Landscape plants for Florida homes

Material Information

Landscape plants for Florida homes
Series Title:
<Bulletin> New series
Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee <Fla.>
State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
83 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Plants, Ornamental -- Florida ( lcsh )
Landscape gardening -- Florida ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
"September, 1945."
Bulletin (Florida. Dept. of Agriculture) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
by John V. Watkins.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
029652107 ( ALEPH )
41792281 ( OCLC )
AJU3742 ( NOTIS )


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Trees are essential to the successful development of any land-
scape plan. Suitable kinds in adequate numbers must be care-
fully selected as the first step in any home beautification project.
These may be natives that already grow on the property or they
may be nursery-grown exotic species bought especially for the
purpose. Trees relate the house and garden to the land and to
the sky as well and scale relationship must be carefully consid-
ered. One must think in terms of mature sizes rather than of
nursery grades when choosing trees for planting around the
home. In Florida, many semi-tropical species grow quite rapidly
and assume gigantic sizes in a comparatively short time. Many
of these, too, cast very dense shade under which it is impossible
to grow a lawn. These kinds are unsuitable for small residential
properties and their use should be limited to parks, arboretums
and large estates. Mature sizes will be indicated in the descrip-
tive paragraphs.
Shade is most necessary in Florida because of the large number
of intense sunny days. Broadleaved evergreens may be chosen
if year-round shade is wanted, while deciduous species are best
in some positions so that sunlight may be enjoyed during the
Framing is an important function of trees in landscape design.
Trees set toward the property lines on both sides, rather forward
of the house, enframe the dwelling and the garden and give a
finish and completeness that can be attained in no other way.
For this purpose, small, erect-growing species should be chosen
for most homes.
Two or three somewhat larger evergreen trees set at the rear
property line will furnish a background that gives solidarity and
definition to the plan.
Hardiness, adaptability to one's soil type, long life, freedom
from diseases and insect pests and resistance to strong winds are
important considerations when a list of trees is being compiled
for home planting.
Some species are selected for their beautiful evergreen foliage,
others are cherished for their striking blossoms, while still others
are all time favorites because of the fruits that they bear.
Collecting lawn trees from the woods has long been the prac-
tice in Florida and thousands of beautiful specimens now grow-
ing all over the state were secured in this manner. It must be
remembered that many species are protected by law and cannot
be dug without permission of the property owner. Every right-
thinking person will want to respect property rights and will


CAJEPUT TREE-(Melaleuca leucadendron)
A beautiful small tree that is outstanding as a specimen, street tree or


of handfuls of a mixed commercial plant food at the bottom, fill
the hole with fertile woods soil and leave a slight basin to gather
When the plants are at hand next winter, carefully shovel the
fertile soil aside, set the tree in the hole so that it will be at
exactly the same level that it grew formerly. See that the roots
assume, without bending and crowding, the same relative posi-
tions which they held. As the soil is slowly shovelled back, allow
it to be washed into place with a gentle stream from the hose.
Finish with a saucer-like depression and fill this with water at
least once each week that it does not rain.
Newly planted trees of all classes have low resistance and so
it is recommended that the trunks be protected for the first
two seasons. Beginning at the ground level make a spiral wrap
upward until the branches are reached. Spanish moss, muslin,
paper or a similar material may be used and it can be secured
at intervals with cord as needed. After leaves emerge the follow-
ing spring, loosen the wrap or allow it to disintegrate gradually.
This wrapping is good protection against sunscald, excessive
drying and borers and it will materially aid your tree in recov-
ering from the transplanting operation.
Cutting back to reduce the leaf-bearing surface in proportion
to the loss of the roots is most important. Head in lateral branches
at least half their length, perhaps remove some of the limbs
down close to the ground. Do not prune the central leader, but
allow the single terminal growing point to maintain its

Newly planted trees will not need to be fertilized during their
first growing season because of the high nutrient level of the
soil into which they were set. However, during the following
February, and annually thereafter, all trees should be fed
A mixed commercial fertilizer is applied in punch-bar holes
around the tree. Use a heavy crow bar or similar tool to make
holes about 10-to 12 inches deep concentrically around the trunk
and then fill these holes with your chosen plant food. The num-
ber of holes and the amount of fertilizer to apply will vary with
the species, age, soil type and other factors, but, generally speak-
ing, a pound of fertilizer for each inch in diameter might be
about right. Of course, the holes should be equally distributed
around the tree inside the drip of the branches.
Lawn trees should need little pruning, but occasionally it is
necessary to remove crowding, crossing or interfering branches


ask permission to collect before going into a woodland with
digging and pruning tools.
Wild trees, growing in competition with their neighbors have
far-reaching roots and it is impossible to dig them with satis-
factory, compact root systems. When everything is considered,
it is much more desirable and but little more expensive to buy
trees from a reputable nursery. The nurseryman has trans-
planted, root-pruned, cultivated, fertilized, sprayed and irrigated
his stock and his trees will attain maturity much more quickly
in your garden than will trees of comparable sizes from the wild.

BLACK OLIVE-(Bucida buceras)
An excellent avenue or windbreaw tree for the Miami area

Transplanting is most successfully accomplished when plants
are dormant and this will be between December and February
in Florida. Until that time, it is a good idea to prepare the plant-
ing holes so that the locations will be ready for the trees at the
right time. Dig holes that are large enough to contain the sizes
that you plan to acquire. Throw a layer of compost and a couple


or those that have been injured by cold or wind. Sometimes it
is essential that one of two leaders be reduced so that Y-crotch
may be avoided.
Sharp, well adjusted pruning saws, hand shears and loppers
are necessary accessories. Smaller branches are headed in with
the hand shears, or removed close to the supporting member
with the loppers, while the pruning saw is used for larger wood.
Always make a preliminary cut about a foot from the supporting
member. This will prevent the heavy branch from carrying

CAMPHOR TREE-(Cinnamomum camphora)
Suitable for any section of Florida


away a strip of bark when it falls. The final pruning cut, then,
is made very close to the limb from which the branch to be
pruned, arises. Painting the wound with a tree wound dressing
or with good oil paint is strongly recommended. This will help
prevent checking and will assist in the exclusion of wood-rot
fungi until callus can cover the wound.
Generally speaking, the best time to prune ornamental trees
is just prior to spring growth or immediately after blooming.
Spanish moss, which grows so luxuriously in parts of Florida,
is harmful and must be removed annually if lawn trees are to
be kept in good condition. This fast growing epiphyte casts
unusually heavy shade, forces growth outward and causes many
small branches to die.

Tropical species of Ficus often have very attractive branching.



ACACIA (Acacia spp) 8-50 feet. These showy members of the
legume family are noted for the large numbers of bright yellow
blossoms and are available at nurseries in several species and
varieties. Mostly all are semi-tropical and must be grown, there-
fore, in the southern part of the state.
Propagation is by seeds.
ANNATTO LIPSTICK TREE (Bixa orellana) 25 feet. This small
tree is quite showy when its terminal panicles of rose-colored
blooms are in season. The fruits, which follow, are the source
of a yellowish-red dyestuff that is used in coloring food products.
Propagation is by seeds.

* The nomenclature followed in this bulletin is that used by Dr. L. H. Bailey
in Hortus Second 1941

AUSTRALIAN PINE-(Casuarina cunninghamiana)
This is the hardiest species of Casuarina



Acacia -- - -
Annatto .. .
Black-olive - .
Bo-tree -
Cajeput .
Camphor . ..- .
Cassia - - -
Casuarina -
Chaste-tree -- .
Chestnut, Moreton Bay -
Crape-myrtle .
Crape-myrtle, Queen's -
Dogwood - - -
Fig - - -
Frangipani - ...
Fringe-tree - ........
Gum - - -
Gumbo-limbo - -
Holly --.----------
Jacaranda -
Jerusalem thorn .
Lily-thorn .

Lipstick tree -
Live Oak - -
Loquat .
Magnolia - -
Mahogany -
Mango .
Mimosa ---- -
Mountain-ebony -
Moreton Bay Chestnut -
Oak - -
Orchid-tree - -
Pongam - -
Redbud - -
Royal poinciana -
Rubber tree -
Sapodilla - -
Satinleaf - -
Seagrape - -
Senna --------
Sweet-gum .- -
Tamarind -
Traveler's-tree -

- 8
- 15
- 13
- 14
- 14
- 14
- 15
- 15
- 15
- 15
- 15
- 16
- 17
- 17
- 18
- 19
- 19
- 19
- 10
- 18
- 19
- 17


BLACK-OLIVE (Bucida buceras) 50 feet. The native black-olive
is in high favor in southern Florida because of its adaptability
and great resistance to strong winds. As a street tree, windbreak
or lawn specimen, this tropical evergreen is highly commended
to home owners within its range.
Propagation is by seeds.

JERUSALEM THORN-(Parkinsonia aculeata)
This is one of the best small trees to use as a lawn specimen

CAJEPUT (Melaleuca leucadendron) 50 feet. A medium-sized
tree of great distinction, the cajeput is a popular lawn specimen
in central and southern sections. The thick, spongy bark, the
strict habit, the small, narrow leaves and the yellow-white blos-
soms all contribute to make this one of our outstanding orna-
mentals. In some areas this Australian tree has established
itself in great cultures which demonstrate its adaptability to
conditions in this state. Other species, the bottlebrushes, are
popular ornamental trees or shrubs.
All are increased by seeds.
CAMPHOR (Cinnamomum camphora) 40 feet. Well known as a
beautiful, hardy, evergreen tree, the camphor is satisfactory on


fertile soils that do not become excessively dry during spring
droughts. Unattractive yellow foliage and an unthrifty condi-
tion may be accounted for by a mineral deficiency in the soil or
red spiders attacking the leaves. This condition is aggravated
by drought. Seeds are used entirely for propagation, and as the
camphor does not transplant readily, they should be sown in
CASSIA, SENNA (Cassia spp) 8-30 feet. Several species are grown
in the warmer sections. The great quantities of showy yellow or
pink blossoms that are so freely borne have earned for this group,
an important place as a small garden tree.
Propagation is easily accomplished by sowing seeds.

MAGNOLIA-(Magnolia grandiflora)
This is a young specimen of the south's favorite tree


CASUARINA (Casuarina spp) 70 feet. Adapted to the widest
possible range of conditions, the casuarinas have become one of
the most numerous trees of southern Florida. C. equisetifolia
withstands brackish soils and salt spray and is grown extensively
near the seashore as clipped hedges, windbreaks and high screens.

grown as far north as Gainesville. C. lepidophloia, more widely
planted than any other species, has an attractive dark green
color, dense habit and produces quantities of root suckers.
These are used to increase plantings of this last kind, while the
others are grown from seeds.
CHASTE TREE (Vitex agnus-castus) 20 feet. As a small door-
yard tree, the vitex is quite popular because of its attractive
lilac blossoms. Although the tree is deciduous, the lacy digitate
leaves are beautiful during summer when the fragrant blossoms
appear. The tree may be grown from softwood cuttings during


CRAPE-MYRTLE (Lagerstroemia spp). Whether it be the com-
mon crape-myrtle (L. indica 20 feet) or the Queen's crape-myrtle
(L. speciosa 60 feet) the wealth of showy color will repay one
for growing these oriental trees. Of easiest culture, succeeding
on a variety of soil types, crape-myrtles have earned their right
to their great popularity. For planting stock, dig suckers which
arise from cut roots, or root tender tips in white sand in summer.
DOGwOOD (Cornus florida) 40 feet. Native to the hammocks
of central and northern Florida, the flowering dogwood is well
known and widely planted as a lawn specimen. Graceful, beau-
tiful in flower and fruit, small in size and attractive when not in
leaf, this tree is strongly recommended to home owners within
its range. Nursery-grown, grafted trees are suggested as the best
for planting.
FRANGIPANI (Plumeria spp) 20 feet. Several species and varie-
ties of the fragrant frangipani are widely planted throughout
the tropics of the world. Easily grown from cuttings, the short,
stout, spreading trees are widely accessible in Key West and
FRINGE-TREE (Chionanthus virginica) 30 feet. The white blos-
soms that appear with the leaves in spring are most attractive
and account for the popularity of this small native. In the upper
part of the peninsula and westward, the fringe-tree is successful
when grown in fertile soil. The trees are grown from seeds.
GUMBO-LIMBO (Bursera simarubra) '50 feet. Because of its
bright tan bark that appears just to have been shellacked, and
the unusual knarled and bent branches, this native tree is highly
prized and widely planted as a landscape subject in the Palm
Beach-Miami area. Well adapted to that section, the gumbo-
limbo is particularly decorative. Propagation is usually by
seeds but cuttings root readily.
HOLLY (Ilex spp) 15-50 feet. Beloved by all, the holly has
come down through the ages as one of the most popular of all
evergreen trees. Thirteen species are native to Florida and of
these, six are classed as trees. Horticultural varieties of these
and several exotic types that grow well here are offered by nurs-
eries. Good soil of acid reaction, an even supply of moisture are
requisites for success. The berries are borne on pistillate trees
and, to insure an abundance of these, one should be certain that
a staminate tree of the same species grows in the neighborhood.
Hollies are protected by law and must not be collected without
permission of the property owner. When everything is consid-
ered, grafted, true-to-name, heavily fruiting trees from a nursery
are much superior to those dug from the woods.
JACARANDA (Jacaranda acutifolia) 50 feet. This is central Flor-
ida's most spectacular flowering tree. In springtime the blue


flowers make a never-to-be-forgotten display. Native to South
America, this large, fern-leaved, deciduous tree demands little
attention save for careful planting and adequate moisture during
the first few years. Jacarandas are grown from seeds.
JERUSALEM THORN (Parkinsonia aculeata) 30 feet. The lacy
foliage, pendulous habit, attractive yellow blossoms and green
bark of the Jerusalem thorn make it quite unusual and attrac-
tive. For all parts of the state, this small, open, hardy tree is of
great ornamental value and is highly recommended.
Seeds may be sown directly in containers so the roots of the
young trees will not be disturbed in transplanting.
LILY-THORN (Catesbaea spinosa) 15 feet. Indigenous to south-
ern Florida, this little tree can be used when fine scale is indi-
cated. The branches are wiry and heavily armed with sharp
spines about an inch in length. In late summer the creamy-
white blossoms are produced in profusion. Lily-thorn is grown
from seeds.
LOQUAT (Eriobotrya japonica) 30 feet. Over most of the state
a favorite dooryard tree is the loquat. The attractive, dark,

This is one of Florida's most showy flowering trees


evergreen leaves, the decorative, delicious fruit and its small
size commends this tree to home owners. Easily and quickly
grown from seeds, this Chinese fruit tree can be had by everyone.
MAGNOLIA (Magnolia grandiflora) 100 feet. Justly famous
throughout the south, this native is one of our choicest trees.
Evergreen, trim and graceful, the tree is highly desirable at any
time of the year, but in springtime, the huge, creamy-white
blossoms put the magnolia in a class by itself. Choice varieties
are grafted but the species increases naturally by seeds. From
Gainesville westward the deciduous oriental magnolias, (M.
liliflora and M. soulageana) succeed if given fertile, acid soils
and adequate moisture.


SACRED Bo TREE-(FiCUS religiosa)

MAHOGANY (Swietenia mahagoni) 60 feet. The native ma-
hogany is frequently to be seen in the Miami area as a street
tree. Although evergreen, the tree does not cast dense shade
and lawns can be grown under it quite well. Mahoganys produce
seeds in great abundance which germinate and grow readily.
MANGO (Mangifera indica) 50 feet. While essentially a fruit
tree, the mango is very ornamental and is much used as a street
tree and lawn specimen from Vero Beach, around the coast to
Tampa. Seedlings will grow easily and rapidly, but improved
varieties, purchased as grafted trees are strongly recommended.


MIMOSA (Albizzia julibrissin) 40 feet. The mimosa is so much
at home here that it has become naturalized. Ever popular be-
cause of its attractive pink globular blossoms which are borne
for a long period during summertime. The graceful fern-like
leaves are produced in March-April. Propagation is by seeds.
MORETON BAY CHESTNUT (Castanospermum australe) 60 feet.
This is a tall tree that has attractive evergreen pinnate leaves and
showy racemes of yellow flowers in springtime. Highly thought
of by those who possess it, the Moreton Bay chestnut should suc-
ceed on good soils of acid reaction.
Propagation is by seeds, which incidentally, earn the tree its
name as they are edible when roasted.

SEA GRAPE-(Coccolobis uvifera)

MOUNTAIN EBONY, ORCHID TREE (Bauhinia spp) 6-20 feet. For
the warmer sections this spectacular tree is unsurpassed when
a small flowering specimen is wanted. All of the species and
varieties which are available are well worth growing as lawn
specimens for Orlando and southward.
Bauhinias are easily grown from seeds, but as they do not
transplant readily, it is suggested that the seeds be sown directly
in expendible containers so that the small plants can be trans-
ported and set without disturbing the roots.
OAK (Quercus spp) 100 feet. Several native species have been
extensively planted as street, roadside and shade trees. Their
complete adaptability is beyond question and they are resistant


to disease, insects and drought. Some thirty species, both ever-
green and deciduous, are credited to Florida and these range in
size from the dwarf running oak to the giants of the hardwood
The most desirable species is the live oak (Quercus virginiana).
This well known tree has the longest useful life of all southern
species and does not reach senility and break up when less than
fifty years old as may the laurel and water oaks. True, it grows
less rapidly than the others, but, given good care, its rate of
growth is satisfactory and, at the half-century mark it does not
present hazards to public safety and necessitate costly replace-
Trees can be collected from the woods or grown from acorns.

ROYAL PoINCIANA-(Delonix regia)
Southern Florida's most spectacular tree blooms in the summer

PONGAM (Pongamia pinnata) 40 feet. One of the best trees for
street and windbreak planting because of its strength, this Aus-
tralian tree is highly recommended. Beautiful and fast-growing,
the pongam is well adapted to conditions in southern Florida
where it seeds abundantly. These produce seedlings easily.


REDBUD (Cercis canadensis) 40 feet. Always popular because
of its delightful spring color, this small native tree is widely
planted as a front lawn specimen. For the best soil types that
occur in northern Florida, the redbud cannot be too highly
Propagation can be accomplished by sowing seeds, but nurs-
ery-grown trees of improved types are grafted.

ROYAL POINCIANA (Delonix regia) 40 feet. This, Florida's most
spectacular tree, is tropical in its requirements and is found only
in the warmest sections. The myriads of scarlet blossoms are

TRAVELER'S TREE-(Revenala madagascarensis)
This is an outstanding lawn specimen because of its exotic appearance


borne in early summer and make a show that is without equal
in the plant kingdom.
Propagation is by seeds.

RUBBER TREE (Ficus spp) 80 feet. This tropical genus, con-
taining several hundred species, is well represented by many
ornamental kinds in tropical Florida. Typical of most species
is rapid growth, great size and aerial roots that drop from the
larger branches to form multiple trunks. F. benjamin, the
weeping laurel, a beautiful avenue tree; F. elastica, the India-
rubber tree; F. religiosa, the sacred Bo-tree and many other

SWEET GuM-(Liquidambar styraciflua)
This native tree has a most attractive, symmetrical habit of growth


interesting and worthwhile species are widely available and
much used in southern Florida. All tropical Ficus trees require
much space for full development and are not recommended for
small properties. All members of the genus Ficus are increased
by cuttings.
SAPODILLA (Achras sapota) 50 feet. A beautiful evergreen tree
native to the American tropics that has found a congenial home
in the Miami area. The fruits are edible and the latex yields
gum chicle from which chewing gum is manufactured. Highly
thought of as a lawn specimen or shade tree, the sapodilla is
widely planted within its climatic range.
Trees are easily grown from seeds.
SATINLEAF (Chrysophyllum oliviforme) 30 feet. This small
native tree is well named because the under sides of the leaves
are a soft, glistening copper color. For the warmest places, this
indigene is a distinctive and worthwhile lawn specimen.
Propagation is by seeds.
SEAGRAPE (Coccolobis uvifera) 20 feet. Native to the coastal
dunes, this stout much branched small tree is frequently seen as
a landscape subject in its native habitat. Utterly distinctive in
appearance, the seagrape exerts a strong tropical influence and
is much appreciated in resort areas.
Propagation is by seeds.
TAMARIND (Tamarindus indica) 75 feet. This massive tropical
fruit tree is quite ornamental and is frequently seen toward the
tip of the peninsula. The leaves resemble those of the black-
locust; the pods contain an acid flesh that is used in ades and
Propagation is by seeds.






Black-olive -
Cabbage palm -
Cajeput -
Casuarina -
Coconut -
Dogwood -
Holly - -
Live oak -
Magnolia -

Acacia -
Areca palm -
Black-olive -
Cabbage palm -
Cajeput -
Camphor -
Cassia .. -
Casuarina -
Chaste-tree -
Chinese fan palm -
Coconut .
Crape myrtle -
Dogwood -
European fan palm
Frangi-pani -
Gumbo-limbo -
Fiji fan palm -
Fishtail palm -
Holly ..- .
Jacaranda -
Jerusalem thorn -

- -o
. =
. -

Cabbage palm
Casuarina -
Cajeput -
Coconut -
Live oak -
Loquat -

Acacia -
Chaste-tree -
Dogwood -
Cajeput -
Cassia -
Crape myrtle
Frangi-pani -
Fringe tree -
Jacaranda -
Jerusalem thorn

.. 9 Mahogany -
. 26 Mango -
S- 9 Pongam .- -
. ...- 11 Queen palm -
. 27 Royal poinciana -
S- 12 Royal palm *- -
S. 12 Tamarind -
. -15 Washington palm -
. 14

. 8 Lily-thorn -
. 26 Loquat -
. .... 9 Magnolia -
. 26 Mahogany -
- .. 9 Mango - -
- 9 Mimosa -
. .. 10 Mountain ebony -
- 11 Pigmy date palm -
.. 11 Pindo palm -
. 27 Pongam -
- 27 Queen palm -
. 12 Rhapis palm -
- 12 Redbud -
. 27 Royal palm -
. 12 Sapodilla -
. 12 Satinleaf -
. 28 Seagrape -
. 28 Senegal date palm
. 12 Silver palm -
. 12 Traveler's tree -

- 26 Pindo palm -
- 11 Rubber tree -
- 9 Sapodilla - .
- 27 Saw palmetto -
- 12 Sea grape -. -
- 15 Senegal date palm -
. 13 Washington palm -
- 14

8 Lily-thorn -
11 Magnolia - -
12 Mimosa -
9 Moreton Bay chestnut
10 Mountain ebony -
12 PQinciana -
12 Queen's crape myrtle
12 Redbud - -
12 Senna - -



Nowhere in the continental United States is it possible to grow
the wide variety of palms that can be successfully cultivated in
Florida. Mainly tropical in distribution, these graceful trees do
much for Florida's distinctively different landscape. Many na-
tive and exotic species, varying from dwarfs of a few feet to
magnificent trees which attain a height of 100 feet, are widely
employed with telling effect in this semi-tropical tourist land.
Palms may be used in many ways in landscape planting.
Species in varying heights can be planted in attractive groups;
they may be used as enframement and background for the home,
but the most telling way that palms can be employed is as avenue
trees. Tall, clean-growing, single-trunked specimens, planted
at 25-30 foot intervals on either side of an avenue make a picture
that is not soon to be forgotten.


Palms may be transplanted at any time of the year, but the
beginning of the rainy season is most favorable. Then, root
action is most rapid and the plant rallies from the transplanting
operation most quickly.
Several weeks before you plan to move a palm, prepare the
planting hole as described on pages 3 & 4.
Palms are transplanted in all sizes from small seedlings to
finished landscape specimens; being limited only by the mechani-
cal equipment that is at hand to transport the trees. The size
of the root ball is much smaller in proportion, than that habitu-
ally taken with a typical woody tree. In fact, sometimes the
roots are trimmed to within a foot or two of the trunk with a
sharp axe.
It is well known that palm roots will emerge higher and higher
above the crown and, therefore, it is common practice to set
palm trees slightly deeper than they grew. Use good judgment
as it is easy to plant too deeply. Too shallow planting is dan-
gerous and must be avoided.
When the palm is in place (slightly deeper than it grew) fill
with the fertile soil that was taken from the enriched hole,
.allow. water to flow in from the hose to eliminate air pockets
and to make a good contact between the roots and the particles
of soil. Finish the job by-tramping to-firm the soil and then
build a saucer around the tree to hold water. Once each week
that it does not rain, fill this depression with water.


Because of the drastic reduction in the volume of roots, it is
accepted practice to remove the leaves at transplanting time.
Tie the uppermost leaf stems around the bud as protection.
Every effort must be made not to harm this vital structure. When
a large palm is felled, it must be guyed so that it does not fall
hard and harm the bud.
Palms over eight feet in height should be firmly braced. Three
2 x 4's spiked to the trunk at one end then firmly secured to
"dead men" in the ground are the most satisfactory braces. If
these timbers remain in place for about 18 months a heavy root
system will have been built to hold the palm against strong
winds. Choice exotics may be braced each autumn as routine
Most palms are particularly resistant to diseases, insects and
drought and once they become established, little routine main-
tenance is required. During periods of protracted drought, allow
the hose to run slowly for several hours or all night by each
trunk. Remove all brown leaves with a sharp pruning saw as
close to the trunk as possible. Flower and fruit clusters should
be cut off as soon as they are unattractive with age. The Canary

ARECA PALM-(Chrysalidocarpus lutescens)
As a patio palm or tubbed specimen this beautiful feather-leafed species excels


Island date (Phoenix canariensis) is attacked by the palm leaf
skeletonizer and this insect may be partially held in check by
monthly spraying with an arsenical mixture during summer time.

Palms are increased by seeds and by division. As soon as they
are ripe, the seeds should be sown in beds, pots or boxes of fertile
soil. Cover the seeds to a depth approximating their diameter
and cover the whole with one thickness of burlap. This material
will conserve moisture and discourage birds and rodents. In
winter the seed beds must have full sun, but during the warmer
months, they must be protected by cheesecloth or slat shade.
At the beginning of the rainy season, the burlap should be re-
newed so that the seeds will not be washed out of the soil.
Palm seeds vary greatly in the length of time required for
germination. Some will sprout in a few weeks, while others will
require as much as one and one-half to two years to come up.
It is quite evident, therefore, that close attention is needed until
the seedlings are well under way.
Seedlings may be potted shortly after germination; they must
be potted before the roots attain much length. Then they may be
set individually in earthen flower pots, felt plant bands, wooden
boxes or discarded refinery cans. The soil used in these con-
tainers should be a fertile organic mixture of slightly acid reac-
Coconuts are set in rows and buried only one-half their thick-
ness, the upper portions being fully exposed. Germination
should be complete in about five months.
Division is the method of vegetative propagation in which a
plant is divided into several units. Species of Phoenix, Chrysa-
lidocarpus, Rhapis and Caryota may be so multiplied when well
rooted offsets are seen to be available. If the specimen is in a
container, it can be turned out and cut into units with shears
or an axe, if it is a lawn specimen, sturdy offsets several years
old can be severed from the old tree with the aid of a sharpened
leaf from an automobile spring, large chisel or heavy crow bar.
The severed divisions may be potted or set directly in the garden
where they are to grow.



Acrocomia -
Areca palm -
Blackburn palm -
Cabbage palm -
Canary date palm -
Chinese fan palm -
Coconut .
Date palm -
European fan palm
Fan palms -
Fiji fan palm -
Fishtail palms -

Pigmy date - -
Pindo palm .
Porto Rican hat palm -
Queen palm - -
Rhapis palms -.
Royal palm - -
Sabal palms - -
Saw palmetto -
Senegal date palm -
Sentinel palm -
Silver palm - *
Washington palm -



ACROCOMIA (Acrocomia spp) 50 feet. These striking pinnate-
leaved South American palms are well adapted to conditions
south of Leesburg. The bulged trunks are usually armed with
vicious spines 1 to 6 inches in length. Because of these spines
this genus is adapted to group plantings only, and, in any case,
the thorns must be pruned off to well above head height.
ARECA PALM (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) 20 feet. As an urn
subject and patio plant, this clump-growing, yellow-stemmed
palm from Madagascar is extremely popular. Because it requires
moist, rich soil and freedom from frost and salt spray, the areca
palm is limited in distribution as a garden plant. Wherever it
will grow successfully, however, it is very well liked and there-
fore it is strongly commended.
CABBAGE PALM (Sabal palmetto) 80 feet. The hardiest of our
native palms, this well known species grows well throughout the
state. Tolerant of a wide variety of soil types, salt spray and
brackish water, the cabbage palm well deserves its universal
CANARY DATE PALM (Phoenix canariensis). Hardy over the
Florida peninsula, this huge pinnate-leaved palm has been wide-

PINDO PALM-(Butia, sp.)
Has blue-green leaves that recurve sharply and touch the ground


ly planted. Because of its massive trunk, low, drooping leaves
and its susceptibility to the palm-leaf skeletonizer it is not recom-
mended as a dooryard tree. Until it attains some size its branches
interfere with traffic and it cannot be recommended as a street
tree. For municipal properties and large acreages its monu-
mental size is well adapted.
COCONUT (Cocos nucifera) 100 feet. The native coconut palm
with its tall leaning trunk, immense leaves and spectacular fruits
lends a tropical aspect that can be equalled by no other plant.
As a street tree, lawn specimen or background subject this palm
is unsurpassed and can be recommended without reservation to
all who live south of Fort Pierce and Sarasota.

The beautiful Queen palm is central Florida's most popular palm

DATE PALM (Phoenix dactylifera) 100 feet. The species that
produces the date of commerce is occasionally seen as a single
specimen in Florida, but, because of the high humidity here,
edible dates are rarely produced.
EUROPEAN FAN PALM (Chamaerops hunilis). This dwarf,
hardy, slow-growing plant is native to southern Europe, but has
found a congenial home in Florida. Useful as a tiny lawn speci-
men and for grouping, this diminutive palm is highly com-
FAN PALM (Livistona spp). Two or more species are grown
as lawn specimens, the most widely planted being the Chinese
fan palm (Livistona chinensis) 20 feet. Neat, graceful and well


adapted to our soils, these attractive fan palms succeed from
Ocala southward.
FIJI FAN PALM (Pritchardia pacifica) 30 feet. One of the most
graceful and distinctive of all palms, this tropical species is well
thought of in southern Florida. Easily injured by cold and by
strong winds, the Fiji fan palm must be grown in protected
FISH-TAIL PALM (Caryota spp). Very satisfactory for the
Lower East and West coasts and for the warmest parts of the
ridge section, these distinctive ornamental palms have gained
wide popularity. Caryota mitis (25 feet), the smaller species
suckers readily and may be increased by separating these small
offsets. In addition to its value as a garden tree, this species is
grown in urns for indoor decoration during the winter tourist

Caryota urens (40 feet) which grows with a clear trunk is
much admired as a free-standing lawn specimen and is highly
PIGMY DATE PALM (Phoenix roebeleni). The best liked of all
dwarf palms, this tiny, feather leaved species has many charac-
teristics that are attractive to everyone. As a pot plant, patio
subject or as a part of the landscape planting, the pigmy date is
quite worthy of the high esteem in which it is held. A partially
shaded spot is best for these plants and they must be protected
from scale with an oil emulsion spray. Specimens grown in
containers seem to be more prone to scale attack than those
growing in the open ground. Several other species of this old
world genus are occasionally seen as rare specimens.
PINDO PALM (Butia spp) 30 feet. Extremely hardy, and there-
fore capable of being grown in all sections, this South American
palm can be depended upon to succeed in every garden. The
pendant, blue-green leaves arise from stout trunks to arch sharply
downward. Because of this low, spreading habit, the pindo palm
requires much space and is not adapted for planting along streets,
walks or in small dooryards. Very effective in palm groups, how-
ever, this type is recommended for parks and estates. Formerly
this palm was erroneously known in the nursery trade as Cocos
australis. Seeds from Butia palms may require 18 months or more
to germinate.

QUEEN PALM (Arecastrum romanzoffianum) 40 feet. Central
Florida's most popular palm, usually called "Cocos plumosa" is
a native of Brazil. On the poorest soils for colder locations this
beautiful feather-leaved palm serves well as a substitute for the
royal palm. Wherever citrus will grow successfully, tlhe queen


palm is highly recommended as an avenue tree, a lawn specimen,
or as a background subject.
RHAPIS PALMS (Rhapis spp) 10 feet. This genus is composed
of dwarf palms with fine, reed-like canes that form clumps by
means of stolons. Very satisfactory as tubbed specimens, patio
plants or as a part of the foundation planting, these hardy little
palms can be depended upon throughout Florida. Propagation
is accomplished by dividing old clumps.

ROYAL PALM-(Roystonea regia)
These stately palms are native to Southern Florida.

ROYAL PALM (Roystonea regia) 100 feet. The massive taper-
ing, cement-grey trunks, the clean appearance and attractive
crown of dark green pinnate leaves have universal appeal and
make this native the most popular of all palms within the state.
Classic examples of its effective use as an avenue tree are well
known to everyone who has visited in our southern Florida cities.
Indigenous to moist, rich soils, the royal palm is best adapted to
such locations, although it succeeds on light sands if it is pro-
perly planted and cared for.


SABAL PALMS (Sabal spp). In addition to the native cabbage
palm, several exotic species of this genus are occasionally seen
as specimens. The Blackburn palm (S. blackburniana) from
Bermuda and the Porto Rican Hat Palm, (S. causiarum) both
attain heights of about forty feet and are characterized by very
stout trunks and huge, grayish, fan-shaped leaves. These are
striking trees that are effectively employed as specimens or for
avenue planting.
SAW PALMETTO (Serenoa repens). The saw palmettos are
thought of as noxious weeds by stockmen and farmers, but they
do have definite landscape value. When one is building on land
on which they grow, clumps can be left to good advantage as
they blend in well both as a foundation subject and as a member
of the informal shrubbery border. A tree-like form with erect
trunk is occasionally found and this makes an attractive fine-
scale specimen palm.
SENEGAL DATE PALM (Phoenix reclinata) 20 feet. A leaning
palm that grows in large clumps made up of many slender trunks
that finds wide usage as a patio specimen as well as a lawn tree.
This picturesque, easily grown palm is highly commended for
gardens south of Gainesville.
SENTINEL PALM (Howea spp). Formerly called Kentias in
the florist trade where tubbed specimens are widely employed
for decorating, the two species of Howea have become well
known. They are occasionally seen as lawn specimens in the
Miami area but they have not been widely planted out of doors
in America.
SILVER PALM (Coccothrinax argentia) 25 feet. This slender,
fine-scale palm is native to the keys and adjacent mainland.
Occasionally used as a landscape specimen in that section, the
silver palm is distinctive and unusual.

WASHINGTON PALM (Washingtonia spp) 100 feet. These giants
of the California deserts grow very well in Florida's humid cli-
mate where they attain a height of nearly one hundred feet.
Hardy in the peninsula, these monumental trees find their great-
est use for avenue planting where they are particularly pictur-
esque and effective when planted at 25- to 35-foot intervals.



In our modern concept of the home grounds we have come
to consider shrubbery as indispensable. Through countless suc-
cessful demonstrations, through the many useful articles in gar-
den magazines, through the work of the garden clubs, and with
the aid of suitable plant material, we have carried this concept
through to a state of near-perfection that was not dreamed of a
generation ago.
In considering the planting of the modern suburban home we
should think of it in three major unit areas. The first, and
possibly the most important, is the public area or the front yard
which embraces the area between the dwelling and the street.
This setting for the home should be simply planted as the house
should present a dignified picture. A few trees or palms for
enframement and an adequate base planting of shrubs for transi-
tion and surface decoration are needed. These shrubs are per-
manent elements of the picture and they may well be the choicest,
most costly plants in the landscape scheme. It is these plants
that make the first and lasting impression and you should expend
thought upon their selection and time and effort on their care.
The lawn contributes a great deal toward the beauty of the public
area and it should be just as nearly perfect as it is possible to
make it.
The shrubs that are to be selected for the base planting must
be chosen with great care, as a proper scale relationship between
the plants and the building they are to accent is essential. The
plants should be dense in habit, bearing small, closely packed
leaves on stubby, short branches. Harmony in scale between
the elements in the design is fundamental.
The arrangement of the plants near a doorway is sometimes
called the "portal planting". These accent plants should be
deep and rich in tone, not boldly variegated lest they attract
attention away from the door. Plants for this important location
are almost always evergreens, broadleaved or coniferous, hardy,
resistant to the attacks of insects and diseases and capable of
withstanding sun and drought as well as dense shade. Plants of
open habit, those that are untidy or of coarse texture and those
species that grow rapidly are not well adapted to be used as a
part of the portal planting.
Frequently we select species that will soon outgrow their sta-
tions, putting the whole scheme out of scale. Some of our well
adapted evergreen shrubs may quickly submerge the house in a
ten-foot wall of impenetrable green. How often have we seen
pyramidal abrovitae on either side of a bungalow door, that
have reached the eaves and have almost covered the front walk


and the steps. The plants by ones front entrance must be wholly
presentable in all weathers, therefore, hardiness is of first im-
The remainder of the foundation planting connects the struc-
ture with the ground, and with adjacent shrub borders so that,
after a time, the house and the ground will appear to have grown
together into a permanent harmonious unit. Shrubs and vines
tend to soften architectural lines and features. On the other
hand, certain types can be employed as strong architectural
With the older type of house that stands on piers, a continuous
planting of evergreen shrubs is essential, as this open area below
the floor level is very unsightly. However, with the later type
of construction, in which the house is built directly upon the
ground, or without open space beneath, one may use a few choice
specimens as accents, then, in places, allow the house to merge
into the land, unadorned. Simple restrained plantings are the
vogue today, as there is a definite trend away from the heavily
planted foundations of a decade or two ago.

There is the notable tendency in Florida to use some species
too frequently. In northern Florida the general use of fast-
growing, inexpensive wax privet makes for mediocrity; in the
southern part of the state there is a great tendency to overdo
the A B C planting, namely, Aralia, Bougainvillea and Croton.
All of these are excellent plants, when used as strong accents,
but they are often employed tob extensively.
The second subdivision of the modern property is the service
area. Shrubs are planted to screen this section from the out-
door living area and the street. The plant materials used to
enclose this smallest unit must be strict in habit so that they
will occupy a minimum of space. They must be evergreen for
permanent effect and they must be resistant to pests, drought and
cold, so that maintenance may be kept to the minimum.
The aralia, in its many horticultural forms is valuable for
southern Florida, while the dwarf, fern-leaved bamboo is widely
planted in the northern and western parts of the state. It is
necessary to restrain this giant grass by cutting out excessive
shoots and to restrain the roots by frequent ditching by in-
stalling metal roofing vertically in the ground.

This area, near the kitchen door and driveway may also serve
as a play yard for the children and is usually the repository for
the fuel tanks and garbage containers. Light shade from a small
deciduous tree or palm, planted near the kitchen door, will be
a welcome addition.


The third, and final unit of the ideal suburban property is the
private area or outdoor living room. This is the largest part
of the modern residential property and the one that assumes
the closest relationship with the family and their guests. This
subdivision has grown out of the old "backyard" which all too
often was a catch-all for poultry houses, fuel piles, incinerators,
garbage cans and other utilitarian but hardly ornamental items
of household equipment.

An attractive outdoor living room enclosed by informal shrubbery borders

In its modern development with attractive borders and open
central area, an outdoor living room is especially useful in Flor-
ida where it is possible to spend so much of the time out of doors.
A side of the house with proper base plantings of evergreen
shrubbery will serve as one boundary, possibly the garage or
ell of the house will become another and the two remaining
sides may well be planted with appropriate evergreen shrubs.
Where space permits, the most popular method of enclosing
the outdoor living room is the employment of hardy broadleaved
evergreens in an informal shrubbery border that has interesting
bays and promintories and intriguing sequences in foliage color
and texture. Perhaps five or seven plants of feijoa might merge
into a group of six wax privets, which, in turn, would have as
neighbors, six oleanders. The planting distance in this type of
layout may be four to six feet each way. Always in groups,
rather than spotted singly or alternated, is the accepted way of
planting. The individual plant is always subordinated to the


effect of the whole in this sort of planting. This simulated hedge-
row, completely informal or naturalistic, seems to appeal to the
majority of gardeners and is widely used in suburban backyards
throughout America. In this arrangement, annuals, perennials,
and bulbs are set in drifts or large beds in the shrubbery bays
so that their colorful blossoms, as strong notes, serve as points
of interest or focalization.
Generally speaking, landscape material can be set about two
feet out from the house in starting the base planting. When
ventilators are present, in the rear of the house, it is a good plan
to carry the plants out in small promintories to allow for the
circulation of air and the entry of workmen when necessary.
No plant should be set closer to a choice specimen than five
feet, lest this specimen be crowded out of symmetrical shape.
Indeed, close spacing will soon deprive the plant of its status
as a specimen.
Planting intervals, for best effects in the base planting, should
be comparatively short. Semi-dwarf species such as boxthorn,
lime-berry and Kurume azaleas may stand perhaps two feet
from their neighbors. More robust growers should never be
less than three feet, and, when there is no objection to a spotty
effect for the first season, a four-foot planting interval may be
In laying out informal or naturalistic borders, robust ever-
green shrubs are used and these should be five feet apart. For
clipped hedges, buy small sizes and set the plants in a double,
staggered row with one foot between plants. Start clipping
early the first season, allow the top to grow up slowly, and you
will soon have a very presentable hedge with foliage well down
to the ground.
Several weeks before your shrubs are expected from the nurs-
ery, carefully determine where you want them to stand and then
prepare the planting holes as described for trees on pages 3 & 4.
Planting and aftercare should be the same as for trees.



Abelia .
Allamanda -
Aralia - -
Azalea ... .
Boxthorn -
Brazilian pepper
Bridal wreath -
Bush cherry ---
Camellia -
Cherry laurel
Chinese holly -
Cocculus -
Copperleaf -
Croton -
Eugenia .
Feijoa - -
Firethorn -
Flowering Jasmine
Gardenia -.
Glossy privet -
Golden dewdrop -
Hibiscus -
Hydrangea -
Ilex . .
Ixora --

Japanese holly -
Japanese juniper -
SJasmine -
Juniper -
Lantana -
Limeberry -
Nandina -
Natal plum -
Oleander -
Orange jasmine
Pfitzer's juniper -
Pittosporum -
Plumbago -
Podocarpus -
Primrose jasmine -
Privet ...
Shore juniper -
Silverthorn -
Snow bush -
Star jasmine -
Thryallis -
Turk's cap -
Viburnum -
Wax myrtle -
Wax privet -
Weeping lantana -



ABELIA* (Abelia grandiflora). Small, shiny foliage, bright
crimson twigs, and clusters of white blossoms make abelia a very
choice shrub. Its best growth is attained in the northern part
of the state, where it makes one of the best hedges.
Hardwood cuttings, lined out in mid-winter should root satis-
factorily and grow into landscape material during the second
ALLAMANDA (Allamanda cathartica). The yellow-flowered alla-
mandas are among the most colorful and free-growing of the
tender flowering shrubs. Vinelike if not injured by cold, or cut
back in pruning, these vigorous tropical climbers quickly grow
to large size in the warmer sections.
The true purple allamanda (A. violacea) from Brazil should
not be confused with the rubber vine, (Cryptostegia), which is
sometimes sold under this designation.
Allamandas are easily grown from cuttings.
ARALIA (Polyscias spp'). Its strict habit, ability to thrive in
poor soil and intense heat and its striking foliage of many pat-
terns has made aralia one of southern Florida's most widely
planted shrubs. As a hedge or screen this tropical shrub serves
Hardwood cuttings root quickly during the rainy season.
AZALEA (Rhododendron spp). Throughout the South, count-
less millions of Indian and Kurme azaleas flower each spring and
the fame of these plants has spread to every part of our nation.
If one is careful about the preparation of the soil and the grow-
ing position, these choice evergreen shrubs can be enjoyed in
all sections of our state north of Tampa.
A rich, but well drained soil of high organic content, acid in
reaction (pH 4.5-5.5) is essential as is broken shade for most
sandy soils. In western Florida on fertile soils and properly
mulched with leaves, azaleas will grow quite well in full sun.
An abundant supply of moisture is needed during periods of
drought if good bloom is expected.
Azaleas are effectively used in bold groups of a single color
or grouped for color sequence. As specimen plants and as edg-
ings, certain varieties are very strikingly employed.
Propagation is by tip cuttings in June.

* The nomenclature followed in this bulletin is that used by Dr. L. H. Bailey
in Hortus Second 1941
means that more than one species is in common use in Florida.



ALLAMANDA-(Allamanda cathartica)
Huge waxy, yellow flowers are produced the year around.

THRYALLIS-(Thryallis glauca)
For southern and central sections, this ornamental shrub is highly commended.


BOXTHORN (Severinia buxifolia) is one of the choicest shrubs
for Central Florida. The glossy oval leaves closely packed on
fine, thorny branchlets, are supplemented many months in the
year hy attractive globular jet-black fruits. Much branched,
slow-growing, shade-tolerant, amenable to shearing, this citrus
relative is most highly commended to all gardeners south of
Boxthorn is usually grown from seeds.
BRAZILIAN PEPPER (Schinus terebinthifolius) Tall screens and
windbreaks are effectively formed by planting the attractive red-
fruited Brazilian pepper at six-foot intervals. This husky ever-
green is suited to the citrus belt and must be pruned frequently
if it is to be kept below tree size.
Seeds or cuttings can be planted for new stock.
BRIDAL WREATH (Spiraea spp). For Gainesville northward
and westward the several species of spiraea succeed as garden
shrubs, blooming dependably each spring. For masses of glisten-
ing white in informal shrubbery borders, these deciduous shrubs
are unsurpassed. Pruning must be done just after flowering lest
flower buds be sacrificed.
Spiraeas of all types may be grown from softwood or hardwood

BOXTHORN-(Severinia buxifolia)
A dense, slow-growing, hardy shrub of the citrus family that is excellent
for foundation plantings, hedges or specimens.


CAMELLIA (Camellia japonica). Long considered the aristocrat
of shrubs in the Deep South, the japonica has been a part of
rural life since antebellum days. The compact growing habit,
the beautiful glossy foliage, and the blossoms that appear in win-
ter and early springtime account in part for the popularity of this
attractive shrub.
Like azaleas, camellias require a fertile soil, adequate mois-
ture and broken shade. Some varieties will succeed in full sun
on good soils with heavy mulches.

STAR JASMINE-(Jasminum pubescens)
Almost indispensable as a foundation or landscape plant in central Florida. It
has periodic crops of star-shaped white flowers and can be grown as a shrub
or a vine.

In the landscape, varieties of Camellia japonica are useful as
specimens, as accent plants, for the portal planting and as a
dense but informal hedge. Camellia sasanqua, hardier and of
more open habit, is a valuable species for the informal shrubbery
border. All camellias must be protected against scale by several
annual applications of an oil emulsion.
Many varieties are increased by rooting cuttings but most
rare types are grafted.
CAPE-HONEYSUCKLE (Tecomaria capensis). Orange-red flow-
ers make this well known shrub very showy most of the year.


As a screen or division plant it serves well because of its adapt-
ability to conditions in Lower Florida.
Propagation is by cutting or seeds.
CHERRY LAUREL (Prunus caroliniana). Although this plant
becomes a good sized tree in our hardwood hammocks, its
greatest landscape use is as a shrub. Beautiful, shiny, evergreen
leaves are held in good condition the year around and, during
springtime, the new growth is especially attractive. As a sheared
hedge or as formal, clipped specimens, the cherry laurel is par-
ticularly recommended in northern Florida.
Small plants may be collected in hammocks or they may be
grown from seeds.
CoccuLus (Cocculus laurifolius). Because its long oval ever-
green leaves are carried well to the ground by the drooping green
branches, this shrub is approved by those who admire good
landscape material. For foundation plantings and for screens,
this tropical shrub is offered by most ornamental nurseries.
Softwood cuttings root easily in summertime.

CHERRY LAUREL-(Prunus caroliniana) (Sheared)
This is an exceptionally good hedge or specimen plant as it can be kept in
almost any desired shape by shearing.


COPPERLEAF (Acalypha wilkesiana). Much planted in south-
ern Florida, this large-leafed, fast-growing ornamental is well
known to all gardeners in that section. Copperleaf grows easily
from cuttings and will succeed in any situation that is not too
shady. As a foundation material it usually gets out of scale.
CROTON (Codiaeum variegatum). The world's most colorful
and variable shrub comes into its own in southern Florida. Here,
crotons in endless variety are grown in every conceivable land-
scape usage. Good taste insists that they are much over used as
their garish, boldly variegated colors demand that they be strong
highlights in a green composition.
Crotons are easily grown from cuttings stuck in sand at the
beginning of the rainy season.
EUGENIA (Eugenia spp). This is a diverse genus that has
several important representatives in southern Florida. The
pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) is in favor as a hedge material be-
cause it shears well and bears delicious and decorative fruits.
Bush-Cherry, (E. paniculata and varieties) is a favorite land-
scape material that is frequently seen as sheared accent plants
in foundation plantings. This type is much grown in southern
Florida nurseries.

Camellias are beautiful specimens and serve well also as tall, informal screens.

Eugenias are propagated by seeds and softwood cuttings.
FEIJOA (Feijoa sellowiana). Hardy throughout our state, this
South American fruit plant is admirable for landscape use as


well. The gray-green leaves with whitish undersurfaces make
this a good plant for contrast and transition.
Seeds are sown when the fruits ripen in summertime.

In southern Florida this variety is grafted on understocks of Gardenia thun-
bergia which are resistant to the root-knot nematode.

FIRE-THORN (Pyracantha spp). Of all fruiting shrubs growing
in the cooler sections none is more showy during the winter
months than the beautiful fire-thorn. Nurseries supply the kinds
that are known to be successful in this area. As large pyracanthas
do not transplant well from the open ground, it is suggested that
small plants in expendible containers be selected.


Named varieties are propagated by cuttings.
GARDENIA (Gardenia jasminoides). The Cape jasmine is an
old-fashioned shrub that has been a dooryard favorite in the
Lower South for generations. From Orlando northward to the
Carolinas this spring-flowering variety grows quite well if it is
protected from root-knot by a mulch and from white-fly by an
oil emulsion spray. This variety is propagated by cuttings. The
winter-flowering form, (G. veitchii of the florists) is grown out
of doors in southern Florida grafted on tender, but root-knot
resistant, Gardenia thunbergia. All gardenias are badly attacked
by tropical scales as well as the troubles noted above, so much
vigilance is needed to keep the plants clean and healthy.
GOLDEN DEWDROP (Duranta repens). This large, fast-growing
shrub is widely distributed throughout Florida both as a garden
plant and as an occasional escape from cultivation. As a back-
ground plant for gardens in the citrus belt it is recommended,
but it ordinarily attains too great size to be employed as a part
of a foundation planting.
Young plants may be grown from seeds or cuttings.
HIBISCUs (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis). Sometimes called the Queen
of Shrubs, this beautiful rose of China possibly has more uni-
versal appeal than any shrub the world around. The graceful,
compact habit, beautiful glossy, evergreen leaves and the gorg-
eous colorful blossoms all contribute to make this shrub a top-
flight landscape material. Propagation of most varieties is by
tip, cuttings taken during the summer, but rare kinds are grafted
upon under stocks of the single red variety.
HYDRANGEA (Hydrangea macrophylla). This deciduous flower-
ing shrub from Asia is another of universal appeal. The huge
trusses of blue which appear above the attractive shiny leaves
in late springtime are very striking. In Florida this plant is
shade-demanding and the best position for hydrangeas, there-
fore, is a northern exposure. Any cutting back must be done im-
mediately after flowering, else the blossom buds will be re-
moved. Aluminum sulphate, which acidifies the soil, makes for
blue hydrangeas, and if you want them pink, the soil must be
limed so that it has a basic reaction.
Propagation is by hardwood or softwood cuttings.
ILEX (Ilex spp). Several small-leaved hollies can be kept to
shrub size by careful pruning and these are in high favor as
landscape plants. The most important is the striking native
yaupon (Ilex vomitoria). Because it is so much at home, stands
shearing well and bears beautiful berries in wintertime, the
yaupon is unsurpassed for hedges and sheared specimens. Nurs-


HIBIscus-(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)
This is a handsome shrub that has many uses in the landscape scene.

HYDRANGEA-(Hydrangea macrophylla)
This is an ideal north-side plant.


cry-grown fruiting specimens are much more satisfactory than
are plants collected from the wild.
The Japanese holly (Ilex crenata variety convexa) has become
very popular for foundation work in northern Florida. Small
shining evergreen leaves are closely packed on much-branched
green stems. Numerous black fruits are attractive highlights
during fall and winter. This choice landscape plant 'is grown
from cuttings.
The Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta) is another favored landscape
subject from Asia that is offered by most nurseries in the Lower
IXORA (Ixora coccinea). Garden forms with flowers in shades
of red and yellow are seen in the warmer sections. Counted as
one of our best ornamentals the ixora excells as a hedge, speci-
men or base planting material.
Tender tips root in white sand in summer.
JASMINE (Jasminum spp). This genus furnishes several sprawl-
ing evergreen shrubs that are widely employed in landscape
plantings. For the colder sections, the flowering jasmine (J.
floridum) and the primrose jasmine (J. primulinum) are excel-
lent hardy shrubs; in ihe citrus belt the star jasmine (J. pube-
scens) is often seen as a shrub and as a vine, while in the warm-
est locations, the fragrant Jasminum gracile (syn. J. simplici-
jolium) is in high favor. There are many other species, some of
which are grown as rare plant novelties by nurseries and plant
collectors. All of the jasmines root readily where canes touch
the ground.
JUNIPER (Juniperus spp). This is the most dependable genus
of coniferous shrubs for Florida. Many beautiful horticultural
forms, which will thrive in northern and western sections, are
available at the nurseries. One of the best low ground cover
forms is the shore juniper, (Juniperus conferta) an intermediate
horizontal grower is the well known Pfitzer's juniper, (Juniperus
chinensis pfitzeriana) while one of the very best of the tall ever-
greens for a sheared accent is the beautiful Japanese juniper,
(Juniperus chinensis sylvestris).
All junipers are propagated by cuttings.
LANTANA (Lantana spp). So well adapted that it has escaped
cultivation, the lantana is known by everyone. Sometimes lan-
tanas will fill that difficult sunny garden spot as no other
shrub can. Botanically, the red and yellow-flowered shrub is
Lantana camera and the attractive lilac weeping lantana is L.


LIME-BERRY (Triphasia trifolia) is a favored landscape plant
for southern Florida. Graceful, dense, evergreen, amenable to
shearing, this beautiful plant well deserves the high esteem in
which it is held by nurserymen.
Seeds are employed to increase stocks.
NANDIINA (Nandina domestica. West of Live Oak on rich
soils this decorative ornamental grows to perfection. The many
reed-like erect stems, lacy compound leaves and rich red fruits
make this a must-have for gardens within its range. Nandina is
not happy in peninsular Florida.
Seeds germinate slowly, but are used for propagation as are
suckers that come out from old plants.

PITTOSPORUM-(Pittosporum tobira)
This broadleaved evergreen shears well.

NATAL PLUM (Carissa grandiflora). This West African fruit
plant serves well as an ornamental in the Palm Beach-Miami
area. Its compact habit (horizontal branching, oval evergreen
leaves) beautiful white flowers and decorative purple fruits,
account for the high favor in which the natal plum is held.
Plants are grown from seeds.
OLEANDER (Nerium oleander). This cosmopolitan evergreen
shrub is too well known to warrant discussion excepting to point
out that it is too coarse and fast-growing for foundation planting


work. Adapted to almost any soil, resistant to reasonable amounts
of salt spray, the oleander, in many attractive colors, is valuable
for tall screens and windbreaks. DDT has been effective in con-
trolling the oleander caterpillar.
Propagation is easily accomplished by cuttings taken at almost
any season.
ORANGE-JESSAMINE (Murrea exotica). Seven to nine rhom-
boidal leaflets, fragrant white flowers and red ovoid fruits are
characteristic of this large tropical shrub. Completely at home
in frost-free sections, this plant is recommended for tall natural-
istic screens and for free-standing specimens.
Seeds germinate well and softwood cuttings strike easily.
PITTOSPORUM (Pittosporum tobira). For a clipped hedge or
sheared specimen, this attractive broadleaved evergreen is un-
surpassed. In coastal areas and in western Florida it seems to
be especially good, but in some localities the pittosporum is easy
prey to the Cercospora leafspot. A copper fungicide is needed
as protection against this disease, which if unchecked, may cause
Plants are grown from seeds in Western Florida, from tip
cuttings in the peninsula where seeds do not set annually.

i? -.ox<"z- i *. .L -. % ."= DH EE ."-..A ^ l- i .---* -.- .i L.iP*
PFITZER'S JUNIPER-(Juniperus chinensis pfitzeriana)
This low spreading Juniper is excellent for corners or borders. Grows well
in central and northern Florida.


PLUMBAGO (Plumbago capensis). Because of its small size, com-
pact growth and attractive blossoms of soft blue, this is without
doubt, one of Florida's most valuable shrubs. From Marion
County southward it is seldom killed by frost and it is commend-
ed without reservation. A fertile soil in full sun, an adequate
supply of moisture and annual cutting back are requirements
for its success.
Plumbago is grown from seeds or root cuttings.

'. -. r' -

S, -'"'l- L~

OLEANDER-(Nerium oleander)
Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the oleander is one of the best
materials for a tall informal screen.


PODOCARPUS (Podocarpus spp). Among the best coniferous
plants that are grown in Florida gardens are the several species
of Podocarpus. They are hardy, slow-growing, amenable to
shearing, tolerant of shade and drought and therefore are useful
in a portal planting. Well liked by all, these beautiful Asiatic
plants are most highly commended.
Tender tip cuttings stuck in white sand in June and July should
root in six or eight weeks.
PRIVET (Ligustrum spp). Scores of species and varieties of
privet have been available in the nursery trade over many years
and their wide-spread use has been the inevitable result. The

PODOCARPUS-(Podocarpus macrophylla sinensis) (Sheared Specimen)
An evergreen that is very desirable for formal plantings as it may be sheared
to any desired form.


A pool like this makes a delightful spot in the landscape.

A rockery in a tropical setting.


name of wax privet has been erroneously used as this popular
shrub really belongs in the species Ligustrum japonicum. The
glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum) quickly grows to tree size
and its use in foundation plantings should be discouraged as it
soon gets out of scale.
In western Florida the small-leaved California privet (L. ovali-
folium) serves well as a sheared hedge and for other topiary
All ligustrums can be increased by cuttings or seeds, but some
nurseries prefer to sell plants grafted on a root-knot-resistant

AUSTRALIAN TREE FERN-(Alsophila australis)

SILVER-THORN (Eleagnus pungens). Many horticultural forms
of this satisfactory ornamental are offered by nurseries in the
Lower South. Great succulent shoots produced in springtime
must be pruned out at their point of origin to keep the plant
within reasonable bounds. For hedges and low formal shapes,
the silver-thorn is a top-flight shrub and is highly commended.
Cuttings of softwood are used for propagation.
SNow-BUSH (Breynia nivosa). A colorful shrub from the
South Sea Islands that is favored in the citrus belt because of
its multi-colored leaves. For bright hedges and accent plants -
it is well adapted.
Snow-bush is grown from root cuttings.


Ti ll.n (I Thryallis glnmca). Attractive yellow Iblossoms that
arc iprodlucct throughout much of the \ear have carried a con-
siderable popularity for this fine-scale shrub. In warner lo-
calities Tlhrallis is completely delndable and serves well as
colorful accent plant.
Snall plants may be grownI from seeds sowxn Nwhile green or
from cuttings taken while tlhe are still quile tender.
TI IKS' CAI' ( Mlalvariscius grandiflorus). This colorful A\ eri-
can clambering shrub is well known to everyone who has visited
Florida. Hardwood cuttings can he lined out where a pledge is
wanted and they will soon gro1w to the desired size. Frequent
hIearing of 'Turks" cap hedges is needed to keep th1en within
reasonable bounds. Horticultural forms w ith white or pink flow-
ers and others with variegated leaves are grown bi fanciers of
rare plants.
\VIBuRNIM (Viburnum slppl. Beautiful evergreen species of
thil large genus are much employed in landscape work in central
and northern Florida. The larger,. iburnirui odoratissiIImum,
becomes tree-like on fertile ground and is recommended for
screens alnd background plantings only. The less rampant. fi-
lbrnumn SuspI)(ensum can be Iheld in chckl more easily by frequent
pruning. and this species is good in base plantings. particularly
for large homes and public buildings.
\ iburtnums grow easily from lavers. hardwxood cuttings arnd
softwood tips.
\\ x- I wrrit. :!vyrica cerifer(a ). Few nat ive shrubs nejo. more
w widespread landscape use than does( this cosmopolitan southern
Ibav-erry. Available in most damp flatwxoods, the clumps, should
be cut back to the ground x hien they are lifted for moving into
one s garden. PIermission of tIhe on1er to collect wild plants is
-ought by all right-thinkin g perlonls.




Boxthorn -
Jasmine -

Abelia -
Azalea -
Bush cherry -
Camellia -
Cherry laurel
Ilex .
Jasmine -
Juniper -
Podocarpus -
Silverthorn -

Abelia -
Azalea -
Camellia -
Cherry laurel
Feijoa -
Gardenia -
Hydrangea -
Ilex -
Jasmine -
Juniper -
Nandina -
Podocarpus -
Privet -

Abelia -
Cherry laurel
Ilex -
Juniper -
Podocarpus -
Privet -
Silverthorn -

Boxthorn -
Eugenia -
Feijoa .- -
Gardenia -
Hibiscus -
Ixora -
Jasmine -
Lantana -
Limeberry -
Natal plum -
Orange jasmine
Plumbago -
Podocarpus -
Privet -.
Snow bush -
Thryallis -


- 36 Aralia -
- 40 Boxthorn -
- .- 43 Cocculus -
S- 45 Copperleaf
- 47 Eugenia -
- 49 Ixora -
- 49 Limeberry
- - 51 Natal plum -
- 52 Snow bush -
Podocarpus -
Privet -



Azalea- - - 36 Aralia - 36
Bridal wreath - 38 Brazilian pepper- - 38
Cherry laurel .- -.. 40 Cape honeysuckle - 39
Feijoa - - 41 Cocculus - - 40
Firethorn .- 42 Copperleaf - .- 41
Ilex . . -43 Eugenia . 41
Oleander- ------- 46 Feijoa ----------.. 41
Pittosporum . -. -47 Golden dewdrop - 43
Privet -' -. 49 Hibiscus - - 43
Viburnum ...- - 52 Lantana - .- -. 45
Wax myrtle - -. 52 Natal plum . 46
Oleander- - -. 46
Orange jasmine .- -. 47
Privet - - 49
Turk's cap -- -. 52
Wax myrtle - - 52


. . 36
. . 39
. . 42
S.. . 43
. . 43
. 45
. . 46
. . 49



. - 43
S 45
. 47
.. 52

Allamanda -
Cape honeysuckle
Copperleaf -
Croton .
Gardenia -
Hibiscus -
Ixora - -
Snow bush -
Thryallis -
Allamanda -
Cape honeysuckle
Gardenia -
Golden dewdrop -
Hibiscus -
Ixora -
Jasmine .
Lantana .
Natal plum -
Oleander -
Orange jasmine -
Plumbago .
Thryallis .
Turk's cap -
Aralia -- --
Brazilian pepper -
Cape honeysuckle
Lantana -
Natal plum -
Podocarpus -.
Oleander --
Wax myrtle -

Azalea -
Camellia -
Gardenia -
Nandina -

Azalea -
Bridal wreath
Camellia -
Gardenia -
Ilex -
Jasmine -
Hydrangea -
Nandina -
Oleander -
Podocarpus -
Privet -
Viburnum -

Ilex -
Juniper -
Wax myrtle -


No home planting is quite complete without a few vines.
The exceedingly large number of plants that come under this
classification are useful to tropical horticulturists in softening
architectural lines, adding brilliant splashes of exotic color, for
screens, for shade and as groundcovers where grass will not
grow. There are many beautiful evergreen sorts, some of which
are colorful during the tourist season, others that are wanted for
their cool, year-around greenness and a few deciduous sorts that
change with the seasons. Some cling to masonry, others twine
around trees, or wire supports while among their number are
sprawlers that must be supported by tying.
The line of demarcation between shrubs and vines is never
clear cut. Sometimes, for example, Bougainvillea and Wisteria
are sheared standards (shrubs) while, at the same time, they are
very popular as coverings for arbors and pergolas (vines). Al-
gerian ivy is employed as a vine at one home, while next door
it is strictly a ground cover that is never allowed to rise above
six inches in height.
In this bulletin, and its companion, on home plantings,
(No. 59), several plants have already been discussed in other
sections that can be used as vines as well. Space does not permit
a discussion of all vining shrubs and herbs that grow in Florida,
so it is our plan to choose a dozen and a half of the best land-
scape species.
In planting vines, if one employs the same cultural practices
that are discussed on pages 3 & 4, success with any of the following
species, within their climatic ranges is assured.
ALGERIAN IVY (Iledera canariensis)'. For densely shaded lo-
cations, as under large evergreen trees and on northside chimneys,
no plant is better than Algerian ivy. Employed with telling
effect in our western counties, this refined, hardy, evergreen vine
has endless possibilities and is recommended most highly.
BLEEDING HEART (Clerodendrum thomsoniae). Deep green foli-
age and attractive white and red blossoms make this plant a uni-
versal favorite. The twining green stems need a sturdy permanent
trellis for support and a heavy mulch is suggested to encourage
best growth.
BLUE BELLS (Clytostoma callistegioides). For northern Flor-
ida one of the most satisfactory evergreen vines is this member
of the Bignoniaceae formerly known as Bignonia speciosa. When
supported by a strong metal trellis, this robust liana will quickly
1 The nomenclature followed in this bulletin is that used by Dr. L. H. Bailey
in Hortus Second 1941.


form an impenetrable green wall that is attractive the year
around. Beautiful lavender blossoms are borne profusely in
BOUGAINVILLEA (Bougainvillea spp)2. Southern Florida's most
beloved vine is well known to all. A brilliant stem of crimson
lake sprawling across a white masonry wall is a garden scene
that will live in one's memory forever. The ten or twelve varie-
ties that are offered by nurseries are all worthwhile as every
color and habit of growth has its place. For best garden effect
it is felt that the purple and magenta kinds should not be planted
close to the red, pink and terra-cotta varieties.
CACTI (Many genera as Cereus, Hylocereus, Heliocereus, Epi.
pliyllum, etc.). These rain-forest cacti that are found widely
distributed in the American tropics are ever-popular ornamental
vines for the warmer sections. Many forms are arborescent,
epiphytic, and cling to palms or masonry walls by means of
tough aerial roots. These thrive in the high humidity, heavy
rainfall, acid, organic soils of southern Florida and are not to
be confused with the western desert forms that will not succeed
out of doors here.
Much prized for their colorful exotic blossoms and the tropical
atmosphere that the plants create, these vines are very useful
landscape plants.
Hylocereus undatus is much cultivated and is probably the
plant best known as "night-blooming cereus". Species of Epi-
phyllum, the orchid cacti, produce some of the most spectacular
blossoms known to the plant world.
CAROLINA YELLOW JESSAMINE (Gelsemium sempervirens).
There is no native vine that is more charming than this dweller
of our hardwood hammocks. Easily transplanted to one's gar-
den, the twining, red stems, beautiful, evergreen leaves and fra-
grant golden blossoms are certain to please. When used to cover
a small arbor, the garage gable-end or to fall across a doorway,
the Carolina yellow jessamine is unsurpassed.
CAT'S CLAW VINE (Doxantha unguis-cati) is a fairly hardy
evergreen climber that bears brilliant yellow blossoms in spring.
time. The claw-like tendrils enable this species to cling to any
surface but the smoothest masonry. Rapid-growing and there.
fore, adapted to large expanses, the cat-claw vine is certain to
succeed south of Gainesville.
CERIMAN (Monstera deliciosa). This spectacular tropical fruit
vine creates an exotic effect and is frequently planted by palm
trunks or masonry walls in the Miami region. The monstera is
2 spp means that more than one species is used in Florida gardening.




Bleeding heart -
Blue bells - -
Bougainvillaea -
Cacti -
Carolina yellow jasmine
Cat's claw vine -
Ceriman - -
Confederate jasmine -

Flame vine -
Queen's wreath
Rangoon creeper -
Rose -
Stephanotis -
Thunbergia -
Wisteria -


Bougainvillae .
Cacti ..... .
Ceriman - -
Flame vine - .

Hunter's robe *
Queen's wreath
Rangoon creeper -
Stephanotis -


Algerian ivy -
Carolina yellow jasmine
Confederate jasmine -
Flame vine .

Wintercreeper - 59
see companion bulletin # --..
see companion bulletin #.-..


Algerian ivy - 55
Cacti -..... - 56
Ceriman - - 56

Creeping fig .- 58
Wintercreeper - 59


injured by cold, but otherwise, it is quite easily grown within
its climatic range.
CONFEDERATE JASMINE (Trachelospermum jasminoides). For
northern Florida no flowering vine surpasses the Confederate
jasmine. Hardy, slow-growing, evergreen, dependably producing
fragrant white blossoms every spring, this plant is unexcelled for
arbors, porches, screens and as a covering for steep slopes.
The twining brown stems should have strong permanent sup-
port unless the plant is employed as a groundcover.
CREEPING FIG (Ficus pumila). For the upper peninsula, here
is a good covering for masonry walls. This hardy, tenacious,
evergreen climber needs annual pruning to head in large fruit-
ing branches that stand out from the wall and make an untidy
appearance. Occasionally the creeping fig is utilized as a cover
for barren ground.
FLAME VINE (Pyrostegia ignea). Central Florida's famous
flame vine is so well known that little need be said about its
effectiveness and adaptability. Rigorous pruning after flowering
is needed to keep this tropical creeper in check. Because of its
unusual orange color, perhaps it is best not to combine flame
vine with blossoms of red or pink.
HUNTER'S ROBE (Scindapsis aureus). No planting would be
complete in tropical Florida without its palm decorated by this
showy arum-ivy. This spectacular gold and green climber is
much admired for its exotic effect and therefore, it is widely
planted. This plant has long been sold by nurseries, chain
stores and flower shops under the name Pothos, which is now
held to be invalid.
QUEEN'S WREATH (Petrea volubilis) is a liana from tropical
America that produces quantities of lilac- or white-flowered
panicles during summertime. Unusually showy and easily grown,
queen's wreath is recommended for the Miami area.
RANGOON CREEPER (Quisqualis indica) like queen's wreath is
a summer bloomer that is much admired for its showy flowers.
A rapid-growing, clambering plant that will quickly cover a
trellis or small building, the Rangoon creeper will succeed from
Tampa southward.
ROSE (Rosa spp). Although roses are fully discussed in the
companion bulletin (No. 59) they must be mentioned here as
they are among the most beloved of all ornamental vines. Many
varieties, well adapted to the Florida climate, may be trained on
trellises, arbors, pillars or espalier against the house.
STEPHANOTIS (Stephanotis floribunda). This is a choice twin-


ing vine with shining leathery leaves and fragrant white, funnel-
form flowers that can be successfully grown in the warmer sec-
tions. This is the same stephanotis that florists use extensively
in wedding bouquets.
THUNBERGIA (Thunbergia spp) is an extremely variable genus
that contains many popular ornamentals. The sweet-clock-vine
(Thunbergia fragrans) bears perfumed white blossoms 11/ inches
in diameter; Black-eyed Susan (T. alata) is an herbaceous vine,
sometimes grown as an annual, that is covered with creamy,
purple-throated flowers during summertime. The sky-flower
(T. grandiflorus) is a rampant tropical liana that bears huge
blossoms of blue or white. This plant requires much heading
in or it soon submerges everything that it can cover.
WINTER CREEPER (Euonymus fortunei. Many varieties of this
species are favorite hardy vines in the north and some succeed
in extreme western Florida. As an attractive accent on a smooth
masonry wall or as a beautiful groundcover, the winter creeper
will serve well.
WISTERIA (Wisteria sinensis). Well liked by everyone, this
graceful flowering vine has long been a garden favorite in north-
ern Florida. Showy racemes of blue or white flowers are produced
before the leaves in March. Encouraged to climb into native
pines, sheared as standards, employed to cover pergolas, the
wisteria is certain to be a success and is most highly endorsed.


Tropical climbers like this Philodendron are widely grown in the
Palm Beach-Miami area.


A good lawn is indispensable as a setting for one's home and
it is usually the first element of the landscape scheme to be de-
veloped. In the Gulf Coast region it is possible to build perma-
nent lawns quickly and to keep them quite presentable through-
out the year.
In Florida there are three major lawn grasses, Bermuda; Centi-
pede and St. Augustine. Several other grasses and non-grass
ground covers play effective but minor roles. Among these are
Carpet grass, Zoyzia, Dichondra, Ophiopogon and Liriope. Each
has its strong points and its staunch admirers and each is capable
of making a well-nigh perfect greensward under good manage-
The beginning of the rainy season is the best time to start or
to renovate a lawn because the warm weather, abundant rain-
fall and high humidity make for rapid growth. Indeed, a lawn
planted about the middle of June may cover completely before
Adequate facilities for irrigation are essential. If an under-
ground sprinkler system is out of the question, hose bibbs should
be available at one hundred foot intervals so that a revolving
sprinkler on the end of a fifty-foot hose will cover efficiently.
If your soil is not particularly fertile, it should be enriched by
plowing under a three-inch blanket of compost, rotted manure,
muck, peat or woods earth. Level your yard reasonably well
and soak it with your lawn sprinkler.
There are many ways of setting grass. Possibly the method
that gives quickest results is to set 6 or 8-inch square sods every
foot or so, over the entire surface. If this involves too much
expensive labor and hauling, one may set sprigs or runners and
still have a perfect lawn by autumn. Stretch a line lengthwise
of the area to be planted and drop sprigs, either rooted or un-
rooted, every 8 to 10 inches along the line. Next, with a notched
lath or broom-stick, thrust the basal or rooted end of the grass
well into the earth, then use your planting stick to pack the soil
firmly into the planting hole. You will soon learn to plant each
shoot in two quick thrusts. Next, move your line ten inches at
each end and plant another row.
Another favored way is to open a furrow with the garden plow,
drop cuttings or small sods into this trench and then cover by
turning the furrow back.
Be sure to soak the yard as soon as you have finished planting
and then let your sprinkler do the job every third day that it
does not rain.


Weeds and annual grasses will appear to compete with your
newly set lawn. Use a scuffle hoe or garden plow with an eight-
inch weed blade to work between the rows. Probably two weed-
ings will be sufficient.
Mowing is most beneficial and as soon as your stand is heavy
enough, run over it with the mower. This will encourage the
runners and, at the same time, it will help keep the annual
grasses in check.
Never rake the clippings from your lawn and if you can leave
the oak leaves in place until they rot, your grass is certain to
benefit. It is good horticulture to allow as much organic matter
as possible to decay and return to the soil, and raking is to be
discouraged. Untidy? Yes, for a short while, but nothing but
good can result from the practice.
Next autumn and before the rains start the second summer,
be certain that the lawn has sufficient moisture. Remember that
young grass is 90 percent water. A balanced commercial fer-
tilizer should be applied at the end of the first winter to prepare
the grass for lush growth when warm weather comes.
Good stimulants to use at the beginning of the second rainy
season are the well-known nitrogenous fertilizers-sulphate of
ammonia and nitrate of soda. The former is usually given pref-
erence because it tends to leave an acid reaction in the soil. Two
or three pounds per 1,000 square feet can be applied once every
six weeks or so when an old lawn seems to be in need of plant
food. Your grass will not be burned if you can put the chemical
on just before a rain, or if you will wash it in well with the hose.
Mole crickets are sometimes troublesome in certain sections.
In a very short time the burrowings of these ravenous insects can
ruin a perfect lawn. When you first see the small mole-like bur-
rows make plans to apply a poison bran bait. Mix 5 pounds of
bran, 4 ounces of paris green, one pint of molasses and water
to make the bait crumble, but not enough to make it bind into
a doughy mass.
Spread the bait late in the afternoon and repeat when you
discover burrows. This bait will kill poultry and birds so be
certain the necessary precautions are observed.
Centipede grass is the most popular of all lawn grasses in
Florida. This tenacious, poor-land perennial is strictly a star-
vation species, as it thrives on a maximum of water and a mini-
mum of plant food. Large irregular patches of yellow are likely
to appear in centipede lawns that are well fed and well watered.
This is a nutritional trouble caused by the lack of iron and may
be corrected by spraying the yellow patches with copperas.


This material (ferrous sulphate to your druggist) should be
stirred into a watering can at the rate of one teaspoon to two
gallons of water. These two gallons will cover about five square
feet, possibly. One application should be enough each season.
There is a most alarming tendency for centipede grass to die
out in irregular patches in lawns that have been particularly
well fed for a few years. This apparently is different from the
iron chlorosis noted above and plant pathologists are not posi-
tive as to the cause and cure. They recommend, however, that
the dead grass be dug out, the soil be treated with a sterilizing
agent, dug very deeply, and replanted.
If centipede lawns be fed rather less than the usual recom-
mendations little trouble will be experienced. Over-anxious
home makers who treat their lawns the best are first to experience
this dread dying out condition.
Perhaps Florida's most beautiful lawns are those of St. Augus-
tine grass. When properly managed, this lush, broadleaved
evergreen species is difficult to surpass. This lover of shade and
moist, fertile soil graces many of the South's most beautiful

A good lawn is indispensable as a setting for the home.

During hot dry weather chinch bugs cause much trouble. The
so-called bitter blue stemmed strain is not immune to these in-
sects, but perhaps it recovers from their ravages more quickly.
A nicotine dust or spray must be used as soon as the first yellow-
ing blades indicate the presence of these tiny black and white


Bermuda is the third lawn grass that is of major importance
in Florida. Contrary to popular opinion, this species requires
a fairly fertile soil and behaves well only when it is grown in
full sun, well fed and heavily watered. The many excellent golf
greens all over our state demonstrate beyond question that this
fine grass is capable of forming a perfect turf.
Because flower heads are produced all spring and summer,
it is necessary to mow Bermuda more frequently than any other
lawn grass. Set the mower so that it will cut low and use it at
least once each week during growing weather. In this way your
lawn will not mow brown as it is bound to do if you wait several
weeks between cuttings. It is true that this grass requires more
mowing and edging than the others but, at the same time, it does
not suffer at the hands of insects nor is it subject to diseases or
nutritional difficulties.
A native species of great merit for large informal lawns, is
carpet grass. Revelling in broken shade and a moist and fertile
soil, this indigene requires less attention than any other ground
cover. One feeding in the spring and one or two mid-summer
mowings to prevent the appearance of the tall, three-parted
flower spikes, should be sufficient to maintain a carpet grass lawn.
During recent years Zoyzia has come into some prominence
as a lawn grass for the Deep South. This attractive narrow-leaved
running grass resembles Bermuda and the same management
should mean success for this evergreen species from the East
Indies. No doubt Zoyzia will be planted much more widely as
stock becomes available.

This grass will form a perfect turf with good care.


Italian rye grass is widely used to make a bright green lawn
during the winter months. The seeds may be sown during the
first cool days in November. A great deal of water is required
and rye grass will be presentable only when it is fed frequently;
possibly once each winter month. Set the mower so that it cuts
very low and trim your rye grass at least once every ten days
to keep it tidy and prevent seeding.
Dichondra is a native, round-leafed herb that seldom exceeds
an inch or so in height. Many lawns support this creeping peren-
nial as a weed, but in tourist sections it is in favor as a lawn-
making material. Dichondra may be grown in all sections and
may be tramped upon and mowed without injury. Alternaria
leaf spot is a disease that attacks this perennial at times and
may become very serious. Little is known about its life history
and control.
Ophiopogon and Liriope are members of the lily family that
are top-flight groundcovers for densely shaded spots. Under
evergreen trees, between buildings, for shady planting strips,
either of these tenacious perennials will serve well. They should
not be mowed nor should they be employed if there is an appre-
ciable amount of traffic.



The Bougainvillaea, Podocarpus and Eugenia combine to make
a beautiful portal planting.



The following pages with illustrations show plantings for
different types of houses.
Plants have been selected to harmonize with the size and
architecture of the house. Substitutions may be made of course,
as these sketches are simply suggestions.
Careful attention must be given to proper fertilization, prun-
ing, watering and possible renovation after several years' growth.
Good effects are not obtainable unless the plants are robust,
and thrifty in growth with abundant foliage.
The purpose of planting grass, shrubs and trees is to make a
harmonious unit of the buildings and their surroundings.

Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Primrose Jasmine or

1 Boxthorn or Plumbago

1 Jasminum gracile or Thryallis glauca


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

Wax Privet
Primrose Jasmine or
Bridal Wreath

1 Pittosporum
2 Hibiscus
3 Jasminum gracile or

i Natal Plum
2 Pitangia
3 Lime Berry


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Climbing Roses or Creeping Fig
2 Azaleas or Abelia

1 Flame Vine
2 Plumbago or Snow Bush

1 Bougainvillaea Crimson Lake
2 Crotons, assorted varieties



Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Spanish Bayonet
2 Azalea
3 Sheared Yaupon
4 Century plant
5 Camellia

1 Sp
2 Cr
3 Au
4 Ce
5 Co

1 Spanish Bayonet
2 Crotons
3 Podocarpus (Sheared)
4 Century Plant
5 Ixora
anish Bayonet
istralian Pine (Sheared)
ntury Plant




Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Wax Privet
2 Abelia
3 Cabbage palm

1 Hibiscus
2 Star Jasmine
3 Queen Palm

1 Natal Plum
2 Jasminum gracile
3 Royal Palm

L C ]


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Climbing Rose
2 Hydrangea
3 Bridal Wreath
4 Zamia
5 Rhapis Palm
6 Primrose Jasmine

1 Bougainvillaea (Crimson Lake)
2 Copperleaf
3 Ixora
4 Zamia
5 Fishtail Palm
6 Boxthorn


1 Bougainvillaea (Crimson Lake)
2 Plumbago
3 Croton
4 Ixora
5 Royal Palm
6 Jasminum gracile


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Camellia
2 Viburnum suspensum
3 Cherry Laurel

1 Golden Dew Drop
2 Star Jasmine
3 Podocarpus

1 Hibiscus
2 Limeberry
3 Eugenia


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Primrose Jasmine
2 Abelia
3 Azalea
4 Pindo Palm

1 Star Jasmine
2 Wax Privet
3 Allamanda
4 Queen Palm

1 Natal Plum
2 Orange Jasmine
3 Copperleaf or Eugenia
4 Coconut Palm



Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Climbing Roses or Wisteria
2 Azalea
3 Abelia
4 Yaupon (Sheared)

1 Confederate Jasmine
2 Pittosporum
3 Plumbago
4 Eugenia (Sheared)

1 Bougainvillaea (Crimson Lake)
2 Hibiscus
3 Croton
4 Casuarina (Sheared)


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

Japanese Juniper (Sheared)
Carolina Jasmine or Wisteria
Abelia or Nandina
Cherry Laurel

1 Eugenia
2 Bougainvillaea
3 Wedelia
4 Limeberry
5 Natal Plum
6 Pigmy Date Palm

Cajeput (Sheared)
Climbing rose
Primrose Jasmine
Golden Dew Drop


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

Pfitzer's Juniper
Confederate Jasmine or
Climbing Rose
Washington Palms
1 Aralia
2 Croton
3 Bougainvillaea
Coconut Palms

Silver Thorn
Rangoon Creeper

Queen Palms



Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Primrose Jasmine
2 Abelia
3 Adam's Needle
4 Century plant
5 Spanish Bayonet

1 Star Jasmine
2 Tecomaria
3 Coontie
4 Century Plant
5 Spanish Bayonet

1 Copperleaf
2 Euphorbia or Sansevieria
3 Wedelia
4 Century Plant
5 Spanish Bayonet




Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Cherry Laurel
2 Viburnum suspensum
3 Bridal Wreath
4 Abelia
Creeping Fig on wall
and house

1 Hibiscus
2 Azalea
3 Cocculus
4 Lantana
Climbing Fig on wall
and house

1 Aralia
2 Croton
3 Limeberry
4 Tecomaria


Q 1 ~ Oo


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Abelia
2 Pindo Palm
3 Native Pine
4 Bed of Annuals or Roses

1 Snow Bush or Plumbago with
Ficus repens on house
2 Queen Palm
3 Native Pine with Alamanda
4 Bed of Annuals or Roses

1 Mixture of Crotons, or Hibiscus
2 Royal Palm
3 Coconut Palm with Hibiscus
4 Bed of Annuals


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

Rhapis Palm
Cabbage Palm
Carolina Jasmine

1 Queen Palm
2 Pigmy Date Palm
3 Natal Plum
4 Bougainvillaea

1 Coconut Palm
2 Pigmy Date Palm
3 Limeberry
4 Bougainvillaea


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Azalea, pink
2 Azalea, white
3 Azalea, pink
4 Wax Privet
5 Pittosporum
6 Camellia Palm
7 Podocarpus
8 Pindo Palm
9 Cedrus deodara
1 Plumbago
2 Plumbago
3 Thryallis
4 Wax Privet

5 Golden Dew Drop
6 Queen Palm
7 Fishtail Palm
8 Acrocromia Palm
9 Hibiscus
1 Wax Privet
2 Cestrun
3 Croton
4 Copper Leaf
5 Golden Dew Drop
6 Pigmy Date Palm
7 Coconut Palm
8 Sentinel Palm
9 Senegal Date Palm



Suggested Plantings for Diferent Sections of Florida


1 Viburnum suspensum
2 Bridal Wreath or Abelia


1 Hibiscus or Boxthorn
2 Plumbago or Thryallis

1 Natal Plum
2 Croton

A... "i


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