Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00022
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: October 1, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00022
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text

ru. lmas .an. S amu.. .. I e w
to another postofice notify sender on form J.C. Y ONGE
3547, postage, for whikh is guaranteed. 2 E
> b1924 E. JACKSON ST.,

Seald Sw hronice

Entered a SeBend Class Mail Matter
Vol. VII SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 50 CENTS PER YEA TAMPA, FLORIDA, OCTOBER 1,1931 at the P"st Offe at IaUna. iori a No. 9
Under the Act ef March 8, 1879.

First Shipments

Get Fair Prices,

Under Conditions

Light Volume, Better Quality and
More Maturity Help to Sustain
Grapefruit; Few Plants Open

The first Florida grapefruit into
the markets received very fair prices
in both f.o.b. and auction markets
considering conditions. A total of
66 cars was moved from the state
up to and including, Saturday, Sept.
26. Of these the Exchange had 8,
all shipped from Silver Palm and Ft.
Myers associations.
The Exchange moved its cars in
the f.o.b. markets, getting from
$3.25 to $3.50 f.o.b. for Seald-Sweet
with discounts for Mor-juce and also
96s, 100s and 126s. Some of the
private operators' deliveries were to
auctions in which the average for
"brights" was around $4.50 delivered
and for goldenns" $4.20.
First Car Average
The first car out of the state of
the new crop went to Cleveland auc-
tion where it averaged $4.60 de-
As far as known no oranges have
been forwarded yet which is be-
lieved to be an advisable course.
Little prospect for fair prices is seen
for oranges at this time due to the
heavy volume of California Va-
lencias in the markets at low prices.
Fred W. Davis, general sales man-
ager, is advising associations not to
move oranges until they can pick
(Continued on Page 3)

Texas will not be permitted
to ship bulk fruit out of the
state, J. M. Delcurto of the
Texas Department of Agri-
culture reports to E. E. Pat-
terson, grapefruit sales man-
ager. 'There were rumors in
connection with the modifica-
tion of restrictions on the Mex-
ican fruit fly quarantine that
bulk shipments might be al-
Texas, however, is still closed
to Florida citrus, which ban
was placed a few weeks ago
when the opening date for
Texas was advanced to Sep-
tember 10 from October 1.

Of the 80 or more groves
with a production of 500,000
to 600,000 boxes found ille-
gally treated with arsenic only
one is connected with the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange. This is
the information from Commis-
sioner of Agriculture Nathan
Mayo to General Manager C.
C. Commander in answer to a
letter from Mr. Commander
expressing his gratification on
the decision of the court and
hsi confidence that Mr. Mayo
would enforce the law strictly.

Prominent Indian River

Operator Merges With

Ind. Riv. Sub-Exchange

Indian River Products Company,
one of the prominent operators on
the Indian River, has affiliated with
the Florida Citrus Exchange, sign-
ing with Indian River Sub-Exchange
as a special shipper.
The company owns or has the care
of more than 700 acres among the
finest groves of the Indian River sec-
tion. Production this season is esti-
mated at 90,000 boxes.
Well Equipped Plant
The packing plant- is located at
Oslo, four miles south of Vero
Beach. It is a well equipped house
of a capacity of three cars a day. It
was put into operation in 1919.
Waldo E. Sexton, prominent East
Coast grower, and Walter S. Buck-
ingham, are at the head of the com-
pany. Both have been in the state
gaged in a number of interests be-
for many years and have been en-
sides citrus.
The affiliation is an important
contribution to the big work Indian
River is doing on unification. It
made big strides of this nature last
season drawing in growers and addi-
tional production to an extent that
put it several notches toward the
top in volume handled. Only a few
months back it affected the merger
of E. P. Porcllr, one of the most in-
fluential. private operators on the
East Coast.

Low Handling Costs to Determine

Profits This Season-Commander

Program Submitted For

W. H. Citrus Laboratory

With the building complete and
most equipment on hand, the federal
citrus laboratory at Winter Haven is
only waiting on the arrival of a few
pieces of apparatus before start-
ing upon the program for the devel-
opment of citrus by-products. A
program has been prepared by
Harry W. Von Loesecke, chemist in
charge, and is in the hands of Wash-
ington authorities for their approval.
Mr. Von Loesecke Has been in the
state for many weeks. He has
traveled over the state extensively,
conferring with many interests to
get the viewpoints of the industry
on a research program and to ascer-
tain how far by-products develop-
ment has progressed.

Aims of Program
The principal aim of the program
is to discover the best methods for
preserving orange and grapefruit
products. A study will be made of
the composition of the different va-
rieties of oranges. Investigations
will .be. made 'on the utilization of
wastes from the canning plants and
experiments will be made on dif-
ferent methods of extracting, pro-
cessing and storing of juices.
Mr. Von Loesecke has had many
years of experience in research
wo'k on fruits. He was formerly
witthe United Fruit Company in
this capacity making many studies
of bananas, determining many
values of the fruit and several by-
products. He gained some experi-
ence with citrus in studies of limes
for utilization of the oil and the
preservation of juice. Mr. Von
Loesecke is a graduate of Harvard
and is the author of many papers on
research work in fruit.
His assistant, George N. Pulley,
chemical engineer, is a graduate of
Alabama Polytechnic. Prior to
entering the government service he
was connected with the Tennessee

ePrice will be
the ruling factor
in the mQvement"
of the 1931-32
Florida citrus
crop, according

man'de, General
Manager of the
Florida Citrus
Exchange, _,w H o
returned Satur-
. COMMANDER day from a hur-
ried trip through several of the
northern markets in which he was
perfecting sales arrangements for
the coming season. It is the logical
result, in his opinion, of the de-
pressed commercial situation exist-
ing throughout the country.
"In every market which I visited,
both East and West," said Mr. Com-
mander, "the trade indicated tHat
there was a good demand for citrus
but that this demand must be sup-
plied at a price within reach of the
masses. Commodity prices, notably
on foods, have come down very ma-
terially in the last eight to ten
months. Citrus can be no exception.
(Continued on Page 2)


:Above a four-year citrange studied for pos-
sibilities as a hardy root stock. Story on
page 10.


Lowest Handling Cost

Will Determine Profit

To Growers This Yeai
(Continued from Page 1)
'Such a situation calls for th(
practice of severe economies
throughout the entire organization
If our growers are to receive any-
thing like adequate returns, corners
must be cut everywhere along the
line to reduce operating expenses.
"Most of our packing IHuses,'
continued Mr. Commander, "have
already reduced their packing re-
tains. Lower rates on hauling con-
tracts exists throughout the state.
All of these savings will accrue di-
rectly to the grower.
"Another phase of citrus mer-
chandising which has long been a
policy of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change will work to our growers
benefit this season. Containers which
are less expensive in actual cost and
require less time and material tc
pack and ship without lowering the
protective factors or saleability of
the fruit are rapidly being perfected.
Some have already been demon-
strated as commercial successes.
"All of these factors, because the
Florida Citrus Exchange is owned
and operated at cost by its growers,
will produce savings which, in spite
of the low prices which must main-
tain because of the economic situa-
tion, will return our growers a desir-
able percentage on their invest-
"I am not entirely of the opinion
that the situation is utterly calam-
itous," continued Mr. Commander.
"Through our dealer service crews
we have long preaclHd to retailers
the desirability of a shorter mark-up,
a lower retail price, a consequently
higher volume, which in turn pro-
duces a greater gross and net profit.
This practice, which previously was
not necessary, now becomes impera-
tive in the retail merchandising of
citrus. As an example I cite the
business popularly known as Nedick's
in New York. Nedicks for years
sold for ten cents an iced drink hav-
ing an orange juice base. Several
weeks ago -they reduced the price to
five cents per drink, and in two
weeks time increased their business
seven times over. To make the same
amount of profit required only a
doubling of the business. Since it
was increased seven times, they Have
increased their profits through the
same outlets several times by cut-
ting the price in half.
"Essentially the same condition
maintains on citrus. Lower retail
prices will permit the movement and
-gain distribution for a considerably
greater volume. If the cost of pre-
paring that vodume for market is
held at a minimum," concluded Mr.
Commander, "there is some consider-
able hope 'of obtaining an apprecia-
ble return for our growers."

Following the example of
Florida, Texas has adopted a
minimum juice content re-
quirement for grapefruit as
part of the maturity standard.
The juice scale is the same as
that of Florida. This is the
first season Texas has had a
ju-ce regulation.
Following are the minimum
requirements according to



Vero Growers Organize

Another Association
Another new association has been
added to the Florida Citrus Ex-
change with the organization of the
Indian River Growers, Inc., Vero
Beach, which will begin operations
with above 60,000 boxes.
R. J. Young, one of the large
growers of the Indian River sec-
tion, heads the association. A. M.
Hill is vice-president; Dan Moran,
secretary and Mr. Stewart, treas-
urer. A. C. Brown has been selected
as manager.
The packing N1use formerly oper-
ated by the American Fruit Grow-
ers Inc. will be used by the assoc'a-
tion this season. It has been leased
from Charles Gifford, owner, and
work is under way preparing it for
opening sometime this month.

Anti-Board Probe Finished
Investigators of the Federal Trade
Commission, who have been conduct-
ing an investigation during the past
10 months of an alleged campaign
or propaganda against the Federal
Farm Board, said to be initiated and
supported by the grain trade of the
middle west, have completed their
investigations, according to Herbert
L. Anderson, chief examiner of the

Texas Shippers In No Hurry
Texas growers and shippers were
in no hurry to move the new crop
early though the shipping date was
advanced from Oct. 1 to Sept. 10
under modified quarantine regula-
tions, according to the Mission
Times. The Texas Exchange and
many other shippers urged upon the
growers not to be hasty while the
Mission, Times recommended that
the growers wait until thIJ fruit was
suitable for their own consumption
before expecting to move it to the
markets. The Times expected that
the Texas fruit would not be moved i
in any volume until after Oct. 1.

Believes Sweet Orange Makes Finest Root Stock

A six-year-old Marsh Seedless on sweet seedling root.
Drawing upon 41 years of experi- been the ease and speed with which
ence in citrus culture, J. H. JelTeries, it makes planting stock in the nur-

superintendent of the Citrus Experi-
ment Station at Lake Alfred, be-
lieves that the sweet orange is su-
perior to the rough lemon as a root
stock and that the preference of the
citrus growers for the rough lemon
over the sweet seedling has cost them
millions of dollars.
In his opinion, the rough lemon
is superior to the sweet seedling on
only one point of comparison-its
resistance to foot-rot, to which the
sweet seedling is susceptible. But,
offsetting this, he believes that the
susceptibility of rough lemon to
gumosis makes the rough lemon less
desirable than the sweet seedling.
Many Good Qualities
Comparing the two varieties, Mr.
Jefferies points out that the sweet
seedling makes trees of longer life
and of much more vigor. The fruit
is of higher quality and has the char-

sery and makes a bearing tree in the
Many Groves to Compare
It is at this point, however, in
Mr. Jefferies' opinion that its so-
called superiority ends, and there
are plenty of graves, he states,
which allow the growers the oppor-
tunity for direct comparison of the
two stocks. In every section of the
state there are established groves
on sweet seedlings.
There are several in the Experi-
ment Station's groves at Lake Al-
fred which recently have drawn the
attention of visiting growers. Two
are 12 years old and are surrounded
by many trees on the rough lemon.
The favorable difference in the two
in comparison with the others at-
tracts the attention of visitors im-
mediately and is responsible in the
past year or two for serious thought

acter of fruit produced on sour or- cn the part of many growers who
ange stock. The tree on sweet seed- have seen them.
ling stock is more capable of hand- Produce Bigger Trees
ling fertilizer without detrimental These two are practically twice as
results than the rough lemon, though large as any of the trees in the
it too will react to improper or over- large block in which they are lo-
fertilization but not as readily as cated. Their greater vigor and pro-
the rough lemon, ductive capacity is clearly apparent.
The rough lemon, declares Mr. The fruit shows much better texture
Jefferies, is exceedingly, difficult to and in tests which ,have been made
control.- It is so rampant in growth in the past few years when the fruit
and so difficult to make produce is mature, the growers invariably
quality fruit. Its main advantage have picked out the fruit of the
and the, attraction which made it so trees on the sweet.,seedling root as
popular' on the high said land has far.superior to the'other.

L-. rialla~.


October 1, 1931

October1 1,13 EL-WE HOIL

Citrus Pays Well

Over Period Years

Associations Show Averages For
Six and Twelve Years Which
Give the Growers Big Profits

That citrus has paid the growers
handsome profits year in and year
out counting the good seasons with
the bad is clearly substantiated by
the tabulation of net returns paid
thJ growers compiled by Mount
Dora and Lake Region associations
of Lake Sub-Exchange.
Mount Dora presenting the figures
in one form shows an average net on
the tree of $1.877 per box for the
12 years up to the past season while
Lake Region showing the six year
average by varieties and including
the past season's low average shows
comparable returns. Allowance must
be given the fact that grapefruit vol-
ume is comparatively small.
Presents Two Views
Mount Dora presents the record
by volume shipped and the total net
on this volume paid to the growers.
Its tabulation lumps both varieties
and grades together. Lake Region's
record shows the variety averages.
Each affords an interesting study
along different lines; Mount Dora's
allowing a comparison by years with
an inkling of the difference between
the various years in the crop size,
while Lake Region's gives a fine com-
parison by varieties.
Following is Mount Dora's rec-
Shipping No. of Boxes Net Amt.
Season Shipped Paid Grower
1918-19 59,165 $ 154,648.78
1919-20 70,218 254,045.04
1920-21 135,835 229,350.11
1921-22 98,115 241,420.69
1922-23 98,970 200,305.95
1923-24 166,296 *145,883.98
1924-25 136,773 315,252.35
1925-26 92,693 215,393.16
1926-27 141,792 185,489.05
1927-28 63,795 168,234.95
1928-29 150,692 118,796.52
1929-39 68.354 178.476.16

Eight hundred and fifty
Michigan boys at Camp Cus-
ter Citizens Military Train-
ing Camp in a two weeks
seige completely vanquished
9,000 oranges and 12,600
lemons. Opening with an
incisor barrage, the boys
made a prolonged frontal at-
tack which was followed by
an enveloping movement that
brought in every last one of
the citrus divisions including
the reserves.
At the rate the boys ac-
counted for citrus casualties,
25 to a boy and more than
one and a half a day, the
various citrus states could
not provide enough citrus if
the citizens of the country
followed the example set by
the Michigan lads.

Mount Dora's record shows that
the season of 1919-20 paid the higli-
est per box, averaging $3.61 on
the tree. The season of 1924-25,
however, shows up the best on the
basis of the greatest amount paid
the growers. It is interesting to note
two points in the comparison of
these two seasons: 1924-25 had al-
most double the volume at Mount
Dora at least and also 1924-25's
larger volume paid well on a per
box basis running far above the gen-
eral average for the 12 years.
1928-29 Worst Season
Much comment has been made of
the bad season of 1923-24 and 1928-
29 Uas only passed so recently that
it still is fresh in memory. Mount
Dora's record clearly reveals the
low prices of those seasons but
would indicate, contrary to the be-
lief of many, that 1928-29 was a
worse season than 1923-24. Mount
Dora's averages for these two are:
1923-24, 88 cents a box; 1928-29,
78 cents a box.
Lake Region's figures show that
Valencias, Pineapples and Parson
Browns made unusually good profits
with Seedlings very good. The great-
est volume is in these varieties

Telling Customers About "Seald-Sweet"

Above is one of the reasons "Seald-Sweet" canned grapefruit is moving more rapidly
and at' higher prices than other brands. It is a typical display, such as appears in many
stores in many markets. The Exchange does not wait until the consumer gets into
he store cr asks for frli:t. It helps arouse his desire and stimulates demand. The
display above is a Jaeger's Central Market, Rockford, Illinois. Jaeger's did an ex-
ceptional business with fresh fruit last season, helped by a similar display.

Markets Pay Fair Price

For the First Shipments
(Continued from Page 1)
200s or larger as the California fruit
:s running heavily to small sizes and
bringing little profit though fine in
color and quality.
E. E. Patterson, grapefruit sales
manager, reports that samples from
the early shipments show the fruit is
further advanced in maturity and of
much better quality than the early
shipments for last year. Sizes are
running smaller than expected, he
said. A few Polk county houses
probably will open soon and their
first cars are expected to run to
larger sizes.
Manatee houses planned to open
around the end of the week of Sept.
26 but rains delayed them. Lake
Wales association was expecting to
begin Sept. 28.
Maturity inspection is strict and
is helping materially to keep the sit-
uation in hand.

Totals 1,282,698 $2,407,296.74
Variety Averages for Six Years
Lake Region's six year average by
varieties is as follows (Note that
"cost" means picking, hauling and
packing and that "net" is net on the

6 Year Average
Variety Price Costs
Parson Browns $2.86 $1.05
Seedlings 2.50 1.05
Pineapple 2.75 1.05
Bloods 2.55 1.05
Satsumas 3.13 1.05
Kings 3.81 1.05
Tangerines 3.38 1.35
Navels 3.24 1.05
Valencias 2.87 1.05
Grapefruit 2.10 1.00


From a seedling of the Eustis limequat, a hybrid of lime and kumquat, was obtained
this new limequat which has fruit of distinctive flavor which may rival the kumquat
for preserving.

Invents Grove Heater

Designed to Use Wood
A wood heater claimed to operate
with equal efficiency as oil and at
less cost than the open wood fires
has been invented by J. E. Palmer
of Loughman, Exchange member
and former state manager for the
National Orchard Heater Company.
Patents have been applied for and
the Florida Grove Heater Corpora-
tion has been organized for manu-
facture and distribution.
The heater is made of heavy sheet
metal in the form of a truncated
cone with an opening 14 inches at
the top and 20 inches at the bottom.
It stands 30 inches high. A cover is
adapted to assist in regulating the
rate of burning the wood if desired.
The heater does not use a grate. Its
cost is low, running about one-third
of the standard oil heater.
The heater uses wood cut in 12
inch lengths and will operate at full
draft for four and a half hours or
for eight to nine hours under partial
draft, according to Mr. Palmer. One
man, he said, can light heaters for
10 acres and with one other can re-
fill this number.
Comparing fuel costs, nine hours
maximum heating would take two
cords of wood, costing $3 a cord, a
total of $6 while nine hours maxi-
mum firing with oil would require
450 gallons of heater oil costing
around $31.50.

The Texas Citrus Growers Ex-
change is constructing two modern
packing plants at San Carlos and
Harlingen, Texas, to care for growth
of the organization. Six plants were
in operation last season.

October 1, 1931

n w j .... .



Seald- Sweet


Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Publication Office:
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 2349

Net Grower Circulation
over 12,500

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol.VII OCTOBER I, 1931. No.9

Efforts to obtain modification of
the anti-arsen'c law enforcement
can hardly make much headway in
face of the practically unanimous
acclaim given to the court ruling
upholding the constitutionality of
the law and Commissioner of Agri-
culture Nathan Mayo's announce-
ment of his intention to enforce it to
the letter.
Editorial comment in the press
indicates that the state as well as
the industry is in no mood to com-
promise. Statements of leaders in
the industry, other than those in-
volved in alleged violations of the
law, are strikingly unanimous in
support of strict enforcement.
At the best, efforts to obtain a
modification are a subterfuge, an
attempt to try and get out from
under a bad guess and to cloud the
disclosure of a bad practice. It is
understood that some of the owners
of the groves found to have been
sprayed with arsenicals are opposed
to its use and were without knowl-
edge of its application to their
groves and that some of the owners
plan to take action against those
Also one of the main reasons for
continued efforts to get around the
law is that the treated fruit cannot
get into the early market with the
Parson Browns, Hamlins and other
early fruit which constitute only
about 15 percent of the crop but
must go in with the mid-season fruit
which accounts for 60 percent of
the crop.
There does not appear a likelihood
that the treated fruit will be de-
stroyed if allowed to stay upon the
trees until its regular season for ma-
turity. Authorities have stated un-
officially that the evil effects of the
arsenic wear off with time and tHe
fruit is suitable later.

Contention that arsenic does not
have a bad effect upon the fruit
early in the season will appear ridic-
ulous to anyone who has had the
slightest acquaintance with such
fruit. Down here in the citrus belt
it is foolish to offer such an argu-
ment while up in the markets it
would sound no less than brazen to
those wfh have so often paid their
good money for early fruit and
found that they had obtained fruit
in looks only.
Texas citrus growers could wel-
come no better competition fiom
Florida than that of arsenically
treated fruit. There is already
enough competition to make it im-
perative that Florida does not by
its own acts build sales resistance
against its own fruit. There cer-
tainly is no comparison between the
sweetness of Texas grapefruit and
the lack of flavor of arsenic treated

Down in the Rio Grande valley in
Texas, 2,194,000 trees are carry-
ing around 3,000,000 boxes of cit-
rus. Nearly 4,500,000 more citrus
trees are building roots and tops for
productivity in another two or three
The Valley predicts that produc-
tion will double next season, prob-
ably ranging around 20,000 cars or
about 7,000,000 boxes. Ultimately,
the Valley expects to produce no less
than 50.000 cars, more than 15,-
000,000 boxes.
This past season, Florida growers
learned that 12,000,000 boxes or
more under present conditions are
difficult to handle. It cannot be
expected that Florida's grapefruit
production on the average will de-
crease much from now on-rather
it is to be expected that it will in-
Double Production Soon
Certainly Florida should expect
production as great or greater than
Texas, particularly as it has more
acreage. What then when the pres-
ent record of-grapefruit volume is
doubled as it surely will be in not
so remote a time?
There is no way of getting out
from under now. The money is in-
vested and money must be put into
the groves each year or that invest-
ment soon is lost.
Either the growers must go on
carrying a heavier burden each year
out of their own pockets or they
must take steps for tlhe future. That
future now is close and it is only
inviting certain loss, possibly ruin,
to delay.
Must Work Together
Individually each grower can do
nothing toward helping himself out
of the present predicament. To-
gether the growers can do most any-
thing, even to setting the price,
even to tinkering with supply and

demand to make the irrevocable law
of supply and demand work in their
It is more than worth thinking
about now-it is worth acting upon.
The decision that the growers make
will make their future.
In considering a decision it is
well to remember these facts-no
one is going to do for the growers
but themselves and they will pay
the cost no matter who makes the
profit and if others make the profit
it is going to cost the growers more.

A fine tribute is paid tlJ Florida
Citrus Exchange by the Wauchula
Advocate-a tribute which many
newspapers of the state second by
reprinting the editorial from the
Advocate. The Advocate expresses
the belief that the Exchange does
not follow the practice of unscrup-
ulous shippers in sending immature
fruit out and it also speaks highly
of the Exchange accomplishments in
raising the standards.
"We do not believe thta the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange has followed
the practice of some unscrupulous
shippers and sent immature fruit
out of the state. This is something
for which that organization should
be commended most highly.
"Here in Wauchula, for example,
the Exchange house usually does not
open until late in September or
October. By that time tIe fruit has
reached maturity and the early va-
rieties are ready for market.
"We believe the Exchange is more
careful as to grade, size and qual-
ity of fruit than most independent
shippers. We believe that when a
man buys citrus fruit bearing this
label he is sure of its excellent
"This is also true of some other
shippers, no doubt, but it can not be
said of all of them.
"No matter what else may be said
about it, we believe the Exchange
is doing a great deal to build up the
standard of Florida citrus fruit and
establish better markets by shipping
only ripe fruit and extensively ad-
vertising its brand, along with its
other activities in the citrus in-
It is interesting to note that after
this editorial had appeared, infor-
mation came from Commissioner of
Agriculture Nathan Mayo that out
of all the groves found to have been
illegally treated with arsenic spray,
only one small 10 acre grove was
Connected with the Exchange.

bp to Growers
Ocala Star: Another citrus mar-
keting season is opening-has
opened, though very little fruit
has gone forward yet. The state's
inspection forces, charged with ad-
ministering the green fruit law,
have taken up headquarters in Win-
ter Haven and the stage is set for

another season of forwarding Flor-
ida citrus to the consuming centers.
What kind of citrus fruit history
will be written four, six, or eight
months hence? Will the growers
Have the broadness of vision to cen-
tralize their shipments under one
agency, that cooperative, grower
controlled organization known as the
Florida Citrus Exchange, for their
mutual welfare and the everlasting
benefit of the state, or will they fol-
low their penny-wise-pound-foolish
policy of forcing fruit into the mar-
keting centers without rhyme or rea-
son, hoping to beat the other fellow
to the high dollar auction, and in tDh
end demoralizing the market they
should lend their efforts toward pre-
Exchange Human
The Exchange has had and will
have its faults. Human beings are
prone to err and the Exchange is the
product of the human mind, not as
perfect as its directing heads hJpe
to and can make it with the sup-
port of its grower members, but by
and large it is the hope of the in-
Those who have studied market-
ing perishable products in all its
phases are agreed that the only way
for the grower to obtain the max-
imum worth of his fruit is for its
movement into distribution channels
to be controlled, and that control
will come only when 75 percent of
thie crop is handled through one
With the federal court decision
upholding the constitutionality of
the state's green fruit law; which
prevents the marketing of fruit arti-
ficially ripened by the use or arsenic
spray, one troublesome factor that
had to be contended with in former
years in a measure has been re-
moved. At this writing it does not
appear that the green fruit evil will
be so hard to combat during the
early shipping season. Control of
the early fruit movement is of great
importance, for tda market gluts
that follow shipment of immature
fruit are always difficult to over-
come, but thanks to the court de-
cision the movement of green fruit
will be reduced to the minimum this
Time to Help, Not Hinder
Now if control of the movement
throughout the season, the objective
of the intensive campaign conducted
by the Exchange during the summer,
can be realized, the Florida grower
should realize a fair return for his
product this winter, despite the3 busi-
ness depression. It is up to the
growers themselves. They should
put aside their prejudices against the
Exchange, if they have any, and
realize that alliance with the Ex-
change, recognized by the federal
farm board as the one agency best
equipped to service them, will mean
their salvation at a crucial period.

October 1, 1931




F. W. Davis, general sales man-
ager, just returned from several
weks in the markets, sees fair pros-
pects for citrus though it will not
be, in his opinion, a season for high
prices. The following, a bulletin
issued to the Sub-Exchange and As-
sociation managers, upon his return,
contains his observations and will
be very interesting to the growers:
"The writer has just returned
from a trip covering all of the prin-
cipal northern markets, spending
the greater portion of my time in
the Eastern and New England di-
Economic Conditions May Improve
"I am very pleased to advise that
we have been able to line up some
very satisfactory business for this
season with the various large chain
interests and have also been assured
the support of the large jobbing
connections throughout the coun-
try. While conditions generally are
not as good as we would like to see
them, certain sections of the coun-
try are beginning to show a gradual
improvement which will help us
some in those districts. The large
industrial centers are still showing
considerable unemployment and
judging from conditions prevailing
generally throughout the country we
cannot hope for a season of high
prices. The country as a whole is
gradually working out of the diffi-
culties of the last year or so and by
early spring we should see some
signs of improvement in the general
situation. The most fortunate fac-
tor is that citrus fruit seems to be
commanding a most prominent place
in the consumer mind, very largely
as a result of our advertising its
health and food value. This, to-
gether with the fact thta Florida
fruit last season gained an enviable
reputation in all the markets, will
help us materially in the marketing
of this year's crop. Everywhere I
visited, the trade called my atten-
tion to the exceptionally fine qual-
ity of Florida oranges, grapefruit
and tangerines, and in every in-
stance showed a disposition to push
Florida fruit to the limit this com-
ing season.
Close Cooperation of Sales and Ad-
vertising Effective
"I was very agreeably surprised
to notice on my visit to the markets
the effects the close cooperation of
the sales and advertising depart-
ments this past season had on our
distribution and our popularizing
Florida fruit with the trade. Our
-dealer service men have done some
excellent work in connection with
our division and -district managers
and this has gone a long way toward
laying a permanent foundation for
the future sale of Exchange fruit,
I was very much surprised at the
popularity of our Mor-juce brand
has attained in all the markets. Be-
ing a comparatively new brand, it

has gone over with excellent success
and is generally as well known as
Seald-Sweet among the trade. I
cannot emphasize too much in this
connection the advisability of our
Association managers continuing
this season the same as last to care-
fully grade and pack all fruit under
both Seald-Sweet and Mor-juce so
that the excellent reputation we
have established throughout the
country can be maintained.
"One of the outstanding things
uppermost in the minds of all buy-
ers was whether or not the Ex-
change or other Florida shippers ex-
pect to ship green fruit this season.
Without exception everyone of them
advised me that immature green
fruit would kill the Florida deal

ida fruit late in the season, the trade
generally will be in a receptive mood
to buy, and if early arrivals are sat-
isfactory and meet with public favor
we should maintain a satisfactory
market throughout the entire ship-
ping season. In other words, we
have the support of the buyers be-
hind us and I am very glad to see
the care which is being exercised
at the present time in keeping off
the market fruit which will produce
an undesirable reaction
California Valencias Will Go Into
"It looks as though from present
indications California will be ship-
ping Valencias, in view of their
large size crop, much later than or-
dinarily is the case. They will prob-
ably ship up until the early part of

this year. On the other hand they December and in view of this situa-
stated that as a result of last sea- tion and Florida fruit coming in
son's excellent reputation on Flor- competition with California's of

good color and flayor will have to
give good satisfaction. We believe it
will be a mistake to rush oranges
out too early, or at least until they
will give good satisfaction and show
good color, in the markets. There
is a large quantity of home-grown
fruit which is being offered in all
sections of the country and this to-
gether with comparatively large im-
portations of bananas and other de-
ciduous fruits as resulting in com-
paratively low prices being received
throughout the country. This con-
dition will naturally have an effect
on bringing down the general price
level of citrus fruits from Florida
as well as California.
"I am very pleased to state we
have made satisfactory arrange-
ments for the sale and distribution
of discount sizes of both oranges
and grapefruit in bags through a
number of the leading chain store

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J. P. PALMER, Sales Agent

October 1, 1931



"Entire Exchange Management Approved"
Jacksonville Times Union:
"The Florida Citrus Exchange is what the
growers have made it. * Its structure
and management last season earned the high-
est commendation of C. C. Teague, then the
citrus and small fruit member of the farm
board, who said, while on an inspection trip
to this State, that he had 'heard many com-
pliments to C. C. Commander, general man-
ager of the Exchange, as a thoroughgoing
fruit man who knows the citrus business from
the bottom up, and who has the confidence of
many in his knowledge of the merchandising
of citrus.' * If there are faults in the
structure and operation of the Exchange, cor-
rect them from within. If you refuse to line
up with the Exchange and growers who com-
pose it, you haven't a shadow of right to criti-
cise it. * From the heads of that great
Florida citrus cooperative down, from Presi-
dent Snively, General Manager Commander,
Merton L. Corey, nationally known organ-
izer of cooperative associations, down to the
smallest grower in the ranks, the Exchange
has been approved by the Federal Farm Board
-approved to the extent of more than $3,000,-
000 with more to come when needed to finance
this State's citrus industry. Isn't that good
"Growers, Outside and Inside"
Tampa Morning Tribune:
"The Exchange has been handicapped in its
operation and in the benefits it can bring to
the industry and the grower because of the
lack of support of the growers. If the grow-
ers would realize that, with 75 percent con-
trol of the crop, the Exchange would be en-
abled to do much more than it has already
done for their advantage and profit, they
would not hesitate to become affiliated with
it. With that control, the Exchange could
greatly enlarge its facilities, extend its serv-
ice, increase its advertising of Florida fruit,
which would produce a greater demand, get
access to markets which it has hitherto been
unable to reach, give valuable assistance to'
the grower by investigating and applying new
ideas in production, grove management and
pack, and immeasurably improve conditions
all along the line. * The Exchange has
been recognized by the Federal Farm Board
as the only organization of its kind in the
state to which the Board will extend financial
aid. This recognition should establish the
value of the Exchange to every thuoghtful
grower in the state. * The grower can-
not accomplish anything for himself by re-
maining on the outside and kicking. He can
get on the inside and become an active factor
in making things better for himself, for the
industry and for the state."
"A Machine Already Devised"
Stuart Daily News:
"Florida citrus growers for more than twen-
ty years have had right at hand an effective
and effectual medium through which to carry



on their business-the Florida Citrus Ex-
change. Here is a machine already devised,
built and operated, by and for the growers.
Have they used it to the full extent of its
possibilities and capabilities? Last season the
Exchange controlled approximately 45 percent
of the crop, the rest remaining outside the
Exchange. Never in its history has the Ex-
change controlled more than 45 percent of a
season's crop. Whose fault is this? The Ex-
change has labored in and out of season to
enlist the cooperation and unswerving sup-
port of the growers, to the end that they, the
growers, might be benefited. The Exchange,
being a purely cooperative organization, could
not benefit as an exchange; any advantage
must go to the men who grow the fruit. If
only a minority of these growers line up with
the Exchange and stay with it year after year,
how can it be expected that the Exchange
shall function fully and efficiently? * *
Suppose the Exchange had 75 percent control
of Florida's citrus crop, the growers repre-
senting that proportion being signed up for
five years, under enforceable contracts. For
the same cost per box as is now retained, the
Exchange could expand its service and add
new services. It could increase its advertis-
ing and exploitation. It could enter markets
now unattainable. It could test out new ideas
and innovations designed to increase the at-
tractiveness of the pack and the profits of the
grower. It could go right back to the grove,
investigate its management, inquire into pro-
duction costs, and then, after digesting the
results of such investigation, show the grow-
ers where and how mistakes were being made
and how to correct them. Such a service
would be available to every grower, and in
that manner the little fellows, now the chief
sufferers, would be placed on an equal foot-
ing with the biggest grove owners."
"The Only Sure Agency"
Fort Pierce News-Tribune:
"The Florida Citrus Exchange towers above
the citrus horizon as the only sure agency for
remedying the unfortunate condition of the
growers and for saving the whole industry.
* * Unlimited competition may appeal to
some as the ideal condition, but to the indi-
vidual who has to suffer the consequences of
such competition it must seem that some bet-
ter system could be and should be found."
"Farm Board's Biggest Opportunity"
Bradenton Herald:
"The Federal Farm Board has loaned the
Florida Citrus Exchange nearly three millions
of dollars in the last two years which means


DITORS of Florida newspapers, without exception, are men of
knowledge, vision, foresight-men of unusual ability and intelli-
gence. They are leaders in their communities, and they are of
high repute at home and abroad.
They are informed on those topics that are of real, vital importance
to the well-being of their state.. Perhaps in no other section of the
whole country can a body of ne' paper men be found who possess
such a grasp of situations involving he economic welfare of their sec-
tions and the success or failure heir clientele. Endorsement by
such a body of thinking men. of proposition is worth more than
mere dollars and cents. It cannot be bought wtih money-it is not
for sale for a price. It is given freely, after deliberation and as the
result of mature judgment-or. it'is not given at all. For that reason,
the endorsement given the Florida Citrus Exchange and its campaign
for at least 75 percent control of the crop tonnage of Florida's citrus
crop, as well as control of the citrus fruit and juice canning and market-
ing industry, by the newspaper editors of Florida, means a great deal.
It means that these editors have given their complete approval to the
Exchange's program, after looking at the matter from every angle.
It means that they recognize the fact that Florida basically is an agri-
cultural and horticultural state, that citrus fruit comprises practically
65 percent of the total bulk and value of all crops, and that the proper
solution of problems with which citrus growers are confronted means
more to the whole state than any other one thing.
For these reasons the Florida Citrus Exchange is more than proud
of the endorsement given it, editorially, by the Florida press-and
justly proud. From all parts of the citrus-growing sections of the
state these editorial expressions have come, holding up the hands of
the one big citrus cooperative that is working for profits for the grow-
ers and not for those whose sole object is profits for themselves.

that the board has invested that sum in the
state's citrus industry, but not, mind you, for
the purpose of profit, the ordinary purpose of
loans of this nature. The cash advances
which come out of the board's revolving fund
of five hundred million are made for definite
purposes, to certain classes of organizations
and are to be repaid over definite periods of
time with only such rates of interest charged
as may be necessary to defray the cost of
handling, carrying, bookkeeping and other
items of a like nature. The loans to the Ex-
change, which happens to be the only co-
operative organization of growers and ship-
pers of citrus fruits in Florida to which this

aid is extended were made for several spe-
cific purposes with the principal object being
to place the citrus industry on a stable foun-
dation through bona fide cooperation of all
persons engaged in it or whose interests lie in
this direction. The goal toward which the Ex-
change is directing its efforts is to gain 75
per cent control of the citrus crop, including
-all phases such as citrus fruit and juice can-
ping and the preserving industry. Its efforts
toward this end are approved by the Farm
Board. Herein, perhaps, lies the Farm Board's
biggest opportunity to have an important part
in the creation ahd perpetuation of a real
citrus cooperative covering the entire state.



With federal financing aid that might be ac-
complished eventually but under the condi-
tions that present themselves the same result
may be had in a comparatively short time,
conceivably within the period of a few years.
The fact it has not already been accomplished
indicates the need for just such aid as the
farm board proposes to give."
"Exchange and Independents"
Sarasota Herald:
"The Exchange was formed more than
twenty years ago as a cooperative organiza-
tion built by, for and of the growers. The
fundamental objective of the Exchange is to
earn profits for the growers, and to this end
the Exchange has set up a comprehensive ma-
chine for sorting, packing, shipping, advertis-
ing and marketing the annual citrus crop. It
has developed and built up markets that a
decade ago it had never gone into. It has
systematized the distribution of fruit, through
a great marketing organization, that the flow
of fruit to consumers may be so regulated as
to avoid gluts at any point while other points
are without fruit. It has familiarized the
American public with our citrus through at-
tractive and carefully planned advertising, so
that even a school child today knows all about
Florida oranges, grapefruit and tangerines
and likes them. The Exchange starts with
the grower. The growers make up the asso-
ciations; these in turn compose the sub-
exchange, and the sub-exchanges constitute
the Florida Citrus Exchange. So that the
grower always is only two steps removed from
the Exchange itself; and that's keeping in
pretty close touch. At any time the growers
can make any change in the set-up of the Ex-
change they see fit. And the Exchange is
planned and built to operate for the benefit
of the grower, all the time. The independent
functions for his own benefit, or he doesn't
function at all. That's the difference. On
the one hand a cooperative organized, owned
and'controlled by the growers, for their own
profit; on the other, a host of parasitical buy-
ers, not organized at all, and functioning
wholly and solely for their own enrichment
and to heck with the ultimate good of the

"Don't Sell Citrus Industry Short"
Palm Beach Post:
"Now, with the markets of a nation like the
United States, plus the fast broadening export
markets, demanding Florida citrus fruit in
increasing volume every year; with effective
machinery at hand for intelligent, cooperative

production and marketing of the fruit, and
with the liberal financial support of the Fed-
eral Farm Board available, who shall say that
the whole citrus industry is not in better shape
now than it ever has been before? And who,
in the face of all these things, would be rash
enough even to consider or attempt a job like
selling it short-gambling that a great state's
greatest industry is on the toboggan? Cer-
tainly not the man who knows conditions, who
can put two and two together and make them
come out four. The industry has had plenty
of ups and downs; the downs have been mighty
discouraging, and the ups maybe have been
rather far apart. But the industry is in bet-
ter shape today than it ever was before,
Don't sell the Florida citrus industry short.
If you do you're going to regret it."
"Are You Helping or Hindering?"
Leesburg Commercial:
"It is time for Florida citrus growers to
awaken to a realization of what side their
bread is buttered on. Purely selfish consid-
erations should have dictated to them long ago
the course they should follow if the citrus in-
dustry is to be placed on a firm and abiding
basis--a basis of profit to the men who ac-
tually grow the fruit. Their alliance with and
allegiance to the Florida Citrus Exchange is
so evidently the prime requisite of lasting
prosperity that it would seem as if the least
informed should long since have recognized
the fact. Every grower who leaves the Ex-
change or who refuses to become a member,
is definitely hindering the progress of the cit-
rus industry toward permanent stability and
annual profits. Every new member who signs
an Exchange contract is personally helping the
industry toward that goal. Are you helping
or hindering?"

"Exchange Must Control Canners"
Eustis Lake Region:
"The Florida Citrus Exchange is the one big
cooperative that should handle the citrus can-
ning and selling industry. To leave it as it
was this last season means quick and complete
shipwreck. In the hands of an organization
holding a governmentally approved monopoly,
and exercising 75 percent crop control, the
grapefruit canning business will be a great
thing for the growers. Left in the hands of
brokers, speculators and others, it will be just
another channel through which the growers'
money will dribble away. Last season dem-
onstrated the fact that some canners will start
operations at a time when fruit is green, juice-
less, sour and not fit for use as food, and that
they will abide by price agreements when and
as they are compelled to do so. Left alone,
every fellow will try to beat all the others,
canning green fruit, paying just what he must
and no more for his raw materials, and wreck-
ing the deal before it gets well started. That's
what happened last year, and unless a means
is found of regulating the business from can-
neries to jobbers, it will happen every year."

These are the expressions of men who know, because they have studied-observed
-reached mature conclusions. Their approval of the Florida Citrus Exchange and
its program for 75 percent control of citrus fruit tonnage and for control of Florida's
citrus canning industry-both in the interests of the men who grow the fruit, and no-
body else-means more now, today, than it ever meant before. Approved by the

United States government; approved by the Federal Farm Board; approved by the
. editors of Florida's best known newspapers, most of them published in citrus growing
centers; approved by the veteran, acknowledged leaders in the citrus industry-what
more can the grower ask who is seeking a way by which his trees will earn him a
profit year after year?



------, .

I '


October 1, 1931 October 1, 1931


and S U D. A., under the
d. N R id t G W i P

supervision of Dr. J. S. Skinner.
Careful recording will be done
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ment, which consists of 16 different

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-and get more
"We will insist that the fruit we buy is Brogdexed and are willing
to pay a premium for it."-W. M. FISHER & SONS Co., Columbus.
"If it were up to us to pay the small amount to have the fruit
Brogdexed we would gladly do so."-O'DoNNELL-DUNN Co.,

Almost without exception buyers prefer Brogdexed
fruit. They specify it on f.o.b. sales and frequently
pay a premium for it on auction sales. Some will not
handle any other kind.
Florida packers are fully aware of this situation.
They have seen the Brogdex volume jump from 1 V2
million boxes to 6 million boxes in a year's time. They
realize the time has come when it will be necessary
to ship better keeping fruit.
Some have played the game safe and put in Brogdex.
Others will attempt to obtain the equivalent of Brog-
dex control through experimental methods. It goes
without saying that there is going to be a lot of grief
and some heavy losses in store for those growers who
are willing to gamble on results.
Substitutes are rarely equal to the original. There
are spurious imitations of any thing that is good.
Brogdex has established a fine reputation and stands
today the popular choice of buyers in every northern
Your own interest should dictate the use of the
genuine Brogdex treatment and let the other fellow
pay for the experimental work. There is a Brogdex
house near you.
Tune in on WFLA every Monday night at 7:45 for the Brogdex program.


B. C. Skinner, Pres.

Dunedin, Florida

Five Year Fertilizer Program
A five-year experimental program
in groves to determine the best
sources of fertilizers, particularly
nitrogen, has been undertaken in
Florida by the Bureau of Chemistry

I have repeatedly been told in the
papers thWat the Florida Citrus Ex-
change has never had more than 45
percent of the fruit during any one
season to handle for its growers.
This being true, it is wonderful
management on behalf of the Ex-
change to get us the prices that we
have received under such a handi-
cap. Again if it is true I can see that
the bulk of the growers are even
worse business men than I have ever
conceived they could be. In other
bad or worse, the persons or firms in-
lines of business when things get
evolved get together and form asso-
ciations or mergers and things are
happy ever after: well why not the
same with us. Anybody feel so inde-
pendent, he can afford to lose his
money year after year-Indepen-
dence is hard bought that way.
Time for a Change
Independence seems to be the gen-
eral excuse-but another name for
it is just plain damfoolishness, which
you have all tried for all tHese years
and failed-yes and miserably
failed. It is now time for a change.
Give the Cooperative, your Coop-
erative, your word and stick to it,
as I have, an outsider, for not 3 or
5 years as someone has said, but
for over 10 years. I have never ship-
ped a single box of fruit except it
was through the Exchange.
Did I get results, yes, and better
than you fellows did. Why? Did
you ever hear of the independent
packer or shipper, give you back any
money at the end of the season for
dividends from their packing
charges? Why, fellows, I received
more money from the Exchange in
refunds on packing charges (which
by the way are lower than any inde-
pendent shipper or packer will
charge you) than a lot of you fel-
lows got for your fruit altogether,
and this the poorest year we have
ever had in the handling of our fruit.
(I prefer my sort of independence
to yours.)
May Lose Groves
Most of your livelihood comes
from your citrus fruit in the State
of Florida, while I have worked
along another line of merchandising
here, and I can live and get along if
I never made any money off my
grove, but I do want to come to
Florida, and my grove has got to
come through to get me there. I
cannot make enough to retire and
be able to keep up my grove too;
now if I cannot do this, where do
you fellows get off, think that one
over. It's only a matter of time at
the present rate of affairs until you
won't have any grove, because you
can't make a living and pay the ex-
penses on your grove any more than
I can.
Give the Exchange the 75 percent
or 80 percent that they need, for
once, and find out for yourself what
it can do for you. Don't take for
granted what some packer says the
Exchange can or can't do, find out
for yourself for once. The test
means all the difference in the world
to you and to me too.
Come join the Exchange with me
and find out what its all about!

Merrill Estimates Million
Boxes Lake Sub-Exchange
Estimating the orange crop in
Lake and Marion counties at about
80 percent of last season's, grape-
fruit at about 50 and tangerines
about 40 percent J,. C. Merrill, man-
ager of the Lake-Marion Sub-Ex-
change figures close to 1,000,000
boxes for the Sub-Exchange this
season. He estimates oranges at
around 800,000 boxes, grapefruit
from 100,000 to 125,000 and tan-
gerines between 40,000 and 50,000
There are 10 associations in the
Sub-Exchange with a membership
of 1,200 growers. Association plants
are located at Leesburg, Umatilla,
Mount Dora, Tavares, Clermont,
Groveland, Okahumpka, Ocala,
Brooksville, and Interlachen.
Concerning prospects this season,
Mr. Merrill believes the Exchange
is in a better position to work for the
advantage of the growers than ever
before. He cites the enlarged organ-
ization, volume, and lower costs all
along the line from the Tampa office
to the association work as the basis
for his belief. Exchange charges, he
points out, have been reduced seven
cents a box, while association
charges will be from six to 10 cents
a box less.

Citrus groves will probably take
up half of the 125,000 acres in the
Wallacy county, Texas, irrigation
project now under construction.
Federal experts have classed most
of the land as suitable for citrus
Water for the irrigation.is being
brought from the Rio Grande river
20 miles distant by canal and will
be held in a large storage reservoir
covering 13,000 acres in the heart
of the district.
The district is the state's earliest
onion producing territory and is a
heavy producer of truck.

The U. S. Government has backed
your good common sense to the ex-
tent of millions of dollars, and prom-
ises more, but you have got to use
that common sense and get in. If
you don't I'm sorry for your future,
and the biggest industry in the state.
It won't cost you anything to try
it, and it might be that I am right
and for once you are wrong.
Think it over, try it once, maybe
you will make some money for a
change, try it!
Yours very truly,
J. A. Allan.

I1 IIEII IIL vIUW I v r rIIes ertinent

Message To < Independent" Growers
300 Crawford Terrace, Union, N. J.
Dear Friends:
The heading has every prospect of remaining that way. WHy! Because
the independent growers can't see even as far as the end of their nose, as
is evidenced by the way they conduct their businesses, even to the. detri-
ment of mine. Yes, mine is jeopardized so much that I am not making
(and the way things now stand may never be able to make) enough in
fruit returns to take care of the grove itself let alone to have any left
over for yours truly.


October 1, 1931


Manager Floyd Tells Plans
To Members of Florence A.
Florence association has cut its
charges materially and all mechan-
ical operations have been gone over
thoroughly to bring costs down to
the minimum without, however, low-
ering standards of work, Bruce
Floyd, new manager, tells the mem-
bership in a very informative and
interesting letter.
Following are the charges for the
various services which have been
Charges Adopted
Packing: grapefruit, 60 cents; or-
anges, 65 cents; tangerines, $1.10.
Bulk fruit, first and second grades,
25 cents; cannery and third grade,
15 cents. Coloring, 2 cents; pre-
cooling and initial icing, 14 cents.
A new hauling contract has been
made with a charge of 3 cents for
the first two miles and cent a
mile thereafter, with a maximum of
10 cents up to 20 miles. This is a
saving of about one-third over last
season's charge. Cost of picking
also will be reduced. The new field
superintendent is Frank Poitras,
whom Mr. Floyd rates very high.
The reduced charges are rather
unusual when it is considered that
they include seven cents for a re-
volving fund for which certificates
will be issued.

Every Effort for Economy
"Realizing that the coming year
is not an auspicious one in view of
financial conditions and the large
number of unemployed, it has been
our very serious effort to make ef-
fective all possible economies," Mr.
Floyd stated in his letter. He points
out that the Tampa office has made
substantial reductions in its charge
and expressed the belief that every
economy consistent with proper
sales and merchandising service will
be made by it.
"The organization from president
down to the janitor are all im-
pressed with the need of real serv-
ice in view of the present economic
condition, and it is our belief that
no fruit organization in Florida is
better prepared to cope with market
conditions which may arise than
your association. We expect to pack,
bag, bulk, can, or sell to peddlers,
as appears most profitable to the
grower. By using truck and boat
service we have worked out reduc-
tions to such an extent that grape-
fruit can be sold at a cost of around
$1.65 delivered New York, which
figure includes average harvesting
costs and all sales charges. We are
also actively working with the Sales
Department on an export program
and with bi-monthly sailings of re-
frigerated ships from Tampa, we ex-
pect much progress."

Northern Grower W rites of
Exchange Work in North
ThJ3 Florida Citrus Exchange
reached more new territory and ob-
tained more substantial buyers and
friends last season than ever before,
found W. R. Wall of Florence, Neb.,
member of the Haines City assoc-a-
tion, in travel about the north and
west this summer.
"In my travels around through
the north and west this summer, I
find that the Florida Citrus Ex-
change reached more new territory
and made more substantial buyers
and friends than ever before; the
Florida Citrus Exchange is being
recognized by the big people now.
"This is one of the greatest rea-
sons why all of the growers in Flor-
ida should take hold now and give
the Exchange the patronage it so
richly deserves. The Exchange has
borne the brunt of trying to get thae
growers to cooperate in the past,
and now is in such a position that it
only needs the growers with it to ac-
complish the aims it has striven for.
Growers Lost Heavily
"It learned by experience, and it
has been costly; so have the growers
learned by experience, and thou-
sands of dollars have been lost to
these same growers through the lack
of organization. These tl'ngs have
been all thrashed out, and now there

is nothing to do but for each grow-
er to throw his support to the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange.
"The Exchange has done its part;
it is one of the finest cooperative sell-
ing and packing organizations in
the world; it has the Farm Board
back of it, to let it have money for
itself and its growers; and How handy
this is for thousands of growers, to
get capital to carry them along, so
they can save their groves that
would otherwise die out for want of
"We know in the past that there
have been some dissatisfied growers,
and they probably had good reasons
to be dissatisfied. As they looked at
it the very big growers had an ad-
vantage, as they could get thlir fruit
on the market, while the little fel-
lows had to wait; but that has been
done away with for years past.
"Personally, I have had plenty of
experience in the 19 years that I
have been in the fruit business in
Florida. I have tried both the inde-
pendents and the Exchange thor-
oughly, and the Exchange has
proven that it can handle the fruit
and get more returns than any inde-
pendent. Why not? It is not in
the business for profit-that goes
to the grower, as has been shown at
Haines City Association with a re-
fund of 10 cents per box the past
two years."

Two Vitally Important Facts for


to be without Orchard Heating
-just as surely as harvest follows
the. springtime. Successful growers
will guard against loss by frost just
as they guard against loss by fire.


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Nineteen years of
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GROVE, plus large ex-
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have combined t o
produce America's fa-
vorite Heater- the


D. V. WEBB, Sales Agent.
61 West Jefferson Street,
Orlando, Florida.

Stock of Heaters
Now on Hand
at Orlando

to experiment. It costs too much.
If you are not familiar with Or-
chard Heating you can be safely
guided by the judgment of a MA-
JORITY of California Fruit Grow-
ers-who have selected the .RIV-
Heaters are now in use.

for literature descriptive of the
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ERS are protected by
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October 1, 1931


Advertising Builds

Popularity oF Tomato

Juice Sensationally
Staggering the imagination, to-
mato juice has increased in con-
sumption nearly 1,000 percent from
1928 to 1930 and this year may
have twice the consumption of last,
an increase of nearly 2,000 percent
in three years.
Tomato juice is a direct com-
petitor of canned citrus juice and
its popularity is a factor which is of
importance to tfl Florida citrus in-
dustry. The situation is somewhat
comparable with that between can-
ned grapefruit and canned pine-
apple. One is used largely at the
expense of the other.
1,500,000 Cases Last Year
In 1929 the pack of tomato juice
in cans and glass was 154,404 cases.
In 1930 it has increased to 916,521
to which must be added a new form,
the tomato cocktail, of which ap-
proximately 470,000 cases were sold.
This is equivalent to approximately
1,500,000 cases of the tomato drink
sold last year.
Predictions are made by authori-
ties that the volume will be doubled
this year. One reason for this is that
the tremendous pack of 1930 sufficed
only to meet the demand for eight
months and none was available for
the balance of the year.
Tomato juice has two big popular
outlets. One is as a refreshing drink
and a sort of "pick-me-up" early in
the day in which manner it is being
sold in large quantities at fountains
and hotels and also in the homes.
The second is at the breakfast table.
$1,000,000 for Advertising
The tomato juice industry has
recognized the possibilities of the
product and is carefully guiding it
to prevent if possible any dimin-
ution of popularity and to increase
its use- still further. A big mer-
chandising program, utilizing every
available facility of getting the
product before the public, is being
planned and it is considered possible
that $1,000,000 may be spent this
winter for advertising.
The industry is exercising the
same care in the production end.
Canners are demanding a better
grade of tomatoes and in the face
of keen dissatisfaction of the grow-
ers will insist, it is believed, on a
better grade than has been fur-
nished them in the past.

Alternate Auction Sales
Through the merger of the auction
companies at Philadelphia sales will
alternate between the Penn. and B.
& 0. terminals. Regardless of what
railroad the shipments came over
they will be sold on tle Penn. term-
inal one day and on the B. & O.
terminal the next.

The secret-just add grape-
fruit to each meal.
The authority for this
weighty advice is Paul White-
man, nationally popular or-
chestra leader, who certainly
should know whereof bl-
speaks-he hits the weight
Ecales at no less that 279
That is he did. Now he
bnly balances the scales at a
mere 210 pounds, a loss (or
is it a gain) of 69 pounds.
Whiteman did not cut down
on his diet. He still eats as
much as before and a little bit
more. The latter is a grape-
fruit before each meal and
that's thl secret Whiteman

Reports Arsenic Decreases
Vitamin Content of Oranges
Oranges produced by trees sprayed
with lead arsenate not only differ
in chemical composition from normal
oranges, but suffer a considerable
loss of Vitamin C content which is
regarded as such a highly desirable
constituent of oranges, Dr. E. M.
Nelson and Mr. H. H. Mattern of
the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils,
U. S. Department of Agriculture,
told members of the American Pub-
lic Health Association in session at
Dr. Nelson's statement followed
completion of a series of experi-
ments in the Bureau of Chemistry
and Soils which have demonstrated
that besides causing a considerable
loss of the valuable Vitamin C,
spraying orange trees with lead ar-
senate reduces the acidity of the
juice and decreases the sucrose with
a corresponding increase in invert

Agriculture Freight Bill
Totals More $200 a Farm
Farm products are worth 21 per-
cent less than the pre-war average
while frienght rates are 55 percent
higher, according to Robin Hood,
secretary of the National Cooper-
ative Council, testifying at the
Chicago hearing of the Interstate
Commerce Commission.
Mr. Hood testified that though
agriculture furnishes 11 percent of
the tonnage it is paying more than
21 percent of the entire freight
revenue of the Class 1 railroads. He
said that agriculture's freight bill
amounts to more than $200 a farm
while the net farm income in 1930
was only $625, decreasing nearly
one-third from 1929.
Mr. Hood pointed out that the
farmers are subject to the law of
supply and-demand, unsupported by
"arbitrary monopoly agencies for
"The farmer, ruthlessly subjected
to the whims of the so-called law of
supply and demand and unsupported

Watch Rusk Citrange As Possible Root Stock

The Rusk citrange, a hybrid of
trifoliata and sweet seedling devel-
oped by Dr. H. J. Webber, is attract-
ing much attention as a possible root
stock because of the developments
it is showing in an experimental
project at the Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred.
Its precocity in growth, indicated
productivity, apparent high quality
of fruit in conjunction with its
known hardiness and resistance to
cold has aroused much interest and
also the idea that it may be the so-
lution of the cold problem. As yet,
however, it is too much in the ex-
perimental stage to allow for any
definite conclusions and it still is

regarded by J. H. Jefferies, super-
intendent, and others as an "un-
known quantity."
Precocity Noticeable
It buds to the various varieties as
easily as any other root stock and
more readily than the Cleopatra
mandarin to which much favor has
been attracted recently, according
to Mr. Jefferies. Several, budded
to different varieties, are in the pro-
duction series of the root stock ex-
periments and its precocity in
growth is very noticeable while the
quality of the fruit is fine, compar-
ing very favorably with that from
sour orange stock, he states.
It appears to have the dwarfed

,_-'.- 3
.. .. . .-

r .4 .

A two-year-old Valencia on two-year Rusk citrange.

Texas Citrus Laboratory
The citrus by-products laboratory
authorized for Texas will be located
at the Texas State Experimental
Station at Weslaco, Texas, in a build-
ing to be provided through the
Chamber of Commerce of Weslaco
and Mercedes.
It is announced by Dr. Henry G.
Knight, chief of the Bureau of
Chemistry and Soils, U. S. D. A.,
that the first year's work will center
upon problems of grapefruit utiliza-
tion. The* laboratory will study the
composition of the different varieties
of Texas grapefruit to learn what
stage of maturity is most favorable
for preservation.

by arbitrary monopoly agencies for
price-fixing, is being crushed," de-
clared Mr. Hood, "by rail rates pre-
scribed by powerful agencies author-
ized to insure the carriers not only
costs of capital, replacements, op-
erating expenses generally, but
profits as well on the traffic handled.
Any increase in agricultural freight
rates would extract its pound of

characteristics of the trifoliate but
because of its apparent high produc-
tivity this will be an advantage, Mr.
Jefferies says, pointing out that this
will make it highly desirable for in-
terplanting where trees are too far
May Have Effect on Size
It is also possible, he states, that
it may have an influence causing
smaller sizes, and if so it should be
desirable for use with Valencias,
which have have the opposite char-

The damage from the hur-
ricane in Porto Rico largely
was limited to San Juan, ac-
cording to information from
J. P. Klein of the Fruit Grow-
ers Improvement Committee
of Porto Rico. Damage to cit-
rus is estimated at from five
to 10 percent, he said.
The effect of this, according
to Mr. Klein, will be to lighten.
shipments to New York, but
will not affect shipments
planned to England.


October 1, 1931



Killing Power

at lower cost! ...

S-W. Floridoil, made by the world's largest
manufacturer of insecticides, was developed
strictly for Florida conditions and has the
hearty approval of hundreds of Florida growers.
Containing 83% actual oil S-W Floridoil has
more killing power than the ordinary free flow-
ing oil which contains only 65% oil!

Insecticides and fungicides at
your local dealers
Dry Lime Sulfur Pestroy
D-L-S Dust London Purple
(Dry Lime Sulfur Dust) Paris Green
Copper Lime Dust Floridoil
Fungi-Bordo Citro-Mulsion
Carbolic-Ol Black-Leaf 40
Pruning Compound Nicotine Dust
Arsenate of Calcium Bluestone
Arsenate of Lead Dusting Sulphurs

From a standpoint of economy alone it is wisely
to use S-W Floridoil because it can be mixed 1
gallon to 65 gallons where free flowing oils can
only be mixed 1 gallon to 50 gallons.
Contains no harmful substances
Fully guaranteed and protected
under government regulations
S-W Floridoil contains no soap, abrasive, or any
other harmful substance and it is properly
emulsified in paste form to mix with even
hardest water. Each container is fully guaran-
teed by the Sherwin-Williams Company and is
positively protected by the Insecticide act of
1910. S-W Floridoil comes in 28- and 50-
gallon drums. No stirring or rolling of drums
necessary. Perfect consistency from top to
bottom. Stable.

and branded under Federal Insecticide and Fungicide Act
of 1910

Write for valuable information
For complete expert spraying information write
us at either one of the addresses below and it
will be gladly sent without charge. You can
get any S-W Insecticide or Fungicide in handy
containers at any S-W dealer. Large and com-
plete stocks at Tampa and Jacksonville keep
him constantly supplied.
Ball and Caesar Streets,
Phone M 6758, P. O. Box 1833
World's largest Manufacturers and Distrib-
utors of Insecticides and Fungi.-ides
TH r Tune in the Allied Quality
EATH Paint Men over N. B. C.
EARTH network eve:y Friday at
10 p m. (Eastern Stand-
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Sherwin-Williams day-
time program "Keeping
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N. B.C. network every
S Wednesday-at 1 a;m ....W!.. ...
(E.S.T.) on Pacific Coasl
'I at 10 a.m. (P.S.T.).


SHER WI, p p 4 1A M

S-W Floridoil Contains

83% Actual Oil

October 1, 1931



S. W. Teague, manager of the Mid-
West division of the Florida Citrus
Exchange, succeeding Fred W.
Davis, now general sales manager,
at Chicago, deserted bachelor ranks
Sept. 5, marrying Miss EtHal May
Hays of Columbus, O. Mr. Teague
was formerly district manager with
offices at Columbus.

Manager W. A. Stanford of Au-
burndale association has announced
that thW packing charges for the
season will be 60 cents a box for
grapefruit and 65 cents a box for or-
anges with tangerines at $1.05 a box.
This is a material reduction from the
charges of last season.
Picking and hauling charges also
have been reduced and the coloring
charge where coloring is necessary
will be only three cents a box, Mr.
Stanford stated. The association
has 18 coloring rooms of the latest
type, part of the new addition to
the plant last season which more
than doubled its capacity.



Highly successful results have
followed the application of OR-
THO KLEENUP for the control of
Scale, White Fly, Rust Mite and
(in combination with Bordeaux)
Scab and Melanose.
61W.,efferson St.
Orlando, Florida
a proven
oil spray for
citrus pests


Robert Sands, ..
starting his first
season as man-
ager of Lakeland
association, has s
completed his or-
ganization. H i s -
house foreman
will be Matt "
Smith; field fore-
man, George F.
Timmerman, and
in charge of the
office, L. B. Spaun.
Mr. Smith has been in citrus work
for 20 years or more. He was with
Mr. Sands at Auburndale associa-
tion for four years and continued
there for two years after.
Mr. Timmerman continues over
from the old organization, starting
his 15th consecutive season with
Lakeland. He is an exceptionally
valuable man with his thorough ac-
quaintance with every grower and
grove in the territory and the re-
spect and confidence of every grow-
er in the community.
Mr. Spaun was at Florence asso-
ciation with Mr. Sands for three
years and has been at Lake Garfield
association the past two seasons.

Plant in Good Condition
The hauling contract hsa been let
to J. M. Nash, who has had this con-
tract for several seasons past. Ar-
rangements were made with Mr.
Nash which will mean a considerable
reduction in the cost.
The Lakeland plant is a fine one,
well equipped and in a good state of
repair, needing only the minor over-
hauling which every house requires
before the start of another season,
Mr. Sands reports. It is a two-unit
house with two floor operations.
Fruit is received, colored, washed
and polished on the lower level and
packed and loaded on the upper.
All operations charges have been
reduced and are in line with those
of associations of the sections. This
alone represents a considerable re-
duction to the members.

Sub-Exchange Supervision
Members of the association at
their August meeting voted to place
the association under the charge of
J. B. Rust, Sub-Exchange manager,
with an advisory committee to as-
sist him in its direction. Members
of the committee are: George W.
Mershon, Dr. E. B. Hardin and
Charles Larsen.
The association is making rapid
gains in volume, doubling the sign-
up in the past two weeks. Mr.
Sands believes the volume will reach
150,000 boxes for the season.

Marden Manufacturing company
supplies interesting information on
the new spray truck tested out in the '
Palmer Corporation groves, Sarasota,
previously reported in the Chronicle.
The view above shows the wide steer-
ing radius which enables it to circle
around trees planted 25 by 25 feet.
The equipment is a complete new assembly, not a hybrid of a tractor,
the company informs, adding that the design is exclusively its own and
is a radical departure from the conventional rear drive. It drives and
steers by the front wheels. The tank has a capacity of 400 gallons and
the sprayer in a comparison with one of another type put out 4,000
gallons in thie groves contrasted with only 2,400 gallons by the other.

Elfers association of Pinellas Sub-
Exchange has reduced its packing
charges to 65 cents a box for grape-
fruit and 70 cents for oranges and
also has reduced its house retain
from 10 cents to five.
Several changes were made in
pooling arrangements recently, in
accordance with the wishes of the
members. Pools will run monthly
until the end of the maturity in-
spection period after which they
will be for the season except'for
Valencias which will go into month-
y pools. The association has 150,-
000 boxes signed.
E. P. Campbell was re-elected
president but was put in an active
capacity to give his full time to asso-
ciation work. W. H. Clark, vice-
president, was appointed manager.
He also is the representative of the
association to the Sub-Exchange.
The board consists of Mr. Campbell,
Mr. Clark, C. H. Dingee, Joe M.
Knight, C. O. Brown, R. L. Wilson
and J. A. Griffin. R. M. Leonard is
acting secretary and Harry C. Hay-
man is bookkeeper.

Haines City association will oper-
ate this season on a packing charge
of 60 cents a box for both oranges
and grapefruit, G. W. Bailey, man-
ager, has announced to his member-
ship in a bulletin dated Sept. 19.
This is believed to be the lowest op-
erating charge in the state. It is
understood to include also the al-
lowance for the reserve or revolving
According to the bulletin, the as-
sociation has added 100,000 boxes
from groves not previously signed
with the association. This would
seem to assure the house tIj distinc-
tion of handling the biggest tonnage
of any house in the state and pos-
sibly the country again this season,
as it did last year with almost 700,-
000 boxes.
This large volume with a continua-
tion of the economy policy g:ves the
association the expectation, Mr.
Bailey said; that it may be able to
give the members a refund of five
to 10 cents a box in spite of the re-
duced charge.

Lake Alfred Exptiiment. Station
has plans finished and all the ma-
terials at hand for the most com-
plete and thorough test of-the suit-
ability of different rootstocls ivith
the various commercial varieties of
citrus. -
This experiment includes the
greatest range of rootstocks with
several which have not been used
before as -far as known but that have
characteristics which make it worth
while to experiment with them.
Some give promise of being an im-
portant contribution to citrus cul-
ture with certain features which
may overcome some of the most
serious natural difficulties.
The Station has purchased an
eight-acre tract, particularly suited
because of its uniformity. The root-
stocks will be planted in rows north
and south while the commercial va-
rieties with which they will be bud-
ded will run east and west.
The different rootstocks to be
used are growing in the nursery at
the Station now and are about six
months old. The Station has the
best and purest strains of each com-
mercial variety available for bud-
ding in its progeny grove for which
the whole state was combed and
careful investigation -made to in-
sure proved types.
This is not the first experiment
of this nature as the Station has
two others, but this is the most com-
plete and is designed to allow the
best comparisons. There is a sec-
ond series already budded and ready
to set out in a grove and a third
series which has been in production
two years.



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Cutler B. Downer Fred'k L. Springford
Harold F. Miles
J. Oliver Daly Clifford E. Myers

L_ -__-


October 1, 1931



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