
hav communmicated regu-
larly and learned that they
are more similar than dif-
This year Terwilg
students arc donating
books they have read to
Luamno so that the stu-
dents can read the same
books ad discus Iteir re-
actions. Ms Janice Bcike,
til kirhrr who ha been
ins antal in tertwr-
ship at Terwiliger, said
there is great enthusiasm
fom students as well as ib
parents for the project. It
is planned that Lumuno
primary will also send
baookswhich studentshave
read, to Terwiligr. The
objective of he leading
Peni Pas" is for the stu-
dents to learn anm about

each other
how they re
ideas expir
tore "The
Iearn owsi
said M Be
dents at Te
that Lunamo
so that they

LIMN wMf 7 ScdAOW 4A dsvt cbm im LAMMn Zm
by discussing car mra regularly. I is plan leaea exchanges de-
lae to certain possible for Launo to ge pending upo thei aiaila-
in litera- na9ail; howeverRteydo ityo offuading.
mno we corm- ot ave a cooper The if yourschool is in-
the mor we CeOnlroRAfc Studies, rterr d in having an ex-
ilar weree" which is facilitating the change program with a
rke. The st- partnership would a e. school in Afica contact
wiliger hope cia iaca omput donatin the Center for African
can getemail to srcngthn lbe puazt- Studies for inormaaio on
an c communi- SMmh The two schools a"lo bow to start one.



University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs