Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00026
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: December 1, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00026
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text
POSTMASTER: If addressee has moved
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Seald-Sweet ClHAficile


Entered a Second Class Mall Matter
Vol. VII BUBSCBIPTION PBICE 50 CENTS PER YB TAMPA, FLORIDA, DEC. 1, 1931 at the Post OMce at Tampa, Florida NO. 13
Under the. Act of March 8, 1879.

Drought Affects All

Citrus Belt Cutting

Volume Down Heavily

Drought has seriously affected the
whole Florida citrus belt. Decrease
in the crop is variously estimated at
2,500,000 boxes or more.
Further decrease appears certain
even should rains relieve the sit-
uation. With the groves in the dry
condition they are, rain undoubtedly
will cause a heavy drop which will
cut down the volume considerably.
Lake, part of Orange and Volusia
counties are affected more than the
other sections though every county
shows a serious need of rain. A heavy
drop has already occurred in the
most seriously affected sections.
Fruit Not Sizing
In these and the others sizing has
been materially retarded. The fruit
now is running to very small sizes
and while this will be alleviated
somewhat by rains it will not be en-
tirely counteracted by improvement
of conditions but will still cause
a loss in volume. It has been esti-
mated that a change of one size
changes the volume by 2,000,000
or more boxes.

Tangerine Plans Ready

The special advertising and pro-
motional plans for tangerines have
been completed and are ready for
application as soon as the volume of
--mature fruit warrants.
As previously decided, the work
will be concentrated in a group of
selected markets in which the sales
in the past have been much less
than potential demand justified
Quotas assigned the various selected
areas call for the sale of four to 19
times the volume disposed of in thQ
respective markets last season.
The advertising will consist of a
10,000 line campaign of 10 insert
tions of 1,000 lines each, which is
approximately one-half page of
newspaper space an insertion. Thd
release of the advertising will be
timed with the arrival of the fruit
.so that the fruit will be in the hands
of the retailer when the advertising
appears in the papers. Reprints of
the -advertising will be supplied td
the special men who will acquaint
the trade with the plans and help
stimulate orders.

Movement by truck is reach-
ing demoralizing proportions.
In one day's movement
alone, the 24th, no less than
13,000 boxes passed the road
inspectors enroute to the out-
of-state markets. This is the
equivalent of more than 35
Truck sales, it is reported,
have gotten out of hand gen-
erally in regard to price.
Sales of Exchange affiliations
are held in line by contact of
all with the' Tampa office, an
arrangement made after the
experience .last season, the
first in which truck volume be-
came a serious factor. But
outside, the truckers are tak-
ing advantage of the failure
of plants to contact each other
and are playing one against
the other.

76% Control Brings C

Control of 76 percent of the cit-
rus crop in one organization gave
the entire California citrus industry
$99,520,773 for the 1930-31 crop
after deduction of freight and re-
frigeration charges. This figures
out practically $3 a box or around
$2 a box on the tree for the great-
est citrus crop the state ever had.
The figures for the season are
contained in the annual report of
the California Citrus Growers Ex-
change. The Exchange handles ap-
proximately 76 percent of the Cali-
fornia citrus crop and for the past
two seasons about 90 percent of
the Arizona citrus production, _.Be-
sides having a controlable influence
on the industry, the Exchange has
the competition of only about 20
shippers, one of whom is another
cooperative handling around 10 per-
No more conclusive example of
the power of control in a grower or-
ganization is recorded in history.
In face of one of the worst depres-
sions the country ever has experi-
enced; in face of a record volume of
unregulated supply from Florida-
California's organized growers were
able to obtain "on the tree" a better
season average than Florida aver-
age at the'state line including hand-
ling and freight costs.
According to the California fig-
ures the combined citrus shipments
totaled 167,000 cars, 9,000 cars
more than the.previous record and
(Continued on Page 2)

Consignments and Arsenated Fruit

Leave Growers Little Opportunity

ment of fruit,
letting the trade
set the price
without restric-
tion, i s now
adding to the
woes of the cit-

rus grower, al-
.ready hard hit
by the ship-
ment of arsen-
ated fruit.
T h e arsen- ..
ated fruit can
only fv n Coloring under canvas in the open (an inferior job at best)
only move a to rush arsenated fruit to the markets.
few days more.
The law returns to full force, ac- cision, at midnight, Dec. 5. But the
cording to the Supreme Court de- maturity inspection period ended
Dec. 1, leaving the shippers free to
alifornia Good Returns ship as they please and their appre-
hension of heavy drop due to the
drought is scaring them, according
Special Shipper Joins to reports, to move as much as they
I ia i n s can early and save the heavy drop
Indian River Sub-Exchange has loss.
added another special shipper, sign- According to the reports of the
ing the West Palm Beach- Loxahat- inspection service, most of the ship-
chee Company which has more than rs with arsenated fruit have
800 acres in citrus groves just in moved their volume of this to a
commercial bearing. The company great extent and probably will have
has its own packing house and esti- little left when the law again will
mates the young crop at between prohibit its movement. Some have
20,000 and 25,000 boxes this season. been working night and day. The
The company has several thou- largest of these shippers is said by
sand acres, considerable of it in de- the inspection service to be prac-
velopment. It shows promise of b- tically cleaned up now.

coming one or tne largest producers
in the state. Its citrus groves are
arQound eight years old and are well
balanced between oranges and

Pinellas Signs Big Grower
Eugene Pearce of Clearwater, one
of the largest and most influential
citrus growers of Pinellas county,
has reaffiliated with the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange through Citrus City
Growers Association at Largo. Mr.
Pearce was one of the first grower-
members of the Exchange and re-
joins after an absence of nearly 20
years. His reunion with the organ-
ization is regarded as one of the
most important additions of the sea-
The Pearce groves at Bayview are
among the finest in the county and
have a normal production of 40,000
boxes. The crop this season is esti-
mated at 20,000 to 25,000 boxes.

The markets have been hard hit.
The trade is holding back, demoral-
ized by the consignments and-feel-
ing that the big cuts in price made
almost overnight when the arsenated
fruit began to move were only the
beginning of further reductions. The
trade feels that it can set the price
as it wills but with the consign-
(Continued on Page 2)

Four days sustained cold in
California failed to damage
the crop materially, according
to advice from the California
Fruit Growers Exchange. The
loss will be very small and is
confined to isolated spots..
Heaters were burned foi, a
time each day of the four and
were responsible for the small
loss suffered. A few instances
of damage to young trees were


Control Brings Good

Returns On Past Crop

To California Growers
(Continued from Page 1)
54,000 cars more than the previous
season. California's total plus that
of Arizona was 83,499 cars.
The delivered value of this is
placed at $145,261,059 of which,
$45,740,286 represents freight and
refrigeration. The returns to Cali-
fornia and Arizona are figured as
This state return compares with
$135,319,188 for the 1929-30 crop
preceding and $118,913,458 for the
1928-29 crop, the record volume
previous to last season.
Of the California and Arizona
movement last season, 64,625 cars
were oranges, 16,759 cars were
lemons and 2,115 cars were grape-
fruit. The lemon movement affords
one of the most commanding exam-
ples of the power and advantage of
grower control.
The amount of lemons available
for shipment was in excess of 23,000
cars, yet only 16,759 cars were
shipped. Approximately 6,000 cars
of lemons were held off from the
fresh fruit markets by diversion to
by-products or dumps. The volume
shipped was greater than in any pre-
vious year and yet, with the relief
of the market from the surplus,
gave the lemon growers one of their
best seasons.
Another striking example of the
benefits of control is seen in the
cost of sales. The Exchange hand-
led its record crop for 5.38 cents a
box. Its district Exchange cost was
1.16 cents a box or a total operat-
ing charge for the two only 6.54
cents a box.
A further example of control is
given by the advertising of the
California Exchange. With all its
millions of boxes, the Exchange
growers assessed themselves seven
cents a box on oranges and 10 cents
a box on lemons and grapefruit.

Recent reports indicate that the
prospects are very bright for the re-
imbursement. of the Florida citrus
growers for the damage suffered
through the Medfly campaign. Pres-
ident Herbert Hoover and a num-
ber of the leaders in Congress are
reported to be very favorably in-
clined to the proposition and it is
said that the Florida delegation in
Congress has reached an agreement
on the joint bill to be presented to
The reimbursement committee is
going to press the matter immedi-
ately so as to bring it before Con-
gress early. A small, carefully se-
lected committee will be sent to
Washington to 'wdv 'with .the Flor-.
\ .. --

Prof. E. F. DeBusk of the Exten-
sion Service and County Agent Louis
Alsmeyer of Highlands county have
made a study of the effect of tlin-
ning upon the total yield and size
of tangerines. They found that pull-
ing one-third of the tangerines from
relatively full trees had no material
effect upon the total yield but had a
decided effect upon increasing the
size. Immediately the question was
asked, "Will the larger tangerines
sell for enough more to warrant the
extra time and expense necessary to
do the thinning?" During the year
for which tle above study was made,
thinning seemed to pay well.
With this in mind they made a
study to find out the prices of tan-
gerines by size for the different sea-
sons of the year. New York auction
prices and Clearing House reports
were used as a basis. The study
covered the three crop seasons be-
ginning with the 1928-29 season.
They found considerable variation
in prices of different sizes within
the season as well as between years.
The spread between the prices of
large and small tangerines was
greater during the seasons 1928-29
and 1930-31 than that for the sea-
son 1929-30, than for either of the
other years studied.
Price Spread
The average spread between 120s
and 250s for the season 1928-29 was
570 per % strap; or in other words,
the 120s brought an average of 574
per % strap more than the 250s.
The greatest difference in prices
occurred in November and December
when an average of $1.25 more per
% strap was paid for the 125s. This
differential became narrower until
about the middle of March and after
that time the 250s brought a higher
average price than the 120s.
The season 1929-30 began with
Only a small difference in price be-
tween the large and the small tan-
gerines. The spread between 120s
and 250s was never very wide dur-

ida delegation in keeping Congres-
sional attention on the matter.
The most pressing need now is
funds for the Washington work. It is
soliciting the growers who have filed
claims for small contributions to
make up the fund for expenses. It
has been able to meet all expenses
to date, largely due to the fact that
the committee not only has worked
without compensation but the mem-
bers frequently have paid their own
expenses incurred in the work.
More than 6,000 claims have been
filed, aggregating around $7,000,-
000. It is claimed thatLExchange
growers represent about half of ,tiis.

ing this season, but medium sized
fruit seemed mor popular as the sea-
son progressed. The 120s brought
only a season average price of 170
per strap more than the 250s. The
216s actually brought an average
for the medium sized tangerines of
about 400 per strap higher than the
season average for either the 120s
or the 250s.
The season 1930-31 was more
nearly like the 1928-29 season ex-
cept that general business conditions
were worse. These business condi-
tions together with the large citrus
crop resulted in a low season price
for tangerines. Large tangerines
this season had a price advantage
over smaller ones. The season aver-
age of 120s was 274 higher per half
strap than that for 250s. This spread
became narrower until the season
closed, the final difference being only
Three Year Average
The three year average showed
that 144s brought the highest price
of all sizes, and the 250s brought
the lowest, the difference being 480.
The three year average price of 120s
was 340 higher than 250s.
The three year study shows that
when Florida has a large crop the
price declines as the season pro-
gresses, but the larger sizes fall fast-
er than the smaller ones. When the
Florida crop is small there is a ten-
dency for the price to rise, the med-
ium sizes rising fastest.
When Thinning Pays
Their conclusion with reference
to thinning is that it will probably
pay when the individual farmer has
a heavy crop the same season that
the total crop for the state is large.
During seasons when the state crop
is small thinning does not seem to
offer the same economic advantage.
Prices for all three years indicate
that large tangerines bring better
prices when marketed early. This
might mean that spot picking is
more advisable than is being prac-
ticed now.

Orange; Grapefruit
Week Dec.


With the object of making Florida
residents enthusiastic boosters of
their own citrus, the Florida Affili-
ated Exchange Clubs have desig-
nated the week of Dec. 6 as "Florida,
Orange and Grapefruit Week" dur-
ing which there will be daily re-
minders of the value of citrus and in-
formation on the interesting ways to
use oranges and grapefruit. All civic
organizations of the state will co-
The arrangements provide for
special news stories, radio talks each
evening, free serving, of juice in
restaurants and large portions of
juice 4* verywJ4a pricess -at he foun-
tains,- f -.

Seasonal Price Changes of Tangerines

Consignment; Arsenic

Leave Growers Little

Opportunity in Market
(Continued from Page 1)
ments in the market cannot tell
what the bottom will be and is
afraid to buy.
The unseasonably warm weather
in the markets will soon change, ac-
cording to weather forecasts. This
will stimulate demand, but due to
other conditions it is highly prob-
lematical that the growers will bene-
fit to any extent.
Bulk prices of oranges were cut
sharply from $1.50 at the packing
house at which price it was selling
freely with an inclination to rise,
The level in many instances is down
to 90 cents and lower. The price
was cut by operators moving arse-
nated fruit.
Grapefruit, which at first escaped
the attention of the arsenated fruit
shippers, has since been caught in
the turmoil and the bulk price fell
from $1 a box at the plants to 70
cents and less.
Private markets.are paying $2.25
to $2.50 f. o. b. for Seald-Sweet
oranges, with discounts on small
sizes and 25 cents a box less: on
Mor--Juce. Grapefruit is bringing
$1.50 to $1.75 f. o. o. for Seald-
Sweet. The auctions have fallen
slightly lower than the private mar-
kets except for the best quality.

Orange Festival Program
The Florida Orange Festival, Win-
ter Haven, Jan. 26-30, "starring"
the Florida citrus industry and ac-
quainting the visitors and native
residents with the citrus develop-
ments, is rounding into form in
gratifying manner calculated to at-
tract generous national attention to
Florida citrus again as it has done in
the past.
The opening day has been desig-
nated as "school day." The school
board of Polk county has allowed the
day as a full holiday and other coun-
ties have been asked to do likewise.
Nearly 19,000 attended the festival
on "school day" last year.
Following the custom established
last year, the second day will honor
the Governor. Governor Doyle E.
Carlton will be guest of honor. Other
features of the day will be a float
parade and pageant and the crown-
ing of the "Queen of the Orange
The third day will be "All States
and Tourist Day" featured by a pro-
gram of the Florida Tourist Club.
The fourth day honors the growers
with a general meeting of the grow-
ers as the feature;. The fifth and
final day will. be dedicated to the
A rerian T egi on. '1

Reimbursement Prospects Appear Bright


December 1, 1931

The Citrus Industry In Palestine

By L. W. GLENN, Engineer, Florida Citrus Machinery Company
The Citrus Industry in Palestine cause of this, stem end rot accounts appearance. Not only the ap- in all of the Mediterranean coun-
is growing by leaps and bounds and for 8 percent of the crop in its pearance of the "Arab" pack in tries and no one doubts his presence
the more optimistic of those who early stages of maturity. In a test which each fruit is directly above there. Toward the end of the sea-
should know, expect a half million shipment to England in 1927 green another fruit, thus giving only a son, out of seventeen grapefruit,
case increase per year for the next mold caused a 6 percent loss and it one-point support, but the carrying taken at random, and split in half
eight years. At that rate the ex- is probable that ordinary shipments quality has suffered as well. In by the writer, five were found in-
ports for the 1938-39 seasori'ill suffer to a much larger extent. Blue the "Arab" pack -the fruit is in fested. -Of course, this should not
amount to nearly seven million mold is second to green mold in straight rows in either direction and be taken as anything like an aver-
cases, importance, both coming from is not as pleasing to the eye as the age figure.
The Palestine or Jaffa orange is bruises. The extremely tender skin staggered arrangement. Because of the long shipment and
superior to the Florida and Cali- of the Jaffa orange is very suscep- t "A shipping conditions, primarily, lack
fornia orange, with a large amount tible to bruising by rough handling, n general e "rab or natve of refrigeration, washing is, so far,
of juice of excellent flavor, a loose, and rough handling is at present pack, is made by crews of workers looked upon with disfavor, so that
easily removed skin, and never over quite general. with nine persons to the crew, ex- the fruit reaches the market with a
two or three seeds, if any. Because clusive of the general labor for poor appearance as compared with
of cheap labor it can be marketed. Aside from the picking and pack- carrying fruit and closing and mak- our own pampered product.
at a lower price than our own fruit ing operations, the Jaffa fruit is ing boxes. Six persons inspect and The annual rainfall in Palestine
and still show a greater profit, subjected to much ill-treatment be- grade the fruit, picking up and is only a fraction of what is needed,
However, the life of the Palestine cause of the many poor roads, the turning each fruit in the hand. Two so the Jaffa grower must resort to
grower is no bed of roses. There fact that much of it is transported persons wrap the fru:t, using a expensive and troublesome electric
are many difficulties which must be upon camels and the lack of modern double twist, that is, a pigtail at and Diesel pumping plants. In addi-
overcome in order that the Jaffa harbors and loading devices, An- each end, and also size it by "hand tion to the lack of rain, there is a
orange may reach its markets in other big item in injury to fruit is and eye," placing the sized fruit in peculiar wind storm which blows
England and Germany in good con- the fact that the Jaffa fruit shrinks its proper pile. One man then packs of the deserts quite often and
edition. quickly and this shrinkage is not the fruit and because of the varia- causes considerable damage. Two
The average shipping time is 16 compensated for by a bulge pack. tion in "hand and eye" sizing, this such storms during the past season
days or over and transportation is The flat pack is used and in from man must be an expert, indeed, caused the season to end on the
made. in non-refrigerated ships, two to four days after packing as This variation is responsible for 15th of March instead of the 15th
often very poorly ventilated. The tightly as possible with this tender much damage from too tight or too of April, with a drop in exports
transit losses are therefore quite fruit, shrinkage has loosened the loose packs. The packing crews are from 2,700,000 cases last year to
high and have a tendency to give pack until it is quite "sloppy." Very paid by the season and often their 2,350,000 cases this year, in spite
the Jaffa fruit a bad name which little imagination is necessary to greatest consideration is to "put in" of the new groves that have since
only its wonderful quality has been picture what takes place inside a their eight hours a day rather than come into bearing.
able to overcome. case of Jaffas during a Mediter- to pack as much and as well as pos- In the light of the above trials
Due to the extremely close plant- ranean storm. sible. and tribulations it might seem that
ing of the old groves, spraying is A further difficulty has been the Our old friend the Mediterranean the Palestinians would give up in
almost or quite impossible. Be- poor pack from the standpoint of Fruit fly is a very real personality (Continued-on-Page- 4--

C.ae Camels carrying Orenqes from Grove to Po- t '. s

December 1, 1931



Seald Sweet


Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Publication Office:
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 2349

Net Grower Circulation
over 12,500

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VII DEC. ,. 1931. No. 13

Nine Years' Average
Nine years' average obtained
through the Florida Citrus Exchange
has been far ahead of the returns
received by any non-member grow-
ers of his acquaintance, A. T. Race
of Winter Haven relates in a letter
to the Winter Haven Chief about his
experience in the citrus business giv-
ing his views on marketing. His
letter follows:
"For twenty years I was in the
wholesale lumber business. In 1920,
having had the flu, I had to leave
Jacksonville and the business of
practically a lifetime. Coming to
Polk county on a hunting trip during
the winter of 1922, I decided that for
Health, pleasure and business, there
was no better than that of a citrus
grower in Polk county, and, thanks
to the Florida Citrus Exchange, I
am still of that opinion.
Membership in Exchange
"I knew absolutely nothing of cit-
rus culture, although I had been
raised a farmer, but through good
fortune, I became acquainted with
some of our most successful citrus
growers in Winter Haven, the late
Dr. Ross being one of them. I am
glad that my other associates were
affiliated with the Florida Citrus
Exchange, also, for upon my pur-
chase of groves I became associated
and a member of the Florence Citrus
Growers association, which I have
never regretted.
"I have taken the average per box
of my account sales for the nine
years that I have been a member of
the Exchange and have never had.
any grower who sells his -fruit on
the tree, or c~dnsigns his fruit in-
discriminately,-come any where near
my average. 'Off:.course there have
been a few years when buyers were
offering a better price than our asso-

ciation could assure us, and in a
few instances the prices offered
were more than I received; but, tak-
ing the nine years average, the prices
I have received have been far above
any offers made by buyers.
Study Confirms Belief
"During this time it has been my
privilege to have been in a position
to study the methods used by prac-
tically all packers and shippers in
the state, independent and Exchange
alike, which has further confirmed
my belief in the cooperative method
of handling and marketing fruit.
"With the Exchange having the
control of 75 percent of the state's
tonnage, I have every reason to be-
lieve that we will be in a much
sound"o footing than even Califor-
nia. I have studied the present con-
ditions and set-up of the Exchange,
and considering my personal knowl-
edge of the entire operations of the
Exchange I have every reason for
reposing confidence in tUe president,
general manager, sales force and all
other connections of the Exchange.
While there have been some correc-
tions necessary, I find these are be-
ing made as fast as possible, and
with conditions still continuing as
above I shall remain a member of
the Florida Citrus Exchange as long
as I own a grove."

Give Growers A Chance?
Miami Herald-Give Growers a
chance. The big fight in the Flor-,
ida citrus industry, as we gather it
today, is between those who favor
grower control of the crop and those
who demand shipper control.
In its ultimatum to the Florida
Clearing House Association, the
Florida Citrus Exchange declared
that it would join forces only on
condition that control of that body
be removed from the shippers and
vested in the growers. This, to-
gether with the demand for adver-
tising and for fixed minimum prices,
is the largest barrier in the way of
complete cooperation among about
90 percent of the Florida annual
citrus crop.
Secretary of Agriculture Hyde
recognized this condition in a recent
address at Winter Haven when he
said that complete grower control
of the citrus production and market-
'ng is essential to success. Whether
he will use his power with the fed-
eral farm board to force the Clear-
ing House and the Exchange to meet
on some common ground is unde-
cided, but at any rate he has defi-
nitely cast his vote for the growers.
The Exchange officials feel that
the men who grow the fruit should:
have the power to determine its dis-i
tribution and minimum mprice. They;
are all too familiar with the .trend
of recent years, when growers were
at the mercy of some shippers who

(Continued from Page 3)
despair and, very likely, such would
be the case if there were not several
compensating factors. Many of the
following compensations are due to
schools of packing operated by large
growers, inspection methods inaug-
urated by the government and aid
rendered through the Jewish Na-
tional Fund and the Zionists.
While much fruit is damaged by
the loading methods in the Jaffa
port and by delay in loading during
rough weather, it will be only a
short time until the harbor at Haifa
's completed and loading by lighters
at Jaffa will be only a bad memory.
When the harbor is opened there,
practically all fruit will be shipped
by rail to Haifa and loaded by mod-
ern methods.
The growers have seen the light
and most new groves have been set
out and are being set out with much
more liberal spacing, allowing for
proper spraying and cultivation. The
trees are quite a bit smaller than
ours but bear heavily, it being gen-
erally conceded that the average
yield per acre is considerably great-
er than ours.
The soil in Palestine is rich and
heavy so that fair fruit is obtain-
able with no fertilizer other than
an occasional light application of
animal manure. However, the pro-
gressive growers have realized the
value of artificial fertilizers and
cover crops and are improving their
fruit to a great extent. It is also
quite possible that the application
of the proper fertilizer will toughen
the skin of the orange and eliminate
the greatest source of loss.
The Florida. Citrus Machinery

did not hesitate to take their profits
at the expense of the growers, leav-
ing the latter to hold the empty
This does not apply to all ship-
pers. They, in many localities, are
almost as necessary to the industry
as the grower. But control must
be lodged somewhere, either with
grower or with shipper. The two
cannot govern jointly, if history is
a true indicator. The shippers have
had their -inning and ,the citrus in-
dustry today is almost as disorgan-:
ized as it ever was.
Why not try grower control,,in
keeping with the advice of Secre-
tary Hyde? The industry under the
growers could suffer no more from
poor distribution, price cutting and
market flooding than it has in the
past. The very. fact that the men
who groti the fruit are in control of
its distribution and consequently:ini
direct control of their 'ownpersional
fortunes might.make for better dis-
tribution and more satisfied North-
ern markets.. They, certainly are
not satisfied as it is. ...

Co., overcame the difficulties of
packing the oval Jaffa orange by
machinery and installed a complete
modern house for the Pardess Coop-
erative Society at Rehoboth in Feb-
ruary and March. 1931. The out-
come of this house appears to be
the keystone upon which the fate of
machine packing rested and its suc-
cess seems to be the turning point
in packing methods.
Every man of importance in the
Palestine citrus industry attended a
demonstration in the Rehoboth
house on March 17th and all agreed
that .the industry had made.. the
longest stride forward in its entire
The improvement in the pack and
the perfect sizing of the Jaffa or-
ange will make it compare very
well with our own in appearance.
The Pardess people have adopted
the American pack with the excep-
tion of the bulge and it is possible
that this will also be adopted next
season. This would eliminate a
large percentage of loss which has
been caused from too tight and too
loose packs.
Transportation from grove to
packing house to port is being im-
proved with the construction of mod-
ern roads. Many growers are oper-
ating fleets of trucks and dispens-
ing with the slow, jolting camel.
With reference to the prejudice
against washing, it may be stated
that most of the dirt on Jaffa fruit
may be removed by a spiral polisher,
as is being done at Rehoboth..
Palestine may be considered by
many as one of the backward coun-
tries but it must be born in mind
that it is only since the war that
progress has been possible. The
Palestinians are, on the whole, a
progressive people, drawn as they
are, from all corners of,.the earth,
and once a new idea has proved
itself they are quick to adopt it.
Many acres of grapefruit will be
coming into bearing in the next few
years although, heretofore, the
grapefruit export has been negligi-
ble. From present indications about
the time England and Germany be-
come "grapefruit conscious" as a
result of American advertising,
Palestine will be in position to reap
a very fair return from our efforts.
The Jaffa grapefruit, in the writer's
opinion, seems to average slightly
poorer than Florida fruit but it is
possible with proper cultivation it
will surpass our own.
The sum of the entire situation is
that very shortly Palestine will be
a factor with which the American
industry will come into direct and
strong competition: in European
markets and.mnust nbt be considered
too lightlirPu'w,, i, f*- ,

The Citrus Industry In Palestine

December'L1 1931



It appears to me that if a fair
profit is to be made in the future
and the citrus business of Florida
made a success generally, the grow-
ers will have to cut down their ex-
penses very materially. The reason
ttat growers have not been getting
fair profits, is because the trouble
lies as much, if not more, at this
end as it does in the market. We
have got to think and pay more at-
tention to how cheaply we can pro-
duce our crop and less attention to
how much we are going to get for
it after it gets to market.
I can't see why the grower should
wait and expect high prices for
fruit-say $4 to $5 per box. Cer-
tainly not in the near future, on an
average, with our crop getting larg-
er each year together with that of
California and Texas. Because in
the first place fruit is not worth
this much, and in the second place,
the country as a whole can't afford
to pay this much. We have got to
raise the best fruit possible and at
the lowest possible cost, perfect a
standard grade and pack and abso-
lutely maintain it year ofter year.
Cost Out of Proportion
The cost of packing, packing house
materials, selling charges, etc., is
way out of proportion compared to
the price the markets are paying
for tl- fruit. And, I don't think, as
many do, that over-production is
altogether the cause of our trouble.
On the other hand, if all the growers
were properly organized and the
fruit properly distributed, with sys-
tem and control, we probably would
not fully supply the demand.
I am afraid that we don't pay
enough attention to the smaller mar-
kets, etc. As much as half or more
of Florida's crop has been sold in
New York state in a year. We can't
expect the situation over the country
to change to suit ourselves. We will
-iave to'cHange our operations so as
to balance our costs in proportion to
the market conditions. A few years
back a grower could make a fair
profit, when fruit was selling for
$1.75, $2.00 and $2.25 f.o.b., with
the cost of crates at 13 to 154, paper
averaging 3 to 50, packing and haul-
ing of fruit at 35 to 40 and selling
and commission at 5 and 104; freight
and fertilizer about half what it is
now as well as the general cost of
grove operations. At that time things
were more balanced and fruit selling
for $2.25 and $2.50 f.o.b. was a high
price. And they were talking about
Sover-production then, too. It looks
like we may have to come back to
this. At tHe present time, if the
markets are paying but a limited
price for fruit, then it is up to the
grower to properly change his sit,
nation to proportionately balance
by reducing his costs. With ouw
present costs of producing, pack.

ing, selling, etc., we must obtain a
price for our fruit of $2.75 or $3=00
delivered to simply break even and
must receive quite a bit more than
this to make any kind of a fair profit.
Numbers of splendid articles have
appeared in many of our citrus pa-
pers and magazines of late, con-
tributed by some of our best posted
citrus authorities, which I have read
with a great deal of interest and
satisfaction, especially one by Dr.
DeBusk. I think it was a most
sensible warning and most sound
advice that every grower should
read and let it soak in.
Doing Too Much
Probably we are doing quite a bit
more spraying, dusting and culti-
vating tHan is necessary and in many
cases the fertilizer is not properly
applied-and much of it is wasted.
As Mr. DeBusk says, fertilizer being
the item of greatest expense in grove
operations, the grower should start
right now and begin to analyze this
big item. It is very necessary that
this be given a great deal of study.
I have been carrying on certain fer-
tilizer experiments on my groves at
Sans Souci, in conjunction with a
lysimeter, and hope to find in time
that if certain fertilizer materials
can not be substituted for others, to
reduce the cost of fertilizer, that I
at least can increase my crop produc-
tion. I think we could spot spray
and spot dust more without reduc-
ing the percentage of first grade
fruit and if the proper attention is
given a Higher percentage of higher
grade fruit may be possible. More
cover crops and less cultivation may
pay well. It may be that by excessive
cultivation we are doing more dam-
age than good by cutting many of
the feeder roots. More cover crops
and less cultivation may better con-
dition of the trees as well as produce
a better quality of fruit. I have
found here that trees suffer more
wren cleanly cultivated from a
drought, than when they are not.
iHoeing is a big item and I believe
much of it can be cut out, for in
many instances we possibly hoe too
much and too thoroughly, doing
more damage than good.
The growers have got to seriously
analyze their grove operations, 'ut-
Sting out all unnecessary operations
and materially reducing the cost of
their necessary operations. Packing
house materials and costs, selling
charges, etc., must come down.
Fewer and better marketing and
selling agencies must be had and
charging less for their services.
Maintaining the best standard grade
Sand pack, with due consideration
Sto the shipping of absolutely ma-
-ture fruit.
More serious and thorough analyz-
Sing and more concentrated action at
-home might be a good.thing to try.

Profits Begin In The Grove
By Joe Knight, San Sousi Groves

One of the finest examples in agri-
cultural history of voluntary coop-
eration is being presented by Porto
Rico citrus growers and shippers at
the present time. If it continues and
takes firm root it will give Florida
growers more to worry about than
the use of "Florida," name of a com-
munity on tHe island, in connection
with labels.
Last April, tHe Porto Rico in-
dustry adopted U. S. standards of
grade and pack without the influence
of law but as a voluntary act. In-
spectors were obtained from this
country and were given supervision.
Agreements of shippers were the
only binding ties to the program.
A. S. Mason of Washington was
sent to the Island as supervising in-
spector. 0. G. Strauss, in a similar
capacity in Florida, loaned H. K.
Folk and K. W. Ballentine, experi-
enced inspectors from Florida, to
The original agreements with the
shippers expired September 1, but


Sound Delivery

Better Appearance

Less Refrigeration

Better for the Dealer


The first thing a buyer looks for is a high bulge pack-if the
straps are loose he suspects decay. Brogdex controls decay and
shrinkage and almost without exception brings the fruit into
the market as sound as a dollar, with the high bulge pack still
standing and the straps still tight. Market buyers recognize the
'advantages of better keeping fruit and have come to rely upon
the keeping qualities of Brogdexed fruit to build a bigger and
more profitable retail trade and a better satisfied consumer market.
Oranges and grapefruit are bought by the eye-fruit must
look attractive if it is to move out of the dealer's hands. Any
visible evidence of decay, any apparent aging or wilt, even a
dullness of the shine-will slow up sales. Brogdexed fruit looks
better because it carries more wax, is double polished and is rarely
refrigerated. A car of Brogdexed fruit uses 7 pounds of wax.
It passes through two polishers which give it a splendid shine.
By shipping standard vent-without either pre-cooling or icing-
this shine is retained clear through to the consumer.
This is a specialized service no other agent or concern is com-
petent or qualified to perform-a service worth the thoughtful
consideration of any grower who has fruit to pack. If we were
realizing high prices the economies of Brogdex might not be
so important-yjou could get by and still have a profit; but with
prices low arid little prospect of much improvement, the savings
possible through Brogdex become of vital importance.

B. C. Skinner, Pres. Dunedin, Florida

all except five continued the inspec-
tion after that date. The Porto
Rican Fruiit Improvement Com-
mittee was set-up with an office in
New York in charge of J. P. Klein
to advance merchandising activities.
Inspect 75 Percent of Crop
About 75 percent of the citrus
of the island passes through govern-
ment inspection, it is understood.
It was reported that 60 percent of
the government certified pack
showed less than five percent of de-
The greatest impetus to the move-
ment has been the attitude of the
growers. According to Mr. Mason
they are the most keen for real im-
provement and have entered enthus-
iastically in support of the work.
The growers are agreed among
themselves not to pick fruit which
does not clearly pass the 7.50 to one
ratio and go so far tHat many of
them follow the fruit to the packing
houses and pick off of the belt any
fruit which to them looks doubtful.

Porto Rican Voluntarily Adopts Standards


December 1, 1931


Pumpkin bugs are causing con-
cern in several sections of the citrus
belt where the drought has affected
crotalaria striata to such an extent
the bugs are leaving the cover crop
to go to citrus for food, Dr. J. R.
Watson of the Experiment Station
reported. The bug sucks the juice
from the fruit causing it to drop or
making it subject to mold and rot
where the skin was punctured.
The bugs at this time of the sea-
son favor the early or mid-season
oranges. They do little damage to
the Valencias and grapefruit.
There is no satisfactory spray for
the pumpkin bug. The method of
control is to shake them of the
branches into a net and dipping them
in kerosene. A net of-muslin- about
three feet in diameter with a long
handle is recommended. The cost of
this method averages $3 an acre,
according to Dr. Watson. This would
be cheaper than spraying if a spray
were available.

American agriculture lost 84,000
farms between 1925 and 1930, yet
gained 15,000,000 more acres in
crops. This surprising contrast was
disclosed by Secretary of Agricul-
ture Arthur M. Hyde speaking at
the recent conference on land utiliza-
tion at Chicago.
Mr. Hyde ventured the opinion
that the "old epic of land settle-
ment" is about over. The new era
should be he, believes, one "of ad-
justments, regrouping, of retire-
ment from cultivation of lands"
which will not yield a reasonable
standard of living.
Despite the fact that erosion has
ruined 21,000,000 acres beyond re-
pair, the country had in crops last
year 55,000,000 acres more than in
1909 and more than the war-time
leak of 1919. According to Mr.
Hyde, the total planted crops in
1930 was 366,000,000 acres.

Lakeland association decided upon
weekly pools up to Nov. 15, one pool
from Nov. 15 to 30 and another
from Dec. 1 to the shutdown at holi-
day time. Pools for the balance of
the season will be determined later.



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Catler B. Downer FreJ'k L Spriaford
.Haold F. Mil
iJ. Oiver Daly Clifford E. taera

Pooling plans for the new Holly
Hills association with an interesting
explanation of pooling principals in-
volved are given by H. W. Noggle,
manager, in a statement prepared
for the Davenport Times. The article
"A satisfactory pooling system is
the most important single arrange-
ment which makes for successful
cooperative marketing. We hold it
as fundamental that each member is
entitled to and should be guaranteed
an equal opportunity with any other
member when it comes to markets.
and prices, or both. Happy relation-
ships cannot exist in an association
when one member is permitted to
receive more money than another for
fruit of equia size, grade and qual-
ity. Impartial service includes im-
partial markets to all members alike.
"This association believes that ro-
tating or impartial picking, together
with season pooling of varieties ac-
cording to size, grade and quality, is
the greatest protection for the grow-
er against market adversity. It is a
well recognized fact that the fruit of
all growers cannot be shipped at the
time and place where only the high-
est prices prevail, nor can the fruit
of all growers be held when hitting
some of the low markets.
"Protection for all is assured
under the seasonal pooling system
and the average prices obtained in
all markets according to variety,
grades and sizes will be the real
value of the fruit in proportion to
the supply and demand. Under the
pooling system the fruit of all grow-
ers receive the same average price-
all growers must share alike. This
is absolutely the last word in coop-
eration and is absolutely the only
method in which each and every
grower is assured that he is being
treated fairly and squarely by the
Association handling his fruit. This
system also tends to get the grower
better returns for his fruit as it
allows the manager to handle all
fruit for the best sales, and no
grower can insist that his fruit be
all picked, packed and marketed at
one time to the detriment of another
grower, as is the case when shorter
pools are the practice.
"It is possibly the best insurance
that the grower will receive the best
average price on his fruit and it
means that there will be no "red
ink" shipments. The manager is
guided by the marketing experts of
the Florida Citrus Exchange and on
their advice knows best when to ship
in order to take advantage of every
situation in the market that means
better material returns. It also en-
ables hinto pif.'n]y f the b ie
and q u of it"thdaah a a '
"ke will consume, and it also enables

him to keep a customer supplied
with fruit when once he has started
with our brands.
"The following rules should gov-
ern seasonal pooling:
"First: All varieties shall be
pooled for the time that may be re-
quired to market the entire crop of
such variety and all fruit will be
graded and sized so that the person
having the best fruit will, of course,
have more of the first grades than
the person who does not take such
good care of his groves.
"Second: It is proposed to practice
what is commonly known as "spot
picking." That is, pick each grove
at three or more different periods
covering the entire season. At each
picking approximately the same pro-
portion of fruit will be taken from
each grove as far as practical. This
method to be adjusted in time and
quantity with due regard to the con-
dition of the trees, the size of the
fruit most in demand, the needs of
the market generally, and the best
prices to be secured for the grower.
"Young groves with crops too
light to justify more than one pick-
ing will be picked clean at the time
deemes best and should the fruit on
any portion of the young groves for
marketing reasons be held longer
than the portion already picked, then
a percentage arrangement has been
worked out which will give the grow-
er whose fruit is held an increase
in the number of boxes so as to com-
pensate him for drops or any fruit
lost through such holding.
"Third: Receipts from the sales of
fruit are to be divided and dis-
tributed with the end in view of
meeting the financial needs of the
growers to the limit of safety and
protection to the Association. It is
conceded that some growers, accord-
ing to differences in condition of
their groves, quality, grade and size
of their fruit, etc., may have de-
livered more or less than their pro-
portion, but it is the intention to
make advances only on the fruit
shipped. Just as soon as it can be
determined what a safe price is on
any pool, advances will be made to
the grower on the basis of such
figures at once.

Large Stocks Pumps, Pipe and
Other Materials for immediate

TheCaierou & Bar ey Co.

: C. 0. Roe, president and director
of Clermont association, who has
given largely of his time to build-
ing up the association to its present
high standing, has resigned because
of ill health and the need to be: re-
lieved of as many business duties as
possible. H. C. Brown, who was
vice-president, was elected to suc-
ceed him. Dr. O. I. Woodley was
elected vice-president.
The directors of the association
accepted Mr. Roe's resignation with
reluctance and passed a resolution
expressing their deep appreciation
of his service. His personal fluence
and financial assistance during the
trying years of the association's re-
organization undoubtedly prevented
the failure of the association,`he
resolution stated.
Mr. Roe owns several groves and
will continue as a member of the

A Texas citrus grower took stern
but very effective measures to cope
with the theft of fruit from his grove.
Four young men stopped a few
charges of bird-shot, which, luckily,
proved more embarrassing and pain-
ful than serious. Florida growers,
however can appreciate the exaspera-
tion of the Texas grower though
such methods are to be deplored.
Possibly the Texas law is like that
of Florida so favorable to the thieves
that it is woefully ineffective to cope
with the situation.

Arizons citrus growers have
gotten a fortunate start in the hand-
ling of their production. According
to the Arizona Producer, coopera-
tive magazine, 90 percent of the cit-
rus production is controlled by the
Arizona Citrus Growers association.
The California Fruit Growers Ex-
change is, sales agent -or the&asso-
ciation whose production is prin-
cipally grapefruit.


Why experiment, when ORTHO
KLE~NUP has proven its effect-
iveness in control of Florida's
citrus pests. Made from a unique
oil especially refined for spray-
ing use. Write for folder.

December .1; 1931




to kill Scale and White Fly

Floridoil gives real

protection because it

contains 83% oil to

the gallon
Oil content is the real measure of oil emulsion value. It pays to
know how much oil you get in the spray you buy.
Sherwin-Williams Floridoil contains not less than 83% of selected
oil properly emulsified to give sure, safe results. The oil content
of Floridoil is at least 20% more than in so-called "free flowing
emulsions." Use Floridoil this year for clean-up spraying. It kills Scale and
White Fly.
Sherwin-Williams makes a complete line of insecticides and fungicides for use
on all Florida crops. (See partial list in the panel.) All Sherwin-Williams prod-
ucts are of the highest quality. All are backed by the reputation of the world's
largest maker of insecticides. All are guaranteed under government regulations.
Buy Sherwin-Williams insecticides in handy containers from any S-W dealer.
Large stocks at Tampa and Jacksonville make it easy for him to keep a com-
--'plete; fresh-supply at all times.
Free-expert advice
Sherwin-Williams maintain a complete staff of men experienced in the use and application of
insecticides and fungicides. Let these men make recommendations as to your spraying require-
ments. There, is no obligation. Simply write our nearest office.
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branded under Fed-
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Insecticides and Fungicides at
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(Dry Lime Sulfur Dust)

Tune in the Allied
Quality Paint Men.
over N. B. C. Net-
work every Friday at -
10 P.M. (E. S. T.)
Listen In on Sherwin-Williams daytime
program "Keeping Up with Daughter"
over N. B. C. Network--every Wednesday
at II A.M. (E. S. T.)


i .lr I


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r t 17 X,
6. Irie 5 Oo

iUYIYYIY" Ci :,1~-

--- - -





You Can Do Without It!

It is only human for a grower of long
standing to think that the whole world
is waiting, with mouths watering, for
the excellent fruit he grows.

Often he claims with a kind of de-
fiant pride: "I can get along without
helping to organize this industry or co-
operating through the Exchange."

Certainly yoy can-if you don't mind
and are financially able to stand con-
stantly diminishing. returns.

But why should you want to?

You can continue to gamble on prices
determined by faulty distribution of the
state's crop, by competition .of, other .
fruits and by inadequate consumer de-

You can continue to pay packing
profits and exorbitant sales commissions
to speculative operators.

You can continue to constantly in-
crease your production without the
safety valve of thoroughly developed
by-products and markets for them.

Many growers of commodities the
country over do.

But the most progressive, most suc-
cessful and most far-sighted growers

Admitting that you can do without
an organized industry; without joining
the Florida Citrus Exchange-where is
the gain in denying yourself and your
neighbor the definite advantages which
admittedly can be obtained under such

Where is the wisdom in sacrificing
Time and money in attempting to com-
promise with the inevitable-in try-
ing makeshift substitutions for definite
standards of production, adequate con-
Ssumer advertising and control of prices
in line with the intrinsic worth of the
fruit you grow?

That is why you owe it to yourself,
your industry and your state to put your
shoulder behind the wheel and obtain
the definite advantages of organization
through a grower-owned, grower-con-
trolled cooperative.




December .1, 1931

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