Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00002
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: July 15, 1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text
SJ. : . J C.jYPN'E,


SSealdSweet iimnicle


Entered as Second Class Mail Matter
Vol. VI SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 50 CwTS PBER EAR TAMPA, FLORIDA, JULY 15, 1930 at the Post Offme at Tampa, Florida No. 4
Under the Act of March 3, 1879.

Plan Drastic Law To Combat. Grove Thieves And Eliminate

The Loss Of Thousands Of Boxes Of Citrus' Every Year'

Federal Protection For

Grdwers Of Perishables

SWill Penalize Handlers For Unfair
-~--A--i-Fraudulent Prictices In
Marketing Growers' Crops

Growers of citrus and other
perishable fruits and vegetables now
have the federal government back
of them in protection against un-
fair or fraudulent practices in the
marketing of their products. The
long sought law to regulate handlers
of perishable .products and place
them under the jurisdiction of the
Department of Agriculture was
passed the last session of Congress
and signed by the President.
The law is designed to prevent
fraudulently making false or mis-
leading statements concerning con-
ditiofis, quality, quantity, disposi-
tion or market conditions; failure
to correctly account; fraudulent
charges; unjust rejection or fail-
ure to deliver; discarding, dumping
or destroying without reasonable
bause; misrepresentation as to state
of.origin; removing or altering tags
if such tags represent federal or
federal-state inspection.
'' All dFleIrs aiee'qdfired to obtain
a license to operate from the De-
partment of Agriculture. A dealer
is designated as any person who
buys or sells in carlots, except a
producer selling only commodities
of his own raising.
Any grower who suffers from any
violation of the law may file a com-
plaint with the Secretary of Agri-
culture to secure equitable repar-
ation. Violaters of the law shall
be liable for full amount of dam-
ages sustained to be enforced by
reparations order of the Secretary
of Agriculture or by suit. In the
latter case the Secretary's findings
shall be prima facie evidence in
United States courts.
The dealer is subject to a fine of
$500 for failure to take out a li-
cense by December 10 of this year
and $25 a day for each day there-
after he operates without a license.

Completed loans to associ-
ations from the Federal Farm:'
Board now aggregate $1,793,-
S204 on a total of 58 applica-
'i"tostrs.. There -*te -pending ---
20 applications aggregating
$554,510 which have been ap-
proved but have not been
This money has largely
gone to refinancing, but some
associations have been able
to invest in the various secur-
ities of the Growers Loan and
Guaranty Company, strength-
ening the company's capital
and putting it in a stronger
opsition to meet grower
and association requirements.
Practically every association
able to -has placed part of its
Farm Board loan with the
Growers Loan and Guaranty

New Crop From Shock

Bloom Goes To Markets
Fruit of a new crop has been
moving to market during the past
two weeks. This is a rare occurrence
in the Florida citrus industry, which
considers that a season ends around
June 1 and the new does not begin
until after Sept. 1.
The fruit is the result of a shock
bloom on the lower East Coast and
in Lee county on the West Coast
which came last October following
heavy storms. Around 10 cars have
been moved from the Lower East
Coast section, while a car is ex-
pected from Lee county this week.
The fruit is of very fair grade and
is bringing good prices generally.

as will disclose transactions and
ownership of the business and the
Secretary is empowered to inspect
records, accounts and memoranda
in connection with the determin-
ation of complaints. For failure
to keep records, the Secretary is
authorized to publish the facts or
suspend the license for 90 days.
The same penalty applies for viola-
tion of the law and no repeated or
flagarant violation the license may

Dealers must keep such records .be revoked.

Present Law Aids Thieves Except In The Few Cases
When The Thief Is Caught Directly In The Act
Of Removing The Fruit From The Trees

Ample L


Growers In I
Should A1

Ample fun
Exchange gr
S. L. Looney
Growers Loax
pany, annou
line of credit
the Intermed
Mr. Looney
that this can
before the se
The compa]
able credit fr
may be used
as are not e
with the Inte
The Interr
recently mad
rate which wi
charge of six
counted alte
loans will bea
terest, but o
eligible and
of the Credi
in interest w:
bank direct
low rate of
beneficial to
can meet the
The bank
financial state
filled in apple
all loans offer
but it has sh
to cooperate
growers who
credit, Mr. L
taken up by
association m
plication is co
ers Loan and
until it has
association a

. ^ i. * -. . --s L.iA. W .
Grove thievery has risen to such
proportions, the next legislature"
.oan Funds will be asked to strengthen the law
TO r s to make conviction easier. Under
en 1o Gro ers the present law, which allows little
force to even strong circumstancial
Need Of Crop Loans evidence, a grove thief practically
apply To Association can be convicted only if caught in
the act of taking the fruit off from
the tree.
Ids are available to the ree
owners for crop loans, Practically no section of the state
owers for crop loans,.
Vice president of the is immune from the problem. Some *g
i and Guarantee Com- sections, such as Pinellas county,
aces. A substantial have utilized a special grove patrol
has been extended by to reduce theft of fruit from the
iate Credit Bank and groves through fear of detection
is reasonable certain m the act by a constantly roving
be materially increased patrol. Policing the widely spread
ason is ovr groves on a scale to patrol each
rason is over.
grove thoroughly is beyond the
ny also expects reason- means of the growers. The fear
om other banks which that the patrol may be along is the
for handling such loans deterent rather than actual detec-
ligible for rediscount tion. The fact that several thieves
rmediate Credit Bank. have been caught in the act only
mediate Credit Bank proves the extent to which thievery
e effective a discount is practiced, so many cases occur-
ill allow a net interest ing that a few are bound to be
percent on loans dis- caught. ..
reJuly 9. Th? crop '' Under the present law, a
Ir the usual rate of in- is practically immune unless caught
n all loans that are directly in the act of removing the
meet the requirements fruit. It is said that discovery of
t Bank the difference a supposed thief at the grove with

ill be refunded by the
to the grower. This
interset will be very
those growers who
bank's requirements.
continues to require
ements and completely
ication forms with
ed to it for rediscount,
own a fine disposition
fully in assisting those
are entitled to its
ooney said.
Sfor loans must be
the grower with his
manager first. No ap-
nsidered by the Grow-
Guaranty Company
been approved by the
nd the sub-exchange.

a bag or load of fruit is not enough
though every circumstance points
to his guilt. It is said that a man
may have a truck load of fruit
on the road at the grove with truck
tracks leading out of the grove
right up to where the truck is
standing and yet be practically free
of conviction.
That such is the situation under
the present law would seem im-
possible, yet it is so stated. In view
of the extent of thievery it seems
probable. Whole groves were strip-
ped of their fruit by thieves last
season. Many growers is each sec-
tion lost scores to hundreds of boxes
of fruit. The total loss undoubtedly
runs into many thousands.
(Continued on Page 2)



Plan Drastic Law To

Combat Grove Thieves

Aim That Circumstantial Evidence
Be Allowed Weight In Theft
Trials As In Other Cases

(Continued from Page 1)
Sheriffs express their willingness
to cooperate with growers but claim
they do not have the force to con-
duct an adequate grove patrol and
also keep up with their other duties.
Many associations have standing
rewards for information leading to
conviction, but there again the law
stands in the way, though each sea-
son several convictions do result.
Judging from news reports, how-
ever, quite a number of these con-
victions appear to be of a petty kind,
taking a few fruit to eat on the
way. These petty thefts, consid-
ering them in the aggregate, make
up a considerable less, but the big
loss is from the commercial thieves.
The quarantine guard did much
to reduce the heavy stealing, but it
is suspected that it did not elimin-
ate it. When the quarantine is
removed the favorable conditions
to stealing again return. It is con-
ceeded by all that the problem has
become too serious to be tolerated

American Food Habits

Changing Remarkably

Changes in food habits of the
American people have taken place
which would have been considered
impossible years ago and as late as
five years ago were regarded as im-
practicable. Today the American
public demands fresh fruits and
vegetables the year around where
a few years ago they looked for
these only two to three months of
the year.
This remarkable change in habit
has come through the development
of transportation. It was the sub-
ject of a radio address recently by
W. W. Oley, chief of the bureau of
markets of New Jersey, a state
which has prospered exceedingly
through the transportation improve-
"We have at our command," said
Mr. Oley, "in the combination of
railroad and refrigeration, steam-
ship lines, state highways and mo-
tor trucks, huge service agencies
which have changed the food habits
of our people. The change has been
from the staple, non-perishable
commodity to a year-round desire
for green vegetables, fresh fruits,
and, in fact, all the delicacies for-
merly obtainable during two or
three months of the year only.

Control Brings Golden Harvest
IAmited supplies supported by control makes California oranges
today the only bright spot in the nation's markets, Pres. J. C. Chase
wrote to Gen. Man. Commander, after a trip to the north in which he
gave close observation to conditions.
Markets have collapsed under an overburden of products which is
forcing producers to take heavy losses. "The entire country is suffering
from over-production", stated Mr. Chase.
Adding to this deplorable condition is general depression in business
and industry at the present time, which according to information given
Mr. Chase, is not expected to change until .fall. This general situation
naturally is accompanied by lowered purchasing power.
Yet, in this situation, as Mr. Chase points out, California is marketing
her oranges at fine prices. It is more than limited supply that enables
her to do this. One organization in California has control of most of
the crop left. That organization, the Fruit Growers Exchange is exer-
cising its control in accordance with the market. It is spreading its
volume to the limit, feeding the market only as much as it will take, in
spite of depressed conditions, at good prices.
This is clearly example by a comparison of unloads in New York
from July 1 to July 3, this season and last. This season the sale was
5,975 boxes. Last year it was 74,992 boxes. California had a bigger
crop last season, but not so much bigger as the difference in these
comparison sales. This comparison shows conclusively California is
holding her supplies back, releasing them easily.
If California had 100 or more agencies handling the. crop, with no
one handling more than 40 per cent, would that limited crop be spread
over the summer in such limited manner?

Seek Field Box Law
A law requiring the use ex-
clusively of a standard field box will
be sought of the next legislature.
At the instance of the Committee
of 50 preparation for the intro-
duction of the bill is being made
It is possible that a slight modi-
fication may be included in the pro-
posed drastic measure. This would
allow for the use of oversize field
boxes only after direct information
to the grower about its over-size
and possibly marking its size clearly
upon the box.
The over-size field box has been
a troublesome problem. It probably
has brought more suspicion than
any other practice in the industry.
It permits of misrepresentation and
fraud so easily that suspicion is the
natural by- product.
The standard field box permits
an overpack of packed fruit. The
usual oversize field box allows of
an overpack of more than 16 per
cent in packed boxes, it is said. This
summer one manufacturer received
an order for the largest field boxes
he had ever made. It was so far
oversize that the manufacturer hesi-
tated to fill the order, it is said.
The law proposed will be wel-
comed generally by the industry.
No responsible operator would op-
pose it and growers would be un-
animous for its adoption, it is
believed. Its introduction will be
watched with interest to note the
opposition, if any, that comes.

R. H. Prine of Terra Ceia, who
frequently has been the first into
the market with grapefruit, has
been elected director of Brandenton
association. The association board
was increased to eight.
Mr. Prine has been affiliated with
the Exchange for many years. He
also is a member. of the Committee
of 50. He has a fine grove of early

Merger At Oak Hill
Oak Hill association of Indian
River Sub-Exchange has negotiated
the merger of the Shiloh Packing
Company with in excess of 50,000
boxes of fruit. The merger is one
of the outstanding developments of
the unification program on the East
James A. Taylor, head of the
Shiloh Packing Company, and his
associates have joined with Oak Hill
and will have their fruit handled
through the association. Oak Hill
becomes the owner of the Shiloh
packing plant and will operate it as
an overflow plant.
The Shiloh plant is in fine con-
dition and has a capacity of four
cars. It was enlarged and thorough-
ly modernized two years ago. New
machinery was installed at that
The merger gives Oak Hill be-
tween 150,000 and 175,000 boxes
for the coming season. The plant
is in good condition. It has a capaci-
ty of four cars. Additional color-
ing and precooling rooms will be
built and other improvements made.
W. A. Robinson is manager.

Operations at Wauchula
Considerable progress has been
made in preparing for operations
the coming season in the Wauchula
plant formerly owned by Chase and
Company. J. C. "Foxy" Clement
will have charge of operations.
About 75,000 boxes have been
signed for the plant.

Fort Pierce Refund
Fort Pierce association has re-
funded its members $27,000 saved
last season out of packing charges.
It also redeemed retain certificates
for 1922-23 and 1923-24 totaling
nearly $16,000 with interest.

Rare Minerals May

Be Big Plant Factors
Developments in the analytical
chemical fields indicates that farm-
ers soon will list 14 additional
chemical elements as essential to
plant growth along with 10 now
generally accepted as essentials.
Many experiments in various crops
in widely scattered sections of the
country are showing to scientists a
growing importance in plant nu-
trition of the less common elements.
This trend was recently an-
nounced by Dr. Oswald Schreiner
of the Bureau of Chemistry and
Soils, Department of Agriculture,
in an address at the sixth annual
convention of the National Fer-
tilizer Association
The rarer, elements which prob-
ably will be listed as important plant
aids in the future, Dr. Schreiner
listed as follows: Manganese, cop-
per, boron, iodine, zinc, arsenic,
barium, strontium, caesium, titati-
um, chromium, vanadium, alumi-
num, and silicon. The elements
which now are generally accepted
as essential are: Potassium, phos-
phorus and nitrogen, all well known
to citrus growers; calcium, mag-
nesium, sulphur, carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and iron.
Fertilizer practice, said' Dr.
Schreiner, has dealt chiefly with the
application of phosphorus, potas-
sium and nitrogen as plant foods,
with lime to correct soil acidity and
not as a plant food "on the assump-
tion that soils, fertilizers and ma-
nures supply sufficient of the other
mineral elements for profitable crop

Women Important Aides
Women play a large part in the
progress of Auburndale association
and received a special tribute for
their interest from Gen. Man. Com-
mander at the recent picnic of
the association in celebration of a
refund of $16,000 and the success-
ful conclusion of a trying season.
The picnic was held at Mack's
Beach, near Auburndale and was
attended by about 200.
Mr. Commander also compli-
mented the association on its
growth and the building of cooper-
aitve spirit in the community. He
commended in particular the policy
of the association to give its grower
members other than directors ac-
tive work through special commit-
tee assibnments. Mr. Commander
expressed the hope that this policy
would be adopted by all associa-
tions, stating a grower's interest
is keener and his understanding
better when he has an active hand
in association activities.
Fred W. Davis, general man-
ager, told of the fine standing of
the Exchange with the trade


July 15, 1930

July 15, 1930


A triple "Golden" anniversary
terminating 50 years in the citrus
industry, 50 years marriage and 50
years in one home was celebrated
last month by J. A. "Uncle Jim"
Wilson of Homeland, manager of
Homeland association. Any one
of the three would be an outstand-
ing achievement for one of the
present generation to look forward
to, which goes to show what a co-
operator "Uncle Jim" is.
It was a far different citrus in-
dustry in which Mr. Wilson engaged
than the one today. Where fast
freight now speeds citrus more than
1,000 miles into the north in four
days, the- oxen "freighters" of a
half century ago required three
days to haul fruit the nearly 50
miles from Homeland to Tampa.
Horses or mules, the "fast" freights
of that yesteryear, speeded up the
trip by a half to a day.

n ,, _
--I --- r.Q -7 -

One thousand markets or more
are open to Homeland citrus grow-
ers today. Then there only was
Monotonous and tiring it would
seem to us today to drag through
three days on the road behind oxen
to reach market and then a weary
three days more to return. It was
an event to look forward to, then.
Marketing citrus was so different
as to be unrecognized today. Pick-
ers twisted the fruit from the
twigs, taking care only not to
"plug" the oranges by tearing out
a piece of the peel-at the stem. The
fruit was loaded loosely in a wagon.
Such grading and sizing as took
place was meager at the best. A
load consisted of 1,500 to 2,500
oranges on top of which was piled
any of the farm products which
the settlers had available for mar-
Over the winding, deep rutted,
sand roads the oxen would drag the
load. After days of hard, sweating
labor from sunup to sundown the
three days of slow, plodding jour-
ney was a relief, a welcome vaca-
tion from work with the glamor of
visiting town, shopping and amuse-
ments, such as they were, at the
end of the road. At nightfall, camp
would be made at any convenient
spot and in Tampa was the big
camp in the scrub now the thriving
Spanish section of Tampa, Ybor
City, where gathered in nightly
other settlers from various inland
Here in the night sprang up a
veritable community. Often, re-
lated Mr. Wilson, he had come in
at dusk the only one in the camp

Celebrates Triple Golden Anniversary

Brings Reminiscences Of Early Citrus Days

but in a few hours dozens of wagons
were crowded around and the scrub
was a noisy, hustling beehive.
In the morning all awakened
with a rush to try to be the first
to the "market" then the stores
only a few in number. Wagons
lined up in the order they arrived
and men waited their turn to sell.
Fruit was "sized up" and the price
named on the spot. One cent an
orange was a good prcie, said Mr.
Wilson. Price decided, the settler
and the storekeeper by hand
counted out the fruit, five at a time,
marking off the quantity by hun-
dreds. So it went until the last
wagon was emptied. Then, just as
now, gluts occurred. Prices would
slump to a quarter of a cent an
orange. But storekeepers strove
within the limits of the time to
save their customers needless trips
and notified their customers by
messenger when the market was
Little time was spent in town,
however. Flour, sugar, coffee and
similar necessities which could not
be produced upon the farms were
loaded. These were part payment
of the fruit, the custom being to
pay the settlers half in trade and
half in cash. The cash in Tampa
consisted of the golden Spanish
doubloons, brought in by the bag
full through the brisk cattle trade
with Spain and her colonies.
A brief spell about town and the
homeward plod was started. Not,
always uneventful, however, though
usually just a dreary procession
back over the sand trials. Mr. Wil-
son still smiles over one return of
his boyhood friend, Josiah Single-
ton of Fort Meade, also a member
of the association. Still dreaming
probably over his day in town, Mr.
Singleton delayed too long in draw-
ing up for the night's camp. As the
illustration depicts, the oxen se-
lected it for him, but so percipitately
that Mr. Singleton and the big load
of furniture he was hauling back
were dumped into the sand as the
oxen, for once, raced to the wel-
come shade of the trees.
Sometimes fruit was hauled for
the neighbors. The charge was half
the load, A load brought from $15

to $25 depending upon quantity
and market, so freighting over the
50 miles paid from $7.50 to $12.50
a big sum in those days for a week's
work. Mr. Wilson recalls many a
day of hard labor for a welcome 50
cents. Money was scarcer but needs
were simple and it went further.
The fruit purchased in Tampa
was crudely packed by the store-
keepers and shipped by boat to New
Orleans and other gulf ports. A
good business developed and finally
attracted the first buyer from New
York who set up in business in
Tampa and started new methods.
The railroad also came in and op-
ened new outlets. The buyer gave
the West Coast its first packing
plant; a simple, frame shack and
started the first manufacture of
boxes, contracting for the hewing
of rough sides and ends from the
timber close to the town. The bulge
pack also came in.
His business soon attracted others
into the field and for a time there
was brisk'competition between buy-
ers which kept up the price of citrus
though it was steadily increasing
in quantity. It rose to a cent and
a quarter for the best.
Handling of fruit also changed
arid brought the first developments
in packing. Fruit still was handled
in the grove. A wagon box was
tilted among the trees and the fruit
dumped in the upper end. The in-
cline carried it down to two men
at the lower end, who by eye and
hand graded and sized the fruit.
Further improvements came, in-
cluding the rope sizer turned by
hand, then still others out of which
evolved today's modern and elab-
orate packing house equipment,
running into thousands of dollars
Many changes have come within
the industry, Mr. Wilson remarks
as he scans back in his mind over
the years. But there at his home,
there is much the same as it was
50 years ago. The big, country
house is as he built it. In front
are the huge, wide spreading old
oaks that drew his attention 50
years before to the likeness of the
spot for a homesite. Back and
around the home are the seedling

trees, each one planted with his
own hands. There too, on the porch,
screened now, sits Mrs. Wilson just
as she did 50 years ago.

Plan State Cooperative

Planned For Marketing Vegetables
And Fruits Other Than Citrus

Plans are being formulated under
official state direction for a Flor-
ida Vegetable and Fruit Growers
Exchange to accord with the Agri-
cultural Marketing Act and be the
basis for the development of cooper-
ative marketing in vegetable and
fruit lines other than citrus. L.
M. Rhodes, commissioner of mar-
keting, is supervising the develop-
Tentative plans have been pre-
pared through conference with
representatives of leading vege-
table cooperatives. They have
been approved by cooperatives
handling two-thirds of the products
handled by the 52 cooperatives in
the state.
The plans have been submitted
to the Federal Farm Board for its
study and recommendations. They
were drawn with the assistance of
Kelsey B. Gardner, fruit and veg-
etable specialist of the cooperative
marketing department of the Farm
C. C. Teague, representing fruits
and vegetables on the Farm Board
is expected to visit Florida in the
interest of the movement. If the
plan is ratified by the Farm Board
and the cooperatives, a representa-
tive of the Farm Board will be
assigned to Florida to aid in build-
ing the organization.

Engineer Available

Charles F. Mason, engineer of the
Florida Citrus Machinery Company,
is at the call of association man-
agers to work out coloring room
plans, as result of arrangements
made between the Exchange and
the company.

C. P. Zazzali of Lakeland
probably holds a record of as-
sociation membership. Mr.
Zazzali is a member in five as-
sociations, all in Polk sub-
exchange, and is a director in
several, as well as in Polk'
where he also serves on the
finance committee.
Mr. Zazzali has 100 acres
handled through Bowling
Green, 50 acres through Lake
Garfield, 40 acres through
Lakeland, 20 acres through
Auburndale and 10 acres
through Lakeland-Highlands.

."- 1


Seald- Sweet


Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

Publication Office:
606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 1108

Net Grower Circulation
over 11,000

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VI JULY 15, 1930 No. 4

Checking Up The Exchange
Glenn Frank, president of the
University of Wisconsin, has listed
20 things producers can do through
cooperative marketing. The list
furnishes a good barometer by
which to judge the effectiveness
of the Florida Citrus Exchange.
Check over the list below and judge
the Exchange for yourself.
Through cooperation growers
can do the following:
1. They can fix and get buyers to
accept fair and uniform grades
of products.
2. They can establish recognized
brands of products.
3. They can develop new uses for
4. They can advertise nationally
and open up new markets.
5. They can find sale for low-grade
products without injuring the
6. They can make sure of the
credit of their buyers.
7. They can retail their products
when necessary.
8. They can secure better transpor-
9. They can secure cheaper storage.
10. They can- secure cheaper insur-
11. They can reduce speculative
12. They can hire a trained sales
force familiar with the market.
13. They can establish branch offices
in large centers.
14. They can establish credit for
large sums.
15. They can prevent dumping and
forced sales.
16. They can furnish members with
reliable information of market

17. They can forecast probable sup-
ply and demand.
18. They can assist in controlling
19. They can conduct legitimate lob-
bying on legislation.
20. They can achieve effective bar-
gaining power and play a part
in the determination of prices.
Take No. 1. Twenty-one years
ago the Exchange started standard-
ization and uniformity of grade and
pack. Today, it is a general prac-
tice throughout the citrus industry,
followed more closely by the Ex-
change associations than any other.
No. 2. "Seald-Sweet" and "Mor-
juce", the Exchange brands are the
only exclusively Florida citrus
brands nationally and internation-
ally known and recognized. Even
in foreign countries, the Exchange
brand is accredited over any other
brand on Florida citrus. Only Cal-
ifornia "Sunkist" on oranges is as
well or better known among all
citrus brands on the foreign mar-
No. 3. The Exchange started the
development in canned grapefruit.
Out of its experiments and mar-
keting development has arisen the
present big and growing citrus can-
ning industry. Today, the Exchange
is doing as much for the growers,
themselves through the canning out-
let, as it has done in the past for
the canners in developing the bus-
iness. Its new contract for 90
cents a box for canning grapefruit
assures the growers a net profit on
a product which has previously only
reduced the cost.of producing. It
still is engaged in canning devel-
opment and will have more inter-
esting news for the growers in the
near future.
No. 4. It is hardly necessary to
check Exchange operations against
this item. The Exchange has ad-
vertised nationally for years, in
fact is the only Florida operator
to advertise Florida Citrus exclus-
ively and extensively under an
exclusive citrus brand. In the de-
velopment of new markets, what
operator in the state has developed
any of the new markets?
The Exchange season after sea-
son has added new towns and
customers. In times of stress, when
other operators throw heavy vol-
umes into the auctions, the Ex-
change, as last season for example
exerts greater effort in private ma-
No. 5. Last season affords an-

other striking example of Exchange
operations to move choice fruit as
a profit without interfering with the
marketing of first grade fruit.
Through the South and the Central
states, the Exchange placed choice
fruit at fine prices. Further it
tested a new method of merchandis-
ing low grade fruit which is ex-
pected to move 1,500 to 3,000 cars

of this fruit the coming season at
extra good prices.
No. 6. For several years the
Exchange losses through buyer
defaults have been so low as prac-
tically to non-exist.
No. 8. The Exchange has been
the largest contributor to the Grow-
ers and Shippers League, in fact
equals all the others put together.
Its traffic manager has been the
chief aid of the League staff. He
also is one of the leading members
and workers in the national associa-
tion of shippers.
No. 11. Speculators are the chief
enemies of the Exchange. The fact
speculators fight the Exchange so
intensively is proof itself of the
check of the Exchange upon spec-
Nos. 12, 13 and 14 answer them-
selves as concerns the Exchange.
The Exchange has both division and
district offices and salaried forces
and dealer service crews for each
as well, all for a charge less than
any competitor, practically all of
whom have none of these. Credit
for growers' and association loans
have been available to the Exchange
through its Grower Loan and Guar-
anty Company for years. Millions
of dollars have been made avail-
able to growers in loans.
No. 15. Frequently in the past
the rush of fruit from Florida has
threatened to overwhelm the mar-
ket. Check shipment records for

each of these times and you will
note the Exchange has held ship-
ments to glutted points to a min-
imum and often has held out of
the glutted market altogether until
conditions were improved.
No. 16. Each day detailed
bulletins of information on each
market and each car of fruit mov-
ing go to associations. Through its
key offices, the Exchange is in con-
stant contact with all markets.
No. 17. Periodically through the
year the Exchange state organiza-
tion reports on crop conditions and
crop prospects and estimates for
every section. These reports in-
clude non-exchange crops as well
as Exchange.
No. 19. The Exchange has taken
an active part and often the inita-
tive in legislation to improve the
citrus situation. It was the first
to work for the "green fruit" law.
No. 20. Though the. Exchange
does not have that control of vol-
ume which would allow it to set
minimum prices and eliminate the
competition among operators to sell
at any price, the Exchange influ-
ence in the market retards sacri-
ficing fruit to a marked degree.
The check is really an outstanding
demonstration of the value of the
Exchange. Take the Exchange out
of Florida citrus operations and
citrus growers would have little to
sustain them.


July 15, 1930


Some Facts About Coloring

By B C. Skinner, President of the Florida Citrus Machinery Company

Most packers are pretty well
informed on the various methods in
use in Florida to artificially color
immature fruit or fruit that for
one reason or another may be
green after it has fully matured.
But the average grower, however,
is not so well informed but is in-
terested nevertheless in anything
that concerns his business. So this
article on coloring is written that
he may know more about the whys
and wherefores of this important
part of the packing house operation.
It has been the practice to start
shipping fruit just as soon as it will
pass the sugar test and that means
that much of this fruit is as green
as grass and must be colored before
it can be marketed. Then fre-
quently fruit that is nicely colored
in January may turn green again
later on and will need coloring.
All packing houses are therefore
equipped with coloring rooms where
artificial coloring is done with var-
ious kinds of gasses. Coloring me-
thods differ widely and there seems
to be no one best method. But
there are certain underlying prin-
ciples that are used in every case
and these might be mentioned in
their order of importance as fol-
lows: temperature, humidity, cir-
culation, fresh air and minimum
concentration of gas.
To color fruit it is necessary to
have a temperature of from 80 to
90 degrees in the coloring room.
The reason for this is that at a
temperature lower than 80 degrees
the coloring is extremely slow and
with a temperature above 90 de-
grees the damage from decay is
apparently too heavy so that a com-
promise is generally reached at 85
degrees. Some packers use a tem-
perature of 80 degrees, others 90
degrees but the big majority use 85
It is necessary to raise the room
temperature quickly to get uniform
coloring for the reason that if
raised too slowly the top fruit will
come up to temperature so many
hours ahead of the bottom fruit
that the top fruit will be colored
before the other. But if raised to
temperature quickly, for example in
two or three hours, the coloring
begins on all fruit at approximately
the same time and uniform color-
ing is the result. Also there is a
big saving in the total time required
to color if the coloring begins on
all fruit quickly.
Our experience with various types
of heating plants has led us to re-
commend steam as the most satis-
factory and the most economical.
While a little more expensive as
to first cost we consider it much
better from every standpoint. When
the boiler is equipped with an oil
burner you have a heating system

that is fully automatic and requires
very little attention.
Humidity is another important
part of the coloring process. The
percentage of humidity generally
used is from 80 to 85 percent and
this again is a compromise. Ex-
tremely high humidity will reduce
the wilting but on the other hand
it is liable to promote decay, for
blue mold and stem end rot are
very active at the temperatures of
coloring, namely 85 degrees. Some
packers use humidity as high as 90
percent and a few use humidity
even higher than this. Fruit has
been colored with humidity at 100
percent but this is not considered
good practice by the majority of
Circulation plays a very im-
portant part in the coloring process
for unless the heated gas charged
air is kept in continuous circulation
to all parts of the room uneven
coloring will result. Where poor
circulation is maintained the top of
the room accumulates the heat re-
sulting in over-heating the top fruit
and under-heating the fruit close
to the floor. Dead air spots are
also likely to be found in poorly
constructed rooms.
The freshness of the air must
be maintained by the constant in-
troduction of a small quantity of air
from the outside for the reason that
the fruit gives off various gasses
among which carbon dioxide. These
gasses have much the same effect
on the fruit as the circulating gas.
In other words, they tend to
smother or kill the fruit which is
really a living organism, like a plant
and once it is killed or smothered
the fruit dies very quickly and de-
cays. It has been said that fruit
sealed air-tight in a tin can will be
entirely rotten inside of 48 hours.
Concentration of gas should be
held at a minimum for the reason
that gas in large quantities smothers
the fruit just as it does an indi-
vidual and promotes decay. The
less gas used, apparently the less
damage is done to the fruit.
There are several gasses used for
coloring purposes among which
kerosene gas and ethylene gas are
the most common. These gasses are
generally introduced into the suc-
tion of the blower in order that
the gas may be continuously mixed
with the air before it is injected
into the room and at the same time
distributed over the entire length
of the room instead of being intro-
duced into the room at one point
which would give a high concen-
tration at the point where intro-
duced. By mixing the gas with the
air in the blower it is thoroughly
diluted before it strikes the fruit.
The way we meet these various
problems of good coloring is better

understood by an outline of our
system. The blower and control
instruments are installed on the out-
side end of the room leaving the
floors above clear for other pur-
poses. Air and gas are taken in
at the blower and forced through
a 4-inch tube installed at the top
of both sides of the room. This
tube is perforated at intervals and
the gas laden air is injected into
the room through these openings.
The floor of the coloring room is
laid diagonally with ,z-inch cracks
between planks. Underneath the
floor joists is a false floor which
keeps the circulating air from leav-
ing the room. The air passes down
from the top of the room, through
the fruit, on through the cracks in
the floor and along the runways
made by the floor joists to the sides
of the room and then up the sides
of the room behind a false wall
where it is heated and humidified
and then back over the top of the
false wall completing the circula-
(Continued on Page 7)


Association Houses
Clearwater Growers' Assn.
DeLand Packing Assn.
Eagle Lake Citrus Growers Assn.
Elfers Citrus Growers Assn.
International Fruit Corp.
Fullers Crossing
Fort Pierce
Lucerne Park
Lake Alfred Citrus Growers Assn
Leesburg Citrus Growers Assn.
Manatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Nocatee Citrus Growers Assn.
Ocala Fruit Packing Co., Inc.
Orlando Citrus Growers Assn.
L. B. Skinner
Tampa Citrus Growers Assn.
Umatilla Citrus Growers Assn
Waverly Citrus Growers Assn.
Winter Garden Citrus Growers Assn.
Ask the man who uses Brogdex and
you will get the low down on what
it will do for you.
Florida BrogdexDistributors,Inc.
Dunedin, Florida

Brogdex brings more money

to the grower

The reduction in refrigeration costs alone more than justify the
cost of Brogdex. All Brogdex shippers are using less refrigeration
than formerly. Some have practically eliminated it entirely while
others expect to do so the coming season.
M. H. Coloney, Manager of the Manatee Citrus Growers' Associa-
tion, makes the following comment on their experience with Brogdex
last season: "The first 25 cars were shipped full iced. The next 50
cars were all shipped dry. This was the first time in the history of
the Association that we ever took a chance on shipping Valencia
oranges without full icing. Being our first experience with Brogdex
we were a trifle skeptical about risking it but from our experience
with the dry cars we expect to do away with icing entirely the com-
ing season."
It cost Manatee $21.60 to Brogdex a standard car. To full ice
the same car probably cost around $75.00, a net saving of over
$50.00 a car. Since the dry cars arrived generally sound it is not
surprising that Mr. Coloney says that they "will do away with icing
entirely the coming season."
But the saving in refrigeraiton is only one of several advantages
of Brogdex. Another is that decay and shrinkage are greatly re-
duced. Some Brogdex packers have had no decay losses in several
years of Brogdex while others report only an occasional one.
Then buyers say that Brogdex improves the appearance of the
fruit and makes it more saleable. That means a better demand and
higher prices.
These are advantages easy of proof. Just ask any Brogdex packer
or the growers he serves. You will find the facts pretty much as
More money for the same fruit
is just a question of making
it look better and keep better.

Florida Brogdex Distributors, Inc.

Listen in on our Brogdex program every Monday night at 7:00p.m. eve- WFLA


July 15, 1930



Growers Endorse Terminal Plan
The terminal packing, canning
and cold storage project before
Fort Pierce association received the
unanimous endorsement of 52 mem-
bers of the association to whom it
was presented recently.
Considerable progress has been
made, it is understood, with even
better prospects from the commer-
cial viewpoint that first appeared.
The plan contemplates a packing
plant for the association with a
capacity of 500,000 boxes; a sub-
exchange canning plant and a cold
storage plant for general use.
A site on the new harbor has
been offered the association on very
favorable terms. The terminal, in-
cluding the site would cost around
$600,000. The owners of the site
have offered to take bonds instead
of cash, allowing use of the site
in financing the construction of the
plant. It is hoped that the con-
struction funds can be obtained
through a loan from the Federal
Farm Board.
The association has prospects of
volume which would overtax the
present plant another season.
Capacity of the plant was recently
increased to care for a material
increase given the association, but
additional tonnage is in sight. The
Indian River Sub-Exchange has de-
cidede to add facilities for canning
its low grades. The terminal plan
would provide these.
It is believed by the Sub-Ex-
change that water shipments to the
north will be a common practice in
the near future, due to the saving
in transportation rates. This would
require a storage plant to hold fruit
between steamers. Negotiations are
pending which may give the asso-
ciations the desired) water ship-
ments this season.
There are other good prospects
for the use of commercial stroage
also. It is reported that the fish-
ing interests would use the stor-
age facilities to considerable extent
and that the vegetable growers
would also. It is said that there
is a very good volume of commercial
storage business available now.



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Cutler B. Downer Fred'k L. Springford
Harold F. Miles

Extra Profit From Producing for Quality

Producing quality fruit brought
one member of an Exchange asso-
ciation four times the average per-
centage of "Seald-sweet" grade and
netted him 98 cents a box above
the association pool average. The
record is a striking example of the
extra profit for a grower who pro-
duces for quality.
The association operates on an
optional pooling basis by which a
member can ship through a pool
or on individual account. This
afforded the opportunity to compare
the returns from average crops
and one produced on a. quality
basis. The pool includes most of
the members and is representative
of average crops. The member,
whose record was taken separately
for comparison, specialize on
quality production.
Here is the actual record on the
Pineapple pool of the association
and the individual "quality" grow-
er's Pineapple crop:

one grower 57 percent "Seald-
Sweet" grade, compared with an
average of 13 percent for the aver-
age crop. It reduced the percentage
of "plain" grade for the "quality"
grower to five percent, where the
average crop had 19 percent plains.
Had the pool's average crops
been on a quality basis, the pool
would have had 4,798 boxes of
"Seald-Sweet" instead of only 1,106
It would have had only 420 boxes
of "plains" instead of 1,628 boxes.
"Plains" brought the average
crop growers 77 cents a box less
than "Mor-juce" and $1.57 cents a
box less than "Seald-Sweet". The
average crop growers averaged out
98 cents a box less than the quality
This margin of 98 cents a box
would have paid the average crop
growers all of their cost of produc-
tion, taxes, interest on investment
and depreciation, estimated to total
80 cents a box, and left him a mar-

"Seald-Sweet" "Mor-juce"
Pool Boxes 1,106 5,683
Average f. o. b. $3.54 2.74
Percent grade 13% 68%
"Quality" 1,227 818
Average f. o. b. $4.32 2.89
Grad4e Percent 57% 38%
"Quality" average on crop
Pool average on crop





Extra profit for "quality" .98
Had the pool growers with a total gin of 18 cents clear profit extra
of 8,418 boxes raised fruit for above average crop returns. The
quality, they would have received average crop growers not only
an extra 98 cents a box on every would have received the average
box of fruit or a total profit of return, but enough in addition to
$8,247.68. pay all expenses had they worked in-
"Quality" production gave the stead to produce quality fruit.

Elfers Increases Plant Capacity
Elfers association is rebuilding
its seven room coloring plant into
five large ones equipped with the
new system and is adding five new
rooms to give a total coloring capac-
ity of 6,800 boxes. Machinery of
the house has been rearranged to
give a capacity of eight cars daily,
an increase of two. Directors re-
cently voted a refund of $8,000 out
of packing savings.

Vero Refunds $11,000 to Members
Vero association will refund
members $11,000 on retain certifi-
cates and operating savings of the
past season. The past season was
a very profitable one for the mem-
bers. Fruit returns were very good
and operating costs very reasonable.
In appreciation, the board of the
association retained J. F. Goodward,
manager, and William Hammill, sec-
retary at substantial increases in

Lee County Citrus Census
Lee county, in which are located
Fort Myers and Owanita as-
sociations, has 443,432 bear-
ing citrus trees, according to a re-
cent census taken by Paul Hayman,
county agent. The county last
season shipped 351,000 boxes of
citrus compared with 509,760 boxes
in 1928-29.
The citrus trees are divided as
follows: oranges, 192,300; grape-
fruit, 242,054; tangerines, 5,622,
and miscellaneous 3,456. Non-bear-
ing citrus trees total 1.8,188.

Whitefly Fungus Available
Red Aschersonia fungus, which is
a parasite of the whitefly, is avail-
able from the State Plant Board for
the growers. The fungus is the
principal natural enemy of the
whitefly during the summer rains,
Dr. E. W. Berger, entomologist,

Lake Placid To Build Plant
Lake Placid association expects to
start construction of its packing
plant soon. It will have a capacity
of 200,000 boxes and will be de-
signed as an advertisement of the
association and the Exchange as
well as to handle fruit economically
and efficiently.
The location is a very sightly
spot, located on the lake about
three-quarters of a mile south of
the Atlantic Coast Line station.
The site comprises five acres. The
plant will have a floor space of more
than 15,000 square feet.
0. F. Gardner is president of the
association; G. A. DeVane vice
president; A. C. Whitmore, secre-
tary and treasurer. William Vogt
is manager.

Palmetto Signs Big Groves
Palmetto association has signed
125,000 boxes and has prospects of
200,000, Manager Grimes reports.
Several new members have been
signed including Bascom D. Barbur
of Terra Ceia with 55 acres of early
grapefruit. Manager Grimes be-
lieves this grove may give him the
first car of regular season fruit to
be shipped from the state. The
grove has about a 12,000 box crop.
Another new sign-up is the Par-
rish Estate grove owned by a syn-
dicate of Tarpon Springs business-
men. It consists of 55 acres of
tangerines, budded oranges and
Valencias with a few grapefruit.
The crop is about 12,000 boxes.
The owners are Dr. Belcher, Fred
Mears, J. C. McCrocklin, Fred
Schram. Several small grbves also
have been added.
Coloring rooms are being changed
to the new Skinner system. Two
coloring rooms are being added
giving the plant a total of 12.

Cleaner trees, quality fruit,
bigger profits, if you spray
your grove with VOLCK or
KLEENUP, the Ortho sprays
for Rust Mite, Scale, White
Fly. Write for new folders.
ICAL CO., 61 W. Jefferson
Street, Orlando, Florida.




July 15, 1930


Fruit Colors 21 Days

In Unique Experiment
Manatee association had a unique
experience in coloring at the end of
the season from which various con-
clusions may be drawn.
At the last of the season, the
association had five cars of late
bloom Valencias of which two cars
graded out because of greenness.
According to Manager Colonie they
were "green grass" and thought fit
only for the dump pile.
As an experiment it was decided
to try and color the two cars. They
had passed through the usual wash-
ing and Brogdex and even had been
stamped, so it was decided to make
some effort at least to save some
of the expense.
In the coloring rooms the fruit
showed no reaction in double the
customary time, but as they were
regarded as a loss it was decided to
keep them in and see what would
develop. The fruit was examined
regularly and appeared to hold up
so well that as a week passed, then
two weeks, it was decided to con-
tinue longer.
As the third week neared its end
Manager Colonie was surprised to
note that the fruit was beginning
to color. At the end of the third
week, it had colored perfectly and
appeared in such sound condition
it was decided to chance it and put
the fruit into market as "Seald-
Sweet". Even icing was dispensed
The fruit not only carried
through fine but received an ex-
cellent price. The only complaint
came from a few retailers who
were puzzled at the double stamp-
ing which appeared. Then it was
recalled that the fruit, originally
stamped "Mor-juce" had been re-
handled after coloring and stamped

Enlarges Storage Facilities
For more than two years Braden-
town association has not been with-
out fruit due to its practice of
storing several hundred boxes to
supply local demand during the
summer. Last season it was selling
Valencias to Tampa stores when
Parson Browns of the new season
were in the market.
It is constructing a special 1,000
box cold storage room to keep pace
with the local demand for storage
a considerable variety of products
for growers of the community.,
Old coloring rooms of the plant
are to be removed and a new plant
of 11 car capacity built in a sep-
arate building adjoining the house.
The Hale system will be installed.
The association estimated its
new crop at about 150,000 boxes.
Eight new members have been
signed who have about 15,000

Sarasota Growing Fast
Sarasota association expects to
handle around 100,000 boxes of
fruit this season which would total
approximately 50 per cent of the
fruit of the section, according to
its estimates. It is well able to
handle the volume and much more'
with its modern, all steel equipment
plant built two years ago.
The association has signed about
1,700 acres, representing about 80
percent of the groves of the section.
Much of its signed acreage is in
young bearing trees which are not
producing heavily.
Included in its membership is the
Palmer Corporation which has 900
acres of young groves bearing light-
ly and several hundred acres addi-
tional not in bearing.
Recently the Haley Milan com-
pany signed with the association
adding 90 acres, constituting one of
the oldest and best bearing groves
in the section.
One of the new type coloring
plants is under construction. It
consists of four rooms and will give
the association eight coloring
rooms. The old coloring rooms will

REFUNDS $65,000
Members of Florence asso-
ciation have just received a
refund of $65,000 on the basis
of 11 cents a box for oranges
and tangerines and 13 cents
a box no grapefruit.
The association expects to
make an additional refund of
five cents a box later. Flor-
ence handled 462,524 boxes
the past season, believed to
be the record volume of the
season for any packing house.
The coming crop is estimated
at 375,000 boxes, the decrease
largely due to a very light
grapefruit crop.

be equipped with the newly devel-
oped system.
Manager Gocio has been handi-
capped in operations by small vol-
ume, but with the volume in
prospect expects to be able to make
material savings in operating costs.
Every effort will be directed to this.
The seven run electric marking
machine which has been used in
the past will be replaced by two five
run machines and both "Seald-
Sweet" and "Mor-juce" fruit will
be stamped.

Very high efficiency and low operating costs are features of
our automatically controlled, steam heating coloring room
equipment that you cannot afford to overlook. The picture
illustrates a typical installation with one side of the baffle
wall cut away to show the steam coils and the circulating
system. The opposite wall is a duplicate of the side you see
in the picture. The control instruments and one of the
circulating blowers are shown on the outside end beside the
entrance door.
Our method of air circulation and distribution is so uniform
that a spread of from one to two degrees is quite common.
This uniformity is what gives the high efficiency and low
operating cost. One half horse power (two motors of %4
h. p. each) is all the power required for the operation of
one of these roms.
We are in position to furnish the trickle system for ethy-

Some Facts About Colors
(Continued from Page 5)
tion. Each blower is provided with
an air opening by means of which
fresh air is fed into the suction side
of the blower mixed with air 7and
gasses entering from the room and
uniformly distributed.
Steam coils are built into the
side walls. One coil is perforated
to permit the escape of live steam
and furnish the required humidity.
The installation is quite, easily done
and since the temperature is auto-
matically regulated close control
is possible. A spread of only one
or two degrees between top and
bottom fruit is the usual thing.
This type of coloring room may
be used for sterilizing purposes
should this be found necessary the
coming saeson. A change in the
temperature regulator and shutting
off the gas and dry heat converts
your coloring room into a steriliz-
ing room. Close temperature con-
trol, uniform circulation and hum-
idity are just as important in ster-
ilizing as in coloring and .here you
have a combination room that will
do either as occasion may require.

lene gas and the equipment is likewise adapted for the use
of "kerosene gas."
This type of coloring room equipment ,can be installed in ex-
isting rooms at slight cost The floor above the room, if
used for other purposes, need not be disturbed by our equip-
ment as the blowers can be installed in front of the rooms,
as illustrated, or even at the sides.
We will make the installation for less money than others
will charge you for any other efficient system. We will
make you a complete installation except carpenter work and
electric wiring. This includes boiler, oil burner, oil storage
tank, steam, water and oil piping, and coloring room equip-
ment proper. And in dealing with us you have the satisfac-
tion of knowing that a responsible concern is back of the
equipment in the years to come.
A request for more detail information and prices will place
you under no obligation whatsoever.

Automatically Controlled, Steam Heated

Coloring Room

Division Food Machinery Corporation DUNEDIN, FLORIDA

July 15, 1930


Worthy of Every Grower's

The Vital Citrus Problem.


In a recent editorial we pointed out that the
unification of the citrus industry would mean an
actual saving of $12,420,000 to the growers in
Florida each year. There are many other reasons C
why the unification program should go ahead and
many more reasons why the Florida Citrus Ex-
change is the logical agency to bring it about. A
competent handling of this situation demands an
organization and salescontrol capable of applying
common sense merchandising principles. These
fundamental principles of merchandising are
standardization, organization, control of distri-
bution, price maintenance, intelligent advertising
and a development of citrus by-products. That is
the basis of the whole unification program. These
advantages are available only through unified
sales. Through it the grower achieves business
insurance and a protection of the industry's future,
in addition to the actual monetary values accruing
to every grower who supports the plan.


The Florida Citrus Exchange is not only the
proper organization but it is the only organization
in the state that can bring this about. It has a com-
plete organization throughout the citrus belt. It
is controlled by growers, through representatives
elected from all sections of the state. It is depart-
mentally organized to handle all phases of mer-
chandising. Its national sales organization permits
the handling of non-competitive accounts in off
seasons, this reducing over-head to the minimum.
It already handles 40% of the total crop. Its na-
tionally advertised brands are recognized as
standard in all markets. It has the only growers'
financial organization in the state. It is the only
agency operated at cost solely in the interest of
growers. And last but by no means least, it is
recognized by the Federal Board as the logical
nucleus around which to build a unified program.
Citrus growers have many problems it is true,
but it is our frank opinion that this matter of
unification is of the most vital concern.-Tampa
Morning Tribune Editrial, June 20, 1930.



I -L-Il ~


July 15 1930

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