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Small farm programs and activities, state reports
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074947/00001
 Material Information
Title: Small farm programs and activities, state reports
Abbreviated Title: Small farm programs act. State rep.
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Science and Education Administration
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration.
Place of Publication: Washington
Creation Date: 1979
Subjects / Keywords: Farms, Small -- Government policy -- States -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1979-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06777823
lccn - 80641787
issn - 0273-5237
System ID: UF00074947:00001

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Full Text

' United States
Department of
Science and
September 1980

Small Farm

(S i

Programs and Activities
State Reports, 1979


As follow-up to the five USDA Regional Small Farms Workshops held in 1980,
the USDA Small Farms Working Group has prepared this summary, by State, of
the status of Small Farm Programs and activities.

This is the first national attempt to record programs and services each State,
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Guam are offering to the small, part-time
and limited resource farmers. This summary was compiled from reports at the
workshops and other information we have from the States. If we have missed
a key program or accomplishments of small farm programs in your State, please
do send them to us so we can recognize them in future reporting.

To those not working with small farmers, you may be surprised at the on-going
services available from the Cooperative Extension Service, Farmers Home
Administration, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, Soil
Conservation Service, Forest Service, ACTION, Community Services Administration,
State Departments of Agriculture and other Federal, State and local agencies
and private and public organizations. Two key points need to be kept in
mind: (1) Many small-scale and low-income farmers are not fully informed
about the services which exist in their county; and (2) Many agency programs
are suited for small farmers but are not identified for this clientele nor
especially earmarked and conducted for them.

To those working with small farmers, perhaps successful examples and ideas in
other States can be adapted in your State as you continue to focus on small
farm problems and work at solutions. And, perhaps the agencies and organizations
with on-going programs for the small and part-time farm family will want to better
identify their programs and services and extend their efforts to reach more of
this segment of farmers.

The "small farm" issue is a "people" issue--not a given acres of land--and should
relate to the total net income of the family from all sources and the resources
the family has to develop. At a minimum, we should treat the small farm family
as members of the rural community who have particular needs--some of which are
specifically theirs as operators of a farm which, though not large, is still an
agricultural unit.

Assistant Secretary
Rural Development and Chairman
USDA Small Farms Policy Committee

September 1980

Small Farm

Programs and Activities
State Reports, 1979


Horace K. Brown, Chairman
Alabama Small Farms Committee
ASCS, Room 714, Court Street
Montgomery, AL 36102

The Bullock County Small Farms Project includes 23,000 acres in the southeastern
part of the county in the Black Belt of Alabama. The objective is to increase the
net income and standard of living of the farmers in the project.

The objective will be accomplished through on-the-farm training that will enable the
farmers to develop capabilities for improving efficiency and productivity. Training
will stress farm management, farm planning, use of credit, studying livestock and
crop production and marketing alternatives.

Some USDA agencies will contribute staff for technical assistance; ASCS will provide
$200,000 per year for three years; TVA will provide fertilizer valued at $5,000;
FmHA will provide loans; ACTION will provide some $45,000 for VISTAS; CSA will
provide three outreach workers; and the Cooperative Extension Service and Tuskegee
will provide staff to train other staff and work with the farmers.


James E. Fisher, Chairman
Alaska Small Farms Committee
USDA Representative
2221 Northern Lights Blvd., Suite 126
Anchorage, AK 99504

In 1977, some small farm garden projects were started in the two villages of Ruby
and Galena. In 1978, the demand for assistance included seven villages. In 1979,
the demand was from 20 villages and involved about 600 gardens!

In other regions of Alaska, there is a spurt of garden activity with many villages
asking for assistance in technical help and seeds, etc. A summary suggests 1,800
to 2,000 gardens are now being worked in rural Alaska.

The Delta Agricultural Project involves approximately 130,000 acres to be developed
into grain farms. Presently 60,000 acres are in the process of being cleared and
farmed, with an additional 70,000 acres scheduled for development the next two years.
This area is part of 500,000 acres of proposed production, as a goal for 1990.
Storage systems and transportation rates need to be developed for farmers.
This report was prepared by Ovid Bay, Coordinator,Small Farm Programs,
SEA-Extension, Washington, D. C. 20250

Large-scale farming is advancing at a fantastic rate in Alaska. And,
the people of Alaska, at all levels, are embracing agriculture as one
component in the drive to become less dependent upon imported foods and goods.

Alaska is also deep in red meat production in rural Alaska. The 15 reindeer
herds total some 18,000 head on the Seward Penninsula and 5,000 on Umnak and
Nunivak Islands. However, this area supported more than 400,000 reindeer
in the 1930's.

There is need for research on range management, production techniques,
disease control, slaughter facilities and inspection of the meat for market,
development of grazing regulations to treat deer as domestic livestock,
and the suggested appointment of Extension Agents to provide technical
assistance to reindeer herders. Slaughtering on the range complicates health
inspection of the meat and transportation to a market. There is good demand
for the antlers. The Reindeer Herders Association is giving leadership to
developing the reindeer industry.


Julia Zozaya, Chairperson
Arizona Small Farms Committee
Department of Economic Security
State Capitol
Phoenix, AZ 85007

Arizona has a well-organized State Small Farm Task Force which meets quarterly
to review progress, discuss problems, make policy, and direct activities. The
membership is broad, including the Arizona Department of Economic Security,
Office of Economic Planning and Development, Bureau of Land Management, the
Navajo Tribe, Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona, Bureau of Indian Affairs as
well as USDA agencies, ACTION and CSA.

Two counties have developed Resource Directory Guides to help small producers
find agencies with programs and services for them. Small farmers have been
added to agency mailing lists where they were not already on the lists.

Under consideration is the feasibility of forming small-scale farmer/rancher
cooperatives or associations to address their problems. This would allow
them to buy and sell in volume, own and operate equipment that one alone
cannot afford, and to bring together their best leaders in a problem-solving

The biggest problem encountered was that agency staffs considered their
programs adequate for small farmers. The new USDA effort to reach more
small farmers has now been accepted in Arizona and agency personnel, for
the most part, are trying to achieve the goals established by the State
Small Farm Task Force.

- 3 -


Albert Murphy, Chairman
Arkansas Small Farms Committee
P. O. Box 2778
Little Rock, AR 72203

The biggest development for small farmers in Arkansas is the establishment
of a South Central Small Farms Research and Extension Center at Booneville,
Arkansas. The Science and Education Administration, Agricultural Research
and Extension, is cooperating with the University of Arkansas and the
Arkansas Childrens' Colony in an agreement to establish the Center on up to
1,000 acres within a total of 4,600 acres.

Research and Extension objectives at this Center will include small fruits
and vegetable research for the region represented and special attention to
varieties for direct marketing, farmers markets and Pick-Your-Own operations.
Animal-forage research will focus on using the maximum roughage for finishing
beef animals as well as management of beef cow-calf enterprises on small
farms in South Central states.

The best combination of enterprises to make a subsystem for small farmers
will be researched and packaged for distribution by Extension and for
extensive demonstration purposes. The first phase of construction and hiring
of a core staff will be in FY 80.

Other small farm activity includes 396 loans by FmHA to small farmers in
1979 which included some funding of housing for labor for harvesting tomatoes.


Clair Christensen, Chairman
California Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
157 AOB-4
University of California
Davis, CA 95616

The Small Farm Viability Project in California 1976-77 tried to grapple
with a number of questions related to what can be done to make the family
farm more viable. One of the Task Forces related to the subject of training,
how information was getting to small farmers, the quality of this information,
etc., and especially for Spanish-speaking small farmers in California. Some
of this group are trying to move from farm worker status to farmer status.
This is one of the most difficult groups to reach. Hence, if a system to
develop better methods of making available resources more accessible to
small Spanish family farms can be developed, it should be useful for reaching
all small farm families.

The "California Small Farm Family Assistance Project" is being developed
by the people who were involved in the Task Forces of the Small Farm
Viability Project as they continue to cooperate together. A proposal
for funding is being designed. Already audio visual techniques in Latin
America and other places are being studied. The objective is to make

-4 -

information to family farmers on programs and assistance available to them.
This will be done by the development of an information system that will be
maintained at the State and local level.

Access to this system will be through the offices of USDA and State agencies
at the county level mainly, but not limited to: Cooperative Extension Service,
FmHA, ASCS, SCS, and Agricultural Commissioner. The information will be
categorized by agency as well as function.

The system will be developed in two steps: (1) cataloging and making the
information available in the printed form; and (2) putting the information
on the computer to be used as terminals become available at the local level.

The Central Information Service, to be established at Davis, will include
a "data bank", a "clearinghouse", and a "resource library" on agricultural
information for small farmers.

A dozen or more Federal and State agencies are members of the Small Farmer
Information Access Council which will develop the Central Information Service.


Kenneth Oakleaf, Chairman
Colorado Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
Colorado State University
Ft. Collins, CO 80521

About 60 percent of the farms in the Cortez area are under 100 acres, 70 percent
are under 40 acres and 97 percent of the farmers have off-farm jobs. They started
increasing rabbits to use unemployed labor; have designed a feed for rabbits, hired
a manager and developed a market with a contract; two VISTA volunteers are making
one-on-one visits with farmers and making economic surveys with them, etc. Due to
the long haul of live rabbits to a slaughter facility, there has been a 60 percent
turnover in growers since the original group. The new slaughter house is
encouraging new growers to start.

Doug Lee, rabbit farmer, reported he has increased his production from 30
does to 500 and he thinks the producers now average about 250 does. He is
getting 564 per pound live weight ($2.00 per rabbit) and believes his cost
is $1.50 to $2.00 each at present.

The "Four Corners Rabbit Producers Cooperative" has been formed at Cortez,
Colorado, as a Small Farm Family Assistance Project. The Four Corners
Regional Commission provided the "start-up" grants of $96,683. CSA made an
interim grant for $47,960 and an application has been made to FmHA for a
B&I loan. There are now about 40 producers and each has purchased $300
in co-op stock.

Objective of the project is to increase the membership of the co-op to about
300 and increase the net income and improve the standard of living of these
submarginal small farm families in 6 counties.



Ron Aronson, Chairman
Connecticut Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268

The Connecticut Small Scale Farm Committee has been active over a year and
2 of the 12 members are small farm operators. The Committee serves
several functions with the major one developing a list of 800 small farmers
from data in the State Department of Agriculture. This list was compiled by
Ellen Larivere from VISTA and has been made available to the agencies to
make certain they are aware of the small farm clientele in the State.

Another function of the Connecticut Small Scale Farm Committee is to improve
communications between small farmers and agencies and organizations with
services for them. A survey was mailed to the farmers on the mailing list
to determine if they are aware of the agricultural services available
to them. Then, farmers requesting information about an agency are contacted
by that agency or organization.

Perhaps the outstanding small farm program in the State is the 2-day
Small Farmers Weekend held for people in the Tri-State Small Farm Program
area. Extension agent Deborah Cole in Connecticut has served as program
coordinator of the demonstrations, speeches, etc. A State Small Farm Plan
of Action has been discussed, but at this point, it seems more workable to
encourage each group to do those things that are consistent with their
mission for the benefit of small farmers.


Joseph Penuel, Chairman
Delaware Small Farms Committee
176 W. Chestnut Hill Rd., Suite 7
Newark, DE 19713

The Delaware State Small Farm Committee has a membership of 10 which represents
USDA agencies, the State Secretary of Agriculture, the State Office of
Economic Opportunity and the State Economic Division of Affairs.

The Delaware Small Farm Action Plan includes the following:

Set up small farm committees in every county.

Instructed each County Small Farm Committee to establish Small Farm
Advisory Committees. These committees are made up of small farm

Requested each County Small Farm Committee to conduct public infor-
mational meetings for small farm families. At these meetings small
farm families were informed of all of the programs and services
available to them through the local State and Federal Agricultural
Agencies. The Small Farm Advisory Committee participated.



Clarence Edmond, Chairman
Florida Small Farms Committee
University of Florida Extension Service
3042 McCarty Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611

The broad-based Small Farm Subcommittee of the Florida Rural Development Committee
is emphasizing "small farm demonstrations" and "technical assistance" as their main
thrusts to reach and help small farm families.

During 1979 Small Farm Demonstrations included:

--University of Florida: (1) Semimechanical harvesting of ripe tomatoes for small
farms; (2) Forage/silage program for small beef cattle farms; and (3) a Swine
parasite survey and followup.

--Florida A&M University: Furnished funds for paraprofessionals to work (under
county agent supervision) with small farmers. Peanut yields have more than
doubled over a 4-year period and yields of sweet corn have more than tripled.

--Sumter County: Help has been given to 140 small commercial vegetable producers,
105 backyard fruit growers, 70 small beef producers, and 15 small farmers with

--Gadsden County: A 1-acre Southern Pea demonstration produced 240 bu. of peas
valued at $1,400, and a 1-acre demonstration of okra produced $1,000.

--Small commercial vegetable producers in the four counties of Baker, Union,
Bradford and Columbia: Faced with unsatisfactory marketing outlets, the efforts
of the farmers, Extension personnel (who helped with a feasibility study), and
various agency personnel have led to a cooperative with seven members. Members
purchased an existing packinghouse and equipment, made marketing arrangements with
a broker, and obtained operating capital from the Bank of Cooperatives. The
co-op wants to expand its facility so it can include other interested farmers.

--A total of 15 vegetable growers in 7 counties have improved their production
skills by growing vegetables in demonstration plots or participation trials.
In many cases, yields and profits have doubled or tripled.

During 1979, Technical Assistance included:

--FmHA: Provided training in finance to Southern Federation of Co-op members
and targeted funds for limited resource farms.

--SCS: Designed waste management systems for small swine producers, and provided
designs for livestock watering systems for small livestock operators.

--ASCS: Cost shared for: (1) reorganizing irrigation systems and for installing
animal waste facilities on small dairy farms, (2) minimum tillage demonstrations
on 37 farms in Alachua, Jefferson, and Levy Counties, and (3) establishment of
permanent pasture and water control measures on Indian reservations.

--Florida Department of Agricultural & Consumer Services: Provided an energy
specialist to assist small farmers and is emphasizing conservation for small

- 7 -


Roy Cates, Chairman
Georgia Small Farms Committee
P. 0. Box 1907
Athens, GA 30601

The Georgia project on "Conservation Tillage Systems for Small Farms" involves
seven counties located in the central part of the State. The total number of
farms in the seven counties is 5,085 with approximately 1,000 meeting the
definition of a small family farm.

This project has been designed to demonstrate to small farmers methods of
conservation tillage and residue management which will reduce pollution from
non-point sources as sediment and chemical contamination runoff, and also protect
soil from wind and water erosion.

Specific responsibility of various agencies includes:

--ASCS special ACP funding will be $200,000 per year for 3 years with cost-
sharing for conservation practices.

--SCS will provide technical assistance equal to about 5 percent of the project

--FmHA will participate to the extent small farmers qualify for operating,
improvement and/or real estate loans.

--Extension Service will provide educational materials and assistance through
the present staffs in the counties and from Ft. Valley State College.

--CSA and ACTION will help identify small farmers needing assistance.

--EPA will provide $400 for educational support.

--Local agribusinesses will provide $5,000 in production equipment and other needs.

--The Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Georgia, will supply
individual agencies research results on minimum tillage practices on request.

This project is one of the 17 selected as Small Farm Assistance Projects.


Dr. Wilfred P. Leon Guerrero, Director
Cooperative Extension Service
University of Guam
P. O. Box EK
Agana, GU 96910

Extension work in crop production is focused on the attempt to make Guam more
self-sufficient in those crops which are native to or adaptable to conditions
on the island.

- 8-

An Extension survey of 34 farmers assessed the pesticides they used and the
crops they grew. Agents and specialists are completing publication of a
"Control Guide for Insects, Mites, and Plant Diseases on Vegetables and Melons."
The Extension pesticide specialist has been conducting a pesticide registration
program this year for crops in Guam not currently listed with the Environmental
Protection Agency.

Two demonstration fields on drip irrigation were established on farmers' fields,
and a field demonstration was conducted on soil fumigation with "vapam" for fruit
growers. Two research fields were established to study soil and irrigation for
expansion of small farm commercial applications.

Basic work has been completed on publication of a "Farm Record Book" to be
distributed to all agricultural producers on Guam. This will, hopefully,
improve the availability of information regarding maintenance of financial
records for purposes of credit, income taxes, social security benefits, and
cost analysis of small farm operations.

Livestock production on Guam is concentrated mainly on swine and poultry. The
Extension veterinarian conducted almost 700 farm visits and approximately 350
telephone and office calls regarding animal disease problems. He administered
preventive treatment to 45 head of cattle and 700 pigs. Curative therapies were
applied to 62 head of cattle, 600 hogs, 21 goats, 4 horses, and several thousand
layers. The Extension veterinarian conducted about 50 demonstrations on simple
veterinary techniques like castration of animals and poultry vaccination.
Approximately 25 percent of the demonstrations were for members of 4-H clubs.

Agricultural agents make a total of approximately 600 farm visits per year to at
least 53 percent of all producing small farms. District-wide farmers' meetings
occur on an average of one per month (approximately 15 per year), and around
18 "workshops" on crop production techniques and problems are conducted on a
yearly basis. Eight days of workshops on pesticide safety application and general
philosophies were conducted for the farmers on Rota and Tinian by Extension agents
and specialists sponsored by the Government of the Northern Marianas.

Extension agents distributed cultural practice information and seeds to Guam
farmers for two selected varieties of tomatoes that have been determined, by
the Guam Agricultural Experiment Station, as most suitable for climatic and soil
conditions on Guam.

In the area of aquaculture, an Extension program on promoting small farm
development is underway. Two privately owned farms harvesting freshwater prawns
are a direct result of this emphasis thus far. New operations in saltwater prawns
are planned.

Currently, an operation exporting from 60 to 85 tons of eel per year to Japan is
very successful. A cooperative program with the Agricultural Experiment Station
has been underway for the past year to determine an economically feasible nutrient
level for feeding prawns.


4-H has stressed Agriculture as a career. Most of the emphasis has been in
the schools with field trips and farm visitations with over 1,000 students
participating in agriculture career activities. Approximately 1,200 4-H members
and other youth participate in year-round activities of two horse clubs, one
veterinary science club, and two garden clubs that maintain "mini-farms."

In cooperation with the Extension Home Economics program, one 4-H club (serving
25 members islandwide) emphasizes nutrition, preparation, and preservation of
local produce and livestock products.

A sizable portion of some family farmers' crops is marketed at the roadside.
Extension has instituted a followup survey of a previous study of roadside
marketing outlets.

Information about the programs of the Farmers Home Administration, which were
only recently (1979) extended to Guam, is being distributed to Extension agents.


George Nakasato, Chairman
Hawaii Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
University of Hawaii
Honolulu, HI 96822

The Hawaii Small Farm Committee proposed "Upgrading Technology Skills and
Managerial Techniques of Small Family Farmers in Selected Rural Communities" as
a Small Farm Family Assistance project.

One of the major goals for the first year was to reach out and assist 200 small
farm families in various communities in Hawaii County. Recent accomplishment
reports indicate more than 200 were involved in 1979.

Group teaching and training consisted mainly on short courses, organized classes
and workshops in five communities. A total of 30 events were held covering many
subjects such as farm credit, culture practices in vegetable and fruit production,
drip irrigation, income tax management, small engines, pest control, and basic
management. Total attendance was 1,124.

A council of community agencies and farmers was formally organized on Molokai.
It was named the Molokai Agricultural Coordinating Council and one of its primary
missions is to serve as a catalyst to coordinate agency programs on Molokai.
Membership includes a broad base. Current projects include a proposal to
establish a tree nursey to grow 45,000 trees for a tree windbreak program for
the Hoolehau area.

Extension has added program assistants on a halftime basis to assist small
farmers in Kona, Hilo and Kahuku.

A group of small vegetable farmers were assisted in organizing the Kilauea
Farmer Cooperative to purchase supplies and coordinate a marketing program.

The "Community Ideas" newsletter mailing has been expanded to reach new small
farmer clientele.

- 10 -


Joe T. McCarter, Chairman
Idaho Small Farms Committee
429 Federal Building
304 North 8th Street
Boise, ID 83702

The Marsing, Idaho, FmHA office is working on a project at the Duck Valley Indian
Reservation in conjunction with an EDA $2 million grant to the Tribal Council.
Part of the grant applies to purchasing pumping and pipeline equipment for sprinkler
irrigation development of approximately 2,000 acres of new land. The grant also
provides for purchase of farm implements, sprinkler equipment, and a shop management
building for a tribal enterprise in agriculture on an additional approximately
450 acres of land.

The Tribal Council will serve as a water supplier for 9 young farm families
that FmHA will furnish capital to purchase sprinkler equipment and operating
loans to develop the remaining 1,500 acres on long-term leaseholds.

This will be a model project and will help the Duck Valley tribe develop a better
winter feed base for their cattle herd. This is the largest agricultural grant
EDA has funded nationally and is an excellent example of interagency cooperation.

The Twin Falls County Group reports FmHA, SCS, ACTION and Extension Service are
cooperating in serving several small farm families with operating loans, technical
assistance,and funds for housing insulation.


James Reifsteck, Chairman
Illinois Small Farms Committee
Farmers Home Administration
2106 West Springfield Avenue
Champaign, IL 61820

The Illinois Small Farm Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the State Rural
Development Committee. The subcommittee developed a policy statement which
stated their goals, informed local representatives of subcommittee membership,
encouraged formation of local committees to formulate plans for achieving the
goals at the local level and outlined agency responsibilities.

The Small Farm Subcommittee has spent some time reviewing examples of close
cooperation of USDA and state agencies in three areas of Illinois with the
idea of determining whether the same types of efforts could be applied elsewhere
in the state.

One of these areas is Brown County, Illinois, where a special 80 percent cost
sharing was made available for conservation practices where farms averaged only
200 acres in size. The project was highly successful in achieving conservation
goals and farmers in the area benefitted from an excellent outreach effort
through an increase in using the services of other agencies.

- 11 -

The other two areas are in extreme southern Illinois where many of the
farms are small and where some farms are operated by minorities. Special
Extension advisors were hired for these two areas to work exclusively with
small farmers. Detailed production and financial management assistance is
given and the Extension Advisors work closely with FmHA, ASCS, and SCS to
utilize all department services. The subcommittee held a special meeting to
let local representatives inform us of the successes and problems experienced
and to see if agency regulations should be changed to accommodate small operators.

An Illinois Department of Agriculture Directory of Services has been printed
and distributed.


James H. Stall, Chairman
State Small Farms Committee
Farmers Home Administration
5610 Crawfordsville Road, Suite 1700
Indianapolis, IN 46224

The Indiana Small Farm Task Force is a subcommittee of the State Rural Development
Committee in Indiana. Local small farm activity is carried on by 18 Regional
Rural Development committees. The State Small Farms Task Force included members
from the Indiana Commission on Aging, Indiana Division of Commerce, ACTION, CSA,
as well as USDA agencies and the Division of Forestry.

One regional committee has held an "information meeting" for small farmers where
USDA agencies reported services available and a panel on credit was held.
Other county meetings like this one are planned. This regional committee held
a field day in April 1979 attended by 250.

The staff of Extension Service at Purdue was involved in preparing a set of
five booklets on "Getting Started in Farming." These will be distributed in
the North Central states and will be available for use nationwide.

A conference on energy was held March 12-13, sponsored by Region 13-A and Purdue
University at Vincennes University. A Forestry Field Day was held at French Lick
on February 23, 1980.

A Small Farm Energy Workshop is scheduled for October 9, 1980 and 500 people are
expected to attend. The program will stress what is being done now in the areas
of wood, onfarm alcohol production, solar heat, specialty crops for energy, and
energy conservation.

In FY 79, 25 percent of FmHA operating loans and 45 percent of farm ownership
loans went to limited resource farmers.

A plan will be proposed to Purdue University to get a graduate student to monitor
various small farm projects and their success or failure.

- 12 -


Harold Laures
Farmers Home Administration
873 Federal Building
210 Walnut Street
Des Moines, IA 50309

Many young and beginning farm families in Iowa lack the resources and technical
knowledge needed to provide adequate income for family living and to become
financially established in farming. These families have a special need for basic
education in farm business analysis and decisionmaking as well as consultation
on making decisions they face in their early years of farming.

The Extension Farm and Home Management program in several areas of the state and
the Rural Family Development Program in the Creston Area are attempting to meet
the needs of this clientele. The Farm and Home Management stresses recordkeeping
and analysis, resource management, and business planning. Participants are expected
to "graduate" from the program after a period of 3 to 5 years.

The farm management and home management aides, trained and supervised by the
county Extension directors and home economists, are employed in four counties
(1979). They are working with over 100 families on a one-to-one basis, in
developing cash flow projections for their farms, keeping records on the farm
business as well as family living expenses. Farm visits, at least monthly, have
as their purpose to bring out problems on individual farms.

Several young farm wives were interested in recordkeeping. The aide and the
county Extension director called in the state management specialist and held a
2-hour school for them at the Extension office. A followup session for the
wives and their husbands is planned.

The Rural Family Development Program in the Creston Area is a special educational
program effort for limited resource farmers of any age.

Plans are underway to re-establish the Iowa Small Farms Committee to relate to
the problems of the small and limited resources farmers and families in Iowa.


Oscar W. Norby, Chairman
Kansas Small Farm Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
Umberger Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506

The Kansas Small Farms Subcommittee was one of eight established by the Kansas
SCAC Committee. The subcommittee has a broad membership including USDA agencies,
FCIC, State and Extension Forestry, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station,

- 13 -

An Extension Service area farm management specialist and the county agents in
Franklin County in Southeast Kansas have started a demonstration small farm
program. They will conduct a series of educational meetings and visits to
small farms. All USDA agencies are participating.

The 113,000-acre Soldier Creek Watershed project is funded by ASCS and includes
a relatively high percentage of small farms. The Environmental Protection Agency
is providing a 2-year grant to the Kansas Cooperative Extension Service to
provide educational work in connection with the Soldier Creek project.

A review by the Kansas Small Farms Subcommittee has determined that more than
50 percent and as many as 75 percent of the farms in several counties in the
eastern half of Kansas can be categorized as small farms.


Thomas Howard, Chairman
Kentucky Small Farms Committee
Imperial Towers Office Building
333 Waller Avenue
Lexington, KY 40604

The Fleming County Kentucky Small Family Farm Assistance Project, "The
Economic/Environmental Improvement in Status of Small Farm Owners," was started
in the fall of 1979. This county is one of Kentucky's 49 Appalachian Counties
and the project encompasses approximately 150 farms of which 100 would be
classified as small farms.

The basic objectives of the project are threefold: (1) improvement in housing;
(2) improvement in forestry; and (3) improvement in conservation.

Census data indicates about 50 percent of the farm homes are below "standard
housing." In the project area, through FmHA, Licking Valley Community Action
Agency (LVCAA) with assistance of manpower through various CETA programs and the
DOE's weatherization funds, 60 small farm dwellings will be improved.

Approximately 80 percent of the Project Area is forestland. Much of the area
has been used as an unauthorized dumping site. The County Executive Judge has
inactivated legislation to assist in this project. The State Division of Forestry
and the LVCAA have launched cleanup efforts. CETA enrollees in LVCAA are developing
fire trails and logging roads with guidance from the Forestry Service. Wood
recovered helps needy families heat their homes. ASCS, with technical help from
the State Division of Forestry, will cost-share installing Timberland Improvement
Measures as well as needed tree planting. SCS is providing technical supervision
in the development of Livestock Watering Facilities, Cropland Protection and
Establishment of Vegetative Cover.

In addition to the involvement of the agencies mentioned, the Bureau of Social
Services, Bureau of Social Insurance and the Bureau of Manpower have offered
their expertise and services as needed.

- 14 -


Ed Courtney, Chairman
Louisiana Small Farms Committee
3737 Government Street
Alexandria, LA 71301

As part of the followup to the Regional Small Farm Conferences in 1978,
Parish Small Farm Rural Development Committees were formed. Also, the
Extension Service produced and distributed a Directory of Resources available
locally to farmers.

Plans for 1980 include five demonstration farms with specific enterprises in
each parish; a new processing plant for catfish; and a Small Farm Family Assistance
Project in West Carroll, East Carroll and Madison parishes.

Progress on the Small Farm project includes:

--FmHA made loans in excess of $2 million in FY 79.

--ASCS made available $200,000 in ACP cost-sharing funds for small farmers in
the project area in FY 79.

--SCS is providing technical assistance for conservation practices.

--Southern University will select demonstration farms in each parish and employ
small farm specialists.

--Extension Service will provide educational and management assistance in each
of the three parishes.

--CSA and ACTION will form a Limited Purpose Agency to handle the programming
of these two agencies and identifying resources through USDA, HUD, foundations,


Ken Growe, Chairman
Maine Small Farms Committee
USDA Building
University of Maine
Orono, ME 04473

All eight small farmer delegates to the Regional Small Farm Conference in
Maine in 1978 have been invited to meet with the State Small Farm Committee and
two of them are members of the committee. The committee has wide representation
of all agencies, State Department of Agriculture, State Forestry, Maine State
Planning Office, VISTA, CSA, REA, and others.

A Maine Small Farm Plan of Action has been prepared and addresses the needs and
concerns of small farmers. It has been distributed statewide.

- 15 -

One of the key small farm projects is the Kennebec Valley Vegetables Co-op which
is an important facility for those small producers. The new storage building
will feature solar energy to provide heat both for the storage building and the
greenhouse to provide storage for vegetables and to produce seedlings for
possible sale to the members.

The needs of small farmers in Maine include more information on how and where to
secure credit, and how to raise hogs and sheep. The Extension Service is setting
up a series of workshops in the state to address these questions which will
probably include a resource person from FmHA. Maine now has five district
offices set up to handle the FmHA effort to serve more small and limited resource
farmers and their families.


Elwyn Deal, Chairman
Maryland Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
University of Maryland
Simon Hall
College Park, MD 20742

The Maryland Small Farms Committee is an additional standing committee of the
Maryland Rural Affairs Council which corresponds to a state Rural Development
Committee. Total of 34 agencies and organizations are represented on the MRAC.

As a followup to the Regional Small Farm Conference in Maine in 1978, the small
farm delegates were invited to a 1-day session with the USDA state agencies
and farm organization heads in Maryland to review recommendations from the
conference and their own concerns. Representatives of the MRAC Small Farm
Committee attended the regional small farm meeting in Essington, PA., as well as
representatives of USDA, CSA and ACTION.

On January 24, a meeting of selected agencies and private institutions which deal
with farm credit was held to develop plans for areawide financial management
seminars. Three meetings were held beginning on March 29 and covered such topics
as financing for silos, storage structures, farm machinery, and operating loans.


Judith Gillan, Chairperson
Massachusetts Small Farm Committee
NE Small Farm Institute
Box 937
Belchertown, MA 01007

The State Rural Development Committee's Small Farm Subcommittee has representation
from the New England Small Farmer Project, the New England Small Farm Institute,
county Extension Services, the Massachusetts Farm Bureau Federation, the
Massachusetts Food and Agriculture Coalition, the Tri-State Small Farmer Program,
Farmers Home Administration, and other USDA agencies.

S16 -

The State Small Farm Plan of Action includes specific actions in the areas of
capital and credit, production, marketing, land use, sources of income, and
quality of life. Action is being taken through education, research, organization
and outreach, and work on regulations and policies. The Small Farm Subcommittee
has found and assigned someone to work on each specific action. For example,
one action was to develop a credit handbook to help guide small farm families
to sources of credit. This was done by the New England Small Farmer Project
in conjunction with state Extension researchers and Farmers Home Administration

The New England Small Farmer Project began in April 1979 with the placement of
a VISTA staff person in each of the six New England states. They are assisting
small farmers to develop new markets and resources, and seek to make connections
between small farmers and policymakers. The project's overall goal is to help
preserve and promote a strong agricultural base for New England. It is funded
by USDA, CSA, and ACTION. It is presently in the process of developing programs
with Cooperative Extension Service to provide production and management technical
assistance to small farmers. Another new component of the project will be to
provide information on community economic development to farm communities in the
coming year.

The New England Small Farm Institute is a private, nonprofit small farm training
center now being established at the discontinued farmstead of a state school in
Belchertown, Massachusetts. It will provide both residential and nonresidential
hands-on small farm training, and serve as a demonstration farm for the small farm
community in New England.


Chester Wright, Chairman
State Small Farms Committee
1405 S. Harrison Road
East Lansing, MI 48823

The Michigan Small Farms Task Force was formed as a followup to the Regional
Small Farm Conferences in 1978 and as requested by USDA. Two of the members
attended the Small Farms Conference in Iowa.

In a research study by Ralph Hepp and associates at Michigan State University,
the interviews identified three groups of small farmers: (1) part-time farmers--
48 percent; (2) part-retired farmers--19 percent; and (3) full-time small
farmers--33 percent.

Small farmers (grossing under $40,000) are important to Michigan agriculture
because they represent about 65 percent of the farms, cultivate two-thirds of
the land, harvest 60 percent of the hay, soybeans, and wheat; 50 percent of
the corn; 33 percent of the fruits and vegetables; 50 percent of the sheep and
lambs; over one-third of the milk and pork; and 10 percent of the eggs.

The Upper Peninsula Project entitled "Reach Out to Help Small Farmers" was funded
from ASCS-ACP special funds and has been very successful because all USDA agencies
are working together.

- 17 -

Cooperative Extension Service is training volunteers in some counties to provide
technical help and assistance to others with less experience or training. Part
of the obligation for participating in these special training efforts is to
contribute volunteer time working with others in their community to upgrade
their knowledge and skills. Some of the programs are titled Master Gardener
Program, Master Canner Program and the Big Sheppard Program. Also, there is a
series of publications aimed at small and part-time farmers.

Next step in the Michigan Small Farms program is to survey each county about
their small farm situation. Questions will deal with general information about
the small farm, disadvantaged areas, location of minorities involved in farming
and any special needs, and recommend priority projects, services or financial
needs. This plan has been submitted to the state.


Loren Luschen, Chairman
Minnesota Small Farms Committee
252 Federal Courts Building
316 Robert Street
St. Paul, MN 55101

The Minnesota Small Farm Task Force has been in existence since early 1979. The
members include a small farmer, Minnesota Rural Development Council, ACTION and
the Office of Economic Security in addition to USDA agencies.

Several USDA agencies have worked closely with the Governor's Rural Development
Council and assisted in projects to assist small and family farms which includes:

--Opportunity Farming project in northern Minnesota where retired farmers are
assisting existing limited resource farms with technical advice and supervision
by the Extension Service.

--Farmstead Cheese is a project assisting farmers to produce cheese on the farm for
sale locally and nationwide.

--Sheep Farming project is developing training programs in sheep raising through
a Vo-Tech correspondence course.

--Rural Venture Ag Center project involves private and public funds tied in with
the Control Data Corporation to provide training and production farming advice
through a computer and educational materials program.


Rupert Johnston, Chairman
Mississippi Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
Box 5426
Mississippi State, MS 39762

The State Small Farm Committee has encouraged the counties in Mississippi to form
county small farm committees and to include small farm operators on the committees.

- 18 -

One project has been to hold a Small Farm Conference in every county in
Mississippi where representatives from four USDA agencies and the Mississippi
Forestry Commission (MFC) explained how their organizations can help improve small
farm family income and resource use. Community Services Administration (CSA) and
ACTION helped with the conferences.

A total of 2,514 small farmers attended the county meetings, and 1,518 completed
surveys of their needs. For example, 531 wanted ASCS assistance in cost-sharing
for soil and water conservation practices; 422 indicated a need for operating
loans from FmHA; 384 wanted information on crop production practices and 392 on
marketing information from Extension Service; 560 wanted help from SCS to determine
needed conservation measures; and 236 asked for advice and assistance from MFC
on forestry practices. These requests were routed to the appropriate agency for

The Small Farm Family Assistance Project in Winston County is underway. All
USDA agencies, CSA, ACTION, and the Mississippi State Employment Service are
cooperating in an effort to focus their assistance on small farm families in
the county. The county had approximately 1,900 farms in 1977, with an average
size of 140 acres. In 1974, the average age of the farmers was 54 years
and about half of the farmers in the county worked more than 100 days off the
farm. The 1970 census reports 36 percent of the farm residents in this county
had income below the poverty level. Only 30,000 acres of the county's 387,000 acres
are suitable for row crops.

Approximately 500 families will take part in an expanded commercial vegetable
program in Winston County; 124 families with 200 acres of pimiento peppers;
45 families with 26 acres of finger hot peppers; 52 families with 41 acres of
Jalapeno peppers; 272 families with 299 acres of southern peas; 54 families with
100 acres of cucumbers; 87 families with 100 acres of okra. Many families are
producing more than one vegetable crop. A model community canning plant will
be established in the county to can or freeze food for local families. Funds
for the cannery are being obtained primarily through CSA. This project has
triggered activities designed to update and improve 14 other community canning
plants in the state.

The county small farm conferences and the Small Farm Family Assistance Project
are recent activities. Mississippi has a large number of small farms and they
have been served by various programs of USDA\agencies. Recent small farm
activities have been augmented by the addition of resources from CSA and ACTION.


John Harvey, Chairman
Missouri Small Farms Committee
555 Vandiver Drive
Columbia, MO 65201

The Missouri Cooperative Extension Service has had one of the more extensive small
farm programs in operation in the Nation. It is called the "Missouri Small Farm
Family Program" and actually enrolls families to have direct one-on-one contact
with paraprofessionals who are called "education assistants." It was started
in 1971.

- 19 -

Approximately 2,000 small farm families are now enrolled in 33 counties and are
served by 38 paraprofessionals who are usually hired from the area they serve
and often are retired successful small farmers. They are supported and supervised
by the local county Extension agent and work closely with local staff of other
USDA agencies and other agencies and organizations--Federal, State and local.

The Missouri program stresses improving quality of life for the family as well
as improving income from the small farm. Of the 1,835 families taking part
in the gardening program, a total of 131,113 quarts of food were produced and
preserved--worth an estimated $52,445. Home weatherization practices were used
by 489 families with cost savings ranging from $18 to $310 per family. During
one year, 192 families began keeping records of both living and farm business

For the most part, Missouri small farmers are increasing income with improved
farm management and increasing crop yields and livestock and dairy production
on the same acreage. The records for 1977 show:

--40 percent of all participating families, or 717 families, had an increase in
total gross income averaging $1,047 per family. That is a total increase of
$750,000 for these families.

--670 families had a net income increase of $454, while 151 families had a
decrease in total net income.

The Missouri Small Farm Committee has undertaken a small farm swine project in
the Bootheel. This is a cooperative effort by USDA agencies, ACTION and CSA with
the Bootheel Agricultural Services, Inc. Cooperative (BASIC). This project is
still in the development stage with a goal of placing five sows and one boar with
each of 15 producers.


Wallace B. Edland, Chairman
Montana Small Farms Committee
P. O. Box 850
Bozeman, MT 59715

Although Montana has an image of large ranches, there are a sizable number of
small landowners in the state. In a 1974 survey, 11 counties in the mountain
areas reported 500 or more landowners with less than 49 acres. Five of these
counties reported small landowners were more than 50 percent of the rural popula-

A Small Farm Newsletter has been initiated by the Cooperative Extension Service
and is edited by Allen Bjergo, Community Development Agent. This letter
has a circulation of 1,500 in the three counties of Missoula, Ravalli and Mineral.

Bjergo is starting a Direct Marketing Newsletter which will circulate to consumers
and to the media as well as small farmers trying to sell direct.

- 20 -


D. D. "Bud" Riblett, Chairman
Nebraska Small Farms Committee
Farmers Home Administration
308 Federal Building
100 Centennial Mall North
Lincoln, NE 68508

The Nebraska Small Farms Committee has proposed a Limited Resource Family
Livestock Project and program. The loans to qualified applicants will be
supplied by the Farmers Home Administration to support one of the following:

--A small beef herd of 20 to 25 cows.
--A 4 to 20 sow farrowing or feeder pig swine operation.
--A 4 to 20 cow dairy herd.
--A flock of 20 to 30 ewes.

At midway in Fiscal Year 1980, 22 loans had been made for beef; 4 loans for
dairy cows; and 6 for swine projects.

ACTION, Community Services Administration and USDA agencies of ASCS, SCS and
Extension Service will provide technical service as the
project develops and the small farmers seeking to join the project effort are

In a closely allied program, the Lincoln ACTION Panel has received a grant to
provide service to three Southeast Nebraska areas--Blue Valley Community
Action (BVCA), Southeast Nebraska Community ACTION Council (SENCAC), and
Lincoln ACTION Program. This project is designed to locate the low-income farmers
and ranchers and help them become aware of the USDA resources and technical
assistance available to help them raise their standard of living and improve
their net income.


Al Pasquale, Chairman
Nevada Small Farms Committee
P. O. Box 360
Reno, NV 89504

The Walker River Indian Reservation Ditch Lining Irrigation Project is proceeding
rapidly and should be completed by April (1980). A total of 30 participants
are spending about $22,000. The Four Corners Regional Commission is providing
the Indians with a grant to supplement the cost-share contribution.

Purpose of this project is to line irrigation ditches on the private 20-acre
allotments--approximately 660 linear feet of ditch.

- 21 -

The objective is to prevent water loss due to excessive seepage. This seepage
is creating soil waterlogging problems in some areas and insufficient water
for irrigation in other areas. The lining of the ditches will also greatly
reduce erosion and silt pollution in the Walker River and Walker Lake.

The lining of the irrigation ditches will eliminate the need to develop a new
water source to supply water, and result in substantial energy savings.

ASCS funding for this project is $80,000 and the Four Corners Regional Commission
$30,000. FmHA is providing loan support to individual Indian farmers.

The improved water supply should increase production for the small farmers
involved in this project.


John Damon, Chairman
New Hampshire Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
University of New Hampshire
Taylor Hall
Durham, NH 03824

Much progress has been made by the Small Farms Committee. The New Hampshire
delegates to the Regional Small Farms Conference at Poland Spring, Maine, have
organized themselves into a task force and are being supported and assisted by
the State Small Farms Committee as needed. The Poland Spring Report provides
an excellent base for the committee to work from, but the task force needs to
identify specific issues within New Hampshire.

The State Small Farm Action Plan follows the lead of the Small Farm Delegates.
Initial priority has been given by the delegates to finance, food policy, marketing,
and land use. A survey of the needs of the New Hampshire small farmers is underway
with 3,500 questionnaires.

Small Farm projects and activities include newsletters to identified small farm
families, meeting with the New Hampshire Resource Development Executive Committee,
meeting with credit agencies, having representatives at the Governor's Conference
on Food Policy and at the Structure of Agriculture Hearing, and co-sponsoring a
Farmers Market meeting.

VISTA workers have been very fruitful in many ways. We are encouraging the
movement of ideas and felt needs by small farm families from the local area to
the state level. The greatest need as we see it now is in the area of marketing
and management including public policy.

- 22 -


Lawrence Suydam, Chairman
New Jersey Small Farms Committee
1 Vahlsing Center
Robbinsville, NJ 08691

Small farmers have been invited to the State Rural Development meetings to
discuss concerns and suggestions of needs in New Jersey. They are considering
three meetings in the state with USDA agencies and other interested parties to
make presentations of services available to small and limited resource farmers.

The state committee is reviewing projects such as hog operations which may be
possible small farm demonstration projects.

During Fiscal Year 1979, a total of 210 operating loans were made; 27 of these
loans were made to limited resource farmers. Out of the 51 farm ownership loans
made, 14 were made to limited resource farmers.

In fiscal year 1980, to date 13 loans were made to limited resource out of 23
operating loans and 7 loans to limited resource from 12 farm ownership loans.


Jose Herrera, Chairman
New Mexico Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
Court House Annex, P.O. Box 2170 West Branch
Las Vegas, New Mexico 87701

The New Mexico State Small Farm Committee has prepared a Plan of Action which
includes a Small Farm Family Assistance Project called the "Northern New Mexico
Sheep Improvement Program."

The project proposes to improve small farm production through increasing flock
production by adding at least 20 head per flock with improved production and
management practices. The Northern New Mexico Community College will have the
leadership and responsibility for this sheep project. Local small farmers will
be trained as paraprofessionals to assist local cooperators in this small farm


Van C. Travis, Chairman
NYS Small Farm Committee
Cooperative Extension
102 E. Roberts Hall
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853

Cooperative Extension in New York has during the past 6 years conducted two
pilot projects working with limited resource diary farmers. In addition to the
limit of size (less than 40 cows), soil resources and adequate financial resources,
these people are generally limited in their ability to collect information to use

- 23 -

in their decisionmaking processes. The major objective of the two projects
has been to improve the ability of the individuals to make better decisions
that result in improved family living. The use of a paraprofessional aide
working intensively with the families was also tested as a means of reaching
this audience.

The use of the aide has proven highly successful. Extension agents supervise
the activities of the aide and serve as a resource to that person.

About one-half of the participants benefitted in a measurable way from the program.
One-half of that group (25 percent of total) will continue to use their newly
learned skills after the program has ceased. They will continue to derive benefits
and improve their status without the intensive help of the aide.

About 25 percent of the participants discontinued farming.

Project Reach in Steuben County is using a FmHA grant to conduct an educational
program for "homesteader" type farmers who are seeking an alternate lifestyle.

The New York State Small Farm Committee of 10 includes members representing
ACTION, Community Services Administration, NYS Department of Labor, NYS Department
of Agriculture and Markets, NYS Department of Commerce, and USDA agencies.


Dalton McAfee, Chairman
North Carolina Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
North Carolina A&T University
312 North Dudley
Greensboro, NC 27411

The North Carolina Agricultural Extension Program at A&T State University
cooperating with N. C. State University Extension developed and implemented the
Farm Opportunities Program. This program has provided educational and technical
assistance to approximately 940 small, low-income farmers. The key thrust is
to help people identify and solve their farm, home and community problems
through the use of on-the-farm assistance executed by paraprofessionals called
"agricultural technicians."

Presently there are 28 agricultural technicians working intensively with an average
of 40 marginal income farmers in 23 of the 100 counties in the state of
North Carolina to:

1. Increase family income.
2. Introduce appropriate technology and management techniques.
3. Increase family knowledge about and use of public agencies.
4. Encourage the family to work together in setting and working toward
reachable goals.

"Extension Teletip" has been developed as a telephone answering service for
home gardeners and small farmers. Teletip provides over 150 (1 to 3 minute)

- 24 -

taped telephone messages on home gardening and food preservation topics. The
Teletip service is now statewide and the topics are advertised by direct mail
and the local media.

The North Carolina Direct Marketing Committee has recommended a proposal be
developed to:

e Contract a mobile unit as a direct marketing project.

* Employ an area Extension agent to assist in developing vegetable markets
in the northeast portion of the State.

A North Carolina State Small Farm Task Force has been established by the State
Rural Development Committee. It is composed of representatives from USDA agencies,
CSA, ACTION, Commission of Indian Affairs and the Forest Service.

The State Small Farm Task Force is recommending a pilot project for small farmers
in Columbus, Johnston and Yadkin counties in the south-central, southeastern and
northwestern sections of the State. The project would tie in with County Rural
Development Panels and local organizations as well as USDA agencies, CSA, ACTION
and others. The 1862 and 1890 Extension Services will provide a para-
professional for each county, as well as a county staff person to provide
leadership and supervision of the paraprofessional. The program coordinator
will be at A&T State University.


Ray Scheetz, Chairman
North Dakota Small Farm Family Committee
Farmers Home Administration
Box 2355
Bismarck, ND 58501

To provide maximum assistance possible under this program, the individual members
of the State Small Farm Family Committee were each assigned County Rural Development
Committees. They made contacts by phone and in most cases a personal visit to
give guidance and assistance in developing the Small Farm Family Program.

Another important part of the Small Farm Family program in North Dakota was the
development of the directory of assistance available to small farm families.
The directory which is entitled, 'The Directory for Services Available to
Small Farm Families of North Dakota," was put together by the committee and
designed to provide basic information on state and Federal programs available
and provide a contact point for obtaining assistance or additional information
on these programs. Twenty thousand copies have been published through the
pooling of funds obtained from four USDA agencies and three state agencies.
The directory is to be used by any group, institution, business or individuals
who are working with small farm families and rural residents in North Dakota.
Anyone desiring a copy of this directory can contact any local USDA agency within
the State.

The ACTION agency has authorized the placement of 16 locally recruited volunteers
to assist the local County Rural Development Committees in the Small Farm Family
Assistance project.

- 25 -

Another project in North Dakota is the work study farm at the Standing Rock
Community College at Fort Yates. This project involves 12 young people
from within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation who are getting actual farming
experience along with a classroom curriculum. The project has been funded with
a Department of Labor grant for $560,000. The grant funds were used to purchase
cattle, machinery, irrigation equipment and student labor. FmHA will work with
the students on loans needed as they start farming. Soil Conservation Service,
Agricultural Stabilization & Conservation Service, and the Cooperative Extension
Service are now and will continue to give technical assistance. The program is
available to Indian and nonIndian people.


Ted Jones, Chairman
Ohio Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
2120 Fyffe Road
Columbus, OH 43210

The Ohio Small Farm-Family Program is a multiagency coordinated effort to provide
assistance to small farm families. The program was initiated on a pilot basis
during the fall of 1979. The County USDA Committee determines if and when the
program will be initiated in a given county.

County Extension agents have the leadership role in working with the County USDA
Committee in organizing the county small farm family program.

Ohio is using an enrollment form to find and identify the small farm families
who wish to participate. They voluntarily complete the enrollment form and return
it to the county Extension office, or contact any of the county offices of the
cooperating USDA agencies.

After the enrollment forms are returned, the County USDA Committee reviews the
forms and plans and conducts the county program. Specific program needs identified
and checked on the enrollment form by the small farm family are incorporated into
the planned program. The County USDA Committee coordinates resources from agencies
and other interested county organizations supporting the small-farm family program.

Extension will prepare the publications, newsletters and other educational materials
needed to conduct the program.


Frank Evans, Chairman
Oklahoma Small Farms Committee
USDA Agricultural Center Building
Stillwater, OK 74074

The Oklahoma State Small Farm Committee has prepared a Plan of Action to implement
a Small Farm Family Intensive Assistance Program. The project area is 11 counties

- 26 -

in Eastern and Central Oklahoma with a large percentage of the population full
blood or part Indian blood. There are other minorities, too. Many of the farmers
work off-farm part time.

The overall objective is to increase farm income and improve the quality of
life for families living on small farms The project will start with 10 families
in each county with a 50 percent annual increase in participants anticipated.

Agency involvement includes:

The Cooperative Extension Service will provide an agricultural program of
farm management and a home economics program in consumer education, food
and nutrition and clothing (value about $220,000).

Community Services and ACTION have a two-pronged plan: (1) to establish a
Professional Small Farm Management Advisory Service that will include
staffing to work with the small farmers as well as supervision; and (2) to
improve the quality of life by enrolling families in their numerous social
services, rehabilitative, educational and job opportunity programs (funding
about $75,000).

-- FmHA is planning total loans of about $8.7 million for small farmers with
limited resources who qualify in the 11-county area.

-- ASCS set aside about $100,000 of ACP funds for this project in FY 79.

-- SCS will provide technical assistance at an estimated $22,000 level for
the small farmers in the project.

The Kerr Foundation will cooperate in the project and provide technical manage-
ment assistance.


John Van Calcar, Chairman
Oregon Small Farms Committee
Federal Building
1220 S. W. Third Avenue
Portland, OR 97204

The State project on small farms started in 1978 with a special effort in
Polk County carried out by John Burk, Extension agent. Total of 19 percent
of the small farms in Oregon are in three counties--Polk, Marion and Yamhill.
This is a little over 4,000 small farms. The project includes 40 farms from
4 to 400 acres in size. The farm families are a cross section of this group
and many of them work off-farm to supplement the income from the farm.

Main object of the project is to coordinate any and all government and private
programs which may help these small farm families; and to select a group of
experienced farmers--mostly retired people--who will be advisers to these small
farmers on how to improve the managanent of their resources including marketing.
A byproduct will be to improve the community.

- 27 -

It is anticipated the results from this project will be applicable to the
rest of Oregon and neighboring states. The Director, Ken Willmart, has been
hired on Extension funds.

It has not been easy to determine what each farmer needs and which needs the
project will address. Neither are the solutions easy. Getting enough funds
is a major hurdle. If ASCS funds for ponds for livestock could also apply
to irrigation for a small acreage, it would be very beneficial to some farmers.
The regulations do not include underground drainage because that is considered
a production practice.

A complete summary of each of the 40 farms is being prepared to form a base of
knowledge. The summaries will include farm plans and resource and financial plans.
This planning will take high priority and agencies will have to free up their
personnel time in order to meet the goals cooperatively. Communications between
leadership and the 40 small farmers must be speeded up. This also applies to
sponsoring some meetings with private industry, banks, PCA'S, marketing associations
to inform them of the project and the opportunity to join in working with these
small farmers.


Fred King, Chairman
Pennsylvania Small Farms Committee
Federal Building
228 Walnut Street, Box 905
Harrisburg, PA 17108

After the Northeast Regional Small Farms Conference, the Pennsylvania Rural
Development Committee (RDC) established a Small Farms Task Force. The Task
Force reviewed potential small farms project proposals to be submitted to the
U. S. Department of Agriculture for consideration for funding from the Small
Family Farms Assistance Project.

In February 1979, the RDC conducted a workshop for Pennsylvania's local RDC.
The Small Farmer Delegates who attended the Northeast Regional Conference were
invited to attend the workshop as guests of the RDC. A brief presentation was
made by one of the delegates. Local RDCs were encouraged to work with either
delegates or other small farmers in their county to develop plans to address
the needs of their small farmer neighbors.

In February 1980, Fred King, Pennsylvania's Director of Farmers Home Administra-
tion, was selected to be chairman of the RDC's Small Farm Subcommittee. Mr. King
is identifying appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies and individuals
interested in developing a State Action Plan and will present his plans for the
Subcommittee for the upcoming year.

- 28 -


Roberto Valquez Rico, Chairman
Small Farms Committee
Agricultural Extension Service
University of Puerto Rico
Mayaguez Campus
Mayaguez, PR 00708

In a project known as "El Melon" on the hills of Coamo in south-central
Puerto Rico, 24 farmers are involved on a 300-acre site. The lack of water
in this area is a real problem. Two deep wells have been developed into a water
system by SCS to supply water for a poultry enterprise, livestock, and small
irrigation systems. Two large water tanks with a combined capacity of 100,000
gallons supply water for agricultural uses to the 24 farms which average 7 to
40 acres. (The Puerto Rican administration purchased the idle farmland and
divided it into 24 farms with a very low interest rate to the farmers.)

Each farm has a poultry building for 10,000 chickens with 50,000 pounds of
production every 8-9 weeks. A second building is under construction on each
farm with plans for a third one. As secondary enterprises, many of the 24 farmers
are cultivating truck crops and vegetables and beef cattle and goats on pastures.

This project has been successful, others are being considered.


Donald McArthur, Chairman
Rhode Island Small Farms Committee
46 Quaker Lane
West Warwick, RI 02893

The 10-member Rhode Island Small Farm Committee is active and has a Plan of
Action that is using the target approach in the whole state. The Small Farm
Assistance Project is the bull's-eye and the State Plan of Action includes these

" Conservation measures to contribute to the solution of water quality problems
in Providence and Washington Counties for small farms using $20,000 ASCS funds.

" Encourage conservation throughout the county.

* Provide financial aid to small farmers in need of credit.

o Provide expertise in production and marketing of farm products on small farms.

* Locate and develop groups of small farmers so they can adequately deal with
health, economics, and social welfare problems.

Accomplishments of the Small Family Farm Assistance Project in Providence County
include getting $15,000 committed on the Special ACP funding, targeting $500,000 for

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limited resource loans through FmHA, 35 onfarm visits by USDA professionals
to provide conservation planning and application assistance to small farmers,
contacting Food Coops to initiate contracting fresh produce from small farmers,
and plans to organize a Farmers Market in 1980.

Other small farm activities have included: Small woodlot management workshops
statewide, $2,500 Community Action Fund grant to assist in the development of
the 4rmer's Market, close liaison with the Southern Rhode Island and East Bay
Small Farmer Associations to provide education and information assistance.


K. G. Smith, Chairman
South Carolina Small Farms Committee
P. 0. Box 21607
Columbia, SC 29221

A State Small Farm Committee composed of members from USDA agencies, Human
Development Council, ACTION and CSA has developed a program relating to the
problems small farmer delegates presented at the Southeast Regional Conference
in 1978.

The Small Farm Committee recommendations include:

-- Establish pilot areas to serve small farmers in Williamsburg, Sumter and
Orangeburg counties and identify 50 farmers to start. Leadership
responsibility is to be with Extension Service.

SAppoint a state level task force to develop educational, information and
training program. This should include training and assistance in financial
management and alternative crops and production practices to increase net
family income.

SDemonstrations should be used to reach small farmers and include feeder pig
production and marketing, home gardens, marketing vegetables and other
horticultural crops.

Provide information to small farmers through tours, workshops and mass


Maurice L. McLinn, Chairman
South Dakota Small Farms Committee
200 4th Street, S. W., Room 208
Huron, SD 57350

The South Dakota Small Farm Task Force was formed early in 1979. It included
ACTION, CSA, Vocational Education, private sector (Control Data Corp.) and USDA
agencies. One of the first accomplishments was the Directory of Small Farm

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Opportunities which lists the programs each agency has for local people. CSA
paid for printing 10,000 copies with Extension Service preparing the copy and
handling much of the distribution. Most of the 10,000 copies are already
distributed. Small farmers report they like them. Sixty of the 67 counties in
the state have now established County Small Farm Committees which are made up
of five small farmers. Idea is to give small farmers a voice in what changes are
needed in services and programs to help them.

A third thrust on small farm issues was to propose a special project--the Charles
Mix Small Farm Project. The County Small Farm Committees held meetings where other
small farmers in the county were invited to discuss their concerns and needs with
agency leaders and others. The State Small Farm Advisory Committee put together
a summary report from the county reports. This activity caused agency personnel to
take a hard look at how current programs might be adjusted within current guidelines
to expand assistance to small farm families.

A VISTA program is being developed and will consist of 12 VISTA volunteers located
around the state to advise small farmers where they can obtain assistance. SCS
added a staff position to assist small farmers; Extension Service added a position
to work with small farmers; the FmHA loan volume has increased substantially to
over $2 million. ASCS will budget some $75,000 for cost-sharing; CAP has assisted
66 families with weatherization; the Extension home economist has conducted home
management meetings with wives of the small farmers in the project; and the State
Department of Vocational Education is exploring interest in starting Farm Business
Records classes.

More rapid progress could be made with more Federal dollar support. Restructuring
of agriculture and its programs in the future must give strong consideration to
the needs of the small farm operators to maintain a viable rural America.


Lloyd Downen, Chairman
Tennessee Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
University of Tennessee
P. 0. Box 1071
Knoxville, TN 37901

The Small Farm Committee in Tennessee is a subcommittee of the State Rural
Development Committee. It includes members from both the 1862 and 1890 Extension
Services, Agricultural Experiment Stations, TVA, CSA and ACTION as well as FmHA,

Tennessee does not have one of the 17 selected small farm projects, but special
effort to help small farmers is significant as follows:

The Extension Service has an educational program for small farmers in effect
in all 95 counties with additional resource staff for small farm families in
51 counties. Forty-one paraprofessionals are working with small farmers in
41 counties and 10 professionals are working with small farmers in 10 counties.

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The Small Farm Project with ACP funding was initiated in 1978 with $220,000
with over 500 farmers participating in the two county area. Total ACP
funding to date is slightly over $750,000. Additional funding from RC&C
brings the total cost-share amount to almost $1 million. Over 50
pit-type ponds were constructed, mostly on small farms of less than 40 acres
where an adequate water supply did not exist. Also, 40 embankment-type
multi-purpose reservoirs were constructed. All of the ponds were stocked
with bass, catfish and bluegill.

Plans for 1980 include planting 200 acres to pines, cooperating with the
Tennessee Division of Forestry and the Hiwassee Land Company which will
furnish the trees and equipment for this project.

FmHA is working to improve the living conditions of watershed residents and
has financed 100 new houses.


Dempsey Seastrunk, Chairman
Texas Small Farms Committee
Agricultural Extension Service
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843

The Texas Small Farm Committee is building on previous small farm pilot projects
and results. Emphasis is being given to working with the entire farm family and
especially the lower one-third income level with three clientele identified:
(1) full producers who want to become commercial-sized farmers; (2) part producers
who may be part retired and have different goals, etc.; and (3) nonproducers who
work full time off the farm but want the quality of living in the country. It
takes more Extension staff time to reach three different clienteles. We need
ways to consolidate skills and technical recommendations on how to reach and teach
small farm families, and an effective small farm effort must have an individual
from each USDA agency with field offices assigned to small farm programs with
some budget commitment.

The Texas Extension Service has been one of the pioneers in testing the use of
paraprofessionals in one-on-one working with small and part-time farmers. Net farm
income increased an average of 48 percent from 1970 to 1974 for small-scale farmers
enrolled in the Texas program. Also, there was a substantial increase in the number
of farmers who took advantage of other government and Extension programs.

Texas has now expanded this program to 15 counties and gives preference to farmers
with gross agricultural sales under $5,000 per year.


Maynard Wankier, Chairman
Utah Small Farms Committee
5311 Federal Building
125 South State Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84138

The State Small Farm Committee for Utah has a farmer member, William Rigby, as
well as representatives from ACTION, CSA, State Department of Agriculture and the

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USDA agencies of FmHA, ASCS, SCS, and Extension Service.

The committee has identified the Emery Canal Realignment project as a worthy
one that could be developed and would involve 53 small farmers in the proposed
canal lining project.


Bill Shimel, Chairman
Vermont Small Farms Committee
Cooperative Extension Service
Morrill Hall
University of Vermont
Burlington, VT 05401

In the Small Farm program area, the push is not to dairy but to diversify and
especially to vegetables on both sides of the river, making better use of
small plots of land. We are finding this is especially for strawberries, carrots,

FmHA has gone up as much as 100 percent in loan volume the past few years in
dairy farming. The heavy demand for credit has exhausted the supply for
1980 already in some states in the Northeast. The national office of FmHA may be
able to shift some funds to states which have run out, but this volume of applica-
tions for limited resource and emergency loans focuses on a real problem.

The State Department of Agriculture in Vermont is considering a grant to the
Control Data Corporation which wants to do a study on educational material for
small farmers.


0. W. Cundiff, Chairman
Virginia Small Farms Committee
Hutcheson Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24061

In Virginia, the State Small Farm Task Force is a subcommittee of the State
Rural Development Committee with 12 members including USDA and State agencies,

The Virginia Agricultural Credit Study Committee has developed and printed an
Agricultural Credit Handbook for use by lenders and farmers, and supported the
first "Virginia Agricultural Lenders School."

The Virginia State University Bureau of Economic Research and Development has been
awarded an initial grant by CSA to establish a Small Farm Development Center at
Virginia State University. This grant will provide for the development of a
process model on how effectively to transmit resources directly to the small farmer.

- 33 -

The Virginia Cooperative Extension Service has a specific small farm family
program providing intensive assistance to farmers in the eight counties of
Brunswick, Floyd, Lee, Montgomery, Prince Eduward, Smyth, Southhampton and
Washington. The program consists of a paraprofessional (technician) under the
direct supervision of a county Extension staff member. The technicians works
closely one-to-one to help the farmers and farm wives make the best of their
available agricultural resources, adopt approved management practices, and
consider new or different enterprises that might help increase their farm

A survey of 244 small farmers participating in the Virginia project indicates
dramatic changes in farm sales over a 2 to 3 year period: 11 percent increased
over $2,000; 35 percent increased $1,000 to $2,000; 28 percent increased $1,000;
25 percent no change; and 1 percent declined.

The Extension staff helped farmers initiate two new Farmers Markets in 1979.
Farmer markets are getting increased interest in Virginia with 19 now in
operation and 10 more areas discussing the idea.


Dr. Darshan S. Padda, Director
Cooperative Extension Service
College of the Virgin Islands
P. O. Box L, Kingshill
St. Croix, VI 00850

The Cooperative Extension Service audience is mostly small farmers. Additional
staffing including paraprofessional staff and special Extension aides were added
in 1979. Also, a new Extension office was opened on the island of St. John to
meet the educational needs of that community. Other services include:

Dairy herd improvement was conducted for the first time in the Virgin Islands
and dairy farmers are enthusiastic about this technical tool.

Publications have always been a bottleneck. This was solved by preparing
20 Gardener's Fact Sheets for small farmers and home gardeners.

Small livestock production--sheep, goats, swine and poultry--is a major
agricultural enterprise in the Virgin Islands. Focus throughout the
fiscal year was directed toward increasing size of herds and improving the
quality of animals through selective breeding.

An agricultural development program was instituted at Camp Arawak and at
the Boys Club. A hydroponic vegetable garden was established as a
demonstration at the Boys Club.

The first phase of a soil analysis lab was completed on St. Thomas Island.

The Extension agent helped farmers organize the Virgin Islands Cooperative

- 34 -

The Community Rural Development program has assisted in providing technical
assistance to small farmers on plots rented from the government.

Instruction in human nutrition through outreach activities taught 212
homemakers how to take care of their families better. Total of 63 homemakers
who are participants in the food stamp program were helped to plan wise
spending of their stamps to get the most nutrition for the family.

During the year, whenever it was possible, every attempt was made to encourage
participants to use locally grown and available foods in order to cut costs while
securing foods that were fresh and nutritious.


Les Liebel, Chairman
Washington Small Farm Committee
Washington State University
Pullman, WA 99163

A new help for small farmers in the State of Washington is the Washington Small
Farm Resources Network,which is a CSA and ACTION supported project that began
in November 1979. The Network Project will focus on assisting 35 farms around
the state to improve their net income through reduced costs of inputs, improved
production, and better marketing opportunities. Specific projects include a new
Farmers Market in Walla Walla; solar design work and information, including
a survey of currently available alcohol hardware and information; assisting
existing farmers markets to improve grower participation and to accept food stamps;
helping organic farmers develop a certification and consumer information system;
assisting a Native American group to develop a large "contract-U-pack" operation;
improving access to small-scale harvesting, cleaning, and packing equipment.

A survey of 30 farmers drawn from referrals by Extension Service; Bulk Commodity
Exchange, Seattle; local CAPs; and cooperative distribution groups gave these

The expressed need of over 48 percent included the following services:
referral to specialists
organize workshops
organize assistance for direct marketing
organize machinery coops
organize conferences
secure low-interest loans
provide information on small farm legislation
information on new production methods
e food stamp acceptance by direct markets.

The Cooperative Extension Service is assisting limited resource farmers with farm
management and marketing problems. Pilot small farm programs are underway in
three counties--Spokane, King, and Clark.

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A State Extension specialist (farm management) has been hired to work part-time
coordinating a statewide farm management educational program to develop
educational materials.

A joint Cooperative Extension Service and State Department of Agriculture
effort in direct marketing is underway in Washington and Oregon. The purpose
is to assist producers with direct marketing of their products.


Frank Glover, Chairman
West Virginia Small Farms Committee
P. O. Box 865
Morgantown, WV 26505

The Upper Pocatalico Watershed Small Farm Project has goals and objectives
to solve soil and water conservation problems, increase farm production and
income, as well as improve marketing opportunity and housing.

There are approximately 500 individual family units in the watershed, most of
which are small farmers. A total of 116 farms are involved in applying the
$200,000 ASCS funding, $100,000 FmHA loans, $50,000 CSA funding for weatherization,
$15,000 ACTION funding for VISTA staff, and $15,000 SCS technical assistance
for the project.

The Extension Service will assist in providing alternatives for additional income,
as well as conducting information and education programs.

The West Virginia Department will provide assistance on livestock and vegetable
production and improving marketing techniques.

The West Virginia Department of Natural Resources will provide assistance for
forestry practices with special attention to woodland management.


Carroll Lodahl, Chairman
Wisconsin Small Farms Committee
First Financial Plaza, Suite 209
1305 Main Street
Stevens Point, WI 54481

The Wisconsin Small Farms Subcommittee presently is reporting and working
under the direction of the State Rural Development Coordinating Committee.
Wisconsin's USDA agencies are serving small farmers with the following major
programs and with ongoing programs:

The ASCS Yellow River Watershed Special Project is in an area of small dairy
farms and involves approximately 110 farms. Over half of these have critical
erosion and pollution problems. The objective of this project includes improving

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the water quality of the Yellow River by controlling the amount of sediment
from soil erosion and controlling pollution from animal wastes that enter the
river. The total cost of completing the project will be $316,000 over a 4-year

The FmHA made loans to 254 limited resource farmers totalling $22.5 million
in 1979. Farmers receiving these loans average 27 years in age, had total
182 acres with 117 acres of that cropland, and 37 livestock units.

The Wisconsin Extension Smaller Farms Program has concentrated in six counties
where the incidence of low income among farm families is the highest (Marathon,
Richland, Vernon, Crawford, Taylor and Wood). The program uses Extension area farm
management agents (professionals) and Extension agricultural aides paraprofessionalss).
Net farm income increased about $2,500 per farm compared with the year before they
entered the program. About 200 farmers are currently involved, i.e., are
receiving two or more onfarm instructional visits per month. When farmers
started in the program, few were milk testing, using artificial insemination,
soil testing or forage testing. However, after a year on the program, nearly all
of the farmers had started these practices.

The Soil Conservation Service established a goal of working with 2,000 small
farm operators in Wisconsin in 1979. This goal will be increased to 3,000 per
year for the next 5 years. SCS field personnel are aware of the high priority
placed on assisting small farmers.


Rudolph W. Knoll, Chairman
Wyoming Small Farms Committee
Farmers Home Administration
P. O. Box 820
Casper, WY 82601

A State Small Farm Committee has been organized and meets on a regular basis to
plan, discuss, and evaluate small farmers' needs and problems. The committee
consists of two small farm representatives as well as USDA agencies, ACTION
and CSA. Middle management rural development committees consisting of district
or area representatives from the USDA agencies, State agencies, and others have
been organized and they are assisting in the small farm efforts.

Also, county rural development committees have been organized and are helping
to identify small and family-sized farmers and ranchers. They are now assisting
in conducting the informational-type meetings.

A farmers market was started in Worland in 1979. A Directory of Services
Available to family-type farmers and ranchers in Wyoming was prepared and printed
in February 1980.

Future projects proposed for FY 80 include: (1) alternative energy sources
(family-sized); (2) joint ownership of equipment; (3) training for off-farm
employment; and (4) sheep production with farm flocks.


The USDA Small Farm Working Group reports to the USDA Small Farms
Policy Committee at the Assistant Secretary level and includes the
following assignments:

Northeast Liaison

Midwest Liaison

Doug Sellars
Soil Conservation Service
Room 6117
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D. C. 20250

Southeast Liaison

Lynn Pickinpaugh
Farmers Home Administration
Room 5314
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D. C. 20250

Southwest Liaison

Mansy Pullen
Agricultural Stabilization and
Conservation Service
Room 3601
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D. C. 20250

Northwest Liaison

Warren Post
Forest Service
Room 4207
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D. C. 20250

Executive Secretary

Craig Ahlberg
Farmers Home Administration
Room 4131
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D. C. 20250

ACTION Representative

Theon "Skip" Bell
806 Connecticut Avenue, N. W.
Washington, D. C. 20525

Carl Deitemeyer
Economics, Statistics and
Cooperatives Service
Room 550-GHI
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D. C. 20250

Indian Affairs Coordinator

Stuart Jamieson
Farmers Home Administration
Room 5021
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D. C. 20250

Communications Coordinator

Ovid Bay
Room 6811
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D. C. 20250

CSA Representative

Jack Ramsey
Community Services Administration
1200 19th Street, N. W.
Washington, D. C. 20506