Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00019
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: June 1, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00019
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text

1324 E. JACKS<



Entered as Second Class e Tfr-Mattel
at the Post Offce at Tampa, Florida
Under the Act of March 3, 1879.

SANNUAL ELECTION I Exchange Again Excels Competitors

J. A. Snively President
E. L. Wirt Chairman of the Board CHICAGO
J. S. Taylor First Vice-President Exchange Average 3.53 4.15 3.21 3.22 2.94 2.79 2:69
J. G. Grossenbacher, 2nd Vice-Pres. Competitors Avg. 3.11 2.75 2.56 2.99 2.76 2.61 2.30
R. J. Kepler, Jr., 3rd Vice-President Exchange Ahead .42 1.40 .65 .23 .18 .18 .39
Rupert Smith 4th Vice-President
C. C. Commander, General Manager NEW YORK
F. W. Davis, General Sales Manager Exchange Average 3.37 3.35 2.73 3.47 3.42 .2.96 2.59
Ree@ Curry Competitors Avg. 3.55 3.33 3.04 3.30 3.17 2.73 2.03
Mgr. Or action De Exchange Ahead '. 2 ---
n Moscrip,Avertising Manager "Competitors- head 18 .31
E. D. Dow Traffic Manager PITTSBURGH
O. M. Felix Secretary range Average 3. 2.82 2.61 2.67 2.27
W T. Covode Cashier Competitors Avg. 2.96 2.74 2.38 2.85 2.45 1.79
Win. Hunter Attorney Exchange Ahead .17 .08 .23 .22 .48

SDirectors Sub-Exchange CLEVELAND
.C. Chase Chase Exchange Average 4.04 3.04 3.49 3.11 3.17 2.66 2.50
J. 0. Carr Charlotte Competitors Avg. 2.98 2.77 2.51 3.03 2.54 2.63 2.49
IW.\. Talbott. Dade Exchange Ahead 1.06 .27 .98 .08 .63 .03 .01
IR:jpert Smith DeSoto
J LA A. Snively Florence BOSTON
. Burton Lake Exchange Average 2.91 2.93 2.49 3.11 3.25 2.68 2.58
Marvin H. Walker Hillsboro Competitors Avg. .3.41 3.08 2.90 3.10 2.99 2.65 2.80
Homer 'Needles Indian River Exchange Ahead .01 .26 .03
!D. C. Gillett International Competitors Ahead .50 .15 .41 .22
J. G. Grossenbacher Lake Apopka CINCINNATI
.John.:Mo-rley Lake Region Exchange Average 4.87 3.15 2.92 2.61 2.07
'-' R. K. Thompson Manatee Competitors Avg. 3.16 2.77 2.52 3.01 2.63 2.61 2.44
SWalter R. Lee Marion Exchange Ahead 1.71 .14 .29
C. A. Garrett Orange Competitors Ahead .37
Jno. S. Taylor Pinellas
George Speece Polk ST. LOUIS
J. D. Clark Ridge Exchange Average 3.25 2.77 3.00 2.53 2.43
,.C. H. Walker Scenic Competitors Avg. 3.18 2.60 2.89, 2.49 2.18
SA W. Hurley Seminole Exchange Ahead .07 .17 .11 .04 .25
R. J. Kepler, Jr. St. Johns River PHILADELPHIA
H. E. Cornell Winter Haven Exchange Averages 3.88 3.64 4.86 3.10 3.00 2.89 2.51
F S. Ruth Special Compe.tn: A,, 3.'2 2.87 2.60 3.18 2.97 2.72 2.39
ID. A.,Hunt ..-.... .. S .Exhhnge" Aeal ..,, 76 .77 2.26 .03 .I 2'
L. Wirt ,. Special Competitors Ahead .08
.B. Skinner :-' Special
Clinton Bolick Associate
S, Out of .50 points of comparison in the eight auction markets, the Flor-
: National Co-op Broaccast ida Citrus Exchange leads its competitors in prices in 41 and equals in
one other. repeating 'for the 'ixth consecutive season an outstanding
Forty radio stations will broad- record of outselling competition.
cast a "cooperative institute on the Above is shown the proof of the Exchange ability to merchandise-
air," June 12 as a feature of the the ability of growers to own, control and operate their own sales or-
annual session of the American In- ganization in efficient as well as economical manner. These figures are
stitute of Cooperation which will from the official auction records, compiled by the various grades under
be held at Manhattan, Kansas, the which the fruit is sold and presenting both competitive and Exchange
week of June 8. The program will avenues without favor.
come during the National Farm Though these are from the auctions, they indicate impressively the
Home Hour from 12:30 to 1:30, results, in the f.o.b. markets, also. The Exchange sold a .greater cer-
eastern standard time. centage. in the private markets than in the auctions for the reason
Chairman J. C. Stone of the that the private field this season presented greater opportunities as
Farm Board, Senator Arthur Cap- competitors leaned heavily upon the auctions and according to reports
per of ansas, Paul S. Armstrong of utilized the private field mainly for consignment fruit.
the California Fruit Growers Ex- Quoting from the annual report of General Manager Commander, the
change and Charles W. Holman, see- analysis "directly reflects the confidence in. Exchange brands and the
:retary of the institute will speak. value of Exchange advertising and merchandising.

.... ..... ... .


Return Most

Of Old Board

Snively Succeeds Chase
Directors Reappoint
Executive Staff

John A. Snively of Florence ass-)'
ciation was elevated from first vice-
presidency of the Florida Citrus
Exchange to the presidency to suc-
ceed J. C. Chase, resigned, at the
annual meeting of the Exchange in
Tampa, June 2. The old board and
the executive staff virtually con-
tinues over intact.
Two new vice-presidents appear
in the organization for 1931-32. J.
D. Grossenbacher of Lake Apopka
Sub-Exchange is second vice-presi-
dent and R. J. Kepler, Jr., .of St.
Johns Sub-Exchange is third vice-
president. J. S. Taylor of Pinellas
Sub-Exchange, second vice-presi-
dent the past season, succeeds Mr.
Snively as first vice-president.
Rupert Smith of DeSoto Sub-Ex-"
change, third vice-president last sea-
son, was elected fourth vice-presi-
Two new members appeared upon
the board. John Morley of Haines
City succeeds R. 0. Philpot *from
Lake Region Sub-Exchange and
George Speece of Bartow succeeds.
Vet L. Brown from Polk Sub-Ex-':
chlange.: .
E.-L. "Wirt'was re-elected chair-.
man of the board. Gen Man. C. C....
Commander 'was re-elected and :he::. :
board voted: approval of. a three
year contract.. Other executives also
were re-elected. The complete list'
(Continued on Page 2.)

Board Meets June 19
The .next meeting of the Board
of Directors of the Exchange will.
be Friday, June 19.
Presidents of (Associations will
meeting Tampa, Thursday, June, 18;
to' consider recommendations :.on::
.handling of associations and. prob-:' '
ably will effect a permanent asso-
ciation of.presidents to meet period-
ically and exchange views on or-'
ganization matters ;and develop- -
ments. : t



No. 1


Studying Factors

Of Development

In Associations

Ass'n Presidents Exchange
Views and Experiences To
Help Small Organizations

Factors which have made for the
success or the failure of cooperative
organization of citrus growers in
their communities were studied by
presidents of associations of the
Florida Citrus Exchange assembled
in Tampa, June 1, from all sections
of the citrus belt.
The meeting was reported to have
been one of the most important in
the history of the Exchange and
is believed by those attending to
mark the turning point in the op-
S\aa -f 0 lal units. More-
%;ian 60 presi ents and other repre-
sentatives of associations attended
while many managers and directors
of the Exchange also were present.
It was decided to form a permanent
association of presidents to allow
future exchange of ideas and ex-
It was the unanimous opinion
that development of cooperative or-
ganization depended almost wholly
upon local associations and that
these in turn were largely guided to
success or failure in organization
of growers and efficient and worthy
performance by the type of direc-
tors, officers and managers handling
the association affairs.
It was the opinion that officers
and directors should be the out-
standing leaders in their community
and that they should be individually
progressive and individually unsel-
fish, while the president should be
"broad, liberal, resourceful and
tireless" in his efforts to see that
the association really serves its
growers. It was the consensus that
a high caliber manager was of equal
importance and that after the board
of directors had decided upon poli-
cies, the management and conduct
of the packing house should be left
to the manager without interference
with his duties.
Pooling of fruit was held to be
a vital factor in development of or-
g~niization, buit it was conceded that
this is a very difficult problem to
handle because of the extreme vari-
ation of conditions not only between
various sections of the citrus belt,
but often in the territory of an
association. It was the common .be-
lief that the manner of pooling
could be handled best by each asso-
ciation :i dividually, according to
its needs.
Widening the activities of asso-
ciations beyond the handling of
fruit to include assistance in fer-
tilizing and other grove care was
unanimously approved. Reports
were received from many of the
more successful associations show-
ing organization had been advanced
materially by such service.
The meeting was presided over
by R. P. Burton of Leesburg, chair-
man of a special committee of the
Exchange Board to study the or-
ganization matter. Other members
of this committee are John Clark
of Waverly and J. S. Taylor of
Largo;, John Rust and L. A. Hakes,
sub-exchange managers of Polk and
SOrange, respectively. A committee

E. P. Porcher of Cocoa, pioneer
grower and shipper of the Indian
River section, owner of the famous
Deerfield groves, has merged with
the Florida Citrus Exchange as spe-
cial shipper members of Indian
River Sub-Exchange. Mr. Porcher
has 400 acres of prize Indian River
hammock groves on Merritts Island
and a modern packing house at
The merger adds approximately

principals in the development of the
Deerfield Groves, near Wabasso,
now comprising around 600 acres,
in which he retains a large interest.
Coming to Florida from North
.Carolina, Mr. Porcher with only lim-
ited means laid the foundation for
his present large holdings and ex-
perience with citrus on a 25 acre
tract on the island. He planted 10
acres, adding more year by year as
his means permitted, expanding out

A section of the original Deerfield Groves on Merritts Island looking out over the water
The unique packing house of E. P. Porcher. The plant is located on the waterfront,
almost at the heart of the city. The fruit from the groves is brought from the island
to the plant by boat.while supplies, fertilizer and other needs are transported from the
plant to the island. Close to the plant is the beautiful residence of Mr. Porcher, one
of the show places of the city.

75,000 boxes which is expected to
more than double as newer planted
acreage comes into bearing. Some
of the grove is over 40 years old.
About 150 acres are non-bearing
while additional plantings are plan-
ned in the development of the big
Merritts Island tract Mr. Porcher
Mr. Porcher has had a wide ex-
perience in marketing. He is one
of the organizers of a national sales
organization and has been con-
nected with national sales of citrus
for more than 20 years. In addi-
tion to the original Deerfield groves
that he developed and still owns on
Merritte Island, he was one of the

Increased Business

For Exchange Supply
The Exchange Supply Company,
affiliation of the Exchange, reported
an increase of 45 percent over the
past season, due partly to the in-
creases in the crop and in part to
greater support by the associations
of the Exchange. The company is
the purchasing agency of the Ex-

of the presidents' group was ap-
pointed to meet with the Exchange
committee and draft formal recom-
mendations to be submitted to the
associations. On this committee are:
George C. Ohmsted of Mims asso-
ciation; S. A. Whitesell of Clear-
water; W. W. Hurley of South Lake
Apopka; John Snively of Florence,
C. A. Garrett of Kissimmee, J. C.
Merrill, sub-exchange manager of
Lake and G. R. Brock, sub-exchange
manager of Indian River.

into the sales field until he became
one of the dominant factors on the
east coast, a position he still holds.
His membership with the Ex-
change is highly valued. It is con-
sidered an outstanding tribute inas-
much as Mr. Porcher has such wide
experience in the sales field and has
elected to handle his production
through the organization. His brand
has been one of the outstanding
premium marks in the quality mar-
,kets for years. His action in join-
ing the Exchange is considered
weighty evidence in itself of his re-
gard through competitive experi-
ence of the efficiency and value of
the Exchange organization.

change for'packingkbiouse and other
association supplies.
C. H. Walker of Bartow was re-
elected president, with P. C. Peters
of Winter Garden as vice-president.
Serving with them as directors are
F. E. Brigham of Winter Haven,
J. C. Merrill of Leesburg, Rupert
Smith of Arcadia, J. P. Waldrop of
Winter Haven and R. H. Prine of
Bradenton. R. P. Farris was re-
elected secretary-treasurer and J.
D. Murdoch, manager of purchasing
and sales.

Six local cooperatives in the
Northwest, which handled a busi-
ness aggregating $3,000,000 this
year, have organized a regional co-
operative with the assistance of the
Federal Farm Board and the Oregon
State College. The cooperative both
can can and pack. They handle 16
different kinds of vegetables.

Indian River Leader Merges With Exchange



Return Most

Of Old Board

Snively Succeeds Chase
Directors Reappoin,
Executive Staff

(Continued from Page 1)
of the board and the executive staff
is shown in another column.
The annual report of Mr. Com-
mander, given to the board in
printed form, will be presented in
full in the Chronicle. The first in-
stallment begins on Page 3 of this
issue. High lights are:
The American citrus crop this
season was the greatest in t1he h
-ory of the Aitr id -
totaled an estimated 170,000 cas
an increase of 58 percent over last
season. The Florida crop is esti-
mated at 74,000 cars or 88 percent
more than last season. This is the
commercial crop.
The Exchange as of May 22,
when the report was prepared, had
handled a total of 30,797 card
the state's total on that da of
71,187 cars. This gives theEx,
change 43.3 percent of the statU
crop as of May 22 and will increase
to more than 45 percent by the en
of the season as the Exchange had
approximately 70 percent of the
fruit left at the time the report was
The increase in the Exchange
percentage was due not so much to
mergers as through organization
contact with individual growers. A
total of 1,123 new members with
acreage of 23,357 were added since
last season and only 267 members
with 5,643 acres were lost. The net
gain is 856 growers owning 17,714
acres of groves.
Increased& volume, 'plus strictly
maintained efficiency of opera'on
in all departments enabled a ma
trial reduction in the operating
costs of the Exchange this season.
On May 10, latest audit date prior
to the preparation of the report,
the operating cost per box was a
fraction over six cents a box, com-
pared with a fraction more than
seven cents a box for the same date
last season.

The National League of Com-
mission Merchants has created a de-
partment of extension and research
for the promotion of the con-
sumption of fresh fruits and vege-
tables and the development of data
on the industry. Horace Herr, for-
mer war correspondent and widely
experienced newspaper and maga-
zine writer, has been obtained to
head the division.

,r l


June 1, 1931

Annual Report Season 1930-31 by C. C. Commander, General Manager

American citrus producing sec-
tions raised bumper crops during
the season 1930-31. Their com-
bined volumes were the greatest
produced in the history of the in-
The major producing areas in-
creased their volumes heavily over
the preceding season. The table
below cites the detail of these in-
creases, which range up to 88% for

Cal. & Ariz.
Ala., La., Miss.
Porto Rico


* 1,844

tions of this report covering the de-
partments which they affected. They
serve, however, to exemplify the
possibility of accomplishment in a
cooperative organization such as
the Florida Citrus Exchange and
are indicative of the marked suc-
cess which could be accomplished
with adequate control of the cit-
rus crop placed in the organization.
A detailed study of the conditions
existing in the industry, their

Increase %

31,344 52%
34,936 88%

205 44%

Decrease %



---.. -- 107,898 170,957 -6-4-86, --- ------3426-- -
Percentage Increase 58.4%. *Estimated totals for season.
Tl, hi d74. L +ii fh rlt ,.t

mendous crop was complicated by
the economic depression which ex-
isted throughout the country. The
purchasing power of all markets,
but most particularly those primar-
ily dependent upon the payrolls of
manufacturing industries, was
sharply reduced.
On the other hand, the Florida
citrus crop was of unusually good
quality throughout all varieties.
40.1% of Exchange fruit graded
Seald-Sweet, or Government No. 1;
39.0% Mor-juce, or Government
No. 2; and 30.9% was shipped to
juice factories, canneries or in un-
graded bulk. Sizes, too, were better
than average. The average num-
ber of oranges per box for the sea-
san to May 9th was 204.7; of grape-
fruit, 56.8 fruit per average box.
Nor was its movement handicapped
by Med-fly eradication limitations.
The entire crop was moved without
a recurrence of infestation.
This season's crop has been moved
with minimum decay. The decay
record, .33%, is one of the finest
obtained on any crop in recent
years. This low decay percentage
made possible the merchandising of
fruit in various methods to the ad-
vantage of the growers, such as in
bulk and in consumer bag packages.
Organization Improvements Made
Much of the comparative success
in the handling of this season's crop
may be traced to a strengthened
and enlarged organization. All Ex-
change activities focus on the suc-
cessful merchandising of the crop.
Handling methods have been im-
proved. By-products have been de-
veloped and exploited. New mer-
chandising methods have been am-
ployed with success. All work to
the advantage of Exchange growers
and the industry.
These changes and improvements
are discussed in detail in the sec-

causes and means of correction, was
made by the Organization Com-
mittee of the Board of Directors
during the latter part of this season.
Briefly, their findings indicate that
the basic cause is lack of oragniza-
tion-lack of centralized sales con-
trol of the product. Their fair an-
alysis of the situation* leaves no
room for reasonable doubt that the
,only solution of the marketing prob-
lems facing the industry is the con-
centration of volume in the Florida
Citrus Exchange until a minimum of
75% control is reached.
Exchange Resigns from Clearing
A realization of the fact that
no compromise or half-way meas-
ures could produce results, that
fully supported cooperative mar-
keting offered the only possibility
of permanent stabilization of the
industry, plus a growing realization
that the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association was fail-
ing to justify its expense culmin-
ated in the resignation of the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange from member-
ship in that body.
This decision was reached by the
Board of Directors May 15th only
after a very thorough investigation
of the entire situation had been
made by a committee of the Board.
Complete withdrawal from the
Clearing House was decided upon
only after that body had rejected
the Exchange plans for continuance
of Exchange participation. The Ex-
change requested a reduction in the
assessment of the Clearing House
to a point adequate to cover the
cost of all functions except those
pertaining to marketing. This re-
tain need not have exceeded one-
half cent per box. The Exchange
desired that marketing activities of
the Clearing House be considered
* Report of this committee will be aent
any grower on request.

individually, each problem to be
handled on its merits, and after an
agreement on plans for action had
been reached, then additional funds
provided for the carrying out of
such plans.
The action taken by the Board in
withdrawing from the Clearing
House is representative of the
wishes of nearly all of Exchange
associations and growers.
Exchange Retains Reduced
The Tampa office retains on fruit
have been reduced steadily during
the past six years. The growth of
Exchange tonnage, brought about
by its increasing control of the crop,
plus efficiency and economy in the
operations of the organization, are
primarily responsible for these re-
tain reductions.
- In "considerink'"the efficiency of
Florida Citrus Exchange opera-
tions, the following comparison is
pertinent. The California Fruit
Growers Exchange during the past
fiscal year employed 481 persons,
paid them $1,085,000.00 and moved
46,377 cars of fruit. In other words,
it paid each employee an average
of $2,255.00 and moved 96.5 cars
of fruit per employee. The Florida
Citrus Exchange, during the present
and comparable season, employed
175 persons. It will pay them for
the season approximately $391,-
314.00 and will ship a total esti-
mated volume for the season of
32,197 cars. This is an average
poyment per employee of $2,236.00,
or $19.00 less than the California
organization and a movement of
184 cars-87.5 cars per employee
more than the California organiza-
Thus, a comparison of the effi-
ciency and economies of operation
of the Florida Citrus Exchange with
that of the nearest comparable co-
operative, shows that Exchange
operations are handled on a most
satisfactory basis from the stand-
point of the grower.
Florida Citrus Exchange Sales
The progress made by the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange in the perfec-
tion of its sales policies, methods,
plans and organization has been of
primary importance. The personnel
of the Sales Department has been
subjected to radical change. The
departmental efforts have been sub-
divided by commodities, making
possible a much closer supervision
and concentration of sales on or-
anges and grapefruit. The country,
divided into sales divisions and dis-
tricts, permitted an absolute locali-
zation of responsibility in the de-
velopment of all possible markets
for Exchange fruit.
* These comparative figures differ slightly
from those made in the letter addressed
to Presidents of Associations dated April
25 as they are based on the volume and
estimate of May 22nd.

A desk in the sales department
has been detailed for the exclusive
handling of mixed car and special
orders. Eighty to ninety percent of
these unusual orders which require
time in getting associations' con-
firmations were filled this season.
A closer coordination of sales and
advertising efforts than ever before
was maintained throughout the sea-
son. Dealer service and specialty
crews worked in all important mar-
kets under the supervision of the
two departments on advertising,
dealer sales and actual car lot sales.
Weekly market forecast bulletins,
in addition to the daily wire serv-
ice, were released by the Sales De-
partment to association and sub-
exchange members. These bulletins
kept these men fully informed at
all times as to the condition of the
markets and the prospective ten-
dencies from time to time during
the season. They helped make the
association managers the best in-
formed fruit men in the state and
enabled them to handle their grow-
ers' crops to best advantage.
Similar weekly bulletins were re-
leased to division and district man-
agers, keeping them advised as to
the situation in Florida. These
latter bulletins had a tendency to
reduce the wire expense and to con-
centrate the sales and merchandis-
ing efforts of the men in the North
on certain grades and sizes of fruit
on which Exchange offerings were
long and, because of this, made pos-
sible a more satisfactory movement
of the type of fruit the Exchange
had to offer.
All of these developments in sales
produced highly satisfactory results.
Each division and district saw an
increase in business as the result
of closer concentration in the de-
velopment of new car lot markets
and customers. The f.o.b. busi-
ness of the Exchange has been in-
creased to the highest point during
the past five years. This type of
business was especially important
this season as it permitted a wide
distribution of Exchange fruit and
relieved the concentrated industrial
centers of population where un-
employment and hard times were
most prevalent. The Exchange priv-
ate sales as of April 20th have been
58.3% of the total, as opposed to
the auction volume of 41.7%.
Export Volume Trebled
Florida Citrus Exchange export
sales are three times as great as
they have ever been.
These shipments were made al-
most wholly to London and Liver-
pool. From these points the fruit
was distributed to Birmingham, New
Castle, Manchester in England;
Glasgow in Scotland; Paris, Ham-
burg, Bremen, Antwerp, Copen.
(Continued on Page 8)

June 1, 1931



Seald- Sweet


Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

Publication Office:
606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 1108

Net Grower Circulation
over 12,000

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VII JUNE 1, 1931 No. I

Exampling the value of


when real control of a crop exists,
a 550 acre, highly developed grove
in the Redland Heights district,
California, recently was sold for
$1,500,000, or almost $3,000 an
The purchaser was J. S. Edwards,
prominent grower and packer, who
has large grove interests and has
wide experience.
Florida citrus groves with their
lower costs of development, lower
costs of production and their more
desirable fruit can give a higher net
return on the investment than can
a comparable California grove. Yet
in spite of this natural advantage in
favor of the Florida grove, the Cali-
fornia grove has a sales value far
in excess, as shown by the above
sale. This does not mean that Cali-
fornia groves have an average value
of $3,000 an acre, but such a sale
indicates that average California
grove properties do have a high
average value, whereas, we know
that the Florida average is extreme-
ly low in comparison.
It is confidence in the future of
a grove that, is a big factor in set-
ting the price. Greater investment
requirements and production costs,
clearly are more than offset in Cali-
fornia by confidence in California's
citrus industry. Certainly that con-
fidence can only be seated in the
stability of the industry within the
Florida's citrus industry could
have the same confidence if it had
the same stability. Control in a grow-
er organization brought that stabil-
ity and confidence in California. It
can do the same in Florida.

It appears that the commission
merchants of the nation, on whom
distribution so largely depends, have
at last awakened to their responsi-
bility to help enlarge the field of
distribution by encouraging in-
creased consumption. The national
association of the body has organ-
ized a division for research and for
publicizing the information on the
value of fresh fruits and vegeta-
Naturally, one of the most im-
portant aims of -the division also
will be publicizing the value of the
commission merchant in distribution
and possibly this is the keystone of
the project. If, however, the asso-
ciation will augment the efforts that
have been made by producers or-
ganizations and others to show the
consumers the points of value about
the products they eat, the ulterior
motive can well be overlooked.
The big point is that the com-
mission merchants have actually
awakened to a cooperative effort;
that there will be one more power-
ful national agency joined in the
work to educate the consumers.
A possibility which should not be
overlooked is that in the develop-
ment of the research program there
may enter a study of ways to in-
crease efficiency and economies in
distribution. It is becoming clear
that costs of distribution are be-
coming overly heavy.

There is a market for 12,000,000
cases of canned grapefruit annually,
in the opinion of Paul Stanton, sec-
retary of the Florida citrus canners
association, as quoted in the Avon
Park Sun from a talk made before
the Frostproof Rotary club.
The chaotic conditions in the can-
ned citrus industry this season,
though deplorable and inexcusable,
may have been a "blessing in dis -
guise," The Sun quotes Mr Stan-
ton. Because of the extremely low
price, dealers pushed the sale of the
canned product as a leader, build-
ing a market among millions of per-
sons who had never before eaten
canned grapefruit, he said.
Mr. Stanton, according to the
Sun, placed the blame for the re-
gretable conditions in the industry
upon "a few foolish canners."
"Neither the jobbers nor the re-
tailers were demanding the unheard
of reductions that have been
brought about in the industry," The
Sun quotes Mr. Stanton. "They
were satisfied with prices that en-
abled the canners to pay the grow-
ers reasonable prices for their
fruit. By reasonable prices I don't
mean on a salvage basis, I mean
reasonable profits to the grower for
his off-size fruit."


Considerable satisfaction follow-
ed the first commercial test of the
new type of round container which
the Florida Citrus Exchange is try-
ing out for the benefit of its grow-
ers. The results build up the ex-
pectation that it will fulfill the pos-
sibilities seen in it by the Exchange,
particularly that of material sav-
ings to the growers.
The first car was sent by Brooks-
ville association to Nashville. Sev-
eral of the trade were interested
in it and tested its merits with their
customers. It was distributed and
the reaction was such that a repeat
order was given immediately. Elfers
association took the first repeat
The container is so new to all
concerned that it was necessary to
"feel one's way along" in every de-
tail of handling. Government and
railroad experts have been on hand,
studying the manner in which the
container reacts to the various in-
fluences in handling and shipping.
In the packing house, the con-
tainer was found fully adaptable to
the handling available. Fears that
it would be more difficult and slow
to pack because of its depth proved
unfounded. It was speedy to pack,
ring style and packers experienced
no difficulty though it was their first
Loading in the cars presented a
natural difficulty until tests of vari-
ous methods showed which way was
the best. Standing on end as with
the standard box was tried but was
dropped for laying in rows with the
upper rows fitting into the hollows
of the lower. The containers in the
row, end to end, were placed in
tightly against each other and it
'is believed that this eliminates the
possibility of damage from the con-
siderable end to end jolting which
causes most of that damage to the
standard boxes that occurs in tran-
sit. The loading of the new con-
tainer also allows better ventilation

of the whole load in the car than
the standard box does, it is believed;
The new container is lighter by a
considerable degree than the stand-
ard box and does not have the
bulge. It therefore allows greater
loading of fruit in a minimum load
which means that more fruit is
shipped on the same freight charge.
It loads from 400 to 418 containers
per minimum load.
The commercial tests will con-
tinue for the balance of the season.
Every effort will be made to find
any faults which may exist and to
work out the best ways of handling
it. This at the same time will allow
to very fair test of trade reactions.
With all this information available
by the conclusion of this season,
plans can be made to a highly
efficient degree for the next season.

A record volume of fruit in the
history of Lake Alfred association
is indicated in the annual report
given at the annual meeting recent-
ly. Members commended President
John Morley and Manager Bert E.
Morrill for the efficient handling of
the affairs of the association.
Mr. Morley and the other officers
and directors were re-elected. J. R.
Boley is vice-president and F. T.
McClinchy, secretary. Directors are
Mr. Morely, Mr. Boley, F. C. Gard-
ner, F. P. Goodman, R. F. Mackay
and J. N. Morley.

Members of Leesburg association
re-elected George Erck president
and G. E. Hayter, vice-president, at
the annual meeting of the associa-
tion. F. C. W. Kramer was elected
representative of the association to
the Lake County Sub-xchange. W.
A. Frame was re-elected secretary.
Members of the board of direc-
tors are: Mr. Erck, Mr. Hayter, Mr.
Kramer, J. H. Williams, R. P. Bur-
ton, Alford Bosanquet and G. G.

.June 1, 1931



Plan Next Florida

Orange Festival
Inspired by the excellent showing
made by the 1931 Florida Orange
Festival, held in Winter Haven Janu-
ary 27 to 31, inclusive, officers of
that organization are now in the
midst of comprehensive plans for
the staging of the 1932 festival on
a more elaborate scale than ever
The 1931 festival, the third an-
nual event of state-wide significance,
broke all previous records both in
attendance and in successful admin-
istration. The actual clocked at-
tendance reached 69,319, an increase
of approximately 14 per cent over
the attendance of 61,190 of 1930.
The attendance in 1929 was 49,430.
The festival this past season closed
without a deficit, in fact with a bal-
anee-in-the- treasury af-ter all --bills-
were paid-a remarkable showing
in the light of the financial depres-
sion and the experience of other
fairs and festivals in the state.
With this success to inspire and
stimulate the organization to greater
activity for 1932, Manager Guthrie
is going ahead with plans that will
make the festival next year more
truly representative than ever of the
citrus industry. Already Guthrie is
working on plans to increase the
number, size and general excellence
of the citrus exhibits. This will re-
sult in more packing concerns com-
ing into the festival with displays of
fruit that will impress the visitor,
especially the northern tourist, with
the importance of the citrus indus-
try to the state.and nation. Exhib-
its by county, state and federal or-
ganizations will aim at showing the
relationship between the growing of
citrus and the economic life of these
units, while the health-giving quali-
ties of the fruit will be stressed by
the proper departments and associa-
tions. The 1932 festival will be
made more and more an educational
institution, where all may learn ev-
ery phase of citrus culture, its ship-
ping, marketing and use by the con-
suming public. This means that ex-
hibits of citrus by-products will be
more numerous and more compre-
hensive, viewing with the citrus booths
themselves in interest and number.
Guthrie states that the recrea-
tional and entertainment side of the
festival will laso be given full coin-
sideration, and those attending are
assured of amusements of the same
high standard as those of former
years. A number of new features
are to be included that will be edu-
cational and entertaining at the
same time.
Manager Guthrie, President May
and their board of directors will be
busy this summer and next fall lin-
ing up the many departments of the

Approximately $3,000,000 was
advanced to the grower members of
the Florida Citrus Exchange this
season by the Growers Loan and
Guaranty Company, financial affili-
ation of the Exchange, owned and
operated by its members. This is
$1,200,000 more than in any prev-
ious season.
Loans to associations by the com-
pany aggregated $1,000,000 approx-
imately, but a few thousand dollars
less than the proceeding season,
when these loans reached their high-
est point. In addition to these loans
from the company, 75 of the asso-
ciations received in the aggregate
$2,520,880 from the Farm Board.
The big feature seen by the Ex-
change in this record of grower
loans this season is that this im-
pressive financing was accomplished
in .a year of acute depression
throughout the country, when
money was difficult to obtain. In
spite of this situation, the greatest
line of credit in its history was
opened to the Growers Loan and
Guaranty Company and it was able
to take care of all reasonable re-
quests of Exchange growers.
"It is, of course, difficult to esti-
mate what proportion of the Ex-
change tonnage is due to financing
by the Growers Loan & Guaranty
Company, but, unpuestionably, the
ability of this organization to
finance individual growers of the
Florida Citrus Exchange plays a
very important part in holding the
present tonnage and securing new
tonnage," states General Manager
Commander in his annual report.
High tribute is paid the Federal
Farm Board for the assistance it
has given the company in financing
associations. The requirements of
the associations, Mr. Commander
pointed out, were unusuallyy heavy,
due to the necessity for extensive
improvements in many houses and
in some cases for complete new
The first loan from the Farm
Board, amounting to $500,000, ob-
tained during October, 1929, was
paid in full in April of this year.
The second, $2,800,000, of which
$2,520,882 was taken up by the
associations, runs to Dec. 31, 1945.
This big loan is to be paid by a
retain of five cents a boit assessed in
the associations which took the
loan. In many cases, however, it
has been seen that this would result
in complete repayment of the loan
years ahead. Arrangements have
been made therefore that after the
first.five notes, maturing semi-an-
nually, have been paid, an associa-
tion only needed to repay one note
each six months which would pro-
vide the association with a reserve
of two and a half years which no
mortgage note would become due
and payments therefore would not

be necessary in case of a crop
The following associations have
paid the first five notes: Cocoa, Ft.
Pierce, Geneva, Haines City, Kis-
simmee, Pierson, Lakeland-High-
lands, Plymouth, Vero Indian River
and Winter Haven.
Officers are C. H. Walker of Bar-
tow, president; H. G. Nickerson of
Tampa, vice-president; S. L. Looney
of Tampa, vice-president and treas-
urer and E. G. Austin of Tampa,
secretary. M. M. Kendall was ap-
pointed counsel.
Directors are G. B. Aycrigg, Win-
ter Haven, J. C. Chase, Winter
Park; R. J. Kepler, Jr., DeLand; C.
Bradford Farley, Philadelphia;
Homer Needles, Fort Pierce; Mr.
Nickerson, John S. Taylor, Largo;
E. L. Wirt, Babson Park; Mr.
Walker, J. O. Carr of Fort Ogden;
C. B. Treadway, Tavares; P. C.
Peters, Winter Garden and A. M.
Tilden, Winter Haven.

Record of Loans to Exchange Growers

Brogdex means-

Less Refrigeration

Less Decay


During February, March and April, this year, the Exchange
houses shipped 10,184 cars of citrus fruit, of which 3,513 cars
were Brogdexed and 6,671 not Brogdexed. 80% o fthe Brogdexed
cars were shipped standard vent as against 50% of the cars that
were not Brogdexed.
Refrigeration cost Brogdex users $7.97 average per car. It cost
non-Brogdex users $21.19 average per car, a difference in favor of
Brogdex. of $13.22 a car.
When these 10,184 cars arrived in the market of th e6,671 cars
of fruit not Brogdexed there were 4,166 cars, or 62%, which
showed decay ranging from 3% to 40%. Of the 3,515 cars of
Brogdexed fruit there were 1,115 cars, or 32%, which showed decay
ranging from 3 % to 25 %. Brogdex had less than half the decay
despite the fact that 80% of its cars were standard vent.
Sales data on these 10,184 cars are not available but in the New
York auction for November, December, January and February, the
official sales records'for a million and a half oranges sold during
that period show that Brogdexed fruit brought 22L a zox more.
If we were realizing high prices for our fruit the advantages of
Brogdex might not seem so important-you could get by and
still have a profit; but with prices low and little prospect of much
improvement next season Brogdex offers a marketing service that
brings a greater net return every time.
More money for the same fruit simply means putting it through
a Brogdex house-there is one near you.

Tune in Monday nights at 8:00 Station WFLA


B. C. SKINNER, Pres.


Association Houses
Avon Park Citrus Growers Assn.
Clearwater Growers' Assn.
DeLand Packing Assn.
Eagle Lake Fruit Growers Assn.
Elfers Citrus Growers Assn.
Ft. Pierce Growers Assn.
Highland Park Packing House, Inc.
International Fruit Corp.
Fullers Crossing
Fort Pierce
Lucerne Park
Lake Alfred Citrus Growers Assn
Lake Garfield Citrus Growers Assn.
Lakeland Citrus Growers Assn.
Lake Hamilton Citrus Growers Assn.
Lake Placid Citrus Growers Assn.
Leesburg Citrus Growers Assn.
Manatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Mims Citrus Growers Assn.
Nocatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Ocala Fruit Packing Co., Inc.
Orlando Citrus Growers Assn.
L. B. Skinner
H. D. Ulmer, Inc.
Umatilla Citrus Growers Assn
Waverly Citrus Growers Assn.
Winter Garden Citrus Growers Assn.
Ask the man who uses Brogdex and
you will get the low down on what
it will do for you.
FloridaBrogdexDistributors, Inc.
Dunedin, Florida

June 1, 1931



Debunking Another

Myth About

This Florida Citrus Business

April 25, 1931.
Here are facts about recent progress and development in your organization. They are given
to you gentlemen so that you will have definite data on the general picture with which to
meet the wave of argument and criticism which is being leveled against the organization as
usual during the grower withdrawal period. We be-
lieve that this information will be of value to you in continuation of action on the merger program already
talking to growers, both in and out of your organization, adopted by the Florida Citrus Exchange. The Exchange
The Florida Citrus Exchange has made marked prog- is now in close conference with 17 of the largest inde-
ress in its organization development within the state. pendent shipping interests in the state. The completion
We have a far larger, stronger and more closely knit of even a few of these mergers will produce a marked
organization than ever before, increase in percentage of cooperative control.
SYou are familiar with the increase in the percentage Reduction of Retains
of the total crop which has been brought under the
control of cooperation. It has been increased from 30% There has been a decided increase in efficiency in the
to approximately 45% during the past two or three handling of fruit within the organization. The Tampa
seasons. And this increase has not been obtained en- office retains on fruit have been reduced steadily from
tirely through mergers of independent grower-shipper 180 in the 7924-25 season to 150 the present season,
organizations, but has been obtained largely through and the proposed 13 for next season. This alone is
successful organization contact with individual growers. positive proof of increased handling efficiency.
Yet there is additional evidence which provides further
Increase of Grower Membership background for this claim of efficiency. The California
Consider the records for the past season to March 1st. Fruit Growers Exchange during the past fiscal year em-
The organization added 1123 new member-growers (not played 481 persons and moved 46,377 cars of fruit.
including grower-shippers) owning 23,357 acres of grove This is an average movement of 96.5 cars of fruit per
properties. During the same period only 267 growers, employee. Our own organization during the past and
owning 5643 acres, left the organization for one reason comparable season is employing 175 persons and will
or another. This leaves us a net increase during the move an estimated volume for the season of 28,057 cars.
period of 856 growers, owning 17,714 acres. This is an average per employee of 160.3 cars-63.8
Itis also important to look at the distribution of vol- cars per employee more than the California organization.
ume per association. It has long been a policy of this Further, the Florida Citrus Exchange paid its employees
ume per association. e It has long been a policy of this an average of $19.00 per person less annually than the
organization to eliminate weak associations or associa- California organization.
tions which had practically no chance of obtaining ade- Cal in omparison of the efficiency and economies
quate volume for economical operations, or to build such of oeion of our own organization with that of the
associations through strong management into units which o operation of our own organization with that of the
could operate satisfactorily in the interests of their nearest comparable cooperative, it shows that Exchange
could operate satisfactorily in the interests of eir operations are handled on a most satisfactory basis from
grower-members. the standpoint of the grower.
Average Volume Per Association Doubled The Exchange participation in the development of the
by-products industries has been of marked advantage
In 1924-25 the organization operated 110 packing to its owners. The benefit fro these industries will
houses and packed 6,374,820 boxes of fruit. The aver-. -
e p house s an paced 6,374,8 boxes of frit. The aer- increase as the details attendant upon these products are
age per house in this large crop year was 57,953 boxes. worked out and volume in their movement is obtained.
Pursuing this policy steadfastly through the interven-
ing seasons to date, we come to this present season with Development of Frozen Orange Juice
100 houses, which will pack an estimated total of 10,- The Florida Citrus Exchange undoubtedly is respon-
382,090 boxes, or an average of 103,821 per house. In The Florida Citrus Exchange undoubtedly is respon-
382,othr wo s, to average per house has been nearly dou- sible for the development of the frozen orange juice deal
other words, the average per house has been nearly dou- and in interesting responsible, well capitalized distribut-
ei ce te 1 2 s n T in p and in interesting responsible, well capitalized distribut-
bled since the 1924-25 season. This volume increase per ing firms in its manufacture and sale. Frozen orange
S e nod 1 e t ~ith at- it iu e mg n rms in its manufacture and sale. Frozen orange
house is highly desirable in that it has brought 'about juice would no commercial reality had it not
h e e l o n a p a f m juice would not be a commercial reality had it not
much more economical operations and permits a far more been for the investigational and research work put on
satisfactory handling of the fruit in the house. been for the investigational and research work put on
This product by the Exchange over the past two years.
Much of this development within the associations may The canned grapefruit contracts negotiated by the Flor-
be traced to a perfection of personnel in the associations ida Citrus Exchange at the beginning of this season for
and sub-exchanges. The detail of the changes which the sale of cannery grade fruit at 900 undoubtedly were
have been made from time to time during the past few a primary factor in holding the price of that grade of
seasons is too great to cite here, but you will readily rec- fruit as high as was maintained on the average through
ognize that no association is stronger than its manager. the season. This is an accomplishment made possible
Weak managers in practically all instances have been only by the strength of position in the industry given to
replaced. The same is true of sub-exchanges. We have the Florida Citrus Exchange by cooperative control.
a field group at present which is efficient, thoroughly ac- Upon the demoralization of the canning industry,
quainted with the problems and work for which they which in itself is proof of the fact that the independent
are employed and competent to carry through, as is evi- canners are unable to manage the canning business, the
denced by, the progress which has been made. Florida Citrus Exchange has seen the advantage of get-
This growth of Exchange volume will be considerably ting into the canned grapefruit deal, making possible the
augmented during the coming summer and fall by a use of its cooperative control of the raw product to force

GO AHEAD, if you must and believe that you are getting along all right without
an organized citrus marketing systeA.
That may be true in your case--j you don't depend for a living on a pros-
perous industry. But such apathy is giving everyone who does a flock of headaches
and skimpy meals. ;
How long will you believe in fairy tales?
No will-o'-the-wisp plan will ever make citrus consistently profitable. It takes
good, sound horse sense, plenty of hard work, plus a concentration of volume control
in a marketing agency competent to apply successfully the fundamental principles of
merchandising to every citrus crop.
And that's why you should support the Florida Citrus Exchange.
It is a grower-controlled, non-profit organization able and eager to serve. Its hard-
working Board of Directors and employees have produced. Progress has been made.
Results have been obtained.
But it lacks the power of 75 percent minimum control of the product.
Every plan tried has developed into a beautiful bubble only to burst into a disap-
pointing and costly failure. Certainly now is the time to use the only plan remaining
-the only one never given a chance.
That plan is adequately supported cooperative marketing.
It is the only plan which has proved successful in similar situations elsewhere. It is
the plan backed by economical experts and the Federal Government.
It can and must work in Florida.

Read the letter of General Manager C. C. Commander to Association Presi-
dents reproduced in this advertisement. It cites facts of accomplishment and
progress in an organization which is recognized by the Federal Farm Board as
the only hope of profitable organization in the Florida citrus industry.

Florida Citrus Exchange

ganization within the state. The personnel of the sales
department has been subjected to radical change. The
departmental efforts have been subdivided by commodi-
ties, making possible a much closer supervision and con-
centrati6fi of sales on oranges and grapefruit. The coun-
try has been divided into sales divisions and districts,
permitting an absolute localization-of responsibility in
the development of all possible markets for Exchange
A desk in the sales department has been detailed for
the exclusive handling of mixed car and special orders.
Eighty to ninety per cent of these unusual orders which
require time in getting associations' confirmations were
filled this season.
A closer coordination of sales and advertising effort
than ever before was maintained throughout the season.
Dealer service and specialty crews worked in all impor-
tant markets under the supervision of the two depart-
ments on advertising, dealer sales and actual car lot sales.
Weekly bulletins were released by the sales department
to association and sub-exchange managers. These bulle-
tins kept the men fully informed at all times as to the
condition of the markets and the prospective tendencies
from time to time during the season. They helped make
the association managers the best informed fruit men in
the state and enabled them to handle their growers' crop
to better advantage.
Similar weekly bulletins were released to division and
district managers, keeping them advised a sto the situa-
tion in Florida. These latter bulletins had a tendency

to reduce the wire expense and to concentrate the sales
and merchandising efforts of the men in the north on
certain grades and sizes of fruit on which were were
"long" and, because of this, made possible a more satis-
factory movement of the type of fruit we had to offer.
All of these developments in sales produced highly
satisfactory results. Each division and district saw an
increase in business as the result of closer concentration
in the development of the new car lot markets and cus-
tomers. The f.o.b. business-of the Exchange has been
increased to the highest point during the past five years.
This type of business was especially important this season
as it permitted a wide distribution of our fruit and re-
lieved the concentrated industrial centers of population
where unemployment and hard times were most preva-
lent. The Exchange private sales as of this date have
been 58.3% of the total, as opposed to the auction vol-
ume of 41.7%.
Export Sales Trebled
Florida Citrus Exchange export sales are three times
as great as they have ever been, and for the first time in
the history of our export business, Mor-juce grade of
fruit has been shipped. One-third of this season's vol-
ume sold at export was second grade quality. All of
this fruit was moved at prices equal or better than prices
available in the domestic markets.
The bulk deal usually a menace to proper merchan-
dising, was handled by the Florida Citrus Exchange to
good advantage. Certain of the specialty and dealer
service men were placed in strategic positions in the
country, particularly the middle west, and made respon-
sible for the development of a definite volume of bulk
business. This movement was confined almost entirely
to small towns and to markets where that type of fruit
shipment made possible completely successful competi-
tion of our fruit with that of California and Texas. Be-
cause of the methods used by the Exchange in handling
bulk fruit, it may be said that practically none of the
Exchange volume moved in that manner was a factor in
the demorilization of fresh fruit markets because of
bulk competition. As handled the bulk deal was a vital
factor in widening the distribution of Exchange fruit
and relieving the box lot markets of a considerable
Developed Successful Movement in
Consumer Package
Another important development for which the Ex-
change is entirely responsible is the movement of fruit
in ten-pound bags. This is a merchandising factor on
which we have been working for the past three years.
This season proved the advantages originally seen in a
movement of this kind. Upwards of 700 cars of fruit
of discount sizes have been sold to chain stores on an
f.o.b. price acceptance basis at the base price received
for premium fruit in boxes, and in many cases above that
base price. Much of this fruit wa smoved at a time when
there was no home at practically any price for boxed
fruit in the weekly volume placed in bags. Thus, not
only did the grower obtain the best price for his discount
sizes, but the deal enabled the association manager to re-
move these sizes from his box loads, permitting the roll-
ing of a premium car in boxes which, in turn, had its dis-
tinct advantages.
The bag operations were handled in such way as to
eliminate all possible risk of associations involving them-
selves in a heavy investment in experimental material
which might or might not be used. Every possible cau-
tion was maintained in the early development and ex-
perimental work on bags to prevent a repetition of the
disastrous Fibo-pak fiasco. In addition, the matter was

so handled that this desirable piece of business was avail-
able only to Exchange packing houses. It is possible that
a continuation pf these exclusive arrangements may be
In accordance with its policy of economy, the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange has been alert for new developments
in the fruit packing and handling methods which would
make possible a reduction of these costs. It has inter-
ested itself in the experimental work connected with the
development of the new Steel-bound cylindrical con-
tainer for citrus fruit which holds very considerable
possibilities for a reduction of material costs below those
necessitated by the present standard box.
Thus, in the perfection of general sales methods, the
plan used on bulk fruit distribution and the development
of the bag package, the Florida Citrus Exchange has
demonstrated its flexibility as an organization. It met
every emergency. It was not hide-bound to any definite
policy of sales, but adopted the means best suited to the
situation as that situation arose.
Renewed Deciduous Sales Contract
Final and adequate evidence of the general rounding
out and strengthening of the Exchange as a sales organi-
zation is found in the renewal of the Pacific Fruit Ex-
change sales contract with the Exchange Sales Company.
The Pacific Fruit Exchange is by all odds the most desir-
able deciduous contract available in the country. While
the Florida Citrus Exchange has been handling deciduous
during the off season for the past 15 years or more, it
was not until this business was organized three years ago
and this contract secured that this phase of the organi-
zation was made productive and profitable to Exchange
growers. That an organization of the standing and im-
portance of the Pacific Fruit Exchange should repeat-
edly renew its sales contract for its increasing volume
is a tribute to the efficiency and ability of the sales or-
ganization owned and controlled by Exchange members.
Largest Advertising Campaign in History
of Organization

Tied in as an integral part of the sales work of the
Exchange this season was one of the largest and most
productive individual advertising campaigns ever under-
taken by the organization. Magazines, newspapers, ra-
dio, subway and elevated posters, and outdoor bulletins
literally blanketed all important markets with Seald-
Sweet and Mor-juce advertising. Here again no pre-
conceived, hide-bound methods were used. The media
and copy best suited to the individual job to be done in
the market in question were used to meet the situation.
The entire campaign was sufficiently flexible so that the
advertising and merchandising effort attendant upon it
could be concentrated where the most urgent need for
it existed.
This, gentlemen, is a brief picture of the high lights
in the development and progress of your organization.
Much has been done, yet such accomplishments are but
a small percentage of what could be made available to
Florida citrus growers by the concentration of adequate
sales control in that organization. Full cooperation of
all producers in the industry will make that industry one
of the most consistently profitable investments available
in agriculture.
These facts are cited for your information. I sin-
cerely trust that you will use them to good advantage.
Very truly yours,


General Manager.


June 1, 1931 June 1, 1931

a stabilization of the canned grapefruit industry in the
interests of the producers. The plans for cooperative ac-
tivity in the canning industry are rapidly progressing
and have reached a point where it is safe to assume that
this phase of'the'iinduitty will'be made'-a highly'profit-
able one for the producers.
That all of these factors of the organization develop-
ment mark the Exchange as a stronger and more efficient
unit is clearly evidenced by the fact that the Federal
Farm Board has given the organization unqualified moral
and financial support. This support of the Farm Board
in turn is helping to build the organization strength.
Attracts Support of National Leader
Further, two months ago saw the first time in the ex-
istence of the Florida Citrus Exchange where the organi-
zation itself, because of its evident advantages to the,
growers, attracted a man of international importance,
to offer* his services gratis in the further development,
of that organization. Col. Raymond Robins was neither
asked nor paid to give his time for organization meetings,
yet the progress made in the organization and the possi-
bilities in the development of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change attracted this effort on his part.
Sales Method Perfected
The progress made by the Florida Citrus Exchange in
the perfection of its sales policies, methods, plans and
organization has perhaps been even more marked than
that development which might be classed solely as or-


Annual Report
(Continued from Page 3)
*hagen, Rotterdam, Oslo and Zurich
on the Continent.
These shipments in almost all
cases brought as much as the price
prevailing in domestic markets at
the time of shipment. In some in-
stances they returned more.
Two developments of a very
promising nature were featured in
this season's export experience. For
the first time in the history of the
organization's export business, Mor-
juce fruit was shipped. One-third
of this season's export was of sec-
ond grade quality. Further, 64s and
larger were moved in heavier pro-
portion than ever before to Conti-
nental markets. Both of these de-
velopments worked to the advan-
tage of Exchange growers.
With the increasing production
-of grapefruit in the United States,
it will be necessary to look more
and more to markets in the United
Kingdom and Continental Europe.
To this end, considerable develop-
ment work has been done. Exports
have increased materially. In 1923-
24 there were approximately 15,-
000 boxes shipped to Europe from
Florida. This season the total will
approximate 600,000 boxes.
Bulk Sales Assist Distribution
The bulk deal, usually a menace
to good merchandising, was handled
by the Florida Citrus Exchange to
good advantage. Certain of the spe-
cialty and dealer service men were
placed in strategic positions in the
country, particularly in the Middle
West. They were made responsible
for the development of a definite
volume of bulk business.
This movement was confined al-
most entirely to small towns and
to markets where that type of fruit
shipment made possible completely
successful competition of Florida
fruit with that of California and
Because of the methods used by
the Exchange in handling bulk fruit,
it may be said that practically none
of the Exchange volume moved in
that manner was a factor in the
demorilization of fresh fruit mar-
kets because of bulk competition.
As handled, the bulk deal was a
vital factor in widening the distri-
bution of Exchange fruit and re-
lieving the box lot markets of a
considerable volume.
Approximately 1200 cars of bulk
grapefruit and 1500 of bulk oranges
were sold by the Exchange in the
Middle West and South.
Exchange Develops Bag Package
Another important development
for which the Exchange is entirely
responsible is the movement of fruit
in ten-pound bags. Here is a mer-
chandising factor which has been
given considerable thought and
effort during the past three years.

This season proved the advan-
tages originally seen in shipments
of this kind. Upwards of 700 cars
of fruit have been sold, principally
to chain stores, on an f.o.b. price
acceptance basis.
While all sizes can be success-
fully marketed in this manner, it
was found that the most advantage-
ous sizes from the standpoint of
net returns were large fruit-126s
to 216s inclusive. Of the total bag
movement, approximately 55% were
126s and 150s, yet the price realized
was in practically all cases in line
with base prices on the smaller
In other words, not only was the
base price for premium fruit in
boxes obtained on these discount
sizes, but much of the fruit was
moved at a time when there was no
home at practically any price for
boxed fruit in the weekly volume
placed in bags. The grower ob-
tained the best price for his dis-
count sizes. In addition, the asso-
ciation manager was enabled to re-
move these sizes from his box loads,
permitting the rolling of premium
cars in boxes. This, in turn, of
course had its distinct advantages.
The fruit shipped in bags by the
Exchange this season was primarily
oranges. There were, however, sev-
eral cars of grapefruit packed in
the same manner which obtained
fair trade and consumer reaction.
Other shipments of both grapefruit
and oranges were made in full box
size bags and were shipped direct
to the customer on an f.o.b. sales
The bag operations were handled
in such a manner as to eliminate
all possible risk of associations in-
volving themselves in a heavy in-
vestment in experimental material
which might or might not be used.
In addition, the deal was so han-
dled that this desirable piece of
business was available this season
only to Exchange packing houses.
New Container Tested
In line with its policy of economy,
the Florida Citrus Exchange has
been alert for new developments in
fruit packing and handling methods
which would make possible a re-
duction of these costs. The me-
chanics and materials used in pack-
ing which do not serve to facilitate
the sale of fruit to the consumer or
to carry the fruit more economically
,or in a more sound condition are
undesirable. The converse of this
statement is also true.
For this reason, the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange became interested in
the experimental work connected
with the development of the new
Steel-bound cylindrical container
for citrus fruit. It holds very con-
siderable possibilities for a reduc-
tion of material costs below those
necessitated by the present standard
box. Fruit can be packed in this

container at a saving of the volume
required to bulge the pack. It can
be packed without wraps. It offers
better ventilation. The container
itself is much lighter, permitting
this differential in container weight
to be taken up in fruit, with a con-
sequent saving of freight. None of
these economies handicap the carry-
ing of the fruit or its ultimate sale
to the consumer.
Several experimental cars have
been shipped in this container.
Packing and loading methods are
rapidly being devised. Trade re-
actions on these experimental cars
have been favorable. Sold on an
f.o.b. price basis, the returns per
package have been at the market.
If subsequent experimental work
justifies the findings obtained to
date, it is probable that this pack-
age will be an important factor in
future crop movements.
Thus, in the perfection of gen-
eral sales methods, in the plan used
on bulk fruit distribution and in
the development of the bag pack-
age, the Florida Citrus Exchange
nas demonstrated its flexibility as
an organization. It has met emer-
gencies. It was not hide-bound to
any definite policy of sales, but
adopted the means best suited to
the situation as that situation arose.
Deciduous Contract Renewed
Final and adequate evidence of
the general rounding out and
strengthening of the Exchange as a
sales organization is found in the
renewal of the Pacific Fruit Ex-
change contract with the Exchange
Sales Company. The Pacific Fruit
Exchange is by all odds the most
desirable deciduous contract avail-
able in the country.
That an organization of the
standing and importance of the
Pacific Fruit Exchange should re-
peatedly renew its sales contract
for its increasing volume is a tribute
to the efficiency and ability of the
sales organization owned and con-
trolled by Exchange members.
Data on Volume Movement
Total shipments of citrus fruits
'for the season 1930-31 to May 22nd
increased 79.9% over the same per-

Auction Sales

Outside Sales


iod in the preceding season. The
detail is as follows:
Cars Cars Cars In-
1930-31 1929-30 crease
Oranges 36,333 20,445 15,888
Grapefruit 30,414 17,112 13,302
Tangerines 4,440 2,007 2,433

Totals 71,187 39,564 31,623
During this period, shipments
made by the Florida Citrus Ex-
change as compared with the com-
parable period of the preceding sea-
son show a volume increase of 16,-
031 cars, or 108.6%. The detail
by varieties contained in the table
below will show a comparison with
the above table of state's shipments.
Cars Cars Cars In-
1930-31 1929-30 crease
Oranges 15,701 7,686 8,015
Grapefruit 13,280 6,300 6,980
Tangerines 1,816 780 1,036

Totals 30,797 14,766 16,031
An analysis of the data shows
that the Florida Citrus Exchange
shipped 30,797 cars to May 22nd

out of 71,187 total of the state
movement, or 43.3%. This per-
centage will increase to above 45%
at the close of the shipping season
in June, since about 70% of the
fruit remaining in the state is con-
trolled by the Exchange.
This represents a considerable in-
crease in the control of the citrus
crop accomplished by the Florida
Citrus Exchange during the past
season. It is an increase which com-
pares favorably with the record
made last season, when the Ex-
change shipped 39.5% of the state's
total as compared with 30.8% dur-
ing the 1928,29 season.
Satisfactory Distribution Maintained
The distribution maintained on
the volume of Exchange fruit dur-
ing the past season has been grati-
fying. As cited previously in this
report, the f.o.b. business of the
Exchange was- held at -the highest
point in five years. The detail of
general distribution maintained to
May 22nd of this year and for the
same period of last year are con-
tained in the following tables:

Season 1930-31
As of May 22nd, 1931



Cannery, Juice and truck sales -
Exports -
Ralling Unsold:

In Storage

Auctions -
Diversions -
Sold not delivered

Grand Total -





- 184
- 141
- 209





June 1, 1931



Annual Report
(Continued from Page 8)
Season 1929-30
Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Totals
3218 2283 637 6138
42.3% 42.2% 81.7% 44.5%
4383 3129 143 7655
57.7% 57.8% 19.3% 55.5%

7601 5412 780 13793


Eastern Division
The Eastern Division comprises
that territory approximately cov-
ered by the states of New York,
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Mary-
land, down to and including Wash-
ington, D It represents a high
concentartion of population and
normally is a large, easily accessible

big dividends


"Black Leaf 40" is the
"Old Reliable" recognized
control forAphis and Thrips.

"Black Leaf 40" kills not only
by direct contact (hitting) but
in extra measure by the nico-
tine fumes. This "extra measure"
of protection you cannot obtain
from the non-violative

Ask your Experiment .Station.

Dealers Sell
in several package sizes

buying power. The Eastern Divis-
ion is the logical market for about
40% of the Exchange tonnage each
With the large crop in both Flor-
ida and California, all of the evils
.attendant upon such -a situation
were intensified in the Eastern Di-
vision. Smaller competitors, not
having a regular sales organization
and consequently unable to prop-
erly distribute fruit, constantly
under-quoted Exchange prices in an
endeavor to get rid of .the tonnage
which they had. In addition to this,
the consignment problem was per-
haps more pronounced than ever
before. Practically every market in
the Eastern Division had dealers
who offered fruit consigned by Flor-
ida shippers and the steady flow of
this fruit throughout the season had
a depressing effect upon all markets
and made it exceptionally difficult
to maintain firm f.o.b. prices.
In spite of this, however, the
various district managers func-
tioned well. Sales showed a healthy
increase over those of a year ago,
notwithstanding the fact that dur-
ing the entire shipping period of
last season the Eastern Division
offered practically the only markets
freely open to the shipment of Flor-
ida fruit under the quarantine regu-
One new office was opened in the
Eastern Division this season. A
salaried representative was placed
in Rochester. The wisdom of this
move is shown by the fact that up
to April 1st sales in the Rochester
district have just about doubled
those of a year ago for the same
Advertising and dealer service
work was carried on somewhat more
extensively in the Canadian terri-
tory of the Eastern Division this
year and the results were gratify-
ing. The tonnage sold in Toronto
was more than doubled; that sold
in Montreal exceeded that of last
year despite consignments to that
market. In Ottawa the Exchange
sold five times as much fruit as a
year ago. The merchandising serv-
ice placed behind Exchange fruit
in these markets pleased both the
wholesale and the retail trade. Re-

Auction Sales

Private Sales

Cannery -
Exports -
Rolling Unsold -
In Storage

quests have already been made for
more of this work next season.
In Washington and Buffalo diffi-
cult situations were confronted by
Exchange representatives. In both
places the trade was divided into
two factions, each establishing mar-
kets in different parts of the city
located several miles from each
other. Split markets of this nature
naturally developed a feeling of
enmity. Good judgment and di-
plomacy in handling the situation
engendered by such conditions were
necessary in order to keep on
friendly terms with both factions.
In Baltimore a similar situation
developed this year. Although there
have always been two produce ter-
minals in this market, one of them
this year was moved to a new loca-
tion which was much further from
the produce center than the old one
was. This move created a situation
which called for similar careful
In the central part of Pennsyl-
vania-the coal mining districts-
economic conditions were acutely
depressed. Railroad car repair shops
were also closed down. Silk and
textile mills have operated at less
than fifty percent caapcity. This
condition made possible only a min-
imum demand for fruit. In order
to meet the situation, the trade
handled a much larger percentage
of the lower grades. Third grade
and cull fruit was brought into the
Scranton district,, for instance, in

Garnd Total

June 1, 1931


bulk and sold out of the car door-
ways. This practically demoralized
standard methods of distribution in
these areas. Regardless of this con-
dition, however, Exchange sales in
the Scranton district have been held
to normal.
Exchange sales in the Harrisburg
district were particularly gratify-
ing: The volume was about equal
to that of last year. The whole-
sale trade continued in their de-
mand for Exchange brands in spite
'of the attractive offers made by
competitors, either on consigned
fruit or at quotations cut under
those made by the Exchange.
Upper New York State held its
own under similar adverse circum-
In the larger centers comparable
results have been obtained and dis-
tribution to the larger cities has
been orderly. Although the Ex-
(Continued on Page 10)



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Cutler B. Downer Fred'k L. Springford
Harold F. Miles
J. Oliver Daly Clifford E. Myers


Annual Report
(Continued from Page 9)
change shipped 34.1% of the Flor-
ida fruit moved by rail up to the
end of March, its percentage of
New York auction sales amounted
to only 30.1% of the total. Com-
petitors, who shipped only 65.9%
of the state's movement up to that
date, had sold 69.9% of the fruit
distributed at auction.
In Pittsburgh the Exchange show-
ing was equally as good. Florida
competitors loaded up the Pitts-
burgh market unnecessarily and up
to the first of April had sold ap-
proximately 400,000 boxes of fruit
against 100,000 sold by the Ex-
change. In other words, although
the Exchange shipped 34.1% of the
Florida rail movement to that date,
it had only 18.1% of the fruit sold
in the Pittsburgh market.
Advertising and dealer service
work was more intensive and in
greater volume than that ever
placed behind Exchange brands in
this division. The campaign has
produced satisfactorily, as is evi-
denced by premiums paid for Ex-
change fruit in auction markets and
by the fact that jobbers and chain
stores in private sales markets are
tying up definitely to Exchange
In Washington and Buffalo chain
store organizations ran special
sales on Exchange fruit, advertis-
ing Seald-Sweet and Mor-juce
brands in their own newspaper
copy. The Exchange cooperated
with these sales through its dealer
service crews, who handled window
displays and poster advertising dur-
ing the sales periods. Several such
trade tie-ups were made with very
beneficial results. As an instance,
one large chain has used Seald-
Sweet and Mor-juce brands ex-
clusive of all others. It asked that
the Exchange work closely with
them in every respect and that
dealer service men be placed at
their disposal from time to time
through the season to assist them.
In return, they not only handled
Seald-Sweet and Mor-juce brands,
but advertised them in their stores
and in their newspaper copy.
The dealer service crew in the
astern Division called on a total of
9,150 retail grocers up to the first
of April. Of these retailers, 8,582
were handling Exchange fruit. The
crews placed a total of 54,950
pieces of advertising display ma-
terial and mailed to the trade in
the division at the request of re-
tailers 11,300 additional pieces of
material. At wholesalers' requests
18,000 display pieces were sent to
wholesalers' customers; 3,400 pieces
were mailed to chain stores on re-
The sales and advertising activ-
ities during the past season have
made the Seald-Sweet and Mor-juce

brands better known in this division that for the past two months they

than ever before. They are so well
known, in fact, that dealers are
now consistently demanding fruit
stamped with these trade marks.
Mid-Western Division
The Mid-Western Division, with
Chicago as headquarters, shows
progress in all of its districts during
the past season. The trade, par-
ticularly in Chicago, has shown a
preference for Exchange brands at
a higher price than fruit offered
by Florida competition. Up to April
:1st, Exchange fruit brought 200
per box more than competitive
This division was one which re-
ceived a considerable volume of pro-
cessed fruit last year. The bad im-
pression that this fruit left, plus
the haphazardous way Texas mar-
keted her crop this season, presented
difficulties unique to this territory.
Advertising was used in consider-
able volume to meet these diffi-
culties and was in a large measure
responsible for overcoming them.
The situation is aptly described
by the Mid-Western Division Man-
ager of the Exchange:
"If only fruit that the growers
would eat themselves is shipped
next fall, backed by an adequate ad-
vertising appropriation, we can get
a premium over California all year.
But we want a six months' and not
a two or three months' advertising
campaign. It will take 50 dealer
service men in place of the 11 we
had in the Western Division this
"California has made every pos-
sible effort to wipe out the differ-
ential which exists in our favor,
but without success. Yet it is only
natural that a certain percentage
of the trade has turned back to Cali-
fornia because of the price differ-
ential. California spends almost as
much for one illuminated Neon sign
on Michigan Avenue per month as
we spend on our whole 24-sheet
poster campaign per month. If the
figures are available, they would
probably show that California
spend almost as much in the Chi-
cago market as our total advertis-
ing appropriation."
Texas grapefruit presents a prob-
lem in this division which is not to
be taken lightly. The Exchange
met this competition this season in
these markets with intensified ad-
vertising, special sales work and
properly handled bulk fruit ship-
ments. Yet a situation has been
created which will make necessary
close and thorough work to suc-
cessfully hold the markets of this
division for Exchange fruit against
the Texas competition.
Early in the season Indian River
competition was selling practically
as much fruit from that section as
the Exchange. The support of Ex-
change brands on the part of the
trade was so much better, however,

have offered only occasional cars of
Indian River fruit. Exchange sec-
ond grade brands from this district
were selling on a par or above com-
petitors' first grades. The con-
sistent and regular supply of Ex-
change brands has been largely re-
sponsible for this situation.
Retail and wholesale trade con-
tact was maintained throughout the
division by dealer service men. A
total of 7,966 retailers were called
on, 5,255 of whom handled Ex-
change brands. 297 complete win-
dows were decorated and a total of
71,014 pieces of display material
were installed.
Cincinnati Division
Sales in this division show a gen-
eral healthy increase over last sea-
son. Private f.o.b. sales particu-
larly have responded to intensified
sales and advertising efforts made in
the division. The latter show an
increase for the division of over
This situation reflects a decided
preference for Seald-Sweet and
Mor-juce brands in the various mar-
kets of the division. Take, for in-
stance, the Columbus market, where
the Exchange sold 177 cars last sea-
son but increased its sales in the
same district to 275 cars for the
same period this season. Youngs-
town offers another example of the
total sales last season with 24 cars
as against 86 cars this season, or an
increase of 250%.
An analysis of the dealer service
work in this division indicates that
89% of the retailers called in were
handling Seald-Sweet or Mor-juce
fruit. This is especially significant
in view of the low prices quoted by
competitors and the large volume
of consignments which were made
by competition to wholesale dealers.
It is a showing which is indicative
of the results on the advertising
which was released generally
throughout the division, both na-
tional and local in character.
Special radio programs in the
smaller towns over local stations,
followed up by dealer service con-
tact with the retailers, produced
very satisfactory results as a tie-in
to the national advertising program
of the Exchange.
As a concrete example of the re-
sults obtained by this special radio-
dealer service contact work, con-
sider Ft. Wayne, Ind. Last season
the Exchange volume sold in this
market during January, February
and the first 15 days of March was
only 11 cars. This season for the
same period 29 cars were sold, an
increase of 180%.
Louisville, Ky., and Charleston,
W. Va., exploited in the same man-
ner, showed a comparable increase
during the same period. The re-
sults in Columbus were somewhat
less marked, yet Exchange sales in
this district show an increase of

60% over the same period a year
With the growing competition
from Texas in this division, it is
vital that this advertising effort be
Southern Markets
The economic situation in this
territory this season was severely
,depressed. The principal staple,
cotton, was selling at the lowest
price in years. Mills in all parts
of the South were either closed or
on part time operations. The buy-
ing power of the population was
consequently sharply reduced.
As a result, a distinct sales re-
sistance on all citrus was encount-
ered except at prices in line with
what purchasers could pay.
About the middle of October
Southern markets were opened to
the shipment of Florida fruit and a
short time later the ban was re-
moved from bulk shipments. Large
quantities of bulk priced in line
with the buying capacity of the dis-
tricts were sold. In addition to the
rail movements of bulk fruit into
this territory, there was a very
large volume of fruit trucked from
the state to practically all markets.
No dependable statistics on this
truck movement are available at
this time. Nevertheless, the Ex-
change practically doubled its vol-
ume in this territory over a year
Southern markets are of distinct
importance in the sale of the Flor-
ida citrus crop in that they buy
heavily of second and third grade
fruit-grades which are sharply dis-
counted in Northern markets. It
is an outlet for these grades which
is of vital importance in the general
merchandising picture.
Expert specialty and dealer serv-
ice men were employed by the Ex-
change to work all markets in the
Southern Division during the season.
The broker representatives of the
Exchange appreciated the situation
and cooperated fully with these
men. The combined effort was a
material assistance in producing the
results above described.
Other Divisions
Conditions in the other sales di-
visions of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change show sales progress com-
parable to that above described in
the three major divisions. Price
was of paramount importance in the
movement of fruit. The same dif-
ficulties faced Exchange sales work
in these territories as elsewhere.
Price cutting and consignments had
their risastrous effects.
In the New England Division the
dealer service men contacted 1,834
retailers, of whom 1,396 were hand-
ling Exchange brands. As this work
was spread over the key retailers
in 98 different markets, it is a rep-
resentative cross section of the re-
(Continued on Page 11)


June 1, 1931

June 1, 1931

Annual Report
(Continued from Page 10)
tail distribution maintained on Ex-
change fruit in the division. A total
of 5,758 pieces of display material
were used. In addition to this ad-
vertising work the division received
its quota of the magazine, news-
paper and poster advertising re-
leased by the Exchange.
The Southwestern Division, into
which no movement of Florida cit-
rus was permitted last season be-
cause of Med-fly restrictions, was
opened during the latter part of this
season. The Exchange contacted
the proper authorities in charge of
the state regulations and obtained
the lifting of all bans in Florida cit-
rus shipments except for the actual
citrus belt along the Rio Grande.
Although these markets have been
dominated by Texas fruit to the ex-
clusion of Florida citrus, a satis-
factory volume was initiated during
the close of the shipping period.
Sales in the Northwestern Divis-
ion were nearly three times as great


as they were last season. This far
western territory was developed as
fully as possible by the Exchange
to relieve the depressed eastern and
southern markets.
Distribution Summarized
Total Sales* as of May 2nd
Seasons 1930-31 and 1929-30
This distribution has been made
to customers, towns and states as
Customers sold ............ 794
New Customers sold .... 350
Towns sold --........---......... 384
States sold 44
Canadian provinces ...... 7
which amount to approximately
5,000 carloads for the season 1930-
An analysis of the accounts of
sales up to and including May 10th
obtained on all grades and varieties
of Exchange fruit are shown in the
table trl~w.--In- considering these-
prices it must be remembered that
* This total does not include truck sales,
cannery and juice shipments.





A DEMAND for special fertilizers to
perform special services in respect
to yield and quality of crops followed the
introduction of inventions and discover-
ies of industry which has changed the
tempo of the American people.

The progressive farmers felt the need of
fertilizers with greater producing power
to keep pace with industry.

The International Agricultural Corpora-
tion undertook the task of compounding
fertilizers that would meet these new con-
ditions. Hence, today the Osceola and
International Crop Producing Fertilizers
embody new ideas, new discoveries in
the value of plant foods, the use of new
plant foods and new manufacturing proc-
esses. The users are keeping abreast with

Will you give us the opportunity to tell you
how our fertilizers have benefited others?

RIlUZES 208 St. James Bldg. Jacksonville, Fla.
.' aWshMetlone/ warnt3t

they are f.o.b. Tampa, with sales
and packing retains yet to be de-
Oranges .............. $2.25
Grapefruit .......... 1.60
Tangerines .......... 2.01
Oranges .............. 2.20
Grapefruit .......... 1.69
Tangerines ......... 2.04
Grapefruit .......... 1.68
Oranges .............. 1.21
Grapefruit .......... .69
Tangerines .......... 1.06
Oranges .............. .58
Grapefruit .......... .53
Oranges .............. 1.01
Oranges: ...:.....:." 1:74
Grapefruit ...-.... 1.34
Tangerines bu.... -.95
An analysis of the average prices
received in eight auctions furnishes
a basis of comparison between
prices realized on Exchange brands
as compared to competitive Florida
shipments. It is a comparison which
directly reflects the confidence in
Exchange brands and the value of
Exchange advertising and mer-
chandising. Of the 56 different
averages furnishing points of com-
parison, the Exchange exceeds its

competition in 41, equals their aver-
ages in one, and has no comparison
on six grades.
(Continued in next issue)

The National Fruit and Vegeta-
ble Exchange has been incorporated
as the terminal marketing agency
for the fruit and vegetable growers
of more than 20 states, including
Florida, it has been announced by
the Federal Farm Board. It con-
stituted the eighth regional co-
operative set up by the Farm Board.
H. L. Robinson, manager of the
Hastings Potato Growers associa-
tion of Hastings, Fla., and R. H.
English, general manager of the
Manatee County Growers associa-
tion of Bradenton, are members of
the board of directors which will
serve until the meeting of the stock-
holders. Both have taken a prom-
inent part in the discussions which
led to the organization.
The Exchange will provide a na-
tional sales agency for many small,
local cooperatives in the states con-
cerned. Its organization resulted
fro ma study of th territory in-
volved by Farm Board specialists
following which a questionnaire
was sent cooperatives seeking their
ideas. A large number favored a
regional sales agency and these
were invited to a series of con-
ferences held at Jacksonville, St.
Louis and Washington.

Route Your Perishable Traffic









Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Baltimore, Maryland

I .----. '-- -- -.-- ---


: June 1, 1931


Lake Wales association increased
its volume this season by more than
120,000 boxes over the previous
record and operated at an actual
cost of 54 cents a box, Manager W.
B. Gum reported at the annual
meeting of the association.
The association has handled so
far this season around 245,000
boxes. It is estimated that it has
60,000 boxes more to move, making
a total of more than 300,000 boxes
for the season. The most it has
handled in any proceeding year was
183,000 boxes.
Last fall the association reduced
packing charges to the lowest in
its history. The packing charge of
grapefruit was set at 60 cents a box
and for oranges at 65 cents.
The meeting was attended by a
large number of growers, including
some visitors from Waverly and
Babson Park. Fred W. Davis, gen-
eral sales manager of the Exchange,
was a guest.
Directors elected were: J. M.
Tillman, president; W. A. Varn, J.
K. Stuart, E. D. Ellis, J. W. Tracy,
M. C. Dopler, W. J. Frink, R. E.
Lassiter and D. R. Dopler.

Clearwater association closes this
season with the withdrawal of only
one member. The annual meet-
ing was held last month and on the
date of the meeting, the final mo-
ment for withdrawal, no notice of
other withdrawals had been re-
S. A. Whitesell was re-elected
president and representative to the
Pinellas Sub-Exchange. W. S. Ster-
rett was elected vice-president. J.
S. Hill, manager-secretary, was re-
appointed. L. A. Sneary, P. H.
Fuller and Evan Jones were re-
elected to serve as the board of
directors with the officers.
A barbeque largely attended by.
growers of the community was part
of the program. J. Reed Curry,
head of the organization depart-
ment of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change, E. E. Patterson, grapefruit
sales manager and O. J. Harvey,
sub-exchange manager, were speak-

R. K. Thompson was re-elected
president and Frank Tyler was
elected vice-president of Sarasota
association at the annual meeting.
The following were named on the
board of directors: Mr. Thompson,
Mr. Tyler, Mrs. Agnes Burch, A. E.
Gocio, F. B. Hahneman, D. G. Haley,
George Prime, J. W. Scott, and
Jesse Tucker. Mr. Thompson was
re-appointed representative to Man-
atee. Sub-Exchange.

Hernando-"Home of the Tangerine"

Hernando county claims to be the "home of the tangerine" due to
wonderful quality of the fruit grown in that section and the large
acreage which has been planted to tangerines. Above is a view of
the typical "high hammock" land, prized in Hernando county for
tangerine culture. This is a scene from the interior of Annutaliga
Hammock, covering 120 square miles. Smaller hammocks, totaling
many additional thousands of acres, of Hernando county, are sim-
ilar to this. Between 1,500 and 2,000 acres of this land has been
planted to tangerines.

One of the pioneer tangerine groves of Hernando county showing
the close planting of the earlier day. It is owned by W. M. Mc-
Kethan, president of Brooksville association, and is located. in
Brooksville, adjoining the McKethan residence. The trees were
planted 100 to the acre.

A typical tangerine grove on the "high hammock" land of Hernando
county. This grove is eight years old and is owned by Mrs. Ernest
Stanton, member of Brooksville association.

In eight years, Auburndale asso-
ciation has increased its volume 484
percent, growing from 68,000 boxes
to approximately 400,000, Manager
W. A. Standford reports. In the
same period packing operating costs
have been reduced from 87 cents
to 55 cents a box.
Acreage represented has in-
creased from 1,000 acres to 3,500.
Nineteen new members with a total
of 1,413 ,acres were signed this
season. Prospects for the coming
season are equally good, according
to Mr. Stanford. A few members
have withdrawn, but the loss is
more than offset by new signups
while some of those withdrawn in-
dicated that they may resign.
The association used the private
markets heavily this season, Mr.
Stanford stated. Approximately 76
percent of its volume was sold f.o.b.
A total of 59 cars of fruit was sold
in bags while a good volume of sec-
ond grade fruit was sold to trucks.

Lake Placid association, conclud-
ing its first season, will have han-
dled around 100,000 boxes, re-
garded as a very gratifying volume
for the initial year. The first an-
nual meeting was held on the reg-
ular date last month and brought
the re-election of 0. F. Gardner as
J. E. Sims was elected vice-presi-
dent and the two officers with A. C.
Whitmore, V. G. Waters and W. G.
McClelland were chosen for the
boarf of directors.
Lake Placid regards the associa-
tion as one of the most valuable fac-
tors in the community's welfare. It
estimates that the association pro-
vides a payroll of $50,000 or more
a season which the community would
not have but for it. Fruit of the
esction previously has been packed
in various other communities.

Frostproof association at is an-
nual meeting elected W. W. Owens,
president; F. C. Thompson; first
vice-president; W. O. Smith, sec-
ond vice-president; B. G. Mayo, sub-
exchange representative; and Leon
Sheldon, secretary-manager.
Members of the board are: W.
H. Brown, T. W. Brown, F. L. Me-1
Leod, F. L. B. Blood, N. H. Visser-
ing, E. L. Wirt, Mrs. J. W. Carson,
Mr. Owens, Mr. Thompson, Mr.
Smith and Mr. Mayo.

Winter Garden association has
postponed its annual meeting to a
later date, when it plans a big
growers' meeting and picnic. The
later meeting is planned so that the
annual report will include final fig-
ures for the season.

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