Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00027
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: December 15, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00027
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text

rPOTMASTER Iddressee bar in *
r|ti Atnother poutefl-e notify sender odn form |
S 3547. postage lor which l s guaranteed. I -- "

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(-' -i- . - 's .t...h-e- co'--i ".-e.ilzaI_;7.Iume The sec
o VI I stBSCtPTN B Pmex d' cENr EB TAJB: TAMPA, FLORIDA, DEC- 15;,1931 '. .- -; ae->^*iio .- .^:#
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oFi g t A :Attempt.o2 c e "remikB e o
II" ..' I- ,-- .*, - |. -. ^- '^ .. ; : .- ~ -' ,3 h ..-;- '.'." S

-itrus canner& tb force the price of .though probibly, nst toulie 'e.tec-nt "A8.ected:Ind ; Th!. T is"he. Dic*p I
---annery grapefruit down to -20 of the first. .... -.-"'-
Scents a box at the packing houses, According r ort. receJved, '. ..id

";ited- an-i important grodirs .ment totake I ntic6L of*pricet'fro B
the- .canhers. ard fix a mi.iiuni
-wlhch' Tiil- bring, the- growerL t .
least a. pat'of the productfi i E~osts:
'.iTIie'" ai's~ciation president :'dt-i
"mandd bf' the packing" house- tinn-
:ager, tifat they do .-n6f sell' a box:
of 'the t cannery .fruitrforless. thn.'
4"::cents a'-box, -which after :deduc-
ton-, of 'picking and hauling costs-
ieaves. little enough for the' grow-
r TFhey.'urge upon .the -gpowierJh
si with- them that this niri-r
maintained and to hlp do
d $5y leaving the drop inu the..
che&/whe'r they are worth.id.fer-;,
Stier value as much as the :can-
n6r, see-k to pay. Fertizlier, men.
'_nrmthatthe' -drops .re .!ort&
it oihan --20 :cents -ai.lbox at the,:,
Eiprevailing..prices for citrus- umus
.o ,-ipo.U-ds .'
l The'association has in-ited: the
obofmmittee of 50, grower- advisory
;'body.of the Clearing House to aid
i'fnnaking the moyveen,'.sta.ewide.,

ve. a Q -n t s
or frte. to s Jr'ahig hvo.
f; three mng ing ccesion? Tha
:w0uld indicae' a havy loss/ '-,... '
'*liej~ott opthe d~ mage from tole
iret *nmge from 1. ercentrof tei-
navel dr-F,.tdhs high as50- p"c t '.
Jt-ik; understood ..that ie. growers:
[ere caughtrun prepared to ieat those
rov.es apd.thato many thereoe: '
*were unab'le,,to.fight,.the low.tAm'-,
peratures -.:.'::.:-' .' -
.. It- is -t od .so figure on :the
probable. .damnage'e 'from '-the second .
-ola .wiave. ;.It boulid' appear,. h'ow
-ever, that -'it as nio ,;J:as s&v_ e-e as


nigh f. ors",d
e" i'ee Brids a

pedple, ready t
rtirei herve el
niindidto ,sui
', ,-2-. -. 5 ..

1'- ; -. l-

. '

SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE December ~15, 1931

Assn. Presidents Vote

Extra 10 Cent Retain

For Tangerine Campaign
With the special tangerine cam-
paign of the Exchange underway in
several cities, the Presidents' asso-
ciation of the Exchange meeting at
Davenport voted in favor of an ad-
ditional 10 cent retain on tanger-
ines to allow a more comprehensive
campaign. Present funds available
for the campaign permit the work-
ing of only 11 cities.
The action of the presidents of
the associations was taken in con-
sideration of the fact that the Ex-
change will have to carry on the
tangerine work alone. Plans for the
cooperation of all shippers fell!
through as did a latter plan of the
Clearing House to advertise in a
selected list of cities.
s The plan calls for coordination

of supplies, special personnel and
advertising. Special men will work
up cooperation of the trade and
the stores. Newspaper -advertise-
ments are scheduled to appear
when supplies are in the markets
and available to fill the demand ex-
pected from the advertising appeal.
The advertisements play upon the
point that a luxury fruit now is
available at prices within the reach
of all the consumers.
The selected list of cities was
chosen to concentrate efforts and
get the greatest return on the lim-
ited amount of money available.
The list is comprised of cities which
have previously taken much less of
tangerines than their potential de-
mand would warrant.

Early Period of Season
Ends; Better Prospects
Seen For Rest of Year
The holidays bring to a close the
very unsatisfactory early period of
the 1931-32 season with every in-
dication that the mid-season period
will be considerably improved in
both grapefruit and oranges.
With Florida's crop materially
reduced by drought and California
citrus under serious suspicion of
severe frost damage, demand for
the Florida fruit is expected to in-
crease cnosiderably. This should
bring more satisfactory prices and
will probably tend to return Flor-
ida citrus to a higher level of trad-
ing from the truck and bulk deal.
Reviewing the season so far,
grapefruit has held almost straight
through from the beginning at
price levels out of which growers
generally got very little to apply
on production costs though saved
from "red ink." Practically speak-
ing, the price level paid only the
regular packing and sales profits
to the shippers with little extra for
the growers except those of the Ex-
change who through operation of

Exchange Starts Annual Dealer Display. Service
Which Includes Thousands of Displays
Hundreds of window displays and pared for each crew before they
thousands of attractive color ban- start on the round of the territory.
ners, counter cards and interestingly In each town they contact the Ex-
illustrated special price cards are change representative and work out
going up in stores all through the a list of the stores, both those using
market area, attracting the atten- Exchange fruit and the non-users
tion of housewives and others to it is desired to add. Routes are laid
"Seald-Sweet" and "Mor-juce." out so that no time is wasted or
Dealer service work of the Florida unnecessary distance traveled.
Citrus Exchange started this month The following schedules of three
and will be carried on aggressively of the crews in the Eastern decision
for many months as part of the Ex- give an idea of the systematic man-
change merchandising service for its ner in which the work is conducted
growers. Dealer service crews are and the wide extent of territory
working in the principal marketing Crew 1 Pennqylvania, New
areas while Exchange representa- York and Ontario coverage: Oil City,
Itives arrange for the distribution of Pa., Dec. 7; Erie, Pa., Dec. 8, 9;
materials to stores in those towns Buffalo, N. Y., Dec. 10, 11, 12, 14,
which the service crews do not 15, 16; Rochester, N. Y., Dec. 17,
reach. 18, 19; Jamestown, N. Y., Dec. 21;
The dealer service is one of the Altoona, Pa., Dec. 22, 34; Pitts-
most important factors in building burg, Pa., Dec. 24, 24, 26; Johns-
up both store and consumer prefer- town, Pa., Dec. 28, 29; Cumberland,
ence for a brand and in stimulating Md., Dec. 30, 31; Pittsburg, Pa.,
demand and increasing consumption. Jan. 1-17; Buffalo, N. Y., Jan. 18,
This service arranges the -special 19; Niagara Falls, N. Y., Jan. 20;
displays of a product that are seen Hamilton, Ont., Jan. 21, 22, 23;
in store windows and inside the Toronto, Ont., Jan. 25, 26, 27;
stores. The colorful illustrations of Rochester, N. Y., Jan. 28, 29, 30;
the product and the ways in which it Elmira, N. Y., Feb. 1, 2; Bingham-
can be served that are seen about ton, N. Y., Feb. 3; Scranton, Pa.,
the walls of almost every store are Feb. 4, 5,,6; Wilkes Barre, Pa., Feb.
placed by this service.. 8, 9.
The service men also work with Crew 2 Pennsylvania, Balti-
the retailer and the wholesaler. They more, Washington and New Jersey:
show the retailer how he can take Harrisburg District, Pa., Dec. 7-12;
care of his fruit to best advantage Philadelphia District, Pa., Dec. 14-
while it is in stock to reduce decay 23; Washington D. C., Jan. 4-9;
and shrinkage and to sell it faster. Baltimore, Md., Jan. 11-16; Phila-
Ihey work on the retailers to keep delphia, Pa., Jan. 18-23; Returning
their prices at a level that will move to New York enroute wirk, Trenton,
the fruit into consumption faster N. J.; Princeton, N. J.; New Bruns-
and by more rapid turnover increase wick, N. J.; Plainfield, N. J.; Rahway,
;he net profits of the retailer on N. J.; Elizabeth, N. J.; Due New
smaller capital outlay and helps the York, Jan. 30.
growers by increasing consumption, Crew 3-Albany, N. Y., Jan. 4,
particularly per capital. 5, 6; Troy, N. Y., Jan. 7; Schenec-
The storekeepers are made ac- tady, N. Y., Jan. 8, 9; Utica, N. Y.,
luainted with the advertising plans Jan. 11, 12; Syracuse, N. Y., Jan.
)f the Exchange, showing them 13, 14, 15, 16; Rome, N. Y., Jan.
what is being done to help them 18; Gloversville, N.Y.,Jan.19; Glen
sell their fruit. This frequently in- Falls, N. Y., Jan. 20; No. Adams,
luences the retailer to buy more and Mass. Jan. 21; Pittsfield Mass.,' Jan.
>ften gains the wholesaler new 22; Roughkeepsie, N. Y., Jan. 23;
stores to serve. Kingston, N. Y., Jan. 25; Newburg,
The service work is carried on N. Y., Jan. 26; Middletown, N. Y.,
systematically. An itinery is pre- Jan. 27.





tl-eir own business save packing
and sales profits.
The movement of grapefruit was
rather heavy this season, rarely
running less than 400 cars of
straight grapefruit a week and av-
eraging between 550 to 600 cars
of straight shipments plus 75 to
100 cars of grapefruit out of the
mixed shipments.
The orange situation was distin-
guished in the big centers by late
maturity, very light supplies, and
fair quality in contrast to rather
undesirable late Valencias and ear-
ly navels from California. To this
feature of the California fruit later

was added a suspicion of damage
by frost which helped turn the
trade to Florida fruit.
Other features were the heavy
bulk and truck movement and the
price cutting brought by release
of arsenated fruit. Truck and bulk
fruit early monopolized the South
and bulk spread its domination to
the Middle West.
Demand in the big markets was
unusually indifferent. Orange ship-
ments to these points were very
light. They picked up rather reck-
lessly in view of conditions with
the approach of the holidays, near-
ly 600 cars moving Dec. 12 and 13.

Fight Attempt of

Canners To Force

GrapeFruit to 20c
"Therefore be it resolved that we
request the -directors of the Florida
Citrus exchange and this associa-
tioi that they endeavor to have a
price fixed of at least 40 cents f.
o. b. packing house for canning
grade grapefruit and that all asso-
ciations be requested to refuse to
sell any fruit to canners at -a lower
figure than this and that all grow-
ers be informed of the value of
their drops as fertilizer and said
growers be requested that they do
not sell or allow anyone to pick up
their drops to sell to canning
All efforts so far to get the can-
ners to recognize the growers
equity in the' situation have failed
as occurred last season. General
Manager C. C. Commander told the
presidents that several conferences
had been held with the canners but
he had "never found them willing
to cooperate."
"As far as their present attitude
in concerned," Mr. Commander in-
formed, "we were offered 20 cents
a box for grapefruit this morning."
Mr. Grimes, who also is president
of Manatee Sub-Exchange, declared
that the canned grapefruit is in di-
rect competition with fresh fruit,
and asserted that the "canner
either will help or hurt our indus-
"If our canning fruit either
yields production costs or a slight
profit, then the citrus industry will
profit." he said. "Otherwise we
might just as well use this class
of fruit as fertilizer. I believe we
can get 40 cents a box-if we stick
The minimum price requested is
considered a more than reasonable
demand upon the -canners. Last
season,'with a-much larger volume
of fruit, the suggestion of.a min-
imum price of 50 cents a box was
declared by several of the canners
to be reasonable. However,' though
there were only 35 canning inter-
ests involved, these could not get
together on any agreement and cut-
throat competition which virtually
killed off trade confidence followed.
Past experience has shown that
the canners, themselves, do not
profit by unreasonably low prices
for the cannery fruit. A similarly
low price for it last season was used
by some of the canners to cut
prices and use other illogical tac-
;ics which brought ruin to several
canning interests and profited no
one. Even the trade, always. in-
terested in reasonably low prices,
criticized the Florida citrus can-
ners for these tactics.
It is still the belief of many that
the big pack of last season could
have been moved at a fair profit
dad the canners exercised ordinary
businesss commonsense .






December 115, 1931


December~~~~ 15. 1931. SL-WE HOIL

Holly Hill Association Has Fine Start

For a baby as-
sociation of the
Florida Citrus
Exchange, Holly
Hills Citrus
Growers associ-
ation at Daven-
port is setting a
veteran's pace.
Admitted to
membership a
tively few weeks

ago, the association built an ultra-
modern, six-car packing house in
32 days and then in the first month
of operation topped the New York
auction on three different occa-
sions, twice with oranges and once
with grapefruit.
The association is the marketing
agency, through the Exchange, for
a large proportion of the 600 grove
owners in the Holly Hills Groves

,development. It is the final link
'of a complete chain of ownership
from nursery to marketing. Lor-
enzo A. Wilson, president of Wil-
son Toomer Fertilizer Company and
a prominent business and civic
leader of the state, is president of
'the association. Howard W. Nog-
gle, formerly of Noggle and Kirk-
patrick and for the past three years
connected -with. the Exchange in
'sales and dealer service, is the
The packing plant follows the
favored design of direct and short
movement of fruit, a system of such
;economy and efficiency as to have
Largely reduced operating costs.
SFruit from the groves is loaded' al-

most at the doors of the coloring
rooms from which it has to be
moved only a few feet to go to the
washers. Also after passing through
the various handling processes, in-
to the boxes and by the lidding
machines, it has to be trucked only
a few feet to the cars. Trucking
and handling is reduced to a min-
imum. The plant has the complete
Brogdex equipment with 32 feet of
The main building is 164 by 147


feet. Though only 32 days elapsed
from the breaking of ground to the
first run of fruit through, it is pro-
nounced as one of the best con-
structed packing houses in the
state. A loading platform for
truckers is located at one end out
of the way of the box fruit. A large
storage platform for field boxes and
a separate power building are lo-
cated convenient to the main build-

ing at this same end. A separate
office building also has been pro-
vided. The buildings have been ar-
ranged on the tract to allow at-
tractive landscaping and it is pro-
posed to make the property one of
the beauty spots of the section.
Holly Hills Groves at this time
comprises more than 5,000 acres.
The development is located on one
of the attractive rolling areas of
the Scenic Ridge. It was begun in
The development established its
own nursery, and specialized on
pineapple -and Valencia oranges
and early and late grapefruit.
Grove care has been given by a
special department of the Holly Hill

Canada's new
orange tariff of
about 75 cents a
box, first
thought of more
serious import to
California than
Florida, may
prove as serious
to the latter
through the re-
vival of compe-
tition from Ja-
__^I_. .. .. J..-_


soIEa (1)

TO OTHER COUNTRY 7 30-31 3-- a'

15 16-17 18-19 20-1 22-2 24-ZS 77- 2B-2 W.31 -e.33

maIca, one time Prepared by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
a principal exporter to this country.
Jamaica, on the free list of Can- Tr I D r
ada, is already making strong at- UCK 'S Dringng
tempts to build a market in Can- Storm o Reaction
ada. Storm oF Reaction
Jamaica at the beginning of the A
present century, before the United Against practice
States had become a prominent a The trucking movement appears
citrus producer, shipped more than to have overdone itself and to have
450,000 boxes of oranges a year brought a reaction which in all
to this country, or about half of probability will result in a limita-
its production. High prices for or- tion to the unusual freedom which
ange oil attracted a big part of the this new factor in distributing has
crop to that by-product and ex- enjoyed.

ports or the frut became limited.
The bulk of the fruit was consumed
at home or converted to orange oil.
The price for orange oil has stead-
ily decreased .and it is expected
that Jamaica will look more to ex-
The refrigerating freight rate on
Jamaica oranges to Canada about
equals the new tariff on the Un-
ited States fruit which must be:
paid in additional to transportation.
to Canada. Jamaica produces or-
anges the year around but its heav-
iest movement is from October to
January or February, which would
bring it in strong competition with
Seriousness of the possible affect
of the tariff to American producers
is seen in the fact that Canada for
years has taken 75 percent of the
summer orange exports from this
country and 92 percent of the win-
ter exports. This figures out as ap-
proximately nine percent of the-
summer orange crop of this coun-
try and nearly six percent of the
winter crop.

Exchange Men Honored
G. G. Ware of Leesburg, director
of the Florida Citrus Exchange, re-
prseenting Lake Sub-Exchange,
was re-elected president of the
Florida State Chamber of Com-
merce. President John A. Snively
of the Exchange, was elected one
of the three vice presidents at

Grove and Fruit Company, parent
organization that developed, the
-groves and the town of Davenport.-
Bayard F. Floyd, one of the lead-
ing horticulturists of the state, has
,supervision of the grove work.

The reaction is occurring in al-
most every section, those predom-
irnately producing as well as those--
largely marketing. Generally the re-
action is more acute in the trade
areas though in a few instances: it
is more pronounced among the
farmers and growers, indicating an,
awakening to the detriment to the
producer of unlimited trucking.
In an increasing number_ of
states organized efforts are being
made to get legislative or regula-
tory restrictions. This has been ob- .
stained in a few instances and will
be brought before the legislatures
in a large number of states at their
next session.
The reaction also is indicated in
the difficulty many truckers are en-
countering in the disposal of their
loads. It is reported that the whole-
sale outlet is being closed to
truckers in many cities.
This in itself is a regulatory .in-
fluence. The sale of .the wholesaler:'-'-
took little time while the trucker
must lose many hours seeking out
retail outlets or disposing of his
load by direct consumer sales. This
loss of time limits to a material- :
degree the number of trips a
trucker can make from producing -
areas to market and this limitation
is a big enough factor to put some
of the truckers out of business.
An example of the reaction can
be seen in Florida. The law govern-
ing limntktion of weight carried
over the state roads is to be en-
forced strictly. This will' curb some
of the turckers. Some of this re-
action in Florida arises from the
fact that many' truckers bring in
their supplies of gasoline, escaping
the payment of the seven cents a
gallon tax which Florida motor
vehicle owners must pay.

n aidanaC Tariff Seriously Aff s


December 15, 1931


~EALD-SWEET CHRONICLE December 15, 1931'



Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the .citrus growers
of Florida.

606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Publication Office:
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 2349

Net Grower Circulation
over 12,500

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35:00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VII DEC. 15, 1931. No. 14

Servant or Master
Fire is one of the most beneficial
servants; also it is one of the most
tyranical masters. So it will be
with trucking.
Utilized in harmony with other
means, trucking undoubtedly brings
wider distribution, speedily taking
the fruit to points seldom reached
by the regular distribution chan-
nels. Through the economies linked
with it, trucking puts citrus with-
in the reach of hundreds of small
consumers who might not be in-
clined to buy at the higher prices
necessitated when the fruit is
packed and moved through the reg-
ular channels. So it worked at first
last season and virtually saved the
day for the industry at one period
when it appeared that slow move-
ment of the fruit was going to over-
whelm the industry. As a servant it
was most beneficial.
But as a master, trucking is one
of the most devasting agents, de-
moralizing markets,, disorganizing
producing areas, wrecking price
levels, destroying standards. This
it has done already in several cases,
not alone citrus.
Farmers in several big producing
areas of the north, with the advan-
tage of big terminal markets close
at hand, have found trucking of
their products to market has
brought them face to face with
pete with each other in sacrifice
ruin.. It has forced them to com-
prices and lower standards to get
the trade of the trucker.
They have found the markets
closed to them except on a basis of
low prices, often below the levels
of cost. The trucker, that they wel-
comed and fostered, brought the
market down to a'peddling basis.
ThIe Florida citrus industry had
several painful experiences with
trucking last season though truck-
ing has not developed in Florida as

it has in northern fruit and veget- profits without discouraging the
able sections. Many instances of consumer.

last season can be recalled when
truckers pitted packing houses
against each other, represented
that one manager or another was
selling to them for less, aroused
bitter antagonisms that severely
shook the morale of the industry.
Many growers see only the price
that they receive from their fruit,
overlooking the faults of trucking.
They compare truck prices with re-
turns from packed fruit, lauding
the former and condemning the lat-
ter, never seeing that the packed
fruit was brought in competition in
many markets with trucked fruit
often hawked about the streets. In-
evitably such competition forces
the packed fruit, despite its higher
standards, into price competition
with the cheap trucked fruit which
results in forcing the packed fruit
out of such competitive markets
and into other markets already
carrying their full load.
Nor do the growers benefit ever
in the market in which the truckers
get domination. The truckers, un-
organized naturally, compete with
each other just as shippers do in
Florida and the price goes to lower
and lower levels. A comparable
case, also, is the cannery fruit ex-
perience last season when the fruit
sank to 25 cents a box and less.
The Florida Citrus Exchange
hopes to keep the truckers under
control. Uniform prices for trucked
and bulk fruit are transmitted to
each association every day to keep
them informed of the price level.
This is one of the benefits of coop-
erative organization-the ability to
adjust itself to new conditions with
sufficient widespread organization
(more than 100 packing houses) to
cope more readily with destructive
The truck is here to stay. It will
be either a servant or the master.
The growers.will determine which.

As Usual
As has happened with nearly all
of the the propositions for the
growers' welfare that have come
up in the Florida-citrus industry,
special work for tangerines falls
entirely upon the Florida Citrus
For a time it appeared very hope-
ful that nearly all of the industry
would get behind a special cam-
paign for tangerines, a work ser-
iously :needed in 'view of another
large crop. The Exchange with the
cooperation of nearly every ship-
per of tangerines gathered author-
ative data on tangerine sales and
distribution, including even the
small unit sales of a few boxes
each. This study showed the serious
faults in distribution and pointed
out the way to sell larger and
larger crops at stable prices which
would bring the growers good net

The data and a suggested plan
was passed on to the shippers by
the Exchange. It aroused their in-
terest and for the time it seemed
that for once the industry could
get together The urgency of the
situation however failed to sub-
merge the little differences that
arose and the big plan degenerated
down to half-hearted proposition by
which the Clearing House would
place some tangerine advertising in
one group of cities and the Ex-
change would carry out its adver-
tising and merchandising program
in another group, each group of
course to be open to sales by every
But now even this makeshift
effort has "passed by the board".
The Clearing House has dropped its
plans to advertise.

Does Better in Exchange
Oakland.-As a member of the
Florida Citrus Exchange .I think it


Sound Delivery

Better Appearance

Less Refrigeration

Better for the Dealer


The first thing a buyer looks for is a high bulge pack-if the
straps are loose he suspects decay. Brogdex controls decay and
shrinkage and almost without exception brings the fruit into
the market as sound as a dollar, with the high bulge pack still
standing and the straps still tight. Market buyers recognize the
advantages of better keeping fruit and have come to rely upon
the keeping qualities of Brogdexed fruit to build, a bigger and
more profitable retail trade and a,beter satisfied consumer market.
Oranges and grapefruit are bought by the eye-fruit must
look attractive if it is to move out of the dealer's hands. Any
visible evidence of decay, any apparent aging or wilt, even a
dullness of the shine-will slow up sales. Brogdexed fruit looks
better because it carries more wax, is double polished and is rarely
refrigerated. A car of Brogdexed fruit uses 7 pounds of wax.
It passes through two polishers which give it a splendid shine.
By shipping standard vent-without either pre-cooling or icing-
this shine is retained clear through to the consumer.
This is a specialized service no other agent or concern is com-
petent or qualified to perform-a service worth the thoughtful
consideration of any grower who has fruit to pack. If we were
realizing high prices the economies of Brogdex might not be
so important-you could get-by and still have a profit; but with
prices low and little prospect of much improvement, the savings
possible through Brogdex become of vital importance.


B. C. Skinner, Pres.

Dunedin, Florida

the duty of every grower in Florida
to seriously consider becoming a
member of the Exchange if he is
not already a member. We are all
anxious to obtain the best possible
price for our fruit and I have done
much better by marketing through
the Exclange than I could have'
done in any other way.-A. J. Willis,
in the Tampa Tribune.

The auctions are paying a few
cents more a box for Florida or-
anges over California fruit.
The California box is smaller; a
California "176" is about equival-
ent to a "200" Florida orange. A
Florida box contains over 10 per.
cent more fruit.
Such is the disorganization of
the Florida citrus industry, how-
ever, that 10 percent more fruit per
unit, finer quality and the advan-
tage of a third of the California
haul do not give the Florida in-
dustry more than a few cents a
box edge.


,December 15, 1~93V'

December 15, 1931


S tell the


A FTER all, you will never completely solve
your fertilizer problem until you face this
fundamental fact: Only your CROPS can tell
you which fertilizer you should use. Give them
that chance. Make this test: Use Nitrophoska,
Calcium Nitrate of Calurea for one-half of
your next application, use another fertilizer for
the other half. Then let your crops decide. Let
them tell you the truth about fertilizers!. Send
li for complete information now. Just mail the
f pe et iler coupon below. Synthetic Nitrogen Products
Aot1 Corp., New York, N. Y., and Plant City, Fla.
t Distributors: JACKSON GRAIN CO., Tampa, Fla.

Eight Grades of Concentrated Complete Fertilizer. NITROPHOSKA (the high-analysis complete fertilizer, made
in eight different grades to meet practicallyJevery ratio requirement) feeds the crop from start to finish. It is an
even-feeding fertilizer-BOTH quick-acting and long-lasting.

18.2% Ammonia. CALCIUM NITRATE (nitrate nitrogen combined with lime) is quick-acting and supplies the
soluble lime so necessary to citrus and other crops-even in soils already rich in lime.

41% Ammonia. CALURE'A (Calcium Nitrate combined with Urea) is a crop booster that supplies both quick-
acting and long-lasting nitrogen in one material.
Mail This Coupon Now
JACKSON GRAIN Co., Tampa, Florida, Dept. D: Please send me your free booklet "Crops Tell the Truth." This does not obligate me in any way.
I grow .... _acres of citrus ._.. acres of truck crops. Name P.O. State ..


Successful control of the blackfly
is believed to have been attained in
Cuba during the past year. This
would materially reduce the menace
to Florida due to the proximity of
Cuba to this state and the large
traffic between the two.
The blackfly ranks as one of the
most important menaces to citrus.
It has been well established in Cuba
and other West Indies islands and
Central America. Florida has been
in constant fear that it might get
into the state.
A cooperative project was under-
taken by Cuba and the United States
Department of Agriculture this year.
Natural parasites were introduced
from southeastern Asia believed to
be the original home of the pest.
Cuba paid the operating costs of the
undertaking while the department
furnished the technical personnel.
Several different types of minute
wasp parasites were introduced of
which one, Eretmocerus series, mul-
tiplied to an extent which permitted
the release of colonies throughout
Cuba and in the Canal Zone and
Haiti. Coccinellid beetles also were
introduced and one was found
effective though not to the extent
of the successful wasp.
All groves in which colonies were
established prior to October, 1930,
are now commercially free of the
fly, the Secretary of Agriculture
states in his annual report.
SThe blackfly attacks the leaves
not the fruit.

Grove heating has grown in ac-
ceptance as a practical proposition
so that a relatively small number
of persons concerned view it as a
"crazy idea". Despite this, however,
a comparatively few understand
the principles which make heating
possible and the manner in which
heating works. A very clear explan-
ation is contained in Farmer's
Bulletin,- No. 1588 of the U. S. D.
A., prepared by Floyd D. Young,
senior meteorologist of the Weather
Bureau, from exhaustive studies in
California. The following is taken
from the bulletin:

"To illustrate with a typical
case, let us assume that the air five
feet above the ground in an or-
chard has a temperature of 22 de-
grees, F., and that the temperature
of the air 40 feet above is 30 de-
grees. Let us assume also that after
the heaters have been lighted, the
temperature of the mass of heated
gases rising from the heaters,
mixed with the air of 22 degrees
temperature in the orchard, is 30
degrees. This mixture, being eight
degrees warmer than the surround-
ing air, will rise until it reaches a
point 40 feet above the ground.

Cross section of a row of orchard trees and orchard heaters, illustrating the manner in
which temperature inversion makes effective orchard heating possible. This diagram
represents air currents and temperature conditions in the orchard on a typical calm,
frosty night a few minutes after the heaters had been lighted. Later the shaded area
will completely fill the space below the 25-foot level. In this case the thickness of the
stratum of air heated is 25 feet, and the temperature rise secured at an elevation of
5I feet above th r lnd is W* F

"It is well known that warm air
is less dense, and therefore lighter
than cold air. This fact is exem-
plified in many ways in everyday
life; the hot gases from a stove or
furnace rising through t'e flue and
the lifting power of the old hot-
air ballons are good illustrations,
As a matter of fast, warmed air

The present standard v s continues to rise and edol until it

of fruit will not be planted as maj-
or varieties 50 years hense, the
specialists of the New York State
Experiment Station predict as re-
sult 'of th4e outstanding develop-
ment that has taken place in the
introduction of new, improved var-
ieties during the past 15 to 20
: While these specialists are con-
cerned with deciduous fruits, the
progress and change in citrus var-
ieties hag been comparable. They
point out that the present leading
varieties in apples were unknown
a few score years back; that none
of the present varieties of small
fruit had been heard of then; that
not a peach or plum popular then
is grown now. Most fruits, they say,
are more conspicuous for their
faults than for their good points.
More progress has taken place in
fruit growing in the past 15 to 20
years than in all the proceeding 50
years, according .to these special-
ists. TUp.to a few years ago, the
majority ofvarieties originated as
chance seedlings, a slow and uncer-
tain method. It has been succeeded
Sby systematic breediiig.

fe 'a :a.-._., .... -, . . ....

reaches a point where it has the
same temperature as the air sur-
rounding it. On first thought, it
might be supposed that the air
warmed by the fires in orchards or
siderable altitude and be replaced
fields would pass upward to a con-
by cold air from outside the heated
area so rapidly that the effect on
the temperature in the heated area
would be very slight. However, this
is not the case.
"On a clear, calm night, there is
a relatively thin layer of cold air
near the ground, with an increase
in temperature up to a height of
300 to 800 feet. This condition,
known as temperature inversion,
makes effective orchard heating
possible. The hot gases leave the
heaters at a high temperature, but
rapidly mix with the surrounding
colder air so that the temperature
of the whole does not rise far be-
fore it is surrounded by air of the
same temperature as itself. When
this occurs the upward movement
is checked. In other words, the
warmer air above the orchard acts
as a roof which stops the accent of
the hei'ted air.

Here it comes to a stop, because it
is no longer warmer than the sur-
rounding air, which also has a tem-
perature of 30 degrees.
"The heaters continue to supply
quantities of the mixture of heated
gases and air at a temperature of
30. degrees, which stop rising at
lower and lower elevations until
the temperature of the air down to
the ground has been raised to 30
degrees. When this has been accom-
plished, the air temperature in the
orchard has been haised eight de-
grees, and the temperature inver-
sion has been destroyed; that is
there is no longer any difference in
air temperature between the five-
foot and.40-foot levels. Thus the
heat from the burning heaters has
been expended in raising the tem-
perature of the air within 40 feet
of the ground."

During the 1930-31 season, the
California Fruit Growers Exchange
spent $1,568,324 for advertising or-:
anges, $525,597 for lemons and-
$77,260 for grapefruit. This money
was raised by a retain of seven cents
a box on oranges and 10 cents a box
on grapefruit and lemons.
Seven national magazines were
used running 41,224,433 individual
advertisements on oranges, .71,-
1145,495 on lemons and 20,562,244
on both. Individual newspaper ad-
vertisements totaled 59,000,000 with
color-page campaign in Sunday
supplements reaching 6,000,000
homes. Car cards were used in every
other car throughout the country
except in Florida and California -
Three outdoor campaigns reached
137 markets while a 16 week radio
campaign was conducted.
In addition the California Ex-
change program included use of six
trade papers, a chain paper,,two
medical and four dental journals.

Seventy-six groves in Lake and
Orange counties, on which complete,1:
uniform records were kept through-
out the season, showed an average
return per acre of $135.03 and total
expenses of $78.69 leaving a net
profit to the growers of $56.34 an
acre, equivalent to a six percent re-
turn on an investment value of $994. -
Production of-these groves ran two-
thirds oranges and one-third grape-
fruit and tangerines.
Several grawers meetings have
been held in the citrus belt to re-
port and explain these reports and
encourage grower interest in keep-
ing grove records in a uniform man-
ner. Much interest has been aroused
in this work which started in a small
way last season and it is expected
that a number of growers in every
section will cooperate with the agri-
cultural economists of the Extension
Service this season, affording a good
opportunity to get accurate compar- -
ative records for each season. -Spe-
cial forms are available to the grow-
ers who wish to cooperate.
Following are the tabulations:

Table 1-Costs and Returns in Producing Fruit on 76 Groves in Lake
and Orange Counties, 1930-31
Totals Percent
ITEM 76 Groves Per Acre Per Box of Co't1
Labor, Power & Equipment $ 88,184.59 $ 26.73 $ .166 8 4.0
Fertilizer 45,670.35 86.85 .215 46.8
Spray aMterials 2,707.07 2.18 .013 2.8-
Taxes 13,004.57 10.49 .061 18.3
Miscellaneous 83,019.37 2.44 .014 3.1
Total Expenses (except interest) 97,585.95 78.69* .459 100.0
Returns for Fruit 167,868.72 185.03 .788
Returns for.Interest in Investment
and Operator's Supervision 69,827.77 56.84 .829
Value of Groves 1,170,275.00 944.00
Percent Return on Investment 6.0
The average expense was $78.69 per acre for labor, materials, taxes and miscel-
laneous expenses. This does not include any charge for depreciation on trees, interest
on the investment, or supervision of the grove work by the owner. It does include at. .-
going labor rates all work done by the owner, his family, workstock and equipment.
Table 2-Distribution of Fruit Sales on 76 Groves, Lake and Orange
Counties, 1930-31-
Oranges 138,828 $132.9f3.91 $ .961 65.1
Grapefruit 60,658 29,113.47 .480 28'.
Tangerines 18,486 5,266.84 .890 6.4-
Total 212,472 167,863.72 -.788 - -. .100.0



December 15, 1931


1,000 Growers-Shippers
Invited to Convention
National Trade League
More than 1,000 growers and
shippers of the Southeast have been
invited to the annual convention of
the National League of Commission
Merchants at Miami next month.
This is believed to be one of the
first steps toward the rumored pro-
ject to obtain a working under-
standing with fruits and vegetables
cooperatives and restore to the com-
mission men the sale of the products
in the markets which has been lost to
them in increasing volume each year
during the past decade. It indicates
too that the so-called "unofficial"
project sponsored by a few principal
commissionmen reported in the
Chronicle recently is more "official"
than individual.
Trade papers frankly state that
the aim of the program is to get the
cooperatives away from the influ-
ence of the Farm Board. The League
has been aggressively fighting the
Board centering its attack upon the
use of government funds through
the Board for grower credits. A
spokesman for the League at the
meeting of the Senate Committee
recently attacked this as competition
with private funds and also as of
political significance.
It was testified that from 40 to
60 percent of the money and credit
used for marketing fresh fruits and
vegetables is furnished by the dis-
tributors or terminal dealers. This
big source was overlooked, it was
said, when Congress was formulat-
ing the national marketing policy.
The proposal to be offered coop-
eratives is reported to be recogni-
tion of the cooperatives as the con-
trolling factor and assistance to get-
ting control of production and grow-
er credit. In return the commission
men would expect guaranty of "ade-
quate and reliable" supplies.
'"Nb'mention is made in the reports
of any change by the commission
men in their method of handling
which is by consignment. This meth-


Why experiment, when ORTHO
KLEENUP has proven its effect-
iveness in control of Florida's
citrus pests. Made from a unique
oil especially refined for spray-
ing use. Write for folder.
61W. Jefferson St..
Orlando, Florida
a proven
oil spra yfor
citrus pests

Exchange Service and Higher
Higher standard of grade and Reporting on a
pack, greater uniformity and the many retail stores i
merchandising program of the Flor- President John Sni
ida Citrus Exchange are building up variably Exchange
a retail preference for the Exchange for more than si
Discussing the
brands, resulting at various times competitive operate
in the handling of Exchange fruit California citrus in
exclusively over other Florida Snively said the
brands. Such an account is held did not compare in
\with the Danahy-Faxon Stores, Inc., te Forida frit.
the largest chain in Buffalo, N. Y., V alenias were po
which recently wrote to M. M. Note- the oerns pof
ware, citing the reasons why "Seald- nael s l ooked wor
navels looked wor,
Sweet" and "Mor-juce" are the only Valencias.
brands of Florida citrus sold in its
"First, we have found the pack
and grade to be higher and more
regular than any other brand of
Florida oranges. As we are the
largest chain of stores in this city,
this is a matter of considerable im-
portance as it assures uniform
grade and pack in all stores.
"Second, when we buy Seald-
sweet, we know we are getting U. S.
One or better and when we buy
Mor-juce, we know that we are get-
ting U. S. Two or better. This also
eliminates any possibility of a deal-
er filling our order with inferior
fruit, which can only be corrected
after considerable :trouble,

"Third, we were highly gratified
by the results of youdr Dealer Serv-
ice work and advertising campaign
carried on last season and are plan-
ning to use it extensively this year
if possible. This campaign not only
shut out the movement of California
fruits during the time it was being
conducted, but its results were mani-
fest for a considerable length of
time afterwards."

od of itself might prove an insur-
mountable obstacle to getting the
cooperatives and the commission-
men together such is the oppositoin
of many producers through past ex-
perience to consignment. Robert
Blair, president of the League, fre-
quently has stated, however, that the
League members recognize that a
new order of marketing is growing
and -that adjustments undoubtedly
are called for which the members
would make rather than be forced
out of business.

South African Citrus
A total of 141,000 cases of grape-
fruit and 1,571,000 cases of oranges
were shipped from the South African
citrus territory the past season. This
season comes virtually during the
offtime for Forida citrus, beginning
with a very small volume in April
and extending through October. Most
of the grapefruit is exported, prin-
cipally to England but a large part
of the orange crop is consumed
locally where it sells for more.

We'llAnnounce the
Next Monthl
We hope to be able to
make public the names
of the NACO Contest
prize winners this month'
but the judges have not
yet been able to decide
on the most meritorious
of the many enthusias-
tic letters received from
satisfied NACO users.

Standards Good Investment
recent visit., to The stores are giving special at-
n New York City, tention. to citrus, Mr. Snively said.;
ely said that in- Citrus was given 10 to 25 percent:
fruit was selling of the floor space in the stores, even
nilar grades of in the large ones and aggressive
competition of salesmanship was put. behind `the
rs. fruit. The moment he entered the
these stores, Mr. store, he said, a salesman came for-
California citrus ward and began talking about cit-
appearance with rus endeavoring particularly to sell
The California more than the usual unit purchase.
or looking while Mr. Snively kept his identity secret
he new crop of to learn the line of sales talk given
se than did the consumers. Their sales talk was
Very good, he said.

E VERY now and then an exceptionally
fine crop in soinebody's fields or
grove makes you stop and say" I wonder
what heuses?" The next time, go ask the
grower himself.
In all probability he'll say "I use N ACO
Brand Fertilizers. Their high organic con-
tent with a liberal amount of Genuine
Peruvian Guano keeps final profits higs,
final costs low."
NACO Brand Fertilizers are the choice,
of successful growers of celery, potatoes
and all truck crops . and citrus, too!
They get results with NACO.





December 15, 1931



Grove Appraisal Shows

High Investment Value

For Florida Citrus Grove
How much is your grove worth?
This question has been answered
for H. C. Frierson of Winter Haven,
grower-member of the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange, by the Jewett Ap-
praisal Service of Vero Beach in a
manner which strikingly portrays
the splendid investment value of an
average citrus grove through all the
vicissitudes of neglect, Medfly and
bad seasons. The appraisal is printed
in full in the October issue of the
Florida Realty Journal.
Summarized the Jewett appraisal
gives the 20 acre Frierson grove an
investment value of $1,753 an acre
based on the record of the past
eight years, assuming 15 percent as
a fair average net return on an in-
vestment in citrus grove property.
However, taking in consideration
depressed conditions, the Jewett
Service gives the present fair mar-
ket value as $1,000 an acre.
The Jewett. Appraisal Service is
owned and operated by Frank R.
Jewett, member of the Appraisal
Division of the National Association
of Real Estate Boards and vice-
president of the Florida association.
He has been engaged in the work in
Florida for the past six years, dur-
.ing which time his company has
made more than 10,000 appraisals.
The appraisal for Mr. Frierson is
very complete and gives a very un-
derstahdable idea of how factors
are weighed and the conclusions
reached. The grove consists of 20
acres located in the Ridge between
Lake Hamilton and Haines City with
extensive groves on three sides and
considerable newly plantings devel-
oping on the other. The general ele-
vation of the grove is high with the
slope to the southeast and south-
west, affording excellent air and
water drainage with no washing of
the soil. The appraisal points out,
such is its completeness, that though
irrigation is not generally used in
the section, a red clay subsoil retains
sufficient moisture to supply the
The grove contains 1,147 trees of
which nearly half are Valencias and
the balance Marsh Seedless and
early grapefruit and tangerines. The



S Fuit Auctioneers
SFruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Curibr .De.r- Frec'k L Sprinfor
Hwo F. MildE
i. ONrw D*l Cliffwd E. Myen

root stock is rough lemon. The trees
were planted 17 years ago.
The grove was acquired by the
present owner eight years ago in a
very neglected condition, having re-
ceived no attention or fertilizer for
the three years prior, the appraisal
cites. It required three years to
bring it back to normal and it is
now in a healthy condition, with a
crop of about 3,500 boxes.
Considering the actual production
record, the appraisal points out that
for the first four years, production
averaged only 861 boxes or a total
of 3,445. During the last four years
it averaged 2,790 boxes for a total
of 11,160. The grand total produc-
tion during the eight years was 14,-
605 boxes. The net packing house
return was $24,055.88 or $1.65 a
box. The medfly campaign seriously
interfered with the production dur-
ing 1927-29, the appraisal states,
adding that prices were abnormally
low also during 1930-31.
Going into actual cost of produc-
tion, the appraisal gives the total
cost of maintaining the grove for
the eight years as $12,120 or an
average of $75.75 per acre a year.
It distributed this cost as follows:
fertilizer and other materials, $6,-
370; pruning, spraying, disking and
other labor, $4,560; taxes, $1,190.
The growing cost per box for the
first four years was $1.44, compared
with' only $' .635 a box the sec-
ond half.
Actual profit was $11,935.88 or
$74.60 an acre per year of which
nearly all was made during the last
four years. Net profit per acre per
year was only $6.67 during the first
four and $142.52 during the last.
Looking to the future, the ap-
praisal considers that on past per-
formance and present age the grove
should produce 20 percent more a
year for the next few years at least
and average 4,400 boxes a year for
the next four years. Assuming the
net packing house return for the
past four years will continue, $1.65
a box of $363 an acre, and allowing
increased cost with increased age for
a total of $100 an acre a year, the
appraisal figures a future annual
net profit of $263 an.acre. This, on
the basis of 15 percent, gives the
investment value of $1,753 an acre
suggested by the appraisal.
The appraisal lists several grove
sales in the vicinity during the year,
ranging from $800 an acre to $1,100
and offers the opinion the fair mar-
ket value is $1,000 an acre.

California Grapefruit
California estimates the Califor-
nia-Arizona grapefruit crop at 3,300
percent over last season. The Arizona
cars, an increase of more than 40
crop is linked with California's as
it is handled by the California Fruit
Growers Exchange. Most of this
grapefruit is sold in the far Western

Distribution by Trucks

From Terminal Markets

Has Grown Enormously
Motor trucks have become an im-
portant factor in decreasing the
number of sales outlets for ship-
ments direct from the producing
areas, a survey by the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, U. S. D. A.,
A report by the bureau states that
the trade area within 50 miles of the
large city markets is ordinarily sup-
plied by trucks from the markets.
Also that the trucks from the mar-
kets compete with the shipments
from the producing areas in the
outer rim of the trade areas up to
150 miles and farther. Through
trucks therefore more direct sales
are concentrated in the large city
markets and the products distributed
from the city market through the
trade area in increasing volume.
This is corroborated by the large
number of distributor casualties
which have occurred in recent years
in the trade area about the larger
The report shows the phenomenal
growth of truck distribution both
out of the larger markets to the
trading area and from the produc-
ing sections to the markets. As
early as 1929, according to the sur-
vey, the trucks carried 15 percent

Selling through
Tampa. Florida

of the total fresh fruits and vege-
tables transported 20 miles or more.
It is very evident that the growth
of the truck movement has "been
very big in the two seasons follow-
ing 1929.
In some sections the growth of
truck transportation is staggering.
The survey reports 82 percent of the
movement is by truck in Connecti-
cut; 73 percent in southwestern
Michigan; 68 percent on Long
Island, N. Y.; 67 percent in Hudson
Valley; 41 percent in Delaware.
With certain important commodi-
is equally surprising. The survey
ties, the volume of truck movement
records that in the north central
and northeastern areas 96 percent
of spinach is moved by truck; 89
percent of snap beans, 54 percent
of tomatoes, 58 percent of straw-
berries, 49 percent of cantaloupes,
A3 percent of peaches and 24 per-
cent of apples.

Arizona Citrus Plantings
Arizona citrus plantings for the
coming season wil lbe limited by a
reduced supply of nursery stock,
estimated to be approximately one-
fourth less than was planted the past
winter and spring. Stock is esti-
mated at 300,000 trees, compared.
with 400,00, practically the total-
stock, planted last winter and spring.
Demand for trees is expected to
equal lest season's.

JOHN M. GUNN, Fla. Manager
516 E. Charles St., Phone 22-873
Lakeland, Florida "

The Demand For Fruit in Tub

Baskets is Growing





with smooth, raised bottom


- ---- ---: -- ` --



December 15, 1931


Natural Control of Citrus Pests in Manatee County
By LEO H. WILSON, County Agent

The principal insects that are in-
jurious to citrus culture in Man-
atee county are the scale insects,
including purple and the red scale,
rust mites, whitefly, aphis, mealy
bugs and cottony cushion scale.
There are other insects of minor im-
portance but this discussion will deal
primarily with the major insect prob-
lems and their control by predatory
insects and entomogenous fungi.
There are several important fungi
commonly found in groves through-
out the county that aid the grower
in controlling harmful scale insects
as the purple and Florida Red scale.
Among these, may be named the pink
scale fungus, red headed scale
fungus; white headed scale fungus,
black scale fungus, and the cinna--
mon fungus. These beneficial fungi
work while the grower sleeps. .The
benefits to the citrus industry of
these friends total an annual sav-
ing to the grower of several million
dollars. If they were not so abund-
ant, the grower would find himself
confronted with a heavy spraying
program with the use of oil sprays
to combat the injurious scale insects.
Moisture conditions must be
favorable for the rapid development
of our friendly fungi. This fact alone
gives Manatee county the edge over

the sandier soils in other parts of
citrus Florida where moisture con-
ditions are not so favorable. All
fungus growth require certain
amounts of moisture for best results,
whether harmful or beneficial.
Practice Non-Cultivation
Many of the growers in Manatee
practice non-cultivation on the
moist hammock soils. This condition
forms a media which encourages the
growth of the scale fungi. We find
during the rainy season these fungi
spread rapidly and it is through
this season the grower may spread
this fungus from grove to grove.
Other means of spreading is by in-
sects and birds carrying the fungus
from tree to tree and grove to grove.
All growers soon learn to identify
the fungus found on fruit, leaves,
twigs, limbs and main body of the
trees, sending out its thread-like
bodies to smother out the scale in-
Besides the beneficial fungi, we
have an abundance of the lady beetles
to aid in controlling scale. These
small beetles are always busily en-
gaged over the fruit and trees col-
lecting their food in the form of the
young, soft bodied scale. The twice-
stobbed ladybeetle is the most com-
mon of these beetles. It is dark in

color, with a large red spot on each
wing case. It.is about a fifth of an
inch in diameter. Other beetles of
this class are the two-spotted lady-
beetle, the blood-red lady beetle,
and the convergent ladybeetle.
The whitefly, common throughout
the citrus belt as a serious pest, is
mainly held in check in Manatee
county by fungus. There are eight
species of whitefly in Florida with
three common to citrus. They are
known as the -common, cloudy
winged and woolly whitefly. These
small insects draw large quantities
of sap from the foliage, secrete a
honey-dew from the larvae stage
and in turn attracts the sooty mold
fungus, causing soot to form on the
leaves and fruit. This sooty mold
fungus forms a harboring place for
scale insects dealt with in this con-
Battling the Whitefly
The beneficial whitefly fungus are
quite numerous as.well as plentiful
in our citrus plantings. Red ascher-
sonia plays an important factor in
the control of the common whitefly.
This fungus is easily transmitted
from grove to grove by means of
bjrdsi insects and man. A few
leaves may be collected, soaked and
rubbed together in water and intro-
duced in groves needing fungus by
spraying parts of trees throughout
the grove. Then the State Plant
Board in Gainesville grows this valu-

able fungus on media and mail it
to growers needing whitefly control;
one'culture to the acre.
Yellow aschersonia.fungus can be
found working only on the cloudy
winged whitefly. The brown white-
fly fungus works on the common and
cloudy winged whitefly. This fungus.
spreads well over the underside of
the leaves and is efficient in whiteffy
control. Two other fungi beneficial
to the grower are the fringe and
the cinnamon fungus. The rainy
season too plays an important role in
the development and spread of the
whitefly fungus. Without good
moisture conditions, fungi work
slow and many times the grower
is forced to the use of oil sprays
for the best control of whitefly. This
is especially true where the grower
has used bordeaux, a fungicide
spray, in the check of melanose and
citrus scab. The beneficial fungi as
well as the harmful fungi is killed
so that oil spray is necessary until
conditions become favorable for the
development of the beneficial white-
fly fungus.
Mealy Bug Trouble
Yes, we have some mealy bugs
down in Manatee county. In 1930
the Florida Experiment Station in-
troduced the Crypt ladybeetle into
the state. This beetle has given good
control to mealy bugs in California
for a number of years and bids fair
(Continued on Page 10)

Two Vitally Important Facts for


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-. just as surely as harvest follows
Sthe springtime. Successful growers
will guard against loss by frost just
as they guard against loss by fire.


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Orlando, Florida.

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If you are not familiar with Or-
chard Heating you can be safely
guided by the judgment of a MA-
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December 15, 1931



The first thing in an efficient
grove cover-crop program for a
given grove is to grow the crop
that, under ordinary weather condi-
tions, produces the greatest amount
of organic matter to be returned to
the soil, and at the same time fits
into the general program of grove
management. For certain condi-
tions this may be a legume-croto-
laria, beggarweed, cowpeas, or vel-
vet beans; while under other con-
ditions the best results may be at-
tained by simply permitting the
grasses and weeds to grow that
come spontaneously. After this
crop of organic matter has been
produced the next thing of great
importance is to handle it in a way
that will produce best results.
From a grove management
standpoint our cover-crops are con-
sidered in two general groups-le-
gumes, and non-legumes. They re-
quire different methods of handling
for best results. While the cow-
peas and velvet beans may produce
very satisfactorily yield in organic
matter on some of the heavy soils,
the yield on the lighter ridge soils
is usually very light and disappoint-
ing as a source of organic matter.
This light crop, however, may be
used to stimulate a supplementary
grass crop late in the fall if mowed
in August or, early September, and
allowed to decay on the surface of
the ground. The development of
pumpkin bugs may be another good
reason for mowing cowpeas early.
Controlling Pumpkin Bugs
Where Crotolaria striata or beg-
garweed is growing as a cover-crop
in bearing groves the development
of the pumpkin bug will determine
largely the procedure in handling
the crop. When a large number of
the young bugs appear on the beg-
garweed or on the pods of the crot-
;olaria it should ,be mowed and thus
destroy the bugs. This mowing is
often necessary in August. In non-
bearing groves these crops may be
allowed to grow until they have
reached maximum yield and ma-
tured a crop of seed. Where cro-
tolaria spectabilis is grown this
mowing procedure in pumpkin con-
trol is not necessary as very few
bugs develop on this plant.
Maximum yield in organic mat-
ter of either of the crotolaria or
the beggarweed is obtained by al-
lowing the crop to grow to matur-
ity before mowing it or otherwise
:cutting it down. If the crop be-
comes too heavy to mow, it may be
reduced to very desirable condition
by cutting with a disc or rotary
On the lowlands of both the east.
and west coast, as well as on large
areas of hammock and semi-ham-
mock in the interior of .the state,
.a great variety of grasses and

weeds grow luxuriantly as cover
crops. Where these crops are kept
mowed as they reach the seeding
stage new crops come in return,
being fertilized by the decaying
mowed crop, so that the main prob-
lem, as the grower sees it, con-
sists in keeping the grass and
weeds mowed down. It is under
these conditions that the best fruit
of the state, or of the world is pro-
duced, and the abundance of organ-
ic matter produced by these na-
tural cover crops plays a very im-
portant part in this production.
Natal Grass
On the higher lands of the citrus
belt, natal grass predominates. This
grass is rapidly gaining in popular-
ity as a cover-crop, as growers
learn better methods of handling
it. The total annual yields of this
grass is greatly increased by mow-
ing it as often as it comes into full
bloom and by making an extra ap-
plication of soluable nitrogen in
July or August. Where young cro-
tolaria is struggling in a crop of
natal grass along in August or
September the grass should be
mowed. This has been known to
more than double the yield of the
Looking at the cover-crop situ-
ation as a whole, this has not been
a very successful year. The unus-
ually dry summer was largely res-
ponsible for the poor stand of
crotolaria and the light grass crops
on the dryer soils. It behooves
growers to make the greatest pos-
sible use of the cover crop material
produced. The greatest benefit
from this organic matter -can be
obtained by leaving it as near the
surface of the soil as consistent
with safe grove management prac-
tice. The fire risk must be con-
Under certain conditions mulch-
ing citrus trees with the cover-crop
material is a good practice and is
economical. Hoeing of young trees
can often be eliminated by mulch-
ing, which also provides more fav-
orable conditions for tree growth.
Frenched trees and trees showing
symptoms of dieback usually react
favorably to a mulch.
This is due to the fact that the
mulch of decaying vegetation pro-
vides a uniform supply of organic
matter to the beneficial soil organ-
isms in the area of highest tree
root concentration, conserves mois-
ture, and maintains a lower tem-
perature of the soil during the hot
season, thereby enabling the roots
to occupy the soil up to the surface
and perhaps function over a longer
growing season.
It has been found that there is no
tree root growth under a soil tem-
perature above 98 F. The temper-

ature in our soils when unprotected
by a covering often run above 98
F. A mulch of grass has been
found to reduce the temperature
as much as 7 degrees. The loss of
moisture by direct evaporation
from the soil has been reduced
about 50 per cent by covering the
soil with a light mulch of grass.
In mulching young trees the
mulch material should be applied
from within a few inches of the
trunk of the tree back far enough
and of sufficient depth to keep the
grass and weeds smothered out so
that hoeing shall not be necessary.
Where trees are planted 15 to 18
feet apart in the row the mulching
should be in a continuous strip
along the tree row and should be
extended in width as the trees
spread. This can be done very ec-
onomically by mowing the middles
and raking the material to the tree
row by means of a side delivery
rake. Material riay be hauled in-
to the grove from other lands and
used to a great advantage in mulch-
ing trees of all ages where heavy
cover-crops cannot be produced in
the grove. Groves need two to
four tons of dry organic material
per acre annually. The average
grass cover-crop grown in the ridge
section is less than a ton per acre.
The great need of citrus groves in
this section is organic matter.
Fire Guards
Where any system of grove
mulching is practiced the -greatest
of care should be exercised in pro-
viding ample fire guards around
the grove and at intervals through
the grove both ways. Fertilizer
may be applied on the mulch and
need not be worked into the soil.
The mulch may serve as a buffer
and reduce the danger of root in-
jury from over-fertilizing or im-
proper distribution.
When the grass or other non-le-
gume cover-crop receives its final
mowing or is cut into the soil this
fall the equivalent in soluble ni-
trogen of 100 pounds of nitrate of
sota to each ton of dry organic
material should be applied broad-
cast to supply nitrogen to the mi-
cro-organisms while they are de-
composing the cover-crop material.
If this is done the yellowing should
be prevented.

New Packing House
The Palm Beach Loxahatchee
Company which recently joined In-
dian River Sub-Exchange has just
completed a new packing house.
Present capacity of equipment is
cne car a day which can be in-
creased to four carloads daily. The
company's production this season is
estimated at 20,000 boxes. It has
850 acres of groves.

Handling The Cover Crop In The Citrus Grove
By E. F. DeBUSK, Extension Service

W western Distributors

Use Trucks For Direct

Sales To Retailers
While the Eastern and Southern .
distributors are tearing their hair-
over the inroads of truck selling
and are running to the legislatures -
for a club against.the truckers, the
Western distributors have taken a
leaf from the truckers' books anid
are selling by truck themselves in .:
a manner calculated to give the
widest distribution producers could,
desire with stabilization of price at
real market levels as an accompani-
Western distributors make sales -
of their lines of produce and fruit
direct to the stores by truck coy-
ering a radius of many miles. The
idea has taken hold phenominally
out there, extending east until it
approaches the Mississippi. One -of--
the principal customers of the Ex-
change in the Western territory,
Jaeger Brothers" of Pueblo. Colo.,,
has been using the idea for several
years until now the concern has.
nearly a score of the trucks operat-
ing, covering a radius of more than
100 miles. .
The truck is in charge of an ex-
perienced salesman, who can make
delivery directly at the time of the
sale with the retailer. The store-
keeper has the line displayed be-:
fore him to accept or reject with-*
out waste of time and no bother .
with delays, deterioration or claims
for adjustments.

Natural Control

OF Citrus Pests
(Continued from Page 9)
to be of considerable value in this'.
respect to our growers. We intro-
duced a number of colonies of the
Crypt into Manatee county this last
spring and summer. From now on
these beetles will only be grown by -
the Experiment Station for expejri-
mental purposes. L. W. Zeigler has
opened the crypt laboratories in Or-'
lando, Orange county, and will sell
them direct to growers needing to
control mealy bugs. Prof. J. R. Wat-.
son,_ our entomalogist at the Ex-
periment Station, discovered this
last spring citrus aphis being eaten
and held in check by the crypt lady 4
beetles. This is a glad boost to the
grower in fighting the citrus aphis.
Briefly, and in conclusion, I must
say we have been able to control the
cottony-cushion scale by the use 6f
the Australian lady beetle known as
the vadelia. These helpful beetles
may be obtained in colony form
from the State Plant Board.
All in all our rich fertile ham.-'
mock soils, with flowing wells for :
irrigation afford a happy medium
for the growth and development of
beneficial fungi n th-lie control of
citrus pests.


December 15, 1931

December 15, 1931 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE 11

Is Your Fruit

Quality Fruit?

If so you are fortunate for the grower who
has followed the practice of providing his trees
with proper nourishment is certain to reap
the maximum returns under any conditions
Trees, like children, must be properly and
adequately nourished on a healthful, building
diet. Orange Belt Brands invariably provide
such a diet for your trees, producing maximum
quantities of Quality Fruit. And the cost per
box is much less than when improper nourish-
ment is used.

Lyons Fertilizer Company
807 Citrus Exc. Bldg. BELT 4th Ave. & 35th ST.


" 12

..,.-. -1 0
- .-- ,..- : -" n .
f _


Thanks to a bumper crop of
tjoixury fruit

Ti. 1inri ha. r k M e .i. .- r r...n .-
- b ..iIIn DC n in...-.4.* .ll lA in

Florida's finest TANGERINES


The market is flooded with


within the reach of all!
r.- *n ih ping. Im | A *-i le t_ i.T. l 1. 1
-rJ- 1 crIp 4. .-r. M I r-M me ( r uli
'-*---- - I 6,

Floridas finest TANGERINES



A 10,000 line newspaper campaign
with advertisements of approxi-
mately one-half page size is being
placed in selected markets by Ex-
change growers. Several of these
pieces of copy:are reproduced above.

r ~'F

it/-l a ... o j |i kr r-fd nm rl.J iDJ p-cerdnl clured
n.i.1 C.-., Ta 1-.h - .r M 1- el -.> w a "p -J iit o.(car
a ,i.*e TI ...+ ..... .. e ...I d. r.

Florida's finest TANGERINES

Exchange Growers Advertise Tangerines

Tangerines were a much dis-
cussed fruit this summer. Every-
body recognized the necessity for
better distribution, merchandis-
ing, advertising. Big plans, loudly
and widely touted by various
agencies, somehow seem to be en-
tirely inoperative now that the
season is here.
What happened? And what is
being done?
Exchange growers, with forty
to forty-five per cent of the fruit,
are left to do the job for the in-



And they are doing it-as fully
as funds permit.
A group of markets-new to
tangerines have been selected
to receive an intensive newspaper
advertising campaign. This effort
is being supported by dealer serv-
ice and specialty sales work. And
tangerines are moving in these
markets, relieving the over-sup-
plied old markets by just that
Exchange growers are actively
carrying on. What are you and
your operator doing?

DA .
-' -- f .

q;i; n

i: .~i*






Now you can afford
to eat all you want of

Iwest prices on record in years!
5 ^

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