... J.C. YONQE,
S1 1924 E JA CKSO NS T _. l
Seald-Sweet CHr dicle
"FLORIDA'S ONLY CITRUS NEWSPAPER"
TWICE A MONTH
Entered as Becond Clas Mall Matter
Vol. VI suBScaIPTION PrICe 50 cuNr Pr Y TU TAMPA, FLORIDA, NOV. 1, 1930 at the Pet O0cs at Tampa. Flrid. No. 11
Under the Act of March 3. 1879.
S.-W. Teague, new manager of the Midwest
division, succeeding F. W. Davis, now gen-
eral sales manager. Mr. Teague was pro-
moted from the Columbus district.
Exchange Acts To
Devise New Fruit
Answers Strong Pleas ForA
Fit For Consumption
Acting upon the appeal of grow-
ers, associations and sub-exchanges,
the Florida Citrus Exchange will
endeavor to initiate legislation to
prevent future shipments of unfit
fruit though it technically may be
A special committee was elected
by the Board of Directors to handle
this matter and any other of a legis-
lative nature which may arise. The
committee was instructed to make a
study of the maturity problem, get-
ting the assistance of federal and
state authorities and specialists,
with a view to new standards which
would be based primarily upon the
palatib'lity of citrus from the con-
Shipment of grapefruit at the
,tart of the season which clearly
was not suitable for marketing and
the disastrous reaction of the pub-
lic later actuated the movement
toward better standards. Many
growers and associations are bitter
in their feeling against the early
shipment of fruit of the kind that
went out of the state. They feel
(Continued on Page 2)
Citrus Higher As
No Longer Regard Citrus
As A Luxury Bought On
American housewives are begin-
ning to rank citrus as a food neces-,
sity equal to meats and vegetables,
Dana C. King, orange sales man-
ager of the California Fruit Growers
Exchange, told the directors of the
Florida Citrus Exchange at their re-
cent monthly meeting.
California growers do not fear
either the depressed business con-
ditions general in this country, nor
the larger crop to market, said Mr.
King. The Exchange expects, he
added, to sell more fruit per
capital and to return its members a
very fair profit.
However, he explained, it does
not expect to get the unusually high
returns it obtained from the crop
just marketed. Everything, last sea-
son, practically was in the growers'
favor with such favorable factors.
as a small crop, a long, very warm
summer and control of the crop, he
The citrus crop returned to Cali-
fornia $135,000,000 Mr. King said.
This is the highest amount brought
to the state from citrus in its his-
Mr. King pointed out the tre-
mendous value to the grower of
control by one cooperative organiza-
tion. Until that control is obtain-
ed, he said, the citrus growers of
Florida cannot expect to receive full
value of their product. He expressed
the opinion that the Florida Citrus
Exchange was well on the way to
obtaining control and said that Cali-
fornia growers were deeply inter-
ested in the success of the Florida
Exchange as it meant more orderly
distribution which was of benefit to
them as well as Florida Growers.
Mr. King informed that Califor-
nia, though having nearly double
the citrus crop that Florida has, has
only 25 independent shippers, com-
pared with 115 or more in Florida.
California, however, does not call
them "independents" but "depend-
ents" for they are dependent upon
(Continued on Page 3)
Mealybugs are unusually
evident and are causing much
damage to the fruit. Heavy
drop from this cause is re-
porte d, particularly with
Bulletin 183 of the Experi-
ment Station cites the mely-
bug as common over the en-
tire state and frequently in
evidence in the citrus groves
during spring and .fall. It is
most likely to be found in
sheltered places in the tree
and often collects around the
stem end of the fruit, particu-
larly on grapefruit. The bug
is termed as a very destructive
insect which, gives off large
amounts of honeydew in which
a heavy growth of sooty mold
develops, blackening the area
in and about which it is lo-.
C. C. Teague, Farm
Board Member, Here
On His First Visit
W ill Appear At Several
Citrus Meetings To
Talk To Growers
C. C. Teague, member of the Fed-
eral Farm Board, largely interested
in Florida's citrus problems, will
visit the state with Mrs. Teague
shortly after the middle of the
month and will be the guest of hon-
or and principal speaker at several
important citrus meetings.
On November 17, Mr. Teague will
address the evening session of the:
citrus program arranged by the
Associated Board of Trade of the
Scenic Highlands at Frostproof. A
day or two later there will be a
special meeting of the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange in his honor.
The Associated Boards of Trade
has arranged a very interesting:
program. It begins about 3 o'clock
with talks by Nathan Mayo, com-
missioner of agriculture W. J.
Howey, grower and developer; and
Dr. Charles Northen, whose scien-
tific views on Florida and citrus
have aroused national attention.
Each will speak on a different phase
of the subject "The World's -Citrus'
Market as Affecting Florida's Out-
look." Mr. Teague speaks at 7
Between 5 and 7 o'clock there has
been arranged a fish. fry for the
(Continued on Page 3)
More Than 50% Of
Crop Signed With
Exchange To Date
In Excess Of 12,000,000
Boxes Indicated By
With more than 12,000,000 boxes
of this crop signed, according to
sub-exchange m- nagers' prelimin-
ary estimates, the Florida Citrus
Exchange has control of more than
50 percent of the crop, the highest
percentage in its 21 years.
*The gain in control this season
is 10 percent over last, and marks
the second' consecutive year the
Exchange has gained 10 percent of
a crop a season. At this rate aine,
within three seasons the Exchange
will have reached the goal of 70
to 75 percent of the crop considered
essential to effective control such
as California has attained.
Gains still continue with new
members and thousands of boxes of
fruit added daily. It is expected
that members will continue to join
until after mid-season. With mar-
ket conditions such as to require
special effort and good organization,
spectators are holding off, as the
growers are learning and this has
made many realize that the Ex-
change is the only one they can rely
upon to be ready to serve in difficult
seasons as well as easy ones.
Spectacular gains have been
made by several sub-exchanges,
while all report substantial in-
creases. Polk sub-exchange passed
the 5,000,000 box mark a few weeks
ago, successfully completing its
drive to add 1,000,000 boxes in
August and September. It reports
additional volume almost daily. Or-
ange sub-exchange reported having
signed 1,750,000 boxes and is i.i
hopes of having 2,000,000. Indian
River, strong battle ground with the
"dependent" operators, has over
900,000 boxes and is reaching
toward 1,000,000 boxes. Lake sub-
exchange also is close to 1,000,003
boxes as also is Pinellas, inc uding
the volume of Chase sub-exchange
in that territory.
International and Chase sub-ex-
changes, combined, have more than
1,300,000 boxes. Manatee sub-ex-
change is close to 500,000. St. Johns
(Continued on Page 2)
SEL-WE EOILENvme ,13
More Than 50% OF
Crop Signed With
Exchange To Date
In Excess O 12,000,000,0
Boxes Indicated By
(Continued from Page 1)
sub-exchange has signed close to
400,000 boxes and is working hard
to pass that mark. Hillsboro sub-
exchange has around 350,000 boxes
while Charlotte is over 300,000. De-
Soto sub-exchange has over 250,-
000 boxes, while Lee, almost re-
covered from past storms, has 175,-
000. Marion, far north in the cit-
rus belt, reported over 100,000
boxes. Dade, which suffered from
the hurricanes of three years ago, is
coming back into fair production
and has 40,000 boxes.
Say Higher "Co-op"
Returns Are Extortion
Higher returns received by grow-
ers from efficient cooperatives are
now being held up by opponents of
cooperative marketing and the Fed-
eral Farm Board as examples of
"extortion" to be expected from
cooperative control. The Florida
Citrus Exchange is cited with the
California Fruit Growers Exchange
as an example of this much to be
feared cooperative monopoly.
This information was brought
from the Pacific Coast and West
by Dana C. King, orange sales man-
ager of the California Exchange. A
bitter fight against the Farm Board
and the cooperative marketing
movement is being waged by the
Traders point to the higher prices
received by the California Exchange
and the Florida Exchange also, said
Mr. King, and represent these high-
er returns as forced upon the public
through the control obtained by the
cooperatives. The traders seek to
make the general public believe co-
operative control will bring extor-
tion of the public.
Heavy loss in the volume of
Valencias from splitting can
be expected this season, judg-
ing from reports received from
many sections of the state.
Dropping of fruit from this
cause is unusually heavy and
estimates of the damage run
as high as 20 per cent of the
Definite information on the
cause of splitting is lacking.
Many believe that heavy rains
after a dry period are respon-
sible. Splitting, however,
occurs under a variety of con-
ditions which leaves most
growers in serious doubt
about the definite cause.
GENERAL MARKET REPORT
By FRED W. DAVIS, General Sales Manager
October 27, 1930.
The Florida orange movement has been held back considerably on
account of fruit not passing the required maturity test. Sizes have been
running very heavy to small sizes. However, the markets have absorbed
the quantity shipped at very satisfactory prices. All auction markets
have maintained a satisfactory price level, the average for all grades the
past week being $5.15 as against an average of $5,65 for all grades the
week previous. As supplies from the state increase, we can look for an
easing off in prices.
If the shipments of small sizes continue to be as heavy as present
reports seem to indicate, the auction markets will probably have larger
supplies than can be absorbed at the prevailing prices and there will be
a tendency to discount small sizes quite heavily. During the week ending
October 24th we have maintained quotations from $4.00 to $4.50 f.o.b.
shipping point according to sizes and grade, our sales being made mostly
at $4.25 to $5.50 with discounts ranging from 50 cents on 288s to $1.00
on 324s, with an occasional discount of 25 cents on 250s where cars ran
very heavy to that size.
The Southern markets are continuing to show some improvement, and
have responded in the matter of prices to the Eastern and Western mar-
kets. Most sales in the South have been made on the basis of $3.50 f.o.b.
shipping point less the usual discounts for 288s and smaller with occa-
sional sales at $3.75 on "Seald-Sweet" grade. Discounts of 50 cents on
the above prices as a rule are made on "Mor-juce." There is a general
bearing down tendency in all markets in view of a heavier movement
from the state in prospect, which may result in lower prices.
Grapefruit shipments for the week ending October 24th were light and
gave all markets an opportunity to clean up their surplus, and this re-
action has resulted in better prices being obtained. Indications are for a
normal supply and the prospects are we will be able to get the mar-
ket back on a more substantial basis.. Fruit from the state is showing
much better eating quality, and as soon as a sufficient amount gets out
into consumption the movement should improve materially. All auction
markets are beginning to show an improvement in prices and the f.o.b.
market is holding at $2.25 f.o.b. on "Seald-Sweet," "Mor-juce" selling
at 25 cents to 50 cents per box less. A few cars have been sold at from
10 to 15 cents higher. We look for an improvement in the market the's
week with a slight advance in prices. Texas shipments have been light
for the past week. Up to and including Friday, 49 cars of grapefruit
were shipped. Light shipments have been occasioned by heavy rains for
the past few days in the Rio Grande valley.
We expect to continue the shipment of export grapefruit for next
sailing which will be from Tampa on or about November 18th. We are in
hopes to arrange regular schedules from Tampa in the near future and
will also be making some export shipments from Jacksonville the same
as in the past.
From present indications, California will probably get out 10 or 15
cars of Thompson improved Navels this week from the Northern districts.
These cars will undoubtedly be sold in the Pacific territory and will not
come in competition with Florida fruit. While the movement from Cali-
fornia will probably start around the first of November in a small way, it
i snot expected that anything like a fair movement will commence until
November 10th when it is anticipated that 50 to 75 cars will probably
move daily. The present estimate for the Northern California movement
of Navel oranges is 5,500 cars. California should be able to maintain
satisfactory prices. The sizes, we understand, will run heavy to 216s and
Government investigation of the
propaganda against the Federal
Farm Board and its cooperative
marketing program is underway
through two channels, the postal de-
partment and the Federal Trades
Commission. The fight of the op-
ponents to cooperative marketing
and the Farm Board has become so
bitter that unfair practices are be-
lieved to have been resorted to.
Criticism largely is directed
toward the grain traders and grain
commission firms. Statements pur-
porting to be from prominent deal-
ers have appeared in the press and
elsewhere which latter were re-
pudiated by the supposed signers.
Also, it is said, opponents have had
inserted into news columns of news-
papers reading matter which virtu-
ally is the same as that in paid
advertising in the same papers. If
this news matter is essentially ad-
vertising matter it should be marked
"advertisement" under the law.
Above is a crotalaria spectabilis cover crop
grown by L. B. Skinner in a young grove
block at Dunedin. This was planted early
in the spring. Many of the stalks reach a
height of eight feet.
November 1, 1930
Exchange Acts To
Devise New Fruit
Answers Strong PI as ForA
Standard Assuring Fruit
Fit For Consumption
(Continued from Page 1)
that this was only a repetition of
the unanimously condemned prac-
tice of shipping "green fruit" ex-
cept that the law was technically
complied with as regards maturity,
but that the basic principle of pala-
tibality was violated.
Greed of shippers is bluntly as-
serted as the motive behind the mar-
keting of the early fruit. Growers,
alone, it is asserted paid and are
paying the big losses which resulted
through, the loss of consumer con-
:It is the general opinion that the
present law relating to acid ratios
and the subsequent ruling under the
Pure Food Act of a minimum
amount of juice according to size of
the fruit is not sufficient. It is
pointed out that the "green fruit"
law was not expansive enough to
cover this year's situation and fac-
tors may arise late which will not
come within either the "green fru:t"
law or the juice content regula-
A thorough study of maturity
from all angles to determine a min-
imum standard of palpability and
assure that any fruit leaving the
state will meet public satisfaction is
the goal sought in the new move-
ment. It is believed that only such
legislation and its adequate enforce-
ment will stop irresponsible shippers
from sending out fruit regardless
of its condition just for the com-
Fine Dealer For Fraud
In Citrus Deal, Using
Produce Agency Act
The new "produce agency act"
passed to safeguard the interests of
producers has been invoked by the
U. S. Department of Agriculture to
aid a citrus grower.
Last month a produce dealer of
Virgina was tried in the U. S. Dis-
trict Court on the charge he had
not returned a shipper of a carload
of oranges the full amount due.
The produce dealer pleaded "not
guilty" but was found by the jury
to owe the shipper $463 more than
he had paid. The court fined the
produce dealer $250 and ordered
him to pay the additional amount
due the shipper and the fine and
costs by Nov. 3 or a jail sentence
would be imposed.
November 1, 1930 ~EALD-SWEET CHRONICLE
C. C. Teague, Farm
Board Member, Here
On His First Visit
Will Appear At Several
Citrus Meetings And
Talk To Growers
(Continued from Page 1)
visitors, who are expected to num-
ber 2,000 or more. All interested
in the citrus industry are welcomed
by the Associated Boards of Trade.
This will be Mr. Teague's first
visit to Florida. However, he is
about as well informed about the
citrus industry of the state and its
problems as any one in the state.
For months he studied the industry
in connection with the application
of the Florida Citrus Exchange for
the Farm Board support and re-
ceived the views of all factors in
the industry. Mr. Teague had an
important part in the recognition
of the Florida Citrus Exchange by
the Farm Board and the Exchange
and its growers acknowledge a deep
debt of gratitude for his efforts on
Mr. Teague is one of the largest
grove owners of California. For
many years he was president of the
California Exchange. He virtually
was drafted from that office to the
American Bar Ass'n
Refuses To Attack
Federal Farm Board
Attempts of the grain trade to
get the American Bar Association
to condemn the Federal Farm Board
and its cooperative marketing pro-
gram failed dismally at the annual
meeting of the association this fall.
The association tabled the trade
prepared resolution and strongly
criticized both the aim and the
means used by the trader interests.
The grain dealers apparently
were overconfident as result of their
success with the United States
Chamber of Commerce. The Cham-
ber, at their request, passed a reso-
lution against the Farm Board pro-
gram, particularly the loan fund
and policy of the board. This action
of the Chamber, however, was re-
pudiated by many of its local con-
stituent members, while the press
of the nation generally criticized
the Chamber in outspoken manner.
So bold were the opponents to
the Farm Board and cooperative
marketing that they announced pub-
licly the text of the proposed raso-
lution long before the Bar associa-
tion or its legislative committee met.
It was given wide publicity in the
West with the inference the legis-
lative committee had approved it.
Heavy new growth on cit-
rus trees is noticeable in
every section of the state. This
is very unusual for this time
of the year and is regarded
as one of the freak conditions
over which there is no control.
The cause is considered to
be the abrupt break of the
prolonged dry spell and the
resultant shock feeding from
the large amount of plant food
available in the soil. Lack of
rain held the fertilizer in the
soil unavailable to the trees.
The most pronounced new
growth is on trees which have
not a heavy yield, though new
wood is reported on all trees.
It is believed the trees will re-
vert to dormancy and harden
soon enough to withstand cold
Lower East Coast
Plans Big Citrus
Plans now in the making indi-
cate that 35,000 acres eventually
will be developed into citrus groves
in the section between the coast and
Lake Okeechobee about Hollywood
and Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. This future
development was disclosed to J.
Reed Curry, organization chief of
the Exchange, during a recent visit
to the section during which he at-
tended a meeting of the Hollywood
Chamber of Commerce.
Mr. Curry was invited to speak
on the citrus industry and coopera-
tive marketing and found the mem-
ber sof the Chamber deeply inter-
ested in citrus development. Floyd
L. Wray, president of the Chamber,
is president of Flamingo Groves
Company which has 420 acres in
groves and plans 3,200 acres in the
next few years. Frank Stirling,
vice-president of the company, has
been president of Ft. Lauderdale
association for many years and is
a staunch supporter of the Ex-
Soil in the section visited, said
Mr. Curry, is unusually rich and
well suited to citrus being higher
land than the Everglade sections
Kiwanis Citrus Course
A course in citrus culture and
grove management for men and
boys will be instituted on the lower
East Coast by the Kiwanis state
agricultural activities committee.
The course will be given weekly at
the Bryan grove near Davie over a
period of 30 weeks. Frank Stirling
prominent grower and citrus de-
veloper, will be in charge. Though
the course is primarily of interest
to Broward and Dade counties it is
open to anyone interested.
Citrus Higher As
No Longer Regard Citrus
As A Luxury Bought On
(Continued from Page 1)
the market prices developed by the
Housewives have become educat-
ed to the health and food values of
citrus, Mr. King said. Once they
placed it high on their list of wants
only in prosperous times. Now, he
said, they consider it an essential as
vegetables and meat. Mr. King de-
clared that oranges are purchased
now along with vegetables even
when purses are pinched and that
in many homes where there are
children, oranges are bought for
them, even though the parents feel
the fruit is beyond their limited
Mr. King has been in the Cali-
fornia citrus industry for 30 years.
He helped guide the Florida party
of growers led by Dr. F. W. Inman
when they went to California to
study the organization plan and op-
erations of the California Exchange,
preliminary to organizing the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange.
New Schedules 100%
Florida railroads have speeded up
schedules to practically all points
as well as to Chicago and New York,
to which four day service is being
given now instead of five, and have
maintained these new schedules
practically 100 percent, according
to Traffic Manager Dow of the Ex-
change. The schedules went into
effect Oct. 1st on both the Sea-
board and the Coast Line with their
associated lines in the north and
Speeding up the schedules
terially increased the difficulties of
brought valuable benefits, but it ma-
both the sales and traffic depart-
ments. 'Many cars are started be-
fore sale is made. Time allowance
in which to quote out the car and
handle offers is cut by the same
amount that the schedule was short-
ened. This means much, when an
offer comes from a point to which
the car must be diverted from its
route. There are special diversion
points beyond which a car may have
passed before such a sale is made.
California, on the average, has
10 to 12 days in which to make the
sale of its rolling cars. Florida, to
the contrary has only four days be-
fore the cars have reached most of
the important terminals.
W. P. Pemberton of Tampa has been ap-
poin'ed division manager for the South-
eastern division, comprising Virginia and
North and South Carolinas. L. A. Crawford
is assistant and directing dealer service.
Holly Hill 140 Acre
Grove Sold; Markets
Through The Exchange
Moynahan Brothers, Indiana cap-
italists, have purchased 140 acres of
bearing groves near Davenport
from the Holly Hill Grove and Fruit
company which will be marketed
through Haines City association
along with fruit from the Holly
Hill Grove and Fruit company prop-
erties. Production from this source
will total between 100,000 and 125,-
000 boxes, giving the association a
volume of 450,000 boxes this sea-
The Fruit company last season
operated the Davenport house of
the Exchange, but found the plant
too small to care for this season's
larger volume. Arrangements were
made with Haines City to handle the
As a result of the increased in-
terest in citrus groves and its own
success in development, the Holly
Hill Grove and Fruit Company is
understood to be planning a large
increase in planted acreage. The
development is one of the beauty
spots of the Ridge with many hun-
dreds of acres in bearing grove.
Grapefruit In Arctic
Florida grapefruit were included
in the food supply carried by Major
L. T. Burwash, Canadian flyer, on
his aerial search into the Arctic to
find traces of the lost Canadian
expedition under Sir John Frnklin
which set forth 80 years ago.
Until far within the Arctic Circle,
the flyers were able to have their
Florida grapefruit regularly for
November 1, 1930
SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE November 1, 1930
Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Postoffice Box 1108
Net Grower Circulation
Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.
Vol. VI NOV. 1, 1930 No. 1I
Think of citrus being bought by
a housewife in preference to vege-
tables and meat. Yet, this is done in
hundreds of families today. And in
thousands of families it is being
purchased on a par with vegetables
Citrus has come a long way in
the last few years. Time was when
it was the big prize in the Christmas
stocking and the center piece on
nearly every American dinner table
Dana C. King, orange sales man-
ager of the California Fruit Grow-
ers Exchange, asserts that in the
cities today, even though funds are
at low ebb, many mothers deprive
themselves and the others to have
oranges for the babies and children
This is not just idle talk. Back of
Mr. King are millions of dollars in
educational and advertising effort.
Back of his statement too, are the
recommendations of thousands of
physicians, nurses and dieticians, al:
urging the necessity of citrus for
health, particularly baby health.
Do Floridians appreciate the
worth of citrus as much as outsiders
This question is not brought up
from the monetary viewpoint but,
instead as to the fruit itself. Doctors
preach citrus; dieticians with hardly
an exception laud it. Mothers are
buying it for their babies. But,
what about us in Florida?
According to L. M. Rhodes, com-
missioner of marketing, Florida, it-
self, used 1,200,000 boxes of or-
anges, tangerines and grapefruit
last season. Figure this out in pieces
of fruit per person, counting only
the resident population, and it is
only 21 grapefruit and 123 oranges
a Floridian a year. That means that
in citrus season with plenty of citrus
available, the average Floridian eats
only one orange every two days and
only averages one grapefruit about
every 10 days.
It actually figures less than this,
for thousands of visitors to the
state in the fall, winter and spring,
undoubtedly account for hundreds
of thousands of boxes locally con-
sumed. Resident Foridians cer-
tainly average far less than the
foregoing averages quoted.
If Floridians averaged one or-
ange and one grapefruit a day each
during the citrus season, the total
state consumed citrus would be 1,-
000,000 boxes of oranges and nearly
3,000,000 boxes of grapefruit. The
state never has produced a crop that
1,000,000 boxes kept off the out-
side markets wouldn't boost prices
at least 50 cents a box and probably
There is talk of a "Citrus Week."
We should make it "Citrus day-
T he New York Telegram-"The
greatest assistance that can come
form federal and State aid is the
gradual development of a system of
erative marketing," said Charles C.
Teague, California member of the
Federal Farm Board, speaking in
Teague said that the farmers'
troubles never will be solved by leg-
islation a.one, that stabilization cor-
porations to deal in surpluses are
warranted only as emergency meas-
ures, and that the law of. supply and
demand cannot be flouted. Here is
a touch of realism sadly lacking in
most of the clumsy efforts at farm
relief in the past.
Teague knows what farmer ''co-
ops" can do. He helped organize
and now heads two of California's
tions, those of the citrus and the
most successful marketing associa-
It is significant that even through
the depression the California or-
ange growers' cooperative, controll-
ing 75 percent of the acreage, and
the walnut group, that controls 90
percent, both enjoyed ready sases
and good prices.
These two remarkable farm or-
ganizations own pine forests, shook
,actories, packing houses, trade
marks, processing plants. They hire
small armies of workers and big
sales forces, spend thousands-yeariy
on advertising, conduct scientific
laboratoriess for developing by-prod-
ucts, study the world market, seek
Wo keep supply to demand.
Cooperative marketing is far
irom fool-proof. Witness the fate
of the California raisin men who
fel victim to greed and overplant-
ing as the result of prohibition, the
fates of many more through bad
management, inability to cope with
.he wiles of private packers, world
competition other causes.
But they are answering the farm-
-rs' problems better than any other
Just as no one -could help the
workerss until they unionized, so no
)ne can help the farmers until they,
too, organize themselves for cooper-
ation and self-help.
"Box 61" Speaks Again
In the last issue the Chronicle
printedd a letter from the public
pulse column of the Tampa Tribune,
signed "Box 61." So much interest
was shown and comment made that
'Box 61" sends an elaboration of
his views and signs his name.
"Box 61" is Hiram Sauls. It will
surprisee many of those who read
his first communication and the fol-
owing to know he is not a member
-f the Exchange. It was equally a
surprise to the Chronicle, which
,ompliments Mr. Sauls for having
.he courage of his convictions. Mr.
Sauls outlines the condition in the
industryy and its remedy in an ad-
mirable manner. His letter follows:
A few days ago I wrote a letter
regarding the conditions of our cit-
rus deal and signed Box 61. Many
growers who do not belong to the
Exchange have talked to me since
that time. Neither do I belong to
the Exchange and I am not working
for them in any way at all. But
merely made a statement to a few
growers who asked me for a remedy
for the present conditions of the
The fact of the business is, the
grower on the outside has gotten
:nto a bog hole, and the only chance
for him to come out is through the
Exchange, and the Exchange is not
paying much attention to him as it
is about their closing time for the
season. Now here is what it can
mean to us if we join the Exchange
with enough fruit to give it 75 to
80 percent of a crop! It means for
us to increase a price for our fruit
from nothing to a nice profit, and
also will increase the value of the
fruit now belonging to the Ex-
For as I said before it can then
control and make a successful auc-
tion, or sell for us at a nice profit
f.o.b. The little fellow on the out-
side will wait for the Exchange to
make the price because it can make
the best price. Then not only can
the Exchange control the output of
fruit but, if you want to borrow a
little money, it can say to the Gov-
ernment, "Lend us a few million
dollars to loan to our growers," and
the Government will do so at 6 per
cent, for the reason it will know
that the Exchange lends the money
intelligently to each patron, be-
cause it will know his borrowing
capacity, or know just what he can
pay back, etc.
Now Grower, it is no use hanging
around on the outside any longer,
come on and let's get in this season
if it is not too late, and if it is let's
be sure and get in by next season.
You see Growers, you can borrow
money on time from one season to
the next at six percent interest if
you need it, but it will be only a
matter of a short time, after the
Exchange gets in control of the
output of our citrus before we will
not have to borrow money from any
one, for we will have profits laid
away from the same citrus to loan
to some one else at 10 percent in-
terest, and double back on the in-
terest every 90 days.
See how plain it is. The truth
always proves itself. Some want to
know what I think of the outside
operator. I think he is fighting a
losing fight, and making the condi-
tions worse all the time for not
only himself, but for everyone who
consigns his fruit to him. He is a
very nice fellow, and will lend you
a little- money at 10 percent, and
hook your crop for the same, and
in the event he brings you out in
red ink he has a continuation clause
:n his contract that hooks on to
your next crop, then you will need
money for fertilizer and labor to
help you put on the next crop, and
you can't borrow from any one else,
for you have a lien on the next crop
yet to be produced, so you are
forced to go back to him for more
help. The result is, he gets you
hooked with another hook. This
same method may continue from
season to season until you get
hooked bad. Look out then, you
may have to go back to the woods
to get another grove. All the time
this is going on he is using your
fruit which you have consigned to
him to bid under whatever price the
Exchange may make on the market,
thereby lowering the markets too
low for any profits.
The conditions as they prevail
here makes it hard for the northern
broker, because he has to run around
and buy his fruit as cheap as pos-
sible in order to meet the compe-
tition his competitive brother brok-
er may offer. The broker could and
would pay more for our fruit if he
know his competitive broker had to
do. the same, for it gives him pro-
tection against competition.
Growers, it is as plain as the nose
on your face. If when the Exchange
has control of the citrus output. ot
it does not give you a satisfactory
price then you will have someone;
you can blame. But as it stands nowv
you can't curse anyone but yourself,
for you are the cause for the con-
ditions as they now are.
Very truly yours,
November 1, 1930
November 1, 1930 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE
Plymouth Celebrates Plant Improvement
A view of the newly improved plant of Plymouth Association wi.h its plant
force on the receivinZg platform.
A special edition of the "Apopka
Chief" featured the opening of the
newly improved plant of Plymouth
association. The association expects
a record year with a volume in ex-
cess of 350,000 boxes for which it
prepared by an almost complete
transformation of its plant, to quote
the "Chief," at a cost of $50,000.
association and its progress, giving
special commendation to William
Edwards, president, and R. T.
(Bob) Carleton, manager.
Mr. Edwards has been the only
president the association has had in
its 21 years dovetailed experience
in cooperative marketing with the
Florida Citrus Exchange. He has
helped it to grow, the "Chief"
pointed out, from a few thousands
of boxes in volume to one of the
large units of the Exchange. Mr.
Carleton is highly complimented on
Charter Member Writes
Auburndale, Fla., Oct. 6, 1930.
To the Editor of the
the management he has given in the
past s&x years dur-ng which the
association has more than doubled
P:ymouth association started op-
erations in a t'ny plant only 30 by
30 feet. Its new plant is 300 feet
by 200 feet and includes practically
every modern facility. The building
is very attractive with the front
finished in stucco on tile. Additional
equipment and the enlarged building
give it a daily capacity of 10 cars
The coloring plant has been com-
pletely remodeled and enlarged re-
placing the five, one-car rooms, with
nine of a total capacity of 20 cars.
Four precooling roms were added
making a total of 12 with a gross
capacity of 5,400 boxes. Other new
equipment included two Skinner
six roll washer and polisher units,
a six car Duples dryer, an additional
box making machine and a second
I have before me the October
number of the Chronicle with ex-
tract from Tampa Tribune or
article 'from a man at Bowling
Green who signs himself "Box 61."
I want to indorse every word he
said and then some and I want .all
your readers to read it as from W.
C. Edmiston, Auburndale, Florida. I
have lived at Auburndale 45 years
and have been engaged in the citrus
industryy all the time and was a char-
.er member of the F:orida Citrus
Exchange. Have grown 40 crops of
citrus fruits. Since the Exchange
was organized it has handled every
,rop for me with perfect satisfac-
tion and am sure no outsider can
show a better year 'round return
for his fruit.
I am quite sure if all the growers
had come into and stuck to the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange as I have, every
One of us growers would have re-
ceived $1.00 more per box than we
have done and our sales would now
be made f.o.b. packing house, Flor-
ida. Our sales committee would
name the price and buyers would
place their orders by the month;
and we would fill them promptly.
(Continued on Page 7)
The special edition carried many
pages devoted to pictures and news
of the association. It presents a
forceful story of the history of the
STEAM HEATED COLORING ROOM
Above is shown a modern, automatically controlled, These rooms can be equipped and installed as indi-
steam heated coloring room with a portion of the side cated for less than competitive equipment. Tempera-
wall cut away to show our method of forced circula- ture control is more uniform, with a recording ther-
tion and the steam heating coils and steam jet line mometer to indicate fluctuations over a 72-hour period;
built right into the wall. Control instruments and ome o inic nations er a or e
blowers are mounted, in this case, on the end of the volume of air in circulation is larger and more evenly
room which leaves the floor space above clear of all distributed; a better trickle system, more accurate
equipment for storage or other purposes, humidity control-these better features shorten color-
This type of coloring room has the advantage of very ing time and increase capacities.
high efficiency, low first cost and low operating cost. May be installed in existing rooms at small cost.
Our circulating system provides a large volume of air. m ay be t ed in ing rooms
uniform circulation and constant temperature control. Rooms ma be later converted into sterilizing rooms
Rooms are brought up to temperature quickly and at no extra cost. Can be used for "kerosene gas" if
maintained at any pre-determined point with only desired.
slight variation. A spread of not more than two de-
grees is the usual condition. Estimates furnished without obligation.
FLORIDA CITRUS MACHINERY COMPANY
Division Food Machinery Corporation
November 1, 1930
6 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE November 1, 1930U
GROVE, CROP AND PACKING-HOUSE NOTES
boxes and has
possibilities o f
handling u p -
to reports of
Manager R. S.
Boulware. T h e
1 o w er figure
alone would be a
record, 50 per- i
cent greater than
any season past.
The plant is
well equipped to
handle the increased volume. It is
appraised at more than $100,000
and was erected in 1928 on the'
site of the old plant which was torn
down to make way for it. It has a
capacity of 12 cars a day, which
can be increased under pressure
operation to 15. Eight coloring
rooms were added this summer and
the new trickle system installed.
The association owns and operates
a fleet of eight trucks for hauling
the fruit of its members.
The plant was opened for the
season Oct. 21, running oranges.
Packing charges were reduced to 60
cents a box for grapefruit and 65
cents a box for oranges.
The association has attracted
much interest among the growers
through a series of advertisements
run in the local paper. It has been
running half page and quarter
page advertisements alternately,
one of each each month and plans
to close the series with a full page.
In this it has carried the record of
the association and the services it
offers. One advertisement alone
brought results more than repaying
for the total cost, according to Mr.
The association has over 200
members, who own 3,400 acres of
grove averaging 11 years of age.
All but 100 acres is the Lakeland-
Highlands development. Very few
members have large holdings. Ten
acre groves are the most numerous
with 20 acre groves next.
More than 100 growers attended
a rally of Nocatee association held
at the packing house September 25.
Following a dinner a tour of inspec-
tion was made of the house facili-
ties, particularly the new machinery
and coloring rooms installed this
Horace Carlton, manager of
Charlotte sub-exchange, presided
and introduced the speakers who in-
NOVEMBER SUGGESTIONS FOR GROVE CARE
Prepared for the Seald-Sweet Chronicle by
Horticultural Department, Lyons Fertilizer Company
Groves should now be plowed or disced, whichever plan the
grower has been accustomed to follow.
If scale and whitefly need cleaning up, spray at this time
with any good oil emulsion at the proper strength. Watch
out for rust mite, and spray with lime sulphur or dust
with sulphur, if control is necessary.
The fall application of fertilizer should now be applied.
Use a good bone base fertilizer with a liberal percentage
of phosphoric acid and potash. If Valencia oranges are
too large and inclined to split, it might be well to cut out
the ammonia for this application.
Cover crop should now be disced or plowed under. Plowing
should be shallow, not over three or four inches. If discs
are used instead of plows, they should be heavy enough to
cut up the cover crops, but should be held up with "spools"
to prevent them from cutting too deeply. Tractor discs are
heavy enough for this work, but horse discs are generally
too light to cut up heavy cover crops.
Plow or disc a strip around grove where it is adjacent to
uncultivated land to protect trees on outside rofs from
fire. Plow under cover crop to prevent fire injury within
grove, even if not ready to fertilize.
- After numer-
ous "ups and
downs" the past
f e w seasons,
conditions f or
tion have stead-
ied with fine
prospects for a
Good season. J.
P. Ellis, newly
ele cted man-
ager, is working
to build up vol-
ume and be-
lieves the sea-
._ will touch 75,-
The plant was opened shortly be-
fore the first of last month. Qual-
ity of the fruit, in Mr. Ellis' opinion,
is unusually good and may run 70
Mr. Ellis was formerly a house
employee at Alturus. Last season he
was with the quarantine adminis-
tration, handling permits. He is a
graduate of the Agricultural course
of the University of Georgia.
eluded Fred W. Davis, general sales
manager, J. Reed Curry ,Rupert
Smith, Exchange director; A. M.
Pratt, manager of the Clearing
House, and A. T. Shelfer, manager
of the association.
Mr. Smith, chairman of the Ex-
change juice committee, gave a very
full report of activities to develop
The general extension division of
the University of Florida, in co-
operation with the Winter Haven
department of vocational education
has started a citrus course open to
residents of the ridge. Lectures will
be given by Prof. E. L. Lord of
the department of horticulture
every second and fourth Friday
from 9 to 11 a.m.
The course covers the following:
The origin and geographical distri-
bution of the citrus fruits; the
botany of the citrus fruits and re-
lated species of commercial import-
ance; the commercial background
and development of the citrus in-
dustry; the ecological requirements
of the citrus tree; selection of local-
ity, site and soil suitable for the
citrus grove; selection of rootstock
and variety; the preparation of land,
planting and management; proper
fertilization and soil treatment; the
control of water by irrigation and
drainage; cover and inter-cropping.
The handling of the citrus grove as
a commercial enterprise for profit
is kept in mind throughout the
course as the major purpose of the
juice outlets of lower grade or-
anges. Mr. Pratt outlined the aims
of the Clearing House in regulation
of the crop movement this season.
Mr. Shelfer reported that the asso-
ciation will handle in excess of 125,-
000 boxes this season.
Manager R. G.
Carleton o f
L a k e Garfield
pects to handle
of fruit this sea-
s o n, divided
a b o u t equally
fruit and or-
anges. Some e
grapefruit was s
moved the last
o f September,
started the mid-
dle of last
has one of the
most concentrated producing areas
in the Ridge. Practically all of the
fruit it handles is grown within two
miles of the packing house. Grape-
fruit mainly is of Excelsior variety,
while the orange groves run heavily
Approximately $4,000 was spent
this summer on improvements in the
plant. Also a complete Brogdex in-
stallation was added to the facilities.
Manager Carleton experimented
with some of the first fruit moved
to test the worth of Brogdexing.
Fruit from the same field box was
held out without Brogdexing and
held in storage with treated fruit
for comparison. Compared one
month later, the untreated fruit as
shown had shrunk considerably to
about 96 size, while the treated re-
mained as firm as when picked.
Lake Garfield Nurseries Company
is preparing for the planting of 130
acres of citrus. The company
planted more than 200 acres during
the past year.
As with the previous planting, the
groves will be handled in blocks of
40 acres. Half will be planted to
grapefruit and half to oranges. Half
of each block will be early and half
Under the arrangement by which
the California Fruit Growers Ex-
change handles the sale of the
grapefruit of the Arizona Citrus
Growers, Arizona grapefruit will
be stamped "Sunkist." This will
give it the advantage of 'Sunkist"
advertising and undoubtedly ease
the job of selling.
-- ~ ~^^^
November 1, 1930 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE
Forecasts Common Practice Of "Sandwiching"
Fifteen years experimentation
with "sandwiching," budding in a
third variety between the root stock
and the selected bearing variety,
leads L. B. Skinner of Dunedin to
believe "sandwiching" has such
merits that it will be a common
practice of the future.
Mr. Skinner has more than 1,500
trees which have been "sandwiched."
About 200 of these are in full bear-
ing and the results from these with
his observations of the others have
sold him on the practice.
He has Marsh Seedless on a navel
"sandwich" which was budded to
rough lemon root stock. These trees
are 15 years old and are extra
heavy producers of large fine fruit
of excellent texture. The influence
of the navel "sandwich" appears to
dwarf the tree somewhat, but its
heavy bearing more than offsets this
He has other Marsh Seedless with
a Valencia "sandwich" on rough
lemon. These also are unusually
heavy bearers of extra fine fruit.
He notes a tendency on these for
each fruit to grow separately in-
stead of in clusters which allows the
production of nearly all perfect
fruit in shape. He favors this "sand-
Above a Marsh Seedless on a navel sand-
wich and rough lemon root. This tree,
though small, bears several boxes of large-
He is watching with interest tan-
gerines which he budded to Va-
lencia "sandwich" on rough lemon.
These are bearing their first crop
this season. The trees seem more
thrifty and the fruit larger while
the color of the flesh, though it is
early yet, is deeper in color. The
trees are an experiment to see if the
"sandwich" influence will latten
maturity of tangerines.
Mr. Skinner has been axperi-
meeting with "sandwiching" for 10
years, but his experience dates back
15 years, when he rebudded navels
on rough lemon to Marsh Seedless.
It was the exceptional fruit pro-
duced by these trees that aroused
his interest in experimenting.
There are two main advantages,
he believes, judging from the re-
sults of experiments to date. Spe-
cial characteristics can be carried
from the "sandwich" to the pro-
duction variety, as in the color and
size of the tangerines on the Va-
lencia "sandwich" or beneficial
characteristics are evolved through
such union as the heavier produc-
tion and finer quality of the grape-
fruit on either Navel or Valencia
"sandwiches." Also, it is possible
through the "sandwich" to use root
stocks with fruit varieties that do
not develop properly in direct com-
One of Mr. Skinner's experiments
which may prove of exceptional
value was the rebudding of a Tem-
ple grove at Palm Harbor to pink
Marsh Seedless. It has been in
bearing several years and produces
a good crop of fine quality fruit,
which, however, ran to small sizes.
Several trees though produced large
fruit and these he is using for buds.
He has other pink Marsh Seedless on
rough lemon which are coming into
bearing and producing a high grade
of fruit. Altogether he has 2,000
trees of the pink variety in bearing.
A Charter Member W rites
(Continued from Page 5)
There would be cooperation between
growers and buyers and all would
do well. Growers would be able
to meet their bills and pay their
Just stop please you fellow grow-
ers and think over this proposition
and see how easy Mr. C. C. Com-
mander and his sales committee
could place our fruit on the mar-
ket and get the price agreed on.
I have known Mr. Commander for
15 years and he is O.K. you can
If all you growers will join and
trust him and he will make good.
stick to the Florida Citrus Exchange
and cooperate fully the Exchange
will make good and you all will get
a satisfactory price and we will all
be happy together.
I hope you will see fit to pub-
lish this note. I wish every citrus
grower would read, meditate on and
join the Exchange and go with us
to success this very season. We
can if we all cooperate with our
officers. The Florida Citrus Ex-
change is an organization of the
growers, by the growers and for the
W. C. Edmiston,
Acon Park Citrus Growers Assn.
Clearwater Growers' Assn.
DeLand Packing Assn.
Eagle Lake Fruit Growers Assn.
Elfers Citrus Growers Assn.
Highland Park Packing House, Inc.
International Fruit Corp.
Lake Alfred Citrus Growers Assn
Lake Garfield Citrus Growers Assn.
Lakeland Citrus Growers Assn.
Lake Hamilton Citrus Growers Assn.
Lake Placid Citrus Growers Assn.
Leesburg Citrus Growers Assn.
Manatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Mims Citrus Growers Assn.
Nocatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Ocala Fruit Packing Co., Inc.
Orlando Citrus Growers Assn.
L. B. Skinner
Umatilla Citrus Growers Assn
Waverly Citrus Growers Assn.
Winter Garden Citrus Growers Assn.
Ask the man who uses Brogdex and
you will get the low down on what
it will do for you.
Houses shipping under the protective care of Brogdex are ex-
periencing comparatively little loss from decay and shrinkage.
Fruit is generally arriving in fine condition and bringing good prices.
Many houses adopting Brogdex for the first time this season are
delighted with results. One of these writes us as follows: "We
believe after the retailer learns that Brdgdex fruit kepes he will
prefer to handle only that kind. He will not have to worry about
the fruit going bad on him nor even having that withered look.
It is needless to say that we are very glad that we have installed
Brogdex in our plant."
Shrinkage is almost as bad as decay. No one wants to buy fruit that does not
look plump and fresh. The coating of wax so completely seals the pores that
shrinkage is greatly retarded. It is this unusual control that makes it possible
to hold Brogdexed fruit in storage or out for such long periods of time and
still retain its seund, plump and fresh appearance.
Refrigeration has always been considered necessary to insure sound arrival. While
it retards decay somewhat the only thing it accomplishes is to transfer the loss
from the shipper to the buyer, Farmers' Bulletin 696 says: "* the rapid develop-
ment of decay after the arrival of the fruit on the market makes refrigeration
sometimes of doubtful value." Many Brogdex. houses are shipping in dry cars
without using a pound of ice. Some are still icing. Under refrigeration Brogdexed
fruit will hold well after arrival for decay and shrinkage are still under control.
Regardless of which way Brogdexed fruit is shipped the treatment renders a
beneficial service in bringing the fruit ni sound and keeping it that way long
enough to be sold and consumed with little if any loss anywhere along the line.
Brogdex can be quickly installed, frequently with little if any interruption to
normal packing operations. If you are getting heavy decay losses Brogdex will
correct the trouble.
FLORIDA BROGDEX DISTRIBUTORS, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
November 1, 1930
BEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE November 1, 1930
Practices That Lower Cost In The Ridge Section Citrus Shipm
Radio talk over WRUF.
Because profits from a business
depend upon the difference between
cost and returns, growers in the
Ridge section are paying more at-
tention each month towards reduc-
ing the cost and still getting as big
if not bigger crops of higher quality
The pruning bill has generally
been high and by only cutting out
the dead wood, which is practically
all that is necessary, this item has
often been reduced 55 per cent.
When the trees grow vigorously the
dense shade makes a more ideal
place for the friendly fungi to
propagate. Cover crops also tend
to make more humid conditions in
the grove and thus aid in the de-
velopment of more friendly fungi.
This friendly fungi will often keep
whitefly and scale insects under
control under these conditions, and
so we now have many groves which
have not been sprayed with an oil
spray in several years. This re-
duction in the spray bill often
amounts to ten or fifteen dollars
per acre per year.
The idea that groves had to be
cultivated frequently to conserve
moisture has died hard, but when a
grower cultivates his grove less and
then compares it with his former
method, he is much impressed with
the saving in cost and the better
condition that his trees are in. The
plowing of a grove in the fall puts
the legume or grass cover crop at a
depth which gives the trees less
benefit from it than when it is
knocked down with a disc. harrow
or rolling cutter. The latter im-
plements allow the cover crop to
lie near the surface of the ground
and only enough incorporated in the
soil to prevent having a fire risk.
Plowing costs three or four times
as much as discing. No further
cultivation is given until spring.
Then the acme or disc harrow is
used to stir the surface slightly and
destroy weeds and grass to prevent
loss of moisture from such growth.
The use of legume cover crops,
and especially Crotalaria, has made
a big change in our grove practices.
Crotalaria often produces two or
H. HARRIS & CO.
Fruit Auction Terminal
Cutler B. Downer Fred'k L. Springford
Harold F. Miles
two and a quarter tons of organic
matter per acre during the year.
This organic matter had 2.9 per
cent ammonia when cut in the prop-
er stage. When figured on the ba-
sis of present prices of organic ni-
trogen fertilizers, a good crop of
this legume will yield $33 worth of
plant food pe racre per year. This
nitrogen is dreived from the air and
thus a big gain to the grower. Ex-
periments as to the benefits of cover
crops show Crotalaria to be the best
for our section, with beggarweed
next, and cowpeas below that of
natal grass. Most growers have re-
ported that the quality of their
fruit was very much better after
they had used cover crops than it
was before, and none have reported
a decrease in quality.
Our fertilizer cost has been 55
per cent of our cost of production
and it is the one which we are work-
ing the hardest to reduce at this
time. Our growers have found out
that when they have a good cover
crop they can get most astonishing
results from using inorganic fer-
tilizers. Many growers report that
with approximately the same total
amount of plant food derived from
an inorganic source they can get
better results than from an equal
amount from an organic source.
This is especially true in the fall
and spring applications. The in-
organic sources of ammonia such
as nitrate of soda, sulphate of am-
monia, calcarea, and others are
much cheaper than the organic
sources, such as blood, tankage,
bone, goat manure, etc. By taking
advantage of this our growers were
able to get better results and make
a big reduction in cost. They have
started using double strength ma-
terials, such as 8-16-10 and 6-16-16.
They have half as much freight to
pay, one-half the cost of hauling to
the grove, and nearly half as much
labor for spreading. This big sav-
ing has made it possible for many
growers to make two applications
of the same amount of plant food
for the same total cost as of one ap-
plication of commercial fertilizer
which they formerly used. Several
of our growers have been using the
triple and are now trying the quad-
ruple strength materials. When the
potash is derived from muriate of
potash instead of sulphate of pot-
ash the same amount of plant food
costs about 24 per cent less. Grow-
ers who found they could make this
change have not found any differ-
ence in tree or fruit response, and
make a saving of 24 per cent in this
part of their fertilizer bill. Co-
operative buying of fertilizers by
local or county units has made a
still further reduction in cost and
a bigger saving to the grower.
By LOUIS H. ALSMEYER, County Agent
ents By Counties For 1929-30 Season
Oranges G'fruit Tangerine Mixed Total Rank
183 12 9 204
607 204 4 353 1,178 9
12 186 198
646 203 35 348 1,232 8
25 5 30
517 99 17 325 958
10 6 1 6 23
77 39 28 51 195
232 586 10 149 977
920 242 27 443 1,632 6
65 375 2 232 674
1,488 360 46 839 2,733 4
217 595 1 91 904
446 1,037 4 153 1,640 5
745 137 18 140 1,040 10
2 8 3 13
2,410 658 127 926 4,121 2
94 32 18 40 184
293 172 13 169 647
834 2,017 13 485 3,349 3
4,558 6,206 309 2,000 13,073 1
347 56 29 157 589
188 477 28 345 1,038
33 1 34
22 45 3 70
376 49 8 157 590
84 20 2 1 '107
800 53 90 370 1,313 7
181 61 12 254
16,475 13,950 843 8,217 39,485
Rendering One and All
A Sincere Auction Service
Use the "PENNSY to PHILLY"
November 1, 1930
Noeme 1,13 EL-WE HOIL
Trends of Citrus Growing
In Osceola County
By J. R. Gunn, County Agent
Radio talk over WRUF.
Briefly stated, the trend of citrus
growing in Osceola County is toward
greater acreage production of qual-
ity fruit at the least possible cost to
Situated as we are at the head of
the Kissimmee Valley, only a small
portion of our citrus acreage is lo-
cated in what is known as the Ridge
Section. The larger portion being
situated in what is called hammock,
high pine and flatwoods soils. These
types of soil are naturally adapted
to the growth of heavy cover crops,
which is the greatest step in pro-
ducing heavy crops of quality fruit
Our county was one of the pi-
oneers in the use of Crotalaria as
a means of solving the cover crop
problem in orange groves. About
seven years ago Mr. C. K. Warden,
a grower of this county, secured
from the Agricultural Experiment
Station a small amount of the striata
variety of Crotalaria for trial in a
grove under his care. The results
from this planting the first year
were so outstanding that it became
a show spot to the growers of the
entire county. From this small
planting seed was secured by grow-
ers in practically every section of
the county the following year. Each
year since has seen more than dou-
ble the previous year's acreage
planted to this, apparently the great.
est soil builder that has ever ber
produced in Florida. At the pre=.
ent time, in proportion to total acre
age, we believe that Osceo'a Count:
ranks very close, if not at the top
in proportion of groves planted t<
Crotalaria. The average yield of
this cover crop in our county is es-
timated to run around 6 tons of dr:
matter per acre, some yields having
been accurately checked which rur
as high as ten tons per acre. One
demonstration with this crop on the
Makinson-Plano grove has resulted
Volck and Kleenup
oil sprays for citrus are
produced by the world's
of spray materials...pio-
neers in the development
of modern oil sprays...
CALIFORNIA SPRAY-CHEMICAL CO.
61 West Jefferson Street Orlando, Florida
:n a reduction of fertilizer cost of
one-third that prior to the start of
this demonstration, and the quality
as well as the quantity of fruit is
increasing each year. The trees at
the same time are showing remark-
able growth and condition.
Along with a definite cover crop
program our growers are studying
and planning their fertilizer sched-
ule to maintain their trees in the
best possible condition and at the
same time produce quality fruit at
a minimum cost. They are no longer
satisfied with buying so many bags
of a citrus brand of fertilizer with-
out first finding out if it is the best
possible formula for their grove.
A number of years ago dust-ng
for the control of rust mite was
started and at the present time the
groves of the county are watched
carefully each year and dusted if
necessary for the control of this
pest which not only ruins..the ap-
pearance of the fruit but causes a
loss to the grower in reduction of
size and carrying quality of the
fruit. The Kissimmee Citrus Grow-
ers' Association, affiliated with the
Florida Citrus Exchange,, through
its manager and directors have done
a great work not only by encourag-
ng the growers in the production
of quality fruit, but have also co-
operated by purchasing sulphur dust
n quantity lots, thus making it eas-
ly available to the growers.
Due to the fact that friendly
Lungi, as well as friendly insects,
'hrive exceptionally well in this sec-
,ion, spraying work against scales
and whitefly are kept at a minimum,
-nly being done when necessary.
Some groves of the county have
gone for a number of years with
no spray being necessary, at the
same time producing quality fruit.
The importance of these sprays is
realized by the growers and used
when necessary, keeping in mind
that their application means addi-
tional cost against the crop of fruit
and must be of sufficient benefit to
justify this application.
From the wild trees in the nat-
ural hammocks of this county we
have taken a lesson in producing
quality fruit by using as little cul-
tivation as is possible for the best
maintenance of the grove. It is an
estabished fact that the fruit from
these wild trees in their natural
state with no cultivation whatever,
almost without exception produce
fruit of the very highest quality.
We are not following a non-culti-
vation system, but are doing as lit-
t'e cultivation as possible in the
groves and giving every opportunity
for the production of a maximum
yield to our cover crops.
To sum up, the trend of citrus
growing in Osceola County is
toward better cover crops, more
scientific use of fertliizer, less cul-
tivation, and use of dust and spray
material when justified.
The Production of Early
Grapefruit in Lee County
By Paul Hayman, County Agent
Radio talk over WRUF.
Lee County for years has com-
manded the attention of the citrus
world in the early shipment of ex-
cellent quality grapefruit, for which
the growers have realized top mar-
Lee County's geographical loca-
tion and ideal climatic conditions
are responsible, to a very large de-
gree, in producing an early grape-
fruit of such splendid quality, being
adjacent to the Gulf Straem, four
hundred miles farther South than
the Southern boundary of California,
n the approximate latitude of 26
degrees North in the Tropic of Can-
:er. Lee County is bordered on
the West by the Gulf of Mexico,
with Charlotte Harbor Bay lying to
the North. The only killing frost
recorded in the vicinity of Fort
Myers from the year 1910 up to
and including 1926, was in 1917-18,
at which time a cold wave swept
the entire state.
Pine Island, where a large per-
centage of the early grapefruit is
grown, is entirely surrounded by
large bodies of water and the great
specific heat of water has a far-
reaching effect on climate. The
trees on the island seldom go dor-
mant, and bloom three to four weeks
earlier, and by timely fertilizing,
with the controlling of soli by deep
flowing wells, the fruit is matured
naturally earlier than most sections.
The types of soil upon which the
grapefruit is produced range from
heavy to light sand loam, with clay
and marl sub-soils. Heavy cover
crops are grown in the groves, which
are mowed or cut down with trac-
tor and discs.
Very little cultivation and well
balanced fertilization are practiced,
which are also important factors in
the production of good quality fruit.
The Duncan variety gives best
average results season after season
and is grown most extnesively. The
Silver Cluster, Excelsior and Marsh
Seedless are also popular varieties.
The Marsh Seedless will pass the
test as early as any varieties.
Following a dry period, the grape-
fruit trees received a shock in Sep-
tember, 1929, from winds and rains,
which caused many trees to bloom
and resulted in the shipment of sev-
eral carloads of good quality fruit
in July, 1930. This occasionally
During normal seasons the fruit
is mature and will pass the tests in
early September, at which time
preparations are made for shipment.
This fruit usually finds a good mar-
ket with attractive prices.
Under natural conditions Lee
County will consistently ship more
good quality early grapefruit than
any other section of the state.
Route Your Perishable Traffic
BALTIMORE & OHIO RAILROAD
NORTH OF POTOMAC YARDS OR CINCINNATI
PHILADELPHIA AUCTION COMPANY
BALTIMORE FRUIT EXCHANGE(Auction)
OPERATE AT BALTIMORE & OHIO TERMINALS
November 1, 1930
SEL-WE HOILENvme ,18
Pink Grapefruit Temple Oranges in Manatee Co.
By LEO H. WILSON, County Agent
Indian River Blue Ribbon Citrus
By W. E. EVANS, County Agent
Radio talk over WRUF.
There are only two varieties of
Pink grapefruit grown commercially
in the world. Both originated in
Manatee County, Florida, and were
introduced by Reasoner Brothers of
Oneco, Florida. Foster Pink and
Thompson Pink Marsh are the va-
rieties. The Pink Shaddock, a
coarse, pink fruit belongs to a dif-
ferent botanical species with np
Foster Pink, a sport from Walt-
ers grapefruit, originated on a sin-
gle branch of a Walters tree, dis-
covered by R. B. Foster, in the
famous Atwood grapefruit grove,
in the winter of 1906. It was
fruited out by Mr. Foster and called
to the attention of E. N. Reasoner,
who introduced the fruit in 1911.
Reasoner Brothers offered buds for
sale in '1914. Foster grapefruit is
like the Walters except it is a beau-
tiful pink color. It sizes large, has
fine texture, clear and abundant
juice, with a light purplish pink col-
or. Eigthy thousand trees have been
sold, most of which have been plant-
er in Southern Texas and some in
Australia and Africa, with a small
planting in Florida. We have a
sufficient number of old bearing
trees in Manatee county to prove
its value. Shipping season starts
in September and October and will
last late in the season.
Thompson Pink Marsh grapefruit
originated in W. B. Thompson's
grove, joining Reasoner's Nursery
at Oneco. It was discovered by Mr.
Sam Collins of Oneco, in 1914. The
fruit came from a sport branch on
a Marsh Seedless. The propagation
carried on by Mr. Collins proved the
fruit true to type. Reasoner Broth-
ers became interested and took up
its propagation in 1920. First com-
mercial offering was made in 1924.
Thompson's Pink Marsh is slightly
larger than Marsh Seedless and well
advanced in quality. The fruit
carried a fine pink colored flesh
during the winter months. One of
its strong points is its better hold-
ing and keeping qualities. The mar-
keting season opens in January and
runs through July and August.
Both varieties of pink grapefruit
have been propagated on lemon,
sour orange and Cleopatra Man-
darin. Each stock has produced
fruit of fine quality when grown on
soils adaptable. From the prevail-
ing prices received by growers in
Texas and the ever-increasing de-
mand for quality fruit, Pink grape-
fruit looks mighty good.
Quoting from a letter received
from the Texas Citrus Fruit Grow-
ers' Exchange, Mission, Texas, of
August 30, 1929, addressed to Royal
Palm Nursery, "Foster Pink and
Thompson grapefruit have brought
from $4.00 to $5.00 per box f.o.b. at
the packing plant on carload basis.
On special order by express as high
as $10.00 and $11.00 per box har
A letter from W. W. Friend
Superintendent of Agricultural Ex-
periment Station at Weslago, Texas,
August 12, 1929, to the Royal Palm
Nursery, says in part: "I find the
average net price of Marsh Seed-
less, all sizes and grades, $1.40 per
crate, for Duncan grapefruit, $1.29
and for Foster Pink $3.00 per
These figures spell success for the
future propagation and develop-
ment of Pink grapefruit. T. Ralph
Robinson, with the Bureau of Plant
Industry, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, says Pink grapefruit are
demanding excellent prices from
high-class hotels, restaurants and
other exclusive trade. The exclus-
ive trade will always pay a fancy
price for fancy fruit.
Success in canning grapefruit and
the world-wide demand for citrus
fruit products gives further reasons
that Pink grapefruit, will in the
near future, be grown to such an
extent that a large volume of this
beautiful colored fruit will find its
way into a fancy canned product
used by choice trade in all parts
of the world. Pink fleshed fruit is
certainly in a class by itself.
Production of Temple oranges of
excellent quality, proves conclus-
ively this orange has not had a fair
chance in Florida. Temple orange
budded to rough lemon rootstock
has proven a failure. Authorities
admit this fruit should be planted
on sour orange root and grown on
soils adaptable to this stock. Tem-
ple fruit, a kid glove orange, be-
longing to the Mandarin family, is
a flat, roundish thin skinned fruit,
juicy, a deep red skin and mesh,
with a pronounced flavor you can't
forget. The best Temple fruit pro-
duced in Manatee county is grown
on sour orange rootstock and
planted on medium heavy hammock
soils, soils rich in organic material,
dark, moist, and underlaid with
chocolate and marl sub-soil. Cleo-
patra is another promising rolot-
stock for Temple oranges.
Citrus growers are using less cul-
tivation in making quality Temple
fruit. The principal cultivating
implement is the mowing machine.
The disk harrow may be used occas-
ionally to cut the vegetation into
the top few inches of soil.
Care is being exercised in fertiliz-
ing. Sufficient fertilizer is used to
produce normal tree growth. Fairly
high amounts of potash are used at
regular intervals to produce qual-
Radio ta'k over WRUF.
The Clearing House Association
list the auction prices on the prin-
cipal markets, under two headings;
one as Regular and the other as
Indian River. The price received
for Indian River fruit, through the
shipping season would average in
the different markets, from one to
two dollars more a box than the
regular Florida run of fruit.
The bulk of the Indian River
fruit comes from Brevard, Indian
River and St. Lucie counties, lo-
cated on the East Coast of Florida.
The soil is mainly hammock and
other heavy type soils, well sup-
plied with decaying vegetable mat-
ter and having good water holding
capacity, underlaid with marl or
shell. Artesion wells supply any
water deficiency, so that the trees
never need to suffer from a lack of
water. Artesian water is found
at a depth of about 500 feet, and a
four inch well can supply water
enough for a forty acre grove, the
water being conducted through
open ditches to the tree middles;
two rows being irrigated at a time.
A good portion of the groves in the
district are in drainage districts,
which afford proper water control
at all times.
The trees are set on mounds, on
the tree beds, allowing for a water
furrow between each row, thus se-
curing proper drainage. Some
groves have individual dykes around
them, as an added precaution
against unusual periods of heavy
rainfall. Various types of pumps
are installed as permanent equip-
ment to handle large volumes of
water in a short period of time.
The growers feeling that the added
investment is cheap insurance
against a possible flood.
(Continued on Page 11)
Increase of Grade!
Increase of Market Price!
Protection A against Blue Mold!
A new patented process for the cleansing,
polishing and protecting citrus fruits against
mold is now perfected and offered to packers
of citrus fruits at one-third the cost of other
This process is the IACO, which is based
upon a non-poisonous material which enters
the pores of the fruit and loosens all foreign
matter, kills spores of rots and molds and
then forms an invisible film which protects
against reinfection during shipment.
The IACO method also gives a natural high
luster to the fruit which increased the grade
from 15 to 20 per cent and 'increased the
market price from three to four times the
cost of the process.
The IACO process has been thoroughly
tested during its experimental period of de-
velopment. Over 4,000,000 boxes of fruit
were treated by this process before it was
offered to the public.
Patent Owners' and Distributors
of the "I A C 0" Process
for Cleaning, Polishing and Protecting Citrus Fruits
Jacksonville, Fla. Winter Haven, Fla.
208 St. James Bldg.
November 1, 1930
November~ 1,13 EL-WE HOIL
Radio talk over WRUF.
Hernando county is rightly known
as the "Home of the Tangerine,"
because in no other section of the
state do tangerines find a more suit-
able soil for their growth.
There is a strip of hammock land
about eight miles wide and 18 miles
long running through the county
that is particularly adapted to the
growing of tangerines. The major-
ity of the soil is classed as a Her-
nando Fine Sandy Loam. This is
underlaid with limestone and clay
or a mixture of the two. The land
is all of a calcareous nature and has
a high mineral content. In a few
sections of the county the limestone
is so near the surface that it is
necessary to blast the holes with
dynamite before setting the trees.
This land has an abundance of
humus and plant food and holds
moisture well. This combination
makes for the production of quality
We are able to grow tangerines
and other citrus with very little
commercial fertilizer as compared
to other citrus sections of the state
on account of the natural fertility of
the soil and the nature of the sub-
About 98 per cent of Hernando
county tangerines are Dancy tan-
gerines budded on a sour orange
stock. Our sour orange stock nat-
urally produces fruit of a higher
quality. The tangerines are finer
textured, have less rag and are
more juicy than those grown on
rough lemon stock. They will keep
on the trees and still not become
puffy until March, when tangerines
produced on rough lemon stock usu-
ally have to be moved by the first
of January. Our surplus of plant
food and moisture produces the larg-
er sizes that always demand a pre-
mium on the Northern markets.
We have a natural growth of cov-
er crops in most of our groves of
beggarweed, crab grass and Mexican
clover, that furnishes the necessary
amount of humus for the develop-
ment of hte trees and fruit. A
great many of our groves are sup-
plementing these natural cover
crops with Crotalaria. One grower
of the county planted Crotalaria
in his: grove four years ago. He
has not used any commrecial fer-
tilizer for two years and is getting
good crops of tangerines of excel-
lent quality. His grove is located
on typical high hammock land. He
has cultivated very little in that time
and also has his grove terraced to
conserve his soil and plant food.
The growers of Hernando county
have been specializing in tangerines
for a long time nad have been for-
tunate in having some outstanding
pioneer grove men to carefully se-
lect budwood and propagate from
their best trees, until now we have
generally what is considered the
best type of Dancy tangerine.
This fact is evidenced by the
prices that we have been getting
for our tangerines. Hernando
county tangerines top the market
75 per cent of the time. Accord-
ing to the records of the Florida
Hernando County Tangerines of Quality
By J. H. LOGAN, County Agent
(Continued from Page 10)
All groves have a cover crop
growing in them through the year,
consisting of native grasses and
weeds, and wild and cultivated
legumes. These are mowed several
times a year with the mowing ma-
chine, the principal cultivating ma-
chine around the grove. The re-
sulting mass of decaying vegetable
matter supplies an ideal amount of
humus to the soil, similar to what
nature produces in the hammocks,
the natural home of citrus.
All groves have a windbreak
around each ten acres, to prevent
wind scars on the fruit in time of
storms. The Casuarinas being the
ones most commonly used. The
Casuarina equisetifolia or the com-
mon Australian pine has been the
most popular in the past, although
the Hardy Australian pine, prev-
iously called C. cunninghamiana,
Citrus Exchange, Hernando county
tangerines sold for 21 cents more
per box than the average of the
Sub-Exchange in which the county
We have what is considered the
champion tangerine grove of the
state, both as. to quality of fruit
produced and net profit received.
It is the grove of Hale and: Darief
located seven miles southeast of
Brooksville, During the season of
1923 and 1924 the fruit from this
10-acre grove brought $16,628.57
to the owners after paying picking,
packing, and hauling charges. This
is an all-time record for a tangerine
grove for the state.
but more recently identified as C.
lepidophloia, has been in the best
favor. Some of the older groves
in the hammocks have natural wind-
breaks of cabbage palms, scattered
through the groves. When the land
was cleared these palms were left
and nothing except the oaks were
either burnt or removed. The excess
palms were cut and piled between
the trees, and allowed to rot, and
two or three palms were left as
windbreaks in each tree square.
After the trees come into bearing
all cultivation except the cutting of
the grass, weeds and legumes, is
stopped. The trees are not plowed
or disked, and very little hand hoe-
ing is done. Fruit grown under these
conditions are relatively free of
scale insects, whitefly and rust mite
injury, due to the favorable en-
vironment for the growth of the
beneficial fungi. The mulch under
the trees creating a favorable damp
atmosphere, in which the ascher-
sonias for whitefly control, the dif-
ferent fungi of scale insects, and
the fungus of rust mite thrives.
Many of the better groves have
never had a spray pump in them,
except for sulphur applications for
rust mite. Oil sprays have a detri-
mental effect on the vigor of the
tree and fruit quality, so the district
has a decided advantage in having
nature help fight the battles in, pest
So we must give nature the most
credit for the Indian River District
producing blue ribbon fruit. :Man
has simply endeavored to assist na-
ture in producing citrus fruits, in
the most favored environment.
Indian River Blue Ribbon Citrus
November 1, 1930
SEL-WETCRNCL oebe ,13
Now That You've
Seen A Demonstration=
Let's Get Down to Business
The juice business is booming. That's common knowledge now.
The Florida Citrus Exchange has again pioneered the way. Its
aggressive action has opened an almost unlimited and profitable
market for juice grade oranges.
Contracts with responsible and nationally known distributing
firms were recently announced. They provide for the sale of lower
grade oranges at a profit to the grower. They repeat for oranges
what the Exchange recently accomplished for cannery grade
Here is a demonstration of results. It is proof of ability to mer--
chandise in the interests of the grower.
Now let's get down to business. If Florida citrus growers, repre-
senting one-half of the state's crop, can produce such results
through their own organization, how much more effective they
could be if all growers worked through the same organization!
Grower-owned, grower-controlled, operated at cost for growers,
the Exchange has a record of which any grower may be proud.
Efficiently operated, it obtains for you the market, plus, for your
fruit-and its more complete service costs you less.
Let's get down to business. Unify the industry. Concentrate in
the groweirs' organization at least 75 percent control of the state's
FLORIDA CITRUS EXCHANGE
November: 1, 1930