Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Note to teachers
 Florida state curriculum standards...
 Supplementary resources
 Suggested readings
 Latin American studies
 Latino studies
 Answer key
 Back Cover

Title: Latin American and Latino Studies Reader
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075523/00001
 Material Information
Title: Latin American and Latino Studies Reader
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida. Center for Latin American Studies. Outreach Program.
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Center for Latin American Studies -- Outreach Program
Publisher: University of Florida. Center for Latin American Studies. Outreach Program.
Publication Date: 2007
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Caribbean   ( lcsh )
South America
United States of America
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Alachua -- Gainesville
North America -- Caribbean
South America
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075523
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Note to teachers
        Page 5
    Florida state curriculum standards by text
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Supplementary resources
        Page 13
    Suggested readings
        Page 14
    Latin American studies
        Indigenous cultures of the Americas
            History through Aztec eyes-the Florentine Codex
                Page 15
                Page 16
                Page 17
                Page 18
            Issues of language use among the Guatemalan-Maya of southeast Florida
                Page 19
                Page 20
                Page 21
            Mel Gibson's movie scratches surface of Mayan history
                Page 22
                Page 23
                Page 24
        Spanish missions in the new world
            The San Antonio missions and the Spanish frontier
                Page 25
                Page 26
                Page 27
            The Spaniards and the Indians
                Page 28
                Page 29
                Page 30
        Traditional Latin American values
            On bullfights and baseball: an example of interaction of social institutions
                Page 31
                Page 32
                Page 33
            A tale of two moralities - Conflicts in family values
                Page 34
                Page 35
                Page 36
            Ybor City, José Martí, and the Spanish-American war
                Page 37
                Page 38
                Page 39
        Brazilian music
            Masters of contemporary Brazilian song MBP
                Page 40
                Page 41
                Page 42
    Latino studies
        Puerto Ricans in the U.S.
            In Spanish Harlem
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
            Migrating to a new land
                Page 46
                Page 47
        Mexicans in the U.S.
            A tale of two moralities: the transition from rural to urban life
                Page 48
                Page 49
            A personal history of California
                Page 50
                Page 51
                Page 52
        Cubans in the U.S.
            The history of Ybor City
                Page 53
                Page 54
                Page 55
            Ybor City's cigar workers
                Page 56
                Page 57
                Page 58
            Crossing the straits
                Page 59
                Page 60
                Page 61
            Transforming a city
                Page 62
                Page 63
                Page 64
        Civil rights issues
            The second burial of Felix Longoria
                Page 65
                Page 66
                Page 67
            The zoot-suit riots
                Page 68
                Page 69
            The story of César Chávez
                Page 70
                Page 71
                Page 72
                Page 73
                Page 74
                Page 75
    Answer key
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text

and Latino Studies Reader

* *


Outreach Program

UF Center for
Latin American Studies

The Foundationfor The Gator Nation



Latin American and Latino Studies Reader

Project Manager
Mary E. Risner, M.A.
Educational Consultants
Jonita Stepp-Greany, Ed.D.
Lydia Navarro, Ph.D.
Jonita Stepp-Greany, Ed.D.
Project Assistants
Jessica Bachay
Molly Dondero

Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida




ACKNOW LEDGEM ENTS.............................................................................................................

NO TE TO TEACHERS..................................................... ........................................................ 5

FLORIDA STATE CURRICULUM STANDARDS BY TEXT ................................................. 6

SUPPLEMENTARY RESOURCES .......................................................................................13

SUGGESTED READINGS..................................................................................................... 14



History Through Aztec Eyes-The Florentine Codex........................................ ............. 15

Issues of Language Use among the Guatemalan-Maya of Southeast Florida................... 19

Mel Gibson's Movie Scratches Surface of Mayan History...........................................22


The San Antonio Missions and the Spanish Frontier .....................................................25

The Spaniards and the Indians ......................................................................................... 28


On Bullfights and Baseball: An Example of Interaction of Social Institutions ....................31

A Tale of Two Moralities: Conflicts in Family Values...................................................34

Ybor City, Jose Marti and the Spanish-American War ..................................................37


Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song MPB.................................................................40



In Spanish Harlem ............................................................................................................43

Migrating to a New Land..................................................................................................46


A Tale of Two Moralities: The Transition from Rural to Urban Life................................... 48

A Personal History of California...................................................................................... 50


The History of Ybor City................................................................................................... 53

Ybor City's Cigar Workers ............................................................................................... 56

Crossing the Straits................................. ....................................... ...................................59

Transforming a City.......................................................................................................... 62


The Second Burial of Felix Longoria ................................................. ............................ 65

The Zoot-Suit Riots ........................................................................................................... 68

The Story of C sar Chdvez.....................................................................................................70

ANSW ER KEY .......................................................................................................................76



We are grateful to numerous individuals who contributed to this project. Our sincere
thanks go to Dr. Jonita Stepp-Greany, an educational consultant, for selecting numerous
texts, matching them to the Florida Standards and creating comprehension exercises. We
also thank Dr. Lydia Navarro for her assistance in identifying selected texts and writing
activities for them.

In addition, we express our appreciation to the authors and publishers who granted
permission to include their texts in this collection. Finally, thanks are due to Jessica
Bachay, a Center for Latin American Studies Graduate Assistant, for her diligent work
throughout the duration of the project and to Molly Dondero, also a Center Graduate
Assistant, for her help in putting the final publication together.

Outreach Program
Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida

Note to Teachers

The primary goal of this publication is to help Florida teachers integrate area studies into
their courses as they prepare students for the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test
(FCAT). The publication is composed of 20 texts on Latin American and Latino studies
themes that address the Florida State Curriculum Standards for Social Studies and
Foreign Language. A guide matching each reading to the appropriate state standards) is
included at the front of the publication for instructors to use in preparing lesson plans.
Each reading presented in the publication is followed by questions formatted in the style
of the FCAT. An answer key for the multiple choice questions is located at the end of the
publication. Suggestions for supplementary resources that complement the readings,
available through the Center for Latin American Studies, are also provided.

The project was funded by the University of Florida Center for Latin American Studies,
with partial support from a U.S. Department of Education Title VI National Resource
Center grant. The publication is available on CD, as well as online at the UF Center for
Latin American Studies' website: http://www.latam.ufl.edu/outreach/index.html.

Florida State Curriculum Standards by Text

History Through Aztec Eyes-The Florentine Codex
Theme: Interpretation of History and the Arrival of the Spanish in Mexico

SS.A. 1.4.1 understand how ideas and beliefs, decisions, and chance events
have been used in the process of writing and interpreting history.
SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
FL.B. 1.4.3 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture.

Issues of Language Use Among the Guatemalan-Maya of Southeast Florida
Theme: Mayan Immigration to the U.S., Mayan History

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B. 1.3.3 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g. social and political institutions and laws).

Mel Gibson's Movie Scratches Surface of Mayan History
Theme: Mayan History, U.S. and World Trade Relationships with Mayan Communities

SS.A. 1.4.1 understand how ideas and beliefs, decisions, and chance events
have been used in the process of writing and interpreting history.
SS.A. 1.4.3 evaluate conflicting sources and materials in the interpretation
of a historical event or episode.
SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B. 1.4.3 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture.
FL.D.2.4.2 recognizes different world views as presented in the media.
FL.D.2.4.4 recognizes the contributions of other parallel cultures to the
target culture.

On Bullfights and Baseball: An Example of Interaction of Social Institutions
Theme: Family Structures and Social Interaction

SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant
groups and individuals on American society after 1880.
SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
FL.B.1.4.2 identifies and discusses various patterns of behavior or
interaction and the values and mindsets typical of youth in the target
FL.B.1.4.3 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g., social and political institutions and laws.)
FL.D.2.4.3 demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the similarities
and differences between his or her own culture and the target culture as
represented in the media and/or literature.

A Tale of Two Moralities: Conflicts in Family Values
Theme: Latin American Values, Individualism vs. Collectivism

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant
groups and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B. 1.4.3 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g., social and political institutions and laws.)

Ybor City, Jose Marti and the Spanish-American War
Theme: Cuban National Hero, Cuban Independence from Spain

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS. A. 5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant
groups and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B. 1.4.3 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g., social and political institutions and laws.)
FL.B 1.4.4 identifies and discusses target language writers and their works
and assesses their influence not only on the products of his or her own
culture, but also on other world cultures.

Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song MPB
Theme: History of Brazilian Music, Contributions of Brazilian Culture

SS.A.1.4.1 understand how ideas and beliefs, decisions, and chance events
have been used in the process of writing and interpreting history.
SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B. 1.4.3 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
FL.D.2.4.4 recognizes the contributions of other parallel cultures to the
target culture.

The San Antonio Missions and the Spanish Frontier
Theme: The Impact of Religion, Settlement of the New World

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B. 1.4.3 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
FL.D.2.4.4 recognizes the contributions of other parallel cultures to the
target culture.

The Spaniards and the Indians
Theme: Encounter of Two Cultures, Settlement of the New World

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B. 1.4.3 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
FL.D.2.4.4 recognizes the contributions of other parallel cultures to the
target culture.

In Spanish Harlem
Theme: History of Puerto Rican Immigration

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B. 1.4.3 identifies and discusses artistic expressions and forms of the
target culture.
FL.B 1.4.4 identifies and discusses target language writers and their works
and assesses their influence not only on the products of his or her own
culture, but also on other world cultures.

Migrating to a New Land
Theme: History of Puerto Rican Immigration, Puerto Ricans in the U.S.

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B. 1.33 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g. social and political institutions and laws).

A Tale of Two Moralities: The Transition from Rural to Urban Life
Theme: History of Mexican Immigration, Mexican Family Values, Economic Patterns

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
FL.B. 1.4.3 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g., social and political institutions and laws).

A Personal History of California
Theme: Discovering One's Personal Heritage

SS.A. 1.4.1 understand how ideas and beliefs, decisions, and chance events
have been used in the process of writing and interpreting history.
SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant
groups and individuals on American society after 1880.

Ybor City's Cigar Workers
Theme: Cuban Immigrants in Tampa

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B.1.33 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g. social and political institutions and laws).

Crossing the Straits
Theme: History of Cuban Immigration, Contributions of Cuban Culture

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B.1.33 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g. social and political institutions and laws).
FL.B.1.4.5 identifies and discusses target language writers and their works
and assesses their influence not only on the products of his or her own
culture, but also on other world cultures.

The History of Ybor City
Theme: Cuban Heritage in the Tampa Area

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880
FL.B.1.33 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g. social and political institutions and laws).

Transforming a City
Theme: Cubans in Florida, Contributions of Cuban Culture

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
SS.B.1.4.4 understand how cultural and technological characteristics can
link or divide regions.
FL.B.1.4.5 identifies and discusses artistic expressions and forms of the
target culture.

The Second Burial of Felix Longoria
Theme: Hispanics in the U.S. Military

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880
FL.B.1.33 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g. social and political institutions and laws).

The Zoot-Suit Riots
Theme: Civil Rights Issues in the Southwest

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B.1.33 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g. social and political institutions and laws).

The Story of Cisar Chdvez
Theme: History of Hispanic Labor Movements

SS.B.2.4.2 understand past and present trends in human migration and
cultural interaction and their impact on physical and human systems.
SS.B.2.4.6 understand the relationship between resources and the
exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world.
SS.A.5.4.2 understand the social and cultural impact of immigrant groups
and individuals on American society after 1880.
FL.B.1.33 identifies and discusses various aspects of the target culture
(e.g. social and political institutions and laws).
FL.B.1.4.5 identifies and discusses target language writers and their works
and assesses their influence not only on the products of his or her own
culture, but also on other world cultures.

Supplementary Resources Available from the Outreach Library at the
UF Center for Latin American Studies

For lending procedures, please visit: http://www.latam.ufl.edu/outreach/outreachlib.html.

Indigenous Cultures of the Americas
Videos: Ancient Civilizations: The Aztecs; Conquistadors: Battle of the Gods;
Maya in Exile; Maya Fiesta; Ancient Civilizations: The Maya; Popul Vuh: The Creation
Myth of the Maya; Nati: A Mayan Teenager
Games: Maya

Traditional Latin American Values
Videos: Remember the Alamo; The U.S. Mexican War; Escuela para todos; La fiesta
quincefiera; Americas 8: Builders of Images: Writers, Artists, and Popular Culture;
Wetback: The Undocumented Documentary; Crucible of Empire: The Spanish-American

Brazilian Music
Videos: The Spirit of Samba; The Roots of Rhythm; Carmen Miranda: Bananas is My
Business; Black Orpheus

Puerto Ricans in the U.S.
Videos: Puerto Rico: History and Culture; Salsa!; ,Si o no? Puerto Rico and the
Statehood Question; Americas 10: Latin American and Caribbean Peoples in the U.S.

Mexicans in the U.S.
Videos: Global Cities: Immigration; The Ties that Bind: Stories Behind the Immigration

Cubans in the U.S.
Videos: Balseros; Cuba: The Children of Fidel; Ana Mendieta: Fuego de Tierra;
La eterna voz de Celia Cruz; Americas 10: Latin American and Caribbean Peoples in the
U.S., Fidel

Civil Rights Issues
Videos: Zoot Suit; The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez; The Hunt for Pancho Villa; Chulas
Fronteras; Chicano!: History of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement; Power,
Politics, and Latinos

Suggested Readings

Bums, E. Bradford and Julie A. Charlip. Latin America : A Concise Interpretive History.
Eighth Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.

Chasteen, John. Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. New York:
W.W. Norton & Co., 2006.

Darder, Antonia and Rodolfo D. Torres, eds. The Latino Studies Reader: Culture,
Economy, and Society. Maiden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.

Keen, Benjamin and Keith Haynes. A History of Latin America. Sixth Ed. New York:
Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

Martin, Cheryl E. and Mark Wasserman. Latin America and Its People. New York:
Pearson Longman, 2005.

Skidmore, Thomas E. and Peter H. Smith. Modern Latin America. Sixth Ed.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Winn, Peter. The Americas: The Changing Face of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Third Ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2006.

History Through Aztec Eyes: The Florentine Codex

To Bemal Diaz, the conquest of the Aztecs was "a wonderful story." The Aztec
account of the invasion was not as cheerful. During the 1550s, Fray Bernandino de
Sahagdn, compiled his General History of the Things of New Spain, known as The
Florentine Codex, which contains a history of the conquest written by Aztecs. According
to Sahag6n, the book's authors were "prominent elders ... who were present in the war"
when Mexico was conquered. Written in the repetitive style of the Aztec oratory, the
Florentine Codex describes Moctezuma's first news of Europeans, the Spanish lust for
gold, and the smallpox epidemic that decimated the native population. With no immunity
to European diseases, the Aztecs were defeated more by germs than by guns.

Moctezuma enjoyed no sleep, no food. No one spoke to him. Whatsoever
he did, it was as if he were in torment. Often times it was as if he sighed, became
weak, felt weak. No longer did he enjoy what tasted good, what gave one
contentment, what gladdened one. Wherefore he said "What will now befall us?
Who indeed stands [in command]? Alas, until now, I. In great torment is my
heart; as if it were washed in chilled water it, indeed bums, it smarts." ... And
when he had so heard what the messengers reported, he was terrified, he was
Especially did it cause him to faint away when he heard how the gun, at
[the Spaniards'] command, discharged [the shot]; how it resounded as if it
thundered when it went off. It indeed bereft one of strength; it shut off one's ears.
And when it discharged, something like a round pebble came forth from within.
Fire went showering forth; sparks went blazing forth. And the smoke smelled
very foul; it had a fetid odor which verily wounded the head. And when [the shot]
struck a mountain, it was as if it were destroyed, dissolved. And a tree was
pulverized; it was as if it vanished; it was as if someone blew it away.
All iron was their war array. In iron they clothed themselves. With iron
they covered their heads. Iron were their swords. Iron were their crossbows. Iron
were their shields. Iron were their lances. And those which bore them upon their
heads, their deer [horses], were as tall as roof terraces. And their bodies were
everywhere covered; only their faces appeared. They were very white; they had
chalky faces; they had yellow hair, though the hair of some was black. Long were
their beards; they also were yellow. They were yellow-bearded. [The Negroes'
hair] was kinky, it was curly... And when Moctezuma so heard, he was much
terrified. It was as if he fainted away. His heart saddened; his heart failed him...
[Moctezuma] only awaited [the Spaniards]; he made himself resolute; he
put forth great effort; he quieted, he controlled his heart; he submitted himself
entirely to whatsoever he was to see, at which he was to marvel... And when [the
Spaniards] were well settled, they thereupon inquired of Moctezuma as to all the
city's treasure the devices, the shields. Much did they importune him; with great
zeal they sought gold... And when they reached the storehouse... thereupon were
brought forth all the brilliant things; the quetzal feather head fan, the devices, the
shields, the golden discs, the devils' necklaces, the golden nose crescents, the
golden leg bands, the golden arm bands, the golden forehead bands. Thereupon

was detached the gold which was on the shields and which was on all the devices.
And as all the gold was detached, at once they ignited, they set fire to applied fore
to all the various precious things [which remained]. And the gold the Spaniards
formed into separate bars ... And the Spaniards walked everywhere; they went
everywhere taking to pieces the hiding places, storehouses, storage places. They
took all, all that they saw to be good....
... [There came to be a prevalent a great sickness, a plague. It was in
Tepeilhuitl that it originated, that there spread over the people a great destruction
of men. Some it indeed covered [with pustules]; they were spread everywhere; on
one's face, on one's head, on one's breast, etc. There was indeed perishing; many
indeed died of it. No longer could they walk; they only lay in their abodes, in their
beds. No longer could they move, no longer could they bestir themselves, no
longer could they raise themselves, no longer could they stretch themselves out on
their sides, no longer could they stretch themselves out face down, no longer
could they stretch out on their backs. And they were bestirred themselves, much
did they cry out. There was much perishing. Like a covering, covering-like, were
the pustules. Indeed many people died of them, and many just died of hunger.
There was death from hunger; there was no one to take care of another, there was
no one to attend to another.

European diseases decimated the Native American populations, making the
expanded European settlement possible. Some historians have noted that America was
not a virgin land, but a widowed one.

1. Which of the following descriptions best represents this reading?

a. It's an account of the blessing that was bestowed upon the indigenous
population of Mexico with the arrival of the Spaniards to Mexico.
b. It's a history of the arrival of the Spaniards from the Spaniards'
c. It's an account of the arrival of the Spaniards from the Aztecs' perspective.
d. It's an account of the devastating effect the Spanish invasion had upon the
Aztec population.

2. According to the passage, which of the following statements characterized

a. He possessed a keen awareness of the dangers of the Spanish arrival.
b. He was a cowardly leader who would not confront his enemies.
c. He was ignorant of the tactics and ammunition of the Spaniards.
d. He was a weak and fearful man in his old age.

3. In this excerpt, what is the purpose of the author's description of how Moctezuma

a. To show that Moctezuma was reluctant to fight the Spaniards.
b. To indicate Moctezuma's concern for the fate of his people.
c. To demonstrate how powerless he was before the Spanish conquistadors.
d. To depict Moctezuma's unwillingness to defend his people because he
was too sick to do so.

4. Which of the following statements can be said of the Spanish invasion of Mexico?

a. The treasures of the Aztecs were preserved for later generations.
b. Spanish conquistadors were only interested in the land they conquered.
c. Spanish conquistadors treated the Aztecs with much respect and venerated
their leader Moctezuma.
d. Many Aztec treasures were destroyed in the looting of their storehouses
and temples.

5. The Florentine Codex was:

a. The table of commandments of the Aztec Indians.
b. The formula the Spaniards had to cure smallpox.
c. The narrative of the Spanish rules for the New Spain.
d. The collection of events as told by the elders of the Aztec Empire.

6. According to this passage, how did the Bernal Diaz account of the Spaniards'
arrival in Mexico differ from that of Fray Bernardino Sahagtin?

a. It contained fewer entertaining details.
b. It was more modern and factual.
c. It was a happier account.
d. It had more description of people.

7. What facts in this selection support the author's view that the Spanish invasion
brought about the destruction of the Aztec Empire in the times of Moctezuma?

8. What facts in the Aztec's narrative support the accounts of the deadly illness
brought about by the Spanish conquistadors?

9. According to the Florentine codex, what aspects of the Europeans' arrival caused
sadness and concern for Moctezuma. Why?

Issues of Language Use among the Guatemalan-Maya of Southeast Florida

The Maya, an advanced culture with a strong written, oral, and religious history,
were noted architects, artisans, and mathematicians for over six hundred years throughout
moder-day Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Belize. However, the
Spanish conquest was particularly brutal to the Mayan civilization. Within a century after
the Spaniards' arrival, the native Maya lost fifty to ninety-five percent of their population
(Arias & Arrianza, 1998; Wellmeier, 1998). In spite of this loss, the Maya, primarily in
Central America and specifically in Guatemala, presently survive with their history,
beliefs, and over twenty Mayan languages. Today, forty-three percent of the population
of Guatemala speaks a Mayan language (World Factbook, 2003).
Unfortunately, the late twentieth century was a time of war, resistance, and
expulsion for the Maya. During the complicated and violent four-decade civil war,
thousands of Guatemalan-Maya were murdered... Possibly over a million Maya were
assassinated or forcibly relocated many from Western Guatemala. This "Mayan
Diaspora" led to today's reality in which between 200,000 and 300,000 Maya live in the
United States as both legal and illegal refugees (Wellmeier, 1998). The 2000 Census lists
28,000 Guatemalans living in Florida...
Historically, Indiantown, Florida, bordering Lake Okeechobee in Central Florida,
was little more than a crossroads connecting the center of the state with Stuart, Florida.
However, Indiantown is known in Guatemala as a place of refuge for the Maya, with at
least 15,000 Mayan refugees now residing in this community (Wellmeier, 1998).
Indiantown hosts annual festivals and functions as a Mayan ceremonial center with many
residents wearing traditional clothes and freely speaking Q'anjob'al, K'ich6, Chuj,
Jakalteco, and Awaketecko in the streets (Burs, 1993). Indiantown remains a growing
community for the Guatemalan-Maya, but the Maya have [also] begun locating in more
coastal areas of Southeast Florida. Seeking higher pay and full-time non-seasonal work,
many newer arriving Guatemalans to Florida have settled in the coastal communities of
Stuart, Jupiter, and Lake Worth (Petit, 2004).
...In Florida, the Mayan-speaking residents typically reside in linguistically
mixed communities, where even fellow Maya speak different Mayan languages.
[However, in a recent study, a researcher ] observed that all residents used Spanish as the
preferred method of communication among themselves... [W]ithout the linguistically
cohesive communities found in Guatemala, even social incentives to speak specific
Mayan languages do not appear to be strong...Results from the study seem to predict
eventual intergenerational Mayan language loss among the Guatemalan-Maya of coastal
Southeast Florida.
Guatemalan-Maya immigrant communities are often threatened with survival needs,
which are primary concerns. Such needs often supplant efforts to organize events
celebrating native culture. However, recently there have been well-received efforts... [for
the] promotion of native Guatemalan culture and traditions. Corn-Maya, Inc. in Jupiter
helped co-sponsor the Fiesta Maya 2003 and continues to lobby for a local community
center (Brannock, 2003). At the Escuelita Maya after-school programs in Lake Worth and
Boynton Beach, children receive both academic help and lessons in Mayan art, dance,
and culture, as well as, Q'anjobal instruction (Driscoll, 2004)...These activities, and

other potential efforts, such as church services in native languages or communal
celebration of native holidays, legitimize Mayan heritage, including language use and
maintenance (Peiialosa, 1985). Without loyalty to their heritage, traditions, and
languages, the Guatemalan-Maya face the potential reality of Mayan language loss ...[in]
these Southeast Florida communities... [T]he results, specifically to youth, of language
and culture loss [include] negative academic and cognitive effects, as well as possible
familial alienation (Riegelhaupt, Carrasco & Brandt, 2003). To avoid ..[these] effects,
efforts to support Mayan culture and language among the Guatemalan-Maya of Florida
should be encouraged and promoted.

1. What is the main idea of this article?
a. The Mayans once had a greatly developed civilization in Central America.
b. Mayans living in Florida face potential language and culture loss.
c. Many Mayans have become U.S. immigrants in the late 20th century.
d. Many Mayans were brutalized during years of civil war in Guatemala.

2. According to information in the article, which of the following statements
characterizes the historical civilization of the Maya?

a. It was a war-like culture that engaged frequently in violence.
b. It was a primitive civilization when the Europeans arrived.
c. It was a well-developed culture strong in academic and artistic expression.
d. It was a culture whose people did not survive the Spanish invasion.

3. Which of the following countries does not represent a historical center of Mayan

a. Panama
b. Belize
c. Honduras
d. El Salvador

4. Where have many Mayans settled in the U.S.?

a. Central and southeast Florida
b. Northern and eastern Florida
c. The town of Stuart, Florida
d. The Panhandle of Florida

5. What do the words K'ich6, Chuj and Jakalteco represent?

a. Traditional ceremonies celebrated by the Maya
b. Ceremonial garments worn by the Mayan elders
c. Special Mayan dances performed at festivals
d. Several of the 20 languages spoken by Mayan groups

6. What efforts are being made to help Mayan groups maintain their culture? Why
are such efforts threatened? Why should they be encouraged?

Mel Gibson's Movie Scratches Surface of Mayan History

Mel Gibson received initial praise from film critics for having cast unknown
Native American actors in his most recent film epic, Apocalypto. Gibson has chosen to
focus on perhaps the lowest moment of Maya history, a time of internal political chaos
before the Spanish invasion. Missing from the film are any high moments of more than
1,000 years of ancient Maya civilization with advanced agronomy, medicine, astronomy,
calendrics and trade. Through agricultural experimentation, the ancient Maya gave the
world many domesticated crops including corn, tomatoes, cacao, avocados. The Maya
also invented one of the world's earliest writing systems and invented the concept of
"zero" hundreds of years before Europeans, along with other examples of highly
advanced mathematics. ...[A]t their peak, some Meso-American cities were larger than
London at the time. The Spanish invasion brought this all to a grinding halt.
The film ignores well-known historical evidence about the second Maya
"apocalypse." Within a century of the Spanish invasion, about 90 percent of Meso-
American peoples perished as the result of pandemic European diseases, massacres,
forcible resettlement and political executions of their leaders. Not only did the Spanish
slaughter the Maya, but they also destroyed their intellectual traditions by burning
thousands of Maya books.
Somehow, the Maya people recovered from this onslaught. Over 6 million Maya
are alive today, speaking some 29 distinct languages across Southern Mexico and Central
America and even the U.S. as a result of emigration.
In Guatemala, the Maya people now constitute a majority of the country's
population, despite a third "apocalypse" of genocide. Three decades of civil war in
Guatemala left an estimated 200,000 people dead or "disappeared," 200,000 children
orphaned, 1 million internally displaced, and 50,000 international refugees... Still the
Maya endure.
But another apocalypse looms before them, as international institutions try to fix
what they paint as the economic "backwardness" of the Maya region. Since NAFTA's
implementation in 1994, more than 1.5 million Mexican farmers, many of them Maya,
have lost their livelihoods as a result of corn dumping by highly subsidized U.S.
agribusiness cartels.
The further reduction of Mexican corn tariffs from 27 percent next month to 0
percent in 2008 will serve a final blow to the Mexican countryside. CAFTA will have
similar impacts on the Central American corn market. Maya farmers displaced by both
these trade agreements will likely join the steady flow of illegal Mexican immigration to
the United States.
Meanwhile, in the small country of Belize, the Inter-American Development Bank
has encouraged the government to reorganize its land tenure system to emphasize private
leases. In response, Mayans are filing a claim before the Belize Supreme Court this
month to demand customary rights to the communal lands they have farmed for
generations. Unfortunately, the recent discovery of oil in Belize will probably dash Maya
hopes to gain land tenure.
Across the border in Guatemala, a similar titling project financed by the World
Bank is fueling land speculation in the Maya lowlands. Narco-traffickers, cattle ranchers
and African palm planters are buying or simply seizing Maya properties.

The Puebla to Panama Plan, ostensibly an economic development program for
Mexico and Central America, will plunder Maya lands through the construction of
highways, factories, electrical grids and hydroelectric dams.
While the Maya people have shown continued resilience over centuries of
conquest, these ... threats to their lands and livelihoods may prove their final

1. What is the author's main contention in this article?

a. Mel Gibson's film, Apocalypto, focuses on the second Mayan apocalypse.
b. The Mayans are about to suffer a fourth devastating apocalypse.
c. Current efforts of the international community will assist the Mayans.
d. The Mayan history is accurate and well-told in the film, Apocalypto.

2. Which of the following statements characterizes the third Mayan apocalypse?

a. It occurred as a result of violence, death and destruction during the
Spanish invasion.
b. It represented an early moment of internal political chaos and confusion
before the Spanish invasion.
c. It involved the disappearance, death or displacement of thousands of
Mayans due to civil war.
d. It will occur in the future as a result of the discovery of oil in the country
of Belize.

3. According to the author, a project financed by the World Bank is having what
effect in Guatemala?

a. It is causing Mayans to demand their rights to communal land as a result
of land reorganization.
b. It is helping to construct highways, factories, electrical grids and dams for
Mayan use.
c. It is enabling drug traffickers, ranchers and foreign planters to buy or seize
Mayan properties.
d. It is reimbursing the Mayans for the loss of land that occurred to them
during civil war.

4. What efforts have international institutions made to "fix" the economic woes of
Mayan regions?

a. They have passed trade agreements and funded private projects.
b. They have sent volunteers to assist the Maya in rebuilding.
c. They have subsidized the farm products of the Maya.
d. They have released a film about the Mayan apocalypse.

5. What are the various ways in which Mayan culture has contributed to world
knowledge? How did the Spanish invasion affect this culture?

6. How has the passing of agreements like NAFTA (North American Free Trade
Agreement) and CAFTA (Central American Free trade Agreement) affected the
Maya? What other international efforts are affecting them? How?

The San Antonio Missions and the Spanish Frontier

Spain's expulsion of the Moors and its decision to support Columbus's voyage of
discovery, both of which took place the same year, opened a new world of possibilities.
In the Americas, Spain soon began to use its soldiers to extend its domain, find wealth,
and spread the Catholic faith.
After Cortes's conquest of Mexico in 1519, the Spanish moved north in search of
further riches and potential converts. Though they failed to find gold and silver as they
had farther south, in present-day Arizona and New Mexico they established missions to
work with peaceable American Indians and presidios (forts) to control hostile ones.
In the late 1600s the French, already in Canada, explored the Mississippi River to the
point where it emptied into the Gulf of Mexico. This expansion posed a threat to Spain's
territory and Spain responded by extending its settlements into what is now Texas,
thereby creating a buffer between the wealth of Mexico and French Louisiana.
The Spanish established themselves in Texas by using the same system they had
established in Arizona and New Mexico. Through missions, presidios, and an adjoining
civilian community (a villa), missionaries and soldiers Christianized and Hispanicized the
native population. The Spanish hoped that with the help of these now-loyal Indians a
relatively small number of men would be needed to defend the empire's frontier. Though
created to observe and control French colonies in the Mississippi Valley and central Gulf
coast, these operations later opposed other rivals. Between 1763 and 1776, the main
challenge came from the English and their Indian allies; after 1776, from the United
States and the Comanches.
One base for Spanish missionary and military operations in Texas developed
around San Antonio. Two missions and a presidio were established in the San Antonio
River valley between 1718 and 1720, and the Spanish added three new missions in the
valley in 1731. A single presidio protected the five missions, which were closely grouped
for two important reasons. First, the fields required irrigation and a system could only be
set up along the valley's upper ten miles. Second, the threat of attack from northern
Indians was constant, and the missions needed to be near the presidio and each other for
mutual protection.
The missions were important to agricultural production. Each had a ranch for
raising the sheep, goats, and cattle that supplied necessities like meat, wool, milk, cheese,
and leather. The entire cattle industry, from ranching to the driving of cattle across long
distances to markets, was developed in Mexico during the two centuries prior to the
establishment of San Antonio. Spanish ranching as it was practiced in Texas formed the
basis for the American cattle industry, which drew many of its original cattle from the
mission herds. The Spanish also brought to the San Antonio valley a specialized method
of farming that used irrigation. This system, which was extended by later settlers, was the
foundation of the San Antonio economy for more than a century; portions of mission-
built irrigation systems are still in use today in San Antonio and other parts of Texas.
The mission contributed to the economy in other ways. It established necessary
industries such as weaving, iron working, and carpentry; these were important to the
maintenance of the entire military and political structure of the eastern portion of the
Spanish American frontier. Mission-trained artisans and workers provided a principal

source of labor and finished goods in a region at the far end of a long and expensive
supply line reaching up from the south.
Today the San Antonio missions are among the few relatively intact examples of
the colonial missions in the Southwest. They contribute to the general architectural record
of this era as well as offer examples of building styles from every period of the missions'

1. Which of the following is not a way in which Spain used its soldiers in the New

a. To extend its territory
b. To find wealth and gold
c. To spread Catholicism to others
d. To create manufacturing colonies

2. How did Spain respond when the French expanded their territory to Louisiana?

a. Spain built several presidios on the Mississippi Valley to protect their
b. The Spaniards invaded French Louisiana
c. The Spaniards enlisted the help of the local tribes to run the French out of
d. Spain extended its settlements into what is now Texas to create a buffer
between Mexico and Louisiana

3. Which group did not pose a threat to the Spaniards in the late 1700s?

a. The Mexicans
b. The United States
c. The Comanches
d. The English

4. How do the San Antonio missions contribute to our cultural knowledge today?

a. They contain old books and records that teach us mission history.
b. They show intact examples of various mission architectural styles.
c. They contain statues that teach us about well-known priests and soldiers.
d. They still produce many agricultural products we use today.

5. Why did the Spanish establish missions in Texas? Why were they located so
closely together?

6. How did the mission system contribute to the economy and to agricultural
production? What are some of the products that came from the missions?

The Spaniards and the Indians

A mission brought together two distinct groups of people. The missionaries came
from Spain via training schools in Mexico and were Franciscans, an order of priests who
had taken a vow of poverty in order to devote themselves to learning, brotherhood with
all living creatures, and spreading the word of God.
In Texas the Franciscans mainly encountered bands of hunter-gatherers called
Coahuiltecos or Coahuiltecans (kwa-weel-tekens). These bands ranged through what is
now the Mexican state of Coahuila into South Texas. They moved from one traditional
campsite to another, following the seasons and herds of migrating animals. Since the
environment in which they lived was often difficult, mainly because of a lack of rainfall,
the Coahuiltecans lived precariously because they rarely had a sure food supply. Though
they sometimes warred against one another, all faced threats from more formidable
adversaries such as the Apache and, later, the Comanche. These tribes had become
mobile raiders by taking advantage of the herds of wild horses that had developed from
runaways from Spanish settlements.
...These hunter-gatherers were willing to become part of the mission system for a
number of reasons. The irrigation system promised a more stable supply of food than
they normally enjoyed. Diseases brought by Europeans had depleted their numbers,
making the Coahuiltecans even more vulnerable to their now-mobile enemies. The
presidio, however, offered much greater protection.
Though routines did vary, the missions shared a number of practices. The
missionaries, along with lay helpers and usually no more than two soldiers and their
families, instructed the natives in the Catholic faith and in the elements of Spanish
peasant society. The Indians learned various trades, including carpentry, masonry,
blacksmithing, and weaving; they also did a great deal of agricultural work.
Since mission society lasted more than 100 years, no single description can cover
the entire experience. It is possible, though, to depict some of its most important
elements. Religion was the most important factor in shaping the day. At dawn the church
bells rang, calling the people to morning prayer, which was followed by religious
instruction. At noontime the bells tolled again to assemble everyone for more prayer, and
in the evening there was another service and more instruction.
What happened the rest of the day varied from person to person. Many of the men
were led to the fields or to military drills by a missionary or a soldier, while others
remained in the compound to work in one of the shops weaving, candle making,
woodworking, or engaging in other crafts. Women and older girls often made pottery or
baskets, though others prepared food or caught fish in the nearby river. Children spent
their days in a number of ways: helping the adults, gathering under a tree for Spanish
lessons, playing games with each other. At noontime, everyone came together to eat the
day's largest meal, which was followed by the rest period known as a siesta. They
remained inside for the hottest part of the day, then returned to their duties until early
evening. They would have a light meal before the last service of the day, then enjoy some
relaxation. Some would spend the evening dancing and singing, while others played
The native population reacted to the mission system in a number of ways. Some
of them participated fully, mixing their traditions with those of Spain to create a new

Hispanicized and Christianized culture. The Spanish then called them "gente de raza", or
...people like the Spaniards themselves. Other Indians moved in and out of the missions,
choosing to return to more familiar surroundings during a season when the natural
environment was rich with food. Some Indians refused to join at all, continuing to live in
their traditional ways.
In the 1790s, the missions began to change. At that time secularization--turning
the settlements into civil rather than religious communities--began. The Spanish
government withdrew its financial support and ordered mission lands and livestock to be
divided among the mission Indians who had been converted to Christianity. Only one of
the San Antonio missions, Mission San Antonio de Valero (now known as the Alamo)
was fully secularized. The other four, which are now part of the San Antonio Missions
National Historical Park, were only partially secularized. Here the populations elected
their community officials, but missionaries remained to act as parish priests. In 1824,
after Mexico achieved independence from Spain, the remaining missions were fully
secularized and all missionaries left the area. Though the buildings then fell into decline,
in the 1930s restoration began. Today the four missions within the park serve as parish
churches, and all five San Antonio missions are open to the public.

1. Who were the Franciscans?

a. A group of French explorers
b. A battalion of French soldiers
c. An order of priests
d. A colony of French settlers

2. Who did not pose a threat to the Coahuiltecans?

a. Other Coahuiltecans
b. The Mexicans
c. The Apache
d. The Comanche

3. To what did "gente de raza" refer, as it was used by the Spaniards?

a. A disease brought by the Europeans that depleted the Coahuiltecan
b. A prayer ceremony practiced regularly at the missions
c. A lost art that had been practiced in the missions
d. The natives who participated fully in the missions

4. What features of the Coahuiltecans' way of life made them interested in
participating in mission life?

5. Describe the daily routine of men, women and children in the missions.

6. Explain the prayer and religious routines of the missions.

On Bullfights and Baseball: An Example of Interaction of Social Institutions

The passive-aggressive component of the Mexican modal personality can be
traced to the dominant and harshly punitive role of the father and to the general
authoritarian nature of the Mexican culture. The passive-aggressiveness is perpetuated in
the macho pattern of the Mexican male and the "martyr" pattern of the Mexican female.
Any acting out of the resultant hostility to authority must be carried out in spheres safely
distant from that authority's immediate control.
The bullfight is seen to depict, symbolically, the power of the father, the subtle
demands of the mother and the fear of the child. Unlike the family situation, the
awesome authority does not prevail, but rather is dominated and destroyed through the
courage and daring of the matador. He, however, acting for spectator, must accomplish
this hostile act in a framework of "respect" for authority, and with a studied passiveness
in and control of movement.
By contrast, the "intellectualization" component of the Anglo modal personality
can be traced to the superficial ethic of "equality" among family members and to the
general intellectualized nature of highly urbanized societies. The attempt to mute
authority by a pseudo-philosophy of togetherness, when authority is in fact assumed by
the father, the mother and by the society, engenders a vagueness in role definition,
confusion in behavioral expectations and an intellectualization of the resultant conflict.
Hostility toward this intangible yet frustrating authority figure is expressed by the
individual in a manner as abstract and as ritualized as its causative factors.
The national sport of baseball is set in a framework of equality. Hostility toward
authority takes the symbolic form of competition and desire to win, and is smothered
under a covering of rules, regulations and player rituals. Guided by the authority of
umpires (who are sufficiently impersonal to be challenged with relative impunity) and
protected in the safety of numbers as a member of a team, the players systematically
alternate roles, allowing each to have an equal opportunity to "be aggressive."...
Since 1920, the bullfight has gradually been modified to accentuate domination
rather than the kill. Paralleling this, the position of the father in the Mexican family has,
with gradual urbanization, come more closely in line with that of the "advanced" Western
model. He is less threatening, less fearsome, and can be dominated to a degree sufficient
to reduce the importance of his symbolic destruction.
Baseball, since 1920, has similarly undergone significant changes. With the
increasing bureaucratization of Anglo society, and with the increasing emphasis upon
"equality" and impersonality in the family, have come the more complex
bureaucratization and the more elaborate ritualization of baseball.
The family and the institutionalized recreation form known as the national sport
mutually reflect, as they appear in Mexico, the cultural centrality of death, dominance,
"personal" relationships, respect for and fear and hatred of authority and the defense
systems of the passive-aggressive character structure.
In the Anglo culture, these two institutions [of family and institutionalized
recreation] mutually reflect the cultural importance of equality, impersonality, and the
defense mechanism of intellectualization...

1. Which of the following statements characterizes the behavior of fathers in
Mexican families, according to this author?

a. They intellectualize their relationships with their children.
b. They are martyrs for their wives, sons and daughters.
c. They view their children almost as equals in the family.
d. They are authoritarian in their approach to child rearing.

2. What is the main thesis of this article?

a. The sports of Mexico and the U.S. reflect larger values in the two cultures.
b. Women and children have different roles in U.S. and Mexican societies.
c. There is a vagueness in family role definitions in U.S. city centers.
d. Values in Mexico and the U.S. have become more liberal in recent years.

3. Which of the following statements is supported by details in the article?

a. In Mexico, there is no resistance to the father's authority.
b. In the U.S., there is true equality among all family members.
c. In Mexico, opposition to the father's authority must be made indirectly.
d. In the U.S., family members have well-defined roles and behavior.

4. To what does the author attribute the changes in roles among family members in
both Mexico and the U.S. in the last 80 years?

a. More education for women and children
b. Watching sports together as a family unit
c. Increasing urbanization in both countries
d. The strength of the women's rights movement

5. Which statement represents the author's view concerning the philosophies of
"togetherness" and "equality" in the U.S. family?

a. They are intellectualized values that do not reflect the true nature of
authority in the society.
b. They are genuine values that contribute greatly to American culture and
c. They are values that help young people to assume responsible roles within
the society.
d. They are values that help ease hostility and that should be adopted by
families in Mexico.

6. What are the cultural values of Mexico and of the U.S. that are symbolized by
bullfighting and baseball? How does each sport display these values? Why have
the sports changed over the years?

A Tale of Two Moralities: Conflicts in Family Values

...California was even more astonishing than Acapulco had been when she
[Manuela] first left the village, but now she had more time to explore this new world.
She learned English in a short time and.. .started forays into the American universe, in
ever-wider circles from her employers' house. She even took bus trips to Hollywood and
San Francisco. For the first time in her life she slept in a room all by herself. And,
despite her regular payments for Roberto's keep [in Acapulco], she started to save money
and put it in a bank account. Most important, she started to think about her life in new
ways, systematically. "What will become of you when you go back?" asked the
American woman one day. Manuela did not know then, but she started to think.
Carmelita, the Cuban girl, discussed the matter with her many times...Eventually, one
project won out over all the alternatives: Manuela would return to go to commercial
school, to become a bilingual secretary. She even started a typing course in California.
But she would not return to Acapulco. She knew that, to succeed, she would have to
remove herself from the family there. She would go to Mexico City, first alone, and then
she would send for Roberto.
...The choice before Manuela now is sharp and crystal-clear: She must return to
Mexico--because she wants to, because of Roberto, and because the American authorities
would send her back there sooner or later anyway. She can then return to the welcoming
bosom of the family system, surrender her savings, and return to her previous way of life.
Or she can carry through her plan in the face of family opposition. The choice is not only
between two courses of action, but between two moralities. The first course is dictated
by the morality of collective solidarity, the second by the morality of personal autonomy
and advancement. Each morality condemns the other--as uncaring selfishness in the
former case, as irresponsible disregard of her own potential and the welfare of her son in
the latter. Poor Manuela's conscience is divided; by now she is capable of feeling its
pangs either way.
She is in America, not in Mexico, and the new morality gets more support from
her immediate surroundings. Carmelita is all for the plan and so are most of the Spanish-
speaking girls with whom Manuela has been going out. Only one, another Mexican,
expressed doubt: "I don't know. Your grandfather is ill, and your uncle helped you a lot
in the past. Can you just forget them? I think that one must always help one's relatives."
Manuela once talked about the matter with the American woman. "Nonsense," said the
latter, "you should go ahead with your plan. You owe it to yourself and to your son." So
this is what Manuela intends to do, very soon now. But she is not at ease with the
Each decision, as dictated by the respective morality, has predictable
consequences. If Manuela follows the old morality, she will, in all likelihood, never raise
herself or her son above the level she achieved in Acapulco--not quite at the bottom of
the social scale, but not very far above it. If, on the other hand, she decides in accordance
with the new morality (new for her, that is), she has at least a chance of making it up one
important step on that scale. Her son will benefit from this, but probably no other of her
relatives will. To take that step she must, literally, hack off all those hands that that
would hold her back. It is a grim choice indeed.

1. What is the main issue discussed in this article?

a. The financial difficulty of adjusting to new life in the U.S.
b. The delight a new immigrant finds in the American way of life.
c. The conflict of values an immigrant experiences in adjusting to the U.S.
d. The freedoms that Americans possess to travel and better themselves.

2. Based on Manuela's story, which of the following statements may be inferred
about Mexican immigrants?

a. Many Mexican immigrants send money home to help other family
b. Mexican immigrants easily adopt the American way of life.
c. Most immigrants do not like American customs.
d. All immigrants profit from the U.S. educational system.

3. Besides Roberto, what is the other reason that Manuela feels she must go back to

a. Her family has demanded that she move back.
b. A good job as a bilingual secretary awaits her in Acapulco.
c. An excellent commercial school is available in Acapulco.
d. She believes the U.S. authorities will send her back eventually.

4. Which statement describes the attitude of most of Manuela's Spanish-speaking
friends in the U.S.?

a. They still believe in the values of Mexican village life.
b. They have begun to assimilate U.S. values.
c. They have resisted adopting U.S. values.
d. They fiercely believe in the extended family system.

5. Which of the following statements is implied in the article?

a. Mexican families value family solidarity over personal fulfillment.
b. Mexican families are too suffocating and controlling.
c. U.S. families are divided in their feelings about each other.
d. Manuela and her friends are selfish in their views about life.

6. What two courses of action and moral choices are faced by Manuela and
immigrants like her?

7. What are the values of each culture that dictate these two moralities? What
dilemmas does each choice create?

Ybor City, Jos6 Marti, and the Spanish-American War

It has been said that the revolutionary activities that took place in Ybor City
[located in Tampa, FL] in the late 1880s and the 1890s caused the Spanish-American
War of 1898. Although that may be an exaggeration, the immigrant Cuban population in
the city was deeply involved in Cuba's efforts to free itself from Spain.
Resenting their Spanish rulers who had become increasingly harsh, the Cuban
people began sporadic rebellions as early as the 1860s. Some of the people who
immigrated to Ybor City in the late 1880s were in exile because of their participation in
such activities. Because of their proximity to Cuba, Ybor City and Key West became
major centers for those who pushed for Cuba's independence. The lectors in the cigar
factories often read from revolutionary newspapers and the cigar factory workers
supported the revolution with cash donations.
Into this receptive climate came the great revolutionary known as the "George
Washington of Cuba." Jos6 Marti, born in Cuba in 1853, was a teacher and a writer who
advocated the overthrow of the Spanish who controlled his native land. He was exiled
twice-in 1871 and again in 1879. From 1881 to 1895, Marti lived in New York City
where he spent most of his time writing poetry, essays, and newspaper articles in support
of Cuban freedom.
Marti often made long visits to Ybor City. On November 26 and 27, 1891, he
delivered two speeches there-Con Todos Y Para Todos ("With All and For All"), and
Los Pinos Nuevos ("The New Growth")-which outlined the goals of the United Cuban
Revolutionary Party. Both speeches were reproduced in newspapers and journals in the
United States and Cuba and inflamed Cuban desire for independence. In 1893 Marti
delivered the speech that many feel led directly to war. More than 10,000 Cubans
jammed into a small outdoor area in front of the V.M. Ybor Cigar Factory, punctuating
Marti's speech with cries of "Cuba Libre!" (Free Cuba!) Following that rousing evening,
workers from all the factories pledged to give one day's pay a week to the revolutionary
fund. Hundreds of cigar makers and other workers formed infantry companies to begin
preparing themselves for battle. From the revolutionary fund they bought a few rifles and
some ammunition, as well as many machetes-a weapon with a sharp blade that is a cross
between a sword and an axe. Marti returned to Cuba with a small army of these men and
led the insurrection of 1895. Marti and many members of his Ybor City army died in a
skirmish. Their deaths further inflamed public opinion against Spain.
Newspapers across the country emblazoned Martfs efforts in huge headlines and
detailed stories. His death brought more pressure for full-scale revolution with help from
the United States. When the U.S. declared war against Spain in 1898, American troops
passed through the port of Tampa on their way to Cuba, and many Cuban immigrants
were part of that army. Marti was still so revered as a great Cuban freedom fighter many
years later that when Fidel Castro imposed a dictatorship on Cuba in 1958, the U.S.
government named its shortwave radio broadcasts to Cuba "Radio Marti."

1. Why did Ybor City and Key West become major centers for immigrants who
were pushing for Cuba's independence from Spain?

a. It was the home of Jos6 Marti, who was the leader of the revolutionary
b. The supply of riffles, ammunition, and machetes was plentiful in Ybor
City as well as in Key West.
c. Both locations were relatively close to Cuba.
d. The U.S. government gave incentives for migration into the area.

2. Which of Jos6 Martf's speeches is said to have led directly to war?

a. With All and For All
b. Free Cuba
c. The New Growth
d. My Country

3. Which of the following is not a way in which the cigar workers contributed to the
cause of "Cuba Libre"?

a. They donated money to the cause.
b. They formed infantry companies.
c. They built a fort to protect Ybor City.
d. They participated in the invasion of Cuba.

4. The U.S. Government shortwave broadcasts to Cuba are called:

a. Cuba libre
b. Radio Marti
c. Transmission Ybor City
d. Para todos

5. How many descriptors can you provide to identify or characterize Jos6 Marti?
Why was he considered to be a martyr to the cause of Cuba's freedom?

6. How did Martf's work in Ybor City help the Cuban revolutionary cause?

7. Why was it logical that American troops embarked for Cuba from Tampa,

The Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song MPB

In Brazil the 1960s witnessed great diversification and creativity in the realm of
song. After the rise of the internationally known style of Bossa Nova in the early years of
the decade, the acronym MPB (mdsica popular brasileira or popular Brazilian music)
came into use to designate new varieties of urban popular music. During this period many
performing songwriters with exceptional musical and poetic talents appeared on the
artistic scene. As a result, popular music gained new status and dignity among the
Brazilian arts. Song came to be recognized as one of the nation's richest and most
significant cultural manifestations. Composers and performers were involved in
sociopolitical mobilization and actively participated in intellectual debate about the paths
of the creative arts. Important relationships developed among songwriters, filmmakers,
the literary vanguard, and members of the art music community. Expansion of the
recording and broadcasting industries, songwriters' competitions, festivals of popular
music, critical attention and a discriminating public, all encouraged thoughtful and
innovative musical composition. With the emergence of lyrically inspired popular
composers and the participation of accomplished poets in songwriting, texts began to
exhibit unprecedented expressive quality. Literary critics began to discuss song texts as
an important branch of poetic expression. Certain songwriters came to be considered not
just as "poets of popular music" but as the best young Brazilian poets. They were likened
to the ancient troubadors who blended words and melodies in compositions for
performance. Terms such as modernr Brazilian popular music," "cultured urban popular
music" and "erudite popular music" were used to draw attention to this new musical
consciousness and sophistication.
Many composers, performers and poet-musicians who contributed to the making
of MPB in the sixties continued to develop musical concepts through the seventies and
into the eighties. The most influential, representative and consistently inspired of these
artists are songwriters Chico Buarque, Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, and Milton
Nascimento. Jodo Bosco and Aldir Blanc, who joined forces in the early seventies,
represent the most distinctive composer-lyricist team in MPB...When it came into
common usage in the late sixties, the acronym MPB was used to designate original
composition rooted in or derived from Brazilian traditions, usually with acoustic
instrumentation. In this sense, MPB was distinguished from international pop music and
rock and roll, in the early sixties' style of groups such as the Beatles, which used electric
instrumentation. The original distinction became blurred in the seventies, as composers
began to assimilate and adapt international trends more regularly. MPB is now frequently
used to refer to the music of artists who made their marks in the late sixties; the acronym
also differentiates the work of those songwriters from the production of the eighties'
generation, which is clearly dominated by the rock sound...
...There is considerable variety in the approaches of these different songwriters,
as well as thematic and musical diversity within the individual repertories. Their work
involves the rethinking and refinement of national musical legacy, investigation and
reformulation of regional heritage, and assimilation and adaptation of foreign models.
Compositions range from stylizations of simple folk tunes to avant-garde sound collages.
Song is used to address social issues, to voice protest of authoritarian control, to make
aesthetic statements, and to explore philosophical and spiritual themes. The music of

Chico Buarque, Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Milton Nascimento, and Joao Bosco-Aldir
Blanc reflects broad cultural trends and embodies both the continuity and the
diversification of Brazilian popular music...

1. What does MPB (musica popular brasileira) represent, according to the author?

a. The rise and popularity of the Bossa Nova
b. Various kinds of urban popular music
c. A form of Brazilian rock and roll
d. Music with electric instrumentation

2. When MPB first came into popular usage, what were its defining characteristics?

a. Original Brazilian compositions with acoustic instruments
b. A blend of Brazilian and international popular music
c. Music influence by the Beatles and other vocal groups
d. Non-lyrical songs and melodies from folk groups

3. What is the author's assertion regarding the songs of later mtsica popular

a. They show little thematic and musical diversity or variation.
b. They address primarily aesthetic and personal spiritual themes.
c. They include adaptations of regional, national and foreign models.
d. They are limited to lyrical and simple folk tunes.

4. Which of these teams represent a songwriter and lyricist pair that came into MPB
in the 70's?

a. Joao Bosco and Aldir Blanc
b. Chico Buarque and Milton Nascimento
c. Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil
d. Gilberto Gil and Milton Nascimento

5. What were some of the effects of early MPB during the 60's and early 70's? How
did it emerge and grow to affect the culture?

6. What characteristics does MPB embody as it is viewed from a more recent
vantage point? What themes are addressed? How have these themes and
characteristics affected the music scene in Brazil?

In Spanish Harlem

The first great generation of Puerto Rican migrants established communities in
cities throughout the country, including Chicago, Philadelphia, and Newark, as well as in
mid-Atlantic farm villages and the mill towns of New England. However, since the
1930s, the capital of Puerto Rican culture in the mainland U.S. has been New York City.
Despite its great distance from the Caribbean, New York had long been the landing point
of seagoing Puerto Ricans, and the airborne newcomers followed suit. The new migrants
settled in great numbers in Northeast Manhattan, in a neighborhood that soon became
known as Spanish Harlem. Although many had been farm workers in Puerto Rico, they
know found themselves working in a wide variety of jobs, staffing the hospitals, the
hotels, the garment factories, and the police departments of their new hometown, and
they soon became a significant force in the city's political and cultural life.
The migration to the 50 states slowed in the 1960s and 70s, as an urban recession
led to fewer jobs in U.S. cities, and many of the first generation returned to Puerto Rico.
At the same time, many migrants struggled with poverty, unemployment, and racial
discrimination in their new home. Darker-skinned Puerto Ricans often found themselves
excluded from jobs, education, and housing, and were frequently attacked by non-Puerto
Rican street gangs. Meanwhile, for most Puerto Ricans the language barrier sometimes
made it difficult to find well-paying work or to navigate government agencies or other
English-speaking institutions.
As a second generation was born into the mainland Puerto Rican community, new
political movements were born as well. Puerto Ricans organized to campaign for greater
civil rights, for equal access to education and employment, and for changes in the status
of Puerto Rico. In a 1951 referendum, the Puerto Rican population had voted
overwhelmingly to become a U.S. commonwealth, rather than remain a colony. Many
groups, however, continued to call for full independence, and later in the decade militant
nationalists fired on the U.S. House of Representatives and attempted to assassinate
President Harry Truman. Political organizations also sprang up to agitate for social
reform and greater economic aid to the island, which continued to struggle economically.
At the same time, cultural organizations such as the Nuyorican Poets urged Puerto Ricans
on the mainland to become more aware of their heritage, and produced poems and songs
that examined many of the harshest aspects of the migrant experience.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the Puerto Rican community has established
solid roots in the U.S. mainland. Although the first generation of migrants faced great
obstacles, their labors helped build institutions that now benefit their successors,
including churches, community centers, schools, businesses, and political organizations.
Today, Puerto Ricans serve New York in the city, state, and federal governments; in
1992, New Yorker Nydia VelAzquez became the first woman of Puerto Rican descent to
be elected to the U.S. Congress. The Puerto Rican Day parade has become the largest
parade for any national or ethnic group in the city. Nationally, performers such as Rita
Moreno, Raul Julia, and Tito Puente have become familiar faces to millions of
Americans, and writers such as Edwin Torres, Nicolasa Mohr, and Judith Ortiz Cofer
have made their mark on the nation's literary scene. The Hall of Fame baseball player
Robert Clemente, who passed away in 1972, is still revered throughout North America, as
much for his philanthropy as for his skill in the outfield.

Today, almost as many people of Puerto Rican descent can be found in the 50
states as on the island itself. Meanwhile, the nature of the community continues to
change. More professionals and high-tech workers are arriving on the mainland than ever
before, and the fastest-growing Puerto Rican enclave is not in New York City, but in
Orlando, Florida. It seems clear that, after more than a century as part of the United
States, the Puerto Rican community will continue as a growing, dynamic, and surprising
part of American life for decades to come.

1. To what does the name Spanish Harlem refer?

a. Puerto Rican settlements in Chicago, Philadelphia and Newark
b. A mill town in New England where Puerto Ricans settled and worked
c. A collection of mid-Atlantic farm villages where Hispanics settled
d. The capital of Puerto Rican culture in Manhattan, New York

2. What is the current status of Puerto Rico?

a. A member of the U. S. Commonwealth
b. One of the 50 states of the U.S.
c. A closely-located colony of the U.S.
c. An independent sovereign country

3. The first generation of Puerto Rican immigrants in the U.S. were responsible for

a. Assassinating President Harry Truman in Congress
b. Providing labor for building various institutions
c. Establishing the Hall of Fame for baseball
d. Creating much of the violence in New York City

4. What is the fastest-growing center of Puerto Rican population in the U.S. in the
21st century?

a. Newark
b. Orlando
c. New York City
d. Chicago

5. What were the various issues faced by Puerto Rican immigrants over the years?
How did they deal with these issues? How did an urban recession affect
immigration in the 60's and 70's?

6. What are the various ways in which Puerto Rican immigrants have contributed to
U.S. culture? What fields or professions are represented? Who are some famous
Puerto Ricans associated with each of these professions?

Migrating to a New Land

The story of the Puerto Rican people is unique in the history of U.S. immigration,
just as Puerto Rico occupies a distinctive-and sometimes confusing-position in the
nation's civic fabric. Puerto Rico has been a possession of the U.S. for more than a
century, but it has never been a state. Its people have been U.S. citizens since 1917, but
they have no vote in Congress. As citizens, the people of Puerto Rico can move
throughout the 50 states just as any other Americans can-legally, this is considered
internal migration, not immigration. However, in moving to the mainland, Puerto Ricans
leave a homeland with its own distinct identity and culture, and the transition can involve
many of the same cultural conflicts and emotional adjustments that most immigrants face.
Some writers have suggested that the Puerto Rican migration experience can be seen as
an internal immigration-as the experience of a people who move within their own
country, but whose new home lies well outside of their emotional home territory.
At first, few Puerto Ricans came to the continental U.S. at all. Although the U.S.
tried to promote Puerto Rico as a glamorous tourist destination, in the early 20th century
the island suffered a severe economic depression. Poverty was rife, and few of the
island's residents could afford the long boat journey to the mainland. In 1910, there were
fewer than 2,000 Puerto Ricans in the continental U.S., mostly in small enclaves in New
York City, and twenty years later there were only 40,000 more.
After the end of the Second World War, however, Puerto Rican migration
exploded. In 1945, there had been 13,000 Puerto Ricans in New York City; in 1946 there
were more than 50,000. Over the next decade, more than 25,000 Puerto Ricans would
come to the continental U.S. each year, peaking in 1953, when more than 69,000 came.
By 1955, nearly 700,000 Puerto Ricans had arrived. By the mid-1960s, more than a
million had.
There were a number of reasons for this sudden influx. The continuing depression
in Puerto Rico made many Puerto Ricans eager for a fresh start, and U.S. factory owners
and employment agencies had begun recruiting heavily on the island. In addition, the
postwar years saw the return home of thousands of Puerto Rican war veterans, whose
service in the U.S. military had shown them the world. But perhaps the most significant
cause was the sudden availability of affordable air travel. After centuries of immigration
by boat, the Puerto Rican migration became the first great airborne migration in U.S.

1. According to the article, what is the status of Puerto Rico in relation to the U.S.?

a. It became a state in 1917, so its people enjoy full rights as citizens of the
b. It is a sovereign Hispanic country in which people elect their
c. It is a territory of the U.S with full representation in Congress.
d. It is a possession of the U.S. and its people are legally U.S. citizens.

2. Which of the following statements is true concerning Puerto Ricans who migrate?

a. They strongly identify with U.S. culture and find it easy to adapt.
b. They have finally found an emotional home in the U.S.
c. They experience many conflicts due to differences in U.S. culture.
d. They take an active role in combating poverty in Puerto Rico.

3. What event was responsible for a large sudden increase in Puerto Rican
population in New York City?

a. The Great Depression
b. The end of World War I
c. The increase in boat travel
d. The promotion of tourism

4. Which statement represents the story of Puerto Rican immigration most

a. It has continued to increase and spread over time.
b. It is decreasing due to better conditions in Puerto Rico.
c. It is the experience of a people who dislike their own country.
d. It is the saga of the first great boat migration in U.S. history.

5. Why is the story of Puerto Rican people unique in the history of immigration?
What reasons are stated for the influx of Puerto Ricans since 1945?

A Tale of Two Moralities: The Transition from Rural to Urban Life

A Mexican campesino, when he migrates, normally follows an itinerary taken
before him by relatives and compadres. When he arrives, the latter provide an often
intricate network of contacts that are indispensable for his adjustment to the new
situation. They will often provide initial housing, they can give information and advice,
and perhaps most important, they serve as an informal labor exchange. Such a network
awaited Manuela in Acapulco. In addition to the aunt with whom she was staying, there
were two more aunts and an uncle with their respective families, including some twelve
cousins of all ages. This family system, of course, was transposed to the city from the
village, but it took on a quite different character in the new context. Freed from the
oppressive constraints of village life, the system...was more benign. Manuela
experienced it as such. Several of her cousins took turns taking care of little Roberto
when Manuela started to work. Her aunt's fiance6" (a somewhat euphemistic term), who
was head clerk in the linen supply department of the hotel, found Manuela a job in his
department. The uncle, through a compare who was head waiter in another hotel,
helped her get a job there as a waitress...
Manuela now had a fairly steady cash income, modest to be sure, but enough to
keep going. This does not mean, however, that she could keep all of it for herself and her
child. The family system operated as a social insurance agency as well as a labor
exchange, and there was never a shortage of claimants. An aunt required an operation.
An older cousin set up business as a mechanic and needed some capital to start off.
Another cousin was arrested and a substantial mordida was required to bribe his way out
of jail. And then there were always new calamities back in the village, requiring
emergency transfers of money back there. Not least among them was the chronic
calamity of grandfather's kidney ailment, which consumed large quantities of family
funds in expensive and generally futile medical treatments.
Sometimes, at the hotel, Manuela babysat for tourists with children. It was thus
that she met the couple from California. They stayed in Acapulco for a whole month, and
soon Manuela took care of their little girl almost daily. When they left, the woman asked
Manuela whether she wanted a job as a maid in the States. "Yes," replied Manuela at
once, without thinking. The arrangements were made quickly. Roberto was put up with
a cousin. Uncle Pepe, through two trusted intermediaries, arranged for Manuela to cross
the border illegally. Within a month she arrived at the couple's address in California.

Word Key:
campesino- peasant
compadres- friend, buddy
mordida- kickback

1. According to the article, what system provides essential support for a Mexican

a. The social service system run by the local government
b. A network of services provided by the Catholic Church
c. Services provided by insurance agencies for social issues
d. A network of extended family that performs numerous services

2. Which statement describes the family system that Manuel encountered in

a. It is freer and kinder than the system she encountered in village life.
b. It is the same system as she experienced in the village.
c. It is almost non-existent by comparison to the strong village system.
d. It is more oppressive and demanding than village family life.

3. Which of the following best explains how the family unit operates as a social
insurance agency?

a. No services are required in return for family kindness and favors.
b. Earned income is donated to meet needs in the extended family.
c. The family offers counseling and advice to new arrivals.
d. The family takes turns taking care of loved ones.

4. The article indicates that migration patterns and settlements are highly dependent
upon what factor?

a. People moving from large cities to small villages
b. Bribing someone to get to a destination and get settled
c. Routes traveled or places settled by family members previously
d. Finding a job with benefits in a large corporation

5. What factors influenced Manuela to migrate from a Mexican village to a city and
then to the U.S.? What social and cultural values does she bring with her to U.S.

A Personal History of California

...We hear a lot these days about increased immigration of Mexicans into
California, and about Latinos gaining in population and in status. There is often concern
expressed, by the present "majority", about these trends. The images we often see are of
desperate people struggling to come to this land of opportunity and wealth to create a
better life for their families and their descendants. We hear of the debate over bilingual
education. How few of us are alive to remember that this was once the opposite situation,
that until 1846, California, and much of the west, was part of Latin America, and it was
Americans that were unwelcome foreigners. The language of colonial California was, in
fact, Spanish, and California's Constitution, just last year celebrating it's 150th
anniversary, was written (in Monterey) in both Spanish and English.
You see, I am a descendant of one of the families that came to California in 1776.
My grandmother on my mother's side is Velma Lucille Bernal. We are the descendants
of Juan Francisco Bernal, and Josefa de Soto, who came to California with their children
on the Juan Bautista de Anza expedition of 1775/1776 from Sinaloa, Mexico. The
members of the de Anza expedition came to "Alta" California at the command of King
Carlos III of Spain in search of a better life for their families and their descendants. At
the time when the British colonies on the east coast were just declaring independence,
California had already been settled by a different kind of pioneer. They came when the
California territory, or "department" as it was called, was the possession of Spain.
In 1824, after three centuries of Spanish exploration, military conquests, and
colonial activity, Mexico declared its independence, and the department of California
became part of a new Latin American Republic (Mexico). The settlers of the de Anza
expedition, called Pobladores, included family names such as Castro, Pico, Peralta, Lara,
Galindo, Sanchez, Moraga, Arrellano, Bernal, Mesa, Tapia just to name a few. These
families became the "Dons and Dofias", ranch owners of immense tracts of land during
California's Mexican period. Due to tensions over Texas, a war broke out in 1846
between the U.S. and Mexico. In July of 1846, American marines, under the command
of Commodore Sloat, annexed California from Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe
Hildalgo ended the war, but nine days before the treaty was signed, gold was discovered
at Sutter's Mill near Sacramento. Shortly, tens of thousands of American immigrants
poured into California during the "Gold Rush" in search of better life for their families
and their descendants.
The names I uncovered during my search for a more personal view of history took
on a significance that became more apparent as the story unfolded. After visiting the
Contra Costa and Moraga Historical Societies, and meeting one of many distant
Californian cousins, it was suggested that I could be a descendant of the grandson of Juan
Francisco Bernal, Juan Bernal, of the Rancho Laguna de los Palos Colorados near
Moraga, California. Thanks to people who value the past, records had painstakingly been
saved over the years that allow one to reconstruct it. As I went through these records, I
found entries that directly linked Juan's son, Nicolas Bernal, with the children of the next
generation that included Dionosio Bernal, my grandmother's father. I also found entries
for Dionosio's mother, Maria Encarnaci6n Andrea Sibrian. The many times my
grandmother had shown me Maria Encarnaci6n's picture we were unaware that she was
the daughter of none other than Rose Marie Pacheco. This is the same Pacheco family

for which Pacheco Pass is named. I also found records that showed that Juan Francisco's
son, Apolonario Bernal, and his wife Teodora Peralta, once found an American
immigrant named John Gilroy at the beach in Monterey. Apolonario and Teodora found
John Gilroy dying, and brought him to the Peralta's San Antonio Ranch, where they
nursed him back to health. This was the man to which the town of Gilroy was later
named, an event that would not have taken place had events taken a less compassionate
turn. More disturbing were the other records of Nicolas and his father, Juan Bernal. Juan
Bernal may never have lived on his land. He died in 1847 while in his 40s, and was blind
in his later years. His son, Nicolas, born in 1833, and his brothers, were raised by his
mother and a stepfather, Ramon Higuera. Remember this name later, Higuera.
...Propagating through the generations, a thread can start to be woven into a
tapestry that begins to connect how our family's history is linked to that which is told,
and often untold, in the history books. But history is not just about books. It is about
understanding the reasons why things have turned out the way they have, and for finding
directions that time and events seem to be flowing. Many consider the pursuit of such
things the work of the idle, but I believe that there may be a higher force at work. Over
ten years ago, long before I discovered the names in the story of our personal view of
history, my cousin, Deanna Bernal, married a Higuera. Without prior knowledge of the
past, there is yet again a Bernal-Higuera union. Another cousin, who until recently had
not been told the story of the Bernals, has a son who is now over eight years old. At the
last minute after the child was born, the proud parents gave the son the name Nicolas.
The parents don't know why they gave the son the name that they did; they claim that it
"came out of the air." So what was the name that my grandmother and her siblings never
knew? It was Nicolas. This was the key to linking our families records with the
historical accounts of the Bernal family who came to California in search of a better life
for their children and their descendants.
...My grandmother, Velma Bernal, was born December 13, 1901 in the century
that has just passed. She too passed away before the answers to these questions were
fully answered, but her death in December of 1998 launched me into a quest to take up
her search described above. She died not knowing the history that is kept from many
books, and many minds of the people who have come to California since those early
days. Now a new rush is underway in California. With the dawn of the information age
and the race to connect the world via the internet, the "Silicon Rush" brings families to
California in search of a way to turn this element into gold. These new families, like the
generations before them, come to California in search of a better life for their families
and their descendants. How will history record the lives and accomplishments of these

1. What does this excerpt strongly imply about the settlement of California?

a. Mexican immigration represents a new phenomenon in California.
b. Mexicans have historically contributed to California's economy and
c. Mexicans view California as a land of opportunity.
d. Anglos have maintained their historic majority status in California.

2. What finding was crucial in showing that the narrator of these accounts is linked
to a family who had settled in California in 1776?

Records kept by historical societies
Court records in California
An old family testament
Old records kept at St. Mary's College

3. The author expresses a concern about which of the following?

How recent immigrants' history will be recorded
The war between Americans and Mexicans
The lack of history about California immigration
Court trials about illegal immigrants

4. According to this reading, what historical factors contributed to the early
development of California?

5. What legacy is the narrator trying to convey to others for their search of family

The History of Ybor City

Ybor City, a section of the large metropolitan area of Tampa, Florida, owes its
beginning to three Spaniards who came to the "New World" in the 19th century: Gavino
Gutierrez, Vicente Martinez Ybor, and Ignacio Haya. Ybor immigrated to Cuba in 1832,
at the age of 14. He worked as a clerk in a grocery store, then as a cigar salesman, and in
1853 he started his own cigar factory in Havana. Labor unrest, the high tariff on Cuban
cigars, and the start of the Cuban Revolution in 1868 caused Ybor to move his plant and
his workers to Key West, Florida. While his business there was successful, labor
problems and the lack of a good fresh water supply and a transportation system for
distributing his products led him to consider moving his business to a new location.
Gavino Gutierrez came to the United States from Spain in 1868. He settled in
New York City, but he traveled often-to Cuba, to Key West, and to the small town of
Tampa, Florida, searching for exotic fruits such as mangoes and guavas. During a visit to
Key West in 1884, he convinced Ybor and Ignacio Haya, a cigar factory owner from
New York who was visiting Ybor, to travel to Tampa to investigate its potential for cigar
manufacturing. That same year Henry Bradley Plant, a businessman from Connecticut,
had completed a rail line into Tampa and was in the process of improving the port facility
for his shipping lines. These methods of transportation would make it easy to import
tobacco from Cuba as well as distribute finished products. Tampa also offered the warm,
humid climate necessary for cigar manufacturing, and a freshwater well.
After visiting Tampa in 1885, both Haya and Ybor decided to build cigar factories
in the area. Gutierrez surveyed an area two miles from Tampa, even drawing up a map to
show where streets might run. Ybor purchased 40 acres of land and began to construct a
factory. He continued to manufacture cigars in Key West as well, until a fire destroyed
his factory there in 1886. Afterwards, Ybor spent all of his time on his operations in the
Tampa area. At age 68, Ybor began developing a company town "with the hope of
providing a good living and working environment so that cigar workers would have
fewer grievances against owners."
There had been Spanish and Cuban fishermen in the Tampa region before Spain
ceded Florida to the United States in 1819, but the city had grown slowly. As late as
1880, the population was only about 700. In 1887 when the city of Tampa incorporated
Ybor City into the municipality, the population increased to more than 3,000. By 1890
the population of Tampa was about 5,500. Most residents made their living from cigar
making, while the occupations of many other workers revolved around the cigar trade.
For example, some workers made the attractive wooden cigar boxes in which the hand-
rolled cigars were shipped and which, in most American homes, came to be used for
holding keepsakes. Other workers made cigar bands, pieces of paper around each cigar
denoting its brand, which once were collected by children all over the country.
Ybor City developed as a multiethnic community where English was a second
language for many of its citizens. Cubans made up the largest group. About 15 percent of
them were African Cubans. Next were the Spaniards, who came in large numbers after
1890. Together these two groups dominated the cigar industry and set the cultural tone
for the community. Ybor City also attracted Italians, mostly Sicilians, who had first come
to work in the sugar cane fields in Louisiana. Some Italians worked in the cigar industry,
but many operated restaurants and small businesses or farmed for a living. Most became

bilingual in Italian and Spanish. Other immigrants included Germans, Romanian Jews,
and a small number of Chinese. The Germans contributed to the cigar industry through
their superb cigar box art. The lithographs incorporated into their cover designs were
considered the best in the world. Romanian Jews and Chinese immigrants worked mainly
in retail businesses and in service trades.
Ybor City eventually out-produced Havana as a manufacturing center of quality
cigars. Both Ybor and Haya offered plant sites and other incentives to lure other major
cigar factory owners away from Cuba and Key West. There were also hundreds of small
cigar making shops. By 1900 Tampa's Ybor City had become known as the "Cigar
Capital of the World."...
Ybor City continued to grow and prosper through the 1920s and into the 1930s.
Several factors soon converged to bring about hard times, however. Cigarette
consumption began to grow, a major depression struck the nation, and improved
machinery for rolling cigars began to produce a product comparable in workmanship to
the hand-rolled variety. At first, these machine-produced cigars could find little market
because the hand-rolled "Havana" type cigar had such a good reputation. Then the
producers of the machine-made cigars launched a notorious "spit" campaign. In their
advertisements they falsely claimed that human saliva played a major role in the
production of hand-manufactured cigars.
The combined effect of the "spit campaign," the Great Depression, and the
growing popularity of cigarettes finally changed Ybor City. Large factories either
mechanized or went out of business. As machines took over for people, many of Ybor
City's residents moved elsewhere in Tampa to find work. Between 1930 and 1940, some
Cubans left the city and returned to their homeland.
In the 1960s Ybor City was split apart by an urban renewal project. Seventy acres
of the old city were leveled, including several hundred houses, one mutual aid society
building, and a fire station. An interstate highway took up part of the leveled ground, but
the rest was never redeveloped because federal funds and private investments did not
materialize. This destruction did have one positive effect, however. Years later, it
prompted a number of civic organizations to band together to preserve what remained of
the city's historic buildings and ethnic heritage.

1. Why did Vicente Martinez Ybor leave Cuba to start a cigar factory in Key West,

a. Labor unrest
b. High tariffs on Cuban cigars
c. The start of the Cuban Revolution
d. All of the above

2. What event caused the population of Tampa to increase significantly in 1887?

a. A rail line into Tampa was completed for transporting cigars.
b. The city of Tampa incorporated Ybor City into its municipality.
c. The Tampa bay port facilities were improved considerably.
d. A freshwater well was established to aid residents.

3. Which of the following is NOT a factor that caused a decline in Ybor City's
cigar-making industry?

a. Cigar rolling became a mechanized process
b. Cigarette consumption increased
c. Citizens became increasingly aware of the health risks associated with
cigar smoking
d. The Great Depression

4. How was Gavino Gutierrez influential in establishing Ybor City?

5. What impact did the cigar industry have on the growth of Tampa? How did
various immigrants contribute to the industry and to the development of Ybor
City as a multiethnic community?

6. What occurred in Ybor city in the 1960s? What positive outcome came from this

Ybor City's Cigar Workers

The men and women of Ybor City [in Tampa, FL] who made the hand-rolled
cigars earned good wages for the times and had a certain amount of control over their
work day. Because they were paid by the number of cigars they turned out each day
rather than by the hour, they set their own rate of production. These cigar workers were
artisans, and the goal for both the factory owner and the individual worker was to
produce perfect handcrafted cigars.
The first step in cigar manufacturing was to age the filler, binder, and tobacco
wrapper under controlled climate conditions. Then they were prepared for blending with
different tobacco types to control the flavor. Next, workers called "strippers" selected and
stripped from the tobacco plant the leaves to carry to the cigar makers. From a supply of
leaves beside him, a cigar maker picked up several filler leaves of tobacco, laying them
one by one on the palm of the hand until he could tell by the weight that he had enough
for the cigar. Each of the filler leaves had to be pointed in just the right direction so that
the cigar would burn evenly and hold its ash properly. The filler was then wrapped with a
binder to form a "bunch". Then the wrapper leaf was placed on a wood board and
trimmed, the bunch placed on top of it, and the cigar was rolled in one smooth, flowing
motion. The wrapper was sealed with a dab of gum "tragacant", the sap of a tree grown in
Iran. The worker then trimmed the finished cigar with his blade (a thin wedge-shaped
steel knife), and it was ready for seasoning (or storage) for up to three years before it was
considered aged enough to be sold. Workers called "pickers" sorted the finished cigars
according to color, size, and shade to ensure that all cigars in a box would look roughly
the same. Packers then took the sorted cigars, placed a paper ring on each one and put
them in the boxes that were then ready to be shipped and sold.
Each worker in the factories' large workrooms contributed about 25 cents per
week for the services of lectors (readers). A lector sat on a platform above the workers
and in a loud, clear voice, read through several daily newspapers, often commenting on
their contents. He also might read aloud from Spanish poets, or from the works of Miguel
de Cervantes Saavedra, author of novels, plays, and tales. Cervantes' Don Quixote has
long been one of the world's best loved books (perhaps better known now from the
musical, Man of La Mancha). Because they listened to the reader for several hours a day,
the workers probably were better informed than most Americans of the time. These
readers were talented, well-paid men who commented on the news with wit or irony and
who used their voices to indicate different characters in the poems and novels they read.
After work hours, most cigar workers took advantage of Ybor City's mutual aid
societies. Different ethnic groups founded these social and cultural organizations to help
members adapt to a new land while retaining their ethnic traditions. Mutual aid society
members could gather at their clubhouse to socialize over dominoes or cards, attend a
performance or dance, or participate in a variety of other recreational activities. However,
these societies provided more than entertainment. For a small fee collected weekly from
their members, clubs contracted with doctors and hospitals to provide medical care. The
societies also operated pharmacies and provided burial services for their members. The
Spanish-speaking population founded four of these clubs. Italian and German immigrants
each established a club as well.

El Centro Espafiol, founded in 1891, was the first mutual aid society in Ybor City.
To join, applicants had to be either Spaniards by birth or loyal to Spain. Members paid 25
cents a week to enjoy social privileges as well as death and injury benefits. In 1975 the
club still had some 2,000 members who used its restaurant and coffee shop, and attended
movies during the week and live performances on weekends. El Centro Espafiol has been
vacant, however, since the mid-1980s. Three of Ybor City's mutual aid society
clubhouses, El Centro Asturiano, El Circulo Cubano, and L'Unione Italiana, have
remained in continuous use since they were constructed in the first quarter of the 20th
century. By providing everyday services such as recreation and medical care, Ybor City's
mutual aid societies successfully helped immigrant residents maintain their ethnic
identity while adapting to life in a new country.

1. What was the role of the lectorss" in Ybor City's cigar factories?

a. Indicate the orders that needed to be filled each day by the cigar makers
b. Read directions aloud to the cigar makers on how to make different types
of cigars
c. Read current events and literary works to the cigar makers while they
d. Supervise the workers' quantity of production

2. Which of the following was not a job characteristic enjoyed by the cigar workers?

a. The opportunity to be artistic on the job
b. Good pay for the era in which they worked
c. Insurance benefits for retirement
d. The opportunity to learn ideas while on the job

3. Which of the following is not a service that mutual aid societies provided to its
a. Compensation for injury
b. Entertainment
c. Medical care
d. Burial services

4. Do you think that the life of immigrants in Ybor City was better or worse than
that of most immigrants in America during the same time period? Why?

5. What varied purposes did mutual aid societies serve in Ybor City? Why were
these important to the immigrants?

6. What aspects of the cigar worker's life allowed him/her to work in a more
professional manner than many other factory workers? What decision-making
powers did he/she have over the job?

Crossing the Straits

Cuban immigration to the U.S. began in an era of peaceful coexistence between
the two nations. In the latter part of the 19th century, workers moved freely between
Florida and the island, and the trade in sugar, coffee, and tobacco was lucrative. Cigar
companies soon began relocating from Cuba to avoid tariffs and trade regulations, and
Cubans came by the thousands to work in the factories. Soon the towns of Key West and
Ybor City were the capitals of a tobacco-scented empire, and also became the centers of
new Cuban enclaves. Even as these communities grew, Cuban workers continued to
shuttle across the Straits of Florida as work allowed. At the beginning of the 20th
century, between 50,000 and 100,000 Cubans moved between Havana, Tampa, and Key
West every year.
At the same time, some Cubans fled political persecution, including Jos6 Marti,
the father of Cuban independence, who worked as a writer in New York City while
organizing his liberation forces. After the Spanish-American War and through the early
20th century, the U.S. maintained a high level of interest in Cuban affairs, and U.S.
businesses increased their investments in Cuban enterprises. Meanwhile, as the Cuban
government adopted increasingly repressive policies, opposition leaders continued to
seek refuge in the U.S. In the 1950s, the harsh regime of Fulgencio Batista brought
political resistance to a boiling point, and the number of refugees swelled
When Fidel Castro led his revolutionary army into Havana in January of 1959, he
ushered in a new era in Cuban life. He also launched a new era of mass emigration from
his country to the United States. In the decades that followed, more than one million
Cubans would make their way to the U.S., and thousands more would try and fail. Once
the new Cuban government allied itself with the Soviet Union, the U.S. and Cuba became
open enemies, and prospective emigrants were at the mercy of international politics.
Through the years, as relations between the countries improved or deteriorated, the door
of emigration would be opened and closed again and again. As a result, Cubans arrived in
the U.S. in several distinct phases, each of which had a distinctly different reception.
The first Cubans to flee were the wealthiest-affluent professionals and members
of the Batista regime who feared reprisals from the new government. More than 200,000
of these "golden exiles" had left Cuba for the U.S. by 1962, when air flights between the
two countries were suspended. Between 1965 and 1973, a few flights resumed from
Varadero beach in Cuba, and 300,000 more Cubans, who became known as Varaderos,
seized the opportunity to emigrate. Many of the Cubans of these first waves felt that it
was only a matter of time before the new government was overthrown, and planned to
wait in the U.S. for their opportunity to return.
The immigrants of these first two phases were welcomed in the U.S. with open
arms. It was the peak of the Cold War, and immigrants from Cuba were viewed by many
in the U.S. as refugees from a dictatorial regime. The U.S. government opened a Cuban
Refugee Center in Miami, and offered medical and financial aid to new arrivals. In 1966
Congress passed the Cuban American Adjustment Act, which allowed any Cuban who
had lived in the U.S. for a year to become a permanent resident-a privilege that has
never been offered to any other immigrant group.
The next major group of immigrants received a very different welcome. In 1980,
under international pressure, the Cuban government opened the port city of Mariel to any

Cuban who wanted to leave for the United States. The Cuban-American community
mobilized to help, and within days, a massive flotilla of private yachts, merchant ships,
and fishing boats arrived in Mariel to bring Cubans to Florida. In the six months the port
remained open, more than 125,000 Cubans were delivered to the U.S. These immigrants,
known as the Marielitos, were much less affluent than previous generations had been,
however, and a few thousand had been incarcerated while in Cuba. As a result, many
Marielitos were stigmatized in the U.S. as undesirable elements, and thousands were
confined in temporary shelters and federal prisons-some for years.
Many Cubans took even greater risks in their attempts to leave their country. In
the 1980s and 1990s, tens of thousands of hopeful emigrants attempted to flee by sea,
chancing death by drowning, exposure, or shark attacks to make the 90-mile crossing.
Many thousands rode only on flimsy, dangerous, homemade vessels, including inner
tubes, converted cars, and cheap plywood rafts, or balsas. Hundreds of the balseros died
on the journey, and both governments came under global pressure to stop the flotillas. By
the end of the 90s, the two countries agreed that U.S. would return any boats to Cuba.
At the beginning of the 21st century, very few Cuban emigrants successfully
reached the United States. Only a major shift in relations between the two countries will
result in any more substantial Cuban immigration in the future.

1. Where were the first centers of Cuban immigrants in the U. S. located?

a. New York City
b. Tampa
c. Miami
d. Jacksonville

2. For what reason did the first Cubans come to the U.S.?

a. To work in the garment industry
b. To flee from repression under the dictator Batista
c. To escape persecution under Fidel Castro
d. To work in the cigar industry

3. Which of the following statements represents the relationship between the U.S.
and Cuba prior to 1959?

a. The U.S. refused to grant asylum to Cuban political refugees.
b. The U.S. maintained political and business interests in Cuba.
c. There was little interaction or traffic between Florida and Cuba.
d. The U.S. would return any refugees that were in boats to Cuba.

4. To what may the various waves of Cuban immigration to the U.S. be attributed?

a. Frequently changing conditions between the U.S. and Fidel Castro
b. The various stages of success of the Cuban Revolution
c. The repression of Cuban people by the Soviet Union
d. The poverty and lack of educational opportunity on the island

5. What was the attitude of U.S. society toward the first two waves of Cuban

a. They were viewed with distrust and stigmatized as undesirable.
b. They were welcomed as political refugees of a dictatorship.
c. They were refused medical and financial aid for their conditions.
d. They were treated with indifference since they weren't permanent.

6. Who made up the three great waves of Cuban immigration, and when did each
wave take place? How was each group received? Why was each group received
in the manner that it was?

7. What kinds of risks have Cuban immigrants taken over the years? What is the
current agreement between the U.S. and Cuba in regard to immigration, and what
is predicted for the future?

Transforming a City

When they finally arrived in the U.S., Cuban immigrants transformed it in lasting
and unprecedented ways. Many Cubans, especially among the earliest groups of
immigrants, at first only expected to stay in the U.S. for a short while before the new
government was overthrown. With the passing of time, however, some Cuban Americans
came to face the possibility that they would not be returning home in the near future, and
went about building a new life in their new home.
For the vast majority of Cuban immigrants, that new home was in Florida.
Although some Cubans moved to other parts of the U.S., including Chicago, Los
Angeles, and New Jersey, most stayed in Florida, and most settled in the large,
southernmost city in the state-Miami. In 1960, the Hispanic population of Miami was
50,000; in 1980, it was 580,000. The new Miamians formed a very close and cohesive
community, and they quickly began founding businesses, banks, and Cuban-American
institutions, as well as finding jobs for later arrivals. By 1970, 50% of Miami hotel staff
members were Cuban American, and in 1980 half of all Miami-area construction
companies were Cuban-owned.
Cuban immigrants soon gained a reputation for success, in part because of the
relative affluence of the first, "golden," generation. However, most Cuban immigrants
faced the same struggles as all other immigrant groups. The arrival of the Marielitos in
the 1980s led to a backlash from non-Cuban Miamians, as well as by some more
established Cuban Americans. Even the most successful Cubans had to overcome
language discrimination and religious intolerance in their time in the U.S.
Today, Miami is not only the capital of Cuban America-it has become a major
capital of the Latin American world. Much of the city is bilingual in practice if not by
law, boasting major Spanish-language newspapers, television and radio stations, as well
as studios that create movies and TV programs for Spanish speakers worldwide.
Caribbean and South American nations do business with Cuban American banks and
businesses, and Spanish-speaking tourists can feel culturally at home on the streets of
Miami. Every year the Calle Ocho festival brings hundreds of thousands of people from
all over the world into the streets of the traditional Cuban quarter for a celebration of
Cuban heritage.
In the nation overall, Cuban Americans have made a significant impact both
politically and culturally. In Florida especially, Cuban immigrants and their descendents
have become known for their political activism, whether fighting for better working
conditions for farm workers or advocating political change in Cuba. In 1985 Xavier
Suarez became the first Cuban American to be elected mayor of Miami, and three years
later Ileana Ros-Lehtinen was elected to the U.S. Congress.
Cuban artists have also had a profound influence on U.S. culture, as musicians
like Celia Cruz and Chano Pozo have brought Cuban dances, from the rumba to the
mambo to the conga, onto North America dance floors. One Cuban American bandleader,
Desi Arnaz, went on to become the first Latin American to found a television studio, and
with his production of "I Love Lucy" helped define the situation comedy as we know it
today. Meanwhile, writers such as Cristina Garcia, Reinaldo Arenas, and Oscar Hijuelos
have become critical and popular favorites, exploring the richness and complexity of the
Cuban American experience as it moves into the next century.

1. According to this article, which of the following statements represents the Cuban
immigrant experience?

a. Most Cuban immigrants integrated themselves very quickly into jobs and
businesses in Miami.
b. Cuban immigrants did not experience the same discrimination that other
immigrant groups experienced.
c. Most Cuban immigrants settled in Chicago, Los Angeles and New Jersey
when they arrived.
d. Early Cuban immigrants settled in quickly because they expected to stay
in the U.S. permanently.

2. Which group of immigrants faced opposition from both Cubans and non-Cubans
when they arrived?

a. The "golden generation"
b. Hispanics from South America
c. The Marielitos
d. Puerto Ricans

3. What is the event that attracts people from all over the world to celebrate Cuban

a. Miami's annual Latin American dance contest
b. The Latin American Music Awards
c. The Cuba Libre Fiesta
d. The Calle Ocho Festival

4. Which of the following is not a Cuban dance?

a. Mambo
b. Tango
c. Rumba
d. Conga

5. How does Miami fit its labels of "the capital of Cuban America" and "the capital
of the Latin American world"? What characteristics promote these labels? Why
are people from the Caribbean and South America drawn to Miami?

6. Explain how Cuban Americans have contributed to American culture. In what
fields have they made contributions? Identify at least one famous Cuban-
American from each field.

The Second Burial of Felix Longoria

Under the "shoot first" rule of the Texas rangers, hatred toward Tejanos took a
dramatic and deadly form. For the thousands of Mexican Americans who avoided
Ranger bullets, the prejudice of Anglos was a quiet, routine fact of life. 'No Mexicans'
declared signs in shop windows. Tejano tax supported 'White Only' swimming pools.
Job discrimination closed the doors of economic opportunity.
In many Texas counties, Tejano children attended separate, inferior schools. As
the Longoria family of Three Rivers discovered, the barriers confronting Mexican
Americans extended even beyond death.
For the first 10 years of its existence, Three Rivers had one cemetery. Anglo and
Mexican residents buried their dead in the same ground. After a while, this
"togetherness" began to make some of the Anglos uncomfortable. They felt that the
cemetery should more closely resemble the rest of Three Rivers, with its Anglo
neighborhoods and separate "Mexican Town." In 1924, a committee of Anglos told
Guadalupe Longoria that the time had come to establish a graveyard for his people. A
new area was set aside next to the old one, and someone strung up a length of barbed
wire in between.
At the age of five, Guadalupe's son Fl6ix was too young to understand the
cemetery matter, but as he grew older he learned about the other boundaries that defined
his world. It was not until he joined the army in 1945 that Felix experienced the full
equality of citizenship. Unlike their African American counterparts, Mexican American
servicemen were not segregated from the majority.
On June 16, 1945, while scouting for enemy positions in a jungle of the
Philippines, F6lix Longoria was struck by a Japanese sniper's bullet and killed instantly.
His comrades buried him in a military cemetery on Luzon Island. Less than three months
later, Japan surrendered and the war was over.
Back in Texas and across the Southwest, Mexican American veterans returned to
their old walks of life with a new sense of both ethnic and national pride. But they
quickly discovered that the old obstacles remained. In March 1948, a group of Mexican
Americans in Corpus Christi established the American GI Forum to monitor and advocate
the equal distribution of veterans' benefits.
Later that same year, military authorities notified Beatrice Longoria that her
husband's body was being transported home for reburial. She arranged to have his wake
held at the local mortuary rather than in her own living room, as was the Mexican
While Felix's remains were en route, the owner of the Rice Funeral Home told
Beatrice that she would have to change her plans. The establishment could not provide its
chapel service for the Longorias after all, he said, "because the whites would not like it."
At her sister's urging, Beatrice sent word of this matter to Dr. Hector Garcia,
founder of the GI Forum, who contacted local, state and federal officials. Newspapers
across the country picked up the story. During a protest meeting of Three Rivers, a
courier delivered a telegram from U.S. Sen. Lyndon Johnson of Texas, which read in
part: "I have today made arrangements to have Felix Longoria reburied with full military
honors in Arlington National cemetery... where the honored dead of our nation's wars

The funeral took place on Feb. 16, 1949, as a grey drizzle shrouded the gentle
slopes of Arlington. F6lix's whole family was there. Sen. Johnson and his wife came to
pay their respects. Mexican diplomats brought flowers in tribute from their country.
For some Texas Anglos, the military funeral of Felix Longoria opened a wound
rather than healed one. In the national headlines, Three Rivers had been disgraced.
A committee appointed by the state legislature held hearings at Three Rivers on
the discrimination charges. Witnesses testified for both sides, but the atmosphere was
decidedly anti-Mexican. Anglo observers openly used ethnic slurs. The Longoria
family, Dr. Garcia and others received anonymous death threats by mail and phone.
The committee initially concluded that no racial discrimination had occurred
against Beatrice Longoria, but members later called the report into question and it was
withdrawn. The Felix Longoria case brought the American GI Forum to national
prominence. The group would eventually become the nation's largest organization of
Mexican Americans.

1. According to this article, which of the following can be stated of the relationships
between Anglos and Tejanos during the 1940s?

a. Both ethnic groups shared an amiable relationship.
b. In spite of initial confrontations, both sides joined their efforts to build a
better community.
c. Racial barriers continued to affect the relationship between these two
ethnic groups to this day.
d. It does not matter because this community no longer exists.

2. What event lead to the disclosure of the way Mexican Americans were treated in
Three Rivers?

a. Signs that "only whites" could use the swimming pools
b. Drafting of Mexicans to World War II
c. F61ix Longoria's burial in a military cemetery
d. Refusal to allow F61ix's wife to use the funeral home for the wake

3. According to the excerpt, which statement is true of Three Rivers County, Texas?

a. The community shared a balance of racial power.
b. The community never had racial conflicts.
c. The community had many discriminatory practices.
d. The community overcame many racial barriers.

4. According to this article, the Texas Rangers were known for what behavior?

a. Being law abiding citizens
b. Treating everyone the same
c. Enforcing the law fairly
d. Exhibiting prejudice toward Mexicans

5. What facts from the article, indicate the racial discrimination suffered by the
Mexican people in Three Rivers, Texas?

6. According to the article, in what sense is it true that, while the victims of
intolerance change, intolerance remains the same?

7. How did the Washington burial of F61ix Longoria open, rather than heal, a wound
in the town of Three Rivers?

The Zoot-Suit Riots

World War II is often credited with pulling the country together. As their compatriots
defended democracy abroad, however, some Americans met hostile forces on the home
front. Los Angeles in the 1940s was swamped with GIs. The entertainment capital drew
thousands of servicemen on leave from nearby bases and training centers. As is today, the
civilian population of L.A. then included a large Mexican American or Chicano minority.
Many of the Anglo servicemen in town came from areas where there weren't a lot of
...A Chicano teenage fashion trend called the zoot-suit modeled on flashy
mobster attire- had been widely ridiculed in the Anglo press. Visiting servicemen joined
in harassing the strutting and posing "zoot-suiters." In the spring and summer of 1943,
tension between GIs and young Mexican American males turned violent. In Oakland and
Venice, California, sailors and marines "raided" Chicanos gatherings and attacked the
zoot-suiters, stripping them of their clothes.
On June 3 in Los Angeles, a reported dispute over Chicanos set off a military riot.
For five straight nights, Anglos in uniform stormed the streets. They dragged zoot-suiters
out of bars and nabbed them in movie theaters by turning the lights on. What started as an
assault on Mexican Americans quickly expanded to include Blacks and Filipinos. Each
night, police officers waited until the GIs had left and then swooped in to arrest the
victims of the violence. Fearing mutiny, military officials declared the downtown district
off limits to military personnel.
The measure restored order, but real peace would be harder to achieve. In a
national newspaper column, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt blamed the riots on
longstandingg discrimination against the Mexicans in the Southwest". A rebuttal by The
Los Angeles Times ended with the statement "We like Mexicans and think they like us."
This wording makes clear that, as far as official, Los Angeles was concerned, Mexican
Americans were still "them."

1. What irony was suggested in The Los Angeles Times' editorial about Mexican

a. There were several different attitudes towards the Mexican Americans in
Los Angeles.
b. The problems in Los Angeles against the Mexican Americans were non-
c. Los Angeles had discriminatory practices against the Mexican Americans.
d. In rebutting discrimination, a clear distinction of alienation was expressed.

2. What spurred the problems in Los Angeles against the zoot-suiters?

a. Police officials did not like the fashion trend.
b. Zoot-suiters were gang members and liked to stir-up problems.
c. The servicemen had returned from the war and were angry.
d. Local newspapers ridiculed the fashion trend of the Chicano youth.

3. Why did Eleanor Roosevelt comment about the incidents in Los Angeles?

She had a sympathetic view toward minority populations.
The discriminatory practices had led to violent protests.
She wanted to blame the police officials for their hostility.
It affected the servicemen stationed in the area.

4. What was the most serious consequence of the racial intolerance in Los Angeles?

Tension between Anglos and Mexicans resulted in violence.
The Anglo press had to rescind discriminatory statements.
The servicemen were banded from the city for some time.
Zoot-suiters were prohibited from wearing their distinctive clothing.

5. What facts from the article, indicate the racial discrimination suffered by the
Zoot-suiters in Los Angeles?

6. What facts from the excerpt support the fact that a clear distinction of
alienation existed among Los Angeles officials and the Mexican population?

7. According to the article, in what sense is it untrue that World War II pulled the
country together?

The Story of CUsar Chavez

The Beginning
The story of C6sar Estrada Chavez begins near Yuma, Arizona. C6sar was born
on March 31, 1927. He was named after his grandfather, Cesario. Regrettably, the story
of C6sar Estrada Chavez also ends near Yuma, Arizona. He passed away on April 23,
1993, in San Luis, a small village near Yuma, Arizona.
He learned about justice, or rather, injustice early in his life...The small adobe
home where C6sar was born was swindled from them by dishonest Anglos. C6sar's father
agreed to clear eighty acres of land and in exchange he would receive the deed to forty
acres of land that adjoined the home. The agreement was broken and the land sold to a
man named Justus Jackson. C6sar's dad went to a lawyer who advised him to borrow
money and buy the land. Later when C6sar's father could not pay the interest on the loan
the lawyer bought back the land and sold it to the original owner. C6sar learned a lesson
about injustice that he would never forget. Later, he would say, "The love for justice that
is in us is not only the best part of our being but it is also the most true to our nature."
In 1938 he and his family moved to California. He lived in La Colonia Barrio in
Oxnard for a short period, returning to Arizona several months later. They returned to
California in June 1939 and this time settled in San Jose. They lived in the barrio called
"Sal Si Puedes" ("Get Out If You Can"). C6sar thought the only way to get out of the
circle of poverty was to work his way up and send the kids to college. He and his family
worked in the fields of California from Brawley to Oxnard, Atascadero, Gonzales, King
City, Salinas, McFarland, Delano, Wasco, Selma, Kingsburg, and Mendota.
...While his childhood school education was not the best, later in life, education
was his passion. The walls of his office in La Paz (United Farm Worker Headquarters)
are lined with hundreds of books ranging from philosophy, economics, cooperatives, and
unions, to biographies on Gandhi and the Kennedys. He believed that, "The end of all
education should surely be service to others," a belief that he practiced until his untimely
In 1944 he joined the Navy at the age of seventeen. He served two years and, in
addition to discrimination, he experienced strict regimentation. In 1948 C6sar married
Helen Fabela. They honeymooned in California by visiting all the California Missions
from Sonoma to San Diego (again the influence of education). They settled in Delano and
started their family. First Fernando, then Sylvia, then Linda, and five more children were
to follow. C6sar returned to San Jose where he met and was influenced by Father Donald
McDonnell. They talked about farm workers and strikes. C6sar began reading about St.
Francis and Gandhi and nonviolence. After Father McDonnell came another very
influential person, Fred Ross. C6sar became an organizer for Ross' organization, the
Community Service Organization, CSO. His first task was voter registration.

The United Farm Workers is Born
In 1962 C6sar founded the National Farm Workers Association, later to become
the United Farm Workers--the UFW. He was joined by Dolores Huerta and the union was
born. ...
For a long time in 1962, there were very few union dues paying members. By
1970 the UFW got grape growers to accept union contracts and had effectively organized

most of that industry, at one point in time claiming 50,000 dues paying members. The
reason was C6sar Chavez's tireless leadership and nonviolent tactics that included the
Delano grape strike, his fasts that focused national attention on farm workers problems,
and the 340-mile march from Delano to Sacramento in 1966. The farm workers and
supporters carried banners with the black eagle with HUELGA (strike) and VIVA LA
CAUSA (Long live our cause). The marchers wanted the state government to pass laws,
which would permit farm workers to organize into a union and allow collective
bargaining agreements. C6sar made people aware of the struggles of farm workers for
better pay and safer working conditions. He succeeded through nonviolent tactics
(boycotts, pickets, and strikes). C6sar Chavez and the union sought recognition of the
importance and dignity of all farm workers. It was the beginning of La Causa, a cause
that was supported by organized labor, religious groups, minorities, and students. C6sar
Chavez had the foresight to train his union workers and then to send many of them into
the cities where they were to use the boycott and picket as their weapon.
C6sar was willing to sacrifice his own life so that the union would continue and
that violence was not used. C6sar fasted many times. In 1968 C6sar went on a water only,
25 day fast. He repeated the fast in 1972 for 24 days, and again in 1988, this time for 36
days. What motivated him to do this? He said, "Farm workers everywhere are angry and
worried that we cannot win without violence. We have proved it before through
persistence, hard work, faith and willingness to sacrifice. We can win and keep our own
self-respect and build a great union that will secure the spirit of all people if we do it
through a rededication and recommitment to the struggle for justice through

The Death of C6sar Chavez
C6sar Estrada Chavez died peacefully in his sleep on April 23, 1993 near Yuma,
Arizona, a short distance from the small family farm in the Gila River Valley where he
was born more than 66 years before.
The founder and president of the United Farm Workers of America...was in
Yuma helping UFW attorneys defend the union against a lawsuit brought by Bruce
Church Inc., a giant Salinas, California based lettuce and vegetable producer. Church
demanded that the farm workers pay millions of dollars in damages resulting from a
UFW boycott of its lettuce during the 1980's. Rather than bring the legal action in a state
where the boycott actually took place, such as California or New York, Church "shopped
around" for a friendly court in conservative, agri-business dominated Arizona, where
there had been no boycott activity." C6sar gave his last ounce of strength defending the
farm workers in this case," stated his successor, UFW President Arturo Rodriguez, who
was with him in Arizona during the trial. He died standing up for their First Amendment
right to speak out for themselves. He believed in his heart that the farm workers were
right in boycotting Bruce Church Inc. lettuce during the 1980's and he was determined to
prove that in court." (When the second multimillion dollar judgment for Church was later
thrown out by an appeal's court, the company signed a UFW contract in May 1996.)
After the trial recessed at about 3 p.m. on Thursday, April 22, C6sar spent part of
the afternoon driving through Latino neighborhoods in Yuma that he knew as a child.
Many Chivezes still live in the area. He arrived about 6 p.m. in San Luis, Arizona about
20 miles from Yuma, at the modest concrete block home of Dofla Maria Hau, a former

farm worker and longtime friend... Csar ate dinner at around 9 p.m. and presided over a
brief meeting to review the day's events...He talked to his colleagues about taking care of
themselves--a recent recurring theme with C6sar because he was well aware of the long
hours required from him and other union officers and staff. Still, he was in good spirits
despite being exhausted after prolonged questioning on the witness stand. He complained
about feeling some weakness when doing his evening exercises [and] went to bed at
about 10 or 10:30 p.m. A union staff member said he later saw a reading light shining
from C6sar's room. The light was still on at 6 a.m. the next morning. That was not seen as
unusual. C6sar usually woke up in the early hours of the morning well before dawn to
read, write or meditate. When he had not come out by 9 a.m., his colleagues entered his
bedroom [and] found that C6sar had died apparently, according to authorities, at night in
his sleep...

The Last March with C6sar Chavez
On April 29, 1993, C6sar Estrada Chavez was honored in death by those he led in
life. More than 50,000 mourners came to honor the charismatic labor leader at the site of
his first public fast in 1968 and his last in 1988, the United Farm Workers Delano Field
Office at "Forty Acres." It was the largest funeral of any labor leader in the history of the
U.S. They came in caravans from Florida to California to pay respect to a man whose
strength was in his simplicity. Farm workers, family members, friends and union staff
took turns standing vigil over the plain pine coffin which held the body of C6sar Chavez.
Among the honor guard were many celebrities who had supported Chavez throughout his
years of struggle to better the lot of farm workers throughout America. Many of the
mourners had marched side by side with Chavez during his tumultuous years in the
vineyards and farms of America. For the last time, they came to march by the side of the
man who had taught them to stand up for their rights, through nonviolent protest and
collective bargaining. Cardinal Roger M. Mahoney, who celebrated the funeral mass,
called Chavez "a special prophet for the worlds' farm workers"...

Final Resting Place/Final Recognition
The body of C6sar Chavez was taken to La Paz, the UFW's California
headquarters, by his family and UFW leadership. He was laid to rest near a bed of roses,
in front of his office.
On August 8, 1994, at a White House ceremony, Helen Chavez, C6sar's widow,
accepted the Medal of Freedom for her late husband from President Clinton. In the
citation accompanying America's highest civilian honor which was awarded
posthumously, the President lauded Chavez for having "faced formidable, often violent
opposition with dignity and nonviolence.
And he was victorious. C6sar Chavez left our world better than he found it, and
his legacy inspires us still. "He was for his own people a Moses figure," the President
declared. "The farm workers who labored in the fields and yearned for respect and self-
sufficiency pinned their hopes on this remarkable man who, with faith and discipline, soft
spoken humility and amazing inner strength, led a very courageous life"
The citation accompanying the award noted how Chivez was a farm worker from
childhood who "possessed a deep personal understanding of the plight of migrant
workers, and he labored all his years to lift their lives." During his lifetime, Chavez never

earned more than $5,000 a year. The late Senator Robert Kennedy called him "one of the
heroic figures of our time." Chdvez 's successor, UFW President Arturo Rodriguez,
thanked the president on behalf of the United Farm Workers and said, "Every day in
California and in other states where farm workers are organizing, C6sar Chavez lives in
their hearts. C6sar lives wherever Americans he inspired work nonviolently for social

1. Chdvez was greatly influenced by a number of individuals and/or their writings,
which of these was not one of them?

a. Father McDonnell
b. Fred Ross
c. Mahatma Gandhi
d. Che Guevara

2. It can be inferred from this article that C6sar Chavez was which of the following?

a. A lawyer who defended the United Farm Workers
b. A farm worker who encouraged violent protest
c. A humble man who dedicated himself to fighting injustice
d. A famous Mexican-American who founded the AFL-CIO

3. What was the principal contribution of C6sar Chavez to American society?

a. Organizing a union that forced American growers to accept contracts and
collective bargaining
b. Meeting with state government workers for personal recognition
c. Getting union members to pay dues for benefits
d. Encouraging famous people to fast in sympathy for his cause

4. According to the article, techniques used by Chavez and his followers to promote
better pay and working conditions included all but which one of the following?

a. Boycotts
b. Pickets
c. Lawsuits
d. Strikes

5. What does the statement "C6sar gave his last ounce of strength defending the farm
workers" mean?

a. C6sar died of a stroke during a day-long protest march in Arizona while he
was fasting.
b. C6sar was targeted by enemies when a strike against Bruce Church, Inc.
grew violent.
c. C6sar collapsed when the judge ordered farmworkers to pay damages to a
lettuce producer.
d. C6sar spent an exhausting last day in court defending the UFW's right to a
boycott in California.

6. Explain how Chavez's early life shaped his view of the struggle faced by farm

7. According to this reading, what were the contributing factors that shaped
Chavez's approach to activism?

8. The narrative discusses the concept of "La Causa". Explain its origin and its
impact on the improving the working conditions of farm workers.

Answer Key

History Through Aztec Eyes- The Florentine Codex
1. C
2. A
3. C
4. D
5. D
6. C

Issues of Language Use among Guatemalan-Maya of Southeast Florida
1. B
2. C
3. A
4. A
5. D

Mel Gibson's Movie Scratches Surface of Mayan History
1. B
2. C
3. C
4. A

The San Antonio Missions and the Spanish Frontier
1. D
2. D
3. A
4. B

The Spaniards and the Indians
1. C
2. B
3. D

On Bullfights and Baseball: An Example of Interaction of Social Institutions
1. D
2. A
3. C
4. C
5. A

A Tale of Two Moralities: Conflicts in Family Values
1. C
2. A
3. D
4. B
5. A

Ybor City, Jose Marti, and the Spanish-American War
1. C
2. B
3. C
4. B

The Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song MPB
1. B
2. A
3. C
4. A

In Spanish Harlem
1. D
2. A
3. B
4. B

Migrating to a New Land
1. D
2. C
3. B
4. A

A Tale of Two Moralities: The Transition from Rural to Urban Life
1. D
2. A
3. B
4. C

A Personal History of California
1. C
2. A
3. C

The History of Ybor City
1. D
2. B
3. C

Ybor City's Cigar Workers
1. C
2. C
3. D

Crossing the Straits
1. B
2. D
3. B
4. A
5. B

Transforming a City
1. A
2. C
3. D
4. B

The Second Burial of Felix Longoria
1. C
2. D
3. C
4. D

The Zoot-Suit Riots
1. D
2. D
3. B
4. A

The Story of Cesar Chavez
1. D
2. C
3. A
4. C
5. D


PART I: Latin American Studies

1. Indigenous Cultures of the Americas

History Through Aztec Eyes-The Florentine Codex
Fray Bernardino de Sahagun. Florentine Codex: General History of New Spain. Trans.
Arthur J.O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble. Santa Fe, NM and Salt Lake City,
UT: School of American Research and University of Utah, 1975. Book 12: 17-
20, 26, 47-8, 83. Reprinted by permission of the University of Utah Press.

Issues of Language Use among Guatemalan-Maya in Florida
Gladwin, R.F. "Issues of Language Use among the Guatemalan-Maya of Southeast
Florida." Florida Foreign Language Journal, 2(1), (2004). Pp. 8-15. Reprinted by
permission of author.

Mel Gibson's Movie Scratches Surface of Mayan History
Stepp, R. & Grandia, L. "Mel Gibson's Movie Scratches Surface of Mayan History." The
Times-Union. 26 December 2006: p. B-ll. Reprinted by permission of authors.

2. Spanish Missions in the New World

The San Antonio Missions and the Spanish Frontier
"The San Antonio Missions and the Spanish Frontier." Teaching with Historic Places.
< http://www.cr.nps.gov/NR/TWHP/wwwlps/lessons/2sanantonio/2facts 1.htm >
17 Nov. 2006. Reprinted by permission of Teaching with Historic Places.

The Spaniards and the Indians
"The Spaniards and the Indians." Teaching with Historic Places.
< http://www.cr.nps.gov/NR/TWHP/wwwlps/lessons/2sanantonio/2facts2.htm >
17 Nov. 2006. Reprinted by permission of Teaching with Historic Places.

3. Traditional Latin American Values

On Bullfights and Baseball
Zurcher, L. "On Bullfights and Baseball: An Example of Interaction of Social
Institutions." International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 8, (1967).
pp. 99-117. Reprinted by permission of McGraw-Hill Education.

A Tale of Two Moralities: Conflicts in Family Values
Berger, P. Pyramids of Sacrifice: Political Ethics and Social Change.
New York, NY: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, 1974. Reprinted by permission of
Basic Books, a member of Perseus Books Group.

Ybor City, Jose Marti, and the Spanish-American War
"Ybor City, Jos6 Marti, and the Spanish-American War." Teaching with Historic Places.
Nov. 2006. Reprinted by permission of Teaching with Historic Places.

4. Brazilian Music

The Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song MPB
Perrone, Charles A. Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song MPB 1965-1985. Austin:
University of Texas Press, 1989. Reprinted by permission of the University of
Texas Press.

PART 2: Latino Studies

1. Puerto Ricans in the U.S.

In Spanish Harlem
"In Spanish Harlem." Immigration...Puerto Rican/Cuban. 22 April 2004.
8 Jan. 2007.
Reprinted by permission of Library of Congress Educational Staff.

Migrating to a New Land
"Migrating to a New Land." Immigration...Puerto Rican/Cuban. 22 April 2004. Library
of Congress. 17
Nov. 2006. Reprinted by permission of Library of Congress Educational Staff.

2. Mexicans in the U.S.

A Tale of Two Moralities: The Transition from Rural to Urban Life
Berger, P. Pyramids of Sacrifice: Political Ethics and Social Change.
New York, NY: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, 1974. Reprinted by permission of
Basic Books, a member of Perseus Books Group.

A Personal History of California
Smestad, Dr. Greg Bernal-Mendoza. A Personal History of California. August 2000.
. Revised version used by
permission of author.

3. Cubans in the U.S.

The History of Ybor City
"The History of Ybor City." Teaching with Historic Places.
Nov. 2006. Reprinted by permission of Teaching with Historic Places.

Ybor City's Cigar Workers
"The History of Ybor City." Teaching with Historic Places.
< http://www.cnnps.gov/NR/TWHP/wwwlps/lessons/51 ybor/5 facts2.htm > 17
Nov. 2006. Reprinted by permission of Teaching with Historic Places.

Crossing The Straits
"Crossing the Straits." Immigration...Puerto Rican/Cuban. 22 April 2004. Library of
Congress. 17 Nov.
2006. Reprinted by permission of Library of Congress Educational Staff.

Transforming a City
"Transforming a City." Immigration.. Puerto Rican/Cuban. 22 April 2004. Library of
Congress. 17
Nov. 2006. Reprinted by permission of Library of Congress Educational Staff.

4. Civil Rights Issues

The Second Burial of Felix Longoria
Carnes, Jim. Us and Them: A History of Intolerance in America. Montgomery, AL:
Southern Poverty Law Center/Teaching Tolerance, 1995. Reprinted by permission
of Southern Po erty Law Center. For reproductions, visit

The Zoot-Suit Riots
Carnes, Jim. Us and Them: A History of Intolerance in America. Montgomery, AL:
Southern Poverty Law Center/Teaching Tolerance, 1995. Reprinted by permission
of Southern Poverty Law Center. For reproductions, visit

The Story of Cesar Chavez
From Contemporary Hispanic Biography by Thomson Gale, 2003. Reprinted with the
permission of The Gale Group.

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