Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00011
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: December 1, 1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text

1924 E. JACKSON i

Seald-Sweet Chronle
Entered as Secand Clam Mail Matter
Vol. VI SrmsRCBITION PEICE 5o 1 a.N PsM xMaI TAMPA, FLORIDA, DEC. 1, 1930 a the P t Offie at Tnm m.m No. 13


System Getting

Decisive Test

If Practical Should Show
It Conclusively This

(' through Florida's citrus clearing
-" hosie, t e hearing house system .is
receiving a weighty test this season
as to:its practicability as a solution
'* of the agricultural marketing prob-
S:.lem, according to C. C. Teague,
member of the Federal Farm Board.
This thought was expressed b,
-:' r. lTeague in several talks made
Sin the state during his recent visit.
If it is a solution, both he and the
'" Farm Board will be highly gratified,
She said, for stabilization of agricul-
ture is the first consideration. More
faith is held in'cooperative market-
ing with control of both distribu-
tion and sale, however, due to the
failure in the past of every clear-
ing house attempt, while some
marked successes have been made
by grower cooperatives, which, in
fact, he said, are the only bright
spots in the agriculture.
"The Florida clearing .house ha,
an opportunity to demonstrate this
season whether or not an organiza-
tion of commercial and cooperative
."sfippers can bring about orderly
marketing," sadi Mr. Teague. "II
S. the clearing house can't do it this
year, I think the system is pretty
hopeless. We tried it in California
and failed."

'The Board of Directors of
the Florida Citrus Exchange
will meet in Tampa, Friday
afternoon, Dec. 5. The Sub-
Exchange Managers Associa-
tion will meet at 10 a.m. of
the same day.
This is the first meeting of
the directors under the new
policy of meeting every other
week, advocated by C. C.
Teague. Meetings are open to
the 'membership and if the
present facilities of the Ex-
change for directors' meetings
are'not adequate to accommo-
date all who attend, larger
quarters will, be provided for-
:.these meetings.

By C. C. Teague
Suppose a woman has three
baskets of eggs that she can
sell to one purchaser. Does
she send one basket by her
husband, one by her son and
one by the farm hand? Does
the husband quote a price of
50 cents a dozen, the son un-
derbid him at 40 cents a doz'-
*.i;:ap tlie,.an."hand .pd'i .r
-the.mrfiadlik ijetJ pricetf'g..n..
cents a dozen?
That is what Florida citrus
.growers are doing in the mar-
kets of the country, selling'
thruogh 11 agents. -

Foreign'Citrus Crops
The Department of Agriculture
reports the Spanish orange crop is
estimated at 20 to 25 percent under
.ast season's crop of 42,600,000
boxes. The crop is well developed
and runs to large sizes. Export be-
gan this past- month.
Palestine expects to export Jaffa
oranges in about the same volume
as last year when 2,700,0.00 boxes
were exported. Exports started last
month. Great Biitain takes most of
*,he crop. Grapefruit exports from
Palestine are estimated at 60,000
boxes, most of which will ga to
Great Britain.

According to reports, some operate
the Florida Citrus Exchange is over
low markets for Florida grapefruit
Clearing House allotments and ship
judge who is overshipping. The fig
Nov. 15th, last date for which the fi
Allotment Independen
Allotment Exchange
Shipments Independei
Shipments Exchange
The Clearing house claims to have
The Exchange sign-up shows it has
crop. The Exchange therefore shou
House allotment if the Clearing Hoi
House has less than 80 per cent, as
should be much higher than 60 per
factors that the Exchange has made
had 40 percent.
If the Exchange were given the p
up indicate.* the allotments for the
Allotments Independe
Allotments Exchange
Compare this with actual shipme:
Shipments 'Independei
Allotment at 40%
Over-shipment -
Shipments Exchange
Allotment at 60% -
Under-shipment -
Completely refuting this misrepre
is the record of all shipments to,
with 50 per cent of-the crop had sl
the citrus moved from -the state.
65.9'per cent or nearly twice as mur

:nci-tr ,-ni I -- ~

Cooperative Control Solution

Of Marketing Problem-Teague

New York Juice Only Growers Have Com,
Firm, Starts On mon Interest-Impossible
irm t s nFor Operators To

W ill Materially Increase- c. Teague,.member,of the'Fed-
SFreeihg- Facilities OF eral Farm Board and one of Cali-
STampa Trminal- fornia's largest producers of citrs,
is convinced that cooperative con-
trol.is the only solution of the. agri-
The National Juice Corporation culturall marketing problem. Mr.
has completed arrangements with Teague, during his recent Visit .t&
the Tampa Union Terminal for the Florida reiterated this belief in
lease of its juice freezing facilities.
every talk, both public and private,
It plans to double the capacity of e made, presenting an array
these and has its engineer on--the facts from atal agr cultural e :
way to make plans and supervise c. ... -
the work.perience.
*It expects to have the enlarged The primary reason that Mr.
freezing plant in operation before 'Teague advances for thle pure grow-,
the first 6f the year. Immediately er cooperative is that only the grow--
after will come the test of its dis- ers have that interest in production..
tribution plan in three principal which impels to stabilization of the
cities. market. Private operators, he said,
The frozen juice will be defrosted generally are speculative interests,
in the distribution terminals and :n the business to make a profit from
(Continued on Page 3) handle the product, not from pro-
.ducing it. They can make money "
P NDENT SHIP NTS in fact usually make more, when
PENDEINI SHIPMENTS: there are big'crops which bring a
-ors are representing to growers that 'oss to the growers.
shipping and is responsible for the It is an impossible job, in Mr. .
. Herewith, are thefigures on the Teague's opinion, for private:j ier- ,-j
ments, from which the growers can -
ures cover the period Sept. 20th to ests t6 work together on a stabiliza-
gures were available at this writing, tion and distribution control prob-
Its 1,543 cars 54% lem. Private interests mainly han-
,3ts 6 cars 46 dle the product at the point of pro-
1,266 cars 446% duction and by many different ar-
80 per cent of the fruit in the state. rangements, such as'-buying on theb
more than 50 per cent of the state tree, as agents, though consign-
ld have 60 per cent of the Clearing ment and by consignment to others,
ise has 80 per cent. If the Clearing
many believe, the Exchange pro rata joint account, and other ways.
cent. It is admitted by nearly all There is so much diversity of inter-
Sbig gains over last season, when it est it is impossible to harmonize
roportion of the allotments its sign- them all. One does not.know what
foregoing period would have been: the others are doing, each is selling
nts 1,148 cars 40% blindly as far as the others' are con-
1,721 cars 60% cerned. This is true even in the
nts for this period: clearing house, for the- cl-aring'
nts 1,605 cars
- - 1,148 cars house is a distribution agency, not
S- 457 cars a selling organization, he said.
S. 1,266 cars Growers have a common interest
-1,721 cars dependent upon market regulation
- - 455 cars
sentation of some operators further and are easier to hold in agreement
late in percentages. The Exchange r-n distribution and sale, whe 'as
hippdd by Nov. 2~, 34.r per centlof in've, experience oth an as- .
dependent operator hae ship ed eporience h a
ch s the Exchange. fContinued from Page 3. .
-n .ne.

SEL-WE CHRONICL Deeme 1, 1930____~ ___I_ ~

Expansion Of

Exports Plan

Of Exchange

First Of Year WIll Forward
Regular Shipments:Weekly
Allotments Being Sent


.Following the first of the year,
the Florida Citrus Exchange will
expand its export business and will
make regular shipments for the bal-
ance of the season, announced E. E.
Patterson, grapefruit sales manager,
in charge of the export division.
S Continental countries are more
responsive to citrus after the first
of the. year and will take a larger
volume, Mr. Patterson said. The
Exchange has made several ship-
ments and has maintained the pres-
tige of its brand. It expects, Mr.
Patterson said, to get the fullest
results from this, while continuing
its education work and stimulation
of demand.
The Exchange has made several
export shipments direct from Flor-.
ida and also has moved small lots to:
selected continental countries from
New York. The latter were to:
maintain the brand of the Exchange
in these foreign countries and to
prevent speculators in the north
from sharpshooting.
Hamburg, Germany, is receiving
100 boxes of Exchange fruit week-
ly. Bremen, Germany; Copenhag-

California's Citrus Season
Highlights from Annual Report, California Fruit Growers Exchange
Returns to California citrus growers, $135,309,352, based upon
Exchange returns. This is b,000,000 more than for any previous
Shipments of California citrus totaled 59,656 cars, or 23,800,000
boxes on the basis of 400 boxes to a car. On this same basis, or-
anges totaled 17,847,600 boxes, grapefruit 'z2,200 boxes, and
lemons 5,291,600 boxes.
The Exchange marketed 77.7 percent of the California and
Arizona citrus crops. Exchange marketing costs averaged 6.68
cents a box. Excnange district (sub-exchange) costs averaged 1.53
cents a box, making a total sales cost of 8.21 cents a box, ex-
clusive of advertising.
The Excnange spent $1,300,000 in advertising and merchandis-
ing. Its advertising retain was five cents a box on oranges and 10
cents a box on lemons and grapefruit Total advertising expen-
diture over a period of 23 years is $13,000,000.

en, Denmark, and Antwerp, Holland,
are receiving 50 boxes weekly each.
Paris receives 25 boxes every two
weeks. These are direct from New
York for the purpose mentioned
In direct export from Florida
were three cars from Jacksonville
to Liverpool on the "Tulsa," Oct.
10; three cars, Jacksonville to Liv-
erpool on the "Atlantian," Oct. 22;
four cars, Jacksonville to London
on the "Floridian," Oct. 29; 17
cars, Tampa to London on the
"Georgian," Nov. 18. The last ship-
ment will arrive during the holiday
buying season. One car was ex-
ported direct from New York on
Oct. 6.
The net returns from this export
fruit in most cases have Been equal

erence for certain sizes. England
wants small sizes, while Continental
countries like the larger fruit. Eco-
nomic conditions across the water
are depressed with much unemploy-
ment, which has its effect on sales.

Starts On Juice Plans

(Continued from Page 1)
delivered to the home by special re-
frigerator trucks. It also will serve
the fountain, hotel and similar
The Florida Citrus Exchange has
the contract to provide the juice
oranges at a very favorable price.
The Exchange also has arranged for
its juice subsidiary, the Exchange
Juice Company, to lease part of the
freezing facilities.

or slightly higher than the domes-
tic, according to Mr. Patterson. The Louisiana and Alabama will lift
export markets show the same re- their quarantines prohibiting Flor-
actions to quality that domestic ida citrus in New Orleans and
markets do. They also have pref Mobile areas.

Will Build Up

Southern Taste

For Grapefruit
Development of grapefruit favor
in the South will be undertaken by
the Exchange this season. Plans
ior the work were prepared by E.
E. Patterson, grapefruit sales man-
ager, and J. K. Wynn, manager of
the Southern division, recently, dur-
ing a special visit of Mr. Wynn to
Lhe Tampa office.
"While some volume of grape-
fruit is sold in the South, this mar-
Ket does not show a demand for the
fruit that other sections do," Mr.
Patterson said. "The South mainly
is an orange market.
"It is a big potential market for
grapefruit, but needs education on
che value of this citrus fruit. When
we build up the favor of the South
for grapefruit, we will have opened
up a big volume market. We are
starting upon this program now and
have hopes that it will produce good
results this season."
Mr. Wynn was instructed by Mr.
Patterson to direct sales pressure
on grapefruit and take the lead in
an education campaign. He has ob-
tained fine response from the Ex-
change brokers in connection with
pushing orange sales to overcome
truck competition if possible and
will ask for their cooperation in
the grapefruit program. Many of
these brokers and representatives
have volunteered their services in
distributing display materials of the
Exchange, featuring "Seald-Sweet"
and "Mor-Juce."

Beautiful Plant of New Lake Placid Association Now Operating

T T I I t-c

-I uu

.............. ....

.7- C

Above appears the new plant of
the Lake Placid association as
sketched by the architect. It was
completed a few weeks ago and is
one of the most attractive in the
state. It was designed to demon-
strate to visitors how citrus is han-
dled as well as to provide Lake

Placid growers with the most mod-
ern equipment and facilities.
It began operations under- what
might seem to be a unique rule in
the Flordia citrus industry. Fruit,
first handled, had to pass the test
of tastiness as well as the usual
maturity standard. Directors sam-

pled the fruit and if it was good to
eat from the Florida viewpoint it
was passed for packing. The asso-
ciation membership early made the
vow -that no fruit should pass
.through the house unless it passed
an "eating" test. '
This is Lake Placid's first season.

The association was organized last
summer. It starts with a fine vol-
ume of more than 100,000 boxes.
Directors and officers are: 0. F.
Gardner, president; G. AA. DeVane,
vice-president; A. C. Whitmore, sec-
retary; A. M. McAuly and W. C.
McClelland. Wm. Vogt is manager.

December 1, 1930




Exchange Sales

In South Nearly

Reach Quotas

Despite Difficulties Move
Good Volume Box Fruit
Tho Bulk Hindering

Despite the difficulty private op-
erators have encountered in build-
ing volume sales in the South, the
Florida Citrus Exchange had been
able to move up to Nov. 22 within
two per cent of the quota allotted
its Southern division, comprised of
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Lou-
isiana, Arkansas, Tennessee and
part of Kentucky.
Exchange shipments of that date
totaled 50,964 boxes. Of this 33,-
033 boxes were oranges or 66 per
cent of the total. Most of this was
packed fruit which netted fair re-
turns in view of the low price range
this season.
Bulk shipments, both truck and
carlot, are changing the market
prospects of the South and may
make it impossible to sell any quan-
tity of oranges in packed boxes.
AAlso they are forcing down the
price level. Special eoffrts, how-
ever, are being made by the Ex-
change to maintain the volume
movement at reasonable prices.
This, however, is the main field of
operations of most operators, ,few
of whom have any grove interests to
influence them to hold up the price
level. Commissions and packing
profits are made by them regardless
of what the grower receives.

All fruit in the packing
houses on Nov. 30th, the last
day of the "green fruit" in-
spection, must comply with
maturity requirements though
it is not planned to pack it
until after the expiration of
the enforcement period. This
information has been given to
all packing houses by O. G.
Strauss, supervising inspector,
who has advised that inspec-
tors will satisfy themselves
that all the fruit meets the re-
quirements before leaving.
It is believed that this rul-
ing results from the rush of
tangerines to market after
midnight, Nov. 15, when the
maturity inspection for tan-
gerines expired for the sea-
son. Much complaint was
made about this and it was
pointed out at the time that
the law makes no exception of
fruit in the houses awaiting
packing after the expiration
of the maturity enforcement
for the season.

By FRED W. DAVIS, General Sales Manager
November 28, 1930.
Since our last report of Nov. 12th shipments of oranges, grapefruit
and tangerines have increased materially in anticipation of Thanksgiving
holiday demand. Practically all of the markets have shown a gradual de-
clining tendency under heavier offerings, and on tangerines especially
there has been a very marked reduction in price as a result of extremely
heavy shipments from the state generally out of proportion to what the
markets could reasonably be expected to absorb. Weather conditions
from the state for the past several weeks have been unfavorable for the
production of firm, good keeping stock, and cars arriving in decayed con-
dition have been discounted. Unseasonably warm weather in all of the
northern markets has had a depressing effect on the general movement
of citrus fruits. Colder weather in the state, -which is now in prospect
will produce better color and keeping quality. Colder weather in the
north should result in a snappier movement and a more seasonable de-
mand which is already in evidence for the past several days.
The orange market has held for the past week the demand for 200s and
larger on the very best quality fruit. The prices-have ranged from $2.25
to $2.50 on Seald-Sweet and $1.85 to $2.00 on Mor-juce with 500 dis-
count on 250s and 288s. The shipments of 250s and smaller in bulk from
the state have been heavy and the prices generally realized by all bulk
operators have been around $1.00 per box f.o.b. Bulk shipments both
by truck and cars have seriously affected the box business especially in
the Southern markets. There is no demand at the present time for
small size fruit in boxes in the south, as jobbers cannot meet the bulk
competition and pay anything to the growers for their fruit.
The demand for grapefruit is starting to improve and should result
in a firmer market at slightly higher prices next week. The prices for
the past week have been $2.00 for Seald-Sweet and a quarter less on
Mor-juce f.o.b. for the best cars.
Chain stores and other large retailers have been advertising and fea-
turing tangerines for the past two weeks, and this together with their
generally good eating quality should have a beneficial effect on the mar-
ket. Tangerines have been selling around $2.50 f.o.b. for cars of desir-
able sizes, a few at slightly higher prices.
Recent wire advices from California indicate a shipment of 1,700 cars
,of navels for next week. Present California navel sizes are running
small, however, the size, color and maturity are improving. The recent
wind storm is reported to have done practically no damage other than
considerable scarring of fruit which will probably lower the grade to
some extent on Valencias from the southern districts.

Seek to Develop
Export Facilities

Present Arrangements Hin-
der Regular Export Ship-
ments from Interior

The Florida Citrus Exchange has
joined state-wide efforts being made
to increase the export facilities and
gain lower transportation costs.
This is centering upon a plan for
regular sailings and similar rates
out of Tampa port as prevail at the
Jacksonville port, which has a vir-
tual monopoly. The new terminal
proposed for Ft. Pierce also would
fit in to the plan.
Jacksonville is so far from some
of the main producing centers that
the high cost of transportation on
less than carloads or truck move-
ment makes it prohibitive for many
packing houses to prepare regular
export shipments. Few houses can
assemble a carload of proper sizes
regularly, but frequently have small
lots suitable if these could be as-
sembled at reasonable cost.
Tampa port is near enough to
many of these houses that trucks
could bring the small lots to the
port cheaply. Here they could be
assembled into an export shipment,
which would open the export trade
to most houses of the state as a
regular business.

Fort Pierce Terminal
Rests With Farm Board

Teague, Experts Complete
Inspection: Submitted For
Farm Board's Answer

Plans of Ft. Pierce association
and Indain River Sub-Exchange to
develop a large port terminal at Ft.
Pierce await the approval of the
Federal Farm Board with consid-
erable confidence the board will ap-
prove the project.
C. C. Teague of the Board made
an exhaustive inspection of the proj-
ect during his visit to the state,
spending an entire day at Ft. Pierce
going over the detail plans and look-
ing over the site on the $2,000,000
harbor. He was taken by boat
about the channel and showed deep-
est interest, asking many questions.
The association has worked out a
very attractive plan for the devel-
opment and have gotten practically
100 per cent support from the grow-
ers. Steamship companies have
made special rates and it is under-
stood that northern railroads will
establish very favorable combina-
tion water and rail rates for trans-
shipment from the ports to inland
points at much lower charges over
direct rail rates.
It was necessary to get a volume
(Continued on Page 4)

Control Only

Solution For

Citrus Grower

(Continued from Page 1)
sociation of private operators, it
has been found impossible to hold
the operators to the agreements
reached, Mr. Teague said. Private
operators are always striving fo-
an advantage and they are willing
often to accept prices for the fruit
just to get their charges out. They
make advances to the growers and
want to move the fruit to get their
money back, he said.
From the operators' viewpoint,
where they have cooperative com-
petition, it is not advisable for the
operators to assist in stabilizing
conditions, pointed out Mr. Teague.
They know, he said, that if they as-
sist in bettering conditions for the
cooperative as well as the growers
and themselves, they give the co-
operative an advantage over them.
The cooperative returns all it- re-
ceived for the fruit less the actual
cost, while an operator holds out
his commissions and charges in addi-
tion. They know, he said, that the
growers will see little excuse then
for the private operators.
Experience has repeatedly dem-
onstrated the impossibility of hold-
ing the operators in an agreement
for the stabilization of markets, as-
serted Mr. Teague. He explained
the experience of California years
ago with citrus at a time when the
California Fruit Growers Exchange
had 60 per cent of the crop and the
balance was handled only by about
15 private operators. Nearly 100-
per cent of the crop was in the
clearing house set up by the Cali-
fornians. With all these advan-
tages the private operators, though
so few in number, refused to stick
by their agreements and shipped
without regard for the growers' in-
California abandoned the plan
abruptly and such was the reaction
of the growers and business men of
the state that more than 75 per cent
of the crop was placed thereafter in
the Exchange and bankers willingly
financed Exchange growers and have
been reluctant to finance indepen-
dent growers and private operators,
he related.
This summer has given another
experience of the impossibility of
holding the private operators to an
agreement for the control of dis-
tribution, said Mr. Teague. This
project further had the assistance
of the Federal Farm Board, seeking
to see if commercial interests could
and would work with grower or-
(Continued on Page 4)


December 1, 1930





Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

Publication Office:
606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 1108

Net Grower Circulation
over 11,500

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VI DEC. 1, 1930 No. 13

Easy Come
Is it too easy in the citrus "game"
in Florida, as C. C. Teague of the
Federal Farm Board partly fears?
Mr. Teague was amazed at the
"ease of getting into the Florida
citrus business." He pointed out
that it costs so much less to make
a grove in Florida and that markets
are so near.
He told growers of how hard a
task California growers have to
even produce citrus. Land there is
$700 and more an acre, raw, five
times as much as in Florida. Water
has to be brought miles at big cost.
Markets are 11 and 12 days dis-
tant. Cultivation must be constant.
Diseases and pests must be fought
with man-designed means, not with
natural enemies as in Florida.
California growers, though they
must give a large part of their time
and money to build up a grove and
keep it going, had time to develop
organization and control of the fruit
after it leaves the trees. Condi-
tions forced them to take time for it.
Mr. Teague's remark brings to
mind the old saying, "Easy come,
easy go."

S .ectionalism
In a column of the Miami Herald
. -'of Nov. 20th appears the statement,
S"The exchange centers around Tam-
pa and extends out over the boun-
tiful Ridge section. Those people
seem to get along all right together.
But the almost outworn antagonisms
that have kept the West Coast from
the East Coast, north Florida from
south, for many years, still operate
to prevent a united citrus market-
ing front."
Though the editorial in which the
above appears is a sincere cry for
unification, we doubt if the "an-
tagonism" as stated has much if

any influence where the citrus situa-
tion is concerned. The editorial
would imply that the East Coast is
not enrolled so strongly in the Ex-
change and unification as the West
Coast and Ridge section. The rec-
ord is to the contrary.
Indian River section comprises
practically all of the citrus section
of the East Coast. It will provide
the Exchange with more than
1,000,000 boxes of fruit this season
or 60 per cent or more of the Indian
River production. Indian River
therefore is one of the strongholds
of the Exchange.
If this is not conclusive take In-
dian River sections separately. Oak
Hill association has all the fruit it
can handle,, even though facilities
were increased. Mims association
is full up. Cocoa-Merritt associa-
tion was forced to close its books
against further membership weeks
ago. Ft. Pierce similarly. Wabasso
association, one of the youngest
members of the Exchange, has about
the limit it can handle.
Orange county sub-exchange ex-
pects to give the Exchange 2,000,-
000 boxes of fruit this season. Lake
coVnty sub-exchange expects to
reach 1,000,000 boxes. Both of
these are north Florida areas, we
presume from the editorial of the
Herald. Orange sub-exchange han-
dles about 60 per cent of the citrus
produced in its section. Lake han-
dles close to 50 per cent.
It does not appear that "antag-
onisms" of sections has much influ-
ence, judging from these figures.
In fact, such has been the progress
north and south, East Coast and
West Coast, that we wonder how
the independents happen to over-
look such an exceptional weapon in
their favor.

Cuba has lifted its quarantine
against Florida citrus placed be-
cause of the Medfly. Cuba has a
quarantine against oranges, grape-
fruit and limes from Florida.
Argentine will admit fruit from
the state provided it has been given
a certificate of health by the author-
ities here.

A Miami fruit peddler is under
bond of $1,000 for appearance in
the Dade court of crimes for steal-
;ng fruit from a citrus grove.
Negroes working the grove claim
they saw the man leave the grove
with fruit which he put into his
truck. The grove has been prac-
tically stripped of fruit by repeated
thefts, the owner reported.
Three young men taking a small
quantity of oranges and tangerines
to eat from a Ft. Pierce grove spent
nearly two days and nights in the
county jail for the theft. The fact
the men took the fruit to eat and
that only a few were taken saved
them from much longer terms

Many citrus growers of Florida get the benefit of the Cooperative umbrella held up by
the Florida Citrus Exchange, even though these growers, the "dependents," do not help
hold the umbrella up. This cannot continue long, however. Either the umbrella will
get too big for the Exchange growers to carry alone or the space under the umbrella
will be crowded with Exchange growers and the poor "dependent" will get a severe
market sunburn.

Fort Pierce Terminal
(Continued from Page 4)
sign-up in the association of 300,-
000 boxes. More than 320,000
boxes of fruit have been signed up
for five years. An additional 100,-
000 boxes has been signed up un-
der one year contracts, which gives
the association a big margin over
base requirements.
The terminal plans include a
packing plant big enough to handle
double the base fruit requirements,
a large cold storage plant and a
canning plant. It is estimated it
will cost about $225,000 exclusive
of the site. The construction cost
will be paid by a special retain
which will retire the obligation over
a period of years and leave full own
ership in the growers.
The site will be obtained under
a very unusual arrangement, par-
ticularly favorable to the growers.
It will be paid for out of one-half
of the savings ni the transportation
of the fruit by water. The owners
further offered it at appraised value
with the appraisal to be made by
the company employed by the Ex-
change in appraising packing house
values for the Farm Board loan.
Indian River Sub-Exchange has
taken care of the cannnig plant sec-
tion of the plan by organizing a
sub-exchange subsidiary, with cap-
ital at $100,000 to build the plant
and operate it for the sub-exchange.

Control Only Solution
(Continued from Page 3)
Nearly bankrupt by several sea-
sons of disaster, the California grape
interests, grower and commercial,
joined in a control project to re-
move an admitted surplus produc-
tion from the market and regulate
the distribution of the marketable
volume. It was divided into two
sections, one the raisin, which was
wholly cooperative, and the other
the fresh grapes, which was a com-
bination of cooperative and private.
The raisin group adhered firmly
to the agreement and moved the
entire crop at a good profit. But
the fresh grape deal, after a suc-
cessful start, blew up with terrific
losses to the growers when the pri-
vate interests near the end of the
season refused to stick by the
agreements on shipments and threw
15,000 cars of excess volume into
the markets, bringing complete de-
moralization, related Mr. Teague.
Cooperative control is difficult to
attain, Mr. Teague said. Private
interests play up its weaknesses or
errors to the growers, but fail to
mention its successes or benefits, or
misrepresent them. But experience
proves that cooperative marketing
is successful when growers ade-
quately support it and it stands to-
day as the only solution so far
found for the growers' problem of
marketing, he asserted.


December 1, 1930


Explains New Ideas In Citrus Culture

Dr. Northern Discusses Soil
Colloids, Culls and Rare
Fertilizing Elements

New viewpoints on culls, the de-
velopment of citrus soils and the
causes of many diseases of citrus
were given by Dr. Charles Northen
of Ocala, in his talk at the citrus
meeting, Nov. 17 at Frostproof, of
the Associated Boards of Trade.
Dr. Northen discussed the new
theory of the use of the rarer or less
known mineral elements in fertiliz-
ing and also the soil colloids which
the latest agricultural scientific
thought credits wtih high value in
holding and making available plant
food. Cull fruit he looked upon as
an indication of deficiencies in soil
and tree which can be reduced to
a minimum by a proper understand-
ing and use of the new ideas.
"It is essentially fitting that Flor-
ida should lead in movements look-
ing to higher standards and a bet-
ter knowledge of what quality in
foods means and how it can be pro-
duced," Dr. Northen said. "Be-
cause Florida leads the world in
natural advantages for producing
high quality citrus, she can in a
large measure monopolize quality
Florida, he said, can produce
quality citrus far beyond competi-
tive sections, but it must begin with
a thorough understanding of its
soils and their needs first. It costs
as much to grow or ship culls as it
does high grades, while eit brings
less and competes with the high
grades, he said. In growing for
quality, growers will soon realize
that such practice brnigs quantity
production automatically, Dr. Nor-
then commented.
According to Dr. Northen, Flor-
ida has practically no soil which
cannot be favorably modified with
reasonable effort. Soils, he said,
constitute the most important fac-
tor in quality production, and while
Florida has a variety of soils their
main dicerences are of a kind which
will yield to treatment and can be
handled so as to give uniform pro-
duction, both in quality and quan-
"Our soils in Florida, because of
the sea water swept over the land
as vapor, are supplied with many
rare elements," Dr. Northen said.
"They are nearly all susceptible of
being developed into productive,
well balanced soils of uniform text-
ure and quality, provided they have
proper air and water drainage."
The soil has "life, breathes and
digests food and is not an inert

mass into which chemicals can be
dumped," declared Dr. Northen. He
said .there is a tendency to dump
by-products upon the grower with
no other interest than that they con-
tain nitrogen or ammonia and the
grower indiscriminatingly accepts
what is offered. He expressed the
belief that premature dropping and
splitting result from improper and
unbalanced feeding of trees.
With many people, nitrogen, phos-
phate and potash are the only ele-
ments considered necessary, but in
the past five years leaders in agri-
cultural research have discovered
an importance in rarer and less
known minerals, some going so far
as to think them more important
than the better known trio of nitro-
gen, phosphate and potash, Dr. Nor-
then said. These rarer elements,
manganese, iodine, boron, copper,
arsenic, flourine, titanium, sulphur
and nickel are vital foods or stimu-
lants for men and animals and are
the same in plants, too, he said.
According to Dr. Northen, it has
been found in several instances that
sprays owed their efficiency to the
effect of what fell upon the ground
and was taken up by the trees
through their roots. Citrus waste
and culls contain many of the rarer
elements which the tree has exacted
from the soil and the waste or culls
put back in the soil will return these
elements, though additional supply
must be given to allow the soil and
trees the full amount needed.
Commenting more on production,
Dr. Northen said the future of the
industry will depend upon the knowl-
edge of soil colloids, soil bacteria,
fungi and carbon dioxide. Colloids
have been termed the digestive ap-
paratus of the soil, he said, and hold
and make available the plant food.
They attract and hold moisture and
furnish food for the soil bacteria,
he said.
Bacteria are the life of the soil
and fix nitrogen abundantly, con-
tinued Dr. Northen. Their economic
value, he said, can be better appre-
ciated when it is remembered that
nitrogen is the most important and
most expensive of all plant foods.
Soil colloids, he said, improve the
environment of the bacteria and
also prevent the rapid leaching of
Discussing further the value of
citrus waste, Dr. Northen said it
contained vegetable acids which
bring into solution mineral elements
that have become fixed in the soil
and were not available to the trees.
Carbon dioxide, he said, is the
most powerful solvent in the soil of
mineral elements. It has also a
strong tendency to modify low tem-
perature and where abundant in the

soil and the air is helpful in pre-
venting cold damage, he said. Abun-
dant in the soil, carbon dioxide en-
ables trees to get their food in more
concentrated solutions. Trees ordi-
narily use about one-third of the
water they absorb to get plant
foods from the soil and with more
carbon dioxide can thrive on less
Molds or fungi under certain con-
ditions produce more nitrogen than
bacteria, explained Dr. Northen.
They decompose organic matter
more readily, consume more energy
and therefore, he said, release more
nitrogen in the form of ammonia.
Referring again to citrus waste,
Dr. Northen said it was almost
wholly collodial and readily blends
with and becomes a part of the soil
colloids. It not only contains rare
elements and properties, he said,
the trees. Citrus waste could be
but holds other plant food ready for
called "the pantry of the grove," he

Association Houses
Acon Park Citrus Growers Assn.
Clearwater Growers' Assn.
DeLand Packing Assn.
Eagle Lake Fruit Growers Assn.
Elfers Citrus Growers Assn.
Highland Park Packing House, Inc.
International Fruit Corp.
Fullers Crossing
Fort Pierce
Lucerne Park
Lake Alfred Citrus Growers Assn
Lake Garfield Citrus Growers Assn.
Lakeland Citrus Growers Assn.
'Lake Hamilton Citrus Growers Assn.
Lake Placid Citrus Growers Assn.
Leesburg Citrus Growers Assn.
Manatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Minis Citrus Growers Assn.
Nocatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Ocala Fruit Packing Co., Inc.
Orlando Citrus Growers Assn.
L. B. Skinner
Umatilla Citrus Growers Assn
Waverly Citrus Growers Assn.
Winter Garden Citrus Growers Assn.
Ask the man who uses Brogdex and
you will get the low down on what
it will do for you.
Florida BrogdexDistributors,Inc.
Dunedin, Florida

Why Brogdex--

Controls Decay
Retards Shrinkage
Cuts Refrigeration Costs
In Consumer Demand

Brogdex houses report very satisfactory results from
Brogdex. Most houses have had no decay at all. A few
cases of decay have been reported the reason for which
was generally found in the coloring room. This has been
corrected since when control has been almost 100%.
Despite heavier shipments less Brogdexed fruit is going
into the auctions than last year. The big bulk is being
sold F.O.B. That is a very desirable situation and indi-
cates a decided market preference as well as a pretty
thorough knowledge of the way the buyer expects
Brogdexed fruit to open up upon arrival.
More Brogdexed fruit than ever before is being shipped
without ice both by rail and by boat. With low mar-
ket levels this saving means a lot to the grower.
The value of citrus fruit in the well balanced family
diet is now being broadcast over the radio every week
to the northern buyer and consumer. We are urging
the purchase of Brogdexed fruit because of its keeping
qualities. This information we hope will increase the
per capital consumption as well as to stimulate the sale
of Brogdexed fruit.
Brogdex can be installed in your plant with little if any
interruption to normal packing operations. Already 26
Exchange houses are using it it their complete satisfac-
Tune in Monday nights at 10:30 Station WFLA



December 1, 1930


Florida's citrus development and
possibilities astonished C. C. Teague
of the Federal Farm Board, who is
one of California's veteran citrus
growers and the developer of thou-
sands of acres. The recent visit of
Mr. Teague was his first in the state
and the first hand view he obtained
literally startled him, he admitted.
The most impressive point to Mr.
Teague is the ease and low cost of
getting into the business of pro-
ducing citrus. This, with the close-
ness of Florida to the main markets,
lead him to speculate if this were
not responsible largely for the cha-
otic conditions in the industry and
the difficulty to bring growers and
operators to realize the seriousness
of their situation.
The tremendous area suitable for
citrus development in the state was
a striking revelation to Mr. Teague,
seeing the citrus belt at first hand
for the first time. This potential
development prospect frightened
him, it was so vast, he said. It led
him to state unequivocally that Cali-
fornia can carry the load of adver-
tising only little longer and that
Florida must do something about
control and merchandising or the
citrus industry will not be profitable
for anyone in this country.
"I have spent several days travel-
ing through your state and I have
gotten quite a picture of your cit-
rus growing area," said Mr. Teague
to the Board of Directors of the Ex-
change. "I am ashamed that in
the 35 years of my experience in
growing citrus that I have not vis-
ited Florida before.
"I could not but be impressed of
the great potential production of
citrus here. I saw evidence of it on
every hand as I passed by grove
after grove.
"It frightens one to contemplate
your great citrus resources, the ease
with which one can get into the
business here, the comparatively
small cost of developing a grove as
compared with California. Tremen-
dous areas can and ho doubt will be
put into citrus production wherever
there is a steady profitable showing
made. We in California are wont
to think California areas suitable
to citrus are pretty well limited and
Share pretty well exhausted now ex-
cept in the more northern sections
of the state with limitations in
water, drainage and frost protec-
Mr. Teague cited a grove devel-
opment in which he was interested
as an example of the difference in
cost in Florida and California. He
had learned that a Florida grove
can be brought to bearing age for a

Prepared for the Seald-Sweet Chronicle by
Horticultural Department, Lyon Fertilizer Company
After fertilizer has been worked in, discontinue cultivation
allowing trees to remain dormant.
Watch out for rust mites. If weather continues dry they
are very likely to injure the fruit that has been kept bright
up to this time.
Groves that have not had Fall application of fertilizer,
should be fertilized this month.
Trees may be transplanted from nursery to grove during
this month. Do not set with crown roots lower than the
surface of the ground. Head back to twelve or fourteen
inches. Water thoroughly and bank.
Non-bearing trees likely to be exposed to severe cold should
be banked with soil from which all sticks, grass and other
trash have been removed. This will prevent damage from
wood lice.
Prune dead wood and water sprouts from all trees not car-
rying fruit.
If it has not already been done, plow or disc a strip around
grove where adjacent to cultivated land to reduce fire
hazard. Remove all dead wood, clean up fence rows, and
dtches, and clean all rubbish and grass from around, the
trunks of trees to eliminate danger from wood lice and
ants during winter.

cost of between $600 and $800 an
He and some associates about six
years ago brought 550 acres of good
citrus land at a cost of $735 an
acre, which they thought and still
consider to have been a good bar-
gain. They had to bring water
from three to four miles for irri-
gation at a high cost. They kept
an exact record and at the end of
the fifth year, the grove cost had
averaged $2,000 an acre.
"Of course the records told an-
other story the sixth year," he re-
lated. The grove paid $250,000

The citrus program arranged by
the Associated Boards of Trade of
the Scenic Highlands at Frostproof,
Nov. 17, attracted several hundred
growers with the largest attendance
in the evening to hear C. C. Teague,
member of the Federal Farm Board.
The afternoon meeting and fish
fry were held in the open on a large
lot near the heart of the business
section. Rain forced a transfer to
the school auditorium in the eve-
ning shortly before Mr. Teague was
scheduled to speak.
Commissioner of Agriculture Na-
than A. Mayo, after delivering a
paper on "Quality," read a pre-
pared reply to recent criticisms di-
rected both to him and to enforce-
ment of the "green fruit" law. Mr.
Mayo stated that he had followed
the advice of a special committee he

has selected with five members from
the operating committee of the
clearing house, five from the com-
mittee of fifty and five chosen from
other independent operators. He
denied that any laxity in inspection
existed and that with relation to
inspection of canning fruit, it had
been the general opinion during the
draft of the "green fruit" measure
that this fruit should not be includ-
ed in enforcement though it was not
excluded in the law. He reiterated
his intention of relying upon the
special committee of 15 in matters
concerning citrus. He named this
committee as follows:
From the Committee of Fifty-
Messrs. Burton, Burns, Fairchild,
Zazzalli and Moorhead. From the
operating committee-Messrs. Pratt,
Kirkland, R. D. Keene, Woolfolk
and General Blanding. From out-
side group-Messrs. Valentine, Lau-
rence Gentile, Kilgore, Day and
Senator Parrish.
W. J. Howey, severely criticising
shipment of friit which destroyed
public confidence, recommended
that a commissioner of citrus be
appointed with the duty of hand-
ling all official citrus matters. Mr.
Mayo, he said, had too much other
work to permit full attention to
citrus. He recommended further
that such a citrus commissioner
should be thoroughly experienced in
the citrus industry.
Dr. Charles Northen of Ocala
spoke on production for quality.

Florida gave C. C. Teague of the
Federal Farm Board and Mrs.
Teague a hearty welcome and a
very full week during their recent
visit in the state. Every minute of
their stay in the state was taken
care of, giving them somewhat of a
strenuous program into which both
entered with equal spirit.
On arrival at Jacksonville Sun-
day, Nov. 16, Mr. and Mrs. Teague
were met by Walter Coachman,
who, after a tour about Jackson-
ville, took them to Orlando, where
they became the guests of President
J. C. Chase of the Florida Citrus
Exchange, with whom they spent
the night. Monday they were
brought through the Ridge section,
stopping at several points of inter-
est in the Scenic Highlands, includ-
ing Bok Tower.
They were the guests of the As-
sociated Boards of Trade of the
Scenic Highlands, which arranged
a citrus program for the afternoon
and evening, with Mr. Teague as
the principal speaker. 0. F. Gard-
ner, president of Lake Placid asso-
ciation and a leader in Ridge ac-
tivities, was their host that night at
Lake Placid.
Mr. and Mrs. Teague motored to
Tampa, where Mr. Teague attended
the meeting of the Board of Direc-
tors of the Exchange in the after-
noon. Wednesday they were taken
back to Orlando, where Mr. Teague
addressed the Rotary club at noon
and a special growers' meeting ar-
ranged by the Exchange in the after-
noon. Special efforts were made to
entertain Mrs. Teague while the
various meetings were-going on.
At Ft.- Pierce, where they spent
Thursdya, they were greeted by an
Indian River committee headed by
the Ft. Pierce Chamber of Com-
merce, which had a luncheon for
them. They went to Miami Thurs-
day night and were guests of Frank
Shutts, publisher of the Miami Her-
ald, and Mrs. Shutts at dinner. The
Mayor's committee of Miami headed
by Mayor C. H. Reeder, publisher
of the Miami Times, entertained
them at luncheon Friday, after
which they were taken about Miami
and along the coast.
Mr. Teague was invited to talk
over WMQR of Miami Saturday
noon. With Mrs. Teague and Mr.
and Mrs. Curry he spent the after-
noon motoring.

Frostproof roes.and Lakefront
t Homes for sale by....



December 1, 1930


Encourage Home

Consumption Of

Citrus In State

"Know Florida Oranges" week
will be the special event of the state,
Dec. 1 to 7, sponsored by the Florida
Affiliated Exchange clubs to stimu-
late home consumption of citrus.
During the week, there will be daily
broadcasts of talks by prominent
civic leaders on the health and food
values of oranges and newspapers
will carry many articles on similar
topics of varied recipes.
A surprisingly small percentage
of Floridians eat oranges regularly,
in the opinion of W. M. Smith,
president of the Florida Affiliated
Exchange clubs. "We can hardly
expect a proper recognition of our
citrus fruits from northern visitors,
unless we are healthy consumers and
boosters for Florida oranges," he
Every civic factor in the state,
including service clubs, officials,
newspapers, radio stations and the
Florida Citrus Exchange will coop-
erate with the Exchange clubs in the
program. They will urge all Flor-
idians to eat more oranges, to learn
all they can about the fruit and


Groves, Inc.,
Annual Barbecue

Flamingo Groves, Inc., with
groves at Davie, will have its fourth
annual "old fashioned" barbeque,
Thursday, Dec. 4. County, muni-
cipal and port officials and many
civic leaders join with the grove
company to make the event a "feast
of progress."
Three motorcades have been ar-
ranged to assist the guests to get
to the barbeque scene. One will
form at the Chamber of Commerce
of each of the following: Hollywood,
Harding Circle, 12:30; Ft. Lauder-
dale, City building, 12:30; Miami,
Old City building, 12:15.
Flamingo Groves, Inc., has one
of the finest Everglades citrus de-
velopments. It has several hundred
acres in groves and land holdings
of several thousand arres.

above everything else to "talk Flor-
ida oranges."
It is suggested that orange juice
be served at every breakfast of the
week, that the various orange salads
be served at luncheon and dinner
as well as the orange marmalades,
breads and pastries.
Preliminary to the week, prom-
inent speakers informed over radio
of the value of oranges and their

Loan Company Is

Praised By Farm

Board Loan Chief
High tribute was given the Grow-
ers Loan and Guaranty Company,
affiliation of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change, by George H. Thomas, chief
of the loan division of the Federal
Farm Board, during a recent visit
in Florida.
Mr. Thomas said that the Growers
Loan and Guaranty Company had
been one of the first agricultural
credit companies to obtain loans
from the Intermediate Credit bank
and had always paid its obligations
promptly at maturity, a statement
which could not apply, he said, to
the majority of similar credit cor-
porations. Mr. Thomas compliment-
ed the company on the manner in
which it conducted its business and
spoke highly of its executive vice-

Polk Company Buys Site
In Tampa For Cannery
An eight acre tract has been:pur-
chased in Tampa by the Polk com-
pany of Haines City, which is under-
stood to plan a canning plant on this
site next season. The company op-
erates a plant at Haines City and
one recently built at Ft. Myers.
Negotiations for the Tampa site
have been known about for many
weeks, but the identity of the pur-
chasing interests was kept secret.

president, S. L. Looney.
Mr. Thomas has been closely ac-
quainted with the business of the
company. He was chief examiner
for the Intermediate Credit Banks
pointment to his present position.
and Land Banks prior to his ap-
He was in Florida during the visit
of Mr. Teague and accompanied Mr.
Teague on his inspection of the Ft.
Pierce port where Ft. Pierce asso-
ciation proposes a terminal plant.

The New and Patented IACO
Process Offers Benefits to
al Citrus Interests

Science and Invention produces the IACO
Process of Cleaning, Polishing and Preserv-
ing Citrus fruits against molds at a low price,
within the reach of all Citrus fruit packers
and growers.
Because of its low price and simplicity of
operation, the IACO process bestows its ben-
efits upon all concerned with the production
and marketing of citrus fruits.
Cleaner fruit and polished with a glowing
natural luster increases Demand by a more
inviting product.
Increase of Grade affords packer and
grower a larger income for the same raw
Higher returns gratify both packer and
Low cost, one-third that of other processes,
is gladly invested because of the small outlay
in comparison to the larger returns.. The
proportion of cost to returns is so low that
the chance of not making a 100% profit is
practically eliminated.
We appreciate the opportunity to explain
details of the IACO process to packer or

oRWus cowuacomomoBI'
Patent Owners and Distributors
of the "I AC O" Process
for Cleaning, Polishing and Protecting Citrus Fruits

Jacksonville, Fla. Winter Haven, Fla.
208 St. James Bldg.

Rendering One and All

A Sincere Auction Service

Pennsylvania Terminal

Auction Company


Use the "PENNSY to PHILLY"



December 1, 1930


Two of the largest factors in cit-
rus markets today are Florida or-
anges and grapefruit. Not so many
years back, Florida oranges were a
negligible factor with the retail gro-
cer; grapefruit, more or less a nov-
elty, the percentage of grocers hand-
ling grapefruit being very small.
In recent years
the demand for
both the fruits
has more than
trebled due to
consumer de-
mand developed
by the Florida
Citrus Exchange
advertising and
m are looked upon
today as pre-
ferred items in every store carrying
The Florida Citrus Exchange has
consistently advertised Florida or-
anges and grapefruit. During the
Florida citrus season newspapers
and magazine advertisements have
carried to millions of people the
facts concerning the superiority of
Florida oranges. The "la more
juice" slogan which is tied up with
the "Seald-Sweet" advertising has
been the largest single factor in
stimulating the demand for Florida
oranges. The general public now
recognizes and looks upon, grape-
fruit from the health angle as a
winter essential due to the Exchange
advertising of Seald-Sweet grape-
In addition to the national con-
sumer advertising campaigns, the
Exchange has built up a well or-
ganized and equipped dealer serv-
ice department, for the purpose of
contacting the thousands of retail
outlets and giving the dealer a tie-
up with the national magazine and
newspaper advertising by placing
display material, dressing windows
and featuring the Exchange brands
-"Seald-Sweet" and "Mor-Juce."

Voick and Kleenup
oil sprays for citrus are
produced by the world's
largest manufacturers
of spray materials;.. pio-
neers in the development
of modern oil sprays...
61 West Jefferson Street Orlando, Florida

By E. B. FALLON, Dealer Service Chief, Eastern Division

Above is shown a part of the Exchange display for the New York Auction. The fruit
is lined up by carlots as shown and buyers at the auction walk up and down the display
aisles inspecting and checking off the lots on auction sale lists before the auction starts.
This view will give a grower an idea of the value of careful grading and packing, for
all fruit for an auction sale is lined up in the display room and is subject to close com-
parison and inspection with every other offering. Buyers quickly spot out the differ-
ences between the various lots of fruit and mark their preferences on the sales list.
Poor pack and grade is at a big disadvantage.

These service representatives are
not alone experienced display men
but also experienced in the science
of practical merchandising of citrus
fruits and it is their duty to aid
the dealer in the disposing of his
fruit by explaining the value of
proper merchandising. Any selling
or merchandising suggestions which
the dealer can apply or adopt to im-
prove his sales and profits is appre-
ciated by him. The following mer-
chandising suggestions are passed
on to the retailer:
There are any number of meth-
ods used to display stock and with
so many types of stores there is no
set standard fruit display arrange-
ment. However, in every type of
store the fruit should be right up
front and at least part of the window
devoted to it. Many dealers devote
the entire window to fruit display
and sell fruit right from the win-
dow. The most important of all is
to have the fruit well displayed out
where it can be seen; keep out dust,
loose wrappers, watch for aged and
withered fruit, which is removed
some place by itself, possibly on a
bargain table at one side. It is a
big mistake to mix old and new
fruit together. It lowers the value
of the good fruit. A generous ap-
pearing display is the best selling
factor. Put as much fruit as you
can on your stand. The more you
show the more you sell! Be sure to
keep stem ends in on all fruit dis-
Sizes to Buy
Owing to nature and climatic con-
ditions over which the grower has
no control, the sizes and grades will
sometimes vary from season to sea-
son. For example, 1928-29 the or-
ange crop had a strong tendency to

run to smaller sizes, whereas in
1929-30 it was just the reverse,
large sizes predominated. Natural-
ly, when the crop is heavy on, we
will say, large sizes, there is a scar-
city of small sizes and the best buy
for the retailer would be to handle
larger sizes. However, the simple
rule to follow would be to buy the
sizes that are the best buy on the

market, considering the grade. It
is much better to move up and down
on sizes than to change from one
grade to another with every market
fluctuation. This permits mainte-
nance of a firm selling price. A store
may have a very fine reputation for
handling fruit of a certain grade
and brand. This reputation can be
quickly lost by the dealer shopping
for grades of another brand less
known and sometimes of inferior
quality. Shop for the sizes of the
same grade and brand normally
handled and generally something
will be found in that identical grade
and brand of fruit that will satisfy
your trade. This applies to grape-
fruit as well as oranges.
(Continued on Page 9)



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Ctler B. Downer Fred'k L Springford
Harold F. Miles

Route Your Perishable Traffic












Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Baltimore, Maryland



December 1, 1930



(Continued from Page 8)
Quantities to Stock
Florida oranges range in the fol-
lowing sizes:
96s 126s 176s 216s 288s
100s 150s 200s 250s 324s
28s 46s 64s 80s
36s 54s 70s 96s 126s
Quite a wide range. It would be
out of the question for a dealer to
stock a full range of sizes on either
fruit and it is plain enough to see
that a full range of sizes is not
necessary. However, this does not
mean that the range of sizes should
be scant. The average retailer
handling fruit should carry from
three to four sizes of oranges and
from two to three sizes of grape-
fruit. A good range of orange
sizes for the average store to stock
would be for large sizes 100s-126s
or 150s; for medium, 176s, 200s or
216s; for small 250s, 288s or 324s.
On grapefruit large sizes 36s, 46s
and 54s; medium, 64s and 70s;
small, 80s and 96s.
The price of oranges and grape-
fruit is regulated entirely by the
law of supply and demand. Try to
regulate purchases so that you may
be able to take advantage of the
best buy on the market. Do not be
prejudiced against certain sizes,
sizes that may not appeal to you,
and yet are the best buy from a
merchandising standpoint. They
may prove quite acceptable to your
trade with the proper merchandis--
ing support.
A dealer should set his merchan-
dising sales so as to turn his stock

Importance of Citrus Fruit of Florida To Other Business
A Radio Address By C, C, TEAGUE, Member of the Federal Farm Board

I have just had the pleasure of
taking a drive through the citrus
producing area of Florida for the
first time. I left the train at Jack-
sonville and drove from Jackson-
ville to Frostproof and along the
wonderful Ridge citrus producing
area to Lake Placid, and from
thence to Tampa today. I have
been greatly impressed with the
wonderful possibilities of citrus
production in Florida .
What is the interest of other busi-
ness in Florida in the citrus busi-
ness of Florida? In the long run,
the prosperity of the country is
measured by the prosperity of agri-
culture. That, I believe, is particu-
larly true of the citrus producing
area of Florida. Certainly the cit-
rus production is the most impor-
tant agricultural product in Florida.
Florida has many natural advan-
tages over other producing sections
of the United States. First, it is
very close to market. It has a nat-

over at least once a week; twice or
three times would be better, if he
can do it. Citrus fruits are perish-
able and any delay in turnover will
result in loss from shrinkage. He
should buy the quantities he can
sell promptly and profitably. Bet-
ter, if need be, to take a loss quickly
than hold out for a price with fruit
showing a daily shrinkage. The
dealer should watch his stock closely
and work off fruit in the order it
came in to his store from whole-
saler. This will keep his shrinkage
down to a minimum.

ural climate-a climate and soil that
is well adapted to producing citrus
fruit. It is not necessary here in
Florida to irrigate. There are many
advantages because it is not neces-
sary to practice the clean cultiva-
tion. These are practiced in pro-
ducing citrus fruit in semi-arid coun-
tries like California, my own home
But sometimes I think that some
of these natural advantages have
made the production of citrus al-
most too easy. Why is it that with
all these natural advantages, that
this industry has not progressed so
far in the marketing of its fruit, in
working out cooperative marketing
systems for marketing their fruit,
as have the growers of California?
I think the answer is that in Cali-
fornia we do not have these natural
advantages. We are 3,000 miles
away from our markets. We have
to irrigate. We have to act co-
operatively or collectively to bring
the water down from the mountains
and to get them to our citrus pro-
ducing lands. The result is that the
people of California have learned
many years ago that it is only
through the development of co-
operative marketing that the solu-
tion of the problem can be found.
The result is that in California 76
per cent of the citrus fruit is in the
California Fruit Growers Exchange.
Returns $1,300,000,000
In the last 25 years the Cali-
fornia Fruit Growers Exchange has
returned to the producers of Cali-
fornia $1,300,000,000. The credit

loss in carrying on this gigantic op-
eration has only been 66/10000th
of one per cent. Last year the Cali-
fornia Fruit Growers Exchange re-
turned to the producers in Cali-
fornia $105,000,000.
In the last 20 years the California
Fruit Growers Exchange has spent
over $13,000,000 in national adver-
tising, on the Sunkist orange. The
result is that the Exchange has had
a great deal to do with creating a
national demand for oranges, both
California oranges and Florida or-
anges. It has spent over half of
this $15,000,000 in the last five
years, and spent $1,700,00 last year.
On the other hand, here in Flor-
ida, notwithstanding the fact that
the Florida Citrus Exchange has
been in existence something like 24
years, up to this last year it had not
succeeded in getting more than 30
per cent of the citrus production of
Florida under cooperative control.
This last year, through assistance
rendered by the Federal Farm
Board, the per cent of control was
increased up to 40 per cent, and
this coming year it is expected that
the Exchange will ship about 50 per
cent of the citrus crop of Florida.
Clearing House
The result of the lack of control
of Florida citrus fruit has meant
that the control of the distribution
has been in the hands of the com-
mercial operators. There are some
140 or 150 of these operators, each
marketing fruit without knowledge
of the marketing operations of the
(Continued on Page 10)

Qhe. SWA D

('1'rade Nlark --- Iteg. U_ S. Pat. Off.)
'niere is- a Scheu Heater for Every Pin-pose at a Price for EN-ery Ptirse
Write for Descriptive Literattire Showirig Nleans aiid Nlethods for Sahig All Crops at Low Teraperawre

9 SO. CLIN-ror4 S-r. C:HI=AtXC.CDO I L. L-





December 1, 1930


other. While there has been some
attempt to control distribution
through a Clearing House, it is very
difficult to get the same degree of
cooperation through a clearing
House operation. It is much more
difficult than it is through a grower
owned and controlled cooperative
marketing organization where all of
the fruit that is shipped by the or-
ganization is for the members and
where the interests of.the members
are all identical.
It is very important in control-
ling the distribution of a product
that the organization that is con-
cerned with its distribution shall
have a large per cent of control.
This is necessary to avoid gluts and
famines. It is necessary so that the
producer may bargain for the sale
of his fruit and that he may properly
distribute through markets proper-
ly merchandised so as to prevent
the buyers from bringing disastrous,
chaotic conditions in a market. It
is necessary so through a large per-
centage of control the cooperative
organization may be able to adver-
tise the fruit nationally and by con-
trolling a large volume, have a low
unit cost to the producer.
The evil results of bad market-
ing and distribution are very serious
to the grower. They result in red
ink, bringing back nothing for his
product. In the days of depression
which we have had recently, there
are few industries that have been
sufficiently organized cooperatively
so that they have been able to tell
us something of the story of what
might happen were the agriculture
of this country properly organized
The citrus industries of Floriday
and California, due to their prod-
uct being very thoroughly intro-
duced into the markets of the coun-
try and having wide distribution,
have been able to sell their product
at very satisfactory prices. The
same thing is true of the walnut in-
dustry of California.
Sell-Out in Five Days
Last year the California Walnut'
Growers Association, which has
something like 85 per cent of the
walnut production of California,
marketed this crop, which was an
average crop, at the opening
prices maintained the prices firm
throughout the year and raised the
price somewhat toward the end of
the season. Again, this year they
opened at prices 1 Y c a pound above
the prices of the previous year, and
in five days sold their entire crop.
This is a remarkable performance
when one considers that walnuts are
not considered a necessity.
Cooperative marketing is a long
time project. It is brought about
through education of producers. It
means prosperity to the agricultural
communities, and prosperity in the
agricultural communities means

(Continued from Page 9)

prosperity to general business. Busi-
ness men, bankers and all business
men of all kinds should lend active
support to the development of co-
operative marketing. I think that
it is particularly imperative that
you give serious consideration to
the Florida industry to become prop-
erly -organized cooperatively.
We are facing a large production.
There are many non-bearing acres,
both in Florida and in Texas. About
40 per cent of the total plantings
.of grapefruit are in Texas. Cer-
tainly we must control the distribu-
tion of the product as it comes to
bearing or the producers, not only
in Texas, but in Florida and in Cali-
fornia, face certain disaster. If
Florida and Texas will organize to
something like the same degree of
control that exists in California in-
dustry, there is no reason that these
three states, the organizations in
these three states, there is no reason
that they cannot control the distri-
bution by some collaborating ar-
Agricultural Problem
Now I might tell you for a few
moments something of the general
agricultural situation in the coun-
try. That there is an agricultural
problem no one denies. This was
a subject of much discussion in the
halls of Congress and the final re-
sult was the passage of the Agri-
cultural Marketing Act. Through
the passage of this act, a fund of
$500,000,000 was created to assist
the agriculture of this country. The
primary purpose of the Agricultural
Marketing Act is to build a system
of control owned and controlled co-
operatively for the agricultural
products of America.
The citrus industry of Florida
was one of the first to apply to the
Federal Farm Board for assistance,
and the Board was very glad to
grant them a loan of $3,000,000 on
packing house facilities. It is
thought that this will be a very
great assistance to the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange in securing the con-
trol of the citrus industry of Flor-
12,000 Cooperatives
In reviewing the field of coopera-
tion, the Board found that there
were some 12,000 cooperative or-
ganizations in the United States.
Many of them, however, were local
and regional units working without
any knowledge of the others' opera-
tions and with no national program
of distribution. The first approach,
therefore, was wherever possible to
bring about an amalgamation of
these local and regional organiza-
tions into national sales organiza-
tions. Considerable difficulty was

was, of course, the various differ-
ences of opinion of managers of
these various organizations. There
wasthe question of pride of position,
the question of loss of prestige and
in some cases it could not be done at
all. Notwithstanding all of this, a
great deal has been accomplished.
One of the first commodities that
the Board undertook to deal with
was wheat and cotton. It found
that in grain, for example, there
were about 4,500 cooperative or-
ganizations with no national pro-
gram. Meetings were called of the
leaders of these cooperative units
and the result was a setting up of
the Farmers National Grain Corpor-
ation. This corporation consists of
26 units with 2,000 elevators. There
are 250,000 grain producers that
are members of this organization.
Through financial support given by
the government, a much larger vol-
ume of wheat will be shipped under
cooperative control this year than
ever before.
The same procedure was had with
cotton and the American Cotton Co-
operative Association was set up
with a $30,000,000 authorized cap-
ital with headquarters at New Or-
leans. Liberal loans were made by
the Farm Board. The result is that
brought under cooperative control
this year than ever before.
In the same manner the Wool Na-
tional Marketing Organization was
created with $1,000,000 capital. It
has 26 regionals. This year there
was delivered to this organization
125,000,000 pounds of wool and mo-
hair, which is 40 per cent of all the
wool grown in the United States
and three-fourths of the mohair.
The National Live Stock Associa-
tion was also created, which covers
three-fourths of the area of the
United States. It is the largest or-
ganization ever set up in cattle. It
has a national feeder service and
has a subsidiary finance company to
finance feeding operations. This
organization has a membership of
300,000. Its object, of course, is
to bring about a more stable price
for live stock.
There is the National Bean Mar-
keting Association. This organiza-
tion represents some five or six
states. The National Pecan Asso-
ciation was created with 18 locals.
Many commodities were not suf-
ficiently organized so that national
sales organizations could be created.
In such casse it has been the policy
of the Board to form local and re-
gional associations to assist the ex-
panding of these organizations
through loans until such time as
they are sufficiently organized to
undertake national programs. Many

naturally encountered in this. There such organization have Peen

formed. The Farm Board has as-
sisted fruit growers of Wisconsin
and Michigan, Shenandoah Valley
apple producers, the East Shore Po-
tato Growers, the Florida citrus in-
dustry, the grape industry of Cali-
fornia. National committees have
been created for apples and pota-
toes. Loans have been made to all
of these any many others. The
Board is always willing and ready
to assist in the organization of pro-
ducers into cooperative marketing
organizations. Up to the present

time $274,00,000 have been loaned
to these cooperative units. Of this
amount, $100,000,000 has been re-
Now this organization has engen-
dered some opposition from head-
quarters. It. is impossible to set up
any organization at local points
without some interference from the
commercial agents that are handling
the products. We are attempting
to bring about these changes with as
little interference as possible, utiliz-
ing wherever possible these units at
points of production. But in some
cases it is inevitable that some of
these agencies will have to go. But
there has never been any progress
in the world that does not bring
about hardship to some. If it is to
the public interest to put the farmer
in a better position to handle his
product, the work must go. on and
I believe that it will go on. The
mandate of the Agricultural Mar-
keting Act in the Farm Board very
clearly is to develop as rapidly as
possible consistent with sound de-
velopment a system of cooperative
marketing. I have no doubt this
will continue to be the policy of the
Board so long as this legislation is
upon the statute books. Without
its being upon the statute books, the
business of organizing the agricul-
ture of this country into grower
owned and controlled marketing or-
ganizations will go on. I want it
to go on.
I want to repeat again that it is
to the interest of business in gen-
eral to encourage this movement,
because it is only through the de-
velopment of cooperative organiza-
tions that a proper distribution of
agricultural products can be had.

Damage to citrus in California
from the heavy wind storms recent-
ly, appears limited mainly to reduc-
tion in grade to a large volume of
the fruit produced in the southern
section: Loss in volume is reported
to be very small. The high wind
whipped and bruised the fruit but
tore very little from the trees, it is
said. There is a possibility that de-
cay may follow the bruising and
cause a loss in volume. The Cali-
fornia crop is reported to be 30
percent larger-than last season.

December 1, 1930


Dr...L...- i I f no C


the emulsion with

highest oil content


Culls don't count. It is the number
of "brights" you pack that determines
how successful your season is. Increase
their percentage and your profits im-
mediately jump.
There is no speculation in Floridoil.
It has the highest possible percentage
of oil. You know this to be true for
it is sold under a guaranteed analysis.
Floridoil gives your fruit the best
protection-controls Scale and White
Fly keeps your fruit
clean assures the
highest percentage of SHERWIN
"brights." Insecticides
In addition to Flor- at your li
idoil, Sherwin-Williams L-S Lime
makes a complete line Copper Lit
of insecticides and Carbolic-Oi
fungicides, f o r u s e runn
on all Florida crops, Arsenate o
including Dry Lime London Pi
Sulfur, Copper Lime ParsGr
D u s t s, Fungi-Bordo, Citro-Muls
Arsenate of Calcium,


Arsenate of Lead and Paris Green.
All Sherwin-Williams insecticides
and fungicides are branded and guar-
anteed under the Federal Insecticide
and Fungicide Act of 1910. You take
absolutely no chance as each package
carries a branded analysis.
Your local Sherwin-Williams dealer
"an supply you with any of these guar-
anteed insecticides including Floridoil,
in handy containers. Large com-
plete stocks in our
Tampa and Jackson-
WILUAMS ville warehouses make
id Fungicides it easy for him to main-
al dealers tain a complete stock
ulfur at all times.

ne Dust
>f Calcium
Lf Lead

Write for expert aid
Our field experts are
at your service. Write
them for aid. They
will be glad to discuss
and help you solve your
spraying problems.

Jacksonville, Florida
Tampa, Florida
World's largest Manufacturers and Distributors
of Insecticides and Fungicides


and branded under
Federal Insecticide
and Fungicide Act
of 1910

S-W Paint Prod-
ucts are sold the
world over under
this famous
1980, S-W Co.


ece mber 1, 1930





/r' '-I

of a series of advertisement
;presenting facts about the
need for cooperation. The
entire series is on display at
your local association or sub-
exchange office.

NOTT Price Range taken
from record of season

wrWi st Mr. 2 Orags


2ome, s 1, ~ o i.. a t l


Oeverame NM I OrIperuts

The graph above are based on data from Clearing RHose reors rade of the same fruit.
of dalty 0. Sales o operator members. The high and low sates .me diversity Is to be expected due to the variable etlonal
eaoh day give us the pries Uns for ob commodity. Thedlere e qualities, but the extreme show here ndleate only as Ignorance
between the Inaes shows the spread of daly sales prioe on the sme of the true wort of fruit by many operators.
Only prl9 e maintenance or control thru one sales organization can correct this evi and eliminate this los to growers.


Wide Differential of Prices on Same Lines of Fruit as

Indicated by seles of Clearing House Operato-ars

Senses onfxlsion and Market Loss

S Seald-Sweet


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