The rescue of Cuba

Material Information

The rescue of Cuba an episode in the growth of free government
Draper, A. S ( Andrew Sloan ), 1848-1913
Place of Publication:
New York [etc.]
Silver, Burdett and company
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
186 p. : front. plates, ports., maps. ; 20 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Spanish-American War, 1898 ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by Andrew S. Draper.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
024637858 ( ALEPH )
22836480 ( OCLC )
AAQ5633 ( NOTIS )

Full Text

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Commodore Dewey at the Battle of Manila Bay.

Ir I .







Rescue of Cuba

An Episode in the Growth
of Free Government

Andrew S. Draer, LL.D.
President of Unmversityiof Wl'oi "-

Silver, Burdett and Company
Boston New York Chicago

Copyright, r'Sq

Uft Wtnichetbocker lcBB, 1Rcw Nok


THIS book has been written for young Americans. Its
purpose is twofold : it aims, first, to exhibit the war
of x898 as one more step, and an important step, in
the steady progress of the world towards universal liberty;
it also aims to offer such a faithful picture of the heroism and
manly quality of the American soldiers and sailors who gave
their lives for the rescue of their oppressed neighbors, as
may help my young countrymen to realize what it costs to
extend free institutions, and to appreciate what it means to
be an American citizen.

The story of the slow movement of the human race out
from the dark ages of universal tyranny into the modern
age of freedom, enlightenment, and equality has never yet
been clearly taught in our schools below the universities.
For the last six or seven centuries the world has been mov-
ing from densest ignorance towards the era of the common
school for everybody; from continuous disorder, warfare,
and robbery, to peaceful commerce and safe industry ; from
the unbridled power of kings and nobles, to the security of
a free, law-abiding state; from intolerance and persecution,
to freedom of thought and liberty of speech.
In this steady progress the topics of our special histories
are only episodes, and they can be fully understood only
when the student is able to give them their proper setting
as parts of the grand human movement towards liberty.
This progress of the world towards emancipation has met
terrible antagonism. Kings and nobles have been against
it. Ignorance, intolerance, and selfishness have always
been in opposition to it. It has occasioned the greatest
battles of history and has brought out the most conspicuous
heroes of the race. Every free land has been made free by
the richest human blood shed for liberty.
The battles for freedom have done more than mark the
people's advance towards liberty; these struggles have also
quickened their wits, strengthened their manhood, and thus


further qualified them to hold and enjoy the civil liberty
they have gained.
The expulsion of Spain from Cuba by the United States
was only an episode in this world-wide contest for self-
government. In the unselfish, neighborly, and resolute
spirit which prompted it, in the magnificent heroisms which
it revealed, and in the uplift which it gave to the good
cause of popular liberty in all parts of the world, it was a
remarkable part of the long, continuous, and not yet ended
The quickness and completeness with which the thing
was done has been a surprise to ourselves as well as to
the watching world. The explanation of this my young
readers will doubtless find, to their own satisfaction, in the
strangely different characters of the two races that fought.
There was great bravery on both sides. The weapons
and the fleets were, all things considered, not unequally
matched; if our ships were better equipped, they were no
more numerous or formidable, while the Spanish army was
certainly better provided and larger in numbers than ours.
Our real superiority was in the traits and training of our
people. On our side were hardy manhood, self-reliance,
clear and accurate calculation, mechanical skill, and willing-
ness to do any kind of work that necessity demanded. On
the other side there was a great deal of bombast, conceit,
and vanity; there was a signal absence of good forecast
and of shrewd, exact planning; there was a sense of helpless
dependence on somebody else; there was a lack of manual
skillfulness; there was a love of ease at the wrong time,
and a foolish pride that made certain kinds of labor seem
A nation's ideal of sport is closely related to its physical
strength and its fighting power. On the American side the
notion of sport has been the baseball diamond and the foot-
ball gridiron, with their tests of physical endurance, their
dangers, their honest hurts, and their manly spirit; on the
Spanish side it has been the bull-ring, with its frilled pro-
fessionals, its butchery, and its depraved tastes.
The contest was that of highly trained and intelligent
manliness on the one hand, against uneducated pertinacity
and too much vainglory on the other; the methods of the


modern expert matched against the belated habits of the
mailed knights and men-at-arms of another age. The result
of such a match was speedy and overwhelming.
Some of the later developments of the war and some of
its results are not entirely relevant to the purpose of this
book. Hence, while the movement towards "expansion"
is not avoided, it has purposely been given a subordinate
place. I have treated the war from the point of view of
its true cause, not from the point of view of all its effects.
Much of what has come afterward has been an afterthought.
The case is somewhat similar to that of our Civil War;
there, the wiping out of slavery was one enormous result,
but the question whether the Union should be retained or
dissolved was what roused the people to arms, and on that
fact all judgments of that war must rest.
In our war with Spain it was not national expansion that
caused the clash of arms. The action of the United States
was forced by the people, and the people had not the remotest
consciousness of a desire for more territory. They were
disinterested. It is doubtful if they would have consented
to the war, even on the destruction of the Maine, if there
had not been, long before, a deep and right-hearted sym-
pathy with their neighbors who, in fearful distress, were
reaching for American freedom.
It was to rescue Cuba, not to gain Puerto Rico or the
Philippines, that bound all sections and parties of our people
together in a sublime demand for a resort to arms. The
results are much greater than we thought, but they may be
accepted in good conscience and with entire confidence.
In all this there is a wealth of inspiration for our Ameri-
can youth. A country that will fight, not for some commer-
cial interest, but because, like the good Samaritan, it feels
it has a duty to its suffering neighbor who has fallen among
thieves, is a country worthy of our highest pride, our lasting
faith, our utmost devotion. We may confidently follow the
humane impulses of such a country to their logical conclu-
sions, even though the road leads through fire and blood.
In the hopeof making the most of these things for the good
of our common citizenship, this little book is presented.




Historic Misgovernment by Spain
Spain's part in the world's contest for freedom; Characteristics of
the Spaniards; Bravery and courtesy; Corruption and cruelty ;
Spain's original territorial importance; Greatness of her em-
pire; Vastness of her dreams; Her self-destructive methods;
Results of her methods upon her own people; Loss of the
Netherlands; Loss of other European possessions; Losses in
America and the East Indies; A few details of Spanish in-
humanity; Final effect of Spanish misgovernment 15-27


Spanish Misrule in Cuba
Beauty of Cuba ; Size, population, climate, and resources of Cuba;
Cuba's early history and Spain's short-sightedness; Spanish
hostility to education; Series of Cuban revolts; English and
Spanish colonial policies compared; Exhausting Cuba; Tax-
ation without representation and without benefits; Official
corruption; Absence of personal liberty; The Ten Years'
War" ; Rebellion of 1895; Weyler's barbarity and war upon
the helpless ; Famine and death; Making a desert and calling
it "peace" ; Cuban intrepidity; Voice of the United States. 28-39


Rescue by the United States
American foreign policy; Washington's Farewell Address; Monroe
Doctrine; Change of policy towards Cuba forced by the
masses; Case of the Virginius; American commercial inter-
ests; Growth of popular feeling; Destruction of the Maine;
Patriotic excitement; The lights turned on; Learning the
truth; Investigations and statements by Senators Proctor and


Thurston; Popular demand for war; The President's pacific
yet energetic course; $50,ooo,ooo voted for defense by Con-
gress; Official report on the destruction of the Maine; The
President's message; The declaration of war; A war for
humanity ; The noble pledge; Lofty national ideal 40-52

The Preparation
American confidence in American ability; Unprepared for war;
Folly of unreadiness; Size of our regular army; Excellence
of our trained soldiers; Neglect of the army by Congress;
Dependence on volunteers; The President's call for volun-
teers; Character and organization of the volunteers; The
Krag-Jorgensen rifle and smokeless powder; Hasty prepara-
tions; The navy better prepared; Buying vessels; The re-
serves; Naval guns; Accurate gunnery; Training the navy;
The hospital ship; Lack of dry-docks; Making smokeless
powder; Secretary Long's foresight; A critical situation; Un-
hesitating courage 53-66


Dewey's Battle in Manila Bay
The first blow on the other side of the world; The Philippine
Islands and their importance; Defenses of Manila; The
Pacific fleet starting for Manila ; A daring venture; Confidence
of victory; Entering theharbor; Thefirst gun and the answer;
Waiting for closer range; The assault at daybreak; Gallantry
of the American flagship; Destruction of the Spanish flagship;
Spanish ships burning; Withdrawing to examine the maga-
zines and serve breakfast; A council; Renewal of the as-
sault; The white flag; Complete victory; The amazement
of the world 67-8o

The Attack on Santiago
Sailing of our Atlantic fleet; The blockade; First actions; The
new army; The first army movement; Admiral Cervera's
formidable fleet arrives; Locating Cervera at Santiago;
Lieutenant Blue's daring reconnaissance; Lieutenant Hob-
son's exploit; A "bottled" fleet; Heroism of marines at Gu-
antanamo; Welcoming General Shafter; Landing of troops;
"Old Glory" on Cuban soil; The advance; Spirit under
great difficulties; Boundless courage and steady progress 81-93


The Attack on Santiago (Continued) PAGE
Rapid movement of events; Sharp fight of the Rough Riders"
and colored regulars at Guasimas; Pushing forward towards
Santiago; Formidable obstacles; Problem of General Shaf-
ter; Fortifications at El Caney and San Juan; Opening of
the battle at El Caney ; Rapid fire on both sides; Steadiness
of American troops; The creeping advance under deadly fire :
A desperate charge; Capture of El Caney; Spanish tribute to
American gallantry; Losses at El Caney; Opening of battle
at San Juan; Derangement of original plans; March through
narrow trail; Sharpshooters in trees; The war balloon; The
charge without orders; The irresistible rush; The private
soldier; Terrible cost of victory; Holding the ridge; De-
mand for surrender of Spanish army; Escape of Spanish
fleet. 94-113

Destruction of Cervera's Fleet
The fateful Sunday, 3rd of July; The waiting American fleet; The
absent Admiral; The alarm, The enemy's ships are coming
out"; The instant rally; Opening fire; The Gloucester
"remembers the Maine"; Destruction of torpedo boats;
Helping the enemies; Three Spanish warships destroyed;
Captain Philip's chivalry; The great chase of the Colon by
the Brooklyn and the Oregon; Heroes under the decks;
The five-mile shot and the Colon's surrender; Spanish losses ;
The victory of skill and discipline; Spirit of thanksgiving for
the extraordinary triumph 114-123


The Winning of Cuba and Puerto Rico
Fourth of July with the army; Anxiety followed by confidence;
Sufferings of the American troops; Depression of the Span-
iards; Parleys about surrender; Hardship and exhaustion;
Reinforcements; Reverence for the flag; The generous
terms offered to the enemy ; Spanish politeness and curiosity;
The capitulation of 23,000 Spaniards; Scenes on entering
Santiago; The star-spangled banner over the palace; Cheers
from the trenches ; General Miles's expedition to Puerto Rico ;
Surprise and strategy; Welcome in Ponce; Friendly greet-
ings everywhere; General Miles's proclamation; Releasing
prisoners; A joyous campaign; Advance on San Juan ; A
battle stopped; The end of fighting in the West Indies 124-135



The Fall of Manila and the Suit for Peace ,
Need of troops for Manila ; Admiral Dewey's long waiting; Care-
ful preparation of General Merritt's expedition ; Peculiar in-
terest in this expedition ; The arrival at Manila ; The delicate
problem; Aguinaldo and the Philippine insurgents; Trouble-
some friends; General Merritt's wisdom; The demand for
surrender; The parley; Arrangements for attack; The as-
sault; The surrender; General Merritt's tribute to his
soldiers; A real foothold gained in the East; Spain's suit for
peace; The protocol of peace 136-146

The Spirit of American Soldiers and Sailors
American compassion for the oppressed ; The people's war; Men
of the army and navy worthy representatives of their country ;
Spanish surprise at humane ways of Americans; General and
special heroisms of Americans; Admiral Dewey's gallantry
and wisdom; Lieutenant Rowan in the enemy's country;
Lieutenant Hobson and the Merrimac; General Wheeler and
Colonel Roosevelt; Patient and generous sufferers; Lieu-
tenant Ord and the two boy privates; Young heroes on the
Brooklyn ; A clever Cuban and his beast; The daring and
dutiful newspaper men ; The heroic women; The President's
moral courage and wise statesmanship; The fury of a just
indignation 147-169

The Results
The Peace Commission ; New methods in diplomacy ; The treaty;
Justice of American demands; Review of reasons for the war;
Its enormous cost; Wiser views about preparedness for war;
European surprise as to our fighting qualities ; Our surprise at
smallness of aid from Cubans ; New spirit of union among the
American people; Better relations with Great Britain ; Our
entrance into wider relationsand responsibilities ; Our present
problem and dutyfor Cuba; The acquirement of Puerto Rico ;
The Philippine question ; Conflicting views; The predomi-
nant opinion; Our future policy with the Philippines; Addi-
tions of territory and people not unusual; Question of
citizenship not immediate; Duty to educate and develop the
new peoples under our flag; Safety in accepting national
duties; Destiny of the English-speaking race; Its ability to
govern; The war an episode in the growth of freedom; Its
ends will be completely accomplished .I7-186

List of Illustrations
Commodore Dewey at the Battle of Manila Bay,
Rulers and Leaders of Spain 22
A Map of the Seat of War in the West Indies 28
A Cuban Farmer's Family before Weyler's Edict of
Concentration 34
Spaniards Driving in the Reconcentrados 38
President McKinley and Famous Officials 44
A Group of American Major-Generals 0
Drilling the Recruits in the Volunteer Army 56
Four Fighting Admirals 62
A Map of the Philippine Islands 68
The Battle of Manila Bay, May i, i898 74
A Bird's-Eye View of Santiago and Vicinity 82
A War-Map of the Santiago Campaign 90
Charge at El Caney, July I, 1898 102
Winning the Crest of San Juan Hill, July i, i898 io8
On the Deck of the Gloucester, July 3, 1898 i6
Charge of the Brooklyn and the Oregon in the Sea-Fight
of July 3, 1898 2o
Raising the Flag in Santiago, July 17, i898 128
The Messenger of Peace, Puerto Rico, August 13,
1898. 134
American Volunteers Entering Manila, August 13,
1898. 142
The Merrimac Entering Santiago Harbor, June 3,
x898 .. i54
Colonel Roosevelt and Lieutenant Hobson i60
Four Captains Who Fought Cervera's Fleet 172



Historic Misgovernment by Spain

N the world's contest for freedom Spain has played
a large part; but her part, as this chapter and the
next will show, has been unhappily upon the wrong
side. No other people ever had greater opportunities
to attain first rank among the nations, and no other
people was ever overwhelmed with greater humilia-
tions or more dismal failure.
The Spanish people have many admirable character-
istics. They are distinguished for their grave and care-
ful courtesy to strangers and for their hospitality to
visitors. They preserve a marked dignity of bearing;
they are intensely patriotic; they are brave to the ex-
tremity of desperation. They have been in the past
energetic and aggressive.
But along with these qualities are others which are
the opposite of admirable. A proper pride is always
to be respected, but Spanish pride is so excessive that,
from an Anglo-Saxon point of view, it seems to turn
easily into foolish vanity; it certainly leads the Spanish


Courteous Manners Corruption and Cruelty

people frequently to deceive themselves rather than to
admit that they have been wrong; and no people can
make any progress unless they are willing to acknowl-
edge their failings so that they can mend them. The
chivalry and courtesy, which are so highly prized by
the Spaniards, seem too often to be a thin crust of
outward behavior, while below these pleasant manners
may be selfishness and cruel feelings. Their dignified
politeness is beautiful to experience, but underneath
this sweetness of temper the world has discovered
sad degrees of duplicity, intrigue, vindictiveness, and
inhumanity. Moreover, the Spanish character has
seemed to be almost hopelessly rapacious; the poor,
ignorant peasants of course have to work, but most
Spaniards of the more intelligent classes consider labor
to be beneath them, and too many of them have been
accustomed, even to the present, to follow the custom of
the old dark ages and depend for their riches upon what
they could wrench from those who were weaker than
themselves, or else purloin from their own Government.
There are certainly many exceptions to this: there
are good people in Spain, as everywhere; but corrup-
tion seems to prevail among Spaniards more widely
and persistently than in any other European nation; it
is the trait that has most undermined the Spanish
character, and has been more effective than any other
in retarding Spanish progress, while other European
nations have grown more honest and humane with the
progress of civilization. Corruption and cruelty have
held backward a nation of splendid possibilities, and


territorial Importance Loss of Territory

ave led Spain to commit acts almost as unwise and
rocious as those of Turkey.
The situation of the Spanish peninsula is exceedingly
important. Washed by the Atlantic on one side and
he Mediterranean on another, commanding the gate
f Gibraltar on the great highway of the nations, and
separated from the body of Europe by a mountain range
which is practically impassable against spirited defense,
her territorial position has been one of strong and world-
wide significance.
Outside of her home peninsula she has come into the
possession of more territory and lost more territory than
any other modern nation. Her arms and her diplomacy
have, at one time or another, given her claim to do-
minion over those parts of Europe now held by Austria,
Holland, Belgium, Alsace and Lorraine in Germany,
Italy, and Portugal; while her discoveries and con-
quests gave her the greater and the richer part of
North America, nearly all of South America, the West
Indies, the Philippines, and other groups of rich islands
in both hemispheres, as well as a large slice of Africa.
But her avarice, her illiberality, her intolerance of
new opinions, her antagonism to liberty, her duplicity
in dealing with other nations, her repeated attempts
to repress manhood through cruelties, have caused
nearly all these outside lands to be taken from her by
more progressive powers, or else to leave her through
their own revolutions.
Spain has not been without a civilization which was
relatively high. She was the" Tarshish of Scripture.


Wasted Opportunities Lack of Human Sympathy

Her soil is rich in vegetable and mineral wealth. The
time was when she had prosperous and famous cities,
when the arts and sciences were cultivated, when
she was at the front and gave promise of remaining
at the front of the intellectual progress of the world.
But her national policy of deceitfulness and cruelty
arrested the intellectual and moral development of her
The discovery of America by Columbus, under
Spain's auspices, gave her the chance to become a great
empire. Her monarchs had just conquered the Moors,
and had consolidated the various little Spanish king-
doms into one nation. Now the limitless quantities of
gold which began to be sent to her in treasure-ships
from America enabled her to enter a career of Euro-
pean conquest and successful enlargement which lasted
for a good part of a century, until the dominions of
Philip II. included, not only the entire Spanish penin-
sula, but Sicily and Sardinia, a large part of Italy, and
a splendid kingdom around the Rhine, besides most of
the Western Hemisphere and innumerable islands in
the Pacific and Indian Oceans. He was said to be the
monarch of one hundred million subjects.
No wonder Spain dreamed of extending her empire
till it embraced the whole world. Her soldiers were
the most numerous and daring, her fleets were the
largest, her treasury was the richest, her opportunity
was the best. Her dream of universal empire might
possibly have been realized if her rule had been tinged
with human sympathy or had paid respect to human


SSpanish Inquisition



Confiscation of Property

rights. But it was so cruel that even the ignorant and
downtrodden peoples of those earlier days revolted.
She had an ingenious method for keeping her people
in humble submission to her throne and for bringing
other nations under the same subjection; it was the
Spanish Inquisition, a system of torture and death for
opinion's sake which was well calculated to strike
terror to the strongest souls.
This was a scheme for secretly inquiring into the
thoughts of the individual, and murdering him if his
thoughts were not satisfactory to the crown. Under
the penalty of torture and death anyone might be re-
quired to inform against his neighbor, or even against
members of his own household. The inquisitors con-
demned without open trial. A suspect was put upon
the rack at midnight, in a dimly lighted dungeon, and
his sinews stretched and his bones broken until life
almost went out of the poor aching body, for the pur-
pose of eliciting a confession of guilt or a charge against
others. This torture might be continued at frequent
intervals, sometimes for years, only to let the wretched
victim perish by burning at the stake at last.
The property of the condemned went to the king,
and of course the possessors of wealth were early vic-
tims. No man was safe. Women and children were
by no means exempt. To refuse information or sup-
posed information was to defy the merciless inquisitors,
and to reveal any secret or alleged secret of the bloody
tribunal was certain death. The deceits which were
used to entrap the unwary can scarcely be believed.


Persistent Cruelties Results in the Netherlands

Death, in its most horrid form of lingering torture,
claimed hundreds of thousands. The executions took
place at stated times in the public squares and were
attended by the officials of state and by the wretched
people in vast crowds. Death was ordinarily by fire.
Confession before the multitude purchased the poor
privilege of being strangled by the garrote before the
body was thrown into the flames.
Such a system must necessarily accomplish one of
two ends, and that very completely. It must either
drive a people to revolt, or it must utterly destroy their
sense of manhood. In different parts of the empire it
did both. The results turned upon the character of
the people.
Thus, in the Spanish peninsula it stopped the wheels
of progress. It drove out a million of Moors, Protes-
tants, and Jews. The two former classes included the
best mechanics and the cleverest artificers Spain ever
had, and the Jews were her ablest bankers. To expel
all these was to cut off the internal resources of national
strength. The inquisitorial system also hurt those
who remained in Spain by putting a premium on the
arrogance of some and the subserviency of others, and
thus robbed the people of much of their moral sense.
But when Spain undertook to put this system in
operation among her subjects in the Netherlands, it
there produced a revolution, the success of which gave
a wonderful energy to the life of the liberty-loving
Dutch, and, through them, opened the way for the
advance of civilization throughout the world.


Dutch Revolt Our Debt to the Dutch

In 1568 the Spanish Inquisition condemned the
three millions of people in the Netherlands to death
because of their religious and political opinions, and a
proclamation of the Spanish king at once confirmed
the act. William the Silent led the Dutch revolt
against the oppressor. It was the world's first great
battle for the liberty of the individual. It continued
for forty years. In it a hundred thousand Nether-
landers laid down their lives for the rights of intellect
and conscience. Words would fail to tell of the ad-
venturous daring, of the intrigue and deceit, or of the
atrocious cruelties of the Spanish. But the desperate
heroism of the Dutch finally beat them back, gained
recognition for their little Republic of seven states in
1609, and established the fullest liberty of thought and
freedom of worship. They celebrated their victories by
setting up schools and universities, and entered upon a
career of intellectual and industrial progress. They
had stood during most of the war utterly alone against
the most powerful nation of Europe; their energy, in-
dustry, and virtue were so great that when their inde-
pendence was gained they were as powerful as the
English, and even more progressive; their ships were
seen in every port; there was scarcely any beggary; and
nearly every citizen could read and write.
Against this spirit in the Netherlands Spain proved
powerless. We Americans are debtors to these Dutch
patriots and defenders of freedom who delivered their
country from the Spaniards; for it was from the Dutch
Republic, quite as much as from England, that our


These ,-mada Spanish Defeats in Europe

forefathers got their ideas of liberty and popular
But before Spain was driven out of the Netherlands
the British had given her a staggering blow by defeat-
ing her Invincible Armada," which the arrogant
Philip II. sent in 1588 to subjugate England. This
was one of the most disastrous defeats in history; it
broke the power of Spain on the sea and gave it to
England, and opened the way for colonial settlements
by both the Dutch and English in America.
A little later, in 1639, Spain was again humiliated
by the loss of Portugal and its foreign colonies. Dur-
ing the latter part of the same century Spain was
beaten by France and suffered a loss of eight million
more in her population. Another war (1701-1714)
pared away what was left of the great Spanish Empire
on every side; Gibraltar and the island of Minorca
were ceded to England; Milan, Naples, Sardinia, and
Belgium were given to Austria. From the mightiest
nation in Europe, Spain thus sank in a little over a
hundred years to a third-rate power. But she still
held a lordly empire over the seas in the Western
From that opulent American empire she had drawn
her treasure for her extravagant and foolish wars at
home. She had made the American natives slaves,
and had, by harsh treatment, exterminated whole races
of them. She might have learned some valuable les-
sons from her own terrible reverses in Europe and in-
stituted a milder and juster sway in America. But her

I 11
00--. i -.iiao _a

Rulers and Leaders of Spain.
King Alfonso XIII. and his Mother, the Queen-Regent.
Captain-General Weyler. Prime Minister Sagasta.



Mistakes in America Losses in America and East Indies

misrule and extortion grew heavier in her colonies, and
they steadily slipped away from her.
Accordingly, by the time another century had passed,
Spain began to lose her vast American empire. Stimu-
lated by the success of the United States in its winning
of independence, the Spanish colonies followed one
another in rebellion. The Argentine Republic, in-
cluding Bolivia, established its independence in 181o.
Chili, Venezuela, Ecuador, and New Granada achieved
theirs during the next ten years. Peru won freedom
in 1824. Mexico and the states of Central America
broke the Spanish yoke through bloody revolutions
about the same time. Florida was bought from Spain
by the United States; and the Louisiana territory, in-
cluding the enormous region west of the Mississippi
and north as far as the British possessions, after having
been ceded by Spain to France, came to us soon after-
wards through diplomacy and purchase from France.
Brazil had gone when Portugal was lost. Santo Do-
mingo and Hayti, which had been gradually conquered
by the French, won their independence. Jamaica and
the Bahama Islands were taken by the British.
In the West Indies, accordingly, Cuba and Puerto
Rico were the only islands of importance left under
the Spanish rule at the beginning of the late war.
The great and rich islands of the East India group
in the Pacific were properly claimed by Spain through
the discoveries by Magellan; but all save the Philip-
pines, the Carolines, the Ladrones, and a few other
very small islands were taken from her by the English,


Bad Methods and Cruelties Massacre of French Colonists

French, and Dutch in the wars she had waged against
those countries in the vain hope of broadening her
It would have been no dishonor to lose all of these
vast possessions, had not most of the losses been occa-
sioned by dishonest dealings, signal violations of human
rights, and merciless cruelty. An habitual disregard
of the customs of civilized administration and of the
laws of civilized warfare has persistently formed the
substance of Spanish policy. It was so in the home
country and it has invariably been so in the territories.
The details of the persecution of the men and women
who thought for themselves, the narrative of the ex-
pulsion of the Jews and the Moors from Spain, and the
tale of the atrocities of the war in the Netherlands,
are too long and too horrible to be described. We
should willingly pass them by without mention if simi-
lar practices had not been brought to the New World
and continued into the present century.
During the religious wars of France in the latter half
of the I6th century, several hundred Huguenots, aided
by Admiral Coligny, started a colony in Florida. It
was the first attempt in America to establish a free
government, where men could enjoy liberty of opinion.
The famous English Admiral Hawkins visited this
colony in 1565, became deeply interested in it, and
has left a description of its broad and humane policy,
which was extraordinary for that day. Shortly after
Hawkins left, the terrible Menendez, with his Spanish
soldiers, arrived, and butchered the whole company of


Massacres in Mexico At Soto la Marina

men, women, and children, seven hundred in all, ex-
cept six who escaped to an English ship.
Spanish official documents show that when Vene-
zuela, Ecuador, and New Granada battled for freedom,
eighty thousand of their people, taken prisoners of
war, were hanged, shot, or otherwise murdered in
cold blood by Spanish soldiers. Frequently these
massacres were in spite of express agreements before
capitulation that their lives and property should be
secure. These crimes were not due merely to the
excesses of half-savage troops, but had the specific
approval of the Government of Spain.
Special hostility was shown against people who could
read and write, and particularly against all who were
accomplished as scholars, on the ground that they
" were more dangerous than insurgents in arms."
In the city of Guanaxuato, in Mexico, men and
women who pass a certain point in the public square
still stop and cross themselves. It is where a Spanish
general slaughtered thousands of defenseless men and
women because they were asking for freedom; and he
was rewarded for doing it by promotion to the highest
office in the territory.
In the Mexican Revolution, in June, 1816, the little
fort of Soto la Marina, after being bravely defended,
was obliged to surrender to Spanish arms. Written
articles of capitulation were agreed upon, and they were
so similar to the terms granted by General Shafter to
the Spanish garrison at Santiago that they are worth
quoting: I. All parties composing the garriso -of


At Los Remedios Four Centuries of Inhumanity

the fort of Soto la Marina, as well as those that are or
may have been at the bar or on the river, shall be
included in the present capitulation. They shall sur-
render themselves prisoners of war, everyone receiv-
ing a treatment corresponding with his rank; and the
officers shall be paroled. II. All private property
shall be respected. III. The foreigners shall be sent
to the United States, by the first opportunity. The
natives of the country shall be sent to their respective
homes, and their past conduct shall remain wholly un-
noticed. IV. The garrison shall march out with the
honors of war, and stack their arms." Notwithstand-
ing this solemn agreement, most of the garrison were
murdered, and sich as were not shot were sent to end
their lives in dungeons, a few in Mexico and the rest
in Spain. The property of all was confiscated.
In the same revolution, in January, 1818, the Mexi-
cans surrendered the fort of Los Remedios. Here,
too, the garrison was slaughtered, and the captors were
not content with shooting such as were well, but they
fired the hospital, which was filled with sick and
wounded, and as the poor unfortunates crawled out
they were thrust back into the flames or put to death
with bayonets.
There seems to be no end to the story of these brutali-
ties. They have occurred for more than four hundred
years at times when the Spanish soldiers have won the
victory in battle. Four centuries ago all nations were
shockingly cruel as compared with the present stand-
ards, but the Spaniards at that time exceeded all other


War on the Helpless Effect on Spain

peoples in mercilessness; and while other nations have
grown humane and gentle with the advance of better
civilization, the Spaniards have lagged behind, and
have continued to hold sentiments so savage as often to
impel them to war against helpless prisoners, women,
and children with the same ferocity with which they
fight against soldiers in arms. Consequently terrible
assassinations and massacres have usually followed
Spanish conquest. They have not been repressed, but
rather encouraged and approved, by the Spanish Gov-
It is not pleasant to tell this story, but it is a part of
the world's history, it bears upon the course of the
United States concerning the Spaniards, and it has at
last settled the fate of Spain.


Beautiful Cuba Size and Population


Spanish Misrule in Cuba

THE island of Cuba was the chief discovery made
by Columbus upon his first voyage. Passing by
several smaller islands, he came to this one and supposed
he had reached the main coast of China, the far-famed
" Indie of that day. He wrote in his diary, This
is the most beautiful land ever beheld by human eyes."
The Spaniards have called it, at different times, Juana,
Fernandino, Santiago, and Ave Maria, but Cuba,"
the name by which the original inhabitants called it,
has survived all others.
The length of Cuba is about 700 miles; it has an
irregular width which varies from 21 to IIi miles;
with several small islands along the coast, it contains
about 47,000 square miles. What this means is sug-
gested by a comparison. Cuba is nearly one fourth
larger than Ireland, and nearly one seventh smaller
than England. It is a trifle larger than Virginia or
Ohio, and a trifle smaller than Pennsylvania. It has
2200 miles of coast-line. Its population in recent
years has probably been about 1,6oo,ooo, of whom
950,000 were white Cubans, 500,000 colored, and the
rest Spaniards.
Perhaps no other place on earth has a more genial

c 'PT;

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AI -, YA

*1 i I L, .t. .

11 1<

I Fi ,
rrIV. L. ~.

-k 477 7r


Cuba's Climate and Resources Cuba's Early History

climate, vegetation more thriving and beautiful, or fruit
more delicious and abundant. The temperature ranges
from 500 to 880. Thirteen million acres of uncleared
and virgin forest contain the finest cedar and mahogany
in the world. Two million acres of the island's thirty-
four millions are under cultivation, and nine millions
are natural pasture-land. The most important products
of the soil are sugar, tobacco, Indian corn, coffee,
cocoa, bananas, pineapples, and cocoanuts, besides the
rich woods of the forest and the copper and iron from
the mines.
Even in the war year of 1896 the total exports
amounted to over $94,ooo,ooo. Until laid waste by
war Cuba was thus a treasure-house for Spain, and it
is no wonder that she was unwilling to give up so rich
a spot of earth.
From the beginning the history of the island has
been that of bloodshed and oppression. The poor
natives at first believed that their discoverers had de-
scended from heaven, but they were soon disabused of
this idea. Though discovered by Columbus in 1492,
the conquest of the island was not undertaken seriously
by the Spaniards until 1511. The island was divided
among the conquerors and the Indians were made
slaves to till the land. But so ruthless were their
taskmasters that in a few centuries almost the whole
native population of the island had disappeared. Then
negroes were imported from Africa to take their places.
For the next three centuries Cuba was left by her
oppressors to isolation and neglect. Her people lived


Spain's Shortsightedness Hostility to Education

in poverty and squalor. With extraordinary short-
sightedness the Government of Spain took no steps
towards the development of the country or the well-
being of the people.
Her centralized and inefficient administration, influ-
enced by an unprogressive spirit of routine, has always
looked upon proposed reforms as dangerous experi-
ments. Whenever a new industry was started through
private enterprise, the Government demanded a new
tax, which was made heavier as the industry developed.
The first important industry was tobacco: Spain im-
mediately so taxed and monopolized its culture, sale,
and manufacture that the planters in desperation several
times rose in arms and destroyed their fields, rather
than to submit to exactions which more than deprived
them of their profits.
The English captured Havana in 1762. During the
British occupation the port was thrown open to foreign
trade for the first time, and the inhabitants had the
experience of its advantages. A desire for education
began to be felt, and, there being no institutions in the
country which could satisfy it, a few young men were
sent to the United States for schooling. But Spain
did not approve of education. A royal decree was
issued in Madrid in 1799 that Cuban parents should be
dissuaded from continuing a practice from wnich they
were told only evil consequences could be expected!
All Cuban youths in school in the United States were
ordered back to Cuba, while those who had received an
education were placed under the watch of the police.


Cuban Revolts England Learned by Experience

Revolts against these injustices at last began; the
first was in 1823, and was followed by others in 1826,
1828, 1830, 1848, 1850, 1851, and 1855; then came the
great ten years' war" of 1868-78, after which there
was an apparent peace until the last revolution, which
began in 1895.
In the earlier times all the European nations were
accustomed to look upon their colonial dependencies
as sources of support for the home Government, and
often as the legitimate objects of plunder for the home
people. England learned a most useful lesson as to
this kind of dealing when one of her political adminis-
trations, under a king who was either crazy or simple,
pursued a course which forced the Americans into their
Revolution, and thus she lost her best possessions
across the Atlantic. It was a course which ever since
has been deeply regretted by the British statesmen
and the body of the English people. Great Britain
has learned to administer her colonies for their benefit
rather than her own, and has found that by so doing
she added to the greatness of her empire.
Spain, on the other hand, has suffered a more bitter
experience in the loss of colonies than any other
nation, but she has seemed incapable of profiting by
experience. One by one, her vast American posses-
sions, from Mexico to Patagonia, revolted against her;
but as these dependencies slipped away her dealings
with those that remained grew but little less severe
and reckless. Her colonial policy continued to be
wholly for the home country, with but scanty regard


Spain Learns not from Experience The Cuban Debt

for the rights and interests of the colonists. She per-
mitted them no government of their own, nor even
effective representation in the Madrid Government,
although she promised it more than once. She held
them down by military force. She sent to them gov-
ernors whose dishonest rule was unbearable. She taxed
them beyond endurance, while her officials grew rich
through unarrested corruption. Puerto Rico and the
Philippines suffered similarly with Cuba; yet it seemed
as if poor Cuba, because of her frequent revolts against
the tyranny, as well as because of her superior wealth,
was singled out for a special rigor.
The ten years' war cost nearly a billion of dol-
lars,-and Cuba was required to pay it. That war
was concluded by the promises of the Spanish Govern-
ment, on its word of honor, to accord various important
reforms; most of these Spain never granted. Before
Sthe outbreak of the last revolution, in 1895, the debt
which Spain had put upon the unhappy island was
$295,707,264. This debt meant $185 to each inhabit-
ant. The United States debt before 1898 meant only
$24 to each person. Even the gigantic debt of France,
which she incurred herself, means only $154 to each
person. Before her last revolution began, Cuba's debt
signified more to each inhabitant than any-other-debt
in the world. Yet this debt was not only imposed by
Spain without a word of consent from Cuba; the money
had all been spent for Spain. It was declared by the
revolutionary Cubans that this enormous sum had
Snot contributed to build a single kilometer of highway,


Debts without Benefits Official Corruption

nor had it built one asylum or opened one public
school." What had not been embezzled, had gone
chiefly to pay Spain's expense in keeping Cuba under
her inflexible rule.
The interest on this prodigious debt was $12,000,-
ooo, which Spain required Cuba to pay. She also im-
posed upon the island an annual payment of $7,000,000
to support the army and navy kept there for Cuba's
own repression; and $8,ooo,ooo more for the salaries
and expenses of the civil, judicial, and other officers
of Spain; and to all this we must add a sum of from
$12,000,000 to $20,ooo,ooo, which the best informed
men say was lost to the Cuban revenue through the
purloining of officials, and had to be made good by the
suffering people.
In the general yearly expenditure of about $34,000,-
ooo, the accounts showed that only $500,ooo were
devoted to works of public utility, and $182,000 to
education. Yet the people who endured this monstrous
wrong were less in number than in many American
States. They were mostly poor, and of course they
were illiterate, for the trifle which was spent upon
education did not apply to any except the privileged
classes. They were without voice or vote concerning
'he taxes that were exacted, and saw no return for
them in the way of public improvements. How would
the people of an American State regard official misrule
and exaction to this extent ?
As to personal rights, there was even less of consti-
tutional freedom in the island than in Spain herself.


No Freedom in Cuba The Rebellion of 1895

The Governor-General ruled with unlimited powers;
he had the general authority of an autocratic sovereign.
At his caprice, and without trial, he could imprison
persons, deport them to penal colonies, or order them
to be shot; he could then confiscate their estates and
reduce their families to want. It has been said that
there is hardly a Cuban family in which one of the
members has not suffered persecution during the last
seventy years. If one ventured from home without a
Government license, costing from twenty-five cents to
fifty dollars, according to his means, he could be ar
rested. IThere was no real liberty of thought or action.
Public meetings could not be held without the permis-
sion of the Spanish authorities, and when they were
allowed an officer was present to stop them if anything
was said which he did not like.i It was the policy of the
Government to break the spirit of the whole Cuban
people, and so to strip them of their means that they
could not successfully revolt.
But under these conditions they could do nothing
less than revolt. The last Cuban rebellion broke out
in 1895. It bore evidence of being more intelligently
and effectually organized than any which had preceded
it. Strong and experienced men planned and led it.
Gomez, the two Maceos, Garcia, and others were noted
patriots as well as men of high ability.
The system of raising money for the Army of Lib-
eration extended to all who naturally would sympathize
with it. Every patriotic Cuban, rich and poor, gave
as he was able, and those who could give nothing else


.1 0

Cuban Farmer's Family before Weyler's Edict of Concentration.
rom a /Aotografi//, blj cr'tesy f II. le. arst, 1898.


The Patriot Army Weyler's Barbarity

gave themselves to the patriot army, which fought with-
out pay and often without food. When the army was
without arms and ammunition, as often happened, it
eluded the Spanish columns, and the men scattered, to
return later to an appointed rendezvous. Whenever
able, it made sudden attacks on Spanish garrisons o,
upon the marching Spanish columns. The Cuban
army could not fight great battles, because there never
were enough arms to equip a large force at one time;
but the harassing attacks of the small bodies of patriots
were so audacious and frequent that the Spanish offi-
cers despaired of reducing the rebellion by any other
means than starvation.
Consequently, in her extremity Spain resorted to
barbarous measures for the suppression of the rebellion.
It was believed in Madrid that Governor-General Cam-
pos was too mild for the emergency; so General Wey-
ler was sent to take his place. Weyler already had a
record for unexceeded mercilessness, and was popularly
known as the butcher." He straightway instituted
new methods, which were based upon the deliberate
purpose of making Cuba such a desert that the Cuban
army could not obtain the least subsistence.
rin pursuance of this plan he ordered his soldiers to
Bium the buildings and the ripening crops on all the
estates. All the farming population throughout the
island were driven from their homes by his guerrillas,
and were gathered in the heavily garrisoned cities,
where they were huddled within great pens called
" trochas." These expulsions, and the long marches


War upon the Homes Spanish Peace"

of the weary and fainting people from their homes to
the distant garrisons, were so pitiful as to stir the
hearts of all except the most incorrigible.
It became a war not only upon men, but also upon
women and children. Its horrors seemed to bring
"back the days of Cortez in Mexico and Pizarro in
\Peru. The Spanish soldiers, exasperated by the lack
of success in the field against the armed patriots, at-
tacked hospitals and murdered the wounded and sick,
just as in July, 1898, their sharpshooters around Santi-
ago shot the wounded American soldiers.
When residents of Cuba, loyal to Spain, protested
against these outrages they were considered to be
traitors and were also shot.
These things are not from the history of the Duke
of Alva in the Netherlands; they occurred in 1896 and
1897, almost within sight of the United States.
SWhile the Spanish soldiers were perpetrating these
deeds, General Weyler was declaring to his Government
that Cuba was almost pacified; he was making it a
Desert and calling it peace.
Of course the Spanish denied many of the reports
of personal outrages which were sent from Cuba by
American and English observers. But there was no
attempt to deny the sufferings of hundreds of thou-
sands of the poor "reconcentrados," as the people
driven from their home tthe cities by the soldiers
Were called; their beggary, and their starving to death
Sin the streets of the cities, where they had been driven
as into prison-pens, were too evident.


Senator Proctor's Observations of the Reconcentrados"

Senator Proctor of Vermont, who went to Cuba early
in 1898, to satisTy thmset of what was being done, ad-
dressed the Senate of the United States upon the sub-
ject. The character of the man and the deliberation
with which he spoke carried conviction to the country.
A few sentences from this address must suffice, but
they are full of meaning.
He said: I saw no house or hut for four hundred
miles of railroad. They had lived in cabins
made of palms, or in wooden houses. Some of them
had houses of stone, the blackened walls of which are
all that remain to show that the country was ever in-
habited. In the trochas they were allowed to
build huts of palm-leaves. They have no floor but the
ground, no furniture, and but little clothing.
The commonest sanitary provisions are impossible.
Conditions are unmentionable in this respect. With
foul earth, foul air, foul water, and foul food or none,
it is not strange that one half have died and that one
quarter of the living are now so diseased that they
cannot be saved.
Little children are walking about with arms and
chests terribly emaciated, eyes swollen, and abdomen
bloated to three times the natural size. The physicians
say their cases are hopeless. Deaths in the
street have not been uncommon. They have
been found dead about the markets in the morning,
where they have crawled in the hope of getting some
stray bits of food.
These people were independent and self-support-


Famine and Death Cubans at Disadvantage

ing before. They have not learned the art of
begging. Rarely is a hand held out to you for alms
when going among their huts, but the sight of them
makes an appeal stronger than words.
I saw a hospital in Havana where four hundred
women and children were lying on stone floors in an
indescribable state of emaciation and disease, many
with the scantiest covering of rags,-and such rags!
And the conditions in other cities were even
worse. Two hundred thousand have died within
these Spanish prison walls within a few months."
It is unnecessary to extend the details of the distress-
ing narrative: it is the story of men but half clothed
and half fed, ignorant and simple, fighting in the
bushes for freedom; their wives and children dead or
dying of starvation and abuse; their fields untilled and
their homes in ruins; the whole of their beautiful
island laid desolate; the future as dark as an eternal
night; yet refusing all overtures, and pressing on
without hesitation either to victory or else to utter
Much has been said against the Cubans to show that
they are incapable of self-government. Many of these
charges are true. They are poor; they are ignorant,
not more than one tenth having received any education
at all; they are not accustomed to manage their own
affairs; they have had no chance; they have been
without schools; no high ideals have been held up to
them; they have been robbed of their property and
their freedom and their self-respect by a blind Govern-

- ..h r -.i

Spanish Soldiers Driving in the leconcentrados.


Cuban Intrepidity Voice of the United States

ment and a brutal soldiery. But there is abundant
proof of their devotion, their ability, and their bravery
in the fact that for three years they fought more than
200,ooo Spanish troops so successfully as to prove to
the world that they could not be subjugated. This
was while their homes were laid in ashes and their
wives and children were starving.
Such was the situation in Cuba when the Republic
of the United States lifted up its voice among the
nations and declared that the oppressed island at its
doors should go free.


America's Foreign Policy Non-Interference


Rescue by the United States

TWO declarations by two presidents of the United
States, in regard to the foreign policy which our
Government ought to follow, have been so generally ac-
cepted by the people as to gain about as much force as
a provision in the Constitution. One of these is against
our meddling in the affairs of foreign nations, and the
other is against allowing them to meddle in our affairs.
In the most important suggestion of his Farewell
Address "-and the only one which is commonly re-
membered-President Washington imprc.sirely recom
mended that we entirely abstain from interfrin
ur affrs. This advice has been uniformly
followed. Even under severe temptation we have
never gone further into any foreign issue than to pro-
tect our own independence and to insure the develop-
ment of free institutions upon this Western Continent.
While, on several occasions in the past, our navy
has been sent into foreign waters to enforce certain
demands of the United States, those demands have
always been made necessary by some menace to our
interests or by some defiance of the legitimate author-
ity of the United States. Until Commodore Dewey
sailed from Hong Kong for Manila, no vessel of the


Washington's Advice Monroe Doctrine

United States ever went over seas upon a warlike
errand which was not inseparably associated with
American rights. The doctrine that we should mind
our own business, and that our business was all within
the bounds of the Western Continent, has been thor-
oughly fixed in the thought of the people, and as
firmly established in the diplomatic policy of the Gov-
ernment. The last words of Washington to this effect
have always been regarded as very wise and entirely
President Monroe, in 1823, connected his name with
the converse of this doctrine, that we should not per-
mit European nations to interfere in our affairs, or to
extend monarchical rule, or to offer any menace to
democratic government upon this hemisphere.
It may be interesting to recall how this Monroe
Doctrine" came to be announced. It must be re-
membered that it was the efforts of Spain to reclaim
her South American colonies that called it forth.
Following the Napoleonic wars there was formed
among the leading European nations an alliance for
self-protection. It was called the Holy Alliance,"
though it was anything but holy. It was not so
much for resistance against other powers as to protect
its members against internal rebellions. It consisted
of a joining of forces by the kings to prevent the prog-
ress of the people towards the management of their
own affairs. England at first approved, but soon re-
pudiated the whole arrangement.
It was the attempts of Spain to bring the guns of


Monroe's Warning to Europe Change of Policy

these allied powers to bear upon her revolted colonies
in South America that led President Monroe to de-
clare that while the United States would not interfere
with any existing dependencies of any European state,
yet the United States would consider it an unfriendly
act, and treat it as such, for any European power to
interfere with any American Governmentwhich had de-
clared and maintained its independence and had been
so recognized by the United States. In words full of
meaning and bristling with spirit he said: It is due to
candor that we should declare to the Allied Powers,
that we should consider any attempt on their part to
extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere
as dangerous to our peace and safety."
So it had become a traditional and fundamental
doctrine in this country that we should avoid all foreign
entanglements; that we should not meddle with the
affairs of foreign nations, even with the affairs of their
American colonies; and that, on the other hand, we
should not allow them to extend their monarchical
systems on this side of the Atlantic.
The decision of our Government to intervene in be-
half of Cuba was, accordingly, a complete departure-
from traditional understandings. Some of the fore-
most constitutional lawyers were opposed to it. The
step was disapproved by a large proportion of the pro-
fessional and business people of the country: it was
forced by the masses. It was the impulses of human
sympathy and righteous indignation setting aside the
long-standing principles of national policy.


Case of the Virginius Gradual Growth of Anti-Spanish Feeling

Various things had contributed to arouse American
sentiment against Spain. Her whole history was not
only opposed to our manner of living and our common
thought, but she had done some things which bore
directgyagainst American citizens and gave a serious
wound to American feelings.
In 1873, the steamer Virginius, flying the American
flag and suspected of carrying supplies to the Cubans,
then engaged in revolt against Spain, was captured by
a Spanish cruiser and taken into the harbor of Santiago.
Her officers and crew, to the number of fifty-three, were
taken hurriedly into the public square and shot. The
diplomatists smoothed matters out so as to avoid war,
but twenty-five years were by no means long enough
to cause the outrage to be forgotten.
Furthermore, the recent revolutionary condition of
the island had affected some American mmrial in-
terests; this, however, did not have wide influence upon
the people, and Spain was careful to refrain from further
outrages upon citizens of the United States, in order
to afford no ground, recognized by the law of nations,
which would be sufficient to justify our interference.
More wide-reaching was the work of the Cuban
" .unta," an organization which the Cubans main-
tained in the United States for the purpose of dis-
tributing information concerning the revolution and
arousing sympathy with their cause.
More effective still was the diligent labor of many
American newspapers in constantly presenti-ng the
hard facts of Spanish savageryo their readers.


Sinking of the Maine The Friendly Visit

Through these means the people were increasingly
agitated; yet a good many often questioned whether
the Junta was not composed of professional agi-
tators working for selfish ends, and whether the news-
papers were not printing exaggerated stories to promote
newspaper circulation.
But on the evening of the 15th of February, 1898,
an incident occurred in the harbor of Havana which
suddenly wrought our people to madness, which neces-
sarily turned on the search-lights of official investiga-
tion, and led directly to a new and momentous step in
the international relations of the world. It was the
explosion which destroyed the battleship Maine.
Tur consuls in a presented to the Govern-
ment the advisability of sending an American battle-
ship to Havana, in a friendly spirit, on the ground that
the presence of our flag would restrain the combatants
so far as American interests were concerned, and might
aid in relaxing the strained relations which were con-
tinually increasing between our Government and that
of Spain. Accordingly, after consultation with the
Spanish Minister at Washington, and notice to the
Government at Madrid, on the 24th of January, 1898,
the Maine was ordered to pay a friendly and official
visit to the harbor of Havana. She arrived on the
25th, was received with the usual naval courtesies and
conducted to a place in the harbor by the Spanish
pilot. She lay there without special incident for three
weeks. At eight o'clock on the evening of the 15th
of February all was reported secure to Captain Sigsbee,


Suspended Judgment Patriotic Excitement

her commander. At forty minutes after nine the vessel
was lifted from the water by two terrific explosions and
quickly sank, carrying to watery graves two of her
officers and two hundred and sixty-four members of
her crew.
The cause of the disaster was a mystery, but Ameri--
can sentiment was not slow in attributing it to Spanish
treachery. The Captain-General and other officials a-
Havana disavowed all knowledge and tendered their
sympathy, and the Government at Madrid hastened to
express its regrets, but the people of the United States
recalled the interminable line of Spanish intrigue, and
were impatient of the various specious theories which
excused the Spaniards from responsibility. If the ex-
plosion was not caused directly by Spanish authority,
our people were convinced it had been caused at least
by Spanish officers who had access to the mines and
torpedoes, and who were protected and hidden by their
military superiors.
Nevertheless, self-restraint prevailed. Captain Sigs-
bee, in announcing the explosion, had said, Suspend
judgment "; and the temper of the people and of Con-
gress was in accord with this very sensible advice during
the long weeks while our Naval Board of Inquiry,
which had been appointed immediately after the dis-
aster, were investigating, with the greatest care, the
cause of the explosion.
But though judgment was suspended the country
was seething with excitement. The flag suddenly be-
gan to float from iinearIyevery building. The schools


Lights Turned on Learning the Truth

and churches seemed to throb with patriotism. Night
after night the wildest cheering greeted the playing of
the patriotic airs in the theaters and cafes. Audiences
everywhere arose to their feet while The Star-
Spangled Banner" was played. There had been
nothing like this universal stirring of the spirit of
the country since 1861.
Meanwhile the lights were being turned, full force, on
all the doings of Spain in Cuba, and the conviction grew
that the former newspaper reports of Spanish inhuman-
ity, which many people had considered exaggerated,
had not depicted things as bad as they really were.
For one thing, it was discovered that there were,
locked up in the files of the State Department, facts
of the most startling nature regarding the Cuban con-
flict which had been reported by our consuls to the pre-
ceding Administration, and which, in the interests of
peace, it had been deemed advisable to withhold from
the public. These earlier reports, and the later ones
received from Consul-General Fitzhugh Lee, showed
the condition of the poor Cubans who had been driven
from their farms and concentrated in the fortified cities
without means of subsistence, to have grown steadily
more horrible. Here is a sample report concerning
the reconcentrados in Santa Clara:
It was there shown that while there were 5,489
deaths in that town in the seven years previous to
1897, which included 1,417 in one year from an epi-
demic of yellow fever, there were, owing to the con-
centration order, 6,981 deaths out of a total population


Senators Proctor and Thurston The Demand for War

of 14,000 in the year 1897 alone. The death-rate
increased monthly from 78 in January, the month
before the concentration order went into effect, until
December, when there were I,ol0 deaths."
Several congressmen visited Cuba to see for them-
selves. The speeches in Congress of Senators Proctor,
of Vermont, and Thurston, of Nebraska, during this
period of suspense, were perhaps almost as influential
as the destruction of the Maine in deepening the public
demand that Spain be driven from this hemisphere.
Senator Proctor's speech, already referred to, was very
judicial, but the horrors that he described in his ex-
tremely guarded way seemed the more terrible for his
self-restraint. Senator Thurston's wife had accom-
panied him to Cuba, and the shock caused by the un-
speakable sufferings of the reconcentrados" had
killed her. When the Senator, upon his return to the
Senate, arose to speak of Spanish inhumanity, he
poured forth a flood of anguished invective which
moved the heart of the public not less than Senator
Proctor's measured statements.
When the appalling facts thus became known to a
certainty-the hard fighting, the intense suffering, the
abuse of prisoners; particularly, when it was known
that hundreds of thousands of women and children
from the rural districts had already starved through
the ruthless course of the Spanish Captain-General,-
and all because of a desire for liberty,-the public sym-
pathy and indignation in the United States, so long
restrained, were ready to break all bonds.


The President for Peace Preparing for War

But while Congress and perhaps most of the people
were calling for war, the President and his advisers
were engaged in the twofold effort of diligently pre-
paring for war and earnestly working for peace.
President McKinley, who had himself been through
the horrors of one war, did everything in his power to
avert the coming conflict. In his inaugural message he
had said: We have cherished the policy of non-inter-
ference with the affairs of foreign Governments wisely
inaugurated by Washington, keeping ourselves from
entanglements either as allies or foes. We want no
wars of conquest. We must avoid the temptation of
territorial aggression. War should never be entered
upon until every agency of peace has failed."
The resources of diplomacy were pressed by the
President until they were exhausted, in endeavors to
induce Spain to cease hostilities and withdraw from
Members of Congress who were most eager for war
were urged by the President to aid him in holding
back the rush into armed conflict. It was believed by
many of the wisest of our statesmen that through
diplomacy Spain might be induced to acknowledge
herself defeated in Cuba, and to leave the island to
itself. As the Great Powers of Europe saw the con-
flict approaching, their diplomatists at Washington and
Madrid were instructed to use their best offices to avert
the final clash.
With no less diligence, however, was the President
preparing the national forces for the struggle if it must


$50,000,000 for Defense Official Report on the Maine

come. Our defenses were in a deplorable state of
neglect; coast fortifications were notoriously unpre-
pared to resist an attack. Our navy, though well
equipped, and in a high state of discipline, was never-
theless, in fighting ships, considered to be somewhat
weaker than that of Spain.
'The President, therefore, on the 8th of March, re-
qiuested from Congress an appropriation of fifty
million dollars for the national defense. This was
immediately voted without a dissenting voice. It was
hoped that this spectacle of unanimous support given
to the President in the demands he was making upon
Spain, and the suggestion it contained of the unlimited
wealth of the nation, might convince Spain of the
hopelessness of war with the United States. The
President at once made use of this most needed money
to strengthen our coast fortifications, to buy military
equipment of all kinds, and to enlarge the navy as
rapidly as possible by the purchase of more ships.
The whole world was searched by our agents to find
warships belonging to other nations which might be
for sale. The Spanish were doing the same thing; yet
we were able to buy a few warships. By leasing and
by purchase an immense auxiliary fleet of cruisers,
transports, yachts, and tugs was pressed into the ser-
vice of the Government, and a patrol of picket vessels
was established the entire length of our Atlantic coast.
Meantime, the Naval Board of Inquiry sent its re-
port from Havana. It was received by the President
on the 25th of March, and was given to Congress on


President's Message to Congress Declaration of War

the 28th of March. It found that the Maine had been
sunk by an explosion from the outside. Though it
would not attribute this explosion to the hostile act of
the Government of Spain, the fact was palpable that a
Spanish torpedo had wrought the disaster, and that the
Spaniards had made no efforts to discover the culprits.
Even yet, however, the President did not despair of
peace, and was unwilling as yet to make the destruction
of the Maine a cause of war. More efforts were made
to induce the Spanish Government to withdraw from
Cuba. But finally President McKinley sent a message
to Congress on the IIth of April, in which he recited
the inhuman practices of the Spanish authorities in
Cuba, and mentioned the destruction of the Maine as
an instance of Spanish inability to restrain misrule; in
view of all the facts the President stated to Congress
his belief that forcible interference between Cuba and
Spain was now justified. Congress immediately re-
sponded, and on the 19th of April-the anniversary of
the battles of Lexington and Concord-passed a decla-
ration of war which, when finally concurred in, was in
the following words:
First. That the people of the island of Cuba are,
and of right ought to be, free and independent.
Second. That it is the duty of the United States
to demand, and the Government of the United States
does hereby demand, that the Government of Spain at
once relinquish its authority and government in the
island of Cuba and withdraw its land and naval forces
from Cuba and Cuban waters.

A Group of American Major-Generals.
William R. Shafter. Wesley Merritt.
Nelson A. Miles.
John R. Brooke. Joseph Wheeler.


Declaration of War A War for Humanity

Third. That the President of the United States
be, and he is hereby, directed and empowered to use
the entire land and naval forces of the United States,
and to call into the actual service of the United States
the militia of the several States, to such extent as may
be necessary to carry these resolutions into effect.
Fourth. The United States hereby disclaims any
disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty, juris-
diction, or control over said island except for the paci-
fication thereof, and asserts its determination when that
is accomplished to leave the government and control
of the island to its people."
This declaration of war, in its purpose, its form, and
its spirit, touches the high-water mark of government
by the people for the good of mankind.
It is true that in other times strong nations have
aided the weak in their battles for freedom. Queen
Elizabeth of England aided the heroic Dutch to throw
off the yoke of the cruel King of Spain; yet her battle
against the Spaniards was more for the strengthening
of her own throne and for the defense of English
liberty against the danger of Spanish aggression than
it was to help the Dutch.
King Louis XVI. of France sent his soldiers and
his ships across the sea to aid Washington in our own
American struggle for independence; but it was the
desire to humble England for former defeat which
moved the King of France more than his love of
human liberty. The French Revolutionary Republic,
a few years later, marched into Italy and liberated the


The Generous Pledge Lofty National Ideal

oppressed nationalities there; but each battle fought
by France in Italy was a blow for the defense of the
young French Republic itself against the foreign des-
potisms which threatened it.
Surely never before has a people, aroused by the
contemplation of appalling tyranny in a neighboring
country and with an entire disinterestedness of spirit,
declared war against the foreign oppressors and bound
itself beforehand to give to the liberated people a free
government of their own.
It marks a gratifying advance in the ideals of good
government when a great self-governing nation, in one
of the most solemn of national acts, carries, with her
great heart and strong arm, the blessings of civil liberty,
religious toleration, and popular education to the strug-
gling subjects of a rapacious empire. Such an act helps
the world to realize that states do not exist for the
benefit of their Governments, nor even for security
alone, but for the intellectual and moral progress of
the people. It presents before all nations a loftief
ideal, and it gives to the flag of our Republic a brighter
and more glorious meaning.


American Confidence Unprepared for War


The Preparation

THE ordinary American never has any doubts of
the power of his country to accomplish whatever
it undertakes. If it will attempt something new and
difficult he has the greater relish for it. The experi-
enced ones may see the difficulties and plead for de-
liberation: the crowd will take counsel of their own
enthusiasm rather than of their fears. Entire confi-
dence that the nation will spring to any mighty effort
with a bound is an American trait.
The impulses of the public, generous and soul-felt,
carried the United States into the war with Spain
in disregard of the national traditions, without much
thought on the part of the people as to prepared-
ness, but with the usual American confidence as to the
The nation was not at all prepared for war. It never
has been prepared for war except in the midst of war.
It has never even prepared for defense until in the im-
mediate presence of attack. Such preparedness as it
has had hitherto has been in its spirit, in its unbounded
confidence that it can do anything it undertakes and do
it quickly. It is not too much to say that it has had
little interest in doing things as other countries do


Folly of Unreadiness Modern Warfare

them. It would have been comparatively small satis-
faction to the American heart to drive Spain out of
Cuba after long preparation and by slow advances. It
was a delight to the American people to do it with
quick preparation, to do it almost upon the instant,
and to do it so completely that none could be so stupid
as not to understand.
This popular spirit is of course both childish and
unwise. It does not accord with our real seriousness
as a nation. We do not conduct our ordinary business
on such a haphazard principle. It is terribly unsafe
to trust to the luck of emergency preparation in the
event of war.
For wars to-day are very different from those of the
past. They are now far more of an exact science and
are fought with weapons and tools and enginery that
require years in making, and they call for men on sea
and land who are trained specialists. Even in our
great Civil War it took about a year after war began
for both sides to get ready to fight; but neither side
got any advantage, for both were equally unready.
Nowadays every powerful nation, except ours, has
great numbers of expert soldiers and vast quantities of
all the materials of war ready at hand, to be used in-
stantly. If we had been obliged to fight Great Britain
or Russia or Germany or France, instead of Spain, our
lack of readiness might have cost us very dear.
There are no braver men for battle in the world than
Americans; but mere bravery is no match for equal
bravery with better weapons, ampler supplies, and


Size of our Army Excellence of our Soldiers

superior organization. It is the duty of our Congress
and our legislatures to see that we are never again so
poorly prepared.

At the time of the declaration of war the regular
army of the United States numbered 27,532 men.
The regular army of Great Britain in time of peace
consists of about 220,000 men, of France 2,43,0ooo, of
Germany 1,969,ooo, of Russia 1,145,000, of Spain
Our little army of regular troops has much improved
in character and efficiency in recent years. The offi-
cers, nearly all of them graduates of the Military
Academy at West Point, are liberally educated both
as professional soldiers and as men of affairs. It is
doubtful if any army in the world has more com-
petent commanders. With remarkably rare excep-
tions, the officers are men of character themselves,
and are able to see that the character of the enlisted
man has a great deal to do with his worth as a soldier.
Much more care than formerly, therefore, is given to
the standing of the enlisted men. They must not only
be within the limits of age, eighteen to thirty, and
in perfect health, but their habits of life and moral
character must also give promise of the willing and
efficient soldier.
Everything which good leadership among the officers
can suggest is being done in our regular army to make
for the highest efficiency. The uniform has been
adapted to afford comfort rather than to make a show.


High State of Training Congress and the Army

The old-time elaborate manual of arms has given way
in considerable measure to physical exercises which are
calculated to develop supple, sinewy, and hardy men
who can endure hardships and perform difficult deeds
requiring strength and athletic skill. Much also has
been done at the army posts to give to the private sol-
dier a substantial education, in the confidence that the
more intelligent a man is, the better soldier he will make.
The regulars were consequently reasonably well
ready for service when war was declared. They were
well drilled and somewhat inured to camp life and
field service. They had a fair field equipment. They
were armed with a modern weapon called the Krag-
Jorgensen rifle, and they were supplied, while in the
midst of the Cuban campaign, with cartridges of
smokeless powder.
But the regular troops were only a handful of men,
and the points in which they excelled were only those
which were within the power of the professional officers
of the army to develop and direct. Congress had for
years refused not only to grant any enlargement of the
army, but also to authorize such reorganization as
military experience had shown to be necessary and as
had been adopted in all modern European armies.
Such matters relating to the army as depended either
upon legislation by Congress or upon administration
by civilian officers were either seriously lacking or de-
plorably confused. In the Santiago campaign the
transportation and supply departments almost entirely
broke down under their responsibilities.

Drilling the Recruits in the Volunteer Army.
From a photograft, by courtesy of IV. RI. earst, x898.


Reasons for Small Army The Volunteers

One reason why the regular army had been kept
small was because there seemed to be so little for it to
do. Its only active service was in suppressing Indian
outbreaks, which have been growing more infrequent.
It also served the purpose of enabling the officers to
maintain the standard of military efficiency. In case
of war it was intended to serve as a nucleus for the
volunteer army, upon which it has hitherto been the
custom of our Government to depend. What' we
should do in case of sudden war with a powerful for-
eign power, Congress had not thought out.
Consequently, when war was declared, the Govern-
ment was obliged to depend on volunteers to fill up
the army. The President issued calls for 200,000
volunteer soldiers. Five men stood ready for every
place that was to be filled. Many of the best young
men in the land struggled with each other for oppor-
tunity to go. In many States entire regiments of the
National Guard volunteered. In some States whole
regiments were enlisted, organized, and drilled, without
any authority whatever, in the hope that further calls
would be made, and, being organized, they would have
the next chance.
In addition to the 200,000 volunteers called for by
the President, Congress authorized an enlargement
of the regular army from 27,000 to 62,000 men, and
also the enlistment as United States Volunteers of
10,000 immunes (or men who were proof against
yellow fever), 3,500 engineers, and 3,000 cavalry-


The Rough Riders Organizing the Volunteers

The famous Rough Riders," led by Colonel Theo-
dore Roosevelt, were part of the volunteer cavalry.
The regiment of Rough Riders was one of the most
notable bodies of troops ever enlisted in the United
States service. Every man was an expert and pictur-
esque horseman. Side by side in the ranks of this
very democratic regiment were cowboys from the prai-
ries, football men from the colleges, and hardy athletes
from the wealthy clubs of the great cities.
The volunteer troops could not in the nature of
things be prepared for service in a brief time as
completely as the regulars. Congress had made no
provision for equipping a volunteer army, and the
equipment furnished by the States was very inadequate.
Much of the equipment which the States provided was
either out of date or made for show rather than service.
With all the riches of the country at the time of the
declaration of war, there was almost an entire absence
of clothing, shoes, tents, camp utensils, horses and
wagons, arms and ammunition available for the active
service of an army of 250,000 men anywhere, least of
all in a campaign in a foreign and tropical country,
mountainous and without roads, and in midsummer.
The American volunteer soldier is of course not in-
ured to field service. He is a man of wits and re-
sources, capable of adapting himself to new conditions
and rising to occasions; but he can hardly be expected,
in three months, to carry himself like a professional,
or to fight as effectually with antiquated arms as the
veteran with rifles of the highest power. But notwith-


Krag-Jbrgensen Rifle Smokeless Powder

standing the disadvantages under which most of the
volunteer troops worked, they pressed forward with
alacrity, supported the regulars with unfailing courage,
fought bravely when opportunity offered, and if the
war had lasted would soon have been professional sol-
diers themselves.
The modern Krag-Jorgensen gun has far greater
velocity, carries much farther, and is more accurate
than the old Springfield rifle. Not a regiment of the
State troops, which formed the bulk of the army, was
equipped with this new gun, however, and the factory
which made them could not turn out more than one
hundred and fifty per day; at this rate it took nearly
two weeks to fit out a single regiment. Many States
sent arms of different types and calibers, so that they
could not be served with the same ammunition.
There was also a scarcity of ammunition at the time
of the declaration of war. This lack was so great that
target practice had to be limited. But under the
emergency appropriation of fifty million dollars, con-
tracts were let for large quantities of ammunition, and
the factories were worked night and day, making one
kind for the regulars and other kinds for the volunteers,
until they were fairly supplied.
The sequel proved that smokeless powder played a
new and a large part in the efficiency and comparative
safety of the troops. If the volunteer soldiers who
fought at Santiago had been supplied with the Krag-
J6rgensen rifle and smokeless powder, they would have
been more destructive to the enemy; offering a less


Wrong Done by Congress The Navy's Preparation

conspicuous target by their clouds of smoke, they
would have suffered less slaughter themselves.
Each passing month saw more deficiencies remedied,
however, and by the time we were through with the
war the army was nearly prepared for a war. But it
is an unpardonable wrong that brave American youth
must lay down their lives in battle needlessly, or waste
away with disease in camp, because of the parsimony
of successive Congresses, or the inaction of State legis-
latures, or because ambitious politicians insist upon
trying to do things which none but professional soldiers
are capable of doing well.

The navy, fortunately, was better prepared for battle
than the army, and the navy had to strike the first
blows. The changes from a peace to a war footing
in the navy are not so marked as in the army. The
necessary additions to the force of men are smaller and
less conspicuous. Moreover, the naval service has
been saved from the political officer. Men who are
certain they can lead troops on land have more hesi-
tation about managing battleships at sea, and so the
direction of the navy is in hands that are properly and
thoroughly trained.
For nearly a score of years Congress had been
making considerable appropriations for naval vessels.
Many of these were ready for service, and they were
the best upon the seas, commanded by the most thor-
oughly educated naval officers in the world. The
science of naval architecture had been developed by


Buying New Vessels The Naval Reserves

American naval officers to an extent unequaled by
any other Government.
The first and largest expenditures from the special
fifty million dollar appropriation, made by Congress
just before the war, were in the purchase of additional
vessels. Everything available, at home and abroad,
which would be likely to prove effective was taken.
Ocean greyhounds, ferryboats,tugs, millionaires' yachts,
were brought into service. They were all put under
the command of trained naval officers. Mechanical
experts were brought from the technical schools, the
Land-Grant colleges, and the State universities to
strengthen the force of naval workers. The cadets
from the Naval Academy at Annapolis were ordered
to the vessels.
The militia of the Naval Reserve volunteered for
service, and most of them were assigned to the auxiliary
fleet. The sterling patriotism of this body of men de-
serves particular mention. The majority of them were
amateur yachtsmen; some of them were men who
owned large yachts themselves. When they volun-
teered, their former organization was broken up and
they accepted duty on the same level with all the other
jack-tars of the service. There is a much greater dis-
tance socially between the officers and men in the navy
than in the army; yet these yachtsmen, when they
enlisted aboard the national cruisers, accepted coal-
heaving and every other humble duty without a
thought of complaint, showing how deeply ingrained in
the American mind is the essentially democratic feeling.

Four Fighting Admirals.
George Dewey. William T. Sampson.
Winfield S. Schley. Pascual de Cervera.


Naval Guns Accurate Gunnery

A gun factory had been established in Washington
during the last years of President Cleveland's first ad-
ministration. There enormous guns were turned out
faster than the ships to carry them could be built.
Their quality and mechanism have seemed to be per-
fect. Never has an explosion occurred with one of
them through flaws in steel or faulty workmanship.
The American sailor has always been preeminent as
a marksman. It was fine gunnery as well as seaman-
ship that had won our brilliant victories in the War of
1812. As soon as our modern sailors found themselves
behind the wonderful guns of recent manufacture,
they set themselves to master all their possibilities.
Of no use is the highly developed gun unless it hits
the mark, and it is the American spirit to make every
machine do its best; consequently target practice has
been a constant habit of our officers and men. Ships
have vied with one another in accuracy of marksman-
ship. Since each cartridge for the heavier guns cost
more than five hundred dollars, our men invented
the process of using the intricate machinery of the
big gun with a common hand-rifle, making due allow-
ance in placing the target for the difference in carrying
By constant application to all kinds of gun practice
the intelligent American sailor developed a coolness of
calculation and a fertility of device which made him
the most skilled and unfailing gunner in the world.
Notwithstanding this preeminent efficiency, as soon
as war began to seem probable our officers immediately


Training the Navy The Hospital Ship

increased the amount of gun-shooting, as if they had
no other object in life than proficiency as gunners.
Ships assembled in fleets in both oceans and prac-
ticed in day and night drills. Target practice, search-
light drills, attacks by torpedo boats, and their repulse
by the ships catching them in their search-light meshes
in time to blow them out of the water with the rapid-
fire guns before they could reach the vessel, were kept
up hourly until the war with Spain was declared.
Consequently, when the wire flashed the news of war
to the impatient ships, and our fleets swept out to sea,
the navy was in a splendid state of efficiency, both in
spirit and in intelligent discipline.
The purchase and equipment of the hospital ship
Solace gave the American navy the first ambulance
vessel in the world. Fitted with wards and operating
rooms and all other modern hospital conveniences,
and flying the flag of the Red Cross, she was prepared
to go from vessel to vessel, take off the sick and
wounded, give them adequate care, and return with
them to the United States. The fortunes of war
happily made her service in the Spanish war very in-
considerable to American sailors, but it is a gratifica-
tion that she was able to render her service of mercy
to so many sailors of Spain, turning former enemies
into friends and admirers of the United States.
Of course there were some deficiencies in the navy,
but fortunately they were of a kind which the exigen-
cies of the service did not happen to make conspicuous.
The worst one was the lack of dry-dock facilities.


Lack of Dry-Docks Making Smokeless Powder

With an extensive fleet upon the Atlantic coast, the
navy has been until very recently without a dry-dock
capable of accommodating the larger battleships. A
year before the destruction of Cervera's fleet, the
battleship Indiana had to be sent to the British dry-
dock in Halifax for repairs because there was no
American dock large enough to take her in. The
trouble, which arose from lack of foresight and from
undue economy, is being remedied now. Indeed, a
month after the cessation of hostilities with Spain, a
dry-dock was completed at New York capable of re-
ceiving the greatest war vessels of the world at any
stage of the tide.
The matter of smokeless powder has come to be as
important in the navy as in the army. Our ships were
not supplied with it at Manila or Santiago. We have
been behind all the first-class and even the second-
class powers in putting it in use. The New Orleans, a
ship bought from Brazil just before the war, had it on
board when she was delivered. Our naval leaders at-
tribute this slowness of ours to an indisposition to pur-
chase it abroad. There are good brands of this powder
in Europe, but we preferred to make it ourselves. We
could manufacture smokeless powder equal to the for-
eign article, but it was the wish of our Government to
wait until we could make a better grade than had yet
been produced. The subject was very complicated
and it required the highest scientific knowledge. Ex-
periments had been going on for six years. There is
no incentive like that arising from necessity and pride.


Secretary Long's Foresight Our Critical Condition

And in thirty days after the need was known to be
imperative, the Government factory at Newport was
turning out thousands of pounds daily, and of a quality
giving greater velocity than had ever before been pro-
duced in the world.
A large degree of the readiness of the navy when war
was declared, was due to the foresight and energy of
the patriotic Secretary of the Navy and his able First
Assistant. Secretary John D. Long, a former Gov-
ernor of Massachusetts, and Assistant Secretary Theo-
dore Roosevelt, had, since the beginning of President
McKinley's administration, been working with stead-
fast diligence to put the naval forces of the Govern-
ment in the best state of preparation which their
opportunities and funds would allow. Politics had
been sedulously kept out of the navy administration ;
the best men had been assigned for all critical positions;
the ships were where they were needed, and all the
war material available had been placed in easy reach.
As if the war had been foreseen, this department had
done its best to prepare for it.

Taking all things together we were not more than
half prepared for war when the executive officers of
the Government were forced to begin hostilities by the
Act of Congress. The navy was more than half pre-
pared; but the army was hardly prepared at all. In
a few days 225,000 American citizens who had scarcely
been in a camp and never seen a battle had to be
organized, clothed, armed, and sent into the field.


Misgivings of Many Unhesitating Courage

The men, it is true, were at hand; but there was not
much more of the outfit of an army ready. There
were many who had misgivings. No doubt of the
ultimate result was felt. No one questioned the power
of the United States to conquer Spain eventually, in
both the New World and the Old; but many, who
knew the traditional pride of the Spanish people and
the fighting qualities of the Spanish soldier, feared that
it would be done only after serious reverses and at
great cost.
Yet the people would not hesitate. They trusted
that great resources in the hands of Anglo-Saxon in-
telligence and energy, and in a good cause, would give
us the victory; and that each day of zealous prepara-
tion, under the pressure of the demands of battles not
far off, would hasten the end and make it more over-
whelming. They did not know just how the end
would come, nor to what it, in turn, would lead; but,
guided by sound impulses and having confidence in
themselves, they were willing to wait for time to make
it clear.


The First Blow Philippine Islands


Dewey's Battle in Manila Bay

THE first blow delivered by the United States in
behalf of Cuba was struck on the other side of
the globe, in Asiatic waters; but it was so hard that it
startled the nations of Europe and was heard with
great satisfaction in every part of the United States.
The chief colonial possessions remaining to Spain,
before this war, aside from Cuba and Puerto Rico,
were the Philippine Islands. This is a group of some
twelve hundred islands, about four hundred of which
are inhabited, lying off the southeast coast of China.
The largest one, Luzon, is about the size of the State
of Kentucky. The Philippines have a population of
perhaps seven million people, chiefly Malays, though
many of the inhabitants have Spanish blood. The
office-holders and tax-gatherers were, of course, Span-
Much of the territory is fertile. The chief products
are rice, sugar, coffee, tobacco, and hemp. The value
of the commerce of the Philippines is estimated at
more than fifty million dollars annually. The mineral
deposits and lumber are considered to be exceedingly
valuable, but have never been developed with modern
business methods and energy.


Importance of the Philippines Defenses of Manila

The islands are upon the natural highways of Oriental
commerce and are of enormous commercial and military
importance, not only because of the value of their prod-
ucts, but also because of their safe harbors, their sup-
plies of coal, and the relation in which they stand to
the world's trade with the unknown resources of the
vast regions embraced in the eastern countries of
Spanish oppression, extortion, and cruelty in the
Philippines finally produced there an insurrection
scarcely less formidable than that in Cuba. Under
the leadership of Aguinaldo, a young native somewhat
educated, thousands of the people were engaged in a
bloody warfare against the authority of Spain. This
had led the Spaniards heavily to fortify and arm the
capital, Manila, a city with its suburbs of three hundred
thousand inhabitants, situated thirty-five miles from
the open ocean, on Manila Bay. Forts were erected
at the entrance to the bay and an efficient army was
established in the city. The Government arsenal and
naval station is at Cavite, on the right-hand side of the
bay as we enter, and about three quarters of the way
from the entrance to the city.
At the prospect of war with the United States, the
fortifications and the army at Manila were strengthened
and a considerable Spanish fleet gathered there.
Before the end of February, 1898, Commodore
George Dewey of the United States Navy, under in-
structions from the Government at Washington, began
to assemble the greater part of the American warships,


Our Fleet in the Pacific The Start for Manila

which were in the Pacific Ocean, at the British port of
Hong-Kong, about six hundred miles from Manila.
By the I9th of April, the day that Congress passed
its resolutions of war, the fleet consisted of the Olym-
pia, the Boston, the Concord, the Raleigh, and the
Petrel. On that day they began to be painted a slate
color, thus putting on their fighting uniform. On the
22nd the Baltimore arrived from Yokohama, out of re-
pair. But she had no thought of losing her part in com-
ing events, and by the end of forty-eight hours, with
the characteristic energy of our officers, she had been
put in dry-dock, scraped, repaired, painted, coaled,
provisioned, and otherwise made ready for her business.
Upon the declaration of war it became at once neces-
sary for these vessels to leave Hong-Kong, for under
the neutrality laws, observed by all nations, when two
powers are at war the ships of either cannot harbor
with any other nation with which they are at peace.
It is said that the first notice Commodore Dewey had
that war had actually been declared came in the form
of a request from the British Foreign Office, on the
24th of April, that the fleet should leave Hong-Kong
on that account. He replied that he would depart
from the harbor immediately.
The squadron at once got under way for Manila. It
left Hong-Kong with bands playing and amid the
cheers of the American and English residents. It was
accompanied by the revenue cutter Hugh McCulloch
as a dispatch boat, and two merchant vessels carrying
ten thousand tons of coal. There were in the fleet


The Daring Venture Confident of Victory

seventeen hundred as strong-hearted American boys
as ever sailed any sea upon a dangerous and heroic
That their errand was daring in the extreme, no one
can doubt. The number of Spanish vessels at Manila
exceeded the number of American vessels, although in
armament and equipment there was not much differ-
ence. The American vessels were cruisers, not battle-
ships, as the more formidable ships of our navy are
called. In ships of the same class we were to meet
about an equal number, and of smaller craft a larger
number; but the obvious advantage was against the
American fleet because of the forts at the mouth of
the harbor, the batteries and arsenal at Cavite, the
submerged torpedoes, and the fortifications and troops
at the city.
It was daring for another reason. The officers of
the American fleet had never been in that harbor be-
fore. The result was not only much in doubt, but
every man believed he had reason to expect that, if
the battle were lost, the Spanish would do by any
American prisoners as they had done very com-
monly by prisoners of war,-either massacre them in-
stantly, or else, with more ceremony, take them into
the public square of the city and shoot them there.
But hearts were strong and buoyant, and eyes fol-
lowed the flag as every man thought of the far-away
home and moved on to duty and to fame.
The voyage to Manila was uneventful, but each
day preparations for battle went steadily forward.


The Voyage to Manila Entering the Harbor

Gun drills were maintained, and once or twice in the
middle of the night the blare of the bugles and the
flashing of red and white signal lights called quickly
upon the fleet to clear for action." Each crew sprang
to quarters and the entire fleet was put in readiness
for battle. The captains reported to the Commodore
that every man was at his place and every gun ready
for action inside of seven minutes from the time when
the crews were soundly sleeping. At evening time
the bands played patriotic airs, and as they came to
" Yankee Doodle and The Star-Spangled Banner,"
the men sang the words with a feeling which gave con-
fidence in approaching victory.
On Saturday morning, the 30th of April, they were
in sight of the island of Luzon. Everyone was astir,
the decks were sanded, and all unnecessary material
which might take fire in battle was tossed to the waves.
No sight of the enemy's ships was caught that day, but
it was made certain that they were harboring in the
calm waters, behind the forts, the arsenal, and the sub-
marine mines of Manila Bay. At five o'clock in the
afternoon the commanders were called on board the
flagship, the Olympia, for consultation with the com-
mander-in-chief and for final orders.
The hour of twelve, midnight, was fixed for passing
the forts at the entrance to the harbor in order to be
ready for an engagement at daylight. The problem
was to find the enemy just at daybreak and not before.
The early part of the night was cloudy and dark. No
lights were allowed save one at the stern of each ves-


The First Gun The Answer

sel, covered at the front and two sides, for the guidance
of the ship which was following, and no word was
to be spoken or movement made unless by the orders
of the commanders. At eleven o'clock the crews were
called to quarters to be ready for any emergency, and
at midnight the ships, in single column, the flagship
leading, commenced the perilous passage.
The forts at the entrance to the bay are upon Cor-
regidor Island, six hundred feet above the water level,
and at El Fraile on the opposite side. The channel
on one side is one mile and that on the other side five
miles wide. The entrance was made by the wider
channel and between the forts.
As the fleet passed the island a rocket flashed from
the fort on the hill and was answered apparently by
lights on the shore. It was supposed that this would
be followed by an immediate attack from the Krupp
guns in the shore batteries, but it was not. The ships
moved forward until opposite the second fort, on a
small island near the shore, when there was a bright
flash, the boom of a gun, and the scream of a shell
overhead; and this was followed by a second and a third.
The Raleigh, which was third in the line, replied
with a five-inch shell, and the Concord and the Boston,
coming next, each in turn opened fire. The shells
from the shore batteries fell wide of the mark, but with
the second flash the Yankee gunners had the spot from
which they came and placed a six-inch shell so effectu-
ally that it killed an officer and forty-one men and
silenced the battery completely.


Final Preparations for Battle The Attack at Dawn

Then the fleet passed on toward the city. The
night wore away quietly and slowly. Towards morn-
ing the moon broke through the clouds. Some of the
sailors lay down at their stations and dozed. The
finishing touches were put on for the great battle which
was at hand. The men were once more instructed as
to first aid for the injured; the decks were sanded
again; the boats were covered with canvas to prevent
their being splintered by flying shell; the ammunition
hoists were wound with cable-chains; wood partitions
were torn out and thrown overboard; all impediments
were put out of the way; everything that American
wit and industry could do to get in the best possible
condition for action was done.
The lights of Manila came in sight early and were
kept directly in the line of progress. At dawn the
fleet was about four miles from the city. At four
o'clock coffee and hard-tack were served. It was Sun-
day morning and it was May-day." At a quarter
past five the forts on the Manila shore and on the shore
opposite, at Cavite, fired some shots, but their shells fell
a full mile from the fleet. No reply was made. The
man on the bridge of the flagship had his plan and was
not to be diverted from it. The dispatch boat McCul-
loch and the transports stopped in the middle of the
bay. The cruisers passed on in single file even beyond
the city, and then swung around to the right, and,
under full steam, made straight for the arsenal at
Cavite and for the Spanish fleet which was anchored


The Flagship Opens Turning the Circle

By this time the fire from the forts and the Spanish
vessels, each with great battle-flags of red and gold
aloft, was continuous; but the shells fell short. The
American gunners stood at their pieces with smiling
but tense faces. The American squadron pressed on
rapidly in a line as straight as a fleet of boats in tow.
A signal from the flagship said, Fire as convenient,"
but they all reserved their fire for closer range. When
the range-finder showed two miles, Dewey said in a
quiet voice to the captain of his ship, the historic
When you are ready, you may fire, Mr. Gridley."
The message instantly reached the eager men at the
eight-inch guns in the forward turret, and at just 5.35
the first projectiles were hurled with a flash and a roar
at the fated ships of Spain. Like an echo came the boom
of the opening fire from all the other American ships,
as they discharged their port batteries. The air was
full of shells and smoke, and the water was splashed
about our ships with the Spanish shot. To give our
gunners a better sight the speed was slowed down.
After all had passed the anchored Spanish fleet, our
line swung around and returned over the same course,
firing the starboard batteries. Suddenly, about a
thousand yards ahead of the Olympia, a waterspout
arose; a submarine mine had been exploded, but with
inaccurate calculation.
When the Spanish flagship, the Reina Cristina, saw
that the mine had failed, she slipped her mooring and
charged direct at the Olympia, like a maddened pan-




S. 4'

The Battle of Manila Hay, May I, I898.

4 -._
! -^


Reina Christina's Charge Fate of the Torpedo Boats

their. But the guns of all the fleet were upon her,
and the marksmanship of the cool-headed American
gunners did not fail. No vessel could stand under
that gunnery. In a few moments the white ship was in
flames, with great holes torn in her sides, and she turned
to flee. But even as she headed to seek safety, the
trained eye of a gunner in the Olympia's forward
turret sent a terrible projectile after her, which struck
her stern and plunged clear through her bow, sweep-
ing down her captain and sixty men. Then it was
" save who can."
Admiral Montojo had his boat lowered from the
wrecked ship and changed his flag to the Isla de Cuba.
This vessel immediately became the target of the re-
sistless American batteries, and soon in her turn she
was burning and going down. But before she sank
the Admiral signaled to his two torpedo boats to go
out and do for the Olympia what he had been unable
to accomplish.
Across the bay came charging these little demons of
war. The Olympia's big guns first greeter' them, but
missed their mark, the speed of the boats being so great
and the targets so small. They arrived within eight
hundred yards and in a moment more would have dis-
charged their torpedoes. But they came no farther.
The secondary battery and the rapid-fire guns were
now raining their shells and solid shot upon them.
From one of them there arose a white explosion, and
she dropped under the waves forever. The other,
sorely wounded, and dazed by the fate of her consort,


Two More Ships Burning Stopping for Breakfast

turned like the flagship and sought the beach, where
she was found later, pierced, shattered, and bloody.
Having once more passed the enemy, our vessels
turned around again and steamed back to fire upon the
other side. This time it was the Don Antonio de
Ulloa and the Castillo that were overwhelmed. Our
gunners were worn, but they seemed to gain in pre-
cision and fired with the coolness of target practice.
The wonderful victory they were gaining lifted them
above exhaustion. The Spanish captains had nailed
their flags to the masts, and their men were fighting
with the desperate bravery of those for whom there is
nothing but death.
Then the Olympia drew out of the line, to the sur-
prise of the whole fleet. Some feared that she was in
distress, but as she came within hearing of the other
ships their men cheered and her men cheered back
with such spirit that no further assurance of her con-
dition was needed. Commodore Dewey signaled the
fleet to withdraw and serve breakfast.
It was now half-past seven o'clock and the battle
had raged more than two hours. Several Spanish ves-
sels were burning and there was also a fire at the
arsenal. Yet their guns were still at work with no
sign of surrender. Our men were displeased at the
order to cease firing and to eat, because the victory had
not yet been completely won. They wanted no re-
freshment while there was a Spanish warship afloat.
But the Commodore knew best. He desired to know
the condition of his ships and the state of the ammuni-


A Council The Battle Renewed

tion. The captains were summoned to the flagship,
and soon returned to their vessels with the good news
that not a man had been killed in the fleet, and only
half a dozen slightly wounded; and they also gave
the assurance that the assault would soon be renewed
and the battle fought to a finish.
So the fleet drew off to the middle of the bay and
waited while the men took breath and had their break-
fast; the guns grew cool, the ammunition was rein-
forced, the machinery was examined, and everything
put in fresh order for a finishing onset.
At twenty minutes before eleven the signal came to
recommence the attack. The plan of battle had been
changed. The Spanish ships had been so much dam-
aged as to be practically out of the fight. Now, in-
stead of the American fleet moving up and down in
front of the forts and the Spanish ships, and firing as
they went, the orders were to go directly towards
them, stop, get the range, then choose a mark and hit
it with accuracy. The Baltimore went in first, at full
speed, almost disappearing in her own smoke. She
not only used her larger guns, but approached so close
that she could use the rapid-fire guns in her smaller
battery. In twenty minutes the Olympia followed
her. Then in turn the Boston, the Raleigh, and
the Concord followed. The little Petrel, which drew
less water than the rest, ran in and out firing inces-
santly at the ships and the forts until the sailors
named her the baby battleship." By one o'clock
all the larger Spanish vessels were sunk or on fire,


The White Flag No Americans Killed

and out of action, and the forts were disabled and
Five minutes later the baby battleship signaled
to the Commodore that the enemy had struck his colors
and that a white flag was flying over the fort at Cavite.
The battle had now been completely won. The firing
ceased and the crews climbed the rigging to cheer and
cheer again at the marvelous, triumphant battle seven
thousand miles from any American soil. To them it
brought enduring fame, and to the officers it brought
the thanks of their countrymen and promotion. For
a time all rules were suspended; if it should be said
that the captains danced with old jack-tars, and the
Commodore gave vent to his feelings by hugging the
cabin-boy, we could readily believe it.
There had been many false rumors through the fleet
about the killed and wounded upon the different ves-
sels. When it was announced that there were none
killed and but half a dozen slightly wounded, it seemed
impossible. For four hours they had been under the
incessant fire of heavy guns. The Olympia had been
hit thirteen times, and none of the others had escaped.
The intensity of feeling, when it was known that the
crews were all safe, made many of the strongest men
burst into tears of joy.
It was a battle in which scientific skill had decided
the result. The Spaniards had apparently poured their
metal into the bay at random. The American com-
mander had maneuvered his fleet with a calm and
trained judgment which minimized the effect of the


The Triumph of Skill The World's Amazement

enemy's shots, and the American gunners had used
their guns with as much deliberation and precision as
though engaged in target practice. It was the triumph
of skill and accurate marksmanship over mere daring
without training, the victory of manly courage working
through science over desperate valor without scientific
The world heard the news of this extraordinary
battle with absolute amazement. No battle like it
had ever been fought. Destruction as great had be-
fallen the vanquished in other battles, but never before
had such annihilation been wrought without the cost
of a single life to the victors. Europe instantly com-
prehended that the United States, notwithstanding
the comparative smallness of her navy, was one of the
most formidable naval powers in the world. The
people in America were in a tumult of joy and pride.
While victory had been expected, none could have
fancied it to be so complete. It was the most wonder-
ful triumph of American arms in our history. Com-
modore Dewey, with his officers and men, received the
thanks of the President and Congress; he was named
Acting Admiral, and soon after was made Rear-
Admiral. If the war lacked any popularity before, it
was wanting no longer. It was a victory with deeper
results in the United States than in Manila.
Following the battle the Petrel steamed out from
behind the forts at Cavite with a half-dozen captured
vessels in her tow. One of these, the Manila, had six
hundred tons of coal and many beef-cattle on board,


The Forts Silenced Waiting for the Army

both of which were needed. On the next day a detail
was sent on shore to bury the Spanish dead and relieve
their wounded. Occasion was taken to advise the
Captain-General of the Philippines and the people of
Manila that if one shot was fired at the fleet from the
fortifications at Manila the city would be laid in ashes.
In a day or two the forts at the mouth of the bay were
Then the fleet settled down to wait nearly three
months for an American army to come from over the
seas to occupy the city.


New Names in our History Sailing of Fleet


The Attack on Santiago

GUANTANAMO, Daiquiri, Guasimas, El Caney,
San Juan, and Santiago,-these names mark
the landing of the American army in Cuba, and the
route of progress to a splendid triumph of American
arms on that island., But they stand for much more,
-for heroism and aggressiveness, for patience, endur-
ance, and persistence, for hardship and death, for the
expulsion of the Spaniard, and the final termination of
Spanish rule in America.
The first armed movement towards the expulsion
from Cuba of the Spanish army of nearly 200,000 men,
was to establish a blockade of naval vessels along the
coast in order to cut off from that army all information
and supplies.
War actually began on the 21st of April, when the
telegraph operator at the White House sent out the
President's order to the waiting fleet at Key West to
sail instantly to Cuba. For days these warships under
Rear-Admiral Sampson had been awaiting that order,
ready like racers to spring at the signal. The captains
were in the Admiral's cabin on board the New York late
in the evening of the 21st when the dispatch arrived.
Within an hour the search-lights had begun feeling


The Blockade First Actions

their way out of the harbor, and before daylight of the
22nd the whole fleet was in the open sea sweeping
towards Havana.
There was, as yet, however, no army for invasion.
The President had not even called for volunteers when
our sailors arrived before Morro Castle. Until an ade-
quate invading force could be gathered and equipped
it would have been useless to attempt to batter down
the powerful fortifications of Havana. While the new
troops were assembling in their various camps, it was
the navy's business only to look out for the enemy's
fleet, and to isolate the enemy's army from supplies
and communication.
Reinforced from day to day with the newly obtained
vessels of all sorts, the American Admiral stretched a
cordon of blockaders well around the island. The first
action of the war was the bombardment of the fortifi-
cations of Matanzas, not far eastward from Havana, on
the 28th of April. At Cardenas Bay, on the IIth of
May, there was a sharp engagement with Spanish bat-
teries and gunboats, in which Ensign Bagley and four
men on the torpedo boat Winslow were killed. On
the same day several men from the Marblehead were
killed while cutting a cable at Cienfuegos. The Span-
ish Admiral, Cervera, with a formidable fleet, had sailed
from Spain, and Sampson cruised eastward to San
Juan, Puerto Rico, in the hope of meeting him. Fail-
ing to find the Spanish fleet, he bombarded the forte
of San Juan for a few hours on the 12th of May, and
then returned to Cuba.


HAN I t3o, or
-5ANTIAf;. bt CUSA

A Bird's-Eye View of Santiago and Vicinity.



The New Army First Army Movement

But meanwhile our new army of over 250,000 men
was being mobilized as rapidly as possible. To the
impatient people the mustering in, the equipping, and
the drilling of these troops seemed to be very slow,
and we were shown for the first time how impossible it
would have been to meet on even terms an invading
army of a first-class European power, like Great Britain,
if promptly thrown upon our territory.
From State camps the regiments were transferred to
national rendezvous, the most famous of which were
Camp Thomas at Chattanooga and Camp Alger near
Washington. Thence, as the troops became ready for
service, they could be transported to the ports most
convenient for embarkation. Tampa, on the west
coast of Florida,-the same Tampa where, nearly four
centuries before, the Spanish cavalier, De Soto, started
on his adventurous march through the unknown lands
which now are part of the United States,-was selected
as the best point of departure for the expedition to
The Fifth Army Corps was encamped here under
Major-General Wm. R. Shafter. This body of troops,
most of whom were regulars, had the honor of consti-
tuting the first expedition of land forces for the rescue
of Cuba.
There were several reasons, however, why it seemed
wise to delay the expedition. A fleet of transport
ships conveying an army over hostile waters is at the
mercy of even a very inferior enemy. A single well-
directed shell or torpedo could sink a ship carrying a


Dangers to Transports False Rumors

thousand defenseless soldiers. Although the warships
which would convoy a fleet of transports might quickly
annihilate the enemy's squadron, nevertheless the
chance of sinking a number of our crowded transports
would warrant any Spanish commander in making the
desperate attack. Consequently it would seem like a
tempting of fate for a vast expedition of soldiers to
venture out until the sea was reasonably safe from the
enemy's cruisers and torpedo boats.
Spain proved formidable in her power of sending out
misleading rumors. Such contradictory reports were
received from various quarters of Europe, as well as
from numbers of ports in the neighborhood of the
West Indies, that it became impossible to tell where
the powerful fleets of Admiral Cervera and Admiral
Camara were to be found. They might be in the ports
of Spain; they might be at the Canary or Cape Verde
Islands; they might be hovering near the New Eng-
land coast; they might be dodging among the islands
of the Caribbean Sea. Certainly, until they were either
located or destroyed, the open sea was no place for
16,ooo soldiers gathered on the frail transports.
Consequently, from week to week the impetuous
army waited on the burning sand at Tampa while the
navy seemed to have all the opportunities for service.
The first attempt of the American army to land on
the shore of Cuba was made on the 12th of May by
the officers and men of the First United States In-
fantry, who had been sent on the steamer Gussie to
carry supplies to the Cubans. The Spaniards, how-


A Repulse Admiral Cervera's Fleet

ever, had intercepted the Cuban party, and appeared
in such force and resisted the attempts to land with
such spirit that the Americans withdrew without mak-
ing connection with their Cuban allies. Though our
troops suffered no loss, but inflicted considerable dam-
age upon the Spanish, we were obliged to admit that
the first advantage rested with the enemy.
During the next fortnight the fleet of Admiral Cer-
vera arrived on this side of the ocean and was finally
discovered in Santiago harbor. The voyage of this
hostile force from Cadiz to Santiago was romantic with
interest to the world.
When the war broke out, this fleet was at the Cape
Verde Islands. These islands belong to Portugal.
Our Government protested against the fleet being
harbored in a neutral port, in violation of international
law. After much delay Portugal informed the Gov-
ernment at Washington, the 26th of April, that the
Spanish ships would be given forty-eight hours in
which to leave the Cape Verde Islands. On the
28th of April, however, they were still there. But
Portugal now definitely declared her neutrality, and
Cervera, having had ample time to provision and coal
his fleet, steamed leisurely away. Where he had gone
was a mystery. He was reported to be at the Canary
Islands. He was reported to have arrived in Spain.
He was said to have been seen crossing the Atlantic.
His fleet, though not large in number, was powerful
because of its homogeneity. It had no slow transports
to retard its progress. It consisted of the five armored


Formidable Spanish Cruisers Cervera Arrives

cruisers, the Cristobal Colon, the Infanta Maria Teresa,
the Almirante Oquendo, the Vizcaya, the Reina Mer-
cedes, and three swift torpedo-boat destroyers.
A fleet like this, properly officered and worked, could
be used like a single machine. Its power of damage
to the United States was enormous. It might appear
suddenly off Boston harbor and lay that wealthy and
poorly defended city in ashes if it refused the tribute
of millions which would naturally be demanded. Or
it might appear before New York and, though in the
face of greater danger to itself, might still inflict incon-
ceivable disaster; again, it might proceed more to the
southward and intercept our battleship, the Oregon,
then steaming northward on its long voyage from
Puget Sound around Cape Horn. It might throw
itself into the harbor of San Juan, Puerto Rico, and
use that haven as a basis for mischievous operations
against the Americans.
From each of these quarters came reports of strange
warships having been seen, and our commanders con-
tinued, in painful uncertainty, the necessary policy of
Finally the uncertainty lifted. About the Iith of
May the Spanish flotilla was definitely reported at the
French island of Martinique, and shortly after, at the
island of Curacao, just north of Venezuela.
While Sampson was returning from his hunt for
Cervera at Puerto Rico, the Spaniard was sailing due
northwest for Santiago de Cuba, which he reached on
the i9th of May. His arrival at Santiago was not


Locating Cervera Lieut. Victor Blue's Reconnoissance

known by the Americans with certainty for several
days. While Sampson kept guard near Key West,
Commodore Schley with the flying squadron was
watching the harbor of Cienfuegos on the southern
coast of Cuba, where Cervera was reported to be hid-
den. At last his hiding-place at Santiago was dis-
covered, and on the 28th of May, Schley, with his
flagship the Brooklyn, accompanied by the Massa-
chusetts, the Texas, the Iowa, the Marblehead, the
Minneapolis, the Castine, the torpedo boat Dupont,
and the auxiliary cruiser St. Paul, the coaling ship
Merrimac, and others, arrived off Santiago; and the
next day they were able to look through the nar-
row neck of the bottle-shaped harbor and to see the
enemy's ships lying safely at anchor behind the frown-
ing fortifications and the network of submarine tor-
To verify fully the assurance that all of the Spanish
vessels were there, Lieutenant Victor Blue, of the navy,
made a daring and famous reconnaissance. He landed
and, at the greatest risk, climbed the hills, counted
one by one the enemy's ships, and returned with the
report that the five cruisers and two torpedo boats
were actually imprisoned in the bay.
In a few days Rear-Admiral Sampson, with the flag-
ship New York and the battleship Oregon, the cruiser
New Orleans, and several auxiliary vessels and torpedo
boats, reinforced Commodore Schley and took com-
mand of the fleet that was keeping Cervera" bottled"
in Santiago.


Lieutenant Hobson's Exploit A "Bottled" Fleet

Then in a few days followed an exploit which awoke
the admiration of the world and lifted a hitherto ob-
scure young officer to the summit of fame. Lieuten-
ant Hobson took the coaling ship Merrimac by night
beneath the guns of the forts, and while under the most
terrible fire from both shores, endeavored to anchor
his ship in the narrow channel, to sink her by his own
hand, in order thus to leave her wreck to block the
Spanish ships if they should attempt to escape. That
the Merrimac was not sunk at the precise spot in-
tended was due to the rudder being shot away.
When morning came he and his six companions who
had volunteered for the enterprise were, as by a miracle,
alive and unhurt, clinging to a raft. The story of that
unrivaled exploit is fully told in a later chapter. The
fact that the attempt to close the harbor was not fully
successful does not detract from the sublime heroism
of the men.
The situation now was this: The Spanish fleet was
indeed besieged; it might dash for liberty, but, in the
face of such a superior and vigilant force, it would have
but little chance. On the other hand, the besiegers
were unable to reach it so long as it chose to remain in
its haven; the narrow channel was a network of sub-
marine mines which would sink the first vessel that
entered; and the lofty forts on the cliffs above could
at such close range pour down an annihilating torrent
of shells upon the thin decks of the attacking ships,
which, at that nearness, could not lift their guns suffi-
ciently to silence the batteries. Their elevation was


A Land Attack Needed Heroism of Marines

so great that successive bombardments, though they
damaged, did not destroy the batteries.
Nevertheless, until they were destroyed or captured
it was evident that the ships could not advance into
the channel to clear it of its sunken torpedoes. The
aid of the army was therefore necessary. A force by
land was required to capture the harbor forts, so that
the battleships might countermine the channel, steam
in, and engage the Spanish fleet.
Accordingly, General Shafter was ordered to take
his troops, land near Santiago, and capture the forts.
Before he started, however, the navy, on the Ioth
of June, made a landing. It was the first permanent
foothold gained by Americans on Cuba. Under the
protection of the guns of the Oregon, the Marblehead,
and the Yosemite, six hundred marines landed at
Guantanamo Bay, in command of Lieutenant-Colonel
R. W. Huntington. Their landing was stoutly resisted
by the Spaniards. All day and all night the fighting
continued, as the little band desperately defended their
camp from the continuous and encircling volleys.
Here were the first American lives lost on Cuban soil.
But, in spite of their severe losses, the marines held the
flag where they had planted it.
General Shafter's expedition started on the 14th of
June. Thirty-five transports carried sixteen thousand
men. They went under the protection of fourteen
armed vessels of the navy. The battleship Indiana
led the way. Six days later they came in sight of
Morro Castle at the entrance to the bay of Santiago,