Citation
Robinson Crusoe, and A journal of the plague year

Material Information

Title:
Robinson Crusoe, and A journal of the plague year
Series Title:
The Modern library of the world's best books
Uncontrolled:
Journal of the plague year
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
Modern Library
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1948
Language:
English
Edition:
1st Modern Library ed..
Physical Description:
xv, 620 p. : ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plague -- Early works to 1800 -- England -- London ( lcsh )
Crusoe, Robinson (Fictitious character) -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Genre:
Action and adventure fiction ( fast )
fiction ( marcgt )
Adventure fiction ( gsafd )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
00355083 ( OCLC )
000684278 ( AlephBibNum )
48011364 ( LCCN )
Classification:
PZ3.D362|PR3403 R191 ( lcc )

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Full Text





A JOURNAL OF
THE PLAGUE YEAR



&

B DANIEL DEFOE yl ee
7. USN BEE





i



COPYRIGHT, 1948, BY RANDOM HOUSE, ING.
Ga3rs

) } |

Dslr e lk
/ fe \

Random House 1S THE PUBLISHER OF

THE MODERN LIBRARY

BENNETT A. CERF ° DONALD 8.KLOPFER * ROBERT K. HAAS

Manufactured in the United States of America
By H. Wolff







CONTENTS
———$—$—$— SSS eesessnestesensnensnsnassssee:

INTRODUCTION By Louis Kronenberger

Robinson Crusoe
Preface
Advice to a Son
Bent Upon Seeing the World
The Most Unfortunate of Enterprises
I Came to the Brazils
The Terror of the Storm
A Dreadful Delwerance
Securing Myself Against Savages and Wild
Beasts

My Reason Began to Master My Despondency
The Journal
Managing My Household Affairs
Delivered Wonderfully from Sickness
A More Perfect Discovery of the Island
I Began My Third Year
My Desire to Venture Over the Main

Sailing Round the Island
A Very Sedate Retired Life
The Print of a Man’s Naked Foot
Cannibals! |

The Care of My Safety

2.

Toone 5:

86

51

aeine

108

187
150 —
159

170





vi CONTENTS

Ship in Distress 205
Time to Get Me a Servant 214
My Man Friday : 227
Some Hopes That I Might Escape 236
I Dip My Hands in Blood — 254
My Island Was Now Peopled 266
An English Ship 275
Our Business Was to Recover the Ship 285
Deliverance Put in My Hands 298
Settling in the World 308
Over the Mountains 319
* * *

A Journal of the Plague Years 843



INTRODUCTION

by Louis Kronenberger

ce the world’s great writers, scarcely any has
cared so much about expediency, has been so phi-
listine and calculating in his methods as Defoe; and yet
none, in a sense, has calculated so badly. For though his
works of fiction run to sixteen solid volumes, to the
world at large he is simply and solely the author of
Robinson Crusoe: the rays of that blinding sun ‘have
quite extinguished even such brilliant stars as Moll
Flanders and Roxana and A Journal of the Plague Year.
But that is hardly the worst of it. To the world at large,
Robinson Crusoe, however celebrated, is not a book for
men but a book for boys; lore, not literature. It is some- -
thing that everybody has read, though perhaps not every-
body can remember reading it; it is, or was until recently,
as much a part of boyhood as the slingshot and the cir- .
cus. But it can hardly be said to rank with the indispen-
sable, or with even the most popular, novels for grown-
ups. The reason why—or, better yet, the instinct’ why—is
easy to grasp. If one is not a sentimentalist, one may well -

wonder whether even the very greatest of boys” books —

2





Vili INTRODUCTION

will constitute an exhilarating experience for men. And
if one is a sentimentalist, one may wonder whether any-
thing one loved so much in childhood should be touched,
tampered with, re-examined—how can it help letting one
down?

Well, one can only speak for oneself; but when some
years ago I went back to Robinson Crusoe, I was en-
thralled. I'm sure it helped that I went back rather ex-
pecting to be disappointed, as it may hinder if, after
reading this introduction, you expect to be instantly daz-
zled. But I doubt whether it helped, and I doubt whether
it can hinder, much. I can understand ( though not easily )
anyone quitting the book before Crusoe gets shipwrecked
on the island, or again after Crusoe sails away from it.
And I can understand (quite easily) anyone who should
impatiently toss aside the succeeding volume of Crusoe’s ;
adventures—because I have twice done that myself. But
in the present book, so long as Robinson is held fast on|
the island, so long must the reader be too. For just that!
long, he is in the presence of a masterpiece, and of what
might almost be declared a miracle: for a situation that
has, in itself, an intense and universal lure is somehow
handled exactly as it should be. The only thing that for
me has the same kind of magnetism as the island section
of Robinson Crusoe is the piloting chapters of Life on the
Mississippi. In both we are offered what might be called
a discourse on method; and in the plain utilitarian details
of both there is something immensely romantic, some-
thing that fires our youth, and then long after rekindles it.

For however grim and disconsolate the situation of af
man all alone on an island, who ever saw Crusoe there}



INTRODUCTION rb
in any such light? So far from making his hero tragic,
Defoe makes us—or at least the eternal boy in us—not
pity but envy him. Crusoe is not only monarch of all he
surveys; but by virtue of his experiences and his predica-
ment he acquires for us something like the rank of a
mighty hunter or a great explorer. What were in truth
quite back-breaking obstacles are time and again made
to seem like glorious opportunities; he is no realist who
pursues Crusoe as realism. This is no poor devil who
while under sentence, as it were, of solitary confinement
must also forage for food and beware of cannibals. This,
rather, is a man with a whole island for a toy, who may
build him as many residences and pleasuredoms as he
fancies, and trek lordlike through his own forests and
sail along his coasts and herd his goats and harvest his
crops and ransack the ship for plunder. There is some-
thing of the morning of the world about it all; yet to-
gether with the unspotted opportunities of the first man,
Crusoe has all the ingrained skill and knowledge of many
generations of Britons. Hence, singlehanded, he converts
a rough-hewn Eden into a rough-hewn England. From
one point of view, it is odd that we should find all this
romantic; for Crusoe’s stubborn resistance to the call of
the wild is so outside Nature that it could only be be-
lieved of something so equally outside Nature as the
trueborn Englishman. We can be very glad of this, how-
ever. For it would need a rather diseased taste to enjoy —
watching Robinson sink to the level of the brute and per-
haps below it; whereas there is a healthy and creative
satisfaction in watching him turn his island into a tidy
Little England.



x INTRODUCTION

Which brings us to something stranger still—the fact |
that Crusoe’s story is so intensely interesting only be-|
cause Crusoe himself is so incredibly dull. But then, to’
do what he did he had to be what he was; to make a
second England he had to believe fanatically in the first;
not to go mad at the end he had to be a trifle mad from
the outset; in the midst of abounding self-pity he had to
be sustained by consuming self-interest; even God had
to be a sort of Magnate with whom, in effect, a lesser
businessman could bargain. Of all the great heroes of
fiction Crusoe is surely the one who would have bored i
the most in the flesh. With me, indeed, it is a nice point
whether I should prefer to be shipwrecked, as he was,
alone; or with him alone for company. He has no humor, ,
no charm, no sensibility, no reach of mind, no grace of |
perception. Dickens truly remarked that Crusoe is the |
one great novel that never calls forth either laughter or
tears. Robinson is smug, he is crass, he is—like Defoe |
himself—hypocritical in grain. But if he contains almost |
everything that is arid and coarse in the British character,
he exemplifies, as well, everything that is admirable. He.
is plucky, sturdy, self-reliant, practical, imperturbable—
the very essence of that race that thinks it unmanly to
grumble and ungentlemanly to gloat.

Others have noted how cleverly Defoe allowed Crusoe
just enough in the way of equipment and fodder and
tools for him at the outset to stay alive, and in the course
of time to be made comfortable. And to a nicety too, I
would add, Defoe has contrived when total solitude shall
cease. For at length the point is reached where Robinson
has achieved as much in the way of civilization as he





INTRODUCTION xi
finds possible, or we find fun; it is the point where, in a
commoner run of novel, the hero after long and arduous
struggle has made his pile and is ready for a mate. Defoe
cannot in the circumstances offer Crusoe a mate; and he
need not—a companion, for the reader at any rate, does
quite as well. So lo! there appears in the sand that el
footprint which is still, after two centuries, more dra-
matic and thrilling than all the fingerprints in the very
best whodunits; and presently there appears on the
scene that savage who is still, after two centuries, the
most famous of all servants. Once he has Friday to edu-
cate, Crusoe can embark on his great secondary English
role; having contrived all by himself a Little England, he
turns Friday all by himself into a Little India. After that,
and a round of skirmishing with cannibals, it is permitted |
to sail for home.

After that, there are further adventures, of course—as
there had been a whole slew of them before the ship-
wreck. But the picaresque parts of the book, though
lively, are no part of the miracle; the miracle belongs to
the island, where neither Crusoe nor Defoe can go astray,
nor Robinson be ever anywhere but at home. And this
is of enormous help to a teller of stories who is absolutely
incapable of cons ing a genuine plot. Defoe can in-

_ vent endlessly, but hardly integrate at all; one thing doe
not come out of another, it merely comes after it. The
artistic shortcomings, the essential discontinuity of such
a method are obvious; and it can be truthfully main-
tained that Defoe’s genius most expands where his ge-
ography least does—in the island parts of Crusoe, and in
the Plague Year. For these two works have something of —

b



Kil INTRODUCTION

the concentration of interest, the intensive force that
distinguish the novel from the tale, and the work of art
from the mere irruption of talent. On the other hand, by
the singularity of their subject-matter, they have had not
the slightest influence on the serious novel itself; whereas
Moll Flanders and Roxana have probably had a good
deal.

. No doubt there is much to say of the exotic fascination
of Robinson Crusoe; of the oppressive sense of danger
and appalling sense of solitude; of the flora and fauna,
the parrots and cats. But this side of the story counted
much more for me in boyhood than it does now. What
lures me on is much less the creepiness of the island
noises at midnight than tomorrow’s straightforward effort
to build a fence or bake a pot; the given A and B, how
to contrive C; the given A B and C, how to bring off D—
straight on to ampersand. This marvelous resourcefulness
on Crusoe’s part, this determination to wrest comfort out
of chaos, this transforming a wilderness into a one-man
state, in which he is both architect and builder, husband-
man and housewife, management and labor, commoner
and king, awakens in us a very delighted response. But
of course Crusoe does have much also in the way of
thrills and suspense—consider the blood-curdling en-
counter with the wolves; and it is the greatest of all boys’
books because it is about equally compounded of der-
ring-do and Do and Dare, the adventure yarn and the
Alger story. Accordingly this dullard that one would in
real life run screaming from has caught and forever held
the imagination of mankind.



INTRODUCTION xiii

A ibaa of the Plague Year is, artistically, Defoe’s
least faulty production. It is the story of just one thing,
a plague; and it is confined to just one spot, Greater Lon-
don. Hence nothing else of Defoe’s has a like unity of
theme and development; and I think nothing else has
quite as much or as marvelous factuality, or knack for
making what is fictitious seem genuine.

Of this particular quality Defoe—as who is not aware
—had more than any other writer. that ever lived; he is
by general consent the great master of the convincing
detail, the plausible contradiction, the effective irrele-
vancy, the bright, bland testimony, the true-sounding lie.
No one else has ever been so crafty about appearing so
honest; one reason why we believe what Defoe tells us
is that much of it isn’t worth being told; but of course
the triviality is the essence of the trick. So again is the
extraordinary specificness. Emerson said that Swift—who
had much of Defoe’s genius for prosaic detail—always
described his characters as though for the police: the
Plague Year impresses you as written for the College of
Medicine or the Board of Health. It has the look of some-
thing to be used for reference rather than read for pleas-
ure. It is probably the greatest fake document of its
length in all literature; and even for a writer who was
always trying to make fiction sound like fact, it is a superb
tour de force.

To be sure, it gets a great deal of support from history;
is, in fact, very nearly true. Its account of the plague
probably resembles the real plague far more than Cru-
soe’s adventures resemble Selkirk’s. There were actual
documents for Defoe to draw on, there were his own



XIV INTRODUCTION

early recollections and the many first-hand accounts he
must have heard from childhood. Even as a document,
the Plague Year is no doubt a very good guide, true in all
essentials and historical in most details. But the point is
that Defoe made of his account a seamless whole, and
we shall never know just how much of it is fiction and
how much is fact. :

In any case, the picture it Lipreniaes is an indelible
one; the almost droning clinical manner, the countless
statistics, the ceaseless examples all operating in its
favor. The effect is the more awful because no effect
seems aimed after; as when somebody tells a particularly
gruesome story in a particularly flat voice. Furthermore,
it is only this flat voice, this matter-of-fact manner, that
sustains the length of the book; if it were at all high-
pitched, if it used any of the standard devices for being
dramatic or pathetic or horrifying, it would soon be-
come a mere melodrama of hideousness, and at length a
downright anticlimax of woes. As it is, by making no
emotional demands on us, Defoe can pack in an extraor-
dinary amount of physical detail. We are not asked to
care deeply about his victims; they die like flies without
ever having lived as people. Today, moreover, the horror
of the epidemic is somewhat mitigated for us by the re-
moteness of the disease; and though the awful “tokens”
have a fearsome quality still, we can read about the
plague with an equanimity we should hardly possess
reading about a terrible fictional epidemic of, say, in-
fantile paralysis.

If the personal stories of agony and death, the ac-
counts of entire households and streets and boroughs be-





INTRODUCTION XV
ing laid low, the narratives of frantic and belated migra-
tion, the night-lighted pictures of mass burial—if these
have not quite the impact of the greatest literature, one
and all have the interest of brilliantly graphic journalism.
Only in a few places, I think, is one deeply touched; only
in a few more truly terrified; but there is hardly a page
without something to absorb or appal one, and there are
whole stretches—late in the book as well as early—when
one is altogether fascinated. That the book as a whole is
too long, too loaded with statistics, too studded with ex-
amples, too repetitive of facts, too sauntering of move-
ment, may show want of discretion but is yet evidence
of art: Defoe gives us more than we need so as to give
the book a supreme verisimilitude, an air past all doubt
of being a genuine document. I am sure that if we did
not know this was fiction we would never suspect it to
be. But knowing it, we do tend to find it just a touch
too clever for its own good; there are places here, as in
almost all Defoe’s writing, where we—I am not sure
that the metaphor is original—smell out the confidence
man in him, and find him so plausible as to be spe-
cious. Defoe’s marvelous factuality, his wonderful im-
agination about anything unimaginative, enables him to
do superlatively what, in a man of high talent, is not
quite, perhaps, worth doing at all. And in the end his
very clearsightedness, his 20-20 literary vision, comes to
seem a mild form of distortion in itself; we feel that all
this is so, but that this is not all. Nobody is better to read
than Defoe when one has had one’s fill of ecstasy or even
embtion; but after a great stretch of him one is glad for
the books that do offer laughter and tears. -











Preface

tF EVER the story of any private man’s adventures in the

world were worth making public, and were acceptable

_when published, the editor of this account thinks this will
be so.

The wonders of this man’s life exceed all that (he
thinks) is to be found extant; the life of one man being
scarce capable of a greater variety.

The story is told with modesty, with seriousness, and
with a religious application of events to the uses to which
wise men always apply them (viz.) to the instruction of
others by this example, and to justify and honor the wis-
dom of Providence in all the variety of our circumstances,
let them happen how they will.

The editor believes the thing to be a just history of fact;
neither is there any appearance of fiction in it. And how-
ever thinks, because all such things are dispatched, that
the improvement of it, as well to the diversion, as to the
instruction of the reader, will be the same; and as such, he
thinks, without farther compliment to the world, he does

‘them a great service in the publication.





Advice to a Son



good family, though not of that country, my father

being a foreigner of Bremen who settled first at Hull.
He got a good estate by merchandise and, leaving off his ~
trade, lived afterward at York, from whence he had mar-
ried my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a
very good family in that country, and from whom I was
called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual corruption |
of words in England we are now called, nay, we call our- ’
selves, and write our name “Crusoe,” and so my compan-
ions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of which was lieutenant- f
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, for-
merly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and
was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Span-
iards; what became of my second brother I never knew,
any more than my father or mother did know what was
become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father, who was very ancient, had given me
a competent share of learning, as far as house education.
and a country free school generally goes, and designed
me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly

I W AS born in the year 1682, in the city of York, of a)





4 ROBINSON CRUSOE

against the will, nay, the commands of my father and
against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends that there seemed to be something fatal
in that propension of nature tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design.
He called me one morning into his chamber, where he
was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly
with me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons
more than a mere wandering inclination I had for leaving
my father’s house and my native country, where I might
be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my for-
tune by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate fortunes
on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other,
who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; that these things were all either
too far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper station
of low life, which he had found by long experience was
the best state in the world, the most suited to human hap-
piness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the
labor and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me I might
judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing, viz.,
that this was the state of life which all other people en-
vied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable
consequences of being born to great things, and wished
they had been_placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave
his testimony to this as the just standard of true felicity,
when he prayed to have neither poverty or riches.



ADVICE TO A SON 5

He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower
part of mankind; but that the middle station had the few-
est disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes
as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were
not subjected to so many distempers and uneasinesses
either of body or mind as those were who, by vicious liv-
ing, luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or by hard
labor, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet
on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by
the natural consequences of their way of living; that the
middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues
and all kinds of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were
the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance,
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable di-
versions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings
attending the middle station of life; that this way men
went silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labors of the
hands or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for
daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace and the body of rest; not en-
raged with the passion of envy or secret burning lust of
ambition for great things; but in easy circumstances slid-
ing gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the
sweets of living, without the bitter, feeling that they are
happy and learning by every day’s experience to know it
-more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, not to
precipitate myself into miseries which Nature and the sta-
tion of life I was born in seemed to have provided against;
that I was under no necessity of seeking my ‘bread; that
he would do well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly
into the station of life which he had been just recom-



6 ROBINSON CRUSOE

mending to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must
hinder it, and that he should have nothing to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt. In a word,
that as he would do very kind things for me if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would not
have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any
encouragement to go away. And to close all, he told me
I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had
used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his
young desires prompting him to run into the army where
he was killed; and though he said he would not cease to
pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me that if I
did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and
I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neg-
lected his counsel when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know
it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears ran down
his face very plentifully, and especially when he spoke of
my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of
my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he
was so moved that he broke off the discourse and told me
his heart was so full he could say no more to me.

Bent Upon Seeing the World



I WAS sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed
who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of
going abroad any more but to settle at home according
to my father’s desire. But alas! a few days wore it all off;



BENT UPON SEEING THE WORLD 7
and in short, to prevent any of my father’s farther impor-
tunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away
from him. However, I did not act so hastily neither as my

first heat of resolution prompted, but I took my mother,

at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordi-
nary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world that I should never settle to any-
thing with resolution enough. to go through with it, and
my father had better give me his consent than an force me.
to go without it; that I was now eighte old, whic
was too late to go apprentice to a trade or clerk to
attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve
out my time, and I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad,
if I came home again and did not like it, I would go no
more, and I would promise by a double diligence to re-
cover that time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion. She told me
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father
upon any such subject; that he knew too well what was
my interest to give his consent to anything so much for
my hurt, and that she wondered how I could think of any
such thing after such a discourse as I had had with my
father, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew
my father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would
ruin myself there was no help for me; but I might depend
I should never have their consent to it; that for her part
she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and
I should never have it to say that my TRtH er was willing
when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the dis-
course to him, and that my father, after shewing a great
concern at it, said to her with a sigh, “That boy might be

}



8 ROBINSON CRUSOE
happy if he would stay at home, but if he goes abroad he

| will be the most miserable wretch that was ever born. I
can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,{\
though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf t
all proposals of settling to business, and frequently ex-
postulating with my father and mother about their being
so positively determined against what they knew my in-
clinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
where I went casually, and without any purpose of mak-
ing an elopement that time; but I say, being there, and
one of my companions being going by sea to London in
his father’s ship and prompting me to go with them, with
the common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that it
should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted nei-
ther father or mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might,
without asking God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences and in
an ill hour, God knows, on the first of September, 1651)\
I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any‘
young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner
or continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner
gotten out of the Humber but the wind began to blow
-and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and as I’
had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly
sick in body and terrified in my mind. I began now seri-
ously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I
was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked.
leaving my father’s house and abandoning my duty; all
the good counsel of my parents, my father’s tears and my
mother’s entreaties came now fresh into my mind, and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hard-
ness to which it has been since, reproached me with the



BENT UPON SEEING THE WORLD 9

contempt of advice and the breach/of iy duty’ to! God
and_my father. at 2%

All this while the storm increased and the sea, which I
had never been upon before, went very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor
like what I saw a few days after. But it was enough to
affect me then, who was but a young sailor and had never
known anything of the matter. I expected every wave
would have swallowed us up and that every time the ship
fell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of the
sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony of mind
I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please
God here to spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got _
once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly
home to my father and never set it into a ship again while
I lived; that I would take his advice and never run myself
into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly
the goodness of his observations about the middle station
of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or
troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while
the storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the .
next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I
began to be a little inured to it. However, I was very
grave for all that day, being also a little seasick still; but
towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite
over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear and rose so the next morning; and
having little or no wind and a smooth sea, the sun shin-
ing upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night and was now no more sea-



10 ROBINSON CRUSOE

sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea
that was so rough and terrible the day before and could
be so calm and so pleasant in so little time after. And now
lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion,
who had indeed enticed me away, comes to me. “Well,
Bob,” says he, clapping me on the shoulder, “how do you
do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wa’n’t you, last
night, when it blew but a capful of wind?” “A capful,
d’you call it?” said I, “’twas a terrible storm.” “A storm,
you fool, you,” replies he; “do you call that a storm? why,
it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-
room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as
that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let
us make a bow] of punch and we'll forget all that; d’ye see
what charming weather ’tis now?” To make short this sad
part of my story, we went the old way of all sailors; the
punch was made, and I was made drunk with it, and in
that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance,
all my reflections upon my past conduct and all my reso-
lutions for my future. In a word, as the sea was returned
to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the
abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts be-
ing over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed
up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my for-
mer desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and prom-
ises that I made in my distress. I found indeed some in-
tervals of reflection, and the serious thoughts did, as it
were, endeavor to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off and roused myself from them as it were from a
distemper and, applying myself to drink and company,
soon mastered the return of those fits, for so I called them,
and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory
over conscience as any young fellow that resolved not to
be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have an-
other trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases





BENT UPON SEEING THE WORLD ll

generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without
excuse. For if I would not take this for a deliverance, the
next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yar-
mouth Roads; the wind having been contrary and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we
lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at southwest, for
seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the
common harbor where the ships might wait for a wind.
for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh;
and after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard.
However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a harbor,
the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong,
our men were unconcemed and not in the least appre-
hensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth,
after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day in the
morning the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts and make everything snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By
noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once
or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our
master ordered out the sheet anchor, so that we rode with
two anchors ahead and the cables veered out to the bit-
ter end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of
the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant to
the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and |



12 ROBINSON CRUSOE

out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself
say several times, “Lord, be merciful to us, we shall be all
lost, we shall be all undone”; and the like. During these
first hurries, I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which
was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper; I
could ill reassume the first penitence, which I had so ap-
parently trampled upon, and hardened myself against. I
thought the bitterness of death had been past and that
this would be nothing too, like the first. But when the
master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said
we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up
out of my cabin and looked out; but such a dismal sight
I never saw: the sea went mountains high and broke upon
us every three or four minutes. When I could look about,
I could see nothing but distress round us: two ships that
rid near us we found had cut their masts by the board,
being deep loaden; and our men cried out that a ship
which rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the Roads to sea at all adventures, and that with not a
mast standing. The light ships fared the best as not so
much laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove
and came close by us, running away with only their sprit-
sail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast,
which he was very unwilling to do. But the boatswain
protesting to him that if he did not the ship would foun-
der, he consented; and when they had cut away the fore-
mast, the mainmast stood so loose and shook the ship so
much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and make
a clear deck. -

Anyone may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in
_ sucha fright before at but a little. But if I can express at



BENT UPON SEEING THE WORLD 13

this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I
was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my
former convictions, and the having returned from them
to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, then I was
at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm,
put me into such a condition that I can by no words de-
scribe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm con-
tinued with such fury that the seamen themselves ac-
knowledged they had never known a worse. We had a
good ship, but she was deep loaden, and wallowed in the
sea, that the seamen every now and then cried out she
would founder. It was my advantage in one respect that
I did not know what they meant by “founder” till I en-
quired. However, the storm was so violent that I saw
what is not often seen; the master, the boatswain, and
some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers
and expecting every moment when the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the
rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down
on purpose to see cried out we had sprung a leak; another
said there was four foot water in the hold. Then all hands
were called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the
side of my bed where I sat into the cabin. However, the
men roused me, and told me that I, that was able to do
nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up and went to the pump and worked
very heartily. While this was doing, the master, seeing
some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would come
near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I,
who knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised,
that I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing
had happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell
down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had



14 ROBINSON CRUSOE

his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was
become of me; but another man stepped up to the pump,
and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking
I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came
to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder, and though
the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into a port, so the mas-
ter continued firing guns for help; and a light ship who
had rid it out just ahead of us ventured a boat out to
help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came
near us, but it was impossible for us to get on board, or
for the boat to lie near the ship side, till at last the men
rowing very heartily and venturing their lives to save
ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy
to it and then veered it out a great length, which they
after great labor and hazard took hold of, and we hauled
them close under our stern and got all into their boat. It
was to no purpose for them or us after we were in the
boat to think of reaching to their own ship, so all agreed
to let her drive and only to pull her in towards shore as
much as we could, and our master promised them, that if
the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good to
their master; so, partly rowing and partly driving, our
boat went away to the norward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship but we saw her sink, and then I understood
for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in
the sea; I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up
when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from that
moment they rather put me into the boat than that I
might be said to go in, my heart was as it were dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.



BENT UPON SEEING THE WORLD 15

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see,
when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to
see the shore, a great many people running along the
shore to assist us when we should come near; but we
made but slow way towards the shore, nor were we
able to reach the shore, till being past the lighthouse at
Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards
Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of
the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficuity, got all safe on shore and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were
used with great humanity as well by the magistrates of
the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as
we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull,
and have gone home, I had been happy, and my father,
an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even
killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went
away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a
great while before he had any assurance that I was not
drowned. .

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy |
that nothing could resist; and though I had several times |
loud calls from my reason and my more composed judg- *
ment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not
what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret over-
ruling decree that hurries us on to be the instruments of
our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that
we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly nothing but
some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and
which it was impossible for me to escape, could have
pushed me forward against the calm reasonings and per-
suasions of my most retired thoughts and against two



16 ROBINSON CRUSOE

such visible instructions as I had met with in my first
attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before and
who was the master’s son, was now less forward than I;
the first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were sepa-
rated in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time
he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered, and looking
very melancholy and shaking his head, asked me how I
did, and telling his father who I was, and how I had come
this voyage only for a trial in order to go farther abroad;
his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone, “Young man,” says he, “you ought never to go to
sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible
token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “Why, sir,”
said I, “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another
case,” said he, “it is my calling and therefore my duty;
but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a
taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if
you persist; perhaps this is all befallen us on your ac-
count, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues
he, “what are you? and on what account did you go to
sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end
of which he burst out with a strange kind of passion,
“What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my
foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand
pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his
spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss,
and was farther than he could have authority to go. How-
ever, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted
me to go back to my father and not tempt Providence to
my ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven
against me, “And, young man,” said he, “depend upon it,
if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet



THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 17
with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and
I saw him no more; which way he went, I know not. As
for me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had
many struggles with myself what course of life I should
take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to
me how I should be laughed at among the neighbors and
should be ashamed to see not my father and mother only
but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed how incongruous and irrational the common
temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason
which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they
are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent;
not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to
be esteemed fools but are ashamed of the returning,
which only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take and what course of life
to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going
home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the
little motion I had in my desires to a return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it and
looked out for a voyage.

The Most Unfortunate of Enterprises

THAT evil influence which carried _me first away from
my father’s house, that hurried me into the wild and in-
digested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed



18 ROBINSON CRUSOE

those conceits so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to
all good advice and to the entreaties and even command
of my father; I say, the same influence, whatever it was,
presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my
view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast ofl
Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to!
Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures
I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might
indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at
the same time I had learned the duty and office of a
foremast man; and in time might have qualified myself
for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was
always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did here; for
having money in my pocket and good clothes upon my
back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-{
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship, or/
learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good com-
pany in London, which does not always happen to such
loose and unguided young fellows as I then was; the devil
generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very
early. But it was not so with me; I first fell acquainted}
with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of
Guinea; and who having had very good success there
was resolved to go again; and who taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told
me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no
expense; I should be his messmate and his companion,
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all
the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and per-
haps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict sat
ship with this captain, who was an honest and plaindealt



THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 19

ing man, I went the voyage with him and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably;
for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This £40 I had mustered to-
gether by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or
at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was success-
ful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity
and honesty of my friend the captain, under whom also
I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the
rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of
the ship’s course, take an observation, and in short, to
understand some things that were needful to be under-
stood by a sailor. For, as he took delight to introduce me,
I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made
me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure, whic! H
yielded me in London at my return almost £300, and
filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since
so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; par-
ticularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a
violent calenture* by the excessive heat of the climate;
our principal trading being upon the coast, from the lati-
tude of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend,
to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I =(
solved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in
the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage and had now got the command of the ship. This
was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for

1A tropical fever, characterized by delirium.



20 ROBINSON CRUSOE

though I did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained
wealth, so that I had £200 left, and which I lodged with
my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell -
into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was
this, viz., our ship making her course towards the Canary
Islands, or rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by a
Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as
our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got
clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would ,
certainly come up with us in afew hours, we prepared to
fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eight-
een. About three in the afternoon he came up with us, °
and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, in-
stead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side and poured in a
broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again,
after returning our fire and pouring in also his small-shot
from near 200 men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He
prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;
but laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who im-
mediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rig-
ging. We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story,
our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were car-/
ried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the}
Moors. .

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended, nor was I carried up the country to the em-
peror’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept



THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 21

by the captain of the rover, as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble and fit for his bastions
At this surprising change of my circumstances from a
merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now I looked back upon my father’s pro-
phetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and
have none to relieve me, which I thought was now so
effectually brought to pass that it could not be worse; that
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was
undone without redemption. But alas! this was but a taste
of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the
sequel of this story.

As my new patron or master had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him
when he went to sea again, believing that it would some
time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portugal man-of-war; and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for ;
when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his |
little garden and do the common drudgery of slaves about
his house; and when he came home again from his cruise,
he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way that
had the least probability in it. Nothing presented to make
the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me; no fellow-
slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there but
myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased my-
self with the imagination, yet I never had the least en-
couraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance seen
itself, which put the old thoughit of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home
longer than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as



22 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once
or twice a week, sometimes oftener if the weather was
fair, to take the ship’s pinnace and go out into the road
a-fishing; and as he always took me and a young Moor
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch, that
sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his
kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as they called him,
to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a stark
calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were
not half a league from the shore we lost sight of it; and
rowing we knew not whither or which way, we labored
all day and all the next night, and when the morning came,
we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in
for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from
the shore. However, we got well in again, though with a
great deal of labor and some danger; for the wind began
to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particularly we
were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having lying
by him the longboat of our English ship he had taken, he
resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a
compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little
stateroom or cabin in the middle of the longboat, like that
of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer and
hale home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or
two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with that we
call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibed over
the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low and
had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some



THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 23

bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; par-
ticularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and a
I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went
without me. It happened that he had appointed to go out
in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or
three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily; and had therefore
sent on board the boat over night, a larger store of pro-
visions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board
his ship; for that they designed some sport of fowling as
well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the
next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient *
and. pendants out, and everything to accommodate his
guests; when by and by my patron came on board alone
and told me his guests had put off going upon some busi-
ness that fell out, and ordered me with the man and boy,
as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and com-
manded that as soon as I had got some fish I should bring
it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted }
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a |
little ship at my command; and my master being gone, I °
prepared to furnish myself, not for a fishing business but
for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as
consider whither I should steer; for anywhere to get out
of that place was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak
to this Moor to get something for our subsistence on
board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of our

1 Banner.



24 ROBINSON CRUSOE

patron’s bread; he said that was true; so he brought a
large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind and three
jars with fresh water into the boat; I knew where my
patron’s case of bottles stood, which, it was evident by the
make, were taken out of some English prize; and I con-
veyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore,
as if they had been there before, for our master. I con-
veyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundredweight, with a parcel of
twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which
were of great use to us afterwards; especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also. His name was Ismael, who they}
call Muly, or Moely; so I called to him, “Moely,” said I,
“our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you not get
a little powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamies” (a fowl like our curlews) “for ourselves, for I
know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says
he, “Tl bring some”; and accordingly he brought a great |
leather pouch which held about a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had
five or six pound, with some bullets; and put all into the
boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my
master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the
large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring
what was in it into another; and thus furnished with
everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The
castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we
were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above
a mile out of the port before we haled in our sail and set
us down to fish. The wind blew from the north-northeast,
which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown
southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of
Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my
resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be



THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 25
gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the
rest to Fate.

After we had fished some time and catched nothing,
for when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up,
that he might not see them, I said to the Moor, “This will
not do, our master will not be thus served, we must stand
farther off.” He, thinking no harm, agreed and, being in
the head of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I
run the boat out near a league farther and then brought
her to as if I would fish; when giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as
if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by sur-
prise with my arm under his twist and tossed him clear
overboard into the sea; he rose immediately; for he swam |
like a cork, and called to me, beggéd to be taken in, told '
me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so
strong after the boat that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped
into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling pieces, I
presented it at him and told him I had done him no hurt
and, if he would be quiet, I would do him none. “But,”
said I, “you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and
the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and
I will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat,
I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have
my liberty”; so he turned himself about and swam for \
the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ©
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could ha’ been content to ha’ taken this Moor with
me and ha’ drowned the boy, but there was no venturing
to trust him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, who }
they called Xury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be |
faithful to me I'll make you a great man; but if you will
not stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear by
Mahomet and his father’s beard, “I must throw you into

\



26 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the sea too.” The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so in-
nocently that I could not mistrust him; and swore to be
faithful to me and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching
to windward, that they might think me gone towards the
Straits’ mouth (as indeed anyone that had been in their
wits must ha’ been supposed to do); for who would ha’
supposed we were sailed on to the southward to the truly
barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were
sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us;
where we could ne’er once go on shore but we should be
devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east, bend-
ing my course a little toward the east, that I might keep
in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind
and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe
by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I
first made the land, I could not be less than 150 miles
south of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for
we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors and
the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their
hands, that I would not stop or go on shore or come to an
anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that
manner five days: and then the wind shifting to the south-
ward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured
to make to the coast and came to an anchor in the mouth
of a little river. I knew not what or where; neither what
latitude, what country, what nations or what river. I
neither saw, or desired to see, any people; the principal ©



THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 27

thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek
in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures of we knew not
what kinds that the poor boy was ready to die with fear
and begged of me not to go on shore till day. “Well,
Xury,” said I, “then I won't; but it may be we may see
men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.”
“Then we give them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing;
“make them run wey.” Such English Xury spoke by con-
versing among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the
boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our
patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s
advice was good, and I took it. We dropped our little
anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none!
for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts come down to
the seashore and run into the water, wallowing and wash-
ing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves;
and they made such hideous howlings and yellings that I
never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one of
these mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat;
we could not see him, but we might hear him by his blow-
ing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said
it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know; but
poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away.
“No,” says I, “Kury, we can slip our cable with the buoy
to it and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had
no sooner said so but I perceived the creature (whatever
it was) within two oars’ length, which something sur-
prised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin
door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he



28 ROBINSON CRUSOE

immediately turned about and swam towards the shore
again.

= it is impossible to describe the horrible noises and
hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon
the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard before. This
convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in
the night upon that coast; and how to venture on shore in
the day was another question too; for to have fallen into
the hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to have
fallen into the hands of lions and tigers; at least we were
equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water for we had not a pint left
in the boat; when or where to get to it was the point.
Xury said if I would let him go on shore with one of the
jars, he would find if there was any water and bring some
to me. I asked him why he would go? Why I should not
go and he stay in the boat? They boy answered with so
much affection that made me love him ever after. Says he,
“If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” “Well,
Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them; they shall eat neither of us”; so I
gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat and a dram out of
our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before; and
we haled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing but our
arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the
boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it; and by and by I saw him come running
towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage
or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward to-



THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 29

wards him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I
saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in
color and longer legs; however, we were very glad of it,
and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with was to tell me he had found good water
and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek where we
were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars end)
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on
our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature
in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries and the Cape de
Verde Islands also lay not far off from the coast. But as I
had no instruments to take an observation to know what
latitude we were in and did not exactly know or at least
remember what latitude they were in, I knew not where
to look for them or when to stand off to sea towards them;
otherwise I might now easily have found some of these
islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast
till I came to that part where the English traded, I should
find some of their vessels upon their usual design of
trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now
was must be that country, which lying between the Em-
peror of Morocco’s dominions and the Negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes hav-
ing abandoned it and gone farther south for. fear of the
Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting by
reason of its barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it be-
cause of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards,
and other furious creatures which harbor there; so that



30 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like
an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and indeed
for near an hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day and
heard nothing but howlings and roarings of wild beasts
by night. So

Once or twice in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico’
of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe
in the Canaries; and had a great mind to venture out, in
hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel, so I resolved to pursue my first
design and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water,
after we had left this place; and once in particular, being
early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little
point of land which was pretty high, and the tide begin-
ning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes
were more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly
to me and tells me that we had best go farther off the
shore. “For,” says he, “look, yonder lies a dreadful monster
on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where
he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was
a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under
the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were a little
over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill
him.” Xury looked frightened, and said, “Me kill; he eat
me at one mouth”; one mouthful he meant. However, I
said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took
our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder and with two
slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with
two bullets; and the third, for we had three pieces, I
loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him into the head, *



THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 31

but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose,
that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the
bone. He started up growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got up upon three legs
and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was
a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head; how-
ever, I took up the second piece immediately and though
he began to move off fired again, and shot him into the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but
little noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took
heart, and would have me let him go on shore. “Well, go,”
said I, so the boy jumped into the water and, taking a
little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand
and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the
piece to his ear and shot him into the head again, which
dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us but this was no food; and
I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot
upon a creature that was good for nothing to us. However,
Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on
board and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what,
Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he. However,
Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot and
brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.

‘I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
him might one way or other be of some value to us; and I
resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him; but Xury was much the better work-
man at it for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took
us both the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of
him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun ef-
fectually dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward con-
-tinually for ten or twelve days, living very sparing on our



32 ROBINSON CRUSOE

provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no
oftener in to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
_water; my design in this was to make the river Gambia or
\ Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de
Verde, where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship, and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to
take, but to seek out for the islands, or perish there among
the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe which
sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil or to the
East Indies made this cape or those islands; and in a word,
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,
either that I must meet with some ship or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was in-
habited, and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we
saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we could
also perceive they were quite black and stark naked. I
was once inclined to ha’ gone on shore to them; but Xury
was my better counsellor and said to me, “No go, no go.”
However, I haled in nearer the shore that I might talk to
them, and I found they run along the shore by me a good
way. I observed they had no weapons in their hands,
except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury
said was a lance, and that they would throw them a great
way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked
with them by signs as well as I could, and particularly
made signs for something to eat. They beckoned to me to
stop my boat, and that they would fetch me some meat;
upon this I lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and two
of them run up into the country, and in less than half an
hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of
dry flesh and ‘some corn, such as is the produce of their
country, but we neither knew what the one or the other
was; however, we were willing to accept it, but how to
come at it was our next dispute, for I was not for ventur-



THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 33

ing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of
us; but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a
great way off till we fetched it on board and then came
close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that
very instant to oblige them wonderfully, for while we
were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one
pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from
the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male
pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in
rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell
whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the
latter; because in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night; and in the second place,
we found the people terribly frighted; especially the
women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly
from them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures
ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to
fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion; at last one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for
I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and
bade Xury load both the other; as soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired and shot him directly into the
head; immediately he sunk down into the water, but rose
instantly and plunged up and down as if he was strug-
gling for life, and so indeed he was; he immediately made
to the shore; but between the wound, which was his
mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just
before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun; some



i

34 ROBINSON CRUSOE

of them were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as
dead with very terror. But when they saw the creature
dead and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them
to come to the shore, they took heart and came to the
shore, and began to search for the creature. I found him
by his blood staining the water, and by the help of a rope
which I flung round him and gave the Negroes to haul,
they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most
curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable degree,
and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration to
think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly
to the mountains from whence they came, nor could I at
that distance know what it was. I found quickly the
Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I
was willing to have them take it as a favor from me,
which, when I made signs to them that they might take
him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell
to work with him, and though they had no knife, yet with
a sharpened piece of wood they took off his skin as readily
and much more readily than we could have done with a
knife; they offered me some of the flesh, which I de-
clined, making as if I would give it them, but made signs
for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought
me a great deal more of their provision, which though I

did not understand, yet I accepted; then I made signs to

them for some water and held out one of my jars to them,

“turfiing it bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and

that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends, and there came two women and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt as I sup-
pose in the sun; this they set down for me as before, and I
sent Xury on shore with my jars and filled them all three.
The women were as stark naked as the men.





THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 3, 5

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was
and water, and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made for:
ward for about eleven days more without offering to go’
near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length
into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues
before me, and the sea being very calm, I kept a large
offing to make this point; at length, doubling the point at
about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on
the other side, to seaward; then I concluded, as it was
most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde and
those the islands, called from thence Cape de Verde |
Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and i
could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should
be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one
or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into
the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when
on a sudden the boy cried out, “Master, master, a ship with |
a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, '
thinking it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent
to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out
of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately
saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz., that it was
a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bod to the } /
coast of Guinea for Negroes. But when I observed the
course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any nearer
to the shore; upon which I stretched out to sea as much as
I could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them; but after I had
crowded to the utmost and began to despair, they, it
seems, saw me by the help of their perspective-glasses,
and that it was some European boat, which as they sup-



36 ROBINSON CRUSOE

posed must belong to some ship that was lost, so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with
this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a
waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw, for they told me they saw the
smoke, though they did not hear the gun; upon these
signals they very kindly brought to and lay by for me,
and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was in Portuguese and in
Spanish and in French, but I understood none of them;
but at last a Scots sailor who was on board called to me,
, and I answered him and told him I was an Englishman,
. that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors,
at Sallee; then they bade me come on board and very
kindly took me in and all my goods.

I Came to the Brazils



IT WAS an inexpressible joy to me, that any one will be-
lieve, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from
such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was
in, and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of
the ship as a return for my deliverance; but he gener-
ously told me he would take nothing from me, but that all
I had should be delivered safe to me when I came to the
Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself, and it may
one time or other be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition; besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the
Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I should
take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then I only take away that life I have given. No, no,
Seignior Inglese,” says he [Mr. Englishman], “I will carry
you thither in charity, and those things will help you to



I CAME TO THE BRAZILS 37

buy your subsistence there and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in
the performance to a tittle, for he ordered the seamen
that none should offer to touch anything I had; then he
took everything into his own possession and gave me back
an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even
so much as my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use and
asked me what I would have for it. I told him he had been
so generous to me in everything that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat but left it entirely to him, upon
which he told me he would give me a note of his hand
to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil, and when
it came there, if anyone offered to give more, he would
make it up; he offered me also sixty pieces of eight more
for my boy Xury, which I was loath to take, not that I was
not willing to let the captain have him but I was very
loath to sell the poor boy’s liberty who had assisted me so
faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him
know my reason, he owned it to be just and offered me
this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to
set him free in ten years if he turned Christian; upon this,
and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the
captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils and exe
in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more de-
livered from the most miserable of all conditions of life,
and what to do next with myself I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me I can
never enough remember; he would take nothing of me for
my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin,
and forty for the lion’s skin which I had in my boat, and
caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually de-



ee Ra sire ~~“

38 ROBINSON CRUSOE

livered me; and what I was willing to sell he bought,
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of
the lump of beeswax, for I had made candles of the rest;
in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight of all my
cargo, and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to
the house of a good honest man like himself, who had an
ingenio as they call it, that is, a plantation and a sugar-
house, I lived with him some time and acquainted myself
by that means with the manner of their planting and mak-

, ing of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived and

| how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get

| license to settle there, I would turn planter among them,
resolving in the meantime to find out some way to get my
money which I had left in London remitted to me. To
this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of naturalization, I
purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement, and such a one as might be siitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of ‘
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much |
such circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbor,
because his plantation lay next to mine and we went on
very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as
his; and we rather planted for food than anything else
for about two years. However, we began to increase, and
our land began to come into order; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco and made each of us a large
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to
come; but we both wanted help and now I found, more}
than before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy}
Xury.

But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right was no
great wonder: I had no remedy but to go on; I was gotten



I CAME TO THE BRAZILS 39

into an employment quite remote to my genius and di-
rectly contrary to the life I delighted in and for which
I forsook my father’s house, and broke through all his
good advices; nay, I was coming into the very middle
station, or upper degree of low life, which my father ad-
vised me to before and which, if I resolved to go on with,
I might as well ha’ stayed at home and never have fa-
tigued myself in the world as I had done; and I used often
to say to myself, I could ha’ done this as well in England
among my friends as ha’ gone 5000 miles off to do it
among strangers and savages in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the world
that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with
the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with but now
and then this neighbor; no work to be done, but by the
labor of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island that had no-
body there but himself. But how just has it been, and
how should all men reflect, that when they compare their
present conditions with others that are worse, Heaven
may oblige them to make the exchange and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience; I say, how
just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on
in an island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had
so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then
led, in which had I continued, I had in all probability
been exceeding prosperous and rich.

I was in some degree settled in my measures for carry-
ing on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain
of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship
remained there in providing his loading, and preparing
for his voyage, near three months; when, telling him ma
little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me
this friendly and sincere advice. “Seignior Inglese,” says



40 ROBINSON CRUSOE

he, for so he always called me, “if you will give me letters,
and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the
person who has your money in London, to send your ef-
fects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you
the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but since
human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I\
would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which you say is half your stock, and let the
hazard be run for the first; so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice and looked so friendly
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course
I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gen-
tlewoman with whom I had left my money and a procura-
tion to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of
all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met
with the Portugal captain at sea, the humanity of his be-
havior and in what condition I was now in, with all other
necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest
captain came to Lisbon, he found means by some of the
English merchants there to send over not the order only,
but a full account of my story to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she not
only delivered the money but out of her own pocket sent
the Portugal captain a very handsome present for his
humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds
in English goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all ;
safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direc- '
tion (for I was too young in my business to think of
them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron- |



I CAME TO THE BRAZILS 41

work and utensils necessary for my plantation, and which
were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made,
for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good
steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds which
my friend had sent him for a present for himself to pur-
chase and bring me over a servant under bond for six}
years’ service, and would not accept of any consideration
except a little tobacco which I would have him accept,
being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things par-
ticularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found
means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say I had more than four times the value of my first
cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbor,
I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for the first
thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave and an European
servant also; I mean another besides that which the cap-
tain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very
means of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went
on the next year with great success in my plantation. I
raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground,
more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my
neighbors; and these fifty rolls, being each of above a
hundredweight, were well cured and laid by against the
return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now increasing in
business and in wealth, my head began to be full of |
projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are
indeed often the ruin of the best heads in business.

Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me,
for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described



APO,

42 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the middle station of life to be full of; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all
my own miseries; and particularly to increase my fault
and double the reflections upon myself, which in my
future sorrows I should have leisure to make; all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad
and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects and those measures of life
which Nature and Providence concurred to present me
with and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now but I must go and
leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving
man in my new plantation only to pursue a rash and im-
moderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the
thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into
the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into,
or perhaps would be consistent with life and a state of
health in the world.

To come then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of
this part of my story; you may suppose that, having now
lived almost four years in the Brazils and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted ac-
quaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as
well as among the merchants at St. Salvadore, which was
our port; and that in my discourses among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of -Guinea, the manner of trading with the
Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast, for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold dust,





I CAME TO THE BRAZILS

: 43
Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc., but Negroes for the /
service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related
to the buying Negroes, which was a trade at that time
not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by the assientos, or permission of the
kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public,
so that few Negroes were brought, and those excessive
dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
morning and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of, the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and after
enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they had a mind
to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all planta-
tions as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one
voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and di-
vide them among their own plantations; and in a word,,
the question was whether I would go their supercargo in|
the ship to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the Negroes without providing any part of the!
stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it|
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after which was in a fair
way of coming to be very considerable and with a good
stock upon it. But for me that was thus entered and estab-



44 ROBINSON CRUSOE

lished and had nothing to do but go on as I had begun
for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other
hundred pound from England, and who in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce ha’ failed of being
worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that
increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage was the
most preposterous thing that ever man in such circum-
stances could be guilty of.

But I that was born to be my own destroyer could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first ram-
bling designs, when my father’s good counsel was lost
upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my planta-
tion in my absence and would dispose of it to such as I
should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do,
and entered into writings or covenants to do so; and I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and ef-
_ fects, in case of my death, making the captain of the ship
_ that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but
' obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed

/ in my will, one half of the produce being to himself and

the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my ef-
fects and keep up my plantation; had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest and have
made a judgment of what I ought to have done and not to
have done, I had certainly never gone away from so
prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views
of a thriving circumstance and gone upon a voyage to sea,
attended with all its common hazards; to say nothing of
the reasons I-had to expect particular misfortunes to my-
self.

But I was hurried on and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly, the
ship being fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all



THE TERROR OF THE STORM 45

things done as by agreement by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the 1st of Septem- |
ber, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from
my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel
to their authority and the fool to my own interest.

The Terror of the Storm



OUR SHIP was about 120 ton burden, carried six guns
and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and my-
self; we had on board no large cargo of goods, except of
such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such
as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially
little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the
like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design
to stretch over for the African coast, when they came
about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which
it seems was the manner of their course in those days.
We had very good weather, only excessive hot, all the
| way upon our own coast till we came the height of Cape
St. Augustino, from whence keeping farther off at sea,
we lost sight of land and steered as if we were bound for
the Isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our course north-
east by north, and leaving those isles on the east; in this
course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and
were by our last observation in seven degrees twenty-two
minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado or hur-
ricane took us quite out of our knowledge; it began from
the southeast, came about to the northwest, and then
settled into the northeast, from whence it blew in such
a terrible manner that for twelve days together we could
do nothing but drive and, scudding away before it, let it



46 ROBINSON CRUSOE

carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds di-
rected; and during these twelve days, I need not say,
that I expected every day to be swallowed up, nor indeed
did any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm)
one of our men died of the calenture, and one man and
the boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the
weather abating a little, the master made an observation
as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven
degrees north latitude, but that he was twenty-two de-
grees of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augus-
tino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guinea, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazones, toward that of the river Oronoque, commonly
called the Great River, and began to consult with me
what course he should take, for the ship was leaky and
very much disabled and he was going directly back to’
the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that, and looking over the
charts of the seacoast of America with him, we concluded
there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse
to till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands
and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbados, which
by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or
Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped,
in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not pos-
sibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course and steered
away northwest by west in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage
was otherwise determined, for being in the latitude of
twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity
westward and drove us so out of the very way of all





THE TERROR OF THE STORM 47

human commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to
the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one
of our men early in the morning cried out, “Land!” and
we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out in
hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were but the
ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion
being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner
that we expected we should all have perished immedi-
ately, and we were immediately driven into our close
quarters to shelter us from the very foam and spray of
the sea.

It is not easy for anyone who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of
men in such circumstances; we knew nothing where we
were or upon what land it was we were driven, whether
an island or the main, whether inhabited or not in-
habited; and as the rage of the wind was still great,
though rather less than at first, we could not so much as
hope to have the ship hold many minutes without break-
ing in pieces unless the winds by a kind of miracle should
turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one
upon another and expecting death every moment, and
every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
world, for there was little or nothing more for us to do in
this; that which was our present comfort and all the com-
fort we had was, that contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not break yet and that the master said the wind
began to abate.

Now though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and
sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were
in a dreadful condition indeed and had nothing to do but
to think of saving our lives as well as we could; we had a



48 ROBINSON CRUSOE

boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the
next place she broke away and either sunk or was driven
off to sea, so there was no hope from her; we had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, there was no room to debate,
for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel lays hold of the
_boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, they got
_ her slung over the ship’s side and, getting all into her, let
go and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to
God’s mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was
abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon
the shore, and might well be called den wild zee, as the
Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could
not live and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to
making sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could we ha’
done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution; for we all knew that when the boat came
nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed
our souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our de-
struction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could
towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was
if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth
of some river, where by great chance we might have run
our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps



THE TERROR OF THE STORM 49

made smooth water. But there was nothing of this ap-
peared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the
land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-
like, came rolling astern of us and plainly bade us expect
the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury
that it overset the boat at once; and separating us, as well

from the boat as from one another, gave us not time ,

hardly to say, “O God!” for we were all swallowed up in
a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore and having
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much
presence of mind as well as breath left, that seeing myself
nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my
feet, and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast
as I could, before another wave should return and take
me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid
it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had no means or
strength to contend with; my business was to hold my
breath and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so
by swimming to preserve my breathing and pilot myself
towards the shore, if possible; my greatest concern now
being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way to-
wards the shore when it came on, might not carry me
back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could
feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness to-

yy



50 ROBINSON CRUSOE

wards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath |
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my
might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, so to my immediate re-
lief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the sur-
face of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me
greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out; and finding the water had spent itself and
began to return, I struck forward against the return of
the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the water
went from me, and then took to my heels, and run with
what strength I had farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea,
which came pouring in after me again, and twice more
I was lifted up by the waves, and carried forwards as be-
fore, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well near been fatal to
me; for the sea, having hurried me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and
that with such force as it left me senseless, and indeed
helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow, taking
my side and breast, beat the breath as it were quite out
of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered
a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should
be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast
by a piece of the rock and so to hold my breath, if pos-
sible, till the wave went back; now as the waves were not
so high as at first, being near land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore that the next wave, though
it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry



A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 51

me away, and the next run I took, I got to the mainland,
where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the clifts of
the shore and sat me down upon the grass, free from
danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.

A Dreadful Deliverance

I WAS now landed and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved in a case
wherein there was some minutes before scarce any room
to hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life
what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are when it
is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave; and I do
not wonder now at that custom, viz., that when a male-
factor who has the halter about his neck is tied up and
just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought
to him: I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon
with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him
of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits
from the heart, and overwhelm him:

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contempla-
tion of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and
motions which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned and that there should not
be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never
saw them afterwards or any sign of them, except three of
their hats, one cap and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach
and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it
lay so far off, and considered, Lord! how was it possible
I could get on shore?



52 ROBINSON CRUSOE
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable

part of my condition, I began to look round me to see what
kind of place I was in, and what was next to be done,
and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I had a dreadful deliverance. For I was wet, had no
clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink
to comfort me, neither did I see any prospect before me
but that of perishing with hunger or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particular afflicting to
me was that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any
creatures for my sustenance or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs.
In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-
pipe and a little tobacco in a box; this was all my pro-
vision, and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind
that for a while I run about like a madman; night coming
upon me, I began with a heavy heart to consider what
would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for
their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time
was to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but
thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit
all night, and consider the next day what death I should
die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life; I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having
drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, en-
deavored to place myself so as that if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a
truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging, and
having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done



A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 53

in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed
with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell
as before. But that which surprised me most was that the |
ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she’
lay by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost
as far as the rock which I first mentioned, where I had
been so bruised by the dashing me against it; this being
within about a mile from the shore where I was and the
ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on
board, that, at least, I might save some necessary things
for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her up
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to
her, but found a neck or inlet of water between me and
the boat, which was about half a mile broad, so I came
back for the present, being more intent upon getting at
the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present
subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm and the
tide ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter
of a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing
of my grief, for I saw evidently that if we had kept on
board, we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got
safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I
now was; this forced tears from my eyes again, but as
there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get
to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when I



54 ROBINSON CRUSOE

/ came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know

| how to get on board, for as she lay aground, and high out

‘ of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay
hold of; I swam round her twice, and the second time I
spied a small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did
not see at first, hang down by the fore-chain so low as that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of
that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I
found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of
water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay
lifted up upon the bank and her head low almost to the
water; by this means all her quarter was free, and all that
was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first
work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what
was free; and first I found that all the ship’s provisions
were dry and untouched by the water, and being very
well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled
my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other
things, for I had no time to lose; I also found some rum
in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and
which I had indeed enough of to spirit me for what was
before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish
myself with many things which I foresaw would be very.
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application; we had
several spare yards and two or three large spars of wood
and a spare top mast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall
to work with these and flung as many of them overboard
as I could manage for their weight, tying every one with a
rope that they might not drive away; when this was done
I went down the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I
tied four of them fast together at both ends as well as I
could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short





A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 55

pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear
any great weight, the pieces being too light; so I went to
work, and with the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top mast
into three lengths and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labor and pains; but hope of furnishing my-
self with necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what
I should have been able to have done upon another oc-
casion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight; my next care was what to load it with and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but
I was not long considering this; I first laid all the planks
or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered
well what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s
chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and low-
ered them down upon my raft; the first of these I filled
with provision, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat’s flesh, which we lived much
upon, and a little remainder of European corn which had
been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea
with us, but the fowls were killed; there had been some
barley and wheat together, but, to my great disappoint-
ment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of
bottles belonging to our skipper in which were some
cordial waters, and in all about five or six gallons of rack;
these I stowed: by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chest, nor no room for them. While I was
doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very
calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, |
and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon the sand,
swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen,
and open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stock-
ings. However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes,



56 ROBINSON CRUSOE

of which I found enough but took no more than I wanted
for present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon, as first, tools to work with on shore; and it was
after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-loading of gold would
have been at that time; I got it down to my raft, even
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it for I
knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms;
there were two very good fowling pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with some
powder-horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords; I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water; those two I got
to my raft with the arms, and now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or rudder;
and the least capful of wind would have overset all my
navigation.

I had three encouragements: 1. A smooth, calm sea. 2.
The tide rising and setting in to the shore. 3. What little
wind there was blew me towards the land; and thus, hav-
ing found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found
two saws, an axe, and a hammer, and with this cargo I
put to sea. For a mile or thereabouts my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the
place where I had landed before, by which I perceived
that there was some indraft of the water, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river there which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my
cargo.





A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 57

As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before me a |
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current
of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I |
could to keep in the middle of the stream. But here I had
like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had,
I think verily would have broke my heart, for knowing
nothing of the coast, my raft run aground at one end of it
upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost by setting my back against the
chests to keep them in their places, but could not thrust
off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from
the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all
my might, stood in that manner near half an hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level; and a little after, the water still rising,
my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar
I had into the channel and then driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running
up; I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to
shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the
river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea and there-
fore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the>
creek, to which with great pain and difficulty I guided |
my raft and at last got so near as that, reaching ground / -
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I
had like to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping,
there was no place to land, but where one end of my
float, if it run on shore, would lie so high and the other
sink lower as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at



58 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and
so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft
drew about a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that flat
piece of ground and there fastened or moored her by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one
side near one end, and one on the other side near the
other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away and
left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation and where to stow my
goods to secure them from whatever might happen;
where I was I yet knew not, whether on the continent or
on an island, whether inhabited or not inhabited, whether
in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above
a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and
which seemed to overtop some other hills which lay as in
a ridge from it, northward; I took out one of the fowling
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder, and
thus armed, I traveled for discovery up to the top of that
hill, where, after I had with great labor and difficulty got:
to the top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz., that I {
was in an island environed every way with the sea, no.
land to be seen, except some rocks which lay a great way _
off and two small islands less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren and,
as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by
wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none, yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kind; neither
when I killed them could I tell what was fit for food, and
what not; at my coming back, I shot at a great bird which
I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood. I



A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 59

believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since
the creation of the world; I had no sooner fired but from
all the parts of the wood there arose an innumerable num-
ber of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming,
and crying every one according to his usual note; but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature
I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its color and
beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common; its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my tt)
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took
me up the rest of that day, and what to do with myself at |
night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some J
wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards
found, there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore
and made a kind of a hut for that night’s lodging; as for
food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except
that I had seen two or three creatures like hares run out
of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful to me,
and particularly some of the rigging and sails and such
other things as might come to land, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible;
and as I knew that the first storm that blew must neces-
sarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other
things apart, till I got everything out of the ship that I
could get; then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft but this
appeared impracticable; so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped





60 ROBINSON CRUSOE

before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a
checkered shirt and a pair of linen drawers and a pair of
pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a sec-
ond raft, and having had experience of the first, I neither
made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I
brought away several things very useful to me; as first, in
the carpenter’s stores I. found two or three bags full of
nails and spikes, a great screwjack, a dozen or two of
hatchets and, above all, that most useful thing called a
grindstone; all these I secured together, with several
things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows and two barrels of musket bullets, seven
muskets and another fowling piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot
and a great roll of sheet lead. But this last was so heavy,
I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore topsail, a hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions during my absence
from the land, that at least my provisions might be de-
voured on shore; but when I came back, I found no sign
of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild cat
upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards it,
ran away a little distance, and then stood still; she sat
very composed and unconcerned and looked full in my
face as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I
presented my gun at her, but as she did not understand
it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great. However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she
went to it, smelled of it and ate it and looked (as pleased )





A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 61

for more, but I thanked her and could spare no more; so
she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore, though I we
fain to open the barrels of powder and ‘bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks, I
went to work to make me a little tent with the sail and
some poles which I cut for that purpose, and into this
tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil, either
with rain or sun, and I piled all the empty chests and
casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any
sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within and an empty chest set up on
end without, and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and
slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary and
heavy, for the night before I had slept little and had la-
bored very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever
was laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied
still; for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could;
so every day at low water I went on board, and brought
away something or other. But particularly the third time|
I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I|
could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could
get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In
a word, I brought away all the sails first and last, only
that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much
at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to be
sails but as mere canvas only.

‘But that which comforted me more still was that at last



62 ROBINSON CRUSOE

of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I
found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets
of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given over
expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled
by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread,
and wrapped it up parcel by parcel in pieces of the sails,
which I cut out; and in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.

The next day I made another voyage; and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand
out, I began with the cables; and cutting the great cable
into pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the ironwork I could get; and
having cut down the spritsail yard, and the mizzen yard,
and everything I could to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all those heavy goods, and came away.

But my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft
was so unwieldy and so over-loaden, that after I was en-
tered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the
other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the
water; as for myself it was no great harm, for I was near
the shore; but as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost,
especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me. However, when the tide was out, I got
most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labor; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work. which fatigued me very much. After
this I went every day on board, and brought away what
I could get. iy

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had beer
eleven times on board the ship; in which time I had| {

\



A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 63

brought away all that one pair of hands could well be
supposed capable to bring, though I believe verily, had
the calm weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship piece by piece. But preparing the twelfth time
to go on board, I found the wind begin to rise; however,
at low water I went on board, and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers
in it, in one of which I found two or three razors and one
pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six
pounds value in money, some European coin, some
Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “O drug!”
said I aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou art not worth

to me, no, not the taking off of the ground; one of those /
knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for /

thee; e’en remain where thou art and go to the bottom as
a creature whose life is not worth saving.” However,

upon second thoughts, I took it away, and wrapping all —

this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of making an-~

other raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky
overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of
an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore; it presently
occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my business
to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I
might not be able to reach the shore at all.

Accordingly I let myself down into the water and swam
across the channel, which lay between the ship and the
sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of the things I had about me, and partly the

roughness of the water, for the wind rose very hastily,

and before it was quite high water, it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay



64. ROBINSON CRUSOE

with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very
hard all that night, and in the morning, when I looked
out, behold, no more ship was to be seen; I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory re-
flection, viz., that I had lost no time, nor abated no dili-
gence to get everything out of her that could be useful to
me, and that indeed there was little left in her that I was
able to bring away if I had had more time.

Securing Myself Against Savages
and Wild Beasts



I NOW gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of
anything out of her, except what might drive on shore
from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards
did; but those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about secur-
ing myself against either savages, if any should appear,
or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many
thoughts of the method how to do this and what kind of
dwelling to raake, whether I should make me a cave in
the earth or a tent upon the earth. And, in short, I re-
solved upon both, the manner and description of which
it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish
ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it, so I resolved to find a more healthy and
more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I
found would be proper for me: first, health and fresh
water, I just now mentioned; secondly, shelter from the
heat of the sun; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures,



SECURING MYSELF AGAINST SAVAGES 65

whether men or beasts; fourthly, a view to the sea, that
if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any ad-
vantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this I found a little plain -
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top; on the side of this rock
there was a hollow place worn a little way in like the
entrance or door of a cave, but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an
hundred yards broad and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door and at the end of it de-
scended irregularly every way down into the low grounds
by the seaside. It was on the north-northwest side of the
hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every day, till
it came to a west and by south sun, or thereabouts, which
in those countries is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter from the rock and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.

In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about five
foot and a half and sharpened on the top. The two rows
did not stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship, and laid them in rows one upon another, within the
circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them,
about two foot and a half high, like a spur to a post; and
this fence was so strong that neither man nor beast could



eal

66 ROBINSON CRUSOE

get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and
labor, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them
to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top, which ladder,
when I was in, I lifted over after me, and so I was com-
pletely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought, from all the
world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise I could not have done, though, as it appeared
afterward, there was no need of all this caution from the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of which you have the account above; and I made me a
large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains that in
one part of the year are very violent there, I made double,
viz., one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it,
and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin which
I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I
had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was in-
deed a very good one and belonged to the mate of the
ship. ;

fat this tent I brought all my provisions and every.
thing that would spoil by the wet, and having thus en-

.. closed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till

now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said,

' by ashort ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into

~ the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug

down out through my tent, I laid ’em up within my fence
in the nature of a terrace, that so it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave
just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my
house.





SECURING MYSELF AGAINST SAVAGES 67

It cost me much labor and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection, and therefore 1 must
go back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
my scheme for the setting up my tent and making the
cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick dark cloud,
a sudden flash of lightning happened and after that a
great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it; I was
not so much surprised with the lightning as I was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the light-
ning itself: O my powder! My very heart sunk within me
when I thought that at one blast all my powder might be
destroyed, on which not my defense only but the provid-
ing me food, as I thought, entirely depended; I was noth-
ing near so anxious about my own danger, though had the
powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building
and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and
boxes to separate the powder, and keep it a little and a
little in'a parcel, in hope that whatever might come it
might not all take fire at once, and to keep it so apart that
it should not be possible to make one part fire another.
I finished this work in about a fortnight, and I think my
powder, which in all was about 240 pounds’ weight, was
divided in not less than a hundred parcels; as to the bar-
rel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger
from that, so I placed it in my new cave, which in my
fancy I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down
in holes among the rocks,.so that no wet might come to
it, marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert
myself as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and as
near as I could to acquaint myself with what the island



68 ROBINSON CRUSOE

produced. The first time I went out I presently discovered
that there were goats in the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this mis-
fortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtile, and
so swift of foot that it was the difficultest thing in the
world to come at them. But I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened, for after I had found their haunts a little,
I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks,
they would run away as in a terrible fright; but if they
were feeding in the valleys and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me, from whence I concluded that, by
the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward that they did not readily see objects that were
above them; so afterward I took this method, I always
climbed the rocks first to get above them and then had
frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among these
creatures, I killed a she-goat which had a little kid by her
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her till
I came and took her up, and not only so, but when I car-
ried the old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid fol-
lowed me quite to my enclosure, upon which I laid down
the dam and took the kid in my arms and carried it over
my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would
not eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate spar-
ingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as
much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place. But I must first give some little



SECURING MYSELF AGAINST SAVAGES 69

account of myself and of my thoughts about living, which
it may well be supposed were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as is
said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our
intended voyage and a great way, viz., some hundreds
of leagues out of the ordinary course of the trade of man-
kind, I had great reason to consider it as a determination
of Heaven that in this desolate place and in this desolate
manner I should end my life; the tears would run plenti-
fully down my face when I made these reflections, and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Provi-
_ dence should thus completely ruin its creatures and
render them so absolutely miserable, so without help
abandoned, so entirely depressed that it could hardly be
rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts and to reprove me; and particularly one
day, walking with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I
was very pensive upon the subject of my present condi-
tion, when Reason, as it were, expostulated with me t
other way, thus: “Well, you are in a desolate condition,
‘tis true, but pray remember, where are the rest of you?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat? Where
are the ten? Why were not they saved and you lost? Why
were you singled out? Is it better to be here, or there?”
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be consid-
ered with the good that is in them and with what worse
attends them.

Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished
for my subsistence and what would have been my case if
it had not happened, which was an hundred thousand to
one, that the ship floated from the place where she first
_ struck and was driven so near to the shore that I had time
_ to get all these things out of her. What would have been



70 ROBINSON CRUSOE

my case if I had been to have lived in the condition in
which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life,
or necessaries to supply and procure them? “Particu-
larly,” said I aloud (though to myself), “what should I
ha’ done without a gun, without ammunition, without any
tools to make anything or to work with, without clothes,
bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering?” and that
now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a
fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live
without my gun when my ammunition was spent; so that
I had a tolerable view of subsisting without any want as
long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning how
I would provide for the accidents that might happen and
for the time that was to come, even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health
or strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my am-
munition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder
being blown up by lightning, and this made the thoughts
of it so surprising to me when it lightened and thundered,
as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of
a scene of silent life, such perhaps, as was never heard
of in the world before, I shall take it from its beginning,
and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the
80th of September when, in the manner as above said, I
first set foot upon this horrid island, when the sun, being
to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my
head, for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the
line.

_ After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time
for want of books and pen and ink and should even forget
the Sabbath days from the working days; but to prevent



SECURING MYSELF AGAINST SAVAGES 71
this I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital
letters, and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the
shore where I first landed, viz., “I came on shore here o |
the 30th of September 1659.” Upon the sides of thi
square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and
every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place we are to observe that among the
many things which I brought out of the ship in the sev-
eral voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I
got several things of less value, but not all less useful to
me, which I omitted setting down before; as in particular,
pens, ink, and paper, several parcels in the captain’s,
mate’s, gunner’s and carpenter's keeping, three or four
compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, per-
spectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no;
also I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in
my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also, and
among them two or three Popish prayer-books, and sev-
eral other books, all which I carefully secured. And I
must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to
say something in its place; for I carried both the cats
with me, and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of
himself and swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo and was a trusty servant to na
many years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor
any company that he could make up to me; I only wanted
to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I ob-
served before, I found pen, ink, and paper, and I hus-
banded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while



/ 72 ROBINSON CRUSOE

~ my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
i gone, I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together, and of
these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and
shovel, to dig or remove the earth, needles, pins, and
thread; as for linen, I soon learned to want that without
much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily,
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished
my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles, or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a
long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and
more by far in bringing home, so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts
and a third day in driving it into the ground; for which
purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which, how-
ever, though I found it, yet it made driving those posts or
piles very laborious and tedious work.

But what need I ha’ been concerned at the tediousness
of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do
it inP Nor had I any other employment, if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food, which I did more or less every

day.

My Reason Began to Master My
Despondency

I NOW began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to, and I drew up the state



REASON MASTERS DESPONDENCY 73

of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any
that were to come after me, for I was like to have but few
heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind; and as my reason began
now to master my despondency, I began to comfort my
self as well as I could and to set the good against the evil,\\
that I might have something to distinguish my case from ©
worse, and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and
creditor, the comforts I enjoyed, against the miseries I

suffered, thus:

Evil
I am cast upon a horrible
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out and
separated, as it were, from

all the world to be misera-
ble.

I am divided from man-
kind, a solitaire, one ban-
ished from human society.

I have not clothes to
cover me.

I am without any de-
fense or means to resist any
violence of man or beast.

Je
Good ei

But I am alive, and not
drowned, as all my ship’s
company was.

But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship's crew to
be spared from death; and
He that miraculously saved
me from death can deliver
me from this condition.

But I am not starved and
perishing on a_ barren
place, affording no suste-
nance.

But I am in a hot climate,
where if I had clothes I
could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an is-
land, where I see no wild
beasts to hurt me, as I saw
on the coast of Africa. And
what if I had been ship-
wrecked there?



74 ROBINSON CRUSOE

Evil Good
I have no soul to speak But God wonderfully
to, or relieve me. sent the ship in near

enough to the shore that I
have gotten out so many
necessary things as will
either supply my wants, or
enable me to supply my-
self even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that
tnere was scarce any condition in the world so misera-
ble but there was something negative or something posi-
tive to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direc-
tion from the experience of the most miserable of all
conditions in this world, that we may always find in it
something to comfort ourselves from and to set in the
description of good and evil on the credit side of the
account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition and given over looking out to sea to see if I
could spy a ship; I say, giving over these things, I began
to apply myself to accommodate my way of living and to
make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a
tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables, but I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two foot thick on the outside, and after some time,
I think it was a year and a half, I raised rafters from it
leaning to the rock and thatched or covered it with
boughs of trees and such things as I could get to keep
out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very
violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods



REASON MASTERS DESPONDENCY 75

into this pale, and into the cave which I had made be-
hind me. But I must observe, too, that at first this was a
confused heap of goods, which as they lay in no order,
so they took up all my place; I had no room to turn my-
self; so I set myself to enlarge my cave and works farther
into the earth, for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded
easily to the labor I bestowed on it; and so, when I found
I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways
to the right hand into the rock, and then turning to the
right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to
come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a
back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me
room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such neces,
sary things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a
chair and a table, for without these I was not able to
enjoy the few comforts I had in the world; I could not
write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure
without a table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that
as reason is the~substance and original of the mathe-
matics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason
and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be in time master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life, and yet in time, by
labor, application, and contrivance, I found at last that
I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if
I had had tools; however, I made abundance of things,
even without tools, and some with no more tools than an
adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if
I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a



76 ROBINSON CRUSOE

plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole
tree, but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more
than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor
which it took me up to make a plank or board. But my
time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well em-
ployed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place, and this I did out of the shore
pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship.
But when I had wrought out some boards, as above, I
made large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half
one over another, all along one side of my cave, to lay all
my tools, nails, and ironwork, and, in a word, to separate
everything at large in their places, that I might come
easily at them; I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock

o hang my guns and all things that would hang up.

So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a
general magazine of all necessary things, and I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to
me to see all my goods in such order and especially to
find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every

“day’s employment; for, indeed, at first, [was in too much

hurry, and not only hurry as to labor, but in too much
discomposure of mind; and my journal would have been
full of many dull things. For example, I must have said
thus:

5 September the 30th. After I got to shore and had
escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God for
my deliverance, having first vomited with the great quan-
tity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing
my hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at



THE JOURNAL 77
my misery and crying out I was undone, undone, till,
tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to ‘
repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not
forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain and
looking out to sea in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy
at a vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with the
hopes of it and then, after looking steadily till I was al-
most blind, lose it quite and sit down and weep like a
child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure
and having settled my household stuff and habitation,
made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about
me as I could, I began to keep my journal, of which I
shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all
these particulars over again) as long as it lasted, for hav-
ing no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

The Journal



September 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in
the offing, came on shore on this dismal unfortunate is-
land, which I called “the Island of Despair,” all the rest |
of the ship’s company being drowned an myself almost
dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at
the dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had
neither food, house, clothes, weapon, or place to fly to,
and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death be-
fore me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of



78 ROBINSON CRUSOE

food. At the approach of night, I slept in a tree for fear
of wild creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all
night.

October I. In the morning I saw to my great sur-
prise the ship had floated with the high tide and was
driven on shore again much nearer the island, which, as
it was some comfort on one hand, for seeing her sit up-
right and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board and get some food and
necessaries out of her for my relief; so on the other hand,
it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved
the ship or at least that they would not have been all
drowned as they were; and that had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of
the ship, to have carried us to some other part of the
world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing myself
on these things; but at length seeing the ship almost dry,
I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam
on board; this day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.

From the Ist of October to the 24th. All these
days entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I
could out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every
tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days,
though with some intervals of fair weather. But, it seems,
this was the rainy season.

October 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods
I had got upon it, but being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the
tide was out.

October 25. It rained all night and all day, with
some gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in
pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before,
and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and



THE JOURNAL 79

that only at low water. I spent this day in covering and
securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain might
not spoil them.

October 26. I walked about the shore almost all
day to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly con-
cerned to secure myself from an attack in the night, either
from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a
proper place under a rock, and marked out a semicircle
for my encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with
a work, wall, or fortification made of double piles, lined
within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carry-
ing all my goods to my new habitation, though some part
of the time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st in the morning I went out into the island with
my gun to seek for some food, and discover the country,
when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home,
which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and
lay there for the first night, making it as large as I could
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

November 2. I set up all my chests and boards,
and the pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with
them formed a fence round me, a little within the place
I had marked out for my fortification.

November 3. I went out with my gun and killed
two fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the
afternoon went to work to make me a table.

November 4. This morning I began to order my
times of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep,
and time of diversion, viz., every morning I walked out
with my gun for two or three hours if it did not rain, then
employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then
ate what I had to live on and from twelve to two I lay
down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot, and then



80 ROBINSON CRUSOE

in the evening to work again. The working part of this
day and of the next were wholly employed in making my
table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe it would do anyone else.

November 5. This day went abroad with my gun
and my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft,
but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I
took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by
the seashore, I saw many sorts of sea fowls which I did
not understand, but was surprised and almost frighted
with two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not
well knowing what they were, got into the sea and es-
caped me for that time.

November 6. After my morning walk I went to
work with my table again, and finished it, though not to
my liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

November 7. Now it began to be settled fair
weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th and part of the 12th (for
the 11th was Sunday) I took wholly up to make me a
chair and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape,
but never to please me, and even in the making, I pulled
it in pieces several times. Note: I soon neglected my keep-
ing Sundays, for, omitting my mark for them on my post,
I forgot which was which.

November 13. This day it rained, which refreshed
me exceedingly and cooled the earth, but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder; as soon as
it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder
into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not
be in danger.

November 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in
making little square chests or boxes, which might hold
about a pound or two pounds, at most, of powder; and



THE JOURNAL 81

so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure
and remote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, bu
I know not what to call it.

November 17. This day I began to dig behind my
tent into the rock to make room for my farther con-
veniency. Note: Three things I wanted exceedingly for
this work, viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow
or basket, so I desisted from my work and began to con-
sider how to supply that want and make me some tools.
As for a pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were
proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a
shovel or spade. This was so absolutely necessary, that
indeed I could do nothing effectually without it, but
what kind of one to make I knew not.

November 18. The next day in searching the
woods I found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in
the Brazils they call the iron tree, for its exceeding hard-
ness; of this, with great labor, and almost spoiling my
axe, I cut a piece and brought it home, too, with difficulty
enough, for it was exceeding heavy.

The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for
I worked it effectually by little and little into the form
of a shovel or spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours
in England, only that the broad part having no iron shod
upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; however,
it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion
to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after
that fashion, or so long a-making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow; a basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-
ware, at least none yet found out; and as to a wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that



82 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I had no notion of, neither did I know how to go about
it; besides, I had no possible way to make the iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in,
so I gave it over; and so for carrying away the earth which
I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which
the laborers carry mortar in when they serve the brick-
layers. -

This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the shovel and the attempt which
I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow took me up no
less than four days, I mean always excepting my morning
walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom
failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

November 23. My other work having now stood
still because of my making these tools, when they were
finished I went on, and working every day, as my strength
and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in
widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold my
goods commodiously.

NoTE: During all this time, I worked to make this room
or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a ware-
_ house or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar;
as for my lodging, I kept to the tent, except that some-
times in the wet season of the year it rained so hard that
I could not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards
to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in
the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load
them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

December 10. I began now to think my cave or
vault finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it
too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the
top and one side, so much, that, in short, it frighted me,
and not without reason too; for if I had been under it I
had never wanted a gravedigger. Upon this disaster I had
a great deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose



THE JOURNAL 83

earth to carry out; and which was of more importance, I
had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
more would come down.

December 11. This day I went to work with it ac-
cordingly and got two shores or posts pitched upright to
the top, with two pieces of boards across over each post:
This I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured:
and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions
to part of my house.

December 17. From this day to the twentieth I
placed shelves and knocked up nails on the posts to hang
everything up that could be hung up, and now I began
to be in some order within doors.

December 20. Now I carried everything into the\
cave, and began to furnish my house, and set up some '
pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals upon,
but boards began to be very scarce with me; also I made
me another table.

December 24. Much rain all night and all day; no
stirring out.

December 25. Rain all day.

December 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler
than before, and pleasanter.

December 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed an-
other, so as that I catched it, and led it home in a string;
when I had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg,
which was broke. n.B. I took such care of it that it lived,
and the leg grew well, and as strong as ever; but by my
nursing it so long it grew tame and fed upon the little
green at my door and would not go away. This was the
first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some
tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder
and shot was all spent.

December 28, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze;



Cx

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4

84 ROBINSON CRUSOE

so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the eve-
ning for food; this time I spent in putting all my things
in order within doors.

January I. Very hot still, but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the
day; this evening going farther into the valleys which lay
towards the center of the island, I found there was plenty
of goats, though exceeding shy and hard to come at; how-
ever, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt
them down.

January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went out
with my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mis-
taken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and he
knew his danger too well, for he would not come near
them.

January 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being
still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I re-
solved to make very thick and strong.

N.B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit

| what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe,
_ that I was no less time than from the 8rd of January to

the 14th of April working, finishing and perfecting this
wall, though it was no more than about 24 yards in length,
being a half circle from one place in the rock to another
place about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being
in the center behind it.

Managing My Household Affairs

ALL THIS time I worked very hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I
thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall
was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible

labor everything was done with, especially the bringing



MANAGING MY HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS 85

piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground,
for I made them much bigger than I need to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-
fenced with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded
myself that if any people were to come on shore there,
they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and
it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter
upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day when the rain admitted me and made
frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other
to my advantage; particularly I found a kind of wild
pigeons, who built not as wood pigeons in a tree, but
rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and
taking some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up
tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew all
away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding
them, for I had nothing to give them; however, I fre-
quently found their nests and got their young ones, which
were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I
found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make, as indeed as to
some of them it was; for instance, I could never make a
cask to be hooped; I had a small runlet or two, as I ob-
served before, but I could never arrive to the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about
it; I could neither put in the heads, or joint the staves so
true to one another, as to make them hold water, so I
gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle; =\
that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my
African adventure, but I had none of that now; the only



86 ROBINSON CRUSOE

remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat, I saved
the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I
baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum,
I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a
clear steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my
labors it happened that, rummaging my things, I found
a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn * for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage,
but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lis-
bon; what little remained of corn had been in the bag was
all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag
but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for
some other use, I think it was to put powder in, when I
divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use, I
shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortifi-
cation under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of
anything, and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown anything there; when about a month after or
thereabout I saw some few stalks of something green
shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and per-
fectly astonished when after a little longer time I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out which were perfect

\ green barley of the same kind as our European, nay, as
our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and con-
fusion of my thoughts on this occasion; I had hitherto
acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed I had

ery few notions of religion in my head or had entertained
any sense of anything that had befallen me otherwise than
as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God; with-
out so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in

1 Grain



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FILES







A JOURNAL OF
THE PLAGUE YEAR



&

B DANIEL DEFOE yl ee
7. USN BEE





i
COPYRIGHT, 1948, BY RANDOM HOUSE, ING.
Ga3rs

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Dslr e lk
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Random House 1S THE PUBLISHER OF

THE MODERN LIBRARY

BENNETT A. CERF ° DONALD 8.KLOPFER * ROBERT K. HAAS

Manufactured in the United States of America
By H. Wolff




CONTENTS
———$—$—$— SSS eesessnestesensnensnsnassssee:

INTRODUCTION By Louis Kronenberger

Robinson Crusoe
Preface
Advice to a Son
Bent Upon Seeing the World
The Most Unfortunate of Enterprises
I Came to the Brazils
The Terror of the Storm
A Dreadful Delwerance
Securing Myself Against Savages and Wild
Beasts

My Reason Began to Master My Despondency
The Journal
Managing My Household Affairs
Delivered Wonderfully from Sickness
A More Perfect Discovery of the Island
I Began My Third Year
My Desire to Venture Over the Main

Sailing Round the Island
A Very Sedate Retired Life
The Print of a Man’s Naked Foot
Cannibals! |

The Care of My Safety

2.

Toone 5:

86

51

aeine

108

187
150 —
159

170


vi CONTENTS

Ship in Distress 205
Time to Get Me a Servant 214
My Man Friday : 227
Some Hopes That I Might Escape 236
I Dip My Hands in Blood — 254
My Island Was Now Peopled 266
An English Ship 275
Our Business Was to Recover the Ship 285
Deliverance Put in My Hands 298
Settling in the World 308
Over the Mountains 319
* * *

A Journal of the Plague Years 843
INTRODUCTION

by Louis Kronenberger

ce the world’s great writers, scarcely any has
cared so much about expediency, has been so phi-
listine and calculating in his methods as Defoe; and yet
none, in a sense, has calculated so badly. For though his
works of fiction run to sixteen solid volumes, to the
world at large he is simply and solely the author of
Robinson Crusoe: the rays of that blinding sun ‘have
quite extinguished even such brilliant stars as Moll
Flanders and Roxana and A Journal of the Plague Year.
But that is hardly the worst of it. To the world at large,
Robinson Crusoe, however celebrated, is not a book for
men but a book for boys; lore, not literature. It is some- -
thing that everybody has read, though perhaps not every-
body can remember reading it; it is, or was until recently,
as much a part of boyhood as the slingshot and the cir- .
cus. But it can hardly be said to rank with the indispen-
sable, or with even the most popular, novels for grown-
ups. The reason why—or, better yet, the instinct’ why—is
easy to grasp. If one is not a sentimentalist, one may well -

wonder whether even the very greatest of boys” books —

2


Vili INTRODUCTION

will constitute an exhilarating experience for men. And
if one is a sentimentalist, one may wonder whether any-
thing one loved so much in childhood should be touched,
tampered with, re-examined—how can it help letting one
down?

Well, one can only speak for oneself; but when some
years ago I went back to Robinson Crusoe, I was en-
thralled. I'm sure it helped that I went back rather ex-
pecting to be disappointed, as it may hinder if, after
reading this introduction, you expect to be instantly daz-
zled. But I doubt whether it helped, and I doubt whether
it can hinder, much. I can understand ( though not easily )
anyone quitting the book before Crusoe gets shipwrecked
on the island, or again after Crusoe sails away from it.
And I can understand (quite easily) anyone who should
impatiently toss aside the succeeding volume of Crusoe’s ;
adventures—because I have twice done that myself. But
in the present book, so long as Robinson is held fast on|
the island, so long must the reader be too. For just that!
long, he is in the presence of a masterpiece, and of what
might almost be declared a miracle: for a situation that
has, in itself, an intense and universal lure is somehow
handled exactly as it should be. The only thing that for
me has the same kind of magnetism as the island section
of Robinson Crusoe is the piloting chapters of Life on the
Mississippi. In both we are offered what might be called
a discourse on method; and in the plain utilitarian details
of both there is something immensely romantic, some-
thing that fires our youth, and then long after rekindles it.

For however grim and disconsolate the situation of af
man all alone on an island, who ever saw Crusoe there}
INTRODUCTION rb
in any such light? So far from making his hero tragic,
Defoe makes us—or at least the eternal boy in us—not
pity but envy him. Crusoe is not only monarch of all he
surveys; but by virtue of his experiences and his predica-
ment he acquires for us something like the rank of a
mighty hunter or a great explorer. What were in truth
quite back-breaking obstacles are time and again made
to seem like glorious opportunities; he is no realist who
pursues Crusoe as realism. This is no poor devil who
while under sentence, as it were, of solitary confinement
must also forage for food and beware of cannibals. This,
rather, is a man with a whole island for a toy, who may
build him as many residences and pleasuredoms as he
fancies, and trek lordlike through his own forests and
sail along his coasts and herd his goats and harvest his
crops and ransack the ship for plunder. There is some-
thing of the morning of the world about it all; yet to-
gether with the unspotted opportunities of the first man,
Crusoe has all the ingrained skill and knowledge of many
generations of Britons. Hence, singlehanded, he converts
a rough-hewn Eden into a rough-hewn England. From
one point of view, it is odd that we should find all this
romantic; for Crusoe’s stubborn resistance to the call of
the wild is so outside Nature that it could only be be-
lieved of something so equally outside Nature as the
trueborn Englishman. We can be very glad of this, how-
ever. For it would need a rather diseased taste to enjoy —
watching Robinson sink to the level of the brute and per-
haps below it; whereas there is a healthy and creative
satisfaction in watching him turn his island into a tidy
Little England.
x INTRODUCTION

Which brings us to something stranger still—the fact |
that Crusoe’s story is so intensely interesting only be-|
cause Crusoe himself is so incredibly dull. But then, to’
do what he did he had to be what he was; to make a
second England he had to believe fanatically in the first;
not to go mad at the end he had to be a trifle mad from
the outset; in the midst of abounding self-pity he had to
be sustained by consuming self-interest; even God had
to be a sort of Magnate with whom, in effect, a lesser
businessman could bargain. Of all the great heroes of
fiction Crusoe is surely the one who would have bored i
the most in the flesh. With me, indeed, it is a nice point
whether I should prefer to be shipwrecked, as he was,
alone; or with him alone for company. He has no humor, ,
no charm, no sensibility, no reach of mind, no grace of |
perception. Dickens truly remarked that Crusoe is the |
one great novel that never calls forth either laughter or
tears. Robinson is smug, he is crass, he is—like Defoe |
himself—hypocritical in grain. But if he contains almost |
everything that is arid and coarse in the British character,
he exemplifies, as well, everything that is admirable. He.
is plucky, sturdy, self-reliant, practical, imperturbable—
the very essence of that race that thinks it unmanly to
grumble and ungentlemanly to gloat.

Others have noted how cleverly Defoe allowed Crusoe
just enough in the way of equipment and fodder and
tools for him at the outset to stay alive, and in the course
of time to be made comfortable. And to a nicety too, I
would add, Defoe has contrived when total solitude shall
cease. For at length the point is reached where Robinson
has achieved as much in the way of civilization as he


INTRODUCTION xi
finds possible, or we find fun; it is the point where, in a
commoner run of novel, the hero after long and arduous
struggle has made his pile and is ready for a mate. Defoe
cannot in the circumstances offer Crusoe a mate; and he
need not—a companion, for the reader at any rate, does
quite as well. So lo! there appears in the sand that el
footprint which is still, after two centuries, more dra-
matic and thrilling than all the fingerprints in the very
best whodunits; and presently there appears on the
scene that savage who is still, after two centuries, the
most famous of all servants. Once he has Friday to edu-
cate, Crusoe can embark on his great secondary English
role; having contrived all by himself a Little England, he
turns Friday all by himself into a Little India. After that,
and a round of skirmishing with cannibals, it is permitted |
to sail for home.

After that, there are further adventures, of course—as
there had been a whole slew of them before the ship-
wreck. But the picaresque parts of the book, though
lively, are no part of the miracle; the miracle belongs to
the island, where neither Crusoe nor Defoe can go astray,
nor Robinson be ever anywhere but at home. And this
is of enormous help to a teller of stories who is absolutely
incapable of cons ing a genuine plot. Defoe can in-

_ vent endlessly, but hardly integrate at all; one thing doe
not come out of another, it merely comes after it. The
artistic shortcomings, the essential discontinuity of such
a method are obvious; and it can be truthfully main-
tained that Defoe’s genius most expands where his ge-
ography least does—in the island parts of Crusoe, and in
the Plague Year. For these two works have something of —

b
Kil INTRODUCTION

the concentration of interest, the intensive force that
distinguish the novel from the tale, and the work of art
from the mere irruption of talent. On the other hand, by
the singularity of their subject-matter, they have had not
the slightest influence on the serious novel itself; whereas
Moll Flanders and Roxana have probably had a good
deal.

. No doubt there is much to say of the exotic fascination
of Robinson Crusoe; of the oppressive sense of danger
and appalling sense of solitude; of the flora and fauna,
the parrots and cats. But this side of the story counted
much more for me in boyhood than it does now. What
lures me on is much less the creepiness of the island
noises at midnight than tomorrow’s straightforward effort
to build a fence or bake a pot; the given A and B, how
to contrive C; the given A B and C, how to bring off D—
straight on to ampersand. This marvelous resourcefulness
on Crusoe’s part, this determination to wrest comfort out
of chaos, this transforming a wilderness into a one-man
state, in which he is both architect and builder, husband-
man and housewife, management and labor, commoner
and king, awakens in us a very delighted response. But
of course Crusoe does have much also in the way of
thrills and suspense—consider the blood-curdling en-
counter with the wolves; and it is the greatest of all boys’
books because it is about equally compounded of der-
ring-do and Do and Dare, the adventure yarn and the
Alger story. Accordingly this dullard that one would in
real life run screaming from has caught and forever held
the imagination of mankind.
INTRODUCTION xiii

A ibaa of the Plague Year is, artistically, Defoe’s
least faulty production. It is the story of just one thing,
a plague; and it is confined to just one spot, Greater Lon-
don. Hence nothing else of Defoe’s has a like unity of
theme and development; and I think nothing else has
quite as much or as marvelous factuality, or knack for
making what is fictitious seem genuine.

Of this particular quality Defoe—as who is not aware
—had more than any other writer. that ever lived; he is
by general consent the great master of the convincing
detail, the plausible contradiction, the effective irrele-
vancy, the bright, bland testimony, the true-sounding lie.
No one else has ever been so crafty about appearing so
honest; one reason why we believe what Defoe tells us
is that much of it isn’t worth being told; but of course
the triviality is the essence of the trick. So again is the
extraordinary specificness. Emerson said that Swift—who
had much of Defoe’s genius for prosaic detail—always
described his characters as though for the police: the
Plague Year impresses you as written for the College of
Medicine or the Board of Health. It has the look of some-
thing to be used for reference rather than read for pleas-
ure. It is probably the greatest fake document of its
length in all literature; and even for a writer who was
always trying to make fiction sound like fact, it is a superb
tour de force.

To be sure, it gets a great deal of support from history;
is, in fact, very nearly true. Its account of the plague
probably resembles the real plague far more than Cru-
soe’s adventures resemble Selkirk’s. There were actual
documents for Defoe to draw on, there were his own
XIV INTRODUCTION

early recollections and the many first-hand accounts he
must have heard from childhood. Even as a document,
the Plague Year is no doubt a very good guide, true in all
essentials and historical in most details. But the point is
that Defoe made of his account a seamless whole, and
we shall never know just how much of it is fiction and
how much is fact. :

In any case, the picture it Lipreniaes is an indelible
one; the almost droning clinical manner, the countless
statistics, the ceaseless examples all operating in its
favor. The effect is the more awful because no effect
seems aimed after; as when somebody tells a particularly
gruesome story in a particularly flat voice. Furthermore,
it is only this flat voice, this matter-of-fact manner, that
sustains the length of the book; if it were at all high-
pitched, if it used any of the standard devices for being
dramatic or pathetic or horrifying, it would soon be-
come a mere melodrama of hideousness, and at length a
downright anticlimax of woes. As it is, by making no
emotional demands on us, Defoe can pack in an extraor-
dinary amount of physical detail. We are not asked to
care deeply about his victims; they die like flies without
ever having lived as people. Today, moreover, the horror
of the epidemic is somewhat mitigated for us by the re-
moteness of the disease; and though the awful “tokens”
have a fearsome quality still, we can read about the
plague with an equanimity we should hardly possess
reading about a terrible fictional epidemic of, say, in-
fantile paralysis.

If the personal stories of agony and death, the ac-
counts of entire households and streets and boroughs be-


INTRODUCTION XV
ing laid low, the narratives of frantic and belated migra-
tion, the night-lighted pictures of mass burial—if these
have not quite the impact of the greatest literature, one
and all have the interest of brilliantly graphic journalism.
Only in a few places, I think, is one deeply touched; only
in a few more truly terrified; but there is hardly a page
without something to absorb or appal one, and there are
whole stretches—late in the book as well as early—when
one is altogether fascinated. That the book as a whole is
too long, too loaded with statistics, too studded with ex-
amples, too repetitive of facts, too sauntering of move-
ment, may show want of discretion but is yet evidence
of art: Defoe gives us more than we need so as to give
the book a supreme verisimilitude, an air past all doubt
of being a genuine document. I am sure that if we did
not know this was fiction we would never suspect it to
be. But knowing it, we do tend to find it just a touch
too clever for its own good; there are places here, as in
almost all Defoe’s writing, where we—I am not sure
that the metaphor is original—smell out the confidence
man in him, and find him so plausible as to be spe-
cious. Defoe’s marvelous factuality, his wonderful im-
agination about anything unimaginative, enables him to
do superlatively what, in a man of high talent, is not
quite, perhaps, worth doing at all. And in the end his
very clearsightedness, his 20-20 literary vision, comes to
seem a mild form of distortion in itself; we feel that all
this is so, but that this is not all. Nobody is better to read
than Defoe when one has had one’s fill of ecstasy or even
embtion; but after a great stretch of him one is glad for
the books that do offer laughter and tears. -


Preface

tF EVER the story of any private man’s adventures in the

world were worth making public, and were acceptable

_when published, the editor of this account thinks this will
be so.

The wonders of this man’s life exceed all that (he
thinks) is to be found extant; the life of one man being
scarce capable of a greater variety.

The story is told with modesty, with seriousness, and
with a religious application of events to the uses to which
wise men always apply them (viz.) to the instruction of
others by this example, and to justify and honor the wis-
dom of Providence in all the variety of our circumstances,
let them happen how they will.

The editor believes the thing to be a just history of fact;
neither is there any appearance of fiction in it. And how-
ever thinks, because all such things are dispatched, that
the improvement of it, as well to the diversion, as to the
instruction of the reader, will be the same; and as such, he
thinks, without farther compliment to the world, he does

‘them a great service in the publication.


Advice to a Son



good family, though not of that country, my father

being a foreigner of Bremen who settled first at Hull.
He got a good estate by merchandise and, leaving off his ~
trade, lived afterward at York, from whence he had mar-
ried my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a
very good family in that country, and from whom I was
called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual corruption |
of words in England we are now called, nay, we call our- ’
selves, and write our name “Crusoe,” and so my compan-
ions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of which was lieutenant- f
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, for-
merly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and
was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Span-
iards; what became of my second brother I never knew,
any more than my father or mother did know what was
become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father, who was very ancient, had given me
a competent share of learning, as far as house education.
and a country free school generally goes, and designed
me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly

I W AS born in the year 1682, in the city of York, of a)


4 ROBINSON CRUSOE

against the will, nay, the commands of my father and
against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends that there seemed to be something fatal
in that propension of nature tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design.
He called me one morning into his chamber, where he
was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly
with me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons
more than a mere wandering inclination I had for leaving
my father’s house and my native country, where I might
be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my for-
tune by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate fortunes
on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other,
who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; that these things were all either
too far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper station
of low life, which he had found by long experience was
the best state in the world, the most suited to human hap-
piness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the
labor and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me I might
judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing, viz.,
that this was the state of life which all other people en-
vied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable
consequences of being born to great things, and wished
they had been_placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave
his testimony to this as the just standard of true felicity,
when he prayed to have neither poverty or riches.
ADVICE TO A SON 5

He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower
part of mankind; but that the middle station had the few-
est disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes
as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were
not subjected to so many distempers and uneasinesses
either of body or mind as those were who, by vicious liv-
ing, luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or by hard
labor, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet
on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by
the natural consequences of their way of living; that the
middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues
and all kinds of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were
the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance,
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable di-
versions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings
attending the middle station of life; that this way men
went silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labors of the
hands or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for
daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace and the body of rest; not en-
raged with the passion of envy or secret burning lust of
ambition for great things; but in easy circumstances slid-
ing gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the
sweets of living, without the bitter, feeling that they are
happy and learning by every day’s experience to know it
-more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, not to
precipitate myself into miseries which Nature and the sta-
tion of life I was born in seemed to have provided against;
that I was under no necessity of seeking my ‘bread; that
he would do well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly
into the station of life which he had been just recom-
6 ROBINSON CRUSOE

mending to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must
hinder it, and that he should have nothing to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt. In a word,
that as he would do very kind things for me if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would not
have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any
encouragement to go away. And to close all, he told me
I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had
used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his
young desires prompting him to run into the army where
he was killed; and though he said he would not cease to
pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me that if I
did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and
I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neg-
lected his counsel when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know
it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears ran down
his face very plentifully, and especially when he spoke of
my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of
my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he
was so moved that he broke off the discourse and told me
his heart was so full he could say no more to me.

Bent Upon Seeing the World



I WAS sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed
who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of
going abroad any more but to settle at home according
to my father’s desire. But alas! a few days wore it all off;
BENT UPON SEEING THE WORLD 7
and in short, to prevent any of my father’s farther impor-
tunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away
from him. However, I did not act so hastily neither as my

first heat of resolution prompted, but I took my mother,

at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordi-
nary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world that I should never settle to any-
thing with resolution enough. to go through with it, and
my father had better give me his consent than an force me.
to go without it; that I was now eighte old, whic
was too late to go apprentice to a trade or clerk to
attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve
out my time, and I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad,
if I came home again and did not like it, I would go no
more, and I would promise by a double diligence to re-
cover that time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion. She told me
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father
upon any such subject; that he knew too well what was
my interest to give his consent to anything so much for
my hurt, and that she wondered how I could think of any
such thing after such a discourse as I had had with my
father, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew
my father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would
ruin myself there was no help for me; but I might depend
I should never have their consent to it; that for her part
she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and
I should never have it to say that my TRtH er was willing
when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the dis-
course to him, and that my father, after shewing a great
concern at it, said to her with a sigh, “That boy might be

}
8 ROBINSON CRUSOE
happy if he would stay at home, but if he goes abroad he

| will be the most miserable wretch that was ever born. I
can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,{\
though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf t
all proposals of settling to business, and frequently ex-
postulating with my father and mother about their being
so positively determined against what they knew my in-
clinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
where I went casually, and without any purpose of mak-
ing an elopement that time; but I say, being there, and
one of my companions being going by sea to London in
his father’s ship and prompting me to go with them, with
the common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that it
should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted nei-
ther father or mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might,
without asking God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences and in
an ill hour, God knows, on the first of September, 1651)\
I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any‘
young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner
or continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner
gotten out of the Humber but the wind began to blow
-and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and as I’
had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly
sick in body and terrified in my mind. I began now seri-
ously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I
was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked.
leaving my father’s house and abandoning my duty; all
the good counsel of my parents, my father’s tears and my
mother’s entreaties came now fresh into my mind, and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hard-
ness to which it has been since, reproached me with the
BENT UPON SEEING THE WORLD 9

contempt of advice and the breach/of iy duty’ to! God
and_my father. at 2%

All this while the storm increased and the sea, which I
had never been upon before, went very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor
like what I saw a few days after. But it was enough to
affect me then, who was but a young sailor and had never
known anything of the matter. I expected every wave
would have swallowed us up and that every time the ship
fell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of the
sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony of mind
I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please
God here to spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got _
once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly
home to my father and never set it into a ship again while
I lived; that I would take his advice and never run myself
into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly
the goodness of his observations about the middle station
of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or
troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while
the storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the .
next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I
began to be a little inured to it. However, I was very
grave for all that day, being also a little seasick still; but
towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite
over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear and rose so the next morning; and
having little or no wind and a smooth sea, the sun shin-
ing upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night and was now no more sea-
10 ROBINSON CRUSOE

sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea
that was so rough and terrible the day before and could
be so calm and so pleasant in so little time after. And now
lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion,
who had indeed enticed me away, comes to me. “Well,
Bob,” says he, clapping me on the shoulder, “how do you
do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wa’n’t you, last
night, when it blew but a capful of wind?” “A capful,
d’you call it?” said I, “’twas a terrible storm.” “A storm,
you fool, you,” replies he; “do you call that a storm? why,
it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-
room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as
that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let
us make a bow] of punch and we'll forget all that; d’ye see
what charming weather ’tis now?” To make short this sad
part of my story, we went the old way of all sailors; the
punch was made, and I was made drunk with it, and in
that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance,
all my reflections upon my past conduct and all my reso-
lutions for my future. In a word, as the sea was returned
to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the
abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts be-
ing over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed
up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my for-
mer desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and prom-
ises that I made in my distress. I found indeed some in-
tervals of reflection, and the serious thoughts did, as it
were, endeavor to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off and roused myself from them as it were from a
distemper and, applying myself to drink and company,
soon mastered the return of those fits, for so I called them,
and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory
over conscience as any young fellow that resolved not to
be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have an-
other trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases


BENT UPON SEEING THE WORLD ll

generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without
excuse. For if I would not take this for a deliverance, the
next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yar-
mouth Roads; the wind having been contrary and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we
lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at southwest, for
seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the
common harbor where the ships might wait for a wind.
for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh;
and after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard.
However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a harbor,
the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong,
our men were unconcemed and not in the least appre-
hensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth,
after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day in the
morning the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts and make everything snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By
noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once
or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our
master ordered out the sheet anchor, so that we rode with
two anchors ahead and the cables veered out to the bit-
ter end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of
the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant to
the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and |
12 ROBINSON CRUSOE

out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself
say several times, “Lord, be merciful to us, we shall be all
lost, we shall be all undone”; and the like. During these
first hurries, I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which
was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper; I
could ill reassume the first penitence, which I had so ap-
parently trampled upon, and hardened myself against. I
thought the bitterness of death had been past and that
this would be nothing too, like the first. But when the
master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said
we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up
out of my cabin and looked out; but such a dismal sight
I never saw: the sea went mountains high and broke upon
us every three or four minutes. When I could look about,
I could see nothing but distress round us: two ships that
rid near us we found had cut their masts by the board,
being deep loaden; and our men cried out that a ship
which rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the Roads to sea at all adventures, and that with not a
mast standing. The light ships fared the best as not so
much laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove
and came close by us, running away with only their sprit-
sail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast,
which he was very unwilling to do. But the boatswain
protesting to him that if he did not the ship would foun-
der, he consented; and when they had cut away the fore-
mast, the mainmast stood so loose and shook the ship so
much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and make
a clear deck. -

Anyone may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in
_ sucha fright before at but a little. But if I can express at
BENT UPON SEEING THE WORLD 13

this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I
was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my
former convictions, and the having returned from them
to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, then I was
at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm,
put me into such a condition that I can by no words de-
scribe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm con-
tinued with such fury that the seamen themselves ac-
knowledged they had never known a worse. We had a
good ship, but she was deep loaden, and wallowed in the
sea, that the seamen every now and then cried out she
would founder. It was my advantage in one respect that
I did not know what they meant by “founder” till I en-
quired. However, the storm was so violent that I saw
what is not often seen; the master, the boatswain, and
some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers
and expecting every moment when the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the
rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down
on purpose to see cried out we had sprung a leak; another
said there was four foot water in the hold. Then all hands
were called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the
side of my bed where I sat into the cabin. However, the
men roused me, and told me that I, that was able to do
nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up and went to the pump and worked
very heartily. While this was doing, the master, seeing
some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would come
near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I,
who knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised,
that I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing
had happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell
down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had
14 ROBINSON CRUSOE

his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was
become of me; but another man stepped up to the pump,
and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking
I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came
to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder, and though
the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into a port, so the mas-
ter continued firing guns for help; and a light ship who
had rid it out just ahead of us ventured a boat out to
help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came
near us, but it was impossible for us to get on board, or
for the boat to lie near the ship side, till at last the men
rowing very heartily and venturing their lives to save
ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy
to it and then veered it out a great length, which they
after great labor and hazard took hold of, and we hauled
them close under our stern and got all into their boat. It
was to no purpose for them or us after we were in the
boat to think of reaching to their own ship, so all agreed
to let her drive and only to pull her in towards shore as
much as we could, and our master promised them, that if
the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good to
their master; so, partly rowing and partly driving, our
boat went away to the norward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship but we saw her sink, and then I understood
for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in
the sea; I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up
when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from that
moment they rather put me into the boat than that I
might be said to go in, my heart was as it were dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
BENT UPON SEEING THE WORLD 15

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see,
when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to
see the shore, a great many people running along the
shore to assist us when we should come near; but we
made but slow way towards the shore, nor were we
able to reach the shore, till being past the lighthouse at
Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards
Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of
the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficuity, got all safe on shore and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were
used with great humanity as well by the magistrates of
the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as
we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull,
and have gone home, I had been happy, and my father,
an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even
killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went
away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a
great while before he had any assurance that I was not
drowned. .

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy |
that nothing could resist; and though I had several times |
loud calls from my reason and my more composed judg- *
ment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not
what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret over-
ruling decree that hurries us on to be the instruments of
our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that
we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly nothing but
some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and
which it was impossible for me to escape, could have
pushed me forward against the calm reasonings and per-
suasions of my most retired thoughts and against two
16 ROBINSON CRUSOE

such visible instructions as I had met with in my first
attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before and
who was the master’s son, was now less forward than I;
the first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were sepa-
rated in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time
he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered, and looking
very melancholy and shaking his head, asked me how I
did, and telling his father who I was, and how I had come
this voyage only for a trial in order to go farther abroad;
his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone, “Young man,” says he, “you ought never to go to
sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible
token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “Why, sir,”
said I, “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another
case,” said he, “it is my calling and therefore my duty;
but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a
taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if
you persist; perhaps this is all befallen us on your ac-
count, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues
he, “what are you? and on what account did you go to
sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end
of which he burst out with a strange kind of passion,
“What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my
foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand
pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his
spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss,
and was farther than he could have authority to go. How-
ever, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted
me to go back to my father and not tempt Providence to
my ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven
against me, “And, young man,” said he, “depend upon it,
if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet
THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 17
with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and
I saw him no more; which way he went, I know not. As
for me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had
many struggles with myself what course of life I should
take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to
me how I should be laughed at among the neighbors and
should be ashamed to see not my father and mother only
but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed how incongruous and irrational the common
temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason
which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they
are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent;
not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to
be esteemed fools but are ashamed of the returning,
which only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take and what course of life
to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going
home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the
little motion I had in my desires to a return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it and
looked out for a voyage.

The Most Unfortunate of Enterprises

THAT evil influence which carried _me first away from
my father’s house, that hurried me into the wild and in-
digested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed
18 ROBINSON CRUSOE

those conceits so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to
all good advice and to the entreaties and even command
of my father; I say, the same influence, whatever it was,
presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my
view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast ofl
Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to!
Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures
I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might
indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at
the same time I had learned the duty and office of a
foremast man; and in time might have qualified myself
for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was
always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did here; for
having money in my pocket and good clothes upon my
back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-{
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship, or/
learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good com-
pany in London, which does not always happen to such
loose and unguided young fellows as I then was; the devil
generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very
early. But it was not so with me; I first fell acquainted}
with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of
Guinea; and who having had very good success there
was resolved to go again; and who taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told
me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no
expense; I should be his messmate and his companion,
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all
the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and per-
haps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict sat
ship with this captain, who was an honest and plaindealt
THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 19

ing man, I went the voyage with him and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably;
for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This £40 I had mustered to-
gether by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or
at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was success-
ful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity
and honesty of my friend the captain, under whom also
I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the
rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of
the ship’s course, take an observation, and in short, to
understand some things that were needful to be under-
stood by a sailor. For, as he took delight to introduce me,
I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made
me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure, whic! H
yielded me in London at my return almost £300, and
filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since
so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; par-
ticularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a
violent calenture* by the excessive heat of the climate;
our principal trading being upon the coast, from the lati-
tude of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend,
to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I =(
solved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in
the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage and had now got the command of the ship. This
was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for

1A tropical fever, characterized by delirium.
20 ROBINSON CRUSOE

though I did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained
wealth, so that I had £200 left, and which I lodged with
my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell -
into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was
this, viz., our ship making her course towards the Canary
Islands, or rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by a
Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as
our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got
clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would ,
certainly come up with us in afew hours, we prepared to
fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eight-
een. About three in the afternoon he came up with us, °
and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, in-
stead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side and poured in a
broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again,
after returning our fire and pouring in also his small-shot
from near 200 men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He
prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;
but laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who im-
mediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rig-
ging. We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story,
our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were car-/
ried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the}
Moors. .

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended, nor was I carried up the country to the em-
peror’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept
THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 21

by the captain of the rover, as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble and fit for his bastions
At this surprising change of my circumstances from a
merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now I looked back upon my father’s pro-
phetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and
have none to relieve me, which I thought was now so
effectually brought to pass that it could not be worse; that
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was
undone without redemption. But alas! this was but a taste
of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the
sequel of this story.

As my new patron or master had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him
when he went to sea again, believing that it would some
time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portugal man-of-war; and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for ;
when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his |
little garden and do the common drudgery of slaves about
his house; and when he came home again from his cruise,
he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way that
had the least probability in it. Nothing presented to make
the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me; no fellow-
slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there but
myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased my-
self with the imagination, yet I never had the least en-
couraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance seen
itself, which put the old thoughit of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home
longer than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as
22 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once
or twice a week, sometimes oftener if the weather was
fair, to take the ship’s pinnace and go out into the road
a-fishing; and as he always took me and a young Moor
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch, that
sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his
kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as they called him,
to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a stark
calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were
not half a league from the shore we lost sight of it; and
rowing we knew not whither or which way, we labored
all day and all the next night, and when the morning came,
we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in
for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from
the shore. However, we got well in again, though with a
great deal of labor and some danger; for the wind began
to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particularly we
were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having lying
by him the longboat of our English ship he had taken, he
resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a
compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little
stateroom or cabin in the middle of the longboat, like that
of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer and
hale home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or
two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with that we
call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibed over
the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low and
had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 23

bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; par-
ticularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and a
I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went
without me. It happened that he had appointed to go out
in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or
three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily; and had therefore
sent on board the boat over night, a larger store of pro-
visions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board
his ship; for that they designed some sport of fowling as
well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the
next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient *
and. pendants out, and everything to accommodate his
guests; when by and by my patron came on board alone
and told me his guests had put off going upon some busi-
ness that fell out, and ordered me with the man and boy,
as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and com-
manded that as soon as I had got some fish I should bring
it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted }
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a |
little ship at my command; and my master being gone, I °
prepared to furnish myself, not for a fishing business but
for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as
consider whither I should steer; for anywhere to get out
of that place was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak
to this Moor to get something for our subsistence on
board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of our

1 Banner.
24 ROBINSON CRUSOE

patron’s bread; he said that was true; so he brought a
large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind and three
jars with fresh water into the boat; I knew where my
patron’s case of bottles stood, which, it was evident by the
make, were taken out of some English prize; and I con-
veyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore,
as if they had been there before, for our master. I con-
veyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundredweight, with a parcel of
twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which
were of great use to us afterwards; especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also. His name was Ismael, who they}
call Muly, or Moely; so I called to him, “Moely,” said I,
“our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you not get
a little powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamies” (a fowl like our curlews) “for ourselves, for I
know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says
he, “Tl bring some”; and accordingly he brought a great |
leather pouch which held about a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had
five or six pound, with some bullets; and put all into the
boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my
master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the
large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring
what was in it into another; and thus furnished with
everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The
castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we
were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above
a mile out of the port before we haled in our sail and set
us down to fish. The wind blew from the north-northeast,
which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown
southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of
Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my
resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be
THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 25
gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the
rest to Fate.

After we had fished some time and catched nothing,
for when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up,
that he might not see them, I said to the Moor, “This will
not do, our master will not be thus served, we must stand
farther off.” He, thinking no harm, agreed and, being in
the head of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I
run the boat out near a league farther and then brought
her to as if I would fish; when giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as
if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by sur-
prise with my arm under his twist and tossed him clear
overboard into the sea; he rose immediately; for he swam |
like a cork, and called to me, beggéd to be taken in, told '
me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so
strong after the boat that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped
into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling pieces, I
presented it at him and told him I had done him no hurt
and, if he would be quiet, I would do him none. “But,”
said I, “you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and
the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and
I will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat,
I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have
my liberty”; so he turned himself about and swam for \
the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ©
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could ha’ been content to ha’ taken this Moor with
me and ha’ drowned the boy, but there was no venturing
to trust him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, who }
they called Xury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be |
faithful to me I'll make you a great man; but if you will
not stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear by
Mahomet and his father’s beard, “I must throw you into

\
26 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the sea too.” The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so in-
nocently that I could not mistrust him; and swore to be
faithful to me and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching
to windward, that they might think me gone towards the
Straits’ mouth (as indeed anyone that had been in their
wits must ha’ been supposed to do); for who would ha’
supposed we were sailed on to the southward to the truly
barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were
sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us;
where we could ne’er once go on shore but we should be
devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east, bend-
ing my course a little toward the east, that I might keep
in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind
and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe
by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I
first made the land, I could not be less than 150 miles
south of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for
we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors and
the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their
hands, that I would not stop or go on shore or come to an
anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that
manner five days: and then the wind shifting to the south-
ward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured
to make to the coast and came to an anchor in the mouth
of a little river. I knew not what or where; neither what
latitude, what country, what nations or what river. I
neither saw, or desired to see, any people; the principal ©
THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 27

thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek
in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures of we knew not
what kinds that the poor boy was ready to die with fear
and begged of me not to go on shore till day. “Well,
Xury,” said I, “then I won't; but it may be we may see
men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.”
“Then we give them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing;
“make them run wey.” Such English Xury spoke by con-
versing among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the
boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our
patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s
advice was good, and I took it. We dropped our little
anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none!
for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts come down to
the seashore and run into the water, wallowing and wash-
ing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves;
and they made such hideous howlings and yellings that I
never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one of
these mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat;
we could not see him, but we might hear him by his blow-
ing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said
it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know; but
poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away.
“No,” says I, “Kury, we can slip our cable with the buoy
to it and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had
no sooner said so but I perceived the creature (whatever
it was) within two oars’ length, which something sur-
prised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin
door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he
28 ROBINSON CRUSOE

immediately turned about and swam towards the shore
again.

= it is impossible to describe the horrible noises and
hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon
the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard before. This
convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in
the night upon that coast; and how to venture on shore in
the day was another question too; for to have fallen into
the hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to have
fallen into the hands of lions and tigers; at least we were
equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water for we had not a pint left
in the boat; when or where to get to it was the point.
Xury said if I would let him go on shore with one of the
jars, he would find if there was any water and bring some
to me. I asked him why he would go? Why I should not
go and he stay in the boat? They boy answered with so
much affection that made me love him ever after. Says he,
“If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” “Well,
Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them; they shall eat neither of us”; so I
gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat and a dram out of
our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before; and
we haled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing but our
arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the
boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it; and by and by I saw him come running
towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage
or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward to-
THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 29

wards him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I
saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in
color and longer legs; however, we were very glad of it,
and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with was to tell me he had found good water
and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek where we
were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars end)
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on
our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature
in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries and the Cape de
Verde Islands also lay not far off from the coast. But as I
had no instruments to take an observation to know what
latitude we were in and did not exactly know or at least
remember what latitude they were in, I knew not where
to look for them or when to stand off to sea towards them;
otherwise I might now easily have found some of these
islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast
till I came to that part where the English traded, I should
find some of their vessels upon their usual design of
trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now
was must be that country, which lying between the Em-
peror of Morocco’s dominions and the Negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes hav-
ing abandoned it and gone farther south for. fear of the
Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting by
reason of its barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it be-
cause of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards,
and other furious creatures which harbor there; so that
30 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like
an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and indeed
for near an hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day and
heard nothing but howlings and roarings of wild beasts
by night. So

Once or twice in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico’
of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe
in the Canaries; and had a great mind to venture out, in
hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel, so I resolved to pursue my first
design and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water,
after we had left this place; and once in particular, being
early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little
point of land which was pretty high, and the tide begin-
ning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes
were more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly
to me and tells me that we had best go farther off the
shore. “For,” says he, “look, yonder lies a dreadful monster
on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where
he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was
a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under
the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were a little
over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill
him.” Xury looked frightened, and said, “Me kill; he eat
me at one mouth”; one mouthful he meant. However, I
said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took
our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder and with two
slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with
two bullets; and the third, for we had three pieces, I
loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him into the head, *
THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 31

but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose,
that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the
bone. He started up growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got up upon three legs
and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was
a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head; how-
ever, I took up the second piece immediately and though
he began to move off fired again, and shot him into the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but
little noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took
heart, and would have me let him go on shore. “Well, go,”
said I, so the boy jumped into the water and, taking a
little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand
and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the
piece to his ear and shot him into the head again, which
dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us but this was no food; and
I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot
upon a creature that was good for nothing to us. However,
Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on
board and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what,
Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he. However,
Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot and
brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.

‘I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
him might one way or other be of some value to us; and I
resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him; but Xury was much the better work-
man at it for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took
us both the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of
him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun ef-
fectually dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward con-
-tinually for ten or twelve days, living very sparing on our
32 ROBINSON CRUSOE

provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no
oftener in to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
_water; my design in this was to make the river Gambia or
\ Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de
Verde, where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship, and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to
take, but to seek out for the islands, or perish there among
the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe which
sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil or to the
East Indies made this cape or those islands; and in a word,
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,
either that I must meet with some ship or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was in-
habited, and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we
saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we could
also perceive they were quite black and stark naked. I
was once inclined to ha’ gone on shore to them; but Xury
was my better counsellor and said to me, “No go, no go.”
However, I haled in nearer the shore that I might talk to
them, and I found they run along the shore by me a good
way. I observed they had no weapons in their hands,
except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury
said was a lance, and that they would throw them a great
way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked
with them by signs as well as I could, and particularly
made signs for something to eat. They beckoned to me to
stop my boat, and that they would fetch me some meat;
upon this I lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and two
of them run up into the country, and in less than half an
hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of
dry flesh and ‘some corn, such as is the produce of their
country, but we neither knew what the one or the other
was; however, we were willing to accept it, but how to
come at it was our next dispute, for I was not for ventur-
THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 33

ing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of
us; but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a
great way off till we fetched it on board and then came
close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that
very instant to oblige them wonderfully, for while we
were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one
pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from
the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male
pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in
rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell
whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the
latter; because in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night; and in the second place,
we found the people terribly frighted; especially the
women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly
from them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures
ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to
fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion; at last one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for
I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and
bade Xury load both the other; as soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired and shot him directly into the
head; immediately he sunk down into the water, but rose
instantly and plunged up and down as if he was strug-
gling for life, and so indeed he was; he immediately made
to the shore; but between the wound, which was his
mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just
before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun; some
i

34 ROBINSON CRUSOE

of them were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as
dead with very terror. But when they saw the creature
dead and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them
to come to the shore, they took heart and came to the
shore, and began to search for the creature. I found him
by his blood staining the water, and by the help of a rope
which I flung round him and gave the Negroes to haul,
they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most
curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable degree,
and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration to
think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly
to the mountains from whence they came, nor could I at
that distance know what it was. I found quickly the
Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I
was willing to have them take it as a favor from me,
which, when I made signs to them that they might take
him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell
to work with him, and though they had no knife, yet with
a sharpened piece of wood they took off his skin as readily
and much more readily than we could have done with a
knife; they offered me some of the flesh, which I de-
clined, making as if I would give it them, but made signs
for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought
me a great deal more of their provision, which though I

did not understand, yet I accepted; then I made signs to

them for some water and held out one of my jars to them,

“turfiing it bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and

that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends, and there came two women and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt as I sup-
pose in the sun; this they set down for me as before, and I
sent Xury on shore with my jars and filled them all three.
The women were as stark naked as the men.


THE MOST UNFORTUNATE OF ENTERPRISES 3, 5

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was
and water, and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made for:
ward for about eleven days more without offering to go’
near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length
into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues
before me, and the sea being very calm, I kept a large
offing to make this point; at length, doubling the point at
about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on
the other side, to seaward; then I concluded, as it was
most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde and
those the islands, called from thence Cape de Verde |
Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and i
could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should
be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one
or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into
the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when
on a sudden the boy cried out, “Master, master, a ship with |
a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, '
thinking it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent
to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out
of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately
saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz., that it was
a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bod to the } /
coast of Guinea for Negroes. But when I observed the
course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any nearer
to the shore; upon which I stretched out to sea as much as
I could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them; but after I had
crowded to the utmost and began to despair, they, it
seems, saw me by the help of their perspective-glasses,
and that it was some European boat, which as they sup-
36 ROBINSON CRUSOE

posed must belong to some ship that was lost, so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with
this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a
waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw, for they told me they saw the
smoke, though they did not hear the gun; upon these
signals they very kindly brought to and lay by for me,
and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was in Portuguese and in
Spanish and in French, but I understood none of them;
but at last a Scots sailor who was on board called to me,
, and I answered him and told him I was an Englishman,
. that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors,
at Sallee; then they bade me come on board and very
kindly took me in and all my goods.

I Came to the Brazils



IT WAS an inexpressible joy to me, that any one will be-
lieve, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from
such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was
in, and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of
the ship as a return for my deliverance; but he gener-
ously told me he would take nothing from me, but that all
I had should be delivered safe to me when I came to the
Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself, and it may
one time or other be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition; besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the
Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I should
take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then I only take away that life I have given. No, no,
Seignior Inglese,” says he [Mr. Englishman], “I will carry
you thither in charity, and those things will help you to
I CAME TO THE BRAZILS 37

buy your subsistence there and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in
the performance to a tittle, for he ordered the seamen
that none should offer to touch anything I had; then he
took everything into his own possession and gave me back
an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even
so much as my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use and
asked me what I would have for it. I told him he had been
so generous to me in everything that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat but left it entirely to him, upon
which he told me he would give me a note of his hand
to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil, and when
it came there, if anyone offered to give more, he would
make it up; he offered me also sixty pieces of eight more
for my boy Xury, which I was loath to take, not that I was
not willing to let the captain have him but I was very
loath to sell the poor boy’s liberty who had assisted me so
faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him
know my reason, he owned it to be just and offered me
this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to
set him free in ten years if he turned Christian; upon this,
and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the
captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils and exe
in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more de-
livered from the most miserable of all conditions of life,
and what to do next with myself I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me I can
never enough remember; he would take nothing of me for
my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin,
and forty for the lion’s skin which I had in my boat, and
caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually de-
ee Ra sire ~~“

38 ROBINSON CRUSOE

livered me; and what I was willing to sell he bought,
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of
the lump of beeswax, for I had made candles of the rest;
in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight of all my
cargo, and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to
the house of a good honest man like himself, who had an
ingenio as they call it, that is, a plantation and a sugar-
house, I lived with him some time and acquainted myself
by that means with the manner of their planting and mak-

, ing of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived and

| how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get

| license to settle there, I would turn planter among them,
resolving in the meantime to find out some way to get my
money which I had left in London remitted to me. To
this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of naturalization, I
purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement, and such a one as might be siitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of ‘
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much |
such circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbor,
because his plantation lay next to mine and we went on
very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as
his; and we rather planted for food than anything else
for about two years. However, we began to increase, and
our land began to come into order; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco and made each of us a large
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to
come; but we both wanted help and now I found, more}
than before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy}
Xury.

But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right was no
great wonder: I had no remedy but to go on; I was gotten
I CAME TO THE BRAZILS 39

into an employment quite remote to my genius and di-
rectly contrary to the life I delighted in and for which
I forsook my father’s house, and broke through all his
good advices; nay, I was coming into the very middle
station, or upper degree of low life, which my father ad-
vised me to before and which, if I resolved to go on with,
I might as well ha’ stayed at home and never have fa-
tigued myself in the world as I had done; and I used often
to say to myself, I could ha’ done this as well in England
among my friends as ha’ gone 5000 miles off to do it
among strangers and savages in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the world
that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with
the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with but now
and then this neighbor; no work to be done, but by the
labor of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island that had no-
body there but himself. But how just has it been, and
how should all men reflect, that when they compare their
present conditions with others that are worse, Heaven
may oblige them to make the exchange and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience; I say, how
just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on
in an island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had
so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then
led, in which had I continued, I had in all probability
been exceeding prosperous and rich.

I was in some degree settled in my measures for carry-
ing on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain
of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship
remained there in providing his loading, and preparing
for his voyage, near three months; when, telling him ma
little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me
this friendly and sincere advice. “Seignior Inglese,” says
40 ROBINSON CRUSOE

he, for so he always called me, “if you will give me letters,
and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the
person who has your money in London, to send your ef-
fects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you
the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but since
human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I\
would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which you say is half your stock, and let the
hazard be run for the first; so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice and looked so friendly
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course
I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gen-
tlewoman with whom I had left my money and a procura-
tion to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of
all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met
with the Portugal captain at sea, the humanity of his be-
havior and in what condition I was now in, with all other
necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest
captain came to Lisbon, he found means by some of the
English merchants there to send over not the order only,
but a full account of my story to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she not
only delivered the money but out of her own pocket sent
the Portugal captain a very handsome present for his
humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds
in English goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all ;
safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direc- '
tion (for I was too young in my business to think of
them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron- |
I CAME TO THE BRAZILS 41

work and utensils necessary for my plantation, and which
were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made,
for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good
steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds which
my friend had sent him for a present for himself to pur-
chase and bring me over a servant under bond for six}
years’ service, and would not accept of any consideration
except a little tobacco which I would have him accept,
being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things par-
ticularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found
means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say I had more than four times the value of my first
cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbor,
I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for the first
thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave and an European
servant also; I mean another besides that which the cap-
tain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very
means of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went
on the next year with great success in my plantation. I
raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground,
more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my
neighbors; and these fifty rolls, being each of above a
hundredweight, were well cured and laid by against the
return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now increasing in
business and in wealth, my head began to be full of |
projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are
indeed often the ruin of the best heads in business.

Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me,
for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described
APO,

42 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the middle station of life to be full of; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all
my own miseries; and particularly to increase my fault
and double the reflections upon myself, which in my
future sorrows I should have leisure to make; all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad
and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects and those measures of life
which Nature and Providence concurred to present me
with and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now but I must go and
leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving
man in my new plantation only to pursue a rash and im-
moderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the
thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into
the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into,
or perhaps would be consistent with life and a state of
health in the world.

To come then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of
this part of my story; you may suppose that, having now
lived almost four years in the Brazils and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted ac-
quaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as
well as among the merchants at St. Salvadore, which was
our port; and that in my discourses among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of -Guinea, the manner of trading with the
Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast, for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold dust,


I CAME TO THE BRAZILS

: 43
Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc., but Negroes for the /
service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related
to the buying Negroes, which was a trade at that time
not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by the assientos, or permission of the
kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public,
so that few Negroes were brought, and those excessive
dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
morning and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of, the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and after
enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they had a mind
to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all planta-
tions as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one
voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and di-
vide them among their own plantations; and in a word,,
the question was whether I would go their supercargo in|
the ship to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the Negroes without providing any part of the!
stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it|
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after which was in a fair
way of coming to be very considerable and with a good
stock upon it. But for me that was thus entered and estab-
44 ROBINSON CRUSOE

lished and had nothing to do but go on as I had begun
for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other
hundred pound from England, and who in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce ha’ failed of being
worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that
increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage was the
most preposterous thing that ever man in such circum-
stances could be guilty of.

But I that was born to be my own destroyer could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first ram-
bling designs, when my father’s good counsel was lost
upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my planta-
tion in my absence and would dispose of it to such as I
should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do,
and entered into writings or covenants to do so; and I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and ef-
_ fects, in case of my death, making the captain of the ship
_ that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but
' obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed

/ in my will, one half of the produce being to himself and

the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my ef-
fects and keep up my plantation; had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest and have
made a judgment of what I ought to have done and not to
have done, I had certainly never gone away from so
prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views
of a thriving circumstance and gone upon a voyage to sea,
attended with all its common hazards; to say nothing of
the reasons I-had to expect particular misfortunes to my-
self.

But I was hurried on and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly, the
ship being fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all
THE TERROR OF THE STORM 45

things done as by agreement by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the 1st of Septem- |
ber, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from
my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel
to their authority and the fool to my own interest.

The Terror of the Storm



OUR SHIP was about 120 ton burden, carried six guns
and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and my-
self; we had on board no large cargo of goods, except of
such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such
as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially
little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the
like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design
to stretch over for the African coast, when they came
about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which
it seems was the manner of their course in those days.
We had very good weather, only excessive hot, all the
| way upon our own coast till we came the height of Cape
St. Augustino, from whence keeping farther off at sea,
we lost sight of land and steered as if we were bound for
the Isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our course north-
east by north, and leaving those isles on the east; in this
course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and
were by our last observation in seven degrees twenty-two
minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado or hur-
ricane took us quite out of our knowledge; it began from
the southeast, came about to the northwest, and then
settled into the northeast, from whence it blew in such
a terrible manner that for twelve days together we could
do nothing but drive and, scudding away before it, let it
46 ROBINSON CRUSOE

carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds di-
rected; and during these twelve days, I need not say,
that I expected every day to be swallowed up, nor indeed
did any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm)
one of our men died of the calenture, and one man and
the boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the
weather abating a little, the master made an observation
as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven
degrees north latitude, but that he was twenty-two de-
grees of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augus-
tino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guinea, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazones, toward that of the river Oronoque, commonly
called the Great River, and began to consult with me
what course he should take, for the ship was leaky and
very much disabled and he was going directly back to’
the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that, and looking over the
charts of the seacoast of America with him, we concluded
there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse
to till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands
and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbados, which
by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or
Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped,
in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not pos-
sibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course and steered
away northwest by west in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage
was otherwise determined, for being in the latitude of
twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity
westward and drove us so out of the very way of all


THE TERROR OF THE STORM 47

human commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to
the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one
of our men early in the morning cried out, “Land!” and
we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out in
hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were but the
ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion
being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner
that we expected we should all have perished immedi-
ately, and we were immediately driven into our close
quarters to shelter us from the very foam and spray of
the sea.

It is not easy for anyone who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of
men in such circumstances; we knew nothing where we
were or upon what land it was we were driven, whether
an island or the main, whether inhabited or not in-
habited; and as the rage of the wind was still great,
though rather less than at first, we could not so much as
hope to have the ship hold many minutes without break-
ing in pieces unless the winds by a kind of miracle should
turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one
upon another and expecting death every moment, and
every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
world, for there was little or nothing more for us to do in
this; that which was our present comfort and all the com-
fort we had was, that contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not break yet and that the master said the wind
began to abate.

Now though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and
sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were
in a dreadful condition indeed and had nothing to do but
to think of saving our lives as well as we could; we had a
48 ROBINSON CRUSOE

boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the
next place she broke away and either sunk or was driven
off to sea, so there was no hope from her; we had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, there was no room to debate,
for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel lays hold of the
_boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, they got
_ her slung over the ship’s side and, getting all into her, let
go and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to
God’s mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was
abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon
the shore, and might well be called den wild zee, as the
Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could
not live and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to
making sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could we ha’
done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution; for we all knew that when the boat came
nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed
our souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our de-
struction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could
towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was
if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth
of some river, where by great chance we might have run
our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps
THE TERROR OF THE STORM 49

made smooth water. But there was nothing of this ap-
peared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the
land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-
like, came rolling astern of us and plainly bade us expect
the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury
that it overset the boat at once; and separating us, as well

from the boat as from one another, gave us not time ,

hardly to say, “O God!” for we were all swallowed up in
a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore and having
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much
presence of mind as well as breath left, that seeing myself
nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my
feet, and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast
as I could, before another wave should return and take
me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid
it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had no means or
strength to contend with; my business was to hold my
breath and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so
by swimming to preserve my breathing and pilot myself
towards the shore, if possible; my greatest concern now
being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way to-
wards the shore when it came on, might not carry me
back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could
feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness to-

yy
50 ROBINSON CRUSOE

wards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath |
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my
might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, so to my immediate re-
lief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the sur-
face of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me
greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out; and finding the water had spent itself and
began to return, I struck forward against the return of
the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the water
went from me, and then took to my heels, and run with
what strength I had farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea,
which came pouring in after me again, and twice more
I was lifted up by the waves, and carried forwards as be-
fore, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well near been fatal to
me; for the sea, having hurried me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and
that with such force as it left me senseless, and indeed
helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow, taking
my side and breast, beat the breath as it were quite out
of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered
a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should
be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast
by a piece of the rock and so to hold my breath, if pos-
sible, till the wave went back; now as the waves were not
so high as at first, being near land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore that the next wave, though
it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry
A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 51

me away, and the next run I took, I got to the mainland,
where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the clifts of
the shore and sat me down upon the grass, free from
danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.

A Dreadful Deliverance

I WAS now landed and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved in a case
wherein there was some minutes before scarce any room
to hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life
what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are when it
is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave; and I do
not wonder now at that custom, viz., that when a male-
factor who has the halter about his neck is tied up and
just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought
to him: I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon
with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him
of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits
from the heart, and overwhelm him:

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contempla-
tion of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and
motions which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned and that there should not
be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never
saw them afterwards or any sign of them, except three of
their hats, one cap and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach
and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it
lay so far off, and considered, Lord! how was it possible
I could get on shore?
52 ROBINSON CRUSOE
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable

part of my condition, I began to look round me to see what
kind of place I was in, and what was next to be done,
and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I had a dreadful deliverance. For I was wet, had no
clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink
to comfort me, neither did I see any prospect before me
but that of perishing with hunger or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particular afflicting to
me was that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any
creatures for my sustenance or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs.
In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-
pipe and a little tobacco in a box; this was all my pro-
vision, and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind
that for a while I run about like a madman; night coming
upon me, I began with a heavy heart to consider what
would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for
their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time
was to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but
thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit
all night, and consider the next day what death I should
die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life; I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having
drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, en-
deavored to place myself so as that if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a
truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging, and
having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done
A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 53

in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed
with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell
as before. But that which surprised me most was that the |
ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she’
lay by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost
as far as the rock which I first mentioned, where I had
been so bruised by the dashing me against it; this being
within about a mile from the shore where I was and the
ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on
board, that, at least, I might save some necessary things
for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her up
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to
her, but found a neck or inlet of water between me and
the boat, which was about half a mile broad, so I came
back for the present, being more intent upon getting at
the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present
subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm and the
tide ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter
of a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing
of my grief, for I saw evidently that if we had kept on
board, we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got
safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I
now was; this forced tears from my eyes again, but as
there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get
to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when I
54 ROBINSON CRUSOE

/ came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know

| how to get on board, for as she lay aground, and high out

‘ of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay
hold of; I swam round her twice, and the second time I
spied a small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did
not see at first, hang down by the fore-chain so low as that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of
that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I
found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of
water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay
lifted up upon the bank and her head low almost to the
water; by this means all her quarter was free, and all that
was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first
work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what
was free; and first I found that all the ship’s provisions
were dry and untouched by the water, and being very
well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled
my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other
things, for I had no time to lose; I also found some rum
in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and
which I had indeed enough of to spirit me for what was
before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish
myself with many things which I foresaw would be very.
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application; we had
several spare yards and two or three large spars of wood
and a spare top mast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall
to work with these and flung as many of them overboard
as I could manage for their weight, tying every one with a
rope that they might not drive away; when this was done
I went down the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I
tied four of them fast together at both ends as well as I
could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short


A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 55

pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear
any great weight, the pieces being too light; so I went to
work, and with the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top mast
into three lengths and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labor and pains; but hope of furnishing my-
self with necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what
I should have been able to have done upon another oc-
casion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight; my next care was what to load it with and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but
I was not long considering this; I first laid all the planks
or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered
well what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s
chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and low-
ered them down upon my raft; the first of these I filled
with provision, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat’s flesh, which we lived much
upon, and a little remainder of European corn which had
been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea
with us, but the fowls were killed; there had been some
barley and wheat together, but, to my great disappoint-
ment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of
bottles belonging to our skipper in which were some
cordial waters, and in all about five or six gallons of rack;
these I stowed: by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chest, nor no room for them. While I was
doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very
calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, |
and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon the sand,
swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen,
and open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stock-
ings. However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes,
56 ROBINSON CRUSOE

of which I found enough but took no more than I wanted
for present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon, as first, tools to work with on shore; and it was
after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-loading of gold would
have been at that time; I got it down to my raft, even
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it for I
knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms;
there were two very good fowling pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with some
powder-horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords; I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water; those two I got
to my raft with the arms, and now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or rudder;
and the least capful of wind would have overset all my
navigation.

I had three encouragements: 1. A smooth, calm sea. 2.
The tide rising and setting in to the shore. 3. What little
wind there was blew me towards the land; and thus, hav-
ing found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found
two saws, an axe, and a hammer, and with this cargo I
put to sea. For a mile or thereabouts my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the
place where I had landed before, by which I perceived
that there was some indraft of the water, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river there which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my
cargo.


A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 57

As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before me a |
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current
of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I |
could to keep in the middle of the stream. But here I had
like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had,
I think verily would have broke my heart, for knowing
nothing of the coast, my raft run aground at one end of it
upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost by setting my back against the
chests to keep them in their places, but could not thrust
off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from
the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all
my might, stood in that manner near half an hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level; and a little after, the water still rising,
my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar
I had into the channel and then driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running
up; I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to
shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the
river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea and there-
fore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the>
creek, to which with great pain and difficulty I guided |
my raft and at last got so near as that, reaching ground / -
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I
had like to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping,
there was no place to land, but where one end of my
float, if it run on shore, would lie so high and the other
sink lower as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at
58 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and
so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft
drew about a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that flat
piece of ground and there fastened or moored her by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one
side near one end, and one on the other side near the
other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away and
left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation and where to stow my
goods to secure them from whatever might happen;
where I was I yet knew not, whether on the continent or
on an island, whether inhabited or not inhabited, whether
in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above
a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and
which seemed to overtop some other hills which lay as in
a ridge from it, northward; I took out one of the fowling
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder, and
thus armed, I traveled for discovery up to the top of that
hill, where, after I had with great labor and difficulty got:
to the top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz., that I {
was in an island environed every way with the sea, no.
land to be seen, except some rocks which lay a great way _
off and two small islands less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren and,
as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by
wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none, yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kind; neither
when I killed them could I tell what was fit for food, and
what not; at my coming back, I shot at a great bird which
I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood. I
A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 59

believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since
the creation of the world; I had no sooner fired but from
all the parts of the wood there arose an innumerable num-
ber of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming,
and crying every one according to his usual note; but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature
I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its color and
beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common; its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my tt)
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took
me up the rest of that day, and what to do with myself at |
night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some J
wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards
found, there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore
and made a kind of a hut for that night’s lodging; as for
food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except
that I had seen two or three creatures like hares run out
of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful to me,
and particularly some of the rigging and sails and such
other things as might come to land, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible;
and as I knew that the first storm that blew must neces-
sarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other
things apart, till I got everything out of the ship that I
could get; then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft but this
appeared impracticable; so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped


60 ROBINSON CRUSOE

before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a
checkered shirt and a pair of linen drawers and a pair of
pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a sec-
ond raft, and having had experience of the first, I neither
made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I
brought away several things very useful to me; as first, in
the carpenter’s stores I. found two or three bags full of
nails and spikes, a great screwjack, a dozen or two of
hatchets and, above all, that most useful thing called a
grindstone; all these I secured together, with several
things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows and two barrels of musket bullets, seven
muskets and another fowling piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot
and a great roll of sheet lead. But this last was so heavy,
I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore topsail, a hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions during my absence
from the land, that at least my provisions might be de-
voured on shore; but when I came back, I found no sign
of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild cat
upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards it,
ran away a little distance, and then stood still; she sat
very composed and unconcerned and looked full in my
face as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I
presented my gun at her, but as she did not understand
it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great. However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she
went to it, smelled of it and ate it and looked (as pleased )


A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 61

for more, but I thanked her and could spare no more; so
she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore, though I we
fain to open the barrels of powder and ‘bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks, I
went to work to make me a little tent with the sail and
some poles which I cut for that purpose, and into this
tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil, either
with rain or sun, and I piled all the empty chests and
casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any
sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within and an empty chest set up on
end without, and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and
slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary and
heavy, for the night before I had slept little and had la-
bored very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever
was laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied
still; for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could;
so every day at low water I went on board, and brought
away something or other. But particularly the third time|
I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I|
could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could
get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In
a word, I brought away all the sails first and last, only
that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much
at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to be
sails but as mere canvas only.

‘But that which comforted me more still was that at last
62 ROBINSON CRUSOE

of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I
found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets
of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given over
expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled
by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread,
and wrapped it up parcel by parcel in pieces of the sails,
which I cut out; and in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.

The next day I made another voyage; and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand
out, I began with the cables; and cutting the great cable
into pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the ironwork I could get; and
having cut down the spritsail yard, and the mizzen yard,
and everything I could to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all those heavy goods, and came away.

But my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft
was so unwieldy and so over-loaden, that after I was en-
tered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the
other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the
water; as for myself it was no great harm, for I was near
the shore; but as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost,
especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me. However, when the tide was out, I got
most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labor; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work. which fatigued me very much. After
this I went every day on board, and brought away what
I could get. iy

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had beer
eleven times on board the ship; in which time I had| {

\
A DREADFUL DELIVERANCE 63

brought away all that one pair of hands could well be
supposed capable to bring, though I believe verily, had
the calm weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship piece by piece. But preparing the twelfth time
to go on board, I found the wind begin to rise; however,
at low water I went on board, and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers
in it, in one of which I found two or three razors and one
pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six
pounds value in money, some European coin, some
Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “O drug!”
said I aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou art not worth

to me, no, not the taking off of the ground; one of those /
knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for /

thee; e’en remain where thou art and go to the bottom as
a creature whose life is not worth saving.” However,

upon second thoughts, I took it away, and wrapping all —

this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of making an-~

other raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky
overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of
an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore; it presently
occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my business
to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I
might not be able to reach the shore at all.

Accordingly I let myself down into the water and swam
across the channel, which lay between the ship and the
sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of the things I had about me, and partly the

roughness of the water, for the wind rose very hastily,

and before it was quite high water, it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay
64. ROBINSON CRUSOE

with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very
hard all that night, and in the morning, when I looked
out, behold, no more ship was to be seen; I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory re-
flection, viz., that I had lost no time, nor abated no dili-
gence to get everything out of her that could be useful to
me, and that indeed there was little left in her that I was
able to bring away if I had had more time.

Securing Myself Against Savages
and Wild Beasts



I NOW gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of
anything out of her, except what might drive on shore
from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards
did; but those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about secur-
ing myself against either savages, if any should appear,
or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many
thoughts of the method how to do this and what kind of
dwelling to raake, whether I should make me a cave in
the earth or a tent upon the earth. And, in short, I re-
solved upon both, the manner and description of which
it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish
ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it, so I resolved to find a more healthy and
more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I
found would be proper for me: first, health and fresh
water, I just now mentioned; secondly, shelter from the
heat of the sun; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures,
SECURING MYSELF AGAINST SAVAGES 65

whether men or beasts; fourthly, a view to the sea, that
if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any ad-
vantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this I found a little plain -
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top; on the side of this rock
there was a hollow place worn a little way in like the
entrance or door of a cave, but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an
hundred yards broad and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door and at the end of it de-
scended irregularly every way down into the low grounds
by the seaside. It was on the north-northwest side of the
hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every day, till
it came to a west and by south sun, or thereabouts, which
in those countries is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter from the rock and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.

In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about five
foot and a half and sharpened on the top. The two rows
did not stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship, and laid them in rows one upon another, within the
circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them,
about two foot and a half high, like a spur to a post; and
this fence was so strong that neither man nor beast could
eal

66 ROBINSON CRUSOE

get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and
labor, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them
to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top, which ladder,
when I was in, I lifted over after me, and so I was com-
pletely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought, from all the
world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise I could not have done, though, as it appeared
afterward, there was no need of all this caution from the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of which you have the account above; and I made me a
large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains that in
one part of the year are very violent there, I made double,
viz., one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it,
and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin which
I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I
had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was in-
deed a very good one and belonged to the mate of the
ship. ;

fat this tent I brought all my provisions and every.
thing that would spoil by the wet, and having thus en-

.. closed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till

now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said,

' by ashort ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into

~ the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug

down out through my tent, I laid ’em up within my fence
in the nature of a terrace, that so it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave
just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my
house.


SECURING MYSELF AGAINST SAVAGES 67

It cost me much labor and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection, and therefore 1 must
go back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
my scheme for the setting up my tent and making the
cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick dark cloud,
a sudden flash of lightning happened and after that a
great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it; I was
not so much surprised with the lightning as I was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the light-
ning itself: O my powder! My very heart sunk within me
when I thought that at one blast all my powder might be
destroyed, on which not my defense only but the provid-
ing me food, as I thought, entirely depended; I was noth-
ing near so anxious about my own danger, though had the
powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building
and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and
boxes to separate the powder, and keep it a little and a
little in'a parcel, in hope that whatever might come it
might not all take fire at once, and to keep it so apart that
it should not be possible to make one part fire another.
I finished this work in about a fortnight, and I think my
powder, which in all was about 240 pounds’ weight, was
divided in not less than a hundred parcels; as to the bar-
rel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger
from that, so I placed it in my new cave, which in my
fancy I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down
in holes among the rocks,.so that no wet might come to
it, marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert
myself as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and as
near as I could to acquaint myself with what the island
68 ROBINSON CRUSOE

produced. The first time I went out I presently discovered
that there were goats in the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this mis-
fortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtile, and
so swift of foot that it was the difficultest thing in the
world to come at them. But I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened, for after I had found their haunts a little,
I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks,
they would run away as in a terrible fright; but if they
were feeding in the valleys and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me, from whence I concluded that, by
the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward that they did not readily see objects that were
above them; so afterward I took this method, I always
climbed the rocks first to get above them and then had
frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among these
creatures, I killed a she-goat which had a little kid by her
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her till
I came and took her up, and not only so, but when I car-
ried the old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid fol-
lowed me quite to my enclosure, upon which I laid down
the dam and took the kid in my arms and carried it over
my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would
not eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate spar-
ingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as
much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place. But I must first give some little
SECURING MYSELF AGAINST SAVAGES 69

account of myself and of my thoughts about living, which
it may well be supposed were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as is
said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our
intended voyage and a great way, viz., some hundreds
of leagues out of the ordinary course of the trade of man-
kind, I had great reason to consider it as a determination
of Heaven that in this desolate place and in this desolate
manner I should end my life; the tears would run plenti-
fully down my face when I made these reflections, and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Provi-
_ dence should thus completely ruin its creatures and
render them so absolutely miserable, so without help
abandoned, so entirely depressed that it could hardly be
rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts and to reprove me; and particularly one
day, walking with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I
was very pensive upon the subject of my present condi-
tion, when Reason, as it were, expostulated with me t
other way, thus: “Well, you are in a desolate condition,
‘tis true, but pray remember, where are the rest of you?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat? Where
are the ten? Why were not they saved and you lost? Why
were you singled out? Is it better to be here, or there?”
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be consid-
ered with the good that is in them and with what worse
attends them.

Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished
for my subsistence and what would have been my case if
it had not happened, which was an hundred thousand to
one, that the ship floated from the place where she first
_ struck and was driven so near to the shore that I had time
_ to get all these things out of her. What would have been
70 ROBINSON CRUSOE

my case if I had been to have lived in the condition in
which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life,
or necessaries to supply and procure them? “Particu-
larly,” said I aloud (though to myself), “what should I
ha’ done without a gun, without ammunition, without any
tools to make anything or to work with, without clothes,
bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering?” and that
now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a
fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live
without my gun when my ammunition was spent; so that
I had a tolerable view of subsisting without any want as
long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning how
I would provide for the accidents that might happen and
for the time that was to come, even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health
or strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my am-
munition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder
being blown up by lightning, and this made the thoughts
of it so surprising to me when it lightened and thundered,
as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of
a scene of silent life, such perhaps, as was never heard
of in the world before, I shall take it from its beginning,
and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the
80th of September when, in the manner as above said, I
first set foot upon this horrid island, when the sun, being
to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my
head, for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the
line.

_ After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time
for want of books and pen and ink and should even forget
the Sabbath days from the working days; but to prevent
SECURING MYSELF AGAINST SAVAGES 71
this I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital
letters, and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the
shore where I first landed, viz., “I came on shore here o |
the 30th of September 1659.” Upon the sides of thi
square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and
every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place we are to observe that among the
many things which I brought out of the ship in the sev-
eral voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I
got several things of less value, but not all less useful to
me, which I omitted setting down before; as in particular,
pens, ink, and paper, several parcels in the captain’s,
mate’s, gunner’s and carpenter's keeping, three or four
compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, per-
spectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no;
also I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in
my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also, and
among them two or three Popish prayer-books, and sev-
eral other books, all which I carefully secured. And I
must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to
say something in its place; for I carried both the cats
with me, and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of
himself and swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo and was a trusty servant to na
many years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor
any company that he could make up to me; I only wanted
to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I ob-
served before, I found pen, ink, and paper, and I hus-
banded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while
/ 72 ROBINSON CRUSOE

~ my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
i gone, I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together, and of
these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and
shovel, to dig or remove the earth, needles, pins, and
thread; as for linen, I soon learned to want that without
much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily,
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished
my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles, or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a
long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and
more by far in bringing home, so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts
and a third day in driving it into the ground; for which
purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which, how-
ever, though I found it, yet it made driving those posts or
piles very laborious and tedious work.

But what need I ha’ been concerned at the tediousness
of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do
it inP Nor had I any other employment, if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food, which I did more or less every

day.

My Reason Began to Master My
Despondency

I NOW began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to, and I drew up the state
REASON MASTERS DESPONDENCY 73

of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any
that were to come after me, for I was like to have but few
heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind; and as my reason began
now to master my despondency, I began to comfort my
self as well as I could and to set the good against the evil,\\
that I might have something to distinguish my case from ©
worse, and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and
creditor, the comforts I enjoyed, against the miseries I

suffered, thus:

Evil
I am cast upon a horrible
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out and
separated, as it were, from

all the world to be misera-
ble.

I am divided from man-
kind, a solitaire, one ban-
ished from human society.

I have not clothes to
cover me.

I am without any de-
fense or means to resist any
violence of man or beast.

Je
Good ei

But I am alive, and not
drowned, as all my ship’s
company was.

But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship's crew to
be spared from death; and
He that miraculously saved
me from death can deliver
me from this condition.

But I am not starved and
perishing on a_ barren
place, affording no suste-
nance.

But I am in a hot climate,
where if I had clothes I
could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an is-
land, where I see no wild
beasts to hurt me, as I saw
on the coast of Africa. And
what if I had been ship-
wrecked there?
74 ROBINSON CRUSOE

Evil Good
I have no soul to speak But God wonderfully
to, or relieve me. sent the ship in near

enough to the shore that I
have gotten out so many
necessary things as will
either supply my wants, or
enable me to supply my-
self even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that
tnere was scarce any condition in the world so misera-
ble but there was something negative or something posi-
tive to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direc-
tion from the experience of the most miserable of all
conditions in this world, that we may always find in it
something to comfort ourselves from and to set in the
description of good and evil on the credit side of the
account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition and given over looking out to sea to see if I
could spy a ship; I say, giving over these things, I began
to apply myself to accommodate my way of living and to
make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a
tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables, but I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two foot thick on the outside, and after some time,
I think it was a year and a half, I raised rafters from it
leaning to the rock and thatched or covered it with
boughs of trees and such things as I could get to keep
out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very
violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods
REASON MASTERS DESPONDENCY 75

into this pale, and into the cave which I had made be-
hind me. But I must observe, too, that at first this was a
confused heap of goods, which as they lay in no order,
so they took up all my place; I had no room to turn my-
self; so I set myself to enlarge my cave and works farther
into the earth, for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded
easily to the labor I bestowed on it; and so, when I found
I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways
to the right hand into the rock, and then turning to the
right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to
come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a
back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me
room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such neces,
sary things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a
chair and a table, for without these I was not able to
enjoy the few comforts I had in the world; I could not
write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure
without a table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that
as reason is the~substance and original of the mathe-
matics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason
and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be in time master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life, and yet in time, by
labor, application, and contrivance, I found at last that
I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if
I had had tools; however, I made abundance of things,
even without tools, and some with no more tools than an
adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if
I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a
76 ROBINSON CRUSOE

plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole
tree, but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more
than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor
which it took me up to make a plank or board. But my
time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well em-
ployed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place, and this I did out of the shore
pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship.
But when I had wrought out some boards, as above, I
made large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half
one over another, all along one side of my cave, to lay all
my tools, nails, and ironwork, and, in a word, to separate
everything at large in their places, that I might come
easily at them; I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock

o hang my guns and all things that would hang up.

So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a
general magazine of all necessary things, and I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to
me to see all my goods in such order and especially to
find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every

“day’s employment; for, indeed, at first, [was in too much

hurry, and not only hurry as to labor, but in too much
discomposure of mind; and my journal would have been
full of many dull things. For example, I must have said
thus:

5 September the 30th. After I got to shore and had
escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God for
my deliverance, having first vomited with the great quan-
tity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing
my hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at
THE JOURNAL 77
my misery and crying out I was undone, undone, till,
tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to ‘
repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not
forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain and
looking out to sea in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy
at a vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with the
hopes of it and then, after looking steadily till I was al-
most blind, lose it quite and sit down and weep like a
child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure
and having settled my household stuff and habitation,
made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about
me as I could, I began to keep my journal, of which I
shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all
these particulars over again) as long as it lasted, for hav-
ing no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

The Journal



September 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in
the offing, came on shore on this dismal unfortunate is-
land, which I called “the Island of Despair,” all the rest |
of the ship’s company being drowned an myself almost
dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at
the dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had
neither food, house, clothes, weapon, or place to fly to,
and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death be-
fore me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of
78 ROBINSON CRUSOE

food. At the approach of night, I slept in a tree for fear
of wild creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all
night.

October I. In the morning I saw to my great sur-
prise the ship had floated with the high tide and was
driven on shore again much nearer the island, which, as
it was some comfort on one hand, for seeing her sit up-
right and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board and get some food and
necessaries out of her for my relief; so on the other hand,
it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved
the ship or at least that they would not have been all
drowned as they were; and that had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of
the ship, to have carried us to some other part of the
world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing myself
on these things; but at length seeing the ship almost dry,
I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam
on board; this day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.

From the Ist of October to the 24th. All these
days entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I
could out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every
tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days,
though with some intervals of fair weather. But, it seems,
this was the rainy season.

October 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods
I had got upon it, but being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the
tide was out.

October 25. It rained all night and all day, with
some gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in
pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before,
and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and
THE JOURNAL 79

that only at low water. I spent this day in covering and
securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain might
not spoil them.

October 26. I walked about the shore almost all
day to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly con-
cerned to secure myself from an attack in the night, either
from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a
proper place under a rock, and marked out a semicircle
for my encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with
a work, wall, or fortification made of double piles, lined
within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carry-
ing all my goods to my new habitation, though some part
of the time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st in the morning I went out into the island with
my gun to seek for some food, and discover the country,
when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home,
which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and
lay there for the first night, making it as large as I could
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

November 2. I set up all my chests and boards,
and the pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with
them formed a fence round me, a little within the place
I had marked out for my fortification.

November 3. I went out with my gun and killed
two fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the
afternoon went to work to make me a table.

November 4. This morning I began to order my
times of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep,
and time of diversion, viz., every morning I walked out
with my gun for two or three hours if it did not rain, then
employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then
ate what I had to live on and from twelve to two I lay
down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot, and then
80 ROBINSON CRUSOE

in the evening to work again. The working part of this
day and of the next were wholly employed in making my
table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe it would do anyone else.

November 5. This day went abroad with my gun
and my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft,
but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I
took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by
the seashore, I saw many sorts of sea fowls which I did
not understand, but was surprised and almost frighted
with two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not
well knowing what they were, got into the sea and es-
caped me for that time.

November 6. After my morning walk I went to
work with my table again, and finished it, though not to
my liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

November 7. Now it began to be settled fair
weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th and part of the 12th (for
the 11th was Sunday) I took wholly up to make me a
chair and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape,
but never to please me, and even in the making, I pulled
it in pieces several times. Note: I soon neglected my keep-
ing Sundays, for, omitting my mark for them on my post,
I forgot which was which.

November 13. This day it rained, which refreshed
me exceedingly and cooled the earth, but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder; as soon as
it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder
into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not
be in danger.

November 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in
making little square chests or boxes, which might hold
about a pound or two pounds, at most, of powder; and
THE JOURNAL 81

so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure
and remote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, bu
I know not what to call it.

November 17. This day I began to dig behind my
tent into the rock to make room for my farther con-
veniency. Note: Three things I wanted exceedingly for
this work, viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow
or basket, so I desisted from my work and began to con-
sider how to supply that want and make me some tools.
As for a pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were
proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a
shovel or spade. This was so absolutely necessary, that
indeed I could do nothing effectually without it, but
what kind of one to make I knew not.

November 18. The next day in searching the
woods I found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in
the Brazils they call the iron tree, for its exceeding hard-
ness; of this, with great labor, and almost spoiling my
axe, I cut a piece and brought it home, too, with difficulty
enough, for it was exceeding heavy.

The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for
I worked it effectually by little and little into the form
of a shovel or spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours
in England, only that the broad part having no iron shod
upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; however,
it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion
to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after
that fashion, or so long a-making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow; a basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-
ware, at least none yet found out; and as to a wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that
82 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I had no notion of, neither did I know how to go about
it; besides, I had no possible way to make the iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in,
so I gave it over; and so for carrying away the earth which
I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which
the laborers carry mortar in when they serve the brick-
layers. -

This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the shovel and the attempt which
I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow took me up no
less than four days, I mean always excepting my morning
walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom
failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

November 23. My other work having now stood
still because of my making these tools, when they were
finished I went on, and working every day, as my strength
and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in
widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold my
goods commodiously.

NoTE: During all this time, I worked to make this room
or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a ware-
_ house or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar;
as for my lodging, I kept to the tent, except that some-
times in the wet season of the year it rained so hard that
I could not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards
to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in
the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load
them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

December 10. I began now to think my cave or
vault finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it
too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the
top and one side, so much, that, in short, it frighted me,
and not without reason too; for if I had been under it I
had never wanted a gravedigger. Upon this disaster I had
a great deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose
THE JOURNAL 83

earth to carry out; and which was of more importance, I
had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
more would come down.

December 11. This day I went to work with it ac-
cordingly and got two shores or posts pitched upright to
the top, with two pieces of boards across over each post:
This I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured:
and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions
to part of my house.

December 17. From this day to the twentieth I
placed shelves and knocked up nails on the posts to hang
everything up that could be hung up, and now I began
to be in some order within doors.

December 20. Now I carried everything into the\
cave, and began to furnish my house, and set up some '
pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals upon,
but boards began to be very scarce with me; also I made
me another table.

December 24. Much rain all night and all day; no
stirring out.

December 25. Rain all day.

December 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler
than before, and pleasanter.

December 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed an-
other, so as that I catched it, and led it home in a string;
when I had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg,
which was broke. n.B. I took such care of it that it lived,
and the leg grew well, and as strong as ever; but by my
nursing it so long it grew tame and fed upon the little
green at my door and would not go away. This was the
first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some
tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder
and shot was all spent.

December 28, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze;
Cx

\)
(

}
4

84 ROBINSON CRUSOE

so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the eve-
ning for food; this time I spent in putting all my things
in order within doors.

January I. Very hot still, but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the
day; this evening going farther into the valleys which lay
towards the center of the island, I found there was plenty
of goats, though exceeding shy and hard to come at; how-
ever, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt
them down.

January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went out
with my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mis-
taken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and he
knew his danger too well, for he would not come near
them.

January 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being
still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I re-
solved to make very thick and strong.

N.B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit

| what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe,
_ that I was no less time than from the 8rd of January to

the 14th of April working, finishing and perfecting this
wall, though it was no more than about 24 yards in length,
being a half circle from one place in the rock to another
place about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being
in the center behind it.

Managing My Household Affairs

ALL THIS time I worked very hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I
thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall
was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible

labor everything was done with, especially the bringing
MANAGING MY HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS 85

piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground,
for I made them much bigger than I need to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-
fenced with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded
myself that if any people were to come on shore there,
they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and
it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter
upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day when the rain admitted me and made
frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other
to my advantage; particularly I found a kind of wild
pigeons, who built not as wood pigeons in a tree, but
rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and
taking some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up
tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew all
away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding
them, for I had nothing to give them; however, I fre-
quently found their nests and got their young ones, which
were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I
found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make, as indeed as to
some of them it was; for instance, I could never make a
cask to be hooped; I had a small runlet or two, as I ob-
served before, but I could never arrive to the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about
it; I could neither put in the heads, or joint the staves so
true to one another, as to make them hold water, so I
gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle; =\
that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my
African adventure, but I had none of that now; the only
86 ROBINSON CRUSOE

remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat, I saved
the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I
baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum,
I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a
clear steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my
labors it happened that, rummaging my things, I found
a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn * for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage,
but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lis-
bon; what little remained of corn had been in the bag was
all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag
but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for
some other use, I think it was to put powder in, when I
divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use, I
shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortifi-
cation under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of
anything, and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown anything there; when about a month after or
thereabout I saw some few stalks of something green
shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and per-
fectly astonished when after a little longer time I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out which were perfect

\ green barley of the same kind as our European, nay, as
our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and con-
fusion of my thoughts on this occasion; I had hitherto
acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed I had

ery few notions of religion in my head or had entertained
any sense of anything that had befallen me otherwise than
as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God; with-
out so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in

1 Grain
MANAGING MY HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS 87

these things or His order in governing events in the
world, But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I know was not proper for corn, and especially
that I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely

and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused’

this grain to grow without any help of seed sown and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that
wild miserable place.

This touched my heart a little and brought tears out of
my eyes, and I began to bless myself, that such a rodigy
of Nature should happen upon my account; and this was
the more strange to me because I saw near it still, all
along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks,
which proved to be stalks of rice and which I knew, be-
cause I had seen it grow in Africa when I was ashor
there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Provi-
dence for my support but not doubting but that there
was more in the place, I went all over that part of the
island where I had been before, peering in every corner
and under every rock, to see for more of it, but I could
not find any; at last it occurred to my thoughts that I had
shook a bag of chickens’ meal out in that place, and the
the wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my re-
ligious thankfulness to.God’s Providence began to abate
too upon the discovering that all this was nothing but
what was common; though I ought to have been as
thankful for so strange and unforeseen Providence as if
it had been miraculous; for it was really the work of
Providence as to me, that should order or appoint, that
ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled
(when the rats had destroyed all the rest), as if it had
been dropped from Heaven; as also that I should throw
it out in that particular place where, it being in the shade
of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I
88 ROBINSON CRUSOE

had thrown it anywhere else at that time, it had been
burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June; and
laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again,
hoping in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply
me with bread; but it was not till the fourth year that I
could allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and
even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its
order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season by not
observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the
dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it
would have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there was, as above, twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care,
and whose use was of the same kind or to the same pur-
pose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also
after some time. But to return to my journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to
get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up,
contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall
by a ladder, that there might be no sign in the outside of
my habitation.

April 16. I finished the ladder, so I went up with
the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and
let it down in the inside. This was a complete enclosure
to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could
come at me from without, unless it could first mount my
wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labor overthrown at once, and myself
killed; the case was thus. As I was busy in the inside of
it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I
was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising
MANAGING MY HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS 89

thing indeed; for all on a sudden I found the earth come
crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the
edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had
set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner; I was
heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was really
the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was fall-
ing in, as some of it had done before; and for fear I should
be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not think-
ing myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear
of the pieces of the hill which I expected might roll down
upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm

ground but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthqu seen ots
ut eight

the ground I stood on shook three times at abo
minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have
overturned the strongest building that could be supposed
to have stood on the earth, and a great piece of the top
of a rock, which stood about half a mile from me next the
sea, fell down with such a terrible noise, as I never heard
in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into
violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were
stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt
the like or discoursed with anyone that had, that I was
like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth
made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at sea;
but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me as it
were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I was
in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then
but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household
goods and burying all at once; and this sunk my very
soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage, and yet I had not
heart enough to go over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but-sat still upon the ground, greatly cast
go ROBINSON CRUSOE

down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this

‘ while I had not the least serious religious thought, noth-
~ ing but the common, “Lord ha’ mercy upon me!” and
when it was over, that went away too. _

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain; soon after that the wind rose
by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew
a most dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden
covered over with foam and froth, the shore was covered
with the breach of the water, the trees were torn up by
the roots, and a terrible storm it was; and this held about
three hours, and then began to abate, and in two hours
more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.

All this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified
and dejected, when on a sudden it came into my thoughts
that, these winds and rain being the consequences of the
earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and
I might venture into my cave again. With this thought my
spirits began to revive, and the rain also helping to per-
suade me, I went in and sat down in my tent; but the
rain was so violent that my tent was ready to be beaten
down with it, and I was forced to go into my cave, though
very much afraid and uneasy for fear it should fall on
my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a
hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the
water go out, which would else have drowned my cave.
After I had been in my cave some time, and found still
no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be
more composed; and now to support my spirits, which
indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store and
took a small sup of rum, which, however, I did then and
always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more
when that was gone.

It continued raining all that night and great part of the
MANAGING MY HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS = Ql

next day, so that I could not stir abroad, but my mind
being more composed, I began to think of what I had »
best do, concluding that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave,
but I must consider of building me some little hut in an
open place which I might surround with a wall, as I had
done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or
men; but concluded, if I stayed where I was, I shoyld
certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from.
the place where it stood, which was just under the hang-
ing precipice ofthe hill, and which, if it should be shaken
again, would certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the
two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in con-
triving where and how to remove my habitation.

The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I
never slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but still,
when I looked about and saw how everything was put in
order, how pleasantly concealed I was and how safe from
danger, it made me very loath to remove.

In the meantime it occurred to me that it would re-
quire a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must
be contented to run the venture where I was, till I had
formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to re-
move to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for
a time and resolved that I would go to work with all
speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a; |
circle as before and set my tent up in it when it was fin-|
ished, but that I would venture to stay where I was till it
was finished and fit to remove. This was the 21st.

April 22. The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution, but I was at a great
loss about my tools; I had three large axes and abundance
of hatchets (for we e carried the hatchets for traffic with
g2 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the Indians), but with much chopping and cutting knotty
hard wood, they were all full of notches and dull, and
though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind
my tools too; this cost me as much thought as a statesman
would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or
a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I
contrived a wheel with a string, to tum it with my foot,
that I might have both my hands at liberty. Note: I had
never seen any such thing in England, or at least not to
take notice how it was done, though since I have ob-
served it is very common there; besides that, my grind-
stone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a
full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in
grinding my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone
performing very well.

April 30. Having perceived my bread had been
low a great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced
myself to one biscuit cake a day, which made my heart
very heavy.

May I. In the morning, looking towards the sea-
side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore
bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I
came to it, I found a small barrel and two or three pieces
of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by
the late hurricane, and looking towards the wreck itself,
I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it
used to do; I examined the barrel which was driven on
shore and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder, but
it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as
a stone; however, I rolled it farther on shore for the pres-
ent and went on upon the sands as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship to look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it strangely re-
MANAGING MY HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS 93

moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand,
was heaved up at least six foot, and the stern, which was
broke to pieces and parted from the rest by the force of
the sea soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed,
as it were, up, and cast on one side, and the sand was
thrown so high on that side next her stern that whereas
there was a great place of water before, so that I could
not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the
tide was out; I was surprised with this at first, but soon
concluded it must be done by the earthquake, and as by
this violence the ship was more broken open than for-
merly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea
had loosened and which the winds and water rolled by
degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily

that day especially in searching whether I could make —

any way into the ship, but I found nothing was to be ex-
pected of that kind, for that all the inside of the ship was
choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to
despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I
could get from her would be of some use or other to
me.

May 8. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a
beam through, which I thought held some of the upper
part or quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it
through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from
the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was
obliged to give over for that time.

May 4. I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish
that I durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport, when,
just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had

ae eee eel
Q4 ROBINSON CRUSOE

made me a long line of some rope yarn, but I had no
hooks, yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I
cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun and eat them
dry.

May 5. Worked on the wreck, cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from the
decks, which I tied together and made swim on shore
when the tide of flood came on.

May 6. Worked on the wreck, got several iron
bolts out of her and other pieces of ironwork; worked
very hard and came home very much tired and had
thoughts of giving it over.

May 7. Went to the wreck again, but with an in-
tent not to work, but found the weight of the wreck had
broke itself down, the beams being cut, that several pieces
of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it, but almost full of water
and sand.

May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron
crow to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear
of the water or sand; I wrenched open two planks and
brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron
crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9. Went to the wreck and with the crow
made way into the body of the wreck and felt several
casks and loosened them with the crow, but could not
break them up; I felt also the roll of English lead and
could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Went every day to the
wreck, and got a great deal of pieces of timber and
boards, or plank, and two or three hundredweight of
iron.

May 15. I carried two hatchets to try if I could not
cut a piece off of the roll of lead, by placing the edge of
one hatchet and driving it with the other; but as it lay
MANAGING MY HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS 95

about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any
blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16. It had blowed hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the water;
but I stayed so long in the woods to get pigeons for food
that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, near two miles off me, but re-
solved to see what they were and found it was a piece of
the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24. Every day to this day I worked on the
wreck, and with hard labor I loosened some things so
much with the crow, that with the first blowing tide sev-
eral casks floated out and two of the seamen’s chests; but
the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land
that day but pieces of timber and a hogshead which had
some Brazil pork in it, but the salt water and the sand had
spoiled it.

I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be
when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was’
ebbed out, and by this time I had gotten timber and plank
and ironwork enough to have builded a good boat, if I
had known how; and also, I got at several times and in
several pieces near one hundredweight of the sheet lead.

June 16. Going down to the seaside, I found a
large tortoise, or turtle; this was the first I had seen,
which it seems was only my misfortune, not any defect of
the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the
other side of the island, I might have had hundreds of
them every day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps had
paid dear enough for them.

June 17. 1 spent in cooking the turtle; I found in
her threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me at that time
96 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the most savory and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh but of goats and fowls since I landed
in this horrid place.

June 18. Rained all day, and I stayed within. I
thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I was some-
thing chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

Delivered Wonderfully from Sickness
ee ee ee

June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.
June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my
head, and feverish.
a June 21. Very ill, frighted almost to death with
\ the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick and no
help. Prayed to God for the first time since the storm of
of Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why; my thoughts
\being all confused.
\ June 22. A little better, but under dreadful ap-
prehensions of sickness. ;
June 28. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and
then a violent headache.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent; the fit held me
seven hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak; however, I
killed a she-goat and with much difficulty got it home and
broiled some of it and eat; I would fain have stewed it
and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay abed
_ all day and neither eat nor drank. I was ready to perish
_ for thirst, but so weak I had not strength to stand up or
"to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again,
DELIVERED WONDERFULLY FROM SICKNESS 9Q7~s~

but was lightheaded; and when I was not, I was so
ignorant that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried,
“Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy
upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two or three
hours till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep and did not
wake till far in the night; when I waked, I found myself
much refreshed, but weak and exceeding thirsty. How-
ever, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was
forced to lie till morning and went to sleep again. In this
second sleep I had this terrible dream.

I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after hw
the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a
great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon
the ground. He was all over as bright as a flame, so that
I could but just bear to look towards him; his countenance
was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to
describe; when he stepped upon the ground with his feet,
I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before
in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my appre-
hension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.

He was no sooner landed upon the earth but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground,
at some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so
terrible, that it is impossible to express the terror of it; ‘7
all that I can say I understood was this: “Seeing all these
things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou
shalt die.” At which words, I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand, to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect
that I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul
at this terrible vision; I mean, that even while it was a
dream, I even dreamed of those horrors; nor is it any
more possible to describe the impression that remained
98 ROBINSON CRUSOE

upon my mind when I awaked and found it was but a
dream.
£ IThad, alas! no divine knowledge; what I had received
/ by the good instruction of my father was then worn out
\ by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring
| wickedness and a constant conversation with nothing but
' such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last
, degree. I do not remember that I had in all that time one
‘\ thought that so much as tended either to looking up-
wards toward God or inwards towards a reflection upon
my own ways. But a certain stupidity of soul, without
desire of good or conscience of evil, had entirely over-
whelmed me, and I was all that the most hardened, un-
thinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can
be supposed to be, not having the least sense either of the
fear of God in danger or of thankfulness to God in de-
liverances.
ein the relating what is already past of my story, this
will be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that
through all the variety of miseries that had to this day
befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it
being the hand of God or that it was a just punishment
for my sin: my rebellious behavior against my father, or
my present sins, which were great; or so much as a pun-
ishment for the general course of my wicked life. When
I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of
Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what would
become of me; or one wish to God to direct me whither
I should go or to keep me from the danger which appar-
ently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as
cruel savages. But I was merely thoughtless of a God, or
a Providence; acted like a mere brute from the principles
of Nature and by the dictates of common sense only, and
indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the


DELIVERED WONDERFULLY FROM SICKNESS 99

Portugal captain, well used and dealt justly and honor-
ably with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thank-
fulness in my thoughts. When again I was shipwrecked,
ruined, and in danger of drowning on this island, I was
as far from remorse or looking on it as a judgment; I only
said to myself often that I was an unfortunate dog and
born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here and found all
my ship’s crew drowned and myself spared, I was sur-
prised with a kind of ecstasy and some transports of soul
which, had the grace of God assisted, might have come
up to true thankfulness; but it ended where it begun, in
a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad
I was alive, without the least reflection upon the distin-
guishing goodness of the hand which had preserved me
and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest
were destroyed; or an inquiry why Providence had been
thus merciful to me; even just the same common sort of
joy which seamen generally have after they are got safe
ashore from a shipwreck, which they drown all in the next
bowl of punch and forget almost as soon as it is over; and
all the rest of my life was like it.

Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this
dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind, out of all
hope of relief or prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw
but a prospect of living and that I should not starve and
perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off,
and I began to be very easy, applied myself to the works
proper for my preservation and supply and was far
enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judg-
ment from Heaven, or as.the hand of God against me;
these were thoughts which very seldom entered into my
head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal,
100 ROBINSON CRUSOE

had at first some little influence upon me, and began to
affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had
something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part

_of the thought was removed, all the impression which was

raised from it wore off also, as I have noted already.
Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more

terrible in its nature or more immediately directing to

the invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet

’ no sooner was the first fright over but the impression it

time

had made went off also. I had no more sense of God or
His judgments, much less of the present affliction of my
circumstances being from His hand, than if I had been in
the most prosperous condition of life.

But now, when I began to be sick and a leisurely view
of the miseries of death came to place itself before me;
when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a
strong distemper and nature was exhausted with the vio-
lence of the fever; conscience that had slept so long be-
gan to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my
past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon wick-
edness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under un-
common strokes and to deal with me in so vindictive a
manner.

These reflections oppressed me for the second or third
day of my distemper, and in the violence as well of the
fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience ex-
torted some words from me, like praying to God, though
I cannot say they were either a prayer attended with de-
sires or with hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fright
and distress; my thoughts were confused, the convictions
great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such a
miserable condition raised vapors into my head with the
mere apprehensions; and in these hurries of my soul I
know not what my tongue might express; but it was
rather exclamation, such as, “Lord! what a miserable__|


DELIVERED WONDERFULLY FROM SICKNESS 101

creature am I! If I should be sick, I shall certainly die
for want of help, and what will become of me?” Then the
tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a
good while.

In this interval, the good advice of my father came to *
my mind, and presently his prediction, which I men-
tioned at the beginning of this story, viz., that if I did
take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I
would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neg-
lected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recovery. “Now,” said I aloud, “my dear father’s words
are come to pass. God’s justice has overtaken me, and I
have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of
Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture or
station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy;
but I would neither see it myself or learn to know the
blessing of it from my parents; I left them to mourn over
my folly, and now I am left to mourn under the conse-
quences of it. I refused their help and assistance who
would have lifted me into the world and would have
made everything easy to me, and now I have difficulties
to struggle with, too great for even nature itself to sup-
port, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice.”
Then I cried out, “Lord, be my help, for I am in great
distress.”

_This was the first prayer, if | may-call it-so, that I had
a Oe

~~ June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with
the sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got
up; and though the fright and terror of my dream was
very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would
return again the next day, and now was my time to get
something to refresh and support myself when I should
be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large square
case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach
102 ROBINSON CRUSOE

of my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition
of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into
it and mixed them together; then I got me a piece of the
goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat
very little; I walked about, but was very weak and withal
very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable
condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next
day. At night I made my supper of three of the turtle’s
eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call it,
in the shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever
asked God’s blessing to, even as I could remember, in
my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so
weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went
out without that); so I went but a little way, and sat down
upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was
just before me and very calm and smooth. As I sat here,
some thoughts as these occurred to me.

What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much? Whence is it produced? And what am I and all
the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal,
whence are we?

Sure we are all made by some secret Power who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky; and who is that?

Then it followed most naturally, It is G
made it all. Well, but then, it came on strangely, if God
has made all these things, He guides and governs them
all and all things that concern them; for the Power that
could make all things must certainly have power to guide
and direct them.

If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of His

_ works either without His knowledge or appointment.
_ And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He
knows that I am here and am in this dreadful condition,
. and if nothing happens without His appointment, He has
appointed all this to befall me.




DELIVERED WONDERFULLY FROM SICKNESS 103

Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any of
- these conclusions; and therefore it rested upon me with
the greater force that it must needs be that God had ap-
pointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this
miserable circumstance by His direction, He having the
sole power, not of me only, but of everything that hap-
pened in the world. Immediately it followed: \

Why has God done this to meP What have I done to bal
thus usedP

My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry,
as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me
like a voice: “Wrercu! dost thou ask what thou hast
done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life and ask
thyself what thou hast not done; ask, why is it that thou
wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned
in Yarmouth Roads? killed in the fight when the ship was
taken by the Sallee man-of-war? devoured by the wild
beasts on the coast of Africa? or drowned here, when all
the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, What have
I done?”

I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one aston-
ished, and had not a word to say, no, not to answer to
myself, but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my
retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going
to bed, but my thoughts were sadly disturbed and I had
no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair and
lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now as the
apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me
very much, it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians
take no physic but their tobacco, for almost all distem-
pers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the
chests which was quite cured and some also that was
green and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest
I found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest,
and found what I looked for, viz., the tobacco; and as the
104 ROBINSON CRUSOE .

few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of
the Bibles which I mentioned before and which to this
time I had not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to
look into; I say, I took it out, and brought both that and
the tobacco with me to the table.

What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my

distemper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried
several experiments with it as if I was resolved it should
hit one way or other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and
chewed it in my mouth, which indeed at first almost stu-
pefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong and
that I had not been much used to it; then I took some
and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved
to take a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt
some upon a pan of coals and held my nose close over
the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it as well for the
heat as almost for suffocation.
_., In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible
_ and began to read, but my head was too much disturbed
- with the tobacco to bear reading, at least that time; only
having opened the book casually, the first words that oc-
curred to me were these, “Call on Me in the day of trou-
ble, and I will deliver, and thou shalt glorify Me.”

The words were very apt to my case, and made some
impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards; for as for be-
ing delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, to
me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my appre-
hension of things that I began to say, as the children of
Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat, “Can
God spread a table in the wilderness?”; so I began to say,
“Can God Himself deliver me from this place?” and as it
was not for many years that any hope appeared, this pre-
vailed very often upon my thoughts. But however, the
words made a great impression upon me, and I mused
DELIVERED WONDERFULLY FROM SICKNESS 105

upon them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco
had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to
sleep; so I left my lamp burning in the cave lest I should
want anything in the night and went to bed; but before
I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life;
I kneeled down and prayed to God to fulfill the promise
to me, that if I called upon Him in the day of trouble, He
would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer
was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the
tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco
that indeed I could scarce get it down; immediately upon
this I went to bed; I found presently it flew up in my
head violently, but I fell into a sound sleep and waked
~ no more till by the sun it must necessarily be near three
o’clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour
I'm partly of the opinion that I slept all the next day and
night, and till almost three that day after; for otherwise ©
I knew not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning
in the days of the week, as it appeared some years after
I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and re-crossing
the line, I should have lost more than one day. But cer-
tainly I lost a day in my account and never knew which
way.
Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked
I found myself exceedingly refreshed and my spirits lively
and cheerful; when I got up, I was stronger than I was
the day before and my stomach better, for I was hungry;
and in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued
much altered for the better; this was the 29th.
~Fhe 30th was my well day, of course, and I went
abroad with my gun but did not care to travel too far.
I killed a seafowl or two, something like a brand goose,
and brought them home, but was not very forward to eat
them; so I ate some more of the turtle’s eggs, which were
very good. .This evening I renewed the medicine, which
106 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I had supposed did me good the day before, viz., the to-
bacco steeped in rum, only I did not take so much as be-
fore, nor did I chew any of the leaf or hold my head over
the smoke. However, I was not so well the next day,
which was the first of July, as I hoped I should have been;
for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways,
and dosed myself with it as at first; and doubled the
quantity which I drank.

July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I
did not recover my full strength for some weeks after;
while I was gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-
ingly upon this Scripture, “I will deliver thee,” and the
impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind,
in bar of my ever expecting it. But as I was discouraging
myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind, that
I pored so much upon my deliverance from the main
affliction that I disregarded the deliverance I had re-
ceived; and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such
questions as these, viz.: Have I not been delivered, and
wonderfully, too, from sickness? from the most distressed
condition that could be and that was so frightful to me?
And what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my part?
God had delivered me, but I had not glorified Him; that
is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as
a deliverance, and how could I expect greater deliver-
ance?

This touched my heart very much, and immediately I
kneeled down and gave God thanks aloud for my re-
covery from my sickness.

July 4. In the morning I took the Bible, and be-
ginning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read
it, and imposed upon myself to read a while every morn-
ing and every night, not tying myself to the number of
chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me.
It was not long after I set seriously to this work, but I


DELIVERED WONDERFULLY FROM SICKNESS 107

found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with
the wickedness of my past life. The impression of my
dream revived, and the words, “All these things have not
brought thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my thought.
I was earnestly begging of God to give me repentance,
when it happened providentially the very day that read-
ing the Scripture, I came to these words, “He is exalted a
Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance, and to give re-
mission.” I threw down the book, and with my heart as
well as my hands lifted up to-Heaven, in a kind of ecstasy
of joy, I cried out aloud, “Jesus, Thou Son of David, Jesus,
Thou exalted Prince and Saviour, give me repentance!”

This was the first Se
sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I
prayed with a sense of my condition and with a true
Scripture view of hope founded on the encouragement of
the Word of God; and from this time, I may say, I began
to have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above,
“Call on Me, and I will deliver you,” in a different sense
from what I had ever done before; for then I had no
notion of anything being called deliverance but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in; for though I was
indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world;
but now I learned to take it in another sense. Now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my
sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing
of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore
down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was noth-
ing; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it or
think of it; it was all of no consideration in comparison
to this. And I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall
read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things,
they will find deliverance from sin a much greater bless-
ing than deliverance from affliction.
108 ROBINSON CRUSOE

But, leaving this part, I return to my journal.

My condition began now to be, though not less miser-
able as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind;
and my thoughts being directed by a constant reading
the Scripture and praying to God to things of a higher
nature, I had a great deal of comfort within which til] |
now I knew nothing of; also, as my health and strength

_Teturned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with every- |
thing that I wanted and make my way of living as regular |
as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th I was chiefly employed |
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a
little at a time, as a man that was gathering up his
strength after a fit of sickness. For it is hardly to be im-
agined how low I was, and to what weakness I was re-
duced. The application which I made use of was perfectly
new and perhaps what had never cured an ague before;
neither can I recommend it to anyone to practice, by this
experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it
rather contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent
convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.

I learned from it also this in particular, that being
abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing
to my health that could be, especially in those rains which
came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind; for
as the rain which came in the dry season was always most
accompanied with such storms, so I found that rain was
much more dangerous than the rain which fell in Sep-
tember and October.

A More Perfect Discovery of the Island
a

I HAD been now in this unhappy. island above ten
months;-all possibility of deliverance from this cOnditi


PERFECT DISCOVERY OF THE ISLAND 109

seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I firmly be-
lieved that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought,
fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more
perfect discovery of the island and to see what other pro-
ductions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was the 15th July that I began to take a more par-
ticular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek
first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore; I
found after I came about two miles up that the tide did
not flow any higher and that it was no more than a little
brook of running water, and very fresh and good; but this
being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some:
parts of it, at least, not enough to run in any stream so as
it could be perceived.

On the bank of this brook I found many pleasant savan-
nas, or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass;
and on the rising parts of them next to the higher grounds,
where the water, as it might be supposed, never over-
flowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green and grow-
ing to a great and very strong stalk; there were divers
other plants, which I had no notion of, or understanding
about, and might perhaps have virtues of their own,
which I could not find out.

I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in
all that climate make their bread of, but I could find none.
I saw large plants of aloes, but did not then understand
them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild and, for want
of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these
discoveries for this time, and came back musing with my-
self what course I might take to know the virtue and
goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover; but could bring it to no conclusion; for in short,
I had made so little observation while I was in the Brazils
that I knew little of the plants in the field, at least very
110 ROBINSON CRUSOE

little that might serve me to any purpose now in my dis-
tress,

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again,
and after going something farther than I had gone the
day before, I found the brook and the savannas began to
cease, and the country became more woody than before;
in this part I found different fruits, and particularly |
found melons upon the ground in great abundance and
grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread indeed over
the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their
prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discov-
ery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned
by my experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering
that when I was ashore in Barbary the eating of grapes
killed several of our Englishmen who were slaves there,
by throwing them into fluxes and fevers, But I found an
excellent use for these grapes, and that was to cure or dry
them in the sun and keep them as dried grapes or raisins
are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were,
as wholesome as agreeable to eat when no grapes might
be to be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation, which by the way was the first night, as I
might say, I had lain from home. In the night I took my
first contrivance and got up into a tree, where I slept well;
and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, trav-
eling near four miles, as I might judge by the length of
the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on
the south and north side of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west, and a little
spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, run the other way, that is, due east; and the
country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, every-
thing being in a constant verdure, or flourish of spring,

that it looked like a planted garden.
PERFECT DISCOVERY OF THE ISLAND lll

I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed |
with my other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was
all my own, that I was king and lord of all this country
indefeasibly and had a right of possession; and if I could
convey it, I might have it in inheritance, as completely as
any lord of a manor in England. I saw here abundance of
cocoa trees, orange and lemon and citron trees; but all
wild and very few bearing any fruit, at least not then.
However, the green limes that I gathered were not only
pleasant to eat but very wholesome; and I mixed their
juice afterwards with water, which made it very whole-
some and very cool and refreshing.

I found now I had business enough to gather and carry
home; and I resolved to lay up a store as well of grapes
as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaching.

In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in
one place and a lesser heap in another place, and a great
parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and taking
a few of each with me, I traveled homeward and resolved
to come again and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home.

Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey,
I came home, so I must now call my tent and my cave.
But before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the
richness of the fruits and the weight of the juice having
broken them and bruised them, they were good for little
or nothing; as to the limes, they were good, but I could
bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made |
me two small bags to bring home my harvest. But I was |
surprised, when coming to my heap of grapes, which
were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them
all spread about, trod to pieces and dragged about, some
here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By
212 ROBINSON CRUSOE

this I concluded there were some wild creatures there.
abouts which had done this; but what they were I knew
not.

However, as I found that there was no laying them up
in heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that
one way they would be destroyed, and the other way they
would be crushed with their own weight, I took another
course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them up upon the out-branches of the trees, that
they might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes
‘and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand

with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley and the
pleasantness of the situation, the security from storms on
that side the water and the wood, and concluded that I
had pitched upon a place to fix my abode which was by
far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I be-
gan to consider of removing my habitation; and to look
out for a place equally safe as where I now was situate, if
possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the island. sm
Diss This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceed-
ing fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place
tempting me; but when I came to a nearer view of it and
to consider that I was now by the seaside, where it was at
least possible that something might happen to my advan-
tage, and by the same ill fate that brought me hither
might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same
place; and though it was scarce probable that any such
thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among
the hills and woods, in the center of the island, was to
anticipate my bondage and to render such an affair not
only improbable but impossible; and that therefore I
ought not by any means to remove.
However, I was so enamored of this place that I spent

|
under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated
ae

PERFECT DISCOVERY OF THE ISLAND 113

much of my time there, for the whole remaining part of
the month of July; and though upon second thoughts I
resolved as above not to remove, yet I built me a little
kind of a bower and surrounded it at a distance with a
strong fence, being a double hedge as high as I could
reach, well staked and filled between with brushwood;
and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights
together, always going over it with a ladder, as before; so
that I fancied now I had my country house and my sea-
coast house. And this work took me up to the beginning
of August.

I had but newly finished my fence and began to enjoy
my labor, but the rains came on and made me stick close |
to my first habitation! for though I had made me a tent
like the other with a piece of a sail and spread it very
well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from
storms, not a cave behind me to retreat into, when the
rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished
my bower and began to enjoy myself. The 8rd of August
I found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried
and, indeed, were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I
began to take them down from the trees, and it was very
happy that I did so; for the rains which followed would
have spoiled them and I had lost the best part of my win-
ter food; for I had above two hundred large bunches of
them. No sooner had I taken them all down and carried
most of them home to my cave but it began to rain, and
from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained more
or less, every day, till the middle of October, and. some-
times so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for
several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase
of my family; I had been concerned for the loss of one of
my cats, who run away from me, or, as I thought, had
114 ROBINSON CRUSOE

been dead, and I heard no more tale or tidings of her till,
to my astonishment, she came home about the end of Au-
gust, with three kittens; this was the more strange to me,
because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with
my gun, yet I thought it was a quite different kind from
our European cats; yet the young cats were the same
kind of house breed like the old one; and both my cats
being females, I thought it very strange. But from these
three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats
that I was forced to kill them like vermin or wild beasts
and to drive them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so
that I could not stir and was now very careful not to be
much wet. In this confinement I began to be straitened
for food, but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat
and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large
tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food was regu-
lated thus: I eat a bunch of raisins for my breakfast, a
piece of the goat’s flesh or of the turtle for my dinner,
broiled; for to my great misfortune I had no vessel to boil
or stew anything; and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for
my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I
worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave,
and by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I came
to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out,
which came beyond my fence or wall, and so I came in
and out this way; but I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open; for as I had managed myself before, I was in a
perfect enclosure, whereas now I thought I lay exposed
and open for anything to come in upon me; and yet I
could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear,
the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island
being a goat.

September 30. I was now come to the unhappy




PERFECT DISCOVERY OF THE ISLAND 115.

anniversary of my landing. I cast up the notches on my
post, and foun ad been on shore three hundred and !
sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it ,
apart to religious exercise, prostrating myself on the °
ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing my -
sins to God, acknowledging His righteous judgments -
upon me and praying to Him to have mercy on me
through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least re-
freshment for twelve hours, even till the going down of
the sun, I then eat a biscuit cake and a bunch of grapes
and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it.

I had all this time observed no Sabbath day; for as at

first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had after
some time omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a
longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath day, and so
did not really know what any of the days were; but now
having cast up the days, as above, I found I had been
there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart
every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the
end of my account I had lost a day or two in my reckon-
ing.
a little after this my ink began to fail me, and so I con-
tented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down
only the most remarkable events of my life, without con-
tinuing a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to
appear regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as
to provide for them accordingly. But I bought all my
experience before I had it; and this I am going to relate
was one of the most discouraging experiments that I
made at all. I have mentioned that I had saved the few
ears of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly found
spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and believe there
was about thirty stalks of rice and about twenty of barley;
and now I thought it a proper time to sow it after the
116 ROBINSON CRUSOE

rains, the sun being in its southern position, going
from me.

? Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground as well as I
could with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two
parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually
occurred to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at
first, because I did not know when was the proper time
for it; so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving
about a handful of each.

It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did sO,
for not one grain of that I sowed this time came to any-
thing; for the dry months following, the earth having had
no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to
assist its growth, and never came up at all till the wet
season had come again, and then it grew as if it had been
but newly sown.

Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily
imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece
of ground to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece
of ground near my new bower and sowed the rest of my
seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox; and
this, having the rainy months of March and April to water
it, sprung up very pleasantly and yielded a very good
crop; but having part of the seed left only, and not daring
to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last,
my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of
each kind.

But by this experiment I was made master of my busi-
ness, and knew exactly when the proper season was to
sow; and that I might expect two seed times, and two
harvests every year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery
which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains
were over and the weather began to settle, which was
about the month of November, I made a visit up the
country to my bower, where, though I had not been some
PERFECT DISCOVERY OF THE ISLAND 117

months, yet I found all things just as I left them. The
circle or double hedge that I had made was not only firm
and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some
trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually
shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not
tell what tree to call it, that these stakes were cut from.
I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the
young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up
to grow as much alike as I could; and it is scarce credible
how beautiful a figure they grew into in three years; so
that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five
yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now
call them, soon covered it; and it was a complete shade,
sufficient to lodge under all the dry season.

~ his made me resolve to. cut some more stakes, and

“7nake me a hedge like this, in a semicircle round my wall
(I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did; and plac-
ing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards’ distance from my first fence, they grew presently
and were at first a fine cover to my habitation and after-
ward served for a defense also, as I shall observe in its
order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might gener-
ally be divided, not into summer and winter, as in Eu-
rope, but into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons,
which were generally thus:

eee bait Rainy, the sun being then on or
Half April, - near the equinox.
Half April,
May, Dry, the sun being then to the |
June, north of the line.
July,

Half August,
118 ROBINSON CRUSOE

as oy a Rainy, the sun being then come
Half October, back.
Half October,
December, | Diy» the sun being then to the
January, . south of the line.
Half February,

The rainy season sometimes held longer or shorter, as
the winds happened to blow; but this was the general
observation I made. After I had found by experience the
ill consequence of being abroad in the rain, I took care
to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might
not be obliged to go out; and I sat within doors as much
as possible during the wet months,

This time I found much employment (and very suit-
able also to the time ), for I found great occasion of many
things which I had no way to furnish myself with but by
hard labor and constant application; particularly, I tried
many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I
could get for the purpose proved so brittle that they
would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to
me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great de-
light in standing at a basket maker’s, in the town where
my father lived, to see them make their wickerware; and

being, as boys usually are, very officious to help and a
great observer of the manner how they worked those
things and sometimes lending a hand, I had by this means
full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted noth-
ing but the materials; when it came into my mind that
the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that
grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows and wil-
lows and osiers in England, and I resolved to try.

Accordingly, the next day I went to my country house,
PERFECT DISCOVERY OF THE ISLAND 119

as I called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I
found them to my purpose as much as I could desire;
whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet
to cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was
great plenty of them; these I set up to dry within my
circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use, I carried
them to my cave, and here during the next season I em-
ployed myself in making, as well as I could, a great many
baskets, both to carry earth or to carry or lay up anything
as I had occasion; and though I did not finish them very
handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for
my purpose; and thus afterwards I took care never to be
without them; and as my wickerware decayed, I made
more; especially, I made strong deep baskets to place my
corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world
of time about it, I bestirred myself to see if possible how
to supply two wants. I had no vessels to hold anything
that was liquid, except two runlets which were almost
full of rum and some glass bottles, some of the common
size, and others which were case bottles, square, for the
holding of waters, spirits, etc. I had not so much as a pot
to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out
of the ship and which was too big for such use as I de-
sired it, viz., to make broth and stew a bit of meat by
itself. The second thing I would fain have had was a
tobacco-pipe; but it was impossible to me to make one;
however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last.

I employed myself in planting my second rows of
stakes, or piles, and in this wicker-working all the sum-
mer, or dry season, when another business took me up
more time than it could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the —
whole island and that I had traveled up the brook and
120 ROBINSON CRUSOE

so on to where I built my bower and where I had an
opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island;
IT now resolved to travel quite cross to the seashore on
that side; so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a
larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two
biscuit cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for
my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the
vale where my bower stood, as above, I came within view
of the sea to the west, and it being a very clear day, I
fairly descried land, whether an island or a continent I
could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the
west to the west-southwest, at a very great distance; by
my guess it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off. ~

~I could not tell what part of the world this might be,
otherwise than that I knew it must be part of America
and, as I concluded by all my observations, must be near
the Spanish dominions and perhaps was all inhabited by
savages, where if I should have landed, I had been in a
worse condition than I was now; and therefore I acqui-
esced in the dispositions of Providence, which, I began
now to own and to believe, ordered everything for the
best; I say, I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting
myself with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered
that if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly,
one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way
or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between
the Spanish country and Brazils, which are indeed the
worst of savages; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters,
~ and fail not to murder and devour all the human bodies
that fall into their hands.

With these considerations I walked very leisurely for-
ward. I found that side of the island, where I now was,
much pleasanter than mine, the open- or savanna fields


PERFECT DISCOVERY OF THE ISLAND 121
sweet, adorned with flowers and grass and full of very fine

woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would
have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some pains-
taking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down with
a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but
it was some years before I could make him speak. How-
ever, at last I taught him to call me by my name very
familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be
a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found
in the low grounds hares, as I thought them to be, and
foxes, but they differed greatly from all the other kinds I
had met with; nor could I satisfy myself to eat them,
though I killed several. But I had no need to be ventur-
ous; for I had no want of food, and of that which was very
good too; especially these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons,
and turtle or tortoise; which, added to my grapes, Lead-
enhall Market could not have furnished a table better
than I, in proportion to the company; and though my case
was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thank-
fulness, and that I was not driven to any extremities for
food; but rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never traveled in this journey above two miles out-
right in a day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns
and returns, to see what discoveries I could make, that I
came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down for all night; and then I either reposed myself in a
tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set up-
right in the ground, either from one tree to another, or so
as no wild creature could come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the seashore, I was surprised to
see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the
island; for here indeed the shore was covered with in-
numerable turtles, whereas on the other side I had found
122 ROBINSON CRUSOE

but three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite
number of fowls of many kinds, some which I had seen,
and some which I had not seen of before, and many of
them very good meat; but such as I knew not the names
of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very
sparing of my powder and shot; and therefore had more
mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better
feed on; anc though there were many goats here, more
than on my side the island, yet it was with much more
difficulty that I could come near them, the country being
flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than when I
was on the hill.
~~ I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter
than mine, but yet I had not the least inclination to re-
move; for as I was fixed in my habitation, it became nat-
ural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be,
as it were, upon a journey and from home. However, I
traveled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I
suppose about twelve miles; and then setting up a great
pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go
home again; and that the next journey I took should be
on the other side of the island, east from my dwelling,
and so round till I came to my post again. Of which in its
place.

I took another way to come back than that I went,
thinking I could easily keep all the island so much in my
view that I could not miss finding my first dwelling by
viewing the country. But I found myself mistaken; for
being come about two or three miles, I found myself de-
scended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with
hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I could not
see which was my way by any direction but that of the
sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position
of the sun at that time of the day.
PERFECT DISCOVERY OF THE ISLAND 123

It happened to my farther misfortune that the weather
proved hazy for three or four days while I was in this
valley; and not being able to see the sun, I wandered
about very uncomfortably and at last was obliged to find
out the seaside, look for my post, and come back the same
way I went; and then by easy journeys I turned home-
ward, the weather being exceeding hot and my gun, am-
munition, hatchet, and other things very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and
seized upon it, and I, running in to take hold of it, caught
it and saved it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to
bring it home if I could; for I had often been musing
whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two and
so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me
when my powder and shot should be all spent.

I made a collar to this little creature, and with a strin
which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always cael
about me, I led him along, though with some difficulty,
till I came to my bower, and there I enclosed him and
left him; for I was very impatient to be at home from
whence I had been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to
come into my old hutch and lie down in my hammock-
bed. This little wandering journey, without settled place
of abode, had been so unpleasant to me that my own
house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to
me compared to that; and it rendered everything about
me so comfortable that I resolved I would never go a
great way from it again while it should be my lot to stay
on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale my-
self after my long j journey; during which most of the time
was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for
my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic and to be
mighty well acquainted with me. Then I began to think

ln,
124 ROBINSON CRUSOE
of the poor kid, which I had penned in within my little

circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it
some food; accordingly I went, and found it where I left
it; for indeed it could not get out, but almost starved for
want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and
branches of such shrubs as I could find and threw it over,
and having fed it, I tied it as I did before to lead it away;
but it was so tame with being hungry that I had no need
to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog; and as I
continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gen-
tle, and so fond, that it became from that time one of my
domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

\~ I Began My Third Year



THE rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now
come, and I kept the 30th of September in the same sol-
emn manner as before, being the anniversary of my land-
ing on the island, having now been there two years, and
no more prospect of being delivered than the first day I
came there. I spent the whole day in humble and thank-
ful acknowledgments of the many wonderful mercies
which my solitary condition was attended with and with-
out which it might have been infinitely more miserable.
I gave humble and hearty thanks that God had been
pleased to discover to me even that it was possible I
might be more happy in this solitary condition than I
should have been in a liberty of society and in all the
pleasures of the world; that He could fully make up to
me the deficiencies of my solitary state and the want of
human society by His presence and the communications
of His grace to my soul, supporting, comforting, and en-
couraging me to depend upon His Providence here and
hope for His eternal presence hereafter.
I BEGAN MY THIRD YEAR 125

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much
more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable
circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life
I led all the past part of my days; and now I changed
both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered,
my affections changed their gusts and my delights were
perfectly new, from what they were at my first coming,
or indeed for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for
viewing the country, the anguish of my soul at my con-
dition would break out upon me on a sudden, and my
very heart would die within me to think of the woods,
the mountains, the deserts I was in; and how I was a
prisoner locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the
ocean in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption.
In the midst of the greatest composures of my mind, this
would break out upon me like a storm and make me
wring my hands and weep like a child. Sometimes it
would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh and look upon the ground
for an hour or two together; and this was still worse to
me, for if I could burst out into tears or vent myself by
words, it would go off, and the grief having exhausted it-
self would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts;
I daily read the Word of God and applied all the com-
forts of it to my present state. One morning, being very
sad, I opened the Bible upon these words, “I will never,
never leave thee, nor forsake thee”; immediately it oc-
curred that these words were to me; why else should they
be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when
I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken of
God and man? “Well then,” said I, “if God does not for-
sake me, of what ill consequence can it be or what mat-
ters it though the world should all forsake me, seeing on
126 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the other hand, if I had all the world and should lose the
favor and blessing of God, there would be no comparison
in the loss?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind
that it was possible for me to be more happy in this for-
saken solitary condition than it was probable I should
ever have been in any other particular state in the world;
and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God
for bringing me to this place.

I know not what it was but something shocked my
mind at that thought and I durst not speak the words.
“How canst thou be such a hypocrite,” said I, even audi-
bly, “to pretend to be thankful for a condition which how-
ever thou may’st endeavor to be contented with, thou
_would’st rather pray heartily to be delivered from?” So I
stopped there. But though I could not say I thanked God
for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for
opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences, to
see the former condition of my life and to mourn for my
wickedness and repent. I never opened the Bible or shut
it, but my very soul within me blessed God for directing
my friend in England, without any order of mine, to pack
it up among my goods and for assisting me afterwards to
save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third
year; and though I have not given the reader the trouble
of so particular account of my works this year as the first,
yet in general it may be observed that I was very seldom
idle; but having regularly divided my time, according to
the several daily employments that were before me, such
as, first, my duty to God and the reading the Scriptures,
which I constantly set apart some time for thrice every
day; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for food,
which generally took me up three hours in every morn-
ing, when it did not rain; thirdly, the ordering, curing,
I BEGAN MY THIRD YEAR 127

preserving, and cooking what I had killed or catched for
my supply; these took up great part of the day; also it is
to be considered that the middle of the day when the sun
was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great
to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was all
the time I could be supposed to work in; with this ex-
ception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting
and working and went to work in the morning and abroad
with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labor, I desire may be
added the exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many
hours which for want of tools, want of help, and want’ of
skill everything I did took up out of my time. For ex-
ample, I was full two and forty days making me a board
for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas two
sawyers with their tools and a saw-pit would have cut six
of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was
to be cut down, because my board was to be a broad one.
This tree I was three days a-cutting down, and two more
cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece
of timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I re-
duced both the sides of it into chips till it began to be
light enough to move; then I turned it and made one
side of it smooth and flat as a board from end to end; then
turning that side downward, cut the other side, till I
brought the plank to be about three inches thick and
smooth on both sides. Anyone may judge the labor of my
hands in such a piece of work; but labor and patience
carried me through that and many other things. I only
observe this in particular, to show the reason why so
much of my time went away with so little work, viz., that
what might be a little to be done with help and tools was
a vast labor and required a prodigious time to do alone
and by hand.
128 ROBINSON CRUSOE

But notwithstanding this, with patience and labor I
went through many things; and indeed everything that
my circumstances made necessary to me to do, as will
appear by what follows.

I was now, in the months of November and December,
expecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had
manured or dug up for them was not great; for as I ob-
served, my seed of each was not above the quantity of
half a peck; for I had lost one whole crop by sowing in
the dry season; but now my crop promised very well,
when on a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all
again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarce pos-
sible to keep from it; at first, the goats, and wild creatures
which I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the
blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and
eat it so close that it could get no time to shoot up into
stalk.

This I saw no remedy for, but by making an enclosure
about it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of
toil; and the more, because it required speed. However,
as my arable land was but small, suited to my crop, I got
it totally well fenced in about three weeks’ time; and
shooting some of the creatures in the daytime, I set my
dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a stake at the
gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so
in a little time the enemies forsook the place, and the
corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was
in the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now,
when it was in the ear; for going along by the place to see
how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls
of I know not how many sorts, who stood, as it were,
watching till I should be gone. I immediately let fly
among them (for I always had my gun with me). I had
no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of fowls,


I BEGAN MY THIRD YEAR 129

which I had not seen at all, from among the corn‘itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few
days they would devour all my hopes, that I should be
starved and never be able to raise a crop at all, and what
to do I could not tell. However, I resolved not to lose my
corn, if possible, though I should watch it night and day.
In the first place, I went among it to see what damage
was already done and found they had spoiled a good deal
of it, but that as it was yet too green for them, the loss was
not so great, but that the remainder was like to be a good
crop if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away I
could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees
about me, as if they only waited till I was gone away, and
the event proved it to be so; for as I walked off as if I
was gone, I was no sooner out of their sight but they
dropped down one by one into the corn again. I was so
provoked that I could not have patience to stay till more
came on, knowing that every grain that they eat now was,
as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence;
but coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three
of them. This was what I wished for; so I took them up
and served them as we serve notorious thieves in Eng-
land, viz., hanged them in chains for a terror to others; it
is impossible to imagine, almost, that this should have
such an effect as it had; for the fowls would not only not
come at the corn but, in short, they forsook all that part
of the island and I could never see a bird near the place
as long as my scarecrows hung there.

This I was very glad of, you may be sure, and about
the latter end of December, which was our second har-
vest of the year, I reaped my crop.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or a sickle to cut it’|

down, and all I could do was to make one as well as I
could out of one of the broadswords, or cutlasses, which

a
Te yay ae Fae
130 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I saved among the arms out of the ship. However, as my
first crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it
down; in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off
but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket which
I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands; and at
the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half
peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice and above
two bushels and a half of barley, that is to say, by my
guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and
‘I foresaw that in time it would please God to supply me
with bread. And yet here I was perplexed again, for I
neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or
indeed how to clean it and part it; nor if made into meal,
how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I
knew not how to bake it; these things being added to my
desire of having a good quantity for store, and to secure a
constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop,
but to preserve it all for seed against the next season, and
in the meantime to employ all my study and hours of
working to accomplish this great work of providing my-
self with corn and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread;
tis a little wonderful, and what I believe few people have
thought much upon, viz., the strange multitude of little
things necessary in the providing, producing, curing,
dressing, making, and finishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found
this to my daily discouragement and was made more and
more sensible of it every hour, even after I had got the
first handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up
unexpectedly and indeed to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth, no spade or
shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making a
wooden spade, as I observed before; but this did my work
I BEGAN MY THIRD YEAR 131

in but a wooden manner, and though it cost me a great
many days to make it, yet for want of iron it not only
wore out the sooner, but made my work the harder and
made it be performed much worse.

However, this I bore with, and was content to work it
out with patience and bear with the badness of the per-
formance. When the corn was sowed, I had no harrow
but was forced to go over it myself and drag a great heavy
bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be called,
rather than rake or harrow it.

When it was growing and grown, I have observed al-
ready how many things I wanted, to fence it, secure it,
mow or reap it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it
from the chaff and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind
it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread
and an oven to bake it; and yet all these things I did with-
out, as shall be observed; and yet the corn was an in-
estimable comfort and advantage to me too. All this, as I
said, made everything laborious and tedious to me, but
that there was no help for; neither was my time so much
loss to me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of
it was every day appointed to these works; and as I re-
solved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater
quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply my-
self wholly by labor and invention to furnish myself with
utensils proper for the performing all the operations nec-
essary for the making the corn (when I had it) fit for
my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this,
I had a week’s work at least to make me a spade, which
when it was done was but a sorry one indeed, and very
heavy, and required double labor to work with it; how-
ever, I went through that and sowed my seed in two large
flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find
132 ROBINSON CRUSOE

them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good hedge,
the stakes of which were all cut of that wood which I had
set before, and knew it would grow; so that in one year’s
time I knew I should have a quick or living hedge that
would want but little repair. This work was not go little as
to take me up less than three months, because great part
of that time was of the wet season, when I could not go
abroad.

Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not
go out, I found employment on the following occasions;
always observing, that all the while I was at work I di-
verted myself with talking to my parrot and teaching him
to speak, and I quickly learned him to know his own name
and at last to speak it out pretty loud, “Poll,” which was
the first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any
mouth but my own. This therefore was not my work, but
an assistant to my work, for now, as I said, I had a great
employment upon my hand, as follows, viz., I had long
studied, by some means or other, to make myself some
earthen vessels, which indeed I wanted sorely, but knew
not where to come at them. However, considering the
heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find
out any such clay, I might botch up some such pot, as
might, being dried in the sun, be hard enough and strong
enough to bear handling, and to hold anything that was
dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was necessary
in the preparing corn, meal, etc., which was the thing I
was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could
and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put
into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at
me, to tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this
paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how
many of them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not
being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how many
I BEGAN MY THIRD YEAR 133

cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out
too hastily; and how many fell in pieces with only re-
moving, as well before as after they were dried; and in a
word, how after having labored hard to find the clay, to
dig it, to temper it, to bring it home and work it, I could
not make above two large earthen ugly things, I cannot
call them jars, in about two months’ labor.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and
hard, I lifted them very gently up, and set them down
again in two great wicker baskets, which I had made on
purpose for them, that they might not break, and as be-
tween the pot and the basket there was a little room to
spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw, and
these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought would
hold my dry corn and perhaps the meal, when the corn
was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large
pots, yet I made several smaller things with better suc-
cess; such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and
pipkins, and any things my hand turned to; and the heat
of the sun baked them strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to
get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid and bear the
fire, which none of these could do. It happened after
some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my
meat, when I went to put it out after I had done with it,
I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels
in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I
was agreeably surprised to see it and said to myself that
certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they
would burn broken.

This set me to studying how to order my fire, so as to
make it burn me some pots. I had no notion of a kiln such
as the potters burn in or of glazing them with lead,

though J had some lead to do it with; but I placed three
134 ROBINSON CRUSOE

large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile one upon
another and placed my firewood all round it with a great
heap of embers under them; I plied the fire with fresh
fuel round the outside and upon the top, till I saw the
pots in the inside red hot quite through, and observed
that they did not crack at all; when I saw them clear red,
I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I
found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or
run, for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted
by the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass
if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the
pots began to abate of the red color; and watching them
all night that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in
the morning I had three very good, I will not say hand-
some, pipkins and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt
as could be desired; and one of them perfectly glazed
with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no
sort of earthenware for my use; but I must needs say, as
to the shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any-
one may suppose, when I had no way of making them but
as the children make dirt pies or as a woman would make
pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to
mine, when I found I had made an earthen pot that
would bear the fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till
they were cold, before I set one upon the fire again, with
some water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did ad-
mirably well; and with a piece of a kid I made some
very good broth, though I wanted oatmeal and several
other ingredients requisite to make it so good as I would
have had it been.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp
or beat some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no
thought at arriving to that perfection of art with one pair
I BEGAN MY THIRD YEAR 135

of hands. To supply this want I was at a great loss; for of
all trades in the world I was as perfectly unqualified for a
stone-cutter as for any whatever; neither had I any tools
to go about it with. I spent many a day to find out a
great stone big enough to cut hollow and make fit for
a mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in
the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut
out; nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hardness
sufficient, but were all of a sandy crumbling stone, which
neither would bear the weight of a heavy pestle or would
break the corn without filling it with sand; so after a great
deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over,
and resolved to look out for a great block of hard wood,
which I found indeed much easier; and getting one as
big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it in
the outside with my axe and hatchet, and then with the
help of fire, and infinite labor, made a hollow place in it,
as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I
made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called
the iron-wood, and this I prepared and laid by against I
had my next crop of corn, when I proposed to myself to
grind, or rather pound, my corn into meal, to make my
bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to
dress my meal and to part it from the bran and the husk,
without which I did not see is possible I could have any
bread. This was a most difficult thing, so much as but to
think on; for to be sure, I had nothing like the necessary
thing to make it; I mean fine thin canvas or stuff, to searce
the meal through. And here I was at a full stop for many
months, nor did I really know what to do; linen I had
none left, but what was mere rags; I had goats’ hair, but
neither knew I how to weave it or spin it; and had I
known how, here was no tools to work it with; all the
remedy that I found for this was that at last I did remem-
136 ROBINSON CRUSOE

ber I had among the seamen’s clothes which were saved
out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin; and
with some pieces of these, I made three small sieves, but
proper enough for the work; and thus I made shift for
some years. How I did afterwards, I shall show in its
lace.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered
and how I should make bread when I came to have corn;
for, first, I had no yeast; as to that part, as there was no
supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much
about it; but for an oven I was indeed in great pain; at
length I found out an experiment for that also, which was
this; I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not
deep; that is to say, about two feet diameter, and not
above nine inches deep; these I burnt in the fire, as I had
done the other, and laid them by; and when I wanted to
bake, I made a great fire upon my hearth, which I had
paved with some square tiles of my own making and
burning also; but I should not call them square.

When the firewood was burnt pretty much into embers,
or live coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so
as to cover it all over, and there I let them lie, till the
hearth was very hot; then sweeping away all the embers,
I set down my loaf, or loaves, and whelming down the
earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all round the
outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat; and
thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my
barley loaves, and became in little time a mere pastry-
cook into the bargain; for I made myself several cakes
of the rice and puddings; indeed I made no pies, neither
had I anything to put into them, supposing I had, except
the flesh either of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me
up most part of the third year of my abode here; for it is
to be observed that in the intervals of these things I had
MY DESIRE TO VENTURE OVER THE MAIN 137

my new harvest and husbandry to manage; for I reaped
my corn in its season and carried it home as well as I
could and laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, till

I had time to rub it out; for I had no floor to thrash it on.

or instrument to thrash it with.

And now indeed my stock of corn increasing, I really
wanted to build my barns bigger. I wanted a place to lay
it up in; for the increase of the corn now yielded me so
much that I had of the barley about twenty bushels and
of the rice as much or more; insomuch that now I re-
solved to begin to use it freely, for my bread had been
quite gone a great while; also I resolved to see what
quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to
sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of
barley and rice was much more than I could consume in
a year; so I resolved to sow just the same quantity every
year that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity
would fully provide me with bread, etc. :

My Desire to Venture Over the Main



ALL the while these things were doing, you may be sure
my thoughts run many times upon the prospect of land
which I had seen from the other side of the island, and
I was not without secret wishes that I were on shore
there, fancying that seeing the mainland and an inhab-
ited country, I might find some way or other to convey
myself farther, and perhaps at last find some means of
escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers
of such a condition, and how I might fall into the hands of
savages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to
think far worse than the lions and tigers of Africa. That

\
138 ROBINSON CRUSOE

if I once came into their power, I should run a hazard
more than a thousand to one of being killed and perhaps
of being eaten; for I had heard that the people of the
Caribbean coasts were cannibals, or man-eaters, and I
knew by the latitude that I could not be far off from that
shore. That suppose they were not cannibals, yet that they —
might kill me, as many Europeans who had fallen into
their hands had been served, even when they had been
ten or twenty together; much more I, that was but one,
and could make little or no defense. All these things, I
say, which I ought to have considered well of and did
cast up in my thoughts afterwards yet took up none of
my apprehensions at first; but my head run mightily upon
the thought of getting over to the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury and the longboat with
the shoulder-of-mutton sail with which I sailed above a
thousand miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in
vain. Then I thought I would go and look at our ship’s
boat, which, as I have said, was blown up upon the shore
a great way in the storm, when we were first cast away.
She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite; and
was turned by the force of the waves and the winds al-
most bottom upward against a high ridge of beachy rough
sand; but no water about her as before.

If I had had hands to have refitted her and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done
well enough, and I might have gone back into the Brazils
with her easily enough; but I might have foreseen that I
could no more turn her and set her upright upon her
bottom than I could remove the island. However, I went
to the woods and cut levers and rollers and brought them
to the boat, resolved to try what I could do, suggesting
to myself that if I could but turn her down, I might easily
repair the damage she had received, and she would be a
very good boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.
MY DESIRE TO VENTURE OVER THE MAIN 139

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil
and spent, I think, three or four weeks about it; at last
finding it impossible to heave it up with my little strength,
I fell to digging away the sand, to undermine it and so to
make it fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and
guide it right in the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up
again, or to get under it, much less to move it forward
towards the water; so I was forced to give it over; and yet,
though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to
venture over for the main increased, rather than de-
creased, as the means for it seemed impossible.

This at length put me upon thinking whether it was not
possible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the
natives of those climates make, even without tools, or, as
I might say, without hands, viz., of the trunk of a great
tree. This I not only thought possible but easy, and
pleased myself extremely with the thoughts of making it
and with my having much more convenience for it than
any of the Negroes or Indians; but not at all considering
the particular inconveniences which I lay under, more
than the Indians did, viz., want of hands to move it, when
it was made, into the water, a difficulty much harder
for me to surmount than all the consequences of want of
tools could be to them; for what was it to me, that when
I had chosen a vast tree in the woods, I might with much
trouble cut it down, if after I might be able with my tools
to hew and dub the outside into the proper shape of a
boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it hollow, so
to make a boat of it—if after all this, I must leave it just
there where I found it, and was not able to launch it int
the water? .

One would have thought I could not have had the least
reflection upon my mind of my circumstance, while I was

making this boat; but I should have immediately thought
140 ROBINSON CRUSOE

how I should get it into the sea; but my thoughts were so
intent upon my voyage over the sea in it that I never once
considered how I should get it off of the land; and was
really in its own nature more easy for me to guide it over
forty-five miles of sea than about forty-five fathoms of
land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that
ever man did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased
myself with the design, without determining whether I
was ever able to undertake it; not but that the difficulty
of launching my boat came often into my head; but I put
a stop to my own inquiries into it, by this foolish answer
which I gave myself, “Let’s first make it; I'l warrant I'll
find some way or other to get it along, when ’tis done.”

This was a most preposterous method; but the eager-
ness of my fancy prevailed, and to work I went. I felled
a cedar tree. I question much whether Solomon ever had
such a one for the building of the Temple at Jerusalem.
It was five foot ten inches diameter at the lower part
next the stump and four foot eleven inches diameter at
the end of twenty-two foot, after which it lessened for a
while, and then parted into branches. It was not without
infinite labor that I felled this tree. I was twenty days
hacking and hewing at it at the bottom. I was fourteen
more getting the branches and limbs, and the vast spread-
ing head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through
with axe and hatchet and inexpressible labor. After this,
it cost me a month to shape it and dub it to a proportion,
and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it might
swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three
months more to clear the inside, and work it so as to make
an exact boat of it. This I did indeed without fire, by
mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labor, till
I had brought it to be a very handsome periagua and big
enough to have carried six and twenty men, and conse-
MY DESIRE TO VENTURE OVER THE MAIN 141

quently big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely
delighted with it. The boat was really much bigger than
I ever saw a canoe, or periagua, that was made of one
tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may
be sure; and there remained nothing but to get it into the
water; and had I gotten it into the water, I make no ques-
tion but I should have begun the maddest voyage and
the most unlikely to be performed that ever was under-
taken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me;
though they cost me infinite labor, too. It lay about one
hundred yards from the water, and not more. But the first
inconvenience was, it was uphill towards the creek; well,
to take away this discouragement, I resolved to dig into
the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity. This I
begun, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains; but who
grudges pains, that have their deliverance in view? But
when this was worked through, and this difficulty man-
aged, it was still much at one; for I could no more stir
the canoe than I could the other boat.

Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved
to cut a dock, or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe,
seeing I could not bring the canoe down to the water.
Well, I began this work; and when I began to enter into
it and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how broad,
how the stuff to be thrown out, I found that by the num-
ber of hands I had, being none but my own, it must have
been ten or twelve years before I should have gone
through with it; for the shore lay high, so that at the
upper end it must have been at least twenty foot deep;
so at length, though with great reluctancy, I gave this
attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily, and now I saw, though too
late, ‘the folly of beginning a work before we count the
142 ROBINSON CRUSOE

cost and before we judge rightly of our own strength to
go through with it.
~ In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in
—__this place, and kept my anniversary with the same devo-
tion and with as much comfort as ever before; for by a
constant study, and serious application of the Word of
God, and by the assistance of His grace, I gained a dif-
ferent knowledge from what I had before. I entertained
different notions of things. I looked now upon the world
as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do with, no
expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about. In a
word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever
like to have; so, I thought, it looked as we may perhaps
look upon it hereafter, viz., as a place I had lived in but
was come out of it; and well might I say, as Father Abra-
ham to Dives, “Between me and thee is a great gulf
fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wicked-
ness of the world here. I had neither the lust of the flesh,
the lust of the eye or the pride of life. I had nothing to
covet; for I had all that I was now capable of enjoying.
I was lord of the whole manor; or if I pleased, I might
call myself king, or emperor over the whole country
which I had possession of. There were no rivals. I had no
competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or command with
me. I might have raised shiploadings of corn; but I had
no use for it; so I let as little grow as I thought enough
for my occasion. I had tortoise or turtles enough; but now
and then one was as much as I could put to any use. I had
timber enough to have built a fleet of ships. I had grapes
enough to have made wine, or to have cured into raisins,
to have loaded that fleet, when they had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable.
I had enough to eat, and to supply my wants, and what
was all the rest to me? If I killed more flesh than I could
MY DESIRE TO VENTURE OVER THE MAIN 143

eat, the dog must eat it, or the vermin. If I sowed more
corn than I could eat, it must be spoiled. The trees that I
cut down were lying to rot on the ground. I could make
no more use of them than for fuel; and that I had no
occasion for but to dress my food.

In a wo

rd,-the-neture and experience of things-dietated
to me upap justveflection that all the good things of this
world are no farther-good tous thanthey—are—for_our
use; and that whatever we may heap up indeed to give
others. we enjoy just-as much as we can use, and no more.
The most covetous griping miser in the world would have -
been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had been in
my case; for I posessed infinitely more than I knew what
to do with. I had not room for desire, except it was of
things which I had not, and they were but trifles, though
indeed of great use to me. I had, as I hinted before, a
parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-six
pounds sterling. Alas! There the nasty, sorry, useless stuff
lay; I had no manner of business for it; and I often
thought with myself that I would have given a handful
of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes or for a hand-mill to
grind my corn; nay, I would have given it all for sixpenny-
worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England or for a
handful of peas and beans and a bottle of ink. As it was,
I had not the least advantage by it or benefit from it; but
there it lay in a drawer and grew moldy with the damp of
the cave in the wet season; and if I had had the drawer
full of diamonds, it had been the same case; and they had
been of no manner of value to me because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier
in itself than it was at first and much easier to my mind,
as well as to my body. I frequently sat down to my meat
with thankfulness and admired the hand of God’s provi-
dence, which had thus spread my table in the wilder-
ness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of my
144 ROBINSON. CRUSOE

condition and less upon the dark side and to consider
what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted; and this gave
me sometimes such secret comforts that I cannot express
them; and which I take notice of here, to put those dis-
contented people in mind of it who cannot enjoy com-
fortable what God had given them because they see and
covet something that He has not given them. All our dis-
contents about what we want appeared to me to spring
from the want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me and doubt-
less would be so to anyone that should fall into such
distress as mine was; and this was to compare my present
condition with what I at first expected it should be; nay,
with what it would certainly have been, if the good provi-
dence of God had not wonderfully ordered the ship to be
cast up nearer to the shore, where I not only could come
at her but could bring what I got out of her to the shore
for my relief and comfort; without which, I had wanted
for tools to work, weapons for defense, or gunpowder
and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in repre-
senting to myself, in the most lively colors, how I must
have acted if I had got nothing out of the ship. How I
could not have so much as got any food, except fish and
turtles; and that, as it was long before I found any of
them, I must have perished first. That I should have lived,
if I had not perished, like a mere savage. That if I had
killed a goat, or a fowl, by any contrivance, I had no way
to flay or open them, or part the flesh from the skin and
the bowels, or to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my
teeth and pull it with my claws like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the good-
ness of Providence to me and very thankful for my pres-
ent condition, with all its hardships and misfortunes. And
this part also I cannot but recommend to the reflection
MY DESIRE TO VENTURE OVER THE MAIN 145

of those who are apt in their misery to say, “Is any
affliction like mine?” Let them consider how much worse
the cases of some people are and their case might have
been, if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection which assisted me also to com-
fort my mind with hopes; and this was comparing my
present condition with what I had deserved and had
therefore reason to expect from the hand of Providence.
I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly destitute of the
knowledge and fear of God. I had been well instructed by
father and mother; neither had they been wanting to me
in their early endeavors to infuse a religious awe of God
into my mind, a sense of my duty and of what the nature
and end of my being required of me. But alas! falling
early into the seafaring life, which of all the lives is the
most destitute of the fear of God, though His terrors are
always before them; I say, falling early into the seafaring
life and into seafaring company, all that little sense of
religion which I had entertained was laughed out of me
by my messmates; by a hardened despising of dangers
and the views of death, which grew habitual to me; by my
long absence from all manner of opportunities to converse
with anything but what was like myself or to hear any-
thing that was good or tended towards it.

So void was I of everythiny that was good, or of the
least sense of what I was or was to be, that in the greatest
deliverances I enjoyed, such as my escape from Sallee,
my being taken up by the Portuguese master of the ship,
my being planted so well in the Brazils, my receiving the
cargo from England and the like, I never had once the
words, “Thank God,” as much as on my mind or in my
mouth; nor in the greatest distress had I so much a
thought to pray to Him or so much as to say, “Lord, have
mercy upon me”; no, nor to mention the name of God,
unless it was to swear by and blaspheme it.
146 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many
months, as I have already observed, on the account of my
wicked and hardened life past; and when I looked about
me and considered what particular providences had at-
tended me since my coming into this place, and how God
had dealt bountifully with me; had not only punished me
less than my iniquity had deserved, but had so plentifully
provided for me; this gave me great hopes that my re-
pentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercy in
store for me.

With these reflections I worked my mind up not only
to resignation to the will of God in the present disposi-
tion of my circumstances but even to a sincere thankful-
ness for my condition; and that I, who was yet a living
man, ought not to complain, seeing I had not the due
punishment of my sins; that I enjoyed so many mercies
which I had no reason to have expected in that place;
that I ought never more to repine at my condition but to
rejoice and to give daily thanks for that daily bread,
which nothing but a crowd of wonders could have
brought. That I ought to consider I had been fed even
by miracle, even as great as that of feeding Elijah by
ravens; nay, by a long series of miracles; and that I could
hardly have named a place in the unhabitable part of the
world where I could have been cast more to my ad-
vantage. A place, where as I had no society, which was
my affliction on one hand, so I found no ravenous beast,
no furious wolves or tigers to threaten my life, no
venomous creatures or poisonous which I might feed on
to my hurt, no savages to murder and devour me,

In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way, sO
-it was a life of mercy another; and I wanted nothing to
make it a life of comfort but to be able to make my sense
of God’s goodness to me, and care over me in this condi-
MY DESIRE TO VENTURE OVER THE MAIN 147

tion, be my daily consolation; and after I did make a just.
improvement of these things, I went away and was no
more sad,

I had now been here so long that many things which I
brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or
very much wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some time, all
but a very little, which I eked out with water, a little and
a little, till it was so pale it scarce left any appearance of
black upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of
it to minute down the days of the month on which any
remarkable thing happened to me; and first, by casting up
times past, I remember that there was a strange concur-
rence of days in the various providences which befell. me
and which, if I had been superstitiously inclined to ob-
serve days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason
to have looked upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I broke
away from my father and my friends and ran away to
Hull in order to go to sea, the same day afterwards I
was taken by the Sallee man-of-war and made a slave.

The same day of the year that I escaped out of the
wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day-year
afterwards I made my escape from Sallee in the boat.

The same day of the year I was born on, viz., the 30th
of September, that same day I had my life so miraculously
saved twenty-six yeats after, when I was cast on shore
‘n this island; so that my wicked life and my solitary life
begun both on a day.

The next thing to my ink’s being wasted was that of my
bread, I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the ship.
This I had husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself
but one cake of bread a day for above a year, and yet I
was quite without bread for near a year before I got any
148 ROBINSON CRUSOE

corn of my own, and great reason I had to be thankful
that I had any at all, the getting it being, as has been al-
ready observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes began to decay, too, mightily. As to linen, I
had none a good while, except some checkered shirts
which I found in the chests of the other seamen, and
which I carefully preserved, because many times I could
bear no other clothes on but a shirt; and it was a very
great help to me that I had among all the men’s clothes
of the ship almost three dozen of shirts. There were also
several thick watch coats of the seamen’s, which were left
indeed, but they were too hot to wear; and though it is
true that the weather was so violent hot that there was
no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite naked; no,
though I had been inclined to it, which I was not, nor
could abide the thoughts of it, though I was all alone.

The reason why I could not go quite naked was, I could
not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked,
as with some clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently
blistered my skin; whereas with a shirt on, the air itself
made some motion and, whistling under that shirt, was
twofold cooler than without it. No more could I ever
bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun without a
cap or a hat; the heat of the sun, beating with such
violence as it does in that place, would give me the head-
ache presently, by darting so directly on my head, with-
out a cap or hat on, so that I could not bear it; whereas,
if I put on my hat, it would presently go away.

Upon those views I began to consider about putting the
few rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order;
I had worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my business
was now to try if I could not make jackets out of the great
watch coats which I had by me, and with such other
materials as I had; so I set to work a-tailoring, or rather
indeed a-botching, for I made most piteous work of it.
MY DESIRE TO VENTURE OVER THE MAIN 149

However, I made shift to make two or three new waist-
coats, which I hoped would serve me a great while; as for
breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift in-
deed till afterward.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the crea-
tures that I killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had
hung them up stretched out with sticks in the sun, by
which means some of them were so dry and hard that
they were fit for little, but others it seems were very use-
ful. The first thing I made of these was a great cap for my
head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain;
and this I performed so well, that after this I made me
a suit of clothes wholly of these skins, that is to say, a
waistcoat, and breeches open at knees, and both loose,
for they were rather wanting to keep me cool than to
keep me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they
were wretchedly made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I
was a worse tailor. However, they were such as I made
very good shift with; and when I was abroad, if it hap-
pened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being
outermost, I was kept very dry.

After this I spent a great deal of time and pains to
make me an umbrella; I was indeed in great want of one,
and had a great mind to make one; I had seen them made
in the Brazils, where they are very useful in the great
heats which are there. And I felt the heats every jot as
great here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox; be-
sides as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a most
useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats. I took
a world of pains at it, and was a great while before I
could make anything likely to hold; nay, after I thought
I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before I made
one to my mind; but at last I made one that answered
indifferently well. The main difficulty I found was to
make it to let down. I could make it to spread, but if it
150 ROBINSON CRUSOE

did not let down too and draw in, it was not portable for
me any way but just over my head, which would not do.
However, at last, as I said, I made one to answer and
covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast off
_the rains like a penthouse and kept off the sun so ef-

fectually, that I could walk out in the hottest of the
weather with greater advantage than I could before in
the coolest, and when I had no need of it, could close it
and carry it under my arm,

Sailing Round the Island



THUS I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being en-
tirely composed by resigning to the will of God and throw-
ing myself wholly upon the disposal of His Providence.
This made my life better than sociable, for when I began
to regret the want of conversation, I would ask myself
whether thus conversing mutually with my own thoughts
and, as I hope I may say, with even God Himself, by
ejaculations, was not better than the utmost enjoyment of
human society in the world.

I cannot say that after this, for five years, any extraor-
dinary thing happened to me, but I lived on in the same
course, in the same posture and place, just as before; the
chief thing I was employed in, besides my yearly labor
of planting my barley and rice and curing my raisins,
of both which I always kept up just enough to have suf-
ficient stock of one year’s provisions beforehand; I say,
besides this yearly labor and my daily labor of going out
with my gun, I had one labor, to make me a canoe, which
at last I finished. So that by digging a canal to it of six
foot wide, and four foot deep, I brought it into the creek,
almost half a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly
SAILING ROUND THE ISLAND 151
big, as I made it without considering beforehand, as I

ought to do, how I should be able to launch it; so, never —

being able to bring it to the water, or bring the water to
it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was, as a memo-
randum to teach me to be wiser next time. Indeed, the
next time, though I could not get a tree proper for it, and
in a place where I could not get the water to it at any less
distance than, as I have said, near half a mile, yet as I
saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it over; and
though I was near two years about it, yet I never grudged
my labor, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at
last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet
the size of it was not at all answerable to the design which
Thad in view, when I made the first; I mean, of venturing
over to the terra firma, where it was above forty miles
broad; accordingly, the smallness of my boat assisted to
put an end to that design, and now I thought no more of
it. But as I had a boat, my next design was to make a tour
round the island; for as I had been on the other side in
one place, crossing, as I have already described it, over
the land, so the discoveries I made in that little journey
made me very eager to see other parts of the coast; and
now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round
the island.

For this purpose, that I might do everything with dis-
cretion and consideration, I fitted up a little mast to my
boat, and made a sail to it out of some of the pieces of
the ship’s sail, which lay in store, and of which I had a
great stock by me.

Having fitted my mast and sail and ttied the boat, I
found she would sail very well. Then I made little lockers,
or boxes, at either end of my boat, to put provisions, nec-
essaries and ammunition, etc., into, to be kept dry, either

|
152 ROBINSON CRUSOE

from rain or the spray of the sea; and a little long hollow
place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my
gun, making a flap to hang down over it to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a
mast, to stand over my head, and keep the heat of the
sun off of me like an awning; and thus I every now and
then took a little voyage upon the sea but never went far
out, nor far from the little creek; but at last being eager
to view the circumference of my little kingdom, I re-
solved upon my tour and accordingly I victualed my
ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of my loaves
(cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an
earthen pot full of parched rice, a food I eat a great deal
of, a little bottle of rum, half a goat and powder and shot
for killing more, and two large watch coats, of those
which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the
seamen’s chests; these I took, one to lie upon, and the
other to cover me in the night.

/ It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my

reign, or my captivity, which you please, that I set out on
this voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected;
for though the island itself was not very large, yet when
I came to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of
rocks lie out above two leagues into the sea, some above
water, some under it, and beyond that, a shoal of sand
lying dry half a league more; so that I was obliged to go
a great way out to sea to double the point.

When first I discovered them, I was going to give over
my enterprise, and come back again, not knowing how
far it might oblige me to go out to sea; and above all,
doubting how I should get back again; so I came to an
anchor; for I had made me a kind of an anchor with a
piece of a broken grappling, which I got out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on

shore, climbing up upon a hill, which seemed to overlook
s
SAILING ROUND THE ISLAND 153
that point, where I saw the full extent of it, and resolved
to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I
perceived a strong, and indeed a most furious current,
which run to the east, and even came close to the point;
and I took the more notice of it, because I saw there
might be some danger that when I came into it, I might
be carried out to sea by the strength of it and not be able
to make the island again; and indeed, had I not gotten
first up upon this hill, I believe it would have been so;
for there was the same current on the other side the
island, only that it set off at a farther distance; and I saw
there was a strong eddy under the shore; so I had nothing
to do but to get in out of the first current, and I should
presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days; because the wind blow-
ing pretty fresh at east-southeast, and that being just con-
trary to the said current, made a great breach of the sea
upon the point; so that it was not safe for me to keep too
close to the shore for the breach, nor to go too far off
because of the stream.

The third day in the morning, the wind having abated
overnight, the sea was calm, and I ventured; but I am a
warning piece again to all rash and ignorant pilots; for
no sooner was I come to the point, when even I was not
my boat’s length from the shore, but I found myself in a
great depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a |
mill. It carried my boat along with it with such violence
that all I could do could not keep her so much as on the
edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and farther
out from the eddy, which was on my left hand. There was
no wind stirring to help me, and all I could do with my
paddles signified nothing; and now I began to give my-
self over for lost; for as the current was on both sides of
the island, I knew in a few leagues’ distance they must
154 ROBINSON CRUSOE

join again, and then I was irrecoverably gone; nor did I
see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had no prospect
before me but of perishing; not by the sea, for that was
calm enough, but of starving for hunger. I had indeed
found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could lift,
and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of
fresh water, that is to Say, one of my earthen pots; but
what was all this to being driven into the vast ocean,
‘where, to be sure, there was no shore, no mainland or
‘island, for a thousand leagues at least?

And now I saw how easy it was for the Providence of
God to make the most miserable condition mankind could
be in worse. Now I looked back upon my desolate solitary
island as the most pleasant place in the world, and all the
happiness my heart could wish for was to be but there
again. I stretched out my hands to it, with eager wishes.
“O happy desert!” said I, “I shall never see thee more.
O miserable creature,” said I, “whither am I going?”
Then I reproached myself with my unthankful temper
and how I had repined at my solitary condition; and now
what would I give to be on shore there again! Thus we
never see the true state of our condition till it is illustrated
to us by its contraries; nor know how to value what we
enjoy, but by the want of it. It is scarce possible to
imagine the consternation I was now in, being driven
from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now
to be) into the wide ocean almost two leagues, and in the
utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However, I
worked hard, till indeed my strength was almost ex-
hausted, and kept my boat as much to the northward,
that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy lay
on, as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun
passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of
wind in my face, springing up from the south-southeast.
This cheered my heart a little and especially when, in
SAILING ROUND THE ISLAND 155°

about half an hour more, it blew a pretty small gentle
gale. By this time I was gotten at a frightful distance
from the island, and had the least cloud or hazy weather
intervened, I had been undone another way too; for I had
no compass on board, and should never have known how
to have steered towards the island, if I had but once lost
sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I applied
myself to get up my mast again and spread my sail,
standing away to the north as much as possible, to get out
of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began
to stretch away, I saw even by the clearness of the water
some alteration of the current was near; for where the
current was so strong, the water was foul; but perceiving
the water clear, I found the current abate, and presently
I found to the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the
sea upon some rocks; these rocks I found caused the
current to part again, and as the main stress of it ran
away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the northeast,
so the other returned by the repulse of the rocks and made
a strong eddy, which run back again to the northwest,
with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought
to them upon the ladder or to be rescued from thieves
just a-going to murder them, or who have been in such
like extremities, may guess what my present surprise of
joy was and how gladly I put my boat into the stream of
this eddy, and the wind also freshening, how gladly I
spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before the wind
and with a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back
again, directly towards the island, but about two leagues
more to the northward than the current which carried
me away at first; so that when I came near the island, I
found myself open to the northern shore of it, that is to


156 ROBINSON CRUSOE

| say, the other end of the island, opposite to that which ]
_ went out from.

‘When I had made something more than a league of
way by the help of this current or eddy, I found it was
spent and served me no farther. However, I found that
being between the two great currents, viz., that on the
south side, which had hurried me away, and that on the
north, which lay about a league on the other side: I say,
between these two, in the wake of the island, I found the
water at least still and running no way, and having still a
breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for
the island, though not making such fresh way as I did
before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within
about a league of the island, I found the point of the
rocks which occasioned this disaster stretching out, as is
described before, to the southward, and casting off the
current more southwardly, had of course made another
eddy to the north, and this I found very strong, but not
directly setting the way my course lay, which was due
west, but almost full north. However, having a fresh gale,
I stretched across this eddy, slanting northwest, and in
about an hour came within about a mile of the shore,
where, it being smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God
thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all
thoughts of my deliverance by my boat; and refreshing
myself with such things as I had, I brought my boat close
to the shore in a little cove that I had spied under some
trees and laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with
the labor and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with
my boat. I had run so much hazard, and knew too much
the case, to think of attempting it by the way I went out,
and what might be at the other side (I mean the west
SAILING ROUND THE ISLAND 157

side) I knew not, nor had I any mind to run any more
ventures; so I only resolved in the morning to make my
way westward along the shore and to see if there was no
creek where I might lay up my frigate in safety, so as to
have her again if I wanted her; in about threé miles, or
there about, coasting the shore, I came to a very good
inlet or bay about a mile over, which narrowed till it came
to a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a very
convenient harbor for my boat and where she lay as if
she had been in a little dock made on purpose for her.
Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I.
went on shore to look about me and see where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place
where I had been before, when I traveled on foot to that
shore; so taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and
my umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, I began my
march. The way was comfortable enough after such a
voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my old bower
in the evening, where I found everything standing as I
left it; for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said
before, my country house.

I got over the fence and laid me down in the shade to
rest my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep. But
judge you, if you can, that read my story, what a surprise
I must be in, when I was waked out of my sleep by a
voice calling me by my name several times, “Robin,
Robin, Robin Crusoe, poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you,
Robin Crusoe? Where are you? Where have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with row-
ing, or paddling, as it is called, the first part of the day
and with walking the latter part that I did not wake
thoroughly, but dozing between sleeping and waking,
thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to me. But as,
the voice continued to repeat “Robin Crusoe, Robin’
Crusoe,” at last I began to wake more perfectly and was \

see
158 ROBINSON CRUSOE

at first dreadfully frighted and started up in the utmost
consternation. But no sooner were my eyes open, but |
saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge; and im-
mediately knew that it was he that spoke to me; for just
in such bemoaning language I had used to talk to him,
and teach him; and he had learned it so perfectly that he
would sit upon my finger and lay his bill close to my
face, and cry, “Poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you?
Where have you been? How come you here?” and such
things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and
that indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good while
before I could compose myself. First, I was amazed how
the creature got thither and then, how he should just
keep about the place and nowhere else. But as I was well
satisfied it could be nobody but honest Poll, I got it over;
and holding out my hand, and calling him by his name,
“Poll,” the sociable creature came to me, and sat upon my
thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me,
“Poor Robin Crusoe!” and how did I come here? and
where had I been? just as if he had been overjoyed to
see me again; and so I carried him home along with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time
and had enough to do for many days to sit still and reflect
upon the danger I had been in. I would have been very
glad to have had my boat again on my side of the island;
but I knew not how it was practicable to get it about. As
to the east side of the island, which I had gone round, I
knew well enough there was no venturing that way; my
very heart would shrink and my very blood run chill but
to think of it. And as to the other side of the island, I did
not know how it might be there; but supposing the cur-
rent ran with the same force against the shore at the east
as it passed by it on the other, I might run the same risk
A VERY SEDATE RETIRED LIFE 159

of being driven down the stream, and carried by the
island, as I had been before of being carried away from
it; so, with these thoughts, I contented myself to be with-
out any boat, though it had been the product of so many
months’ labor to make it, and of so many more to get it
unto the sea,

A Very Sedate Retired Life

IN THIS government of my temper I remained near a
year, lived a very sedate, retired life, as you may well sup-
pose; and my thoughts being very much composed as to
my condition and fully comforted in resigning myself to
the dispositions of Providence, I thought I lived really
very happily in all things, except that of society. x,
I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic ex- ;
ercises which my necessities put me upon applying my- ~
self to and I believe could, upon occasion, make a very
good carpenter, especially considering how few tools I
had.
Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in
my earthenware, and contrived well enough to make
them with a wheel, which I found infinitely easier and
better; because I made things round and shapable which
before were filthy things indeed to look on. But I think I
was never more vain of my own performance, or more
joyful for anything I found out, than for my being able
to make a tobacco-pipe. And though it was a very ugly,
clumsy thing when it was done, and only burnt red, like
other earthenware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would
draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it, for
I had been always used to smoke and there were pipes in-
the ship, but I forgot them at first, not knowing that there
160 ROBINSON CRUSOE

was tobacco in the island; and afterwards, when I
searched the ship again, I could not come at any pipes
at all.

In my wickerware also I improved much and made
abundance of necessary baskets, as well as my invention
showed me; though not very handsome, yet they were
such as were very handy and convenient for my laying
things up in, or fetching things home in. For example, if
I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up in a tree, flay it
and dress it and cut it in pieces and bring it home in a
basket; and the like by a turtle, I could cut it up, take out
the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh, which was
enough for me, and bring them home in a basket, and
leave the rest behind me. Also large deep baskets were
my receivers for my corn, which I always rubbed out as
soon as it was dry and cured and kept it in great baskets.

I began now to perceive my powder abated con-

siderably, and this was a want which it was impossible
for me to supply; and I began seriously to consider what
I must do when I should have no more powder; that is to
_ say, how I should do to kill any goat. I had, as is observed
in the third year of my being here, kept a young kid, and
bred her up tame, and I was in hope of getting a he-goat;
but I could not by any means bring it to pass, till my kid
grew an old goat; and I could never find in my heart
to kill her, till she died at last of mere age.
_« But being now in the eleventh year of my residence,
and, as I have said, my ammunition growing low, I set
myself to study some art to trap and snare the goats, to
see whether I could not catch some of them alive, and
particularly, I wanted a she-goat great with young.

To this purpose I made snares to hamper them, and I
do believe they were more than once taken in them, but
my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and I always
found them broken and my bait devoured.
A VERY SEDATE RETIRED LIFE 161

At length I resolved to try a pitfall, so I dug several
large pits in the earth, in places where I had observed
the goats used to feed, and over these pits I placed
hurdles, of my own making too, with a great weight
upon them; and several times I put ears of barley and dry
rice, without setting the trap, and I could easily perceive
that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for I
could see the mark of their feet. At length I set three
traps in one night, and going the next morning, I found
them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone. This
was very discouraging. However, I altered my trap, and,
not to trouble you with particulars, going one morning
to see my trap, I found in one of them a large old he-goat,
and in one of the other, three kids, a male and two fe-
males.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him, he
was so fierce I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to
say, to go about to bring him away alive, which was what
I wanted. I could have killed him, but that was not my
business, nor would it answer my end. So I e’en let him
out, and he ran away, as if he had been frighted out of
his wits. But I had forgot then what I learned afterwards,
that hunger will tame a lion. If I had let him stay there
three or four days without food and then have carried
him some water to drink, and then a little corn, he would
have been as tame as one of the kids, for they are mighty
sagacious, tractable creatures where they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no
better at that time; then I went to the three kids, and
taking them one by one, I tied them with strings together
and with some difficulty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed, but throw-
ing them some sweet corn, it tempted them and they be-
gan to be tame; and now I found that if I expected to
supply myself with goat-flesh when I had no powder or
162 ROBINSON CRUSOE

| shot left, breeding some up tame was my only way, when
| perhaps I might have them about my house like a flock
' of sheep.

But then it presently occurred to me that I must keep
the tame from the wild, or else they would always run
wild when they grew up, and the only way for this was
to have some enclosed piece of ground, well fenced either
with hedge or pale, to keep them in so effectually that
those within might not break out, or those without
break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands, yet
as I saw there was an absolute necessity of doing it, my
first piece of work was to find a proper piece of ground,
viz., where there was likely to be herbage for them to eat,
water for them to drink, and cover to keep them from
the sun.

Those who understand such enclosures will think I
had very little contrivance, when I pitched upon a place
very proper for all these, being a plain open piece of
meadow land, or savanna (as our people call it in the
western colonies), which had two or three little drills of
fresh water in it and at one end was very woody. I say,
they will smile at my forecast, when I shall tell them I
began my enclosing of this piece or ground in such a
manner that my hedge or pale must have been at least
two mile about. Nor was the madness of it so great as to
the compass, for if it was ten mile about, I was like to
have time enough to do it in. But I did not consider that
my goats would be as wild in so much compass as if
they had had the whole island, and I should have so
much room to chase them in that I should never catch
them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about
fifty yards, when this thought occurred to me, so I pres-
ently stopped short and for the first beginning I resolved
A VERY SEDATE RETIRED LIFE 163

to enclose a piece of about 150 yards in length, and 100
ards in breadth, which, as it would maintain as many

as I should have in any reasonable time, so, as my flock

increased, I could add more ground to my enclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to
_ work with courage. I was about three months hedging in
the first piece, and till I had done it I tethered the three
kids in the best part of it and used them to feed as near
me as possible to: make them familiar; and very often I
would go and carry them some ears of barley or a handful
of rice and feed them out of my hand; so that after my
enclosure was finished and I let them loose, they would
follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful
of corn,

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half’
I had a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in
two years more I had three and forty, besides several that
I took and killed for my food. And after that I enclosed
five several pieces of ground to feed them in, with little
pens to drive them into, to take them as I wanted, and
gates out of one piece of ground into another.

But this was not all, for now I not only had goat’s flesh
to feed on when I pleased, but milk too, a thing which
indeed in my beginning I did not so much as think of,
and which, when it came into my thoughts, was really an
agreeable surprise. For now I set up my dairy and had
sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day. And as
Nature, who gives supplies of food to every creature,
dictates even naturally how to make use of it, so I that had
never milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen butter
or cheese made, very readily and handily, though after a
great many essays and miscarriages, made me both butter
and cheese at last and never wanted it afterwards.

How mercifully can our great Creator treat His crea-
tures, even in those conditions in which they seemed to
164 ROBINSON CRUSOE

be overwhelmed in destruction! How can He sweeten the
bitterest providences and give us cause to praise Him for
dungeons and prisons! What a table was here spread for
me in a wilderness, where I saw nothing at first but to
perish for hunger!

It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and
my little family sit down to dinner; there was my majesty,
the prince and lord of the whole island; I had the lives of
all my subjects at my absolute command. I could hang,
draw, give liberty, and take it away, and no rebels among
all my subjects.

Then to see how like a king I dined, too, all alone, at-
tended by my servants; Poll, as if he had been my
favorite, was the only person permitted to talk to me. My

_dog, who was now grown very old and crazy and had

_ found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at

my right hand, and two cats, one on one side the table

| and one on the other, expecting now and then a bit from
my hand, as a mark of special favor.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on
shore at first, for they were both of them dead and had
been interred near my habitation by my own hand; but
one of them having multiplied by I know not what kind
of creature, these were two which I had preserved tame,
whereas the rest run wild in the woods and became in-
deed troublesome to me at last; for they would often come
into my house and plunder me too, till at last I was ob-
liged to shoot them, and did kill a great many; at length
they left me with this attendance, and in this plentiful
manner, I lived; neither could I be said to want anything
but society, and of that in some time after this, I was like
to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have
the use of my boat, though very loath to run any more
hazards; and therefore sometimes I sat contriving ways
A VERY SEDATE RETIRED LIFE 165

to get her about the island, and at other times I sat my-
self down contented enough without her. But I had a
strange uneasiness in my mind to go down to the point
of the island where, as I have said, in my last ramble I
went up the hill to see how the shore lay and how the
current set that I might see what I had to do. This inclina-
tion increased upon me every day, and at length I re-
solved to travel thither by land; following the edge of the
shore I did so. But had anyone in England been to meet
such a man as I was, it must either have frighted them or
raised a great deal of laughter; and as I frequently stood
still to look at myself, I could not but smile at the notion
of my traveling through Yorkshire with such an equipage
and in such a dress._Be-pleased to take a sketch of my
figure as fellows:

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goatskin,
with a flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the
sun from me as to shoot the rain off from running into
my neck; nothing being so hurtful in these climates as
the rain upon the flesh under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goatskin, the skirts coming down
to about the middle of my thighs; and a pair of open-
kneed breeches of the same; the breeches were made of
the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down such a
length on either side that, like pantaloons, it reached to
the middle of my legs; stockings and shoes I had none,
but had made me a pair of somethings, I scarce know
what to call them, like buskins, to flap over my legs, and
lace on either side like spatterdashes; but of a most bar-
barous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goatskin dried, which I drew
together with two thongs of the same, instead of buckles;
and in a kind of a frog on either side of this, instead of a
sword and a dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one
on one side, one on the other. I had another belt, not so
166 ROBINSON CRUSOE

broad and fastened in the same manner, which hung over
my shoulder; and at the end of it, under my left arm,
hung two pouches, both made of goatskin too; in one of
which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back
I carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun, and over
my head a great clumsy ugly goatskin umbrella, but
which, after all, was the most necessary thing I had about
me, next to my gun. As for my face, the color of it was
really not so Mulatto like as one might expect from a man
not at all careful of it and living within nineteen degrees
of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow
till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both
scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty short, ex-
cept what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed
into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had
seen worn by some Turks who I saw at Sallee; for the
Moors did not wear such, though the Turks did; of these
mustachios or whiskers, I will not say they were long
enough to hang my hat upon them, but they were of a
length and shape monstrous enough and such as in Eng-
land would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye; for as to my figure, I had so
few to observe me that it was of no manner of conse-
quence; so I say no more to that part. In this kind of
figure I went my new journey, and was out five or six
days. I traveled first along the seashore, directly to the
place where I first brought my boat to an anchor, to get
up upon the rocks; and having no boat now to take care
of, I went over the land a nearer way to the same height
that I was upon before, when, looking forward to the
point of the rocks which lay out, and which I was obliged
to double with my boat, as is said above, I was surprised
to see the sea all smooth and quiet, no rippling, no mo-
tion, no current, any more there than in other places.

I was ata strange loss to understand this, and resolved
A VERY SEDATE RETIRED LIFE 167

to spend some time in the observing it, to see if nothing
from the sets of the tide had occasioned it; but I was
presently convinced how it was, viz., that the tide of ebb
setting from the west and joining with the current of
waters from some great river on the shore must be the
occasion of this current; and that according as the wind
blew more forcibly from the west or from the north, this
current came near, or went farther from the shore; for
waiting there abouts till evening, I went up to the rock
again, and then the tide of the ebb being made, I plainly
saw the current again as before, only that it run farther
off, being near half a league from the shore; whereas in -
my case it set close upon the shore, and hurried me and
my canoe along with it, which at another time it would
not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to
do but to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide,
and I might very easily bring my boat about the island
again. But when I began to think of putting it in practice,
I had such a terror upon my spirits at the remembrance
of the danger I had been in that I could not think of it
again with any patience; but on the contrary, I took up
another resolution, which was more safe, though more
laborious; and this was that I would build, or rather make
me another periagua, or canoe; and so have one for one
side of the island and one for the other.

You are to understand that now I had, as I may call :
two plantations in the island; one my little fortification of,
tent, with the wall about it under the rock, with the cave)
behind me, which by this time I had enlarged into several,
apartments, or caves, one within another. One of these,;
which was the driest and largest, and had a door out be-
yond my wall or fortification, that is to say, beyond where
my wall joined to the rock, was all filled up with the large
earthen pots, of which I have given an account, and with
168 ROBINSON CRUSOE vat

fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would hold five
or six bushels each, where I laid up my stores of provi-
sion, especially my corn, some in the ear cut off short from
the straw, and the other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes, or
piles, those piles grew all like trees and were by this time
grown so big and spread so very much that there was not
the least appearance to any one’s view of any habitation
behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine but a little farther within
the land and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of
corn ground, which I kept duly cultivated and sowed, and
which duly yielded me their harvest in its season; and
whenever I had occasion for more corn, I had more land
adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a
tolerable plantation there also; for first, I had my little
bower, as I called it, which I kept in repair; that is to say,
I kept the hedge which circled it in constantly fitted up
to its usual height, the ladder standing always in the in-
side; I kept the trees, which at first were no more than
my stakes, but were now grown very firm and tall, I
kept them always so cut that they might spread and grow
thick and wild, and make the more agreeable shade,
which they did effectually to my mind. In the middle of
this I had my tent always standing, being a piece of a
sail spread over poles set up for that purpose, and which
never wanted any repair or renewing; and under this I
had made me a squab, or couch, with the skins of the
creatures I had killed and with other soft things, and a
blanket laid on them such as belong to our seabedding,
which I had saved, and a great watch coat to cover me;
and here, whenever I had occasion to be absent from my
chief seat, I took up my country habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my cattle, that
A VERY SEDATE RETIRED LIFE 169

is to say, my goats. And as I had taken an inconceivable
deal of pains to fence and enclose this ground, so I was
so uneasy to see it kept entire, lest the goats should break
through, that I never left off till with infinite labor I had
struck the outside of the hedge so full of small stakes, and
so near to one another, that it was rather a pale than a
hedge, and there was scarce room to put a hand through
between them; which afterwards, when those stakes
grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, made the
enclosure strong like a wall, indeed, stronger than any
wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle and that I
spared no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared neces-
sary for my comfortable support; for I considered the
keeping up a breed of tame creatures thus at my hand
would be a living magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and
cheese for me as long as I lived in the place, if it were to
be forty years; and that keeping them in my reach de-
pended entirely upon my perfecting my enclosures to
such a degree that I might be sure of keeping them to-
gether; which by this method indeed, I so effectually
secured that when these little stakes began to grow, I had
planted them so very thick I was forced to pull some of
them up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I
principally depended on for my winter store of raisins
and which I never failed to preserve very carefully, as
the best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and
indeed they were not agreeable only, but physical, whole-
some, nourishing, and refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about halfway between my other
habitation and the place where I had laid up my boat, I
generally stayed and lay here in my way thither; for I
used frequently to visit my boat, and I kept all things
about or belonging to her in very good order; sometimes
peeporstiee

170 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I went out in her to divert myself, but no more hazardous
voyages would I go nor scarce ever above a stone’s cast
or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of being
hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents, or
winds, or any other accident. But now I come to a new
scene of my life.

The Print of a Man’s Naked Foot
a en EOS

. IT HAPPENED one day about noon going towards my
_ boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the print of a

man’s naked foot on the shore, which was very plain to
be seen in the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as
if I had seen an apparition; I listened, I looked round me;
I could hear nothing, nor see anything; I went up to a ris-
ing ground to look farther, I went up the shore and down
the shore, but it was all one, I could see no other im-
pression but that one. I went to it again to see if there
were any more and to observe if it might not be my
fancy; but there was no room for that} for there was ex-
actly the very print of a foot, toes, heel, and every part
of a foot; how it came thither I knew not, nor could in the
least imagine. But after innumerable fluttering thoughts,
like a man perfectly confused and out of myself, I came
home to my fortification, not feeling, as we say, the
ground I went on but terrified to the last degree, looking
behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every
bush and tree, and fancying every stump at a distance
to be a man; nor is it possible to describe how many
various shapes affrighted imagination represented things
to me in, how many wild ideas were found every moment
in my fancy, and what strangé, unaccountable whimsies
came into my thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle; for so I think I called it ever


THE PRINT OF A MAN’S NAKED FOOT 171

after this, I fled into it like one pursued; whether I went
over by the ladder as first contrived, or went in at the hole
in the rock, which I called a door, I cannot remember;
no, nor could I remember the next morning; for never
frighted hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more
terror of mind than I to this retreat.

I slept none that night; the farther I was from the
occasion of my fright, the greater my apprehensions were,
which is something contrary to the nature of such things
and especially to the usual practice of all creatures in fear.
But I was so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas
of the thing that I formed nothing but dismal imagina-
tions to myself, even though I was now a great way off of
it. Sometimes I fancied it must be the Devil; and reason
joined in with me upon this supposition. For how should
any other thing in human shape come into the place?
Where was the vessel that brought them? What marks
were there of any other footsteps? And how was it pos-
sible a man should come there? But then to think that
Satan should take human shape upon him in such a
place where there could be no manner of occasion for
it, but to leave the print of his foot behind him, and that
even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should
see it; this was an amusement the other way. I considered
that the Devil might have found out abundance of other
ways to have terrified me than this of the single print of
a foot. That as I lived quite on the other side of the island,
he would never have been so simple to leave a mark in a
place where ’twas ten thousand to one whether I should -
ever see it or not, and in the sand too, which the first
surge of the sea upon a high wind would have defaced
entirely. All this seemed inconsistent with the thing
itself, and with all the notions we usually entertain of the
subtilty of the Devil. ;

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me
172 ROBINSON CRUSOE

out of all apprehensions of its being the Devil. And I pres-
ently concluded then that it must be some more dan-
g¢erous creature, viz., that it must be some of the savages
of the mainland over against me, who had wandered out
to sea in their canoes and either driven by the currents
or by contrary winds had made the island; and had been
on shore, but were gone away again to sea, being as loath,
perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I would
have been to have had them,

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I
was very thankful in my thoughts that I was so happy as
not to be thereabouts at that time or that they did not see
my boat, by which they would have concluded that some
inhabitants had been in the place, and perhaps have
searched farther for me. Then terrible thoughts racked my
imagination about their having found my boat, and that
there were people here; and that if so, I should certainly
have them come again in great numbers, and devour
me; that if it should happen so that they should not find
me, yet they would find my enclosure, destroy all my
corn, carry away all my flock of tame goats, and I should

erish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope; all that
former confidence in God, which was founded upon such
wonderful experience as I had had of His goodness, now
vanished, as if He that had fed me by miracle hitherto
could not preserve by His power the provision which He
had made for me by His goodness. I reproached myself
with my easiness, that would not sow any more corn one
year than would just serve me till the next season, as if
no accident could intervene to prevent my enjoying the
crop that was upon the ground; and this I thought so
just a reproof that I resolved for the future to have two
or three years’ corn beforehand, so that whatever might
come, I might not perish for want of bread.


THE PRINT OF A MAN’S NAKED FOOT 173

How strange a checker-work of Providence is the life
of man! and by what secret differing springs aye the af-
fections hurried about as differing circumstances present?



we fear; tay, éven tremble at the a ons Oo!

was exemplified in me at this time. in the most lively
manner imaginable; for I, whose only affliction was that
I seemed banished from human society, that I was alone,
circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off from man-
kind, and condemned to what I called silent life; that
I was as one who Heaven thought not worthy to be num-
bered among the living, or to appear among the rest of
His creatures; that to have seen one of my own species
would have seemed to me a raising me from death to life,
and the greatest blessing that Heaven itself, next to the
supreme blessing of salvation, could bestow; I say, that I
should now tremble at the very apprehensions of seeing
a man, and was ready to sink into the ground at but the
shadow or silent appearance of a man’s having set his
foot in the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life. And it afforded
me a great many curious speculations afterwards, when
I had a little recovered my-first surprise; I considered that
this was the station of life the infinitely wise and good
providence of God had determined for me; that as I
could not foresee what the ends of Divine wisdom might
be in all this, so I was not to dispute His sovereignty,
who, as I was His creature, had an undoubted right by
creation to govern and dispose of me absolutely as He
thought fit; and who, as I was a creature who had of-
fended Him, had likewise a judicial right to condemn me
to what punishment He thought fit; and that it was my
part to submit to bear His indignation, because I had
sinned against Him. :
174 ROBINSON CRUSOE |

I then reflected that God, who was not only righteous
but omnipotent, as He had thought fit thus to punish and
afflict me, so He was able to deliver me; that if He did
not think fit to do it, twas my unquestioned duty to re-
sign myself absolutely and entirely to His will; and on
the other hand, it was my duty also to hope in Him, pray
to Him, and quietly to attend the dictates and directions
of His daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I
may say, weeks and months; and one particular effect of
my cogitations on this occasion I cannot omit, viz., one
morning early, lying in my bed, and filled with thought
- about my danger from the appearance of savages, I found
it discomposed me very much, upon which those words
of the Scripture came into my thoughts, “Call upon Me
in the day of trouble, and I will deliver, and thou shalt
glorify Me.”

Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my heart
was not only comforted but I was guided and encouraged
to pray earnestly to God for deliverance. When I had
done praying, I took up my Bible, and opening it to read,
the first words that presented to me were, “Wait on the
Lord, and be of good cheer, and He shall strengthen thy
heart; wait, I say, on the Lord.” It is impossible to ex-
press the comfort this gave me. In answer, I thankfully
laid down the book, and was no more sad, at least not on
that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and
reflections, it came into my thought one day that all this
might be a mere chimera of my own; and that this foot
might be the print of my own foot, when I came on shore
from my boat. This cheered me up a little too, and I
began to persuade myself it was all a delusion; that it was
nothing else but my own foot; and why might not I come
that way from the boat, as well as I was going that way
THE PRINT OF A MAN'S NAKED FOOT 175

to the boat? Again, I considered also that I could by no
means tell for certain where I had trod, and where I had
not; and that if at last this was only the print of my own
foot, I had played the part of those fools who strive to
make stories of specters and apparitions, and then are
frighted at them more than anybody.

Now I began to take courage and to peep abroad again,
for I had not stirred out of my castle for three days and
nights, so that I began to starve for provision; for I had
little or nothing within doors, but some barley-cakes and
water. Then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked
too, which usually was my evening diversion; and the
poor creatures were in great pain and inconvenience for
want of it; and indeed, it almost spoiled some of them,
and almost dried up their milk.

Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this
was nothing but the print of one of my own feet, and so I
might be truly said to start at my own shadow, I began
to go abroad again, and went to my country house to
milk my flock; but to see with what fear I went forward,
how often I looked behind me, how I was ready every
now and then to lay down my basket, and run for my
life, it would have made anyone have thought I was
haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been
lately most terribly frighted; and so indeed I had.

However, as I went down thus two or three days, and
having seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to
think there was really nothing in it but my own imagina-
tion. But I could not persuade myself fully of this, till I
should go down to the shore again, and see this print
of a foot, and measure it by my own, and see if there
was any similitude or fitness, that I might be assured it
was my own foot. But when I came to the place, first, it
appeared evidently to me, that when I laid up my boat, I
could not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabout;
176 ROBINSON CRUSOE |

secondly, when I came to measure the mark with my
own foot, I found my foot not so large by a great deal.
Both these things filled my head with new imaginations,
and gave me the vapors again to the highest degree; so
that I shook with cold, like one in an ague. And I went
home again, filled with the belief that some man or men
had been on shore there; or in short, that the island was
inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was aware;
and what course to take for my security, I knew not.

O what ridiculous resolution men take when possessed
with fear! It deprives them of the use of those means
which reason offers for their relief. The first thing I pro-
posed to myself was to throw down my enclosures, and
turn all my tame cattle wild into the woods, that the
enemy might not find them and then frequent the island
in prospect of the same or the like booty: then to the
simple thing of digging up my two cornfields, that they
might not find such a grain there and still be prompted
to frequent the island; then to demolish my bower and
tent, that they might not see any vestiges of habitation,
and be prompted to look farther, in order to find out the
persons inhabiting.

These were the subject of the first night’s cogitation,
after I was come home again, while the apprehensions
which had so overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and
my head was full of vapors, as above. Thus fear of danger
is ten thousand times more terrifying than danger itself,
when apparent to the eyes; and we find the burden of
anxiety greater, by much, than the evil which we are
anxious about; and which was worse than all this, I had
not that relief in this trouble from the resignation I used
to practice, that I hoped to have. I looked, I thought, like
Saul, who complained not only that the Philistines were
upon him but that God had forsaken him; for I did not
now take due ways to compose my mind, by crying to
THE PRINT OF A MAN’S NAKED FOOT 177

God in my distress, and resting upon His providence, as
| had done before, for my defense and deliverance; which
if I had done, I had, at least, been more cheerfully sup-
ported under this new surprise and perhaps carried
through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking all
night; but in the morning I fell asleep, and having by the
amusement of my mind, been, as it were, tired, and my
spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and waked much
better composed than I had ever been before; and now I
began to think sedately; and upon the utmost debate with
myself, I concluded that this island, which was so exceed-
ing pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the mainland
than as I had seen, was not so entirely abandoned as I
might imagine. That although there were no stated in-
habitants who lived on the spot, yet that there might
sometimes come boats off from the shore, who either with
design, or perhaps never but when they were driven by
cross winds, might come to this place. That I had lived

here fifteen 1 years now, and had not met with the least *

shadow or figure ire of any people yet; and that if at any
time they should be driven here, it was probable they
went way again as soon as ever they could, seeing they
had never thought fit to fix there upon any occasion to
this time.

That the most I could suggest any danger from was
from any such casual accidental landing of straggling
people from the main, who, as it was likely if they were
driven hither, were here against their wills; so they made
no stay here, but went off again with all possible speed,
seldom staying one night on shore, lest they should not
have the help of the tides and daylight back again; and
that therefore I had nothing to do but to consider of
some safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land
upon the spot.
178 ROBINSON CRUSOE

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave
so large as to bring a door through again, which door, as
I said, came out beyond where my fortification joined to
the rock; upon maturely considering this therefore, |
resolved to draw me a second fortification, in the same
manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my wall, just
where I had planted a double row of trees about twelve
years before, of which I made mention. These trees hav-
ing been planted so thick before, they wanted but a few
piles to be driven between them, that they should be
thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon finished.

So that I had now a double wall, and my outer wall was
thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and every-
thing I could think of to make it strong; having in it seven
little holes, about as big as I might put my arm out at.
In the inside of this, I thickened my wall to above ten
foot thick, with continual bringing earth out of my cave,
and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon
it; and through the seven holes I contrived to plant the
muskets, of which I took notice that I got seven on shore
out of the ship; these, I say, I planted like my cannon,
and fitted them into frames that held them like a car-
riage, that so I could fire all the seven guns in two
minutes’ time. This wall I was many a weary month
a-finishing, and yet never thought myself safe till it was
done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my
wall, for a great way every way, as full with stakes or
sticks, of the osier-like wood, which I found so apt to
grow, as they could well stand; insomuch, that I believe
I might set in near twenty thousand of them, leaving a
pretty large space between them and my wall, that I
might have room to see an enemy, and they might have
no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to ap-
proach my outer wall.
THE PRINT OF A MAN’S NAKED FOOT 179

Thus in two years’ time I had a thick grove, and in five
or six years’ time I had a wood before my dwelling, grow-
ing so monstrous thick and’ strong that it was indeed
perfectly impassable; and no men of what kind soever
would ever imagine that there was anything beyond it,
much less a habitation. As for the way which I proposed to
myself to go in and out, for I left no avenue, it was by
setting two ladders, one to a part of the rock which was
below, and then broke in, and left room to place another
ladder upon that; so when the two ladders were taken
down, no man living could come down to me without
mischieving himself; and if they had come down, they
were still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could
suggest for my own preservation; and it will be seen at
length that they were not altogether without just reason;
though I foresaw nothing at that time more than my mere
fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of
my other affairs; for I had a great concern upon me for
my little herd of goats; they were not only a present sup-
ply to me upon every occasion, and began to be sufficient
to me, without the expense of powder and shot, but also
without the fatigue of hunting after the wild ones; and
I was loath to lose the advantage of them, and to have
them all to nurse up over again.

To this purpose, after long consideration, I could think
of but two ways to preserve them; one was to find another
convenient place to dig a cave underground, and to drive
them into it every night; and the other was to enclose
two or three little bits of land, remote from one another
and as much concealed as I could, where I might keep.
about half a dozen young goats in each place; so that if
any disaster happened to the flock in general, I might be
able to raise them again with little trouble and time.
180 ROBINSON CRUSOE

And this, though it would require a great deal of time
and labor, I thought was the most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most re-
tired parts of the island; and I pitched upon one which
was as private indeed as my heart could wish for; it was
a little damp piece of ground in the middle of the hollow
and thick woods, where, as is observed, I almost lost my-
self once before, endeavoring to come back that way from
the eastern part of the island. Here I found a clear piece
of land, near three acres, so surrounded with woods that
it was almost an enclosure by Nature, at least it did not
want near so much labor to make it so as the other pieces
of ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground,
and in less than a month’s time I had so fenced it round
that my flock or herd, call it which you please, who were
not so wild now as at first they might be supposed to be,
were well enough secured in it. So, without any farther
delay, I removed ten young she-goats and two he-goats
to this piece; and when they were there, I continued to
perfect the fence, till I had made it as secure as the other,
which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me up
more time by a great deal,

Cannibals!

Sa a na SE co bs Se
ALL this labor I was at the expense of purely from my
apprehensions on the account of the print of a man’s foot
which I had seen; for as yet I never saw any human crea-
ture come near the island; and I had now lived two years
under these uneasinesses, which indeed made my life
much less comfortable than it was before; as may well be
imagined by any who know what it is to live in the con-
stant snare of the fear of man; and this I must observe
CANNIBALS! 181

with grief too, that the discomposure of my mind had too
great impressions also upon the religious part of my
thoughts, for the dread and terror of falling into the
hands of savages and cannibals lay so upon my spirits
that I seldom found myself in a due temper for applica-
tion to my Maker, at least not with the sedate calmness
and resignation of soul which I was wont to do; I rather
prayed to God as under great affliction and pressure of
mind, surrounded with danger, and in expectation every
night of being murdered and devoured before morning;
and I must testify from my experience that a temper of
peace, thankfulness, love, and affection is much more the
proper frame for prayer than that of terror and discom-
posure; and that under the dread of mischief impending,
a man is no more fit for a comforting performance of the
duty of praying to God than he is for repentance on a
sickbed. For these discomposures affect the mind, as the
others do the body; and the discomposure of the mind
must necessarily be as great a disability as that of the
body, and much greater, praying to God being properly
an act of the mind, not of the body. ,

But to go on. After I had thus secured one part of my
little living stock, I went about the whole island searching
for another private place to make such another deposit;
when wandering more to the west point of the island
than I had ever done yet, and looking out to sea, I thought,
I saw a boat upon the sea, at a great distance; I had found
a perspective-glass or two, in one of the seamen’s chests
which I saved out of our ship; but I had it not about me,
and this was so remote that I could not tell what to make
of it, though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to
hold to look any longer; whether it was a boat or not, I
do not know; but as I descended from the hill, I could
see no more of it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to go
no more out without a perspective-glass in my pocket.
182 ROBINSON CRUSOE

When I was come down the hill to the end of the island,
where indeed I had never been before, I was presently
convinced that the seeing the print of a man’s foot was
not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined; and
but that it was a special providence that I was cast upon
the side of the island where the Savages never came, I
should easily have known that nothing was more frequent
than for the canoes from the main, when they happened
to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that side
of the island for harbor; likewise, as they often met and
fought in their canoes, the victors, having taken any pris-.
oners, would bring them over to this shore, where, accord-
ing to their dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they
would kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said
above, being the southwest point of the island, I was per-
fectly confounded and amazed; nor is it possible for me
to express the horror of my mind at seeing the shore
spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of human
bodies; and particularly, I observed a place where there
had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth, like
a cockpit, where it is supposed the Savage wretches had
sat down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of
their fellow creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things that
I entertained no notions of any danger to myself from it
for a long while; all my apprehensions were buried in the
thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality,
and the horror of the degeneracy of human nature; which
though I had heard of often, yet I never had so near a
view of before; in short, I turned away my face from the
horrid spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and I was just
at the point of fainting, when Nature discharged the dis-
order from my stomach; and having vomited with an un-
common violence, I was a little relieved but could not
CANNIBALS! 183,

bear to stay in the place a moment; so I gat me up the
hill again, with all the’ speed I could, and walked on to-
wards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I
stood still a while as amazed; and then recovering myself,
I looked up with the utmost affection of my soul, and with
a flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks that had cast
my first lot in a part of the world where I was distin-
guished from such dreadful creatures as these; and that
though I had esteemed my present condition very mis-
erable, had yet given me so many comforts in it that I had
still more to give ee ee this
above all, that I had even in this miserable condition been
comforted with the knowledge of Himself and the hope
of His blessing, which was a felicity more than sufficiently
equivalent to all the misery which I had suffered or could
suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness I went home to my castle,
and began to be much easier now, as to the safety of my
circumstances, than ever I was before; for I observed that
these wretches never came to this island in search of what
they could get; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not
expecting anything here; and having often, no doubt,
been up in the covered, woody part of it, without finding
anything to their purpose. I knew I had been here now
almost eighteen years, and never saw the least footsteps
of human creature there before; and I might be here
eighteen more as entirely concealed as I was now, if I
did not discover myself to them, which I had no manner
of occasion to do, it being my only business to keep myself
entirely concealed where I was, unless I found a better
sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself known to.

Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage
wretches that I have been speaking of and of the
wretched, inhuman custom of their devouring and eating
184 ROBINSON CRUSOE

one another up that I continued pensive and sad, and
kept close within my own circle for almost two years after
this. When I say my own circle, I mean by it my three
plantations, viz., my castle, my country seat, which |
called my bower, and my enclosure in the woods; nor did
I look after this for any other use than as an enclosure
for my goats; for the aversion which Nature gave me to
these heilish wretches was such that I was fearful of see-
ing them as of seeing the Devil himself; nor did I so much
as go to look after my boat in all this time, but began
rather to think of making me another; for I could not
think of ever making any more attempts to bring the
other boat round the island to me, lest I should meet with
some of these creatures at sea, in which, if I had hap-
pened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what would
have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in
no danger of being discovered by these people began to
wear off my uneasiness about them; and I began to live
just in the same composed manner as before: only with
this difference, that I used more caution and kept my eyes
more about me than I did before, lest I should happen to
be seen by any of them; and particularly, I was more cau-
tious of firing my gun, lest any of them, being on the
island, should happen to hear of it; and it was therefore
a very good providence to me that I had furnished myself
with a tame breed of goats, that I needed not hunt any
more about the woods, or shoot at them; and if I did
catch any of them after this, it was by traps and snares, as
I had done before; so that for two years after this, I be-
lieve I never fired my gun once of, though I never went
out without it; and which was more, as I had saved three
pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out with me,
or at least two of them, sticking them in my goatskin belt;
also I furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had
CANNIBALS! 185
out of the ship, and made me a belt to put it on also; so
that I was now a most formidable fellow to look at when
I went abroad, if you add to the former description of
myself the particular of two pistols and a great broad-
sword, hanging at my side in a belt, but without a scab-
bard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time,
I seemed, excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my
former calm, sedate way of living; all these things tended
to showing me more and more how far my condition was
from being miserable, compared to some others; nay, to
many other particulars of life which it might have pleased
God to have made my lot. It put me upon reflecting how
little repining there would be among mankind at any
condition of life, if people would rather compare their
condition with those that are worse, in order to be thank-
ful, than be always comparing them with those which are
better, to assist their murmurings and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not really many
things which I wanted, so indeed I thought that the
frights I had been in about these savage wretches and the
concern I had been in for my own preservation had taken
off the edge of my invention for my own conveniences;
and I had dropped a good design, which I had once bent
my thoughts too much upon; and that was to try if I
could not make some of my barley into malt and then try
to brew myself some beer. This was really a whimsical

thought, and I reproved myself often for the simplicity ;

of it; for I presently saw there would be the want of sev-
eral things necessary to the making my beer that it would
be impossible for me to supply; as first, casks to preserve
it in, which was a thing that, as I have observed already,
I could never compass; no, though I spent not many days,
but weeks, nay, months, in attempting it but to no pur-
pose. In the next place, I had no hops to make it keep,
186 ROBINSON CRUSOE

no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to make it
boil; and yet all these things notwithstanding, I verily
believe, had not these things intervened, I mean the
frights and terrors I was in about the savages, I had un-
dertaken it and perhaps brought it to pass too, for I
seldom gave anything over without accomplishing it,
when I once had it in my head enough to begin it.

But my invention now ran quite another way; for night
and day I could think of nothing but how I might destroy
some of these monsters in their cruel, bloody entertain-
ment and, if possible, save the victim they should bring
hither to destroy. It would take up a larger volume than
this whole work is intended to be, to set down all the con-
trivances I hatched, or rather brooded upon in my
thought, for the destroying these creatures, or at least
frightening them so as to prevent their coming hither
any more; but all was abortive, nothing could be possible
to take effect, unless I was to be there to do it myself;
and what could one man do among them, when perhaps
there might be twenty or thirty of them together, with
their darts, or their bows and arrows, with which they
could shoot as true to a mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I contrived to dig a hole under the place
where they made their fire and put in five or six pound
of gunpowder, which, when they kindled their fire, would
consequently take fire and blow up all that was near it;
but as in the first place I should be very loath to waste so
much powder upon them, my store being now within the
quantity of one barrel, so neither could I be sure of its
going off at any certain time, when it might surprise them;
and at best, that it would do little more than just blow
the fire about their ears and fright them, but not sufficient
to make them forsake the place; so I laid it aside, and
then proposed that I would place myself in ambush, in
some convenient place, with my three guns all double-
CANNIBALS! 187

loaded; and in the middle of their bloody ceremony, let
fly at them, when I should be sure to kill or wound per-
haps two or three at every shoot; and then falling in upon
them with my three pistols and my sword, I made no
doubt but that if there was twenty I should kill them all.
This fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks, and I
was so full of it that I often dreamed of it; and sometimes
that I was just going to let fly at them in my sleep.

I went so far with it in my imagination that I employed
myself several days to find out proper places to put my-
self in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them; and I went
frequently to the place itself, which was now grown more
familiar to me; and especially while my mind was thus
filled with thoughts of revenge and of a bloody putting
twenty or thirty of them to the sword, as I may call it, the
horror I had at the place and at the signals of the bar-
barous wretches devouring one another abated my
malice.

Well, at length I found a place in the side of the hill
where I was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any
of their boats coming, and might then, even before they
would be ready to come on shore, convey myself unseen
into thickets of trees, in one of which there was a hollow
large enough to conceal me entirely; and where I might
sit and observe all their bloody doings, and take my full
aim at their heads, when they were so close together as
that it would be next to impossible that I should miss my
shoot or that I could fail wounding three or four of them
at the first shoot.

In this place, then, I resolved to fix my design, and
accordingly I prepared two muskets and my ordinary |
fowling piece. The two muskets I loaded with a brace of}
slugs each, and four or five smaller bullets, about the size °
of pistol bullets; and the fowling piece I loaded with
near a handful of swan shot, of the largest size; I also
188 ROBINSON CRUSOE

loaded my pistols with about four bullets each, and in
this posture, well provided with ammunition for a second
and third charge, I prepared myself for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in
my imagination put it in practice, I continually made my
tour every morning up to the top of the hill, which was
from my castle, as I called it, about three miles, or more,
to see if I could observe any boats upon the sea, coming
near the island, or standing over towards it; but I began
to tire of this hard duty, after I had for two or three
months constantly kept my watch; but came always back
without any discovery, there having not, in all that time,
been the least appearance, not only on or near the shore,
but not on the whole ocean, so far as my eyes or glasses
could reach every way.

As long as I kept up my daily tour to the hill to look
out, so long also I kept up the vigor of my design, and
my spirits seemed to be all the while in a suitable form
for so outrageous an execution as the killing twenty or
thirty naked savages for an offense which I had not at all
entered into a discussion of in my thoughts, any farther
than my passions were at first fired by the horror I con-
ceived at the unnatural custom of that people of the
country, who it seems had been suffered by Providence, in
His wise disposition of the world, to have no other guide
than that of their own abominable and vitiated passions;
and consequently were left, and perhaps had been so for
some ages, to act such horrid things and receive such
dreadful customs, as nothing but nature entirely aban-
doned of Heaven and acted by some hellish degeneracy
could have run them into. But now, when as I have said,
I began to be weary of the fruitless excursion which I had
made so long, and so far every morning in vain, so my
opinion of the action itself began to alter, and I began
with cooler and calmer thoughts to consider what it was
CANNIBALS! 189

I was going to engage in. What authority or call I had
to pretend to be judge and executioner upon these men
as criminals, whom Heaven had thought fit for so many
ages to suffer unpunished to go on and to be, as it were,
the executioners of His judgments one upon another?
How far these people were offenders against me, and
what right I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood,
which they shed promiscuously one upon another? I de-
bated this very often with myself thus: “How do I know
what God Himself judges in this particular case? It is
certain these people either do not commit this as a crime;
it is not against their own consciences’ reproving or their
light reproaching them. They do not know it to be an
offense, and then commit it in defiance of Divine justice,
as we do in almost all the sins we commit. They think
it no more a crime to kill a captive taken in war than we
do to kill an ox; nor to eat human flesh, than we do to
eat mutton.”

When I had considered this a little, it followed neces-
sarily that I was certainly in the wrong in it; that these
people were not murderers in the sense that I had before
condemned them in my thoughts; any more than those
Christians were murderers, who often put to death the
prisoners taken in battle; or more frequently, upon many
occasions, put whole troops of men to the sword, without
giving quarter, though they threw down their arms and
submitted.

In the next place it occurred to me that albeit the usage
they thus gave one another was thus brutish and in-
human, yet it was really nothing to me. These people had
done me no injury. That if they attempted me, or I saw
it necessary for my immediate preservation to fall upon
them, something might be said of it; but that I was yet
out of their power and they had really no knowledge of
me, and consequently no design upon me, and therefore
190 ROBINSON CRUSOE

it could not be just for me to fall upon them. That this
would justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their
barbarities practiced in America, and where they de-
stroyed millions of these people, who, however they were
idolaters and barbarians and had several bloody and
barbarous rites in their customs, such as sacrificing human
bodies to their idols, were yet, as to the Spaniards, very
innocent people; and that the rooting them out of the
country is spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and
detestation by even the Spaniards themselves, at this
time, and by all other Christian nations of Europe, as a
mere butchery, a bloody and unnatural piece of cruelty,
unjustifiable either to God or man; and such as for which
the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned to be frightful
and terrible to all people of humanity or of Christian
compassion; as if the kingdom of Spain were particularly
eminent for the product of a race of men who were with.
out principles of tenderness, or the common bowels of
pity to the miserable, which is reckoned to be a mark of
generous temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause and to a
kind of a full stop; and I began by little and little to be
off of my design and to conclude I had taken wrong meas-
ures in my resolutions to attack the savages; that it was
not my business to meddle with them unless they first
attacked me; and this it was my business if possible to
prevent; but that if I were discovered and attacked, then
I knew my duty.

On the other hand, I argued with myself that this really
was the way not to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin
and destroy myself; for unless I was sure to kill every one
that not only should be on shore at that time, but that
should ever come on shore afterwards, if but one of them
escaped to tell their country people what had happened,
they would come over again by thousands to revenge the
CANNIBALS! 191

death of their fellows, and I should only bring upon my-
self a certain destruction, which at present I had no
manner of occasion for.

Upon the whole I concluded that neither in principle

or in policy I ought one way or other to concern myself
in this affair. That my busines was by all possible means
to conceal myself from them and not to leave the least
signal to them to guess by that there were any living
creatures upon the island; I mean of human shape.
_ Religion joined in with this prudential, and I was con-
vinced now, many ways, that I was perfectly out of my
duty, when I was laying all my bloody schemes for the
destruction of innocent creatures, I mean innocent as to
me, As to the crimes they were guilty of towards one
another, I had nothing to do with them; they were na-
tional, and I ought to leave them to the _justice of God,
who is the Governor of nations and knows how by _na-
tional punishments to make a just retribution for national
offenses; and to bring public judgments upon those who
offend in a public manner, by such ways as best pleases
Him.

This appeared so clear to me now that nothing was a
greater satisfaction to me than that I had not been suf-
fered to do a thing which I now saw so much reason to
believe would have been no less a sin than that of willful
murder, if I had committed it; and I gave most humble
thanks on my knees to God, that had thus delivered me
from blood-guiltiness; beseeching Him to grant me the
protection of His Providence, that I might not fall into
the hands of the barbarians; or that I might not lay my
hands upon them, unless I had a more clear call from

Heaven to do it, in defense of my own life.
In this disposition I continued for near yess fis}
this; and so far was I from desiring an occasion for fa.

upon these wretches, that in all that time I never once
192 ROBINSON CRUSOE

went up the hill to see whether there were any of them
in sight, or to know whether any of them had been on
shore there or not, that I might not be tempted to renew
any of my contrivances against them, or be provoked by
any advantage which might present itself to fall upon
them; only this I did: I went and removed my boat, which
I had on the other side the island, and carried it down to
the east end of the whole island, where I ran it into a little
cove which I found under some high rocks, and where I
knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst not, at
least would not, come with their boats upon any account
whatsoever.

With my boat I carried away everything that I had left
there belonging to her, though not necessary for the bare
going thither, viz., a mast and sail which I had made for
her, and a thing like an anchor, but indeed which could
not be called either anchor or grappling; however, it was
the best I could make of its kind. All these I removed, that
there might not be the least shadow of any discovery, or
any appearance of any boat or of any human habitation
upon the island.,

Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than
ever, and seldom went from my cell, other than upon my
constant employment, viz., to milk my she-goats and
manage my little flock in the wood, which, as it was quite
on the other part of the island, was quite out of danger;
for certain it is, that these savage people who sometimes
haunted this island never came with any thoughts of
finding anything here; and consequently never wandered
off from the coast; and I doubt not but they might have
been several times on shore, after my apprehensions of
them had made me cautious, as well as before; and in-
deed, I looked back with some horror upon the thoughts
of what my condition would have been, if I had chopped *
upon them and been discovered before that, when naked

1Come quickly. .
_ CANNIBALS! 193

and unarmed, except with one gun, and that loaden often
only with small shot, I walked everywhere, peeping and
peeping about the island to see what I could get; what a
surprise should I have been in, if when I discovered the
print of a man’s foot, I had fatead of that seen fifteen or
twenty savages and found them pursuing me, and by the
swiftness of their running, no possibility of my escaping
them!

The thoughts of this sometimes sunk my very soul
within me, and distressed my mind so much that I could
not soon recover it, to think what I should have done,
and how I not only should not have been able to resist
them but even should not have had presence of mind
enough to do what I might have done, much less what
now, after so much consideration and preparation, I
might be able to do. Indeed, after serious thinking of
these things, I should be very melancholy, and sometimes
it would last a great while; but I resolved it at last all into
thankfulness to that Providence which had delivered me
from so many unseen dangers and had kept me from
those mischiefs which I could no way have been the
agent in delivering myself from, because I had not the
least notion of any such thing depending, or the least
supposition of it being possible.

This renewed a contemplation which often had come
to my thoughts in former time, when first I began to see
the merciful dispositions of Heaven in the dangers we
run through in this life. How. wonderfully we are de-_
livered, when we know nothing of it. How, when we are
in a quandary (as we call it), a doubt or hesitation,
whether to go this way, or that way, a secret hint shall
direct us this way, when we intended to go that way;
nay, when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps busi-
ness has called to go the other way, yet a strange im-
pression upon the mind, from we know not what strings
and by we know not what power, shall overrule us to go
194 ROBINSON CRUSOE

this way; and it shall afterwards appear that had we
gone that way which we should have gone, and even to
our imagination ought to have gone, we should have been
ruined and lost. Upon these, and many like reflections, I
afterwards made it a certain rule with me that whenever
I found those secret hints, or pressings of my mind, to
doing or not doing anything that presented, or to going
this way or that way, I never failed to obey the secret
dictate; though I knew no other reason for it than that
such a pressure, or such a hint, hung upon my mind. I
could give many examples of the success of this conduct
in the course of my life; but more especially in the latter
part of my inhabiting this unhappy island; besides many
occasions which it is very likely I might have taken notice
of, if I had seen with the same eyes then that I saw with
now. But ’tis never too late to be wise; and I cannot but
advise all considering men, whose lives are attended with
such extraordinary incidents as mine, or even though not
so extraordinary, not to slight such secret intimations of
Providence, let them come from what invisible intelli-
gence they will, that I shall not discuss and perhaps can-
not account for; but certainly they are a proof of the con-
verse of spirits and the secret communication between
those embodied and those unembodied; and such a proof
as can never be withstood. Of which I shall have occa-
sion to give some very remarkable instances in the re-
mainder of my solitary residence in this dismal place.

The Care of My Safety



I BELIEVE the reader of this will not think strange if I
confess that these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived
in and the concern that was now upon me, put an end to

all invention and to all the ivances that I _had-Jaid
THE CARE OF MY SAFETY 195

fons: falas econo e e
the care Of my saféty more now upon my hands than that
of my food. I cared not to drive a nail or chop a stick of
wood now for fear the noise I should make should be
heard; much less would I fire a gun, for the same reason;
and above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making any
fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great distance in
the day, should betray me; and for this reason I removed
that part of my business which required fire, such as
burning of pots and pipes, etc., into my new apartment in
the woods, where after I had been some time, I found,
to my unspeakable consolation, a mere natural cave in the
earth, which went in a vast way, and where, I dare say,
no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so
hardy as to venture in, nor indeed, would any man else
but one who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a safe
retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great
rock, where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not
see abundant reason to ascribe all such things now to
Providence), I was cutting down some thick branches of
trees to make charcoal; and before I go on, I must ob-
serve the reason of my making this charcoal, which was
thus:

I was afraid of making a smoke about my habitation,
as I said before; and yet I could not live there without
baking my bread, cooking my meat, etc.; so I contrived
to burn some wood here, as I had seen done in England,
under turf, till it became chark, or dry coal; and then put-
ting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry home and
perform the other services which fire was wanting for at
home, without danger of smoke.

But this is by the bye. While I was cutting down some
wood here, I perceived that behind a very thick branch
of low brushwood, or underwood, there was a kind of
196 ROBINSON CRUSOE

hollow place; I was curious to look into it, and getting
with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty
large; that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright in
it, and perhaps another with me; but I must confess to
you I made more haste out than I did in, when looking
farther into the place, and which was perfectly dark, I
saw two broad shining eyes of some creature, whether
devil or man I knew not, which twinkled like two stars,
the dim light from the cave’s mouth shining directly in
and making the reflection.

However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and
began to call myself a thousand fools, and tell myself
that he that was afraid to see the Devil was not fit to live
twenty years in an island all alone; and that I durst to
believe there was nothing in this cave that was more
frightful than myself; upon this, plucking up my courage,
I took up a great firebrand, and in I rushed again with
the stick flaming in my hand; I had not gone three steps
in but I was almost as much frighted as I was before; for
I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in some pain,
and it was followed by a broken noise, as if of words half
expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped back
and was indeed struck with such a surprise that it put
me into a cold sweat; and if I had had a hat on my head,
I will not answer for it that my hair might not have lifted
it off. But still plucking up my spirits as well as I could,
and encouraging myself a little with considering that the
power and presence of God was everywhere and was able
to protect me, upon this I stepped forward again, and by
the light of the firebrand, holding it up a little over my
head, I saw lying on the ground a most monstrous, fright-
ful old he-goat, just making his will, as we say, and gasp-
ing for life and dying indeed of mere old age.

I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, and
he essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself;
THE CARE OF MY SAFETY 197

and I thought with myself, he might even lie there; for
if he had frighted me so, he would certainly fright any of
the savages, if any of them should be so hardy as to come
in there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise and began to
look round me, when I found the cave was but very small,
that is to say, it might be about twelve foot over, but in
no manner of shape, either round or square, no hands
having ever been employed in making it but those of
mere Nature. I observed also that there was a place at
the farther side of it that went in farther but was so low
that it required me to creep upon my hands and knees to
go into it, and whither I went I knew not; so having no
candle, I gave it over for some time but resolved to come
again the next day, provided with candles and a tinder-
box, which I had made of the lock of one of the muskets,
with some wild-fire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six
large candles of my own making, for I made very good
candles now of goat’s tallow; and going into this low
place, I was obliged to creep upon all fours, as I have
said, almost ten yards; which, by the way, I thought was
a venture bold enough, considering that I knew not how
far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I was got
through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I be-
lieve near twenty foot; but never was such a glorious
sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it was to look
round the sides and roof of this vault, or cave; the walls
reflected one hundred thousand lights to me from my
two candles; what it was in the rock, whether diamonds
or any other precious stones or gold, which I rather sup-
posed it to be, I knew not.

The place I was in was a most delightful cavity or
grotto of its kind, as could be expected, though eee
dark; the floor was dry and level and had a sort of sane”
198 ROBINSON CRUSOE

loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nauseous or
venomous creature to be seen, neither was there an
damp or wet on the sides or roof. The only difficulty in
it was the entrance, which, however, as it was a place of
security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought that
was a convenience; so that I was really rejoiced at the
discovery and resolved, without any delay, to bring some
of those things which I was most anxious about to this
place; particularly, I resolved to bring hither my maga-
zine of powder, and all my spare arms, viz., two fowling
pieces, for I had three in all; and three muskets, for of
them I had eight in all; so I kept at my castle only five,
which stood ready mounted, like pieces of cannon, on my
outmost fence; and were ready also to take out upon any
expedition.

Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition, I took
occasion to open the barrel of powder which I took up
out of the sea, and which had been wet; and I found that
the water had penetrated about three or four inches into
the powder on every side, which, caking and growing
hard, had preserved the inside like a kernel in a shell; so
that I had near sixty pound of very good powder in the
center of the cask, and this was an agreeable discovery to
me at that time; so I carried all away thither, never keep-
ing above two or three pound of powder with me in my
castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind. I also carried
thither all the lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants,
which were said to live in caves and holes in the rocks,
where none could come at them; for I persuaded myself,
while I was here, if five hundred savages were to hunt
me, they could never find me out; or, if they did, they
would not venture to attack me here.

The old goat who I found expiring died in the mouth
of the cave the next day after I made this discovery; and
THE CARE OF MY SAFETY 199

I found it much easier to dig a great hole there and throw
him in and cover him with earth than to drag him out; so
I interred him there, to prevent the offense to my nose.

I was now in my twenty-third year of residence in this
island and was ad ier the place and to the
manner of living that could I have but enjoyed the cer-
tainty that no savages would come to the place to disturb
me, I could have been content to have capitulated for
spending the rest of my time there, even to the last mo-
ment, till I had laid me down and died, like the old goat
in the cave. I had also arrived to some little diversions
and amusements, which made the time pass more pleas-
antly with me a great deal than it did before; as, first, I
had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak; and he
did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain,
that it was very pleasant to me; and he lived with me no
less than six and twenty years. How long he might live
afterwards I know not; though I know they have a notion
in the Brazils that they live a hundred years; perhaps
poor Poll may be alive there still, calling after poor Robin
Crusoe to this day. I wish no Englishman the ill luck to
come there and hear him; but if he did, he would cer-
tainly believe it was the Devil. My dog was a very pleas-
ant and loving companion to me for no less than sixteen

years of my time, and then died of mere old age; as for .

my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to that de-
gree, that I was obliged to shoot several of them at first
to keep them from devouring me and all I had; but at
length, when the two old ones I brought with me were
gone, and after some time continually driving them from
me and letting them have no provision with me, they all
ran wild into the woods, except two or three favorites,
which I kept tame and whose young, when they had any,
I always drowned; and these were part of my family.
Besides these, I always kept two or three household kids
200 ROBINSON CRUSOE

about me, who I taught to feed out of my hand; and I
had two more parrots, which talked pretty well and
would all call “Robin Crusoe”; but none like my first; nor
indeed did I take the pains with any of them that I had
done with him. I had also several tame seafowls, whose
names I know not, who I caught upon the shore, and cut
their wings; and the little stakes which I had planted
before my castle wall being now grown up to a good thick
grove, these fowls all lived among these low trees and
bred there, which was very agreeable to me; so that, as
I said above, I began to be very well contented with the
life I led, if it might but have been secured from the
dread of the savages.

But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss
for all people who shall meet with my story to make this
just observation from it, viz., how frequently in the course
of our lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun,
and which, when we are fallen into it, is the most dread-
ful to us, is oftentimes the very means or door of our de-
liverance, by which alone we can be raised again from
the affliction we are fallen into. I could give many ex-
amples of this in the course of my unaccountable life;
but in nothing was it more particularly remarkable than
in the circumstances of my last years of solitary residence
in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above,
in my twenty-third year; and this being the southern
solstice, for winter I cannot call it, was the particular time
of my harvest and required my being pretty much abroad
in the fields, when, going out pretty early in the morn-
ing, even before it was thorough daylight, I was sur-
prised with seeing a light of some fire upon the shore, at
a distance from me of about two mile, towards the end
of the island, where I had observed some savages had
THE CARE OF MY SAFETY 201

been, as before; but not on the other side; but to my great
affliction, it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight and stopped
short within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might
be surprised; and yet I had no more peace within, from
the apprehensions I had that if these savages, in ram-
bling over the island, should find my corn standing or
cut, or any of my works and improvements, they would
immediately conclude that there were people in the place
and would then never give over till they had found me
out. In this extremity I went back directly to my castle,
pulled up the ladder after me, and made all things with-
out look as wild and natural as I could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a
posture of defense; I loaded all my cannon, as I called
them; that is to say, my muskets, which were mounted
upon my new fortification, and all my pistols, and re-
solved to defend myself to the last gasp, not forgetting
seriously to commend myself to the Divine protection
and earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the
hands of the barbarians; and in this posture I continued
about two hours; but began to be mighty impatient for
intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to send out.

After sitting a while longer and musing what I should
do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance
any longer; so setting up my ladder to the side of the hill
where there was a flat place, as I observed before, and
then pulling the ladder up after me, I set it up again and
mounted to the top of the hill; and pulling out my per-
spective-glass, which I had taken on purpose, I laid me
down flat on my belly on the ground and began to look
for the place; I presently found there was no less than
nine naked savages sitting round a small fire they had
made, not to warm them, for they had no need of that, ,
202 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the weather being extreme hot; but, as I supposed, to
dress some of their barbarous diet of human flesh, which
they had brought with them, whether alive or dead I
could not know.

They had two canoes with them, which they had haled
up upon the shore; and as it was then tide of ebb, they
seemed to me to wait for the return of the flood to go
away again; it is not easy to imagine what confusion this
sight put me into, especially seeing them come on my side
the island, and so near me too; but when I observed their
coming must be always with the current of the ebb, I
began afterwards to be more sedate in my mind, being
satisfied that I might go abroad with safety all the time
of the tide of flood, if they were not on shore before.
And having made this observation, I went abroad about
my harvest work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the tide
made to the westward, I saw them all take boat, and row
(or paddle, as we call it) all away. I should have ob-
served that, for an hour and more before they went off,
they went to dancing, and I could easily discern their
postures and gestures by my glasses. I could not perceive,
by my nicest observation, but that they were stark naked
and had not the least covering upon them; but whether
they were men or women, that I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two
guns upon my shoulders and two pistols at my girdle and
my great sword by my side, without a scabbard, and with
all the speed I was able to make, I went away to the hill -
where I had discovered the first appearance of all; and
as soon as I gat thither, which was not less than two
hours, for I could not go apace, being so loaden with arms
as I was, I perceived there had been three canoes more
of savages on that place; and looking out farther, I saw
THE CARE OF MY SAFETY 203

they were all at sea together, making over for the main.

This was a dreadful sight to me, especially when going
down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror which
the dismal work they had been about had left behind it,
viz., the blood, the bones, and part of the flesh of human
bodies, eaten and devoured by those wretches, with a
riment and sport. I was so filled with indignation at the
sight that I began now to premeditate the destruction of
the next that I saw there, let them be who or how many
soever.

It seemed evident to me that the visits which they thus
made to this island are not very frequent; for it was above
fifteen months before any more of them came on shore
there again; that is to say, I neither saw them, or any
footsteps, or signals of them, in all that time; for as to the
rainy seasons, then they are sure not to come abroad, at
least not so far; yet all this while I lived uncomfortably,
by reason of the constant apprehensions I was in of their
coming upon me by surprise; from whence I observe that
the expectation of evil is more bitter than the suffering,
especially if there is no room to shake off that expecta-
tion, or those apprehensions. A

During all this time, I was in the murdering humor, :
and took up most of my hours, which should have been «
better employed, in contriving how to circumvent and *
fall upon them the very next time I should see them; |
especially if they should be divided, as they were the last
time, into two parties; nor did I consider at all that if I
killed one party, suppose ten or a dozen, I was still the
next day, or week, or month, to kill another, and so an-
other, even ad infinitum, till I should be at length no less
a murderer than they were in being man-eaters; and per-
haps much more so.

I spent my days now in great perplexity and anxiety of
204. ROBINSON CRUSOE

mind, expecting that I should one day or other fall into
the hands of these merciless creatures; and if I did at any
time venture abroad, it was not without looking round
me with the greatest care and caution imaginable; and
now I found to my great comfort how happy it was that
I provided for a tame flock or herd of goats; for I durst
not upon any account fire my gun, especially near that
side of the island where they usually came, lest I should
alarm the savages; and if they had fled from me now, I
was sure to have them come back again, with perhaps
two or three hundred canoes with them, in a few days,
and then I knew what to expect.

However, I wore out a year and three months more
before I ever saw any more of these savages, and then
I found them again, as I shall soon observe. It is true they
might have been there once or twice; but either they
made no stay, or at least I did not hear them; but in the
month of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my
four and twentieth year, I hada very strange encounter
with them, of which in its place.

The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or
sixteen months’ interval, was very great; I slept unquiet,
dreamed always frightful dreams, and often started out
- of my sleep in the night. In the day great troubles over-
whelmed my mind, and in the night I dreamed often of
killing the savages, and of the reasons why I might justify
the doing of it; but to waive all this for a while; it was in
the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as well
as my poor wooden calendar would reckon; for I marked
all upon the post still; I say, it was the sixteenth of May
that it blew a very great storm of wind all day, with a
great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very foul night
it was after it; I know not what was the particular occa-
sion of it; but as I was reading in the Bible, and taken up
with very serious thoughts about my present condition, I
SHIP IN DISTRESS 205
was surprised with a noise of a gun, as I thought, fired \

at sea. af

Ship in Distress

THIS was to be sure a surprise of a quite different nature
from any I had met with before; for the notions this put
into my thoughts were quite of another kind. I started up
in the greatest haste imaginable, and in a trice clapped
my ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled it
after me, and mounting it the second time, got to the top
of the hill the very moment that a flash of fire bid me listen
for a second gun, which accordingly, in about half a min-
ute I heard; and by the sound, knew that it was from
that part of the sea where I was driven down the current
in my boat.

I immediately considered that this must be some ship
in distress, and that they had some comrade, or some
other ship in company, and fired these guns for signals
of distress and to obtain help. I had this presence of mind
at that minute as to think that though I could not help
them, it may be they might help me; so I brought to-
gether all the dry wood I could get at hand, and making
a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the hill; the
wood was dry and blazed freely; and though the wind
blew very hard, yet it burnt fairly out; that I was certain,
if there was any such thing as a ship, they must needs see
it, and no doubt they did; for as soon as ever my fire
blazed up, I heard another gun, and after that several ,
others, all from the same quarter; I plied my fire all night \
long, till day broke; and when it was broad day, and the |
air cleared up, I saw something at a great distance at
sea, full east of the island, whether a sail or a hull I could
not distinguish, no, not with my glasses, the distance was
206 ROBINSON CRUSOE

so great, and the weather still something hazy also; at
least it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon per-
ceived that it did not move; so I presently concluded that
it was a ship at an anchor, and being eager, you may be
sure, to be satisfied, I took my gun in my hand, and run
toward the south side of the island, to the rocks where I
had formerly been carried away with the current, and
getting up there, the weather by this time being perfectly
clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck
of a ship cast away in the night upon those concealed
rocks which I found when I was out in my boat; and
which rocks, as they checked the violence of the stream,
and made a kind of counter-stream or eddy, were the
occasion of my recovering from the most desperate, hope-
less condition that ever I had been in, in all my life.

Thus what is one man’s safety is another man’s destruc-
tion; for it seems these men, whoever they were, being
out of their knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under
water, had been driven upon them in the night, the wind
blowing hard at east and east-northeast. Had they seen
the island, as I must necessarily suppose they did not,
they must, as I thought, have endeavored to have saved
themselves on shore by the help of their boat; but their
firing of guns for help, especially when they saw, as I
imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts. First,
I imagined that upon seeing my light, they might have
put themselves into their boat and having endeavored to
make the shore; but that the sea going very high, they
might have been cast away; other times I imagined that
they might have lost their boat before, as might be the
case many ways; as particularly by the breaking of the
sea upon their ship, which many times obliges men to
stave, or take in pieces their boat; and sometimes to
throw it overboard with their own hands. Other times I
SHIP IN DISTRESS 207

imagined they had some other ship, or ships in company,
who, upon the signals of distress they had made, had
taken them up, and carried them off. Other whiles I
fancied they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and
being hurried away by the current that I had been for-
merly in, were carried out into the great ocean, where
there was nothing but misery and perishing; and that per-
haps they might by this time think of starving and of
being in a condition to eat one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the
condition I was in, I could do no more than look on upon
the misery of the poor men and pity them; which had still
this good effect on my side, that it gave me more and
more cause to give thanks to God, who had so happily
and comfortably provided for me in my desolate condi-
tion; and that of two ships’ companies who were now cast
away upon this part of the world, not one life should be
spared but mine. I learned here again to observe that it
is very rare that the providence of God casts us into any
condition of life so low, or any misery so great, but we
may see something or other to be thankful for; and may
see others in worse circumstances than our own.

Such certainly was the case of these men, of whom I
could not so much as see room to suppose any of them
were saved; nothing could make it rational; so much as
to wish or expect that they did not all perish there; except
the possibility only of their being taken up by another
ship in company, and this was but mere possibility in-
deed; for I saw not the least signal or appearance of any
such thing.

I cannot explain by any possible energy of words what
a strange longing or hankering of desires I felt in my soul
upon this sight, breaking out sometimes thus: “O that
there had been but one or two, nay, or but one soul, saved.
out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that I might but
208 ROBINSON CRUSOE

have had one companion, one fellow-creature to have
spoken to me and to have conversed with!” In all the time
of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest, so strong a
desire after the society of my fellow-creatures, or so deep
a regret at the want of it.

There are some secret moving springs in the affections,
which when they are set a-going by some object in view,
or be it some object, though not in view, yet rendered
present to the mind by the power of imagination, that
motion carries out the soul by its impetuosity to such
violent eager. embracings of the object that the absence
of it is insupportable.

Such were these earnest wishings that but one man had
been saved! “O that it had been but one!” I believe I re-
peated the words, “O that it had been one!” a thousand
times; and the desires were so moved by it that when I
spoke the words my hands would clinch together and my
fingers press the palms of my hands, that if I had had any
soft thing in my hand, it would have crushed it involun-
tarily; and my teeth in my head would strike together
and set against one another so strong that for some time
I could not part them again. ,

Let the naturalists explain these things, and the reason
and manner of them; all I can say to them is to describe
the fact, which was even surprising to me when I found
it, though I knew not from what it should proceed; it was
doubtless the effect of ardent wishes and of strong ideas
formed in my mind, realizing the comfort which the con-
versation of one of my fellow Christians would have been
to me.

But it was not to be; either their fate or mine, or both,
forbid it; for till the last year of my being on this island,
I never knew whether any were saved out of that ship or
no; and had only the affliction some days after to see the
corpse of a drowned boy come on shore at the end of the
SHIP IN DISTRESS 209

island: which was next the shipwreck. He had on no
clothes but a seaman’s waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed
linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt; but nothing to di-
rect me so much as to guess what nation he was of. He
had nothing in his pocket but two pieces of eight and a
tobacco-pipe; the last was to me of ten times more value
than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture
out in my boat to this wreck, not doubting but I might
find something on board that might be useful to me; but
that did not altogether press me so much as the possibility
that there might be yet some living creature on board,
whose life I might not only save but might, by saving
that life, comfort my own to the last degree; and this
thought clung so to my heart that I could not be quiet
night or day, but I must venture out in my boat on board
this wreck; and committing the rest to God’s providence,
I thought the impression was so strong upon my mind
that it could not be resisted, that it must come from
some invisible direction, and that I should be wanting to
myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back
to my castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a
quantity of bread, a great pot for fresh water, a compass
to steer by, a bottle of rum; for I had still a great deal of
that left; a basket full of raisins. And thus loading myself
with everything necessary, I went down to my boat, got
the water out of her, and got her afloat, loaded all my
cargo in her, and then went home again for more; my
second cargo was a great bag full of rice, the umbrella
to set up over my head for shade, another large pot full of
fresh water, and about two dozen of my small loaves, or
barley-cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat’s
milk and a cheese; all which, with great labor and sweat,
I brought to my boat; and praying to God to direct my

Ki”

aa
210 ROBINSON CRUSOE

voyage, I put out, and rowing or paddling the canoe
along the shore, I came at last to the utmost point of the
island on that side, viz., northeast. And now I was to
launch out into the ocean, and either to venture or not to
venture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran con-
stantly on both sides of the island at a distance and which
were very terrible to me, from the remembrance of the
hazard I had been in before, and my heart began to fail
me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those
currents, I should be carried a vast way out to sea, and
perhaps out of my reach or sight of the island again; and
that then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale of
wind should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind that I began to
_ give over my enterprise, and having haled my boat into
a little creek on the shore, I stepped out and sat me down
upon a little rising bit of ground, very pensive and anx-
ious, between fear and desire, about my voyage; when,
as I was musing, I could perceive that the tide was turned
and the flood come on, upon which my going was for so
many hours impracticable; upon this, presently it oc-
curred to me that I should go up to the highest piece of
ground I could find, and observe, if I could, how the sets
of the tide or currents lay, when the flood came in, that
I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out, I
might not expect to be driven another way home, with
the same rapidness of the currents. This thought was no
sooner in my head, but I cast my eye upon a little hill,
which sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways and from
whence I had a clear view of the currents, or sets of the
tide, and which way I was to guide myself in my return;
here I found that as the current of the ebb set out close
by the south point of the island, so the current of the
flood set in close by the shore of the north side, and that
I had nothing to do but to keep to the north of the island
in my return, and I should do well enough.
SHIP IN DISTRESS 211

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved the next
morning to set out with the first of the tide; and reposing
myself for the night in the canoe, under the great watch
coat I mentioned, I launched out. I made first a little out
to sea, full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the
current, which set eastward and which carried me at a
great rate, and yet did not so hurry me as the southern
side current had done before, and so as to take from me
all government of the boat; but having a strong steerage
with my paddle, I went at a great rate, directly for the
wreck, and in less than two hours I came up to it.

It was a dismal sight to look at. The ship, which by its
building was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two
rocks; all the stern and quarter of her was beaten to
pieces with the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck in
the rocks, had run on with great violence, her mainmast
and foremast were brought by the board; that is to say,
broken short off; but her bowsprit was sound, and the

head and bow appeared firm. When I came close to her, |

oma Klee

a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming, yelped
and cried; and as soon as I called him, jumped into the |

sea to come to me, and I took him into the boat; but found
him almost dead for hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake
of my bread, and he eat it like a ravenous wolf that had
been starving a fortnight in the snow. I then gave the
poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I would
have let him, he would have burst himself.

After this I went on board; but the first sight I met with
was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle of

the ship, with their arms fast about one another. I con- ~

cluded, as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck,
it being in a storm, the sea broke so high and so con-
tinually over her that the men were not able to bear it
and were strangled with the constant rushing in of the
water, as much as if they had been under water. Besides

the dog, there was nothing left in the ship that had life;

Semcon
212 ROBINSON CRUSOE

nor any goods that I could see but what were spoiled by
the water. There were some casks of liquor, whether wine |
or brandy, I knew not, which lay lower in the hold; and
which, the water being ebbed out, I could see; but they
were too big to meddle with. I saw several chests, which
I believed belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two
of them into the boat, without examining what was in
them.

Had the stern of the ship been fixed and the forepart
broken off, I am persuaded I might have made a good
voyage; for by what I found in these two chests, I had
room to suppose the ship had a great deal of wealth on
board; and if I may guess by the course she steered, she
must have been bound from the Buenos Ayres, or the Rio
de la Plata, in the south part of America, beyond the
Brazils, to the Havana, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so per-
haps to Spain. She had, no doubt, a great treasure in her;
but of no use at that time to anybody; and what became
of the rest of her people, I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor,
of about twenty gallons, which I got into my boat with
much difficulty; there were several muskets in a cabin
and a great powder horn, with about four pounds of
powder in it; as for the muskets, I had no occasion for
them; so I left them, but took the powder horn. I took a
fire shovel and tongs, which I wanted extremely; as also
two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make chocolate,
and a gridiron; and with this cargo and the dog I came
away, the tide beginning to make home again; and the
same evening, about an hour within night, I reached the
island again, weary and fatigued to the last degree.

I reposed that night in the boat, and in the morning I
resolved to harbor what I had gotten in my new cave, not
to carry it home to my castle. After refreshing myself, I
got all my cargo on shore, and began to examine the par-
SHIP IN DISTRESS 213

ticulars. The cask of liquor I found to be a kind of rum,
but not such as we had at the Brazils; and in a word, not
at all good; but when I came to open the chests, I found
several things of great use to me. For example, I found in
one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind and
filled with cordial waters, fine and very good; the bottles
held about three pints each and were tipped with silver.
I found two pots of very good succades, or sweetmeats,
so fastened also on top that the salt water had not hurt
them; and two more of the same, which the water had
spoiled. I found some very good shirts, which were very
welcome to me; and about a dozen and a half of linen
white handkerchiefs and colored neckcloths; the former
were also very welcome, being exceeding refreshing to
wipe my face in a hot day; besides this, when I came to
the till in the chest, I found there three great bags of
pieces of eight, which held out about eleven hundred
pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper,
six doubloons of gold and some small bars or wedges of
gold; I suppose they might all weigh near a pound.

The other chest I found had some clothes in it, but of
little value; but by the circumstances it must have be-
longed to the gunner’s mate; though there was no powder
in it but about two pound of fine glazed powder, in three
small flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling
pieces on occasion. Upon the whole, I got very little by
this voyage that was of any use to me; for as to the money,
I had no manner of occasion for it. "Twas to me as the
dirt under my feet; and I would have given it all for three
or four pair of English shoes and stockings, which were
things I greatly wanted but had not had on my feet now
for many years. I had indeed gotten two pair of shoes
now, which I took off of the feet of the two drowned
men, who I saw in the wreck; and I found two pair more
in one of the chests, which were very welcome to me;
214 _ ROBINSON CRUSOE

but they were not like our English shoes, either for ease
or service, being rather what we call pumps than shoes.
I found in this seaman’s chest about fifty pieces of eight
in royals but no gold; I suppose this belonged to a poorer
man than the other, which seemed to belong to some
officer.

Well, however, I lugged this money home to my cave
and laid it up, as I had done that before which I brought
from our own ship; but it was great pity, as I said, that
the other part of this ship had not come to my share; for
I am satisfied I might have loaded my canoe several times
over with money, which, if I had ever escaped to Eng-
land, would have lain here safe enough till I might have
come again and fetched it.

Having now brought all my things on shore and se-
cured them, I went back to my boat and rowed or pad-
dled her along the shore to her old harbor, where I laid
her up, and made the best of my way to my old habita-
tion, where I found everything safe and quiet; so I began
to repose myself, live after my old fashion, and take care
of my family affairs; and, for a while, I lived easy enough,
only that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked out
oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if at any
time I did stir with any freedom, it was always to the east
part of the island, where I was pretty well satisfied the
savages never came, and where I could go without so
many precautions and such a load of arms and ammuni-
tion as I always carried with me if I went the other way.

Time to Get Me a Servant



I LIVED in this condition near two years more; but my
unlucky head, that was always-to-let me know it was
born to make my body miserable, was all this two years
TIME TO GET ME A SERVANT 215

filled with projects and designs, how, if it were possible,
I might get away from this island; for sometimes I was
for making another voyage to the wreck, though my rea-
son told me that there was nothing left there worth the
hazard of my voyage; sometimes for a ramble one way,
sometimes another; and I believe verily, if I had had the
boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have ventured
to sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither.

I have been in all my circumstances a memento to
those who are touched with the general plague of man-
kind, whence, for aught I know, one half of their miseries
flow; I mean, that of not being satisfied with the station
wherein God and Nature had placed them; for, not to
look back upon my primitive condition and the excellent
advice of my father, the opposition to which was, as I
may call it, my original sin, my subsequent mistakes of
the same kind had been the means of my coming into
this miserable condition; for had that Providence, which
so happily had seated me at the Brazils asa planter,
blessed me with confined desires, and I could have been
contented to have gone on gradually, I might have been,
by this time, I mean in the time of my being in this island,
one of the most considerable planters in the Brazils; nay,
I am persuaded that by the improvements I had made
in that little time I lived there and the increase I should
probably have made if I had stayed, I might have been
worth an hundred thousand moidores; and what business
had I to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation,
improving and increasing, to turn supercargo to Guinea,
to fetch Negroes, when patience and time would have so
increased our stock at home that we could have bought
them at our own door from those whose business it was
to fetch them? And though it had cost us something more,
yet the difference of that price was by no means worth
saving at so great a hazard.
216 _ ROBINSON CRUSOE

But as this is ordinarily the fate of young heads, so re-
flection upon the folly of it is as ordinarily the exercise
of more years or of the dear bought experience of time;
and so it was with me now; and yet so deep had the mis-
take taken root in my temper that I could not satisfy
myself in my station but was continually poring upon the
means and possibility of my escape from this place; and
that I may, with the greater pleasure to the reader, bring
on the remaining part of my story, it may not be in-
proper to give some account of my first conceptions on
the subject of this foolish scheme for my escape, and how,
and upon what foundation, I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle, after
my late voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up and se-
cured under water, as usual, and my condition restored
to what it was before. I had more wealth, indeed, than
I had before, but was not at all the richer; for I had no
more use for it than the Indians of Peru had before the
Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March,
the four and twentieth year of my first setting foot in this
island of solitariness; I was lying in my bed, or hammock,
awake, very well in health, had no pain, no distemper, no
uneasiness of body; no, nor any uneasiness of mind, more
than ordinary; but could by no means close my eyes; that
is, so as to sleep; no, not a wink all night long, otherwise
than as follows:

It is as impossible as needless to set down the in-
numerable crowd of thoughts that whirled through that
great thoroughfare of the brain, the memory, in this
night’s time. I run over the whole history of my life in
miniature, or by abridgment, as I may call it, to my com-
ing to this island; and also of the part of my life since I
came to this island. In my reflections upon the state of
my case since I came on shore on this island, I was com-
TIME TO GET ME A SERVANT 217

paring the happy posture of my affairs in the first years of
my habitation here, compared to the life of anxiety, fear,
and care, which I had lived ever since I had seen the
print of.a foot in the sand; not that I did not believe the
savages had frequented the island even all the while and
might have been several hundreds of them at times on
shore there; but I had never known it and was incapable
of any apprehensions about it; my satisfaction was per-
fect, though my danger was the same; and I was as happy
in not knowing my danger as if I had never really been
exposed to it. This furnished my thoughts with many very
profitable reflections, and particularly this one: how in-
finitely good that Providence is which has provided in its
government of mankind such narrow bounds to his sight
and knowledge of things; and though he walks in the
midst of so many thousand dangers, the sight of which,
if discovered to him, would distract his mind and sink
his spirits, he is kept serene and calm by having the
events of things hid from his eyes and knowing nothing
of the dangers which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me,
I came to reflect seriously upon the real danger I had
been in for so many years in this very island; and how I
had walked about in the greatest security and with all
possible tranquillity even when perhaps nothing but a
brow of a hill, a great tree, or the casual approach of
night, had been between me and the worst kind of de-
struction, viz., that of falling into the hands of cannibals
and savages, who would have seized on me with the same
view as I did of a goat, or a turtle; and have thought it no
more a crime to kill and devour me than I did of a pigeon
or a curlew. I would unjustly slander myself if I should
say I was not sincerely thankful to my great Preserver,
to whose singular protection I acknowledged, with great
humility, that all these unknown deliverances were due;
218 ROBINSON CRUSOE

and without which I must inevitably have fallen into their
merciless hands. .
When these thoughts were over, my head was for some
time taken up in considering the nature of these wretched
creatures, I mean the savages; and how it came to pass in
the world that the wise Governor of all things should give
up any of His creatures to such inhumanity; nay, to some-
thing so much below even brutality itself as to devour its
own kind; but as this ended in some (at that time fruit-
less ) speculations, it occurred to me to inquire what part
of the world these wretches lived in; how far off the coast
was from whence they came; what they ventured over so
far from home for; what kind of boats they had; and why
I might not order myself and my business so that I might
be as able to go over thither as they were to come to me.
I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I
should do with myself when I came thither; what would
become of me, if I fell into the hands of the savages; or
how I should escape from them, if they attempted me;
no, nor so much as how it was possible for me to reach
the coast and not be attempted by some or other of them,
without any possibility of delivering myself; and if I
should not fall into their hands, what I should do for pro-
vision, or whither I should bend my course; none of these
thoughts, I say, so much as came in my way; but my mind
was wholly bent upon the notion of my passing over in
my boat to the mainland. I looked back upon my present
condition as the most miserable that could possibly be;
that I was not able to throw myself into anything but
death that could be called worse; that if I reached the
shore of the main, I might perhaps meet with relief, or
I might coast along, as I did on the shore of Africa, till I
came to some inhabited country, and where I might find
some relief; and after all, perhaps I might fall in with
some Christian ship that might take me in; and if the
TIME TO GET ME A SERVANT 219

worse came to the worst, I could but die, which would
put an end to all these miseries at once. Pray note, all
this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impatient tem-
per, made, as it were, desperate by the long continuance
of my troubles and the disappointments I had met in the
wreck I had been on board of, and where I had been so
near the obtaining what I so earnestly longed for, viz.,
somebody to speak to and to learn some knowledge from
of the place where I was and of the probable means of
my deliverance; I say, I was agitated wholly by these
thoughts. All my calm of mind in my resignation to
Providence, and waiting the issue of the dispositions of
Heaven, seemed to be suspended; and I had, as it were,
no power to turn my thoughts to anything but to the
project of a voyage to the main, which came upon me
with such force and such an impetuosity of desire that
it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or
more, with such violence that it set my very blood into a
ferment, and my pulse beat as high as if I had been in a
fever merely with the extraordinary fervor of my mind
about it, Nature, as if I had been fatigued and exhausted.
with the very thought of it, threw me into a sound sleep.
One would have thought I should have dreamed of it;
but I did not, nor of anything relating to it; but I dreamed
that as I was going out in the morning as usual from my
castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven sav-
ages coming to land, and that they brought with them
another savage, whom they were going to kill, in order
to eat him; when on a sudden, the savage that they were
going to kill jumped away, and ran for his life; and I
thought in my sleep that he came running into my little
thick grove, before my fortification, to hide himself; and
that I, seeing him alone and not perceiving that the other
sought him that way, showed myself to him, and smiling
220 ROBINSON CRUSOE

upon him, encouraged him; that he kneeled down to me,
seeming to pray me to assist him; upon which I showed:
my ladder, made him go up, and carried him into my
cave, and he became my servant; and that as soon as I ~
had gotten this man, I said to myself, “Now I may cer-
tainly venture to the mainland; for this fellow will serve
me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do and whither to
go for provisions; and whither not to go for fear of being
devoured; what places to venture into, and what to es-
cape.” I waked with this thought and was under such
inexpressible impressions of joy at the prospect of my
escape in my dream that the disappointments which I
felt upon coming to myself and finding it was no more
than a dream were equally extravagant the other way,
and threw me into a very great dejection of spirit.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion, that my
only way to go about an attempt for an escape was, if
possible, to get a savage into my possession; and if pos-
sible, it should be one of their prisoners who they had
condemned to be eaten and should bring hither to kill;
but these thoughts still were attended with this difficulty,
that it was impossible to effect this without attacking a
whole caravan of them and killing them all; and this was
not only a very desperate attempt and might miscarry,
but on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the lawful-
ness of it to me; and my heart trembled at the thoughts
of shedding so much blood, though it was for my deliver-
ance. I need not repeat the arguments which occurred to
me against this, they being the same mentioned before;
but though I had other reasons to offer now, viz., that
those men were enemies to my life and would devour me
if they could; that it was self-preservation, in the highest
degree, to deliver myself from this death of a life, and
was acting in my own defense as much as if they were
actually assaulting me, and the like; I say, though these
TIME TO GET ME A SERVANT 221
things argued for it, yet the thoughts of shedding human

blood for my deliverance were very terrible to me, and
such as I could by no means reconcile myself to a great
while.

However, at last, after many secret disputes with my-
self and after great perplexities about it, for all these
arguments, one way and another, struggled in my head
a long time, the eager prevailing desire of deliverance at
length mastered all the rest, and I resolved, if possible, to
get one of those savages into my hands, cost what it
would. My next thing then was to contrive how to do it,
and this indeed was very difficult to resolve on. But as I
could pitch upon no probable means for it, so I resolved .
to put myself upon the watch, to see them when they
came on shore, and leave the rest to the event, taking such
measures as the opportunity should present, let be what
would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself
upon the scout, as often as possible, and indeed so often
till I was heartily tired of it; for it was above a year and
half that I waited, and for a great part of that time went
out to the west end and to the southwest corner of the
island almost every day to see for canoes, but none ap-
peared. This was very discouraging, and began to trouble
me much; though I cannot say that it did in this case, as
it had done some time before that, viz., wear off the edge
of my desire to the thing. But the longer it seemed to be
delayed, the more eager I was for it; in a word, I was not
at first so careful to shun the sight of these savages and
avoid being seen by them as I was now eager to be upon
them.

Besides, I fancied myself able to manage one, nay, twa
or three savages, if I had them, so as to make them en-
tirély slaves to me, to do whatever I should direct them
and to prevent their being able at any time to do me any


222 ROBINSON CRUSOE

hurt. It was a great while that I pleased myself with this
affair, but nothing still presented; all my fancies and
schemes came to nothing, for no savages came near me
for a great while.

About a year and half after I had entertained these
notions and, by long musing, had as it were resolved
them all into nothing, for want of an occasion to put them
in execution, I was surprised one morning early with see-
ing no less than five canoes all on shore together on my
side the island; and the people who belonged to them all
landed, and out of my sight. The number of them broke
all my measures, for seeing so many and knowing that
they always came four or six, or sometimes more in a boat,
I could not tell what to think of it, or how to take my
measures, to attack twenty or thirty men singlehanded;
so I lay still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted.
However, I put myself into all the same postures for an
attack that I had formerly provided and was just ready
for action if anything had presented; having waited a
good while, listening to hear if they made any noise, at
length being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of
my ladder and clambered up to the top of the hill by my
two stages as usual; standing so, however, that my head
did not appear above the hill, so that they could not per-
ceive me by any means; here I observed by the help of
my perspective-glass that they were no less than thirty in
number, that they had a fire kindled, that they had had
meat dressed. How they had cooked it, that I knew not,
or what it was; but they were all dancing in I know not
how many barbarous gestures and figures, their own way,
round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived by my
perspective two miserable wretches dragged from the
boats, where, it seems, they were laid by, and were now
brought out for the slaughter, I perceived one of them
TIME TO GET ME A SERVANT 223

immediately fell, being knocked down, I suppose, with a
club or wooden sword, for that was their way, and two
or three others were at work immediately, cutting him
open for their cookery, while the other victim was left
standing by himself, till they should be ready for him.
In that very moment, this poor wretch seeing himself a_
little at liberty, Nature inspired him with hopes of life, ”
and he started away from them, and ran with incredible
swiftness along the sands directly towards me, I mean
towards that part of the coast where my habitation was.

I was dreadfully frighted (that I must acknowledge).
when I perceived him to run my way; and especially,
when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole
body; and now I expected that part of my dream was
coming to pass, and that he would certainly take shelter
in my grove; but I could not depend by any means upon
my dream for the rest of it, viz., that the other savages
would not pursue him thither, and find him there. How-
ever, I kept my station, and my spirits began to recover
when I found that there was not above three men that
followed him; and still more was I encouraged when I
found that he outstripped them exceedingly in running
and gained ground of them; so that if he could but hold
it for half am hour, I saw easily he would fairly get away
from them all.

There was between them and my castle the creek
which I mentioned often at the first part of my story, -
when I landed my cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw
plainly he must necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch
would be taken there. But when the savage escaping ,
came thither, he made nothing of it, though the tide was |
then up, but plunging in, swam through in about thirty,
strokes or thereabouts, landed, and ran on with exceed-
ing strength and swiftness; when the three persons came’
to the creek, I found that two of them could swim, but
224 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the third could not, and that standing on the other side,
he looked at the other, but went no further; and soon
after went softly back again; which, as it happened, was
very well for him in the main.

I observed that the two who swam were yet more than
twice as long swimming over the creek as the fellow was
that fled from them. It came now very warmly upon my
thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now was my time
to get me a servant, and perhaps a companion, or assist-
ant; and that I was called plainly by Providence to save

_this poor creature’s life; I immediately run down the lad-
ders with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns,
for they were both but at the foot of the ladders, as I
observed above; and getting up again, with the same
haste, to the top of the hill, I crossed toward the sea; and
having a very short cut, and all down hill, clapped my-
self in the way between the pursuers and the pursued;
hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back, was
at first perhaps as much frighted at me as at them; but I
beckoned with my hand to him to come back; and in the
meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two that fol-
lowed; then rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked
him down with the stock of my piece; I was loath to fire,
because I would not have the rest hear; though at that
distance, it would not have been easily heard, and being
out of sight of the smoke too, they would not have easily
known what to make of it. Having knocked this fellow
down, the other who pursued with him stopped, as if he
had been frighted; and I advanced apace towards him;
but as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow
and arrow and was fitting it to shoot at me; so I was then
necessitated to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed
him at the first shoot; the poor savage who fled, but had
stopped, though he saw both his enemies fallen and
killed, as he thought, yet was so frighted with the fire
and noise of my piece, that he stood stock still and neither
came forward or went backward, though he seeme
rather inclined to fly still than to come on; I hallooed
again to him, and made signs to come forward, which he |
easily understood and came a little way, then stopped !
again and then a little further and stopped again, and I
could then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had
been taken prisoner, and had just been to be killed, as his
two enemies were; I beckoned him again to come to me
and gave him all the signs of encouragement that I could
think of, and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling down
every ten or twelve steps in token of acknowledgment for
my saving his life. I smiled at him and looked pleasantly
and beckoned to him to come still nearer; at length he,
came close to me, and then he kneeled down again, |
kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the ground, |
and, taking me by the foot, set my foot upon his head;
this, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my slave
forever; I took him up, and made much of him, and en-
couraged him all I could. But there was more work to do
yet, for I perceived the savage who I knocked down was
not killed, but stunned with the blow, and began to come
to himself; so I pointed to him, and showing him the
savage, that he was not dead; upon this he spoke some
words to me, and though I could not understand them,
yet I thought they were pleasant to hear, for they were
the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard, my own
excepted, for about twenty-five years. But there was
no time for such reflections now; the savage who was
knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit up upon
the ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be
afraid; but when I saw that, I presented my other piece
at the man as if I would shoot him; upon this my savage,
for so I call him now, made-a motion to me to lend him
my sword, which hung naked in a belt by my side; so I

TIME TO GET ME A SERVANT ar}
226 ROBINSON CRUSOE

did. He no sooner had it, but he runs to his enemy, and
at one blow cut off his head as cleverly, no executioner in |
Germany could have done it sooner or better; which |
thought very strange for one who I had reason to believe
never saw a sword in his life before, except their own
wooden swords; however, it seems, as I learned after-
wards, they make their wooden swords so sharp, so heavy,
and the wood is so hard, that they will cut off heads even
with them, ay, and arms, and that at one blow too; when
he had done this, he comes laughing to me in sign of
triumph and brought me the sword again, and with abun-
dance of gestures which I did not understand, laid it
down, with the head of the savage that he had killed, just
before me.

But that which astonished him most was to know how
I had killed the other Indian so far off; so pointing to him,
he made signs to me to let him go to him; so I bade him
go, as well as I could; when he came to him, he stood
like one amazed, looking at him, turned him first on one
side, then on t’ other, looked at the wound the bullet had
made, which, it seems, was just in his breast, where it had
made a hole, and no great quantity of blood had fol-
lowed, but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead.
He took up his bow and arrows, and came back; so I
turned to go away and beckoned to him to follow me,
making signs to him that more might come after them.

Upon this he signed to me that he should bury them
with sand, that they might not be seen by the rest if they
followed; and so I made signs again to him to do so; he
fell to work, and in an instant he had scraped a hole in
the sand with his hands big enough to bury the first in,
and then dragged him into it and covered him and did so
also by the other; I believe he had buried them both in a
quarter of an hour; then calling him away, I carried him,
not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the far-
MY MAN FRIDAY 227

ther part of the island; so I did not let my dream come to
pass in that part, viz., that he came into my grove for
shelter.

Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat,
and a draught of water, which I found he was indeed in
great distress for, by his running; and having refreshed
him, I made signs for him to go lie down and sleep, point-
ing to a place where I had laid a great parcel of rice-
straw and a blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon
myself sometimes; so the poor creature laid down and
went to sleep.

My Man Friday



HE WAS a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly wel \
made, with straight strong limbs, not too large; tall and ©
well-shaped, and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years 0
age. He had a very good countenance, not a fierce an
surly aspect; but seemed to have something very manly
in his face, and yet he had all the sweetness and softness.
of an European in his countenance too, especially when
he smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled like
wool; his forehead very high and large; and a great vi-
vacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The color of
his skin was not quite black, but very tawny; and yet not
of an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians and
Virginians, and other natives of America are; but of a
bright kind of a dun olive color that had in it something
very agreeable, though not very easy to describe. His face
was round and plump; his nose small, not flat like the
Negroes; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth
well set, and white as ivory. After he had slumbered,
rather than slept, about half an hour, he waked again, and
comes out of the cave to me; for I had been milking my




228 ROBINSON CRUSOE

goats, which I had in the enclosure just by. When he
espied me, he came running to me, laying himself down
again upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an
humble, thankful disposition, making a many antic ges-
tures to show it. At last he lays his head flat upon the
ground, close to my foot, and sets my other foot upon his
head, as he had done before; and after this, made all the
signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission im-
aginable, to let me know how he would serve me as long
as he lived; I understood him in many things and let him
know I was very well pleased with him; in a little time I
began to speak to him and teach him to speak to me; and
first, I made him know his name should be Friday, which
was the day I saved his life; I called him so for the mem- \
ory of the time; I likewise taught him to say Master, and
then let him know that was to be my name; I likewise
taught him to say Yes and No and to know the meaning
of them; I gave him some milk in an earthen pot and let
him see me drink it before him and sop my bread in it;
and I gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he
quickly complied with, and made signs that it was very
od for him.
| I kept there with him all that night; but as soon as it
was day, I beckoned to him to come with me, and let him
know I would give him some clothes, at which he seemed
very glad, for he was stark naked. As we went by the
place where he had buried the two men, he pointed ex-
actly to the place and showed me the marks that he had
made to find them again, making signs to me that we
should dig them up again and eat them; at this I ap-
peared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made
as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned
with my hand to him to come away, which he did imme-
diately, with great submission. I then led him up to the
top of the hill, to see if his enemies were gone; and pulling
MY MAN FRIDAY 229

out my glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place where
they had been, but no appearance of them or of their
canoes; so that it was plain they were gone and had left
their two comrades behind them, without any search after
them.

But I was not content with this discovery; but having
now more courage, and consequently more curiosity, I
takes my man Friday with me, giving him the sword in
his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I
found he could use very dexterously, making him carry
one gun for me, and I two for myself, and away we
marched to the place where these creatures had been; for
I had a mind now to get some fuller intelligence of them.
When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill in my
veins and my heart sunk within me at the horror of the
spectacle. Indeed it was a dreadful sight, at least it was
so to me, though Friday made nothing of it. The place
was covered with human bones, the ground dyed with ~
their blood, great pieces of flesh left here and there, half
eaten, mangled and scorched; and in short, of all the
tokens of the triumphant feast they had been making
there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw three
skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and
feet, and abundance of other parts of the bodies; and
Friday, by his signs, made me understand that they
brought over four prisoners to feast upon; that three of
them were eaten up and that he, pointing to himself, was
the fourth; that there had been a great battle between
them and their next king, whose subjects it seems he had
been one of; and that they had taken a great number of
prisoners, all which were carried to several places by
those that had taken them in the fight, in order to feast
upon them, as was done here by these wretches upon
those they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh,
230 ROBINSON CRUSOE

and whatever remained, and lay them together on a heap
and make a great fire upon it and burn them all to ashes.
I found Friday had still a hankering stomach after some
of the flesh, and was still a fannihal] in his nature; but |
discovered so much abhorrence at the very thoughts of
it and at the least appearance of it that he durst not dis-
cover it; for I had by some means Jet him know that I
would kill him if he offered it.

When we had done this, we came back to our castle,
and there I fell to work for my man Friday; and first of
all, I gave hima pair of linen drawers, which I had out of
the poor gunner’s chest I mentioned, and which I found
in the wreck; and which with a little alteration fitted him
very well; then I made him a jerkin of goat’s skin, as well
as my skill would allow, and I was now grown a tolerable
good tailor; and I gave him a cap, which I had made of a
hare-skin, very convenient and fashionable enough; and
thus he was clothed for the present tolerably well; and
was mighty well pleased to see himself almost as well
clothed as his master. It is true, he went awkwardly in
these things at first; wearing the drawers was very awk-
ward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his
shoulders and the inside of his arms; but a little easing
them where he complained they hurt him and using him-
self to them, at length he took to them very well.

The next day after I came home to my hutch with him,
I began to consider where I should lodge him; and that I
might do well for him and yet be perfectly easy myself,
I made a little tent for him in the vacant place between
my two fortifications, in the inside of the last and in the
outside of the first; and as there was a door or entrance
there into my cave, I made a formal framed door-case,
and a door to it of boards, and set it up in the passage, a
little within the entrance; and causing the door to open
on the inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my
MY MAN FRIDAY 231

ladders too; so that Friday could no way come at me in
the inside of my innermost wall without making so much
noise in getting over that it must needs waken me; for
my first wall had now a complete roof over it of long
poles, covering all my tent and leaning up to the side of
the hill, which was again laid across with smaller sticks
instead of laths, and then thatched over a great thickness
with the rice-straw, which was strong like reeds; and at
the hole or place which was left to go in or out by the lad-
der I had placed a kind of trapdoor, which, if it had been
attempted on the outside, would not have opened at all,
but would have fallen down and made a great noise; and
as to weapons, I took them all into my side every night.

But I needed none of all this precaution; for never man
had a more faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday
was to me; without passions, sullenness, or designs, per-
fectly obliged and engaged; his very affections were tied
to me, like those of a child to a father; and I dare say he
would have sacrificed his life for the saving mine upon
any occasion whatsoever; the many testimonies he gave
me of this put it out of doubt and soon convinced me that
I needed to use no precautions as to my safety on his
account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that
with wonder, that however it had pleased God, in His
providence, and in the government of the works of
His hands, to take from so great a part of the world of His
creatures the best uses to which their faculties and the
powers of their souls are adapted, yet that He has be-
stowed upon them the same powers, the same reason, the
same affections, the same sentiments of kindness and ob-
ligation, the same passions and resentments of wrongs,
the same sense of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the
capacities of doing good and receiving good that He has
given to us; and that when He pleases to offer to them
232 ROBINSON CRUSOE

occasions of exerting these, they are as ready, nay, more
ready to apply them to the right uses for which they were
bestowed than we are. And this made me very melan-
choly sometimes, in reflecting, as the several occasions
presented, how mean a use we make of all these, even
though we have these powers enlightened by the great
lamp of instruction, the Spirit of God, and by the knowl-
edge of His Word, added to our understanding; and why
it has pleased God to hide the like saving knowledge from
so many millions of souls, who, if I might judge by this
poor savage, would make a much better use of it than
we did.

From hence, I sometimes was led too far to invade the
sovereignty of Providence and, as it were, arraign the
justice of so arbitrary a disposition of things that should
hide that light from some and reveal it to others, and yet
expect a like duty from both. But I shut it up and checked
my thoughts with this conclusion; first, that we did not
know by what light and law these should be condemned;
but that as God was necessarily, and by the nature of His
being, infinitely holy and just, so it could not be but that
if these creatures were all sentenced to absence from
Himself, it was on account of sinning against that light
which, as the Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and
by such rules as their consciences would acknowledge to
be just, though the foundation was not discovered to us.
And second, that still, as we are all the clay in the hand
of the Potter, no vessel could say to Him, “Why hast Thou
formed me thus?”

But to return to my new companion: I was greatly de-
lighted with him and made it my business to teach him
everything that was proper to make him useful, handy,
and helpful; but especially to make him speak and under-
stand me when I spake; and he was the aptest scholar
that ever was, and particularly was so merry, so con-
MY MAN FRIDAY 233

stantly diligent, and so pleased when he could but under-
stand me or make me understand him that it was very
pleasant to me to talk to him; and now my life began to
be so easy that I began to say to myself that could I but
have been safe from more savages, I cared not if I was
never to remove from the place while I lived.

After I had been two or three days returned to my
castle, I thought that, in order to bring Friday off from
his horrid way of feeding and from the relish of a can-
nibal’s stomach, I ought to let him taste other flesh; so I
took him out with me one morning to the woods. I went,
indeed, intending to kill a kid out of my own flock and
bring him home and dress it. But as I was going, I saw a
she-goat lying down in the shade and two young kids sit-
ting by her; I catched hold of Friday. “Hold,” says I,
“stand still”; and made signs to him not to stir; immedi-
ately I presented my piece, shot and killed one of the
kids. The poor creature, who had at a distance, indeed,
seen me kill the savage, his enemy, but did not know or
could imagine how it was done, was sensibly surprised,
trembled and shook, and looked so amazed that I thought
he would have sunk down. He did not see the kid I had}
shot at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped up his waist-/
coat to feel if he was not wounded, and, as I found pres-
ently, thought I was resolved to kill him; for he came and
kneeled down to me and, embracing my knees, said a
great many things I did not understand; but I could easily
see that the meaning was to pray me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do
him no harm and, taking him up by the hand, laughed at
him and pointed to the kid which I had killed, beckoned
to him to run and fetch it, which he did; and while he
was wondering and looking to see how the creature was
killed, I loaded my gun again, and by and by I saw a
great fowl, like a hawk, sit upon a tree, within shot; so,
234 ROBINSON CRUSOE

*o let Friday understand a little what I would do, I called
him to me again, pointed at the fowl, which was indeed a
parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I say, point-
ing to the parrot and to my gun and to the ground under
the parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, I made him
understand that I would shoot and kill that bird; accord-
ingly I fired and bade him look, and immediately he saw
the parrot fall, he stood like one frighted again, notwith-
standing all I had said to him; and I found he was the
more amazed because he did not see me put anything into
the gun; but thought that there must be some wonderful
fund of death and destruction in that thing, able to kill
man, beast, bird, or anything near or far off; and the
astonishment this created in him was such as could not
wear off for a long time; and I believe, if I would have
let him, he would have worshiped me and my gun. As for
the gun itself, he would not so much as touch it for sev-
eral days after; but would speak to it and talk to it as if it
had answered him, when he was by himself; which, as I
afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not to kill him.

Well, after his astonishment was a little ever at this, I
pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which
he did, but stayed some time; for the parrot, not being
quite dead, was fluttered away a good way off from the
place where she fell; however, he found her, took her up,
and brought her to me; and as I had perceived his igno-
rance about the gun before, I took this advantage to
charge the gun again and not let him see me do it, that
I might be ready for any other mark that might present;
but nothing more offered at that time; so I brought home
the kid, and the same evening I took the skin off and cut
it out as well as I could; and having a pot for that pur-
pose, I boiled, or stewed, some of the flesh, and made;
some very good broth; and after I had begun to eat some, |
I gave some to my man, who seemed very glad of it and}
MY MAN FRIDAY 23 5
liked it very well; but that which was strangest to him
was to see me eat salt with it; he made a sign to me that|
the salt was not good to eat, and putting a little into his
own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and would spit and
sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water after it;
on the other hand, I took some meat in my mouth without
salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt,
as fast as he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he
would never care for salt with his meat or in his broth; at
least, not a great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I
was resolved to feast him the next day with roasting a
piece of the kid; this I did by hanging it before the fire
in a string, as I had seen many people do in England,
setting two poles up, one on each side the fire, and one
cross on the top, and tying the string to the cross-stick, let-
ting the meat turn continually. This Friday admired very
much; but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so
many ways to tell me how well he liked it that I could
not but understand him; and at last he told me he would
never eat man’s flesh any more, which I was very glad to
hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn
out, and sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I ob-
served before, and he soon understood how to do it as
well as I, especially after he had seen what the meaning
of it was, and that it was to make bread of; for after that
[let him see me make my bread and bake it too, and in a |
little time Friday was able to do all the work for me, as j
well as I could do it myself. ;

I began now to consider that having two mouths to
feed instead of one, I must provide more ground for my
harvest and plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to
do; so I marked out a larger piece of land and began the
fence in the same manner as before, in which Friday not
236 ROBINSON CRUSOE

only worked very willingly and very hard but did it very
cheerfully; and I told him what it was for, that it was for
corn to make more bread, because he was now with me,
and that I might have enough for him and myself too. He
appeared very sensible of that part and let me know that
he thought I had much more labor upon me on his ac-
count than I had for myself; and that he would work the
harder for me, if I would tell him what to do.

Some Hopes That I Might Escape

THIS was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this
place; Friday began to talk pretty well and understand
the names of almost everything I had occasion to call for,
and of every place I had to send him to, and talk a great
deal to me; so that, in short, I began now to have some
use for my tongue again, which indeed I had very little
occasion for before; that is to say, about speech; besides
the pleasure of talking to him, I had a singular satisfac
tion in the fellow himself; his simple, unfeigned honesty
appeared to me more and more every day, and I began
really to love the creature; and, on his side, I believe he
loved me more than it was possible for him ever to love
anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any cree incli-
nation to his own country again, and having learned him
English so well that he could answer me almost any ques-
tions, I asked him whether the nation that he belonged to
never conquered in battle. At which he smiled, and said,
“Yes, yes, we always fight the better”; that is, he meant,
always get the better in fight; and so we began the follow-
ing discourse: “You always fight the better,” said I, “how
came you to be taken prisoner then, Friday?”

FRIDAY: My nation beat much, for all that.
SOME HOPES THAT I MIGHT ESCAPE 237

MASTER: How beat? If your nation beat them, how
come you to be taken?

FRIDAY: They more many than my nation in the place
where me was; they take one, two, three, and me; my
nation overbeat them in the yonder place, where me no
was; there my nation take one, two, great thousand.

MASTER: But why did not your side recover you from
the hands of your enemies then?

FRIDAY: They run one, two, three, and me, and make
go in the canoe; my nation have no canoe that time.

MasTER: Well, Friday, and what does your nation do
with the men they take? Do they carry them away, and
eat them, as these did?

FRIDAY: Yes, my nation eat mans too, eat all up.

MasTER: Where do they carry them?

FriDay: Go to other place, where they think.

MASTER: Do they come hither?

FRIDAY: Yes, yes, they come hither; come other else
place.

MASTER: Have you been here with them?

rripay: Yes, I been here. [Points to the northwest side
of the island, which it seems was their side. ]

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly
been among the savages who used to come on shore on
the farther part of the island, on the same man-eating
occasions that he was now brought for; and some time
after, when I took the courage to carry him to that side,
being the same I formerly mentioned, he presently knew
the place and told me he was there once when they eat up
twenty men, two women, and one child; he could not tell
twenty in English, but he numbered them by laying so
many stones on a row and pointing to me to tell them
over.

I have told this passage because it introduces what fol-
lows; that after I had had this discourse with him, I asked
238 ROBINSON CRUSOE

him how far it was from our island to the shore, and
whether the canoes were not often lost; he told me there
was no danger, no canoes ever lost; but that after a little
way out to the sea, there was a current and a wind, al-
ways one way in the morning, the other in the afternoon.

This I understood to be no more than the sets of the
tide, as going out or coming in; but I afterwards under-
stood it was occasioned by the great dratt and reflux of
the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth, or the gulf, of
which river, as I found afterwards, our island lay; and this
land which I perceived to the west and northwest was
the great island Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth
of the river. I asked F riday a thousand questions about
the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what
nation were near; he told me all he knew with the great-
est openness imaginable; I asked him the names of the
several nations of his sort of people, but could get no
other name than Caribs; from whence I easily understood
that these were the Caribbees, which our maps place on
the part of America which reaches from the mouth of the
river Oroonoko to Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha.
He told me that up a great way beyond the moon, that
was, beyond the setting of the moon, which must be west
from their country, there dwelt white-bearded men, like
me, and pointed to my great whiskers, which I mentioned
before; and that they had killed much Mans, that was his
word; by all which I understood he meant the Spaniards,
whose cruelties in America had been spread over the
whole countries and was remembered by all the nations
from father to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from
this island and get among those white men: he told me,
“Yes, yes, I might go in two canoe”; I could not under-
stand what he meant, or make him describe to me what
he meant by “two canoe,” till at last, with great difficulty,
SOME HOPES THAT I MIGHT ESCAPE 239

I found he meant it must be in a large great boat, as big
as two canoes.

This part of Friday’s discourse began to relish with me
very well and from this time I entertained some hopes
that, one time or other, I might find an opportunity to
make my escape from this place and that this poor savage
might be a means to help me to do it.

During the long time that Friday had now been with
me, and that he began to speak to me, and understand
me, I was not wanting to lay a foundation of religious
knowledge in his mind; particularly I asked him one time,
who made him? The poor creature did not understand me
at all, but thought I had asked who was his father; but I
took it by another handle and asked him who made the
sea, the ground we walked on, and the hills and woods;
he told me it was one old Benamuckee, that lived beyond
all. He could describe nothing of this great person but
that he was very old; much older, he said, than the sea
or the land, than the moon or the stars. I asked him then,
if this old person had made all things, why did not all
things worship him. He looked very grave, and with a
perfect look of innocence, said, “All things do say ‘OP to
him.” I asked him if the people who die in his country
went away anywhere; he said, yes, they all went to Bena- —
muckee; then I asked him whether these they eat up
went thither too. He said, “Yes.” a

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowl-
edge of the true God. I told him that the great Maker of
all things lived up there, pointing up towards Heaven.
That He governs the world by the same Power and Provi-
dence by which He made it. That He was omnipotent,
could do everything for us, give everything to us, take
everything from us; and thus by degrees I opened his
eyes. He listened with great attention, and received with
pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem
240 ROBINSON CRUSOE

us, and of the manner of making our prayers to God, and
His being able to hear us, even into Heaven; he told me
one day that if our God could hear us up beyond the
sun, He must needs be a greater God than their Bena-
muckee, who lived but a little way off, and yet could not
hear till they went up to the great mountains where he
dwelt, to speak to him; I asked him if he ever went thither
to speak to him; he said, no; they never went that were
young men; none went thither but the old men, who he
called their Oowokakee, that is, as I made him explain it
to me, their religious, or clergy; and that they went to say
O (so he called saying prayers), and then came back and
told them what Benamuckee said. By this I observed, that
there is priestcraft even amongst the most blinded, igno-
rant pagans in the world; and the policy of making a
secret religion, in order to preserve the veneration of the
people to the clergy, is not only to be found in the Roman
but perhaps among all religions in the world, even among
the most brutish and barbarous Savages.

I endeavored to clear up this fraud to my man Friday,
and told him that the pretense of their old men going up
the mountains to say O to their god Benamuckee was a
cheat, and their bringing word from thence what he said
was much more so; that if they met with any answer or
spake with anyone there, it must be with an evil spirit.
And then I entered into a long discourse with him about
the Devil, the original of him, his rebellion against God,
his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting himself up
in the dark parts of the world to be worshipped instead
of God, and as God, and the many stratagems he made
use of to delude mankind to his ruin; how he had a secret
access to-our passions and to our affections, to adapt his
snares so to our inclinations as to cause us even to be our
own tempters and to run upon our destruction by our
own choice.
SOME HOPES THAT I MIGHT ESCAPE 241

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his
mind about the Devil, as it was about the being of a God.
Nature assisted all my arguments to evidence to him even
the necessity of a great First Cause and overruling, gov-
erning Power, a secret directing Providence, and of the
equity and justice of paying homage to Him that made
us, and the like, But there appeared nothing of all this in
the notion of an evil spirit, of his original, his being, his
nature, and above all, of his inclination to do evil, and to
draw us in to do so too; and the poor creature puzzled me
once in such a manner, by a question merely natural and
innocent, that I scarce knew what to say to him. I had
been talking a great deal to him of the power of God, His
omnipotence, His dreadful nature to sin, His being a con-
suming fire to the workers of iniquity; how, as He had
made us all, He could destroy us and all the world in a
moment; and he listened with great seriousness to me all
the while.

After this, I had been telling him how the Devil was
God’s enemy in the hearts of men and used all his malice
and skill to defeat the good designs of Providence and to
ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world, and the like.
“Well,” says Friday, “but you say, God is so strong, so
great; is He not much strong, much might as the Devil?”
“Yes, yes,” says I, “Friday, God is stronger than the Devil,
God is above the Devil, and therefore we pray to God to
tread him down under our feet and enable us to resist
his temptations and quench his fiery darts.” “But,” says he
again, “if God much strong, much might as the Devil,
why God no kill the Devil, so make him no more do
wicked?”

I was strangely surprised at his question, and after all,
though I was now an old man, yet I was but a young
doctor, and ill enough qualified for a casuist, or a solver of
difficulties. And at first I could not tell what to say, so I
242 ROBINSON CRUSOE

pretended not to hear him, and asked him what he said.
But he was too earnest for an answer to forget his ques-
tion; so that he repeated it in the very same broken words
as above. By this time I had recovered myself a little,
and I said, “God will at last punish him severely; he is
reserved for the judgment and is to be cast into the bot-
tomless pit, to dwell with everlasting fire.” This did not
satisfy Friday, but he returns upon me, repeating my
words, “ ‘Reserve at last,’ me no understand; but why not
kill the Devil now, not kill great ago?” “You may as well
ask me,” said I, “why God does not kill you and I, when
we do wicked things here that offend Him. We are pre-
served to repent and be pardoned.” He muses awhile at
this. “Well, well,” says he, mighty affectionately, “that
well; so you, I, Devil, all wicked, all preserve, repent, God
pardon all.” Here I was run down again by him to the
last degree, and it was a testimony to me how the mere
notions of nature, though they will guide reasonable
creatures to the knowledge of a God, and of a worship or
homage due to the supreme being of God, as the con-
sequence of our nature, yet nothing but Divine revela-
tion can form the knowledge of Jesus Christ and of a
redemption purchased for us, of a Mediator of the new
covenant, and of an Intercessor at the footstool of God’s
throne; I say, nothing but a revelation from Heaven can
form these in the soul; and that therefore the Gospel of
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean, the Word of
God and the Spirit of God promised for the guide and
sanctifier of His people are the absolutely necessary in-
structors of the souls of men, in the saving knowledge
of God, and the means of salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me
and my man, rising up hastily, as upon some sudden oc-
casion of going out; then sending him for something a
good way off, I seriously prayed to God that He would
SOME HOPES THAT I MIGHT ESCAPE 243

enable me to instruct savingly this poor savage, assist-
ing by His Spirit the heart of the poor ignorant creature
to receive the light of the knowledge of God in Christ,
reconciling him to Himself, and would guide me to speak
so to him from the Word of God as his conscience might
be convinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved. When
he came again to me, I entered into a long discourse with
him upon the subject of the redemption of man by the
Saviour of the world, and of the doctrine of the Gospel
preached from Heaven, viz., of repentance towards God,
and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus. I then explained to
him, as well as I could, why our blessed Redeemer took
not on Him the nature of angels but the seed of Abra-
ham, and how for that reason the fallen angels had no
share in the redemption; that He came only to the lost
sheep of the House of Israel, and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all
_ the methods I took for this poor creature’s instruction and_
must acknowledge what I believe all that act upon the
same principle will find, that in laying things open to
him, I really informed and instructed myself in many
things, that either I did not know or had not fully con-
sidered before, but which occurred naturally to my mind
upon my searching into them for the information of this
poor savage; and I had more affection in my inquiry after
things upon this occasion than ever I felt before; so
that whether this poor wild wretch was the better for
me, or no, I had great reason to be thankful that ever he
came to me. My grief set lighter upon me, my habitation
grew comfortable to me beyond measure; and when I
reflected that in this solitary life which I had been con-
fined to I had not only been moved myself to look up to
Heaven and to seek to the Hand that had brought me
there; but was now to be made an instrument under
Providence to save the life and, for aught I knew, the
244 ROBINSON CRUSOE

soul of a poor savage, and bring him to the true knowl-
edge of religion, and of the Christian doctrine, that he
might know Christ Jesus, to know whom is life eternal;
I say, when I reflected upon all these things, a secret joy
run through every part of my soul, and I frequently re-
joiced that ever I was brought to this place, which I had
so often thought the most dreadful of all afflictions that
could possibly have befallen me.

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of
my time, and the conversation which employed the hours
between Friday and I was such as made the three years
which we lived there together perfectly and completely
happy, if any such thing as complete happiness can be
formed in a sublunary state. The savage was now a good
Christian, a much better than I; though I have reason
to hope, and bless God for it, that we were equally
penitent, and comforted, restored penitents; we had here
the Word of God to read and no farther off from His
Spirit to instruct than if we had been in England.

T always applied myself in reading the Scripture to let
him know, as well as I could, the meaning of what I
read; and he again, by his serious inquiries and ques-
tionings, made me, as I said before, a much better scholar
in the Scripture knowledge than I should ever have been
by my own private mere reading, Another thing I cannot
refrain from observing here also, from experience in this
retired part of my life, viz., how infinite and inexpressible
a blessing it is that the knowledge of God and of the
doctrine of salvation by Christ Jesus is so plainly laid
down in the Word of God, so easy to be received and un-
derstood, that as the bare reading the Scripture made me
capable of understanding enough of my duty to carry me
directly on to the great work of sincere repentance for
my sins, and laying hold‘of a Saviour for life and salva-
tion, to a stated reformation in practice, and obedience to
SOME HOPES THAT I MIGHT ESCAPE 245

all God’s commands, and this without any teacher or in-
structor, I mean, human; so the same plain instruction
sufficiently served to the enlightening this savage creature
and bringing him to be such a Christian as I have known
few equal to him in my life.

As to all the disputes, wranglings, strife, and contention
which has happened in the world about religion, whether
niceties in doctrines, or schemes of church government,
they were all perfectly useless to us; as for aught I can
yet see, they have been to all the rest in the world. We
had the sure guide to Heaven, viz., the Word of God;
and we had, blessed be God, comfortable views of the
Spirit of God teaching and instructing us by His Word,
leading us into all truth, and making us both willing and
obedient to the instruction of His Word; and I cannot
see the last use that the greatest knowledge of the dis-
puted points in religion, which have made such con-
fusions in the world, would have been to us, if we could
have obtained it; but I must go on with the historical
part of things, and take every part in its order.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted,
and that he could understand almost all I said to him and
speak fluently, though in broken English, to me, I ac-
quainted him with my own story, or at least so much of
it as related to my coming into the place; how I had
lived there, and how long. I let him into the mystery, for
such it was to him, of gunpowder and bullet, and taught
him how to shoot. I gave him a knife, which he was
wonderfully delighted with, and I made him a belt, with
a frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers
in; and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a
hatchet, which was not only as good a weapon, in some
cases, but much more useful upon other occasions.

I described to him the country of Europe, and par-
ticularly England, which I came from; how we lived, how

fe]
246 ROBINSON CRUSOE

we worshipped God, how we behaved to one another;
and how we traded in ships to all parts of the world. I
gave him an account of the wreck which I had been on
board of and showed him as near as I could the place
where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces before,
and gone.

I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when
we escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole
strength then, but was now fallen almost all to pieces.
Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great
while, and said nothing; I asked him what it was he
studied upon; at last says he, “Me see such boat like come
to place at my nation.”

I did not understand him a good while; but at last,
when I had examined farther into it, I understood by him
that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon
the country where he lived; that is, as he explained it,
was driven thither by stress of weather. I presently
imagined that some European ship must have been cast
away upon their coast, and the boat might get loose and
drive ashore; but was so dull that I never once thought of
men making escape from a wreck thither, much less
whence they might come; so I only inquired after a de-
scription of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but
brought me better to understand him when he added
‘with some warmth, “We save the white mans from
drown.” Then I presently asked him if there was any
\white mans, as he called them, in the boat. “Yes,” he
said, “the boat full of white mans.” I asked him how
, many; he told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him
/ then what become of them; he told me, “They live, they

dwell at my nation.”
~~ This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently
imagined that these might be the men belonging to the
SOME HOPES THAT I MIGHT ESCAPE 247

ship that was cast away in sight of my island, as I now
call it; and who, after the ship was struck on the rock
and they saw her inevitably lost, had saved themselves in
their boat and were landed upon that wild shore among
the savages.

Upon this I inquired of him more critically what was
become of them. He assured me they lived still there; that
they had been there about four years; that the savages
let them alone, and gave them victuals to live. T-asked>
him how it came to pass they did not kill them and eat
them. He said, “No, they make brother with them’; tha
is, as I understood him, a truce. And then he added,}
“They no eat mans but when make the war fight’; is.
to say, they never eat any men but such as come to fight
with them and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time that being on
the top of the hill, at the east side of the island from
whence, as I have said, I had in a clear day discovered
the main, or continent of America, Friday, the weather
being very serene, looks very earnestly towards the main-
land and, in a kind of surprise, falls a-jumping and
dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at some distance
from him. I asked him what was the matter. “O joy!” says
he, “O glad! There see my country, there my nation!”

I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared
in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance
discovered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be
in his own country again; and this observation of mine
put a great many thoughts into me, which made me at
first not so easy about my new man Friday as I was be-
fore; and I made no doubt but that if Friday could get
back to his own nation again, he would not only forget all
his religion but all his obligation to me; and would be
forward enough to give his countrymen an account of me
and come back, perhaps with a hundred or two of them,

\
p
)



248 ROBINSON CRUSOE

and make a feast upon me, at which he might be as merry |
as he used to be with those of his enemies, when they
were taken in war.

But I wronged the poor honest creature very much, for
which I was very sorry afterwards. However, as my
jealousy increased, and held me some weeks, I was a little
more circumspect, and not so familiar and kind to him as
before; in which I was certainly in the wrong too, the
honest grateful creature having no thought about it but
what consisted with the best principles, both as a reli-
gious Christian and as a grateful friend, as appeared
afterwards to my full satisfaction,

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was
every day pumping him to see if he would discover any
of the new thoughts which I suspected were in him; but I
found everything he said was so honest and so innocent
that I could find nothing to nourish my suspicion; and in
spite of all my uneasiness he made me at last entirely
his own again, nor did he in the least perceive that I was
uneasy, and therefore I could not suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather be-
ing hazy at sea so that we could not see the continent, I
called to him, and said, “F riday, do not you wish yourself
in your own country, your own nation?” “Yes,” he said,
he be much O glad to be at his own nation. “What would
you do there?” said I; “would you turn wild again, eat
men’s flesh again, and be a savage as you were before?”
He looked full of concern, and shaking his head, said,
“No, no; F riday tell them to live good, tell them to pray
God, tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk, no eat
man again.” “Why then,” said I to him, “they will kill
you.” He looked grave at that, and then said, “No, they
no kill me, they willing love learn.” He meant by this, they
would be willing to learn. He added, they learned much
of the bearded mans that come in the boat. Then I asked




SOME HOPES THAT I MIGHT ESCAPE 249

him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that and
told me he could not swim so far. I told him I would make
a canoe for him. He told me he would go, if I would go
with him. “I go!” says I; “why, they will eat me if I come
there.” “No, no,” says he, “me make they no eat you; me
make they much love you.” He meant he would tell them
how I had killed his enemies and saved his life, and so
he would make them love me; then he told me as well as
he could how kind they were to seventeen white men, or
bearded men, as he called them, who came on shore there
in distress.

From this time I confess I had a mind to venture over,
and see if I could possibly join with these bearded men,
who, I made no doubt, were Spaniards or Portuguese; not
doubting but, if I could, we might find some method to
escape from thence, being upon the continent, and a good
company together, better than I could from an island
forty miles off the shore, and alone without help. So after
some days I took Friday to work again, by way of dis-
course, and told him I would give him a boat to go back
to his own nation; and accordingly I carried him to my
frigate, which lay on the other side of the island, and
having cleared it of water, for I always kept it sunk in the
water, I brought it out, showed it him, and we both went
into it.

I found he was a most dexterous fellow at managing it,
would make it go almost as swift and fast again as I
could; so when he was in, I said to him, “Well, now,
Friday, shall we go to your nation?” He looked very dull
at my saying so, which it seems was because he thought
the boat too- small to go so far. I told him then I had a
bigger; so the next day I went to the place where the first
boat lay which I had made, but which I could not get into
water. He said that was big enough; but then, as I had
taken no care of it, and it had lain two or three and
250 ROBINSON CRUSOE

twenty years there, the sun had split and dried it, that
it was in a manner rotten. Friday told me such a boat
would do very well and would carry “much enough
victual, drink, bread”; that was his way of talking.
Upon the whole, I was by this time ‘so fixed upon my
design of going over-with him to the continent, that I told
him we would go and make one as big’as that, and he
should go home in it. He answered not one word, but
looked very grave and sad. I asked him what was the
matter with him. He asked me again thus, “Why you
angry mad with Friday? what me done?” I asked him
what he meant; I told him I was not angry with him at
all. “No angry! no angry!” says he, repeating the words
several times, “Why send F riday home away to my na-
tion?” “Why,” says I, “Friday, did you not say you wished
you were there?” “Yes, yes,” says he, “wish be both there,
no wish Friday there, no master there.” In a word, he
would not think of going there without me. “I go there,
Friday!” says I, “what shall I do there?” He turned very
quick upon me at this: “You do great deal much good,”
says he, “you teach wild mans be good sober tame’ mans;
you tell them know God, pray God, and live new life.”
“Alas! F riday,” says I, “thou knowest not what thou
sayest; I am but an ignorant man myself.” “Yes, yes,” says
he, “you teachee me good, you teachee them good.” “No,
no, Friday,” says I, “you shall go without me; leave me
here to live by myself, as I did before.” He looked con-
fused again at that word, and running to one of the
hatchets which he used to wear, he takes it up hastily,
comes and gives it me. “What must I do with this?” says I
to him. “You take, kill Friday,” says he. “What must I kill
you for?” said I again. He returns very quick, “What you
send Friday away for? Take, kill F riday, no send F riday
away.” This he spoke so earnestly that I saw tears stand
in his eyes. In a word, I so plainly discovered the utmost


SOME HOPES THAT I MIGHT ESCAPE 251

affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in him, mae
I told him then, and often after, that I would never send
him away from me if he was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled
affection to me, and that nothing should part him from
me, so I found all the foundation of his desire to go to his
own country was laid in his ardent affection to the people
and his hopes of my doing them good; a thing which, as I
had no notion of myself, so I had not the least thought or
intention or desire of undertaking it. But still I found a
strong inclination to my attempting an escape as aboye,
founded on the supposition gathered from the discourse,
viz., that there were seventeen bearded men there; and
therefore, without any more delay, I went to work with
Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a
large periagua or canoe to undertake the voyage. There
were trees enough in the island to have built a little fleet,
not of periaguas and canoes, but even of good large
vessels. But the main thing I looked at was to get one so
near the water that we might launch it when it was made,
to avoid the mistake I committed at first.

At last, Friday pitched upon a tree, for I found he knew
much better than I what kind of wood was fittest for it,
nor can I tell to this day what wood to call the tree we
cut down, except that it was very like the tree we call
fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it
was much of the same color and smell. Friday was for
burning the hollow or cavity of this tree out, to make it for
a boat. But I showed him how rather to cut it out with
tools, which, after I had showed him how to use, he did
very handily; and in about a month’s hard labor, we fin-
ished it and made it very handsome, especially when with
our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we cut and’
hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat; after
this, however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her
252 ROBINSON CRUSOE

along, as it were inch by inch, upon great rollers into the
water. But when she was in, she would have carried
twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, and though she was so.
big, it amazed me to see with what dexterity and how
swift my man Friday would manage her, turn her, and
paddle her along; so I asked him if he would, and if we
might venture over in her. “Yes,” he said, “he venture over
in her very well, though great blow wind.” However, I
had a farther design that he knew nothing of, and that was
to make a mast and sail, and to fit her with an anchor and
cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so I
pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which I found
near the place, and which there was great plenty of in
the island, and I set Friday to work to cut it down, and
gave him directions how to shape and order it. But as to
the sail, that was my particular care; I knew I had old
sails, or rather pieces of old sails, enough; but as I had
had them now six and twenty years by me and had not
been very careful to preserve them, not imagining that I
should ever have this kind of use for them, I did not doubt
but they were all rotten, and indeed most of them were
so; however, I found two pieces which appeared pretty
good, and with these I went to work, and with a great
deal of pains, and awkward tedious stitching (you may be
sure) for want of needles, I at length made a three-
cornered ugly thing, like what we call in England a
shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at bottom,
and a little short sprit at the top, such as usually our
ships’ longboats sail with, and such as I best knew how
to manage; because it was such a one as I had to the boat
in which I made my escape from Barbary, as related in
the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work, viz.,
rigging and fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them
‘

SOME HOPES THAT I MIGHT ESCAPE 253

very complete, making a small stay and a sail, or foresail
to it, to assist, if we should turn to windward; and which
was more than all, I fixed a rudder to the stern of her, to
steer with; and though I was but a bungling shipwright,
yet as I knew the usefulness, and even necessity of such a
thing, I applied myself with so much pains to do it that at
last I brought it to pass; though considering the many
dull contrivances I had for it that failed, I think it cost me
almost as much labor as making the boat.

After all this was done too, I had my man Friday to
teach as to what belonged to the navigation of my boat;
for though he knew very well how to paddle a canoe, he
knew nothing what belonged to a sail and a rudder; and
was the most amazed when he saw me work the boat to
and again in the sea by the rudder, and how the sail
jibed, and filled this way, or that way, as the course we
sailed changed; I say, when he saw this, he stood like one
astonished and amazed. However, with a little use I made
all these things familiar to him; and he became an expert
sailor, except that as to the compass, I could make him
understand very little of that. On the other hand, as there
was very little cloudy weather, and seldom or never any
fogs in those parts, there was the less occasion for a
compass, seeing the stars were always to be seen by night
and the shore by day, except in the rainy seasons, and
then nobody cared to stir abroad, either by land or sea.

I was now entered on the seven and twentieth year of V-)
my captivity in this place; though the three last years that \, ,

i

I had this creature with me ought rather to be left out of
the account, my habitation being quite of another kind
than in all the rest of the time. I kept the anniversary of
my landing here with the same thankfulness to God for
His mercies as at first; and if I had such cause of acknowl-
edgment at first, I had much more so now, having such
additional testimonies of the care of Providence over me,
254 ROBINSON CRUSOE
and the great hopes I had of being effectually and speed-

ily delivered; for I had an invincible impression upon my
thoughts that my deliverance was at hand, and that I
should not be another year in this place. However, I went
on with my husbandry, digging, planting, fencing, as
usual; I gathered and cured my grapes, and did every
necessary thing as before. :

The rainy season was in the meantime upon us, when
I kept more within doors than at other times; so I had
stowed our new vessel as secure as we could, bringing her
up into the creek, where, as I said in the beginning, i
landed my rafts from the ship and, hauling her up to the
shore, at high water mark, I made my man Friday dig a
little dock, just big enough to hold her, and just deep
enough to give her water enough to fleet in; and then
when the tide was out, we made a strong dam cross the
end of it, to keep the water out; and so she lay dry, as to
the tide from the sea; and to keep the rain off, we laid a
great many boughs of trees, so thick that she was as well
thatched as a house; and thus we waited for the months
of November and December, in which I designed to make
my adventure.

I Dip My Hands in Blood
ee
WHEN the settled season began to come in, as the
thought of my design returned with the fair weather, I
was preparing daily for the voyage; and the first thing
I did was to lay by a certain quantity of provisions, being
the stores for our voyage; and intended, in a week or a
fortnight’s time, to open the dock, and launch out our
boat. I was busy one morning upon something of this
kind, when I called to Friday, and bid him go to the
seashore, and see if he could find a turtle, or tortoise, a


I DIP MY HANDS IN BLOOD 255

thing which we generally got once a week, for the sake of
the eggs as well as the flesh. Friday had not been long,
gone when he came running back and flew over my outer)
wall, or fence, like one that felt not the ground or the!
steps he set his feet on; and before I had time to speak to:
him, he cries out to me, “O master! O master! O sorrow!
O bad!” “What’s the matter, Friday?” says I. “O yonder,
there,” says he, “one, two, three canoe! one, two, three!”
By his way of speaking, I concluded there were six; but _
on inquiry I found it was but three. “Well, Friday; says

I, “do not be frighted”; so I heartened him up as well as
‘could. However, I saw the poor fellow was most terribly
scared; for nothing ran in his head but that they were
come to look for him and would cut him in pieces and
eat him; and the poor fellow trembled so that I scarce
knew what to do with him. I comforted him as well as I
could, and told him I was in as much danger as he, and
that they would eat me as well as him; “but,” says I,
“Friday, we must resolve to fight them; can you fight,
Friday?” “Me shoot,” says he, “but there come many great
number.” “No matter for that,” said I again, “our guns
will fright them that we do not kill’; so I asked him,
whether if I resolved to defend him, he would defend me
and stand by me and do just as I bid him. He said, “Me
die when you bid die, master”; so I went and fetched a
good dram of rum and gave him; for I had been so good
a husband of my rum, that I had a great deal left. When
he had drank it, I made him take the two fowling pieces,
which we always carried, and load them with large swan-
shot, as big as small pistol bullets; then I took four
muskets, and loaded them with two slugs and five small
bullets each; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of
bullets each; I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by
my side, and gave Friday his hatchet.

When I had thus prepared myself, I took my perspec-
256 ROBINSON CRUSOE

tive-glass and went up to the side of the hill, to see what
I could discover; and I found quickly, by my glass, that
there were one-and-twenty savages, three prisoners, and
three canoes; and that their whole business seemed to be
the triumphant banquet upon these three human bodies,
a barbarous feast indeed, but nothing else more than, as
I had observed, was usual with them.

I observed also that they were landed, not where they
had done when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my
creek, where the shore was low, and where a thick wood
came close almost down to the sea. This, with the ab-
horrence of the inhuman errand these wretches came
about, filled me with such indignation that I came down
again to Friday, and told him I was resolved to go down
to them, and kill them all; and asked him if he would
stand by me. He was now gotten over his fright, and his
spirits being a little raised with the dram I had given
him, he was very cheerful and told me, as before, he
would die when I bid die.

In this fit of fury, I took first and divided the arms
which I had charged, as before, between us; I gave
Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle, and three guns
upon his shoulder; and I took one pistol, and the other
three myself; and in this posture we marched out. I took
a small bottle of rum in my pocket and gave Friday a
large bag with more powder and bullets; and as to orders,
I charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir
or shoot or do anything till I bid him and in the mean-
time not to speak a word. In this posture I fetched a
compass to my right hand of near a mile, as well to get
over the creek, as to get into the wood; so that I might
come within shoot of them before I should be discovered,
which I had seen by my glass, it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts
returning, I began to abate.my resolution; I do not mean


I DIP MY HANDS IN BLOOD 257

that I entertained any fear of their number; for as they
were naked, unarmed wretches, ‘tis certain I was superior
to them; nay, though I had been alone; but it occurred
to my thoughts what call, what occasion, much less what
necessity, I was in to go and dip my hands in blood, to
attack people who had neither done or intended me any
wrong; who, as to me, were innocent and whose barba-
rous customs were their own disaster, being in them a
token indeed of God’s having left them, with the other
nations of that part of the world, to such stupidity and
to such inhuman courses, but did not call me to take upon
me to be a judge of their actions, much less an execu-
tioneer of His Justice; that whenever He thought fit, He
would take the cause into His own hands and by national
vengeance punish them as a people for national crimes;
but that, in the meantime, it was none of my business;
that it was true, Friday might justify it, because he was a
declared enemy and in a state of war with those very
particular people; and it was lawful for him to attack
them; but I could not say the same with respect to me.
These things were so warmly pressed upon my thoughts
all the way as I went that I resolved I would only go and
place myself near them, that I might observe their barba-
rous feast and that I would act then as God should direct;
but that unless something offered that was more a call to
me than yet I knew of, I would not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and, with all
possible wariness and silence, Friday following close at
my heels, I marched till I came to the skirt of the wood,
on the side which was next to them; only that one corner
of the wood lay between me and them; here I called softly
to Friday, and showing him a great tree, which was just
at the corner of the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and
bring me word if he would see there plainly what they
were. doing; he did so and came immediately back to me
258 ROBINSON CRUSOE

and told me they might be plainly viewed there; that
they were all about their fire, eating the flesh of one of
their prisoners; and that another lay bound upon the
sand, a little from them, which he said they would kill
next; and which fired all the very soul within me, he
told me it was not one of their nation but one of the
bearded men, who he had told me of that came to their
country in the boat. I was filled with horror at the very
naming the white bearded man, and going to the tree, I
saw plainly by my glass a white man who lay upon the
beach of the sea, with his hands and his feet tied with
flags, or things like rushes, and that he was an European
and had clothes on.

There was another tree and a little thicket beyond it,
about fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I
was, which by going a little way about, I saw I might
come at undiscovered, and that then I should be within
half shot of them; so I withheld my passion, though I was
indeed enraged to the highest degree, and going back
about twenty paces, I got behind some bushes, which
held all the way, till I came to the other tree; and then
I came to a little rising ground, which gave me a full
view of them, at the distance of about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose; for nineteen of the
dreadful wretches sat upon the ground, all close huddled
together, and liad just sent the other two to butcher the
poor Christian and bring him, perhaps limb by limb, to
their fire, and they were stooped down to untie the bands
at his feet. I turned to F. riday. “Now, Friday,” said I, “do
as I bid thee.” Friday said he would. “Then, Friday,” says
I, “do exactly as you see me do; fail in nothing.” So I set
down one of the muskets and the fowling piece upon the
ground, and Friday did the like by his; and with the other
musket I took my aim at the savages, bidding him do the
like; then asking him if he was ready, he said, “Yes.”
I DIP MY HANDS IN BLOOD 259°.

“Then fire at them,” said I; and the same moment I fired
also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I that on the
side that he shot he killed two of them and wounded
three more; and on my side, I killed one and wounded
two. They were, you may be sure, in a dreadful consterna-
tion; and all of them, who were not hurt, jumped up upon
their feet, but did not immediately know which way to
run or which way to look; for they knew not from whence
their destruction came. Friday kept his eyes close upon
me, that, as I had bid him, he might observe what I did;
so, as soon as the first shot was made, I threw down the
piece, and took up the fowling piece, and Friday did
the like; he sees me cock and present; he did the same
again. “Are you ready, Friday?” said I. “Yes,” says he.
“Let fly, then,” says I, “in the name of God!” and with that
I fired again among the amazed wretches, and so did
Friday; and as our pieces were now loaden with what I
called swan-shot, or small pistol bullets, wé found only
two drop, but so many were wounded that they run about
yelling and screaming like mad creatures, all bloody,
and miserably wounded most of them; whereof three
more fell quickly after, though not quite dead.

“Now, Friday,” says I, laying down the discharged
pieces and taking up the musket which was yet loaded;
“follow me,” says I, which he did with a great deal of
courage; upon which I rushed out of the wood and
showed myself, and Friday close at my foot; as soon as I
perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud as I could and
bade Friday do so too; and running as fast as I could,
which, by the way, was not very fast, being loaden with
arms as I was, ¥ made directly towards the poor victim,
who was, as I said, lying upon the beach, or shore, be-
tween the place where they sat and the sea; the two
butchers who were just going to work with him had left
260 ROBINSON CRUSOE

him at the surprise of our first fire and fled in a terrible
fright to the sea-side and had jumped into a canoe, and
three more of the rest made the same way; I turned to
Friday and bid him step forwards and fire at them. He
understood me immediately, and running about forty
yards, to be near them, he shot at them, and I thought he
had killed them all; for I see them all fall of a heap into
the boat; though I saw two of them up again quickly.
However, he killed two of them and wounded the third,
so that he lay down in the bottom of the boat, as if he
had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my
knife and cut the flags that bound the poor victim, and,
loosing his hands and feet, I lifted him up and asked him
in the Portuguese tongue what he was. He answered in
Latin, “Christianus”; but was so weak and faint that he
could scarce stand or speak; I took my bottle out of my
pocket and gave it him, making signs that he should
drink, which he did; and I gave him a piece of bread,
which he eat; then I asked him what countryman he was.
And he said “Espagniole”; and being a little recovered,
let me know by all the signs he could possibly make how
much he was in my debt for his deliverance, “Seignior,”
said I, with as much Spanish as I could make up, “we will
talk afterwards, but we must fight now; if you have any
strength left, take this pistol and sword and lay about
you.” He took them very thankfully, and no sooner had he
the arms in his hands, but as if they had put new vigor |
into him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury and had
cut two of them in pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as.
the whole was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures
were so much frighted with the noise of our pieces that
they fell down for mere amazement and fear and had no
more power to attempt their own escape than their flesh
had to resist our shot; and that was the case of those five
I DIP MY HANDS IN BLOOD ‘261

that Friday shot at in the boat; for as three of them fell
with the hurt they received, so the other two fell with the
fright.

? kept my piece in my hand still, without firing, being
willing to keep my charge ready, because I had given the
Spaniard my pistol and sword; so I called to Friday and
bade him run up to the tree from whence we first fired
and fetch the arms which lay there that had been dis-
charged, which he did with great swiftness; and then giv-
ing him my musket, I sat down myself to load all the rest
again, and bade them come to me when they wanted.
While I was loading these pieces, there happened a fierce
engagement between the Spaniard and one of the sav-
ages, who made at him with one of their great wooden
swords, the same weapon that was to have killed him be-
fore, if I had not prevented it. The Spaniard, who was as
bold and as brave as could be imagined, though weak,
had fought this Indian a good while and had cut him two
great wounds on his head; but the savage being a stout
lusty fellow, closing in with him, had thrown him down,
being faint, and was wringing my sword out of his hand,
when the Spaniard, though undermost, wisely quitting
the sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot the savage
through the body and killed him upon the spot, before
[, who was running to help him, could come near him.

Friday being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying
wretches with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet;
and with that he dispatched those three, who, as I said
before, were wounded at first and fallen, and all the rest
he could come up with; and the Spaniard coming to me
for a gun, I gave him one of the fowling pieces, with
which he pursued two of the savages, and wounded them
both; but as he was not able to run, they both got from
him into the wood, where Friday pursued them and killed
one of them; but the other was too nimble for him, and

4
262 ROBINSON CRUSOE

though he was wounded, yet had plunged himself into
the sea and swam with all his might off to those two who
were left in the canoe; which three in the canoe, with
one wounded, who we know not whether he died or no,
were all that escaped our hands of one-and-twenty. The
account of the rest is as follows:
3 killed at our first shot from the tree.
2 killed at the next shot.
2 killed by Friday in the boat.
2 killed by ditto, of those at first wounded.
1 killed by ditto in the wood.
3 killed by the Spaniard.
4 killed, being found dropped here and there of their
wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them.
4 escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded, if not
dead.

Q1 in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out
of gunshot; and though Friday made two or three shot
at them, I did not find that he hit any of them. F riday
would fain have had me took one of their canoes and
pursued them; and indeed I was very anxious about their
escape, lest, carrying the news home to their people,
they should come back perhaps with two or three hun-
dred of their canoes and devour us by mere multitude; so
I consented to pursue them by sea, and running to one
of their canoes, I jumped in and bade F riday follow me;
but when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find an-
other poor creature lie there alive, bound hand and foot,
as the Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost dead
with fear, not knowing what the matter was; for he had
not been able to look up over the side of the boat, he
was tied so hard, neck and heels, and had been tied so
long that he had really but little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags, or rushes, which
I DIP MY HANDS IN BLOOD 263

they had bound him with, and would have helped him
up; but he could not stand or speak, but groaned most
piteously, believing, it seems, still that he was only un-
bound in order to be killed.

When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him \
and tell him of his deliverance, and pulling out my bottle,
made him give the poor wretch a dram, which, with the
news of his being delivered, revived him, and he sat up
in the boat; but when Friday came to hear him speak,
and look in his face, it would have moved any one to
tears, to have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced him,
hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about,
danced, sung, then cried again, wrung his hands, beat his
own face and head, and then sung and jumped about
again, like a distracted creature. It was a good while be-
fore I could make him speak to me, or tell me what was
the matter; but when he came a little to himself he told
me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me+to.express how it moved me to see
what ecstasy and filial affection had worked in this poor
savage, at the sight of his father and of his being de-
livered from death; nor indeed can I describe half the
extravagances of his affection after this; for he went into
the boat and out of the boat a great many times. When
he went in to him, he would sit down by him, open his
breast, and hold his father’s head close to his bosom, half
an hour together, to nourish it; then he took his arms and
ankles, which were numbed and stiff with the binding,
and chafed and rubbed them with his hands; and I, per-
ceiving what the case was, gave him some rum out of my
bottle to rub them with, which did them a great deal of
good.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with
the other savages, who were now gotten almost out of
sight; and it was happy for us that we did not; for it blew
264 ROBINSON CRUSOE

so hard within two hours after, and before they could be
gotten a quarter of their way, and continued blowing so
hard all night, and that from the northwest, which was
against them, that I could not suppose their boat could
live, or that they ever reached to their own coast.

But to return to Friday; he was so busy about his father
that I could not find in my heart to take him off for some
time. But after I thought he could leave him a little, I
called him to me, and he came jumping and laughing,
and pleased to the highest extreme; then I asked him if
he had given his father any bread. He shook his head and
said, “None; ugly dog eat all up self.” So I gave him a cake
of bread out of a little pouch I carried on purpose; I also
gave him a dram for himself, but he would not taste it but
carried it to his father. I had in my pocket also two or
three bunches of my raisins, so I gave him a handful of
them for his father. He had no sooner given his father
these raisins but I saw him come out of the boat and run
away, as if he had been bewitched, he ran at such a rate;
for he was the swiftest fellow of his foot that ever I saw;
I say, he run at such a rate that he was out of sight, as it
were, in an instant; and though I called, and hallooed,
too, after him, it was’ all one, away he went, and in a
quarter of an hour I saw him come back again, though
not so fast as he went; and as he came nearer, I found
his pace was slacker because he had something in his
hand.

When he came up to me, I found he had been quite
home for an earthen jug or pot to bring his father some
fresh water, and that he had got two more cakes or loaves
of bread. The bread he gave me, but the water he car-
ried to his father. However, as I was very thirsty too, I
took a little sup of it. This water revived his father more
than all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he was
just fainting with thirst.

When his father had drank, I called to him to know if
I DIP MY HANDS IN BLOOD 265

there was any water left; he said “Yes”; and I bade him
give it to the poor Spaniard, who was in as much want
of it as his father; and I sent one of the cakes that Friday
brought to the Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak,
and was reposing himself upon a green place under the
shade of a tree; and whose limbs were also very stiff, and
very much swelled with the rude bandage he had been
tied with. When I saw that, upon Friday’s coming to him
with the water, he sat up and drank, and took the bread
and began to eat, I went to him and gave him a handful
of raisins; he looked up in my face with all the tokens of
gratitude and thankfulness that could appear in any
countenance; but was so weak, notwithstanding he had so
exerted himself in the fight that he could not stand up
upon his feet; he tried to do it two or three times, but was
really not able, his ankles were so swelled and so painful
to him; so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday to rub
his ankles and bathe them with rum, as he had done his
father’s,

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two
minutes or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turned
his head about to see if his father was in the same place
and posture as he left him sitting; and at last he found he
was not to be seen; at which he started up and without
speaking a word flew with that swiftness to hira, that one
could scarce perceive his feet to touch the ground as he
went. But when he came, he only found he had laid him-
self down to ease his limbs; so Friday came back to me
presently, and I then spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday
help him up if he could and lead him to the boat, and
then he should carry him to our dwelling, where I would
take care of him. But Friday, a lusty strong fellow, took
the Spaniard quite up upon his back and carried him
away to the boat and set him down softly upon the side,
or gunnel, of the canoe, with his feet in the inside of it,
and then lifted him quite in and set him close to his
266 ROBINSON CRUSOE

father, and presently stepping out again, launched the
boat off, and paddled it along the shore faster than [|
could walk, though the wind blew pretty hard too; so he
brought them both safe into our creek; and leaving them
in the boat, runs away to fetch the other canoe. As he
passed me, I spoke to him, and asked him whither he
went; he told me, “Go fetch more boat”; so away he went
like the wind; for sure never man or horse run like him,
and he had the other canoe in the creek almost as soon
as I got to it by land; so he wafted me over, and then went
to help our new guests out of the boat, which he did; but
they were neither of them able to walk; so that poor
Friday knew not what to do.

Toremedy this, I went to work in my thought, and call-
ing to Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while he
came to me, I soon made a kind of hand-barrow to lay
them on, and Friday and I carried them up both together
upon it between us. But when we got them to the outside
of our wall or fortification, we were at a worse loss than
before; for it was impossible to get them over, and I was
resolved not to break it down. So I set to work again; and
Friday and I, in about two hours’ time, made a very hand-
some tent, covered with old sails, and above that with
boughs of trees, being in the space without our outward
fence, and between that and the grove of young wood
which I had planted. And here we made them two beds
of such things as I had, viz., of good rice-straw, with
blankets laid upon it to lie on, and another to cover
them, on each bed.

My Island Was Now Peopled
A
MY ISLAND was now peopled, and I thought myself very
_Tich in subjects; and it was a merry reflection, which I
MY ISLAND WAS NOW PEOPLED 267

frequently made, how like a king I looked. First of all, \
the whole country was my own mere property, so that I
had an undoubted right of dominion. Secondly, my peo-
ple were perfectly subjected. I was absolute lord and
lawgiver; they all owed their lives to me, and were ready
to lay down their lives, if there had been occasion of it,
for me. It was remarkable, too, we had but three sub-
jects, and they were of three different religions. My man
Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Pagan and a
cannibal, and the Spaniard was a Papist. However, I al-,
lowed liberty of conscience throughout my doramacn
But this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued pris-
oners, and given them shelter and a place to rest them
upon, I began to think of making some provision for
them. And the first thing I did, I ordered Friday to take
a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and a goat, out of my par-
ticular flock, to be killed; when I cut off the hinder
quarter, and chopping it into small pieces, I set Friday
to work to boiling and stewing, and made them a very
good dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth, having put
some barley and rice also into the broth; and as I cooked
it without doors, for I made no fire within my inner wall,
so I carried it all into the new tent; and having set a table
there for them, I sat down and eat my own dinner also
with them, and, as well as I could, cheered them and en-
couraged them; Friday being my interpreter, especially to
his father, and indeed to the Spaniard too; for the!
Spaniard spoke the language of the savages pretty well.) J

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday
to take one of the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets
and other firearms, which for want of time we had left
upon the place of battle; and the next day I ordered him
to go and bury the dead bodies of the savages, which
lay open to the sun, and would presently be offensive; and


268 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I also ordered him to bury the horrid remains of their
barbarous feast, which I knew were pretty much, and
which I could not think of doing myself; nay, I could not
bear to see them, if I went that way. All of which he
punctually performed, and defaced the very appearance
of the savages being there, so that when I went again |
could scarce know where it was, otherwise than by the
corner of the wood pointing to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my
two new subjects; and first I set F riday to inquire of his
father what he thought of the escape of the savages in
that canoe, and whether we might expect a return of
them with a power too great for us to resist. His first
opinion was that the savages in the boat never could live
out the storm which blew that night they went off but
must of necessity be drowned or driven south to those
other shores, where they were as sure to be devoured
as they were to be drowned if they were cast away; but
as to what they would do if they came safe on shore, he
said he knew not; but it was his opinion that they were so
dreadfully frighted with the manner of their being at-
tacked, the noise and the fire, that he believed they would
tell their people they were all killed by thunder and
lightning, not by the hand of man, and that the two which
appeared, viz., F riday and me, were two heavenly spirits
or furies, come down to destroy them, and not men with
weapons. This he said he knew, because he heard them
all cry out so in their language to one another, for it was
impossible to them to conceive that a man could dart
fire and speak thunder and kill at a distance without lift-
ing up the hand, as was done now. And this old savage
was in the right; for, as I understood since by other hands,
the savages never attempted to go over to the island
afterwards; they were so terrified with the accounts
MY ISLAND WAS NOW PEOPLED 269

iven by those four men (for it seems they did escape the
sea) that they believed whoever went to that enchanted
island would be destroyed with fire from the gods.

This, however, I knew not, and therefore was under
continual apprehensions for a good while and kept always
upon my guard, me and all my army; for as we were now
four of us, I would have ventured upon a hundred of
them fairly in the open field at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing,
the fear of their coming wore off, and I began to take my
former thoughts of a voyage to the main into considera-
tion; being likewise assured by Friday’s father that I
might depend upon good usage from their nation on his
account, if I would go.

But my thoughts were a little suspended when I had /
a serious discourse with the Spaniard and when I under- |
stood that there were sixteen more of his countrymen and |
Portuguese, who, having been cast away and made their
escape to that side, lived there at peace indeed with the
savages but were very sore put to it for necessaries, and
indeed for life. I asked him all the particulars of their
voyage and found they were a Spanish ship bound from
the Rio de la Plata to the Havana, being directed to leave
their loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver,
and to bring back what European goods they could meet
_ with there; that they had five Portuguese seamen on
_ board, who they took out of another wreck; that five of
their own men were drowned when the first ship was
lost, and that these escaped, through infinite dangers and ©
hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal
coast, where they expected to have been devoured every
moment.

He told me they had some arms with them, but the)
were perfectly useless, for that they had neither powder
270 ROBINSON CRUSOE

or ball, the washing of the sea having spoiled all their
powder but a little, which they used at their first landing
to provide themselves some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of them
there, and if they had formed no design of making any
escape. He said they had many consultations about it,
but that having neither vessel, or tools to build one, or
provisions of any kind, their councils always ended in
- tears and despair.

I asked him how he thought they would receive a pro-
posal from me, which might tend towards an escape; and
whether, if they were all here, it might not be done. |
told him with freedom, I feared mostly their treachery
and ill usage of me, if I put my life in their hands; for
that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature of
man; nor did men always square their dealings by the
obligations they had received so much as they did by the
advantages they expected. I told him it would be very
hard that I should be the instrument of their deliverance
and that they should afterwards make me their prisoner
in New Spain, where an Englishman was certain to be
made a sacrifice, what necessity or what accident soever
brought him thither. And that T had rather be delivered
up to the savages and be devoured alive than fall into
the merciless claws of the priests and be carried into the
Inquisition. I added that otherwise I was persuaded, if
they were all here, we might, with so many hands, build
a bark large enough to carry us all away, either to the
Brazils southward, or to the islands or Spanish coast
northward. But that if in requital they should, when I had
put weapons into their hands, carry me by force among
their own people, I might be ill used for my kindness to
them and make my case worse than it was before.

He answered with a great deal of candor and ingenuity
MY ISLAND WAS NOW PEOPLED 271

‘that their condition was so miserable and they were so

sensible of it that he believed they would abhor the
thought of using any man unkindly that should con-
tribute to their deliverance; and that, if I pleased, he
would go to them with the old man and discourse with
them about it, and return again and bring me their an-
swer. That he would make conditions with them upon
their solemn oath, that they should be absolutely under
my leading, as their commander and captain; and that
they should swear upon the Holy Sacraments and the
Gospel to be true to me and to go to such Christian coun-
try as that I should agree to, and no other; and to be
directed wholly and absolutely by my orders, till they
were landed safely in such country as I intended; and
that he would bring a contract from them, under their
hands, for that purpose.

Then he told me he would first swear to me himself thai
he would never stir from me as long as he lived, till I gav
him orders; and that he would take my side to the las
drop of his blood, if there should happen the least breac
of faith among his countrymen.

He told me they were all of them very civil honest
men, and they were under the greatest distress imnagina-
ble, having neither weapons or clothes, nor any food, but
at the mercy and discretion of the savages; out of all hopes
of ever returning to their own country; and that he was
sure, if I would undertake their relief, they would live and
die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to r
lieve them, if possible, and to send the old savage and \
this Spaniard over to them to treat. But when we had |
gotten all things in a readiness to go, the Spaniard him- |
self started an objection, which had so much prudence |
in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on the other |


272 ROBINSON CRUSOE

hand, that I could not but be very well satisfied in it.

_ and, by his advice, put off the deliverance of his comrades

) for at least half a year. The case was thus:

He had been with us now about a month, during which
time I had let him see in what manner I had provided,
with the assistance of Providence, for my support; and
he saw evidently what stock of corn and rice I had laid
up; which, as it was more than sufficient for myself, so it
was not sufficient, at least without good husbandry, for
my family, now it was increased to number four. But
much less would it be sufficient, if his countrymen, who
were, as he said, fourteen still alive, should come over.
And least of all would it be sufficient to victual our ves-
sel, if we should build one, for a voyage to any of the

_ Christian colonies of America. So he told me he thought
: it would be more advisable to let him and the two others
' dig and cultivate some more land, as much as I could
spare seed to sow; and that we should wait another
harvest, that we might have a supply of corn for his coun-
trymen when they should come; for want might be a
temptation to them to disagree, or not to think them-
selves delivered, otherwise than out of one difficulty into
another. “You know,” says he, “the Children of Israel,
though they rejoiced at first for their being delivered out
of Egypt, yet rebelled even again God Himself that de-
livered them, when they came to want bread in tne
wilderness.”

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good,
that I could not but be very well pleased with his pro-
posal, as well as I was satisfied with his fidelity. So we fell
to digging, all four of us, as well as the wooden tools we
were furnished with permitted; and in about a month’s
time, by the end of which it was seed time, we had gotten
as much land cured and trimmed up as we sowed twenty-
two bushels of barley on, and sixteen jars of tice, which






MY ISLAND WAS NOW PEOPLED 273

was, in short, all the seed we had to spare; nor indeed did
we leave ourselves barley sufficient for our own food for
the six months that we had to expect our crop, that is to
say, reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for
ee for it is not to be supposed it is six months in the
ground in the country.

Having now society enough, and our number being
sufficient to put us out of fear of the savages, if they had
come, unless their number had been very great, we went
freely all over the island, wherever we found occasion;
and as here we had our escape or deliverance upon our
thoughts, it was impossible, at least for me, to have the
means of it out of mine; to this purpose, I marked out
several trees which I thought fit for our work, and I set
Friday and his father to cutting them down; and then I
caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thought on
that affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed
them with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large
tree into single planks, and I caused them to do the like,
till they had made about a dozen large planks of good
oak, near two foot broad, thirty-five foot long, and from
two inches to four inches thick. What prodigious labor
it took up, anyone may imagine.

At the same time I contrived to increase my little flock
of tame goats as much as I could; and to this purpose I
made Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and my-
self with Friday the next day, for we took our turns, and.
by this means we got above twenty young kids to breed.
up with the rest; for whenever we shot the dam, we
saved the kids, and added them to our flock. But above
all, the season for curing the grapes coming on, I caused
such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that
I believe, had we been at Alicante, where the raisins of
the sun are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty
barrels; and these with our bread was a great part of our



























274 ROBINSON CRUSOE
food, and very good living too, I assure you; for it is an
exceeding nourishing food.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order; it was
not the most plentiful increase I had seen in the island,
but, however, it was enough to answer our end; for from
our twenty-two bushels of barley we brought in and
thrashed out above 220 bushels; and the like in proportion
of the rice, which was store enough for our food to the
next harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been
on shore with me; or if we had been ready for a voyage, it
would very plentifully have victualed our ship, to have
carried us to any part of the world, that is to say, of
America.

When we had thus housed and secured our magazine
of corn, we fell to work to make more wicker-work, viz.,
great baskets in which we kept it; and the Spaniard was
very handy and dexterous at this part, and often blamed
me that I did not make some things for defense of this
kind of work; but I saw no need of it.

And now having a full supply of food for all the guests
I expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the
main, to see what he could do with those he had left
behind him there. I gave him a strict charge in writing
not to bring any man with him who would not first swear
in the presence of himself and of the old savage that he
would no way injure, fight with, or attack the person he
should find in the island, who was so kind to send for
them in order to their deliverance; but that they would
stand by and defend him against all such attempts, and
wherever they went, would be entirely under and sub-
jected to his commands; and that this should be put in
writing and signed with their hands. How we were to
have this done, when I knew they had neither pen or
ink, that indeed was a question which we never asked:

Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old
AN ENGLISH SHIP 275

savage, the father of Friday, went away in one of the
canoes which they might be said to come in, or rather}
were brought in, when they came’ as prisoners to be de-
voured by the savages.

I gave each of them a musket with a firelock on it and
about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them
to be very good husbands of both and not to use either
of them but upon urgent occasion.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used __, ,./
by me, in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven ‘) | |
years and some days. I gave them provisions of bread and
of dried grapes sufficient for themselves for many days,
and sufficient for all their countrymen for about eight
days’ time; and wishing them a good voyage, I see them
go, agreeing with them about a signal they should hang
out at their return, by which I should know them again
when they came back, at a distance, before they came on
shore.

They went away with a fair gale on the day that the
moon was at full; by my account, in the month of October;
but as for an exact reckoning of days, after I had once
lost it, I could never recover it again; nor had I kept even
the number of years so punctually as to be sure that I was
right, though as it proved, when I afterwards examined
my account, I found I had kept a true reckoning of years.

An English Ship

IT WAS no less than eight days I had waited for them,
when a strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of
which the like has not perhaps been heard of in history.
I was fast asleep in my hutch one morning, when my man
Friday came running in to me and called aloud, “Master,
master, they are come, they are come!”
276 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I jumped up, and regardless of danger I went out, as
soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little grove,
which, by the way, was by this time grown to be a very
thick wood; I say, regardless of danger, I went without
my arms, which was not my custom to do. But I was sur-
prised when turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a
boat at about a league and half’s distance, standing
in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they
call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in;
also I observed presently that they did not come from
that side which the shore lay on, but from the souther-
most end of the island. Upon this I called F riday in, and
bid him lie close, for these were not the people we looked
for, and that we might not know yet whether they were
friends or enemies.

In the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective-
glass, to see what I could make of them; and having taken
the ladder out, I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I
used to do when I was apprehensive of anything, and to
take my view the plainer without being discovered.

I had scarce set my foot on the hill, when my eye
plainly discovered a ship lying at an anchor at about two
leagues and a half’s distance from me, south-southeast,
but not above a league and a half from the shore. By my:
observation it appeared plainly to be an English ship, and
the boat appeared to be an English longboat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the
joy of seeing a ship, and one who I had reason to believe
was manned by my own countrymen, and consequently
friends, was such as I cannot describe; but yet I had some
secret doubts hung about me, I cannot tell from whence
they came, bidding me keep upon my guard. In the first
place, it occurred to me to consider what business an
English ship could have in that part of the world, since
it was not the way to or from any part of the world where
AN ENGLISH SHIP 277

the English had any traffic; and I knew there had been no
storms to drive them in there, as in distress; and that if
they were English really, it was most probable that they ~
were here upon no good design; and that I had better
continue as I was than fall into the hands of thieves and
murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of
danger, which sometimes are given him, when he may
think there is no possibility of its being real. That such
hints and notices are given us, I believe few that have
made any observations of things can deny; that they are
certain discoveries of an invisible world, and a converse of
spirits, we cannot doubt; and if the tendency of them
seems to be to warn us of danger, why should we not
suppose they are from some friendly agent, whether
supreme, or inferior and subordinate, is not the question;
and that they are given for our good?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the
justice of this reasoning; for had I not been made cautious
by this secret admonition, come it from whence it will, I
had been undone inevitably, and in a far worse condition
than before, as you will see presently.

I had not kept myself long in this posture but I saw the
boat draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek to
thrust in at for the convenience of landing; however, as
they did not come quite far enough, they did not see the
little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts; but run their
boat on shore upon the beach, at about half a mile from
me, which was very happy for me, for otherwise they
would have landed just, as I may say, at my door, and
would soon have beaten me out of my castle and perhaps
have plundered me of all I had.

When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied that they
were Englishmen, -at least most of them; one or two I
thought were Dutch, but it did not prove so. There were
278 ROBINSON CRUSOE

in all eleven men, whereof three of them, I found, were’
unarmed, and, as I thought, bound; and when the first
four or five of them were jumped on shore, they took those
three out of the boat as prisoners. One of the three I
could perceive using the most passionate gestures of
entreaty, affliction, and despair, even to a kind of ex-
travagance; the other two I could perceive lifted up their
hands sometimes, and appeared concerned indeed, but
not to such a degree as the first.

I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not
what the meaning of it should be. Friday called out to me
in English as well as he could, “O master! you see English
mans eat prisoner as well as savage mans.” “Why,” says
I, “Friday, do you think they are a-going to eat them

- then?” “Yes,” says F riday, “they will eat them.” “No, no,”
says I, “Friday, I am afraid they will murder them indeed,
but you may be sure they will not eat them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter
really was; but stood trembling with the horror of the
sight, expecting every moment when the three prisoners
should be killed; nay, once I saw one of the villains lift
up his arm with a great cutlass, as the seamen call it, or
sword, to strike one of the poor men; and I expected to
see him fall every moment, at which all the blood in my
body seemed to run chill in my veins.

I wished heartily now for my Spaniard, and the savage
that was gone with him; or that I had any way to have
come undiscovered within shot of them, that I might have
rescued the three men, for I saw no firearms they had
among them; but it fell out to my mind another way.

After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three
men by the insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run
scattering about the land, as if they wanted to see the
country. I observed that the three other men had liberty
to go also where they pleased; but they sat down all three
AN ENGLISH SHIP 279

upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like men in /
despair. '

This put me in mind of the first time when I came on
shore, and began to look about me; how I gave myself |
over for lost; how wildly I looked round me; what dread-
ful apprehensions I had; and how I lodged in the tree all
night for fear of being devoured by wild beasts.

As I knew nothing that night of the supply I was to
| receive by the providential driving of the ship nearer the
land by the storms and tide, by which I have since been
so long nourished and supported; so these three poor
desolate men knew nothing how certain of deliverance
and supply they were, how near it was to them, and how
effectually and really they were in a condition of safety
at the same time that they thought themselves lost and
their case desperate.

So little do we see before us in the world and so much!
reason have we to depend cheerfully upon the great
Maker of the world, that He does not leave His creatures -
so absolutely destitute but that in the worst circumstances
they have always something to be thankful for, and some-
times are nearer their deliverance than they imagine; nay, —
are even brought to their deliverance by the means by
which they seem to be brought to their destruction.

It was just at the top of high water when these people
came on shore, and while partly they stood parleying with
the prisoners they brought, and partly while they ram-
bled about to see what kind of a place they were in, they
had carelessly stayed till the tide was spent, and the water
was ebbed considerably away, leaving their boat
aground,

They had left two men in the boat, who, as I found
afterwards, having drank a little too much brandy, fell
asleep; however, one of them waking sooner than the
other, and finding the boat too fast aground for him to
280 ROBINSON CRUSOE

stir it, hallooed for the rest, who were straggling about,
upon which they all soon came to the boat; but it was
past all their strength to launch her, the boat being very
heavy, and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand,
almost like a quicksand.

In this condition, like true seamen, who are perhaps
the least of all mankind given to forethought, they gave
it over, and away they strolled about the country again;
and I heard one of them say aloud to another, calling
them off from the boat, “Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t
ye? she will float next tide”; by which I was fully con-
firmed in the main inquiry of what countrymen they were.

All this while I kept myself very close, not once daring
to stir out of my castle, any farther than to my place of
observation near the top of the hill; and very glad I was
to think how well it was fortified. I knew it was no less
than ten hours before the boat could be on float again,
and by that time it would be dark, and I might be at more
liberty to see their motions, and to hear their discourse, if
they had any.

In the meantime I fitted myself up for a battle, as be-
fore; though with more caution, knowing I had to do with
another kind of enemy than I had at first. I ordered
Friday also, who I had made an excellent marksman
with his gun, to load himself with arms. I took myself two
fowling pieces, and I gave him three muskets; my figure,
indeed, was very fierce; I had my formidable goatskin
coat on, with the great cap I have mentioned, a naked
sword by my side, two pistols in my belt, and a gun upon
each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any
attempt till it was dark. But about two o'clock being the
heat of the day, I found that, in short, they were all gone
straggling into the woods and, as I thought, were laid
down to sleep. The three poor distressed men, too anxious
AN ENGLISH SHIP 281

for their condition to get any sleep, were, however, set
down under the shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter
of a mile from me, and, as I thought, out of sight of any
of the rest.

Upon this I resolved to discover myself to them and
learn something of their condition. Immediately I
marched in the figure as above, my man Friday at a good
distance behind me, as formidable for his arms as I, but
not making quite so staring a specter-like figure as I did.

I came as near them undiscovered as I could, and then
before any of them saw me, I called aloud to them in
Spanish, “What are ye, gentlemen?”

They started up at the noise, but were ten times more\
confounded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure /
that I made. They made no answer at all, but I thought’
I perceived them just going to fly from me, when I spoke
to them in English: “Gentlemen,” said I, “do not be sur-
prised at me; perhaps you may have a friend near you,
when you did not expect it.” “He must be sent directly
from Heaven then,” said one of them very gravely to me,
and pulling off his hat at the same time to me, “for our
condition is past the help of man.” “All help is from
Heaven, sir,” said I. “But can you put a stranger in the
way how to help you, for you seem to me to be in some
great distress? I saw you when you landed, and when you
seemed to make applications to the brutes that came with
you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and
trembling, looking like one astonished, returned, “Am I
talking to God, or man? Is it a real man, or an angel?”
“Be in no fear about that, sir,” said I, “if God had sent an
angel to relieve you, he would have come better clothed,
and armed after another manner than you see me in;
pray lay aside your fears; I am a man, an Englishman,
and disposed to assist you, you see; I have one servant
282 ROBINSON CRUSOE

only; we have arms and ammunition; tell us freely, can
we serve you? What is your case?”

“Our case,” said he, “sir, is too long to tell you, while
our murderers are so near; but in short, sir, I was com-
mander of that ship; my men have mutinied against me,
they have been hardly prevailed on not to murder me,
and at last have set me on shore in this desolate place.
with these two men with me, one my mate, the other a
passenger, where we expected to perish, believing the
place to be uninhabited, and know not yet what to think
of it.”

“Where are those brutes, your enemies?” said I. “Do
you know where they are gone?” “There they lie, sir,”
said he, pointing to a thicket of trees; “my heart trembles
for fear they have seen us and heard you speak; if they
have, they will certainly murder us all.”

“Have they any firearms?” said I. He answered they had
‘only two pieces, and one which they left in the boat.
Siber then,” said I, “leave the rest to me; I see they are
asleep; it is an easy thing to kill them all; but shall we
rather take them prisoners?” He told me there were two
esperate villains among them that it was scarce safe to
how any mercy to; but if they were secured, he believed
all the rest would return to their duty. I asked him which
they were. He told me he could not at that distance de-
scribe them, but he would obey my orders in anything I
would direct. “Well,” says I, “let us retreat out of their
view or hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve
further”; so they willingly went back with me, till the
woods covered us from them.

“Look you, sir,” said I, “if I venture upon your de-
liverance, are you willing to make two conditions with
me?” He anticipated my proposals by telling me that both
the and the ship, if recovered, should-be wholly directed



2
AN ENGLISH SHIP 283
and commanded by me in everything; and if the ship was
not recovered, he would live and die with me in what p
of the world soever I would send him; and the two othe
men said the same.

“Well,” says I, “my conditions are but two. 1. That
while you stay on this island with me, you will not pre-
tend to any authority here; and if I put arms into your
hands, you will upon all occasions give them up to me
and do no prejudice to me or mine upon this island, and
in the meantime, be governed by my orders. 2. That if the
ship is or may be recovered, you will carry me and my
man to England, passage free.”

He gave me all the assurances that the invention an
faith of man could devise that he would comply with
these most reasonable demands and besides would owe |
his life to me and acknowledge it upon all occasions as —
long as he lived.

“Well then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you,
with powder and ball; tell me next what you think is
proper to be done.” He showed all the testimony of his
gratitude that he was able, but offered to be wholly
guided by me. I told him I thought it was hard venturing
anything; but the best method I could think of was to
fire upon them at once, as they lay; and if any was not
killed at the first volley, and offered to submit, we might
save them, and so put it wholly upon God’s Providence
to direct the shot.

He said very modestly that he was loath to kill them,
if he could help it, but that those two were incorrigible
villains and had been the authors of all the mutiny in
the ship, and if they escaped, we should be undone still;
for they would go on board and bring the whole ship's
company, and destroy us all. “Well then,” says I, “neces-
sity legitimates my, advice; for it is the only way to save







284 ROBINSON CRUSOE

our lives.” However, seeing him still cautious of shedding
blood, I told him they should go themselves and manage
as they found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them
awake, and soon after, we saw two of them on their feet.
I asked him if either of them were of the men who he
had said were the heads of the mutiny. He said, “No.”
“Well then,” said I, “you may let them escape; and Provi-
dence seems to have wakened them on purpose to save
themselves. Now,” says I, “if the rest escape you, it is your
fault.”

Animated with this, he took the musket I had given him
in his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two comrades
with him, with each man a piece in his hand. The two
men who were with him, going first, made some noise, at
which one of the seamen, who was awake turned about,
and seeing them coming cried out to the rest; but it was
too late then, for the moment he cried out they fired; I
mean the two men, the captain wisely reserving his own
piece. They had so well aimed their shot at the men they
knew that one of them was killed on the spot, and the
other very much wounded; but not being dead, he started
up upon his feet, and called eagerly for help to the other;
but the captain, stepping to him, told him ’twas too late
to cry for help, he should call upon God to forgive his
villainy, and with that word knocked him down with
the stock of his musket, so that he never spoke more.
There were three more in the company, and one of them
was also slightly wounded. By this time I was come, and
when they saw their danger and that it was in vain to
resist, they begged for mercy. The captain told them he
would spare their lives, if they would give him any as-
surance of their abhorrence of the treachery they had
been guilty of and would swear to be faithful to him in
recovering the ship and afterwards in carrying her back
OUR BUSINESS WAS TO RECOVER THE SHIP 285

to Jamaica, from whence they came. They gave him all
the protestations of their sincerity that could be desired,
and he was willing to believe them, and spare their lives,
which I was not against, only I obliged him to keep them
bound hand and foot while they were upon the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s
mate to the boat, with orders to secure her and bring
away the oars and sail, which they did; and by and by,
three straggling men, that were (happily for them)
parted from the rest, came back upon hearing the guns
fired, and seeing their captain, who before was their
prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted to be
bound also; and so our victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire
into one another’s circumstances. I began first, and told
him my whole history, which he heard with an attention
even to amazement; and particularly at the wonderful
manner of my being furnished with provisions and am-
munition; and, indeed, as my story is a whole collection of
wonders, it affected him deeply; but when he reflected
from thence upon himself and how I seemed to have been
preserved there on purpose to save his life, the tears ran
down his face, and he could not speak a word more.

After this communication was at an end, I carried him
and his two men into my apartment, leading them in just
where I came out, viz., at the top of the house, where I
refreshed them with such provisions as I had, and showed
them all the contrivances I had made during my long,
long inhabiting that place.

Our Business Was to Recover the Ship



ALL I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly
amazing; but above all, the captain admired my fortifica-

a
286 ROBINSON CRUSOE

tion and how perfectly I had concealed my retreat with
a grove of trees, which having been now planted near
twenty years, and the trees growing must faster than in
England, was become a little wood, and so thick, that it
was unpassable in any part of it, but at that one side,
where I had reserved my little winding passage into it. I
told him this was my castle and my residence, but that
Thad a seat in the country, as most princes have, whither
I could retreat upon occasion, and I would show him that
too another time; but at present our business was to con-
sider how to recover the ship. He agreed with me as to
that; but told me he was perfectly at a loss what measures
to take; for that there were still six-and-twenty hands on
board, who, having entered into a cursed conspiracy, by
which they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would
be hardened in it now by desperation; and would carry
it on, knowing that if they were reduced, they should be
brought to the gallows as soon as they came to England
or to any of the English colonies; and that therefore there
would be no attacking them with so small a number as
we were.

I mused for some time upon what he said, and found
it was a very rational conclusion, and that therefore some-
thing was to be resolved on very speedily, as well to draw
the men on board into some snare for their surprise, as
to prevent their landing upon us, and destroying us; upon
this it presently occurred to me that in a little while the
ship’s crew, wondering what was become of their com-
rades and of the boat, would certainly come on shore in
their other boat to see for them, and that then perhaps
they might come armed and be too strong for us; this he
allowed was rational.

Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to do was to
stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they
might not carry her off; and taking everything out of her,




OUR BUSINESS WAS TO RECOVER THE SHIP 287

leave her so far useless as not to be fit to swim; accord-
ingly we went on board, took the arms which were left on
board out of her and whatever else we found there, which
was a bottle of brandy, and another of rum, a few biscuit
cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of sugar in a
piece of canvas; the sugar was five or six pounds; all
which was very welcome to me, especially the brandy
and. sugar, of which I had had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the
oars, mast, sail, and rudder of the boat were carried away
before, as above), we knocked a great hole in her bottom,
that if they had come strong enough to master us, yet
they could not carry off the boat.

Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could:
be able to recover the ship; but my view was that if they ,
went away without the boat, I did not much question to‘
make her fit again to carry us away to the Leeward Is-
lands and call upon our friends, the Spaniards, in my way,
for I had them still in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs and had
first by main strength heaved the boat up upon the beach
so high that the tide would not fleet her off at high-water
mark, and besides had broke a hole in her bottom too
big to be quickly stopped and were sat down musing
what we should do, we heard the ship fire a gun and saw ,
her make a waft with her ancient as a signal for the boat }
to come on board; but no boat stirred; and they fired |
several times, making other signals for the boat.

At last, when all their signals and firings proved fruit-
less, and they found the boat did not stir, we saw them,
by the help of my glasses, hoist another boat out, and row
towards the shore; and we found, as they approached,
that there was no less than ten men in her, and that they |
had firearms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we
288 ROBINSON CRUSOE

had a full view of them as they came, and a plain sight
of the men, even of their faces, because the tide having
set them a little to the east of the other boat, they rowed
up under shore, to come to the same place where the
other had landed, and where the boat lay.

By this means, I say, we had a full view of them and
the captain knew the persons and characters of all the
men in the boat, of whom he said that there were three
very honest fellows, who, he was sure, were led into this
conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and frighted.
But that as for the boatswain, who, it seems, was the chief
officer among them, and all the rest, they were as out-
rageous as any of the ship’s crew, and were no doubt
made desperate in their new enterprise; and terribly ap-
prehensive he was that they would be too powerful for us.

I smiled at him and told him that men in our circum-
stances were past the operation of fear. That seeing al-
most every condition that could be was better than that
which we were supposed to be in, we ought to expect
that the consequence, whether death or life, would be
sure to be a deliverance. I asked him what he thought of
the circumstances of my life and whether a deliverance
were not worth venturing for. “And where, sir,” said I,
“is your belief of my being preserved here on purpose to
save your life, which elevated you a little while ago? For
my part,” said I, “there seems to be but one thing amiss
in all the prospects of it.” “What’s that?” says he. “Why,”
said I, “’tis that, as you say, there are three or four honest
fellows among them, which should be spared; had they
been all of the wicked part of the crew I should have
thought God’s Providence had signaled them out to de-
liver them into your hands; for depend upon it, every man
of them that comes ashore are our own and shall die or
live as they behave to us.”

As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful counte-
OUR BUSINESS WAS TO RECOVER THE SHIP 289

nance, I found it greatly encouraged him; so we set
vigorously to our business. We had, upon the first ap-
pearance of the boat’s coming from the ship, considered
of separating our prisoners, and had indeed secured them
effectually.

Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured
than ordinary, I sent with Friday and one of the three
delivered men to my cave, where they were remote
enough and out of danger of being heard or discovered,
or of finding their way out of the woods, if they could
have delivered themselves. Here they left them bound,
but gave them provisions, and promised them, if they
continue there quietly, to give them their liberty in a day
or two; but that if they attempted their escape, they
should be put to death without mercy. They promised
faithfully to bear their confinement with patience and
were very thankful that they had such good usage as to
have provisions and a light left them; for Friday gave
them candles (such as we made ourselves) for their com-
fort; and they did not know but that he stood sentinel
over them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were
kept pinioned indeed, because the captain was not free to
trust them; but the other two were taken into my service
upon their captain’s recommendation and upon their sol-
emnly engaging to live and die with us; so with them and
the three honest men we were seven men, well armed;
and I made no doubt we should be able to deal well
enough with the ten that were a-coming, considering that
the captain had said there were three or four honest men
among them also.

As soon as they got to the place where their other boat
lay, they ran their boat into the beach, and came all on
shore, hauling the boat up after them, which I was glad
to see; for I was afraid they would rather have left the
290 ROBINSON CRUSOE

boat at an anchor, some distance from the shore, with
some hands in her, to guard her; and so we should not
be able to seize the boat.

Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran all to
their other boat; and it was easy to see that they were
under a great surprise to find her stripped, as above, of
all that was in her, and a great hole in her bottom.

After they had mused a while upon this, they set up
two or three great shouts, hallooing with all their might,
to try if they could make their companions hear; but all
was to no purpose. Then they came all close in a ring, and
fired a volley of their small arms, which indeed we heard,
and the echoes made the woods ring; but it was all one;
those in the cave we were sure could not hear, and those
in our keeping, though they heard it well enough, yet
durst give no answer to them.

They were so astonished at the surprise of this that, as
they told us afterwards, they resolved to go all on board
again, to their ship, and let them know that the men were
all murdered and the longboat staved; accordingly, they |
immediately launched their boat again, and gat all of!
them on board.

The captin was terribly amazed and even confounded
at this, believing they would go on board the ship again
and set sail, giving their comrades for lost, and so he
should still lose the ship, which he was in hopes we should
have recovered; but he was quickly as much frighted the
other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, but we ’
perceived them all coming on shore again; but with this
new measure in their conduct, which it seems they con-
sulted together upon, viz., to leave three men in the boat,
and the rest to go on shore, and go up into the country
to look for their fellows.

This was a great disappointment to us; for now we were


OUR BUSINESS WAS TO REGOVER THE SHIP 291

at a loss what to do; for our seizing those seven men on
shore would be no advantage to us, if we let the boat
escape; because they would then row away to the ship,
and then the rest of them would be sure to weigh and set
sail, and so our recovering the ship would be lost.

However, we had no remedy but to wait and see what
the issue of things might present; the seven men came on
shore, and the three who remained in the boat put her
off to a good distance from the shore, and came to an
anchor to wait for them; so that it was impossible for us
to come at them in the boat.

Those that came on shore kept close together, marching
towards the top of the little hill under which my habita-
tion lay; and we could see them plainly, though they
could not perceive us. We could have been very glad
they would have come nearer to us, so that we might-
have fired at them, or that they would have gone farther
off, that we might have come abroad.

But when they were come to the brow of the hill, where
they could see a great way into the valleys and woods,
which lay towards the northeast part, and where the
island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they were
weary; and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the
shore, nor far from one another, they sat down together
under a tree, to consider of it. Had they thought fit to
have gone to sleep here, as the other party of them had
done, they had done the job for us; but they were too full
of apprehensions of danger to venture to go to sleep,
though they could not tell what the danger was they had
to fear neither.

The captain made a very just proposal to me, upon
this consultation of theirs, viz., that perhaps they would
all fire a volley again, to endeavor to make their fellows
hear, and that we should all sally upon them, just at the
juncture when their pieces were all discharged, and they
292 ROBINSON CRUSOE

would certainly yield and we should have them without
bloodshed. I liked the proposal, provided it was done
while we were near enough to come up to them before
they could load their pieces again,

But this event did not happen, and we lay still a long
time, very irresolute what course to take; at length I told
them there would be nothing to be done in my opinion
till night, and then, if they did not return to the boat,
perhaps we might find a way to get between them and
the shore, and so might use some stratagem with them in
the boat, to get them on shore.

We waited a great while, though very impatient for
their removing; and were very uneasy, when, after long
consultations, we saw them start all up and march down
towards the sea. It seems they had such dreadful appre-
hensions upon them of the danger of the place that they
resolved to go on board the ship again, give their com-
panions over for lost, and so go on with their intended
voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I
imagined it to be as it really was, that they had given over
their search, and were for going back again; and the
captain, as soon as I told him my thoughts, was ready to
sink at the apprehensions of it; but I presently thought
of a stratagem to fetch them back again, and which an-
swered my end to a tittle.

I ordered Friday and the captain’s mate-to go over the
little creek westward, towards the place where the sav-
ages came on shore when Friday was rescued; and as soon
as they came to a little rising ground, at about half a mile
distance, I bade them halloo as loud as they could and
wait till they found the seamen heard them; that as soon
as ever they heard the seamen answer them, they should
return it again, and then keeping out of sight, take a
round, always answering when the other hallooed, to
OUR BUSINESS WAS TO RECOVER THE SHIP 293

draw them as far into the island and among the woods as
ossible and then wheel about again to me, by such ways
as I directed them.

They were just going into the boat, when Friday and
the mate hallooed; and they presently heard them, and
answering, run along the shore westward towards the
voices they heard, when they were presently stopped by
the creek, where, the water being up, they could not get
over, and called for the boat to come up and set them
over, as indeed I expected.

When they had set themselves over, I observed that
the boat being gone up a good way into the creek, and,
as it were, in a harbor within the land, they took one of
the three men out of her to go along with them, and left
only two in the boat, having fastened her to the stump
of a little tree on the shore.

This was what I wished for, and immediately leaving
Friday and the captain’s mate to their business, I took
the rest with me, and crossing the creek out of their sight,
we surprised the two men before they were aware; one
of them lying on shore, and the other being in the boat; |
the fellow on shore was between sleeping and waking and '
going to start up; the captain, who was foremost, ran in
upon him, and knocked him down, and then called out
to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead man.

There needed very few arguments to persuade a single
man to yield, when he saw five men upon him and his
comrade knocked down; besides, this was, it seems, one
of the three who were not so hearty in the mutiny as the
rest of the crew, and therefore was easily persuaded not
only to yield but afterwards to join very sincere with us.

In the meantime, Friday and the captain’s mate so well
managed their business with the rest that they drew them
by hallooing and answering from one hill to another, and
from one wood to another, till they not only heartily tired
294 ROBINSON CRUSOE

them but left them, where they were very sure they could
not reach back to the boat before it was dark; and indeed
they were heartily tired themselves also by the time they
came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in
the dark and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work
with them.

It was several hours after Friday came back to me be-
fore they came back to their boat; and we could hear the
foremost of them, long before they came quite up, calling
to those behind to come along, and could also hear them
answer and complain how lame and tired they were and
not able to come any faster, which was very welcome
news to us.

At length they came up to the boat; but ’tis impossible
to express their confusion, when they found the boat fast
aground in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two
men gone. We could hear them call to one another in a
most lamentable manner, telling one another they were
gotten into an enchanted island; that either there were
inhabitants in it, and they should all be murdered, or else
there were devils and spirits in it, and they should be all
carried away and devoured.

They hallooed again, and called their two comrades by
their names a great many times, but no answer. After
some time, we could see them, by the little light there
was, run about, wringing their hands like men in despair;
and that sometimes they would go and sit down in the
boat to rest themselves, then come ashore again, and walk
about again, and so over the same thing again.

My men would fain have me given them leave to fall
upon them at once in the dark; but I was willing to take
them at some advantage, so to spare them, and kill as few
of them as I could; and especially I was unwilling to
hazard the killing any of our own men, knowing the other
OUR BUSINESS WAS TO RECOVER THE SHIP 295

were very well armed. I resolved to wait to see if they did
not separate; and therefore to make sure of them, I drew
my ambuscade nearer and ordered Friday and the cap-
tain to creep upon their hands and feet, as close to the
ground as they could, that they might not be discovered,
and get as near them as they could possibly before they
offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, but that the
boatswain, who was the principal ringleader of the mutiny
and had now shown himself the most dejected and dis-
pirited of all the rest, came walking towards them, with
two more of their crew; the captain was so eager, as hav-
ing this principal rogue so much in his power, that he
could hardly have patience to let him come so near as to
be sure of him; for they only heard his tongue before,
But when they came nearer, the captain and Friday, start-
ing up on their feet, let fly at them.

The boatswain was killed upon the spot; the next man
was shot into the body, and fell just by him, though he
did not die till an hour.or two after; and the third run
for it.

At the noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with
my whole army, which was now eight men, viz., myself,
generalissimo, Friday, my lieutenant-general, the captain
and his two men, and the three prisoners of war, who we
had trusted with arms.

We came upon them indeed in the dark, so that they
could not see our number; and I made the man they had
left in the boat, who was now one of us, call to them by
name, to try if I could bring them toa parley and so might
perhaps reduce them to terms, which fell out just as we
desired. For indeed it was easy to think, as their condi-
tion then was, they would be very willing to capitulate;
so he calls out as loud as he could to one of them, “Tom
Smith! Tom Smith!” Tom Smith answered immediately,
296 ROBINSON CRUSOE

“Who’s that? Robinson?” for it seems he knew his voice.
T’ other answered, “Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom Smith,
throw down your arms and yield, or you are all dead men
this moment.”

“Who must we yield to? Where are they?” says Smith
again. “Here they are,” says he; “here’s our captain, and
fifty men with him, have been hunting you this two hours;
the boatswain is killed, Will Frye is wounded, and I am
a prisoner; and if you do not yield, you are all lost.”

“Will they give us quarter then,” says Tom Smith, “and
we will yield?” “Tl go and ask, if you promise to yield,”
says Robinson; so he asked the captain, and the captain
then calls himself out, “You, Smith, you know my voice.
If you lay down your arms immediately and submit, you
shall have your lives, all but Will Atkins.”

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, “For God’s sake, cap-
tain, give me quarter; what have I done? They have been
all as bad as I’; which, by the way, was not true neither;
for it seems this Will Atkins was the first man that laid
hold of the captain, when they first mutinied, and used
him barbarously, in tying his hands and giving him in-
jurious language. However, the captain told him he must
lay down his arms at discretion and trust to the gov-
ernor’s mercy; by which he meant me, for they all called
me governor.

In a word, they all laid down their arms and begged
their lives; and I sent the man that had parleyed with
them and two more, who bound them all; and then my
great army of fifty men, which, particularly with those
three, were all but eight, came up and seized upon them
all and upon their boat; only that I kept myself and one
more out of sight, for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat and think of seiz-
ing the ship; and as for the captain, now he had leisure
to parley with them. He expostulated with them upon
OUR BUSINESS WAS TO RECOVER THE SHIP 297

the villainy of their practices with him, and at length
upon the farther wickedness of their design, and how cer-
tainly it must bring them to misery and distress in the
end, and perhaps to the gallows.

They all appeared very penitent and begged hard for
their lives; as for that, he told them they were none of his
prisoners, but the commander of the island; that they
thought they had set him on shore in a barren uninhab-
ited island, but it had pleased God so to direct them that
the island was inhabited, and that the governor was an
Englishman; that he might hang them all there, if he
pleased; but as he had given them all quarter, he sup-
posed he would send them to England, to be dealt with
there as justice required, except Atkins, who he was com-
manded by the governor to advise to prepare for death;
for that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was all a fiction of his own, yet it had its
desired effect; Atkins fell upon his knees to beg the cap-
tain to intercede with the governor for his life; and all the
rest begged of him, for God’s sake, that they might not be
sent to England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance
was come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring
these fellows in to be hearty in getting possession of the
ship; so I retired in the dark from them, that they might
not see what kind of a governor they had, and called the
captain to me; when I called, as at a great distance, one
of the men was ordered to speak again and say to the
captain, “Captain, the commander calls for you”; and
presently the captain replied, “Tell his excellency, I am
just a-coming.” This more perfectly amused them, and
they all believed that the commander was just by with
his fifty men.
298 ROBINSON CRUSOE

Deliverance Put in My Hands



UPON the captain’s coming to me, I told him my project
for seizing the ship, which he liked of wonderfully well,
and resolved to put it in execution the next morning.

But in order to execute it with more art, and secure of
success, I told him we must divide the prisoners, and that
he should go and take Atkins and two more of the worst
of them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the
others lay. This was committed to F riday and the two
men who came on shore with the captain.

They conveyed them to the cave, as to a prison; and it
was indeed a dismal place, especially to men in their con-
dition.

The other I ordered to my bower, as I called it, of
which I have given a full description; and as it was fenced
in, and they pinioned, the place was secure enough, con-
sidering they were upon their behavior.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to
enter into a parley with them; in a word, to try them, and
tell me, whether he thought they might be trusted or no,
to go on board and surprise the ship. He talked to them of
the injury done him, of the condition they were brought
to; and that though the governor had given them quarter
for their lives, as to the present action, yet that if they
were sent to England, they would all be hanged in chains,
to be sure; but that if they would join in so just an at-
tempt as to recover the ship, he would have the governor's
engagement for their pardon.

Anyone may guess how readily such a proposal would
be accepted by men in their condition; they fell down on
their knees to the captain and promised with the deepest
imprecations that they would be faithful to him to the.
DELIVERANCE PUT IN MY HANDS 299

last drop, and that they should owe their lives to him and
would go with him all over the world; that they would
own him for a father to them as long as they lived.

“Well,” says the captain, “I must go and tell the gov")
ernor what you say, and see what I can do to bring him
to consent to it.” So he brought me an account of the \
temper he found them in; and that he verily believed }
they would be faithful.

However, that we might be very secure, I told him he
should go back again and choose out five of them, and
tell them they might see that he did not want them, that
he would take out those five to be his assistants, and that
the governor would keep the other two and the three
that were sent prisoners to the castle (my cave) as hos-
tages, for the fidelity of those five; and that if they proved
unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages should be
hanged in chains alive upon the shore.

This looked severe, and convinced them that the gov-
ernor was in earnest; however, they had no way left them
but to accept it; and it was now the business of the pris-
oners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other
five to do their duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition.
1. The captain, his mate, and passenger. 2. Then the two
prisoners of the first gang, to whom, having their char-
acters from the captain, I had given their liberty, and
trusted them with arms. 3. The other two who I had kept
till now in my apartment, pinioned; but upon the cap-
tain’s motion, had now released. 4. The single man taken
in the boat. 5. These five released at last. So that they
were thirteen in all, besides five we kept prisoners in the
cave, and the two hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture a
these hands on board the ship; for as for me and my man
Friday, I did not think it was proper for us to stir, having
300 ROBINSON CRUSOE

seven men left behind, and it was employment enough
for us to keep them asunder, and supply them with
victuals.

As to the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast;
but Friday went in twice a day to them, to supply them
with necessaries; and I made the other two carry pro-
visions to a certain distance, where Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with
the captain, who told them I was the person the governor
had ordered to look after them, and that it was the gov-
ernor’s pleasure they should not stir anywhere but by my
direction; that if they did, they should be fetched into
the castle, and be laid in irons; so that as we never suf-
fered them to’see me as governor, so I now appeared as
another person, and spoke of the governor, the garrison,
the castle, and the like, upon all occasions,

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to
furnish his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man
them. He made his passenger captain of one, with four
other men; and himself and his mate and six more went
in the other. And they contrived their business very well;
for they came up to the ship about midnight. As soon as
they came within call of the ship, he made Robinson hail
them and tell them they had brought off the men and the
boat, but that it was a long time before they had found
them, and the like; holding them in a chat till they came
to the ship’s side; when the captain and the mate entering
first with their arms, immediately knocked down the sec-
ond mate and carpenter with the butt-end of their
muskets. Being very faithfully seconded by their men,
they secured all the rest that were upon the main and
quarter decks and began to fasten the hatches to keep
them down who were below, when the other boat and
their men entering at the fore chains, secured the fore-
castle of the ship and the scuttle which went down into
DELIVERANCE PUT IN MY HANDS 301

the cook room, making three men they found there pris-
oners.

When this was done, and all safe upon deck, the cap- |
tain ordered the mate with three men to break into the
roundhouse, where the new rebel captain lay, and having |
taken the alarm, was gotten up, and with-two men and a |
boy had gotten firearms in their hands; and when the
mate with a crow split open the door, the new captain
and his men fired boldly among them and wounded the
mate with a musket ball, which broke his arm and
wounded two more of the men, but killed nobody.

The mate, calling for help, rushed however into the
roundhouse, wounded as he was, and with his pistol shot
the new captain through the head, the bullet entering at
his mouth, and came out again behind one of his ears, so
that he never spoke a word; upon which the rest yielded,
and the ship was taken effectually, without any more lives
lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain or-
dered seven guns to be fired, which was the signal agreed
upon with me, to give me notice of his success, which
you may be sure I was very glad to hear, having sat
watching upon the shore for it till near two of the clock
in the morning.

Having thus heard the signal plainly, I laid me down; \
and it having been a day of great fatigue to me, I slept |
very sound, till I was something surprised with the noise
of a gun; and presently starting up, I heard a man call
me by the name of “Governor, Governor,” and presently
I knew the captain’s voice; when, climbing up to the top
of the hill, there he stood, and pointing to the ship, he
embraced me in his arms. “My dear friend and deliverer,”
says he, “there’s your ship, for she is all yours, and so are
we and all that belong to her.” I cast my eyes to the ship,
and there she rode within little more than half a mile of '
302 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the shore; for they had weighed her anchor as soon as
they were masters of her; and the weather being fair, had
brought her to an anchor just against the mouth of the
little creek; and the tide being up, the captain had
brought the pinnace in near the place where I at first
landed my rafts, and so landed just at my door.

I was at first ready to sink down with the surprise. For
I saw my deliverance indeed visibly put into my hands,
all things easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me
away whither I pleased to go. At first, for some time, I
was not able to answer him one word; but as he had taken
me in his arms, I held fast by him or I should have fallen
to the ground.

He perceived the surprise, and immediately pulls a
bottle out of his pocket, and gave me a dram of cordial,
which he had brought on purpose for me; after I had
drank it, I sat down upon the ground; and though it
brought me to myself, yet it was a good while before I
could speak a word to him.

All this while the poor man was in as great an ecstasy
as I, only not under any surprise, as I was; and he said a
thousand kind tender things to me, to compose me and
bring me to myself; but such was the flood of joy in my
breast that it put all my spirits into confusion; at last it
broke out into tears, and in a little while after I recov-
ered my speech. in

Then I took my turn and embraced him as my deliverer,
and we rejoiced together. I told him I looked upon him
as a man sent from Heaven to deliver me, and that the
whole transaction seemed to be a chain of wonders; that
such things as these were the testimonies we had of a
secret hand of Providence governing the world, and an
evidence that the eyes of an infinite Power could search
into the remotest corner of the world, and send help to
the miserable whenever He pleased.
DELIVERANCE PUT IN MY HANDS re

I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to
Heaven; and what heart could forbear to bless Him, who
had not only in a miraculous manner provided for one in
such a wilderness and in such a desolate condition, but
from whom every deliverance must always be acknowl-
edged to proceed.

When we had talked a while, the captain told me he
had brought me some little refreshment, such as the ship
afforded, and such as the wretches that had been so long
his masters had not plundered him of. Upon this he called
aloud to the boat, and bid his men bring the things ashore
that were for the governor; and indeed it was a present,
as if I had been one, not that was to be carried away along
with them, but as if I had been to dwell upon the island
still and they were to go without me.

First, he had brought me a case of bottles full of excel-
lent cordial waters, six large bottles of madeira wine (the
bottles held two quarts apiece), two pound of excellent
good tobacco, twelve good pieces of the ship’s beef, and
six pieces of pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hun-
dredweight of biscuit.

He brought me also a box of sugar, a box of flour, a
bag full of lemons, and two bottles of lime-juice, and
abundance of other things. But besides these, and what
was a thousand times more useful to me, he brought me
six clean new shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair
of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of stock-
ings, and a very good suit of clothes of his own, which
had been worn but very little. In a word, he clothed me
from head to foot.

It was a very kind and agreeable present, as anyone
may imagine, to one in my circumstances. But never was
anything in the world of that kind so unpleasant, awk-
ward, and uneasy as it was to me to wear such clothes at
their first putting on. ;
304. ROBINSON CRUSOE

After these ceremonies passed, and after all his good
things were brought into my little apartment, we began
to consult what was to be done with the prisoners we had;
for it was worth considering whether we might venture
to take them away with us or no, especially two of them,
who we knew to be incorrigible and refractory to the last
degree; and the captain said, he knew they were such
rogues that there was no obliging them, and if he did
carry them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to
be delivered over to justice at the first English colony he
could come at; and I found that the captain himself was
very anxious about it.

Upon this, I told him, that if he desired it, I durst un-
dertake to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their
own request that he should leave them upon the island.
“I should be very glad of that,” says the captain, “with
all my heart.”

“Well,” says I, “I will send for them up, and talk with
them for you”; so I caused Friday and the two hostages,
for they were now discharged, their comrades having per-
formed their promise; I say, I caused them to go to the
cave and bring up the five men, pinioned as they were, to
the bower, and keep them there till I came.

After some time I came thither dressed in my new
habit, and now I was called governor again; being all met,
and the captain with me, I caused the men to be brought
before me, and I told them, I had had a full account of
their villainous behavior to the captain, and how they had
run away with the ship and were preparing to commit
farther robberies, but that Providence had ensnared them
in their own ways and that they were fallen into the pit
which they had digged for others.

I let them know that by my direction the ship had been
seized, that she lay now in the road; and they might see
by and by that their new captain had received the reward


DELIVERANCE PUT IN MY HANDS 305
of his villainy; for that they might see him hanging at
the yardarm.

That as to them, I wanted to know what they had to
say, why I should not execute them as pirates taken in the
fact, as by my commission they could not doubt I had
authority to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest that they
had nothing to say but this, that when they were taken,
the captain promised them their lives, and they humbly
implored my mercy. But I told them, I knew not what
mercy to show them; for as for myself, I had resolved to
quit the island with all my men, and had taken passage
with the captain to go for England. And as for the cap-
tain, he could not carry them to England other than as
prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny and running
away with the ship; the consequence of which, they must
needs know, would be the gallows; so that I could not
tell which was best for them, unless they had a mind to
take their fate in the island; if they desired that, I did
not care, as I had liberty to leave it; I had some inclina-
tion to give them their lives, if they thought they could
shift on shore. :

They seemed very thankful for it, said they would \\
much rather venture to stay there than to be carried to \
England to be hanged; so I left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty
of it, as if he durst not leave them there. Upon this I
seemed a little angry with the captain, and told him that
they were my prisoners, not his; and that seeing I had
offered them so much favor, I would be as good as my
word; and that if he did not think fit to consent to it, I
would set them at liberty, as I found them; and if he did
not like it, he might take them again if he could catch
them. .

Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I accord-
306 ROBINSON CRUSOE

ingly set them at liberty, and bade them retire into the
woods to the place whence they came, and I would leave
them some firearms, some ammunition, and some direc-
tions how they should live very well, if they thought fit.

Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship, but told
the captain that I would stay that night to prepare my
things, and desired him to go on board in the meantime,
and keep all right in the ship, and send the boat on shore
the next day for me; ordering him in the meantime to
cause the new captain who was killed to be hanged at the
yardarm, that these men might see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to
me to my apartment and entered seriously into discourse
with them of their circumstances. I told them I thought
they had made a right choice; that if the captain carried
them away, they would certainly be hanged. I showed
them the new captain hanging at the yardarm of the ship,
and told them they had nothing less to expect.

When they had all declared their willingness to stay,
I then told them I would let them into the story of my
living there, and put them into the way of making it easy
to them. Accordingly I gave them the whole history of
the place and of my coming to it; showed them my fortifi-
cations, the way I made my bread, planted my corn, cured
my grapes; and in a word, all that was necessary to make
them easy. I told them the story also of the sixteen
Spaniards that were to be expected; for whom I left a
letter, and made them promise to treat them in common
with themselves.

I left them my firearms, viz., five muskets, three fowling
pieces, and three swords. I had above a barrel and half
of powder left; for after the first year or two I used but
little, and wasted none. I gave them a description of the
way I managed the goats, and directions to milk and
fatten them, and to make both butter and cheese.


DELIVERANCE PUT IN MY HANDS 307

In a word, I gave them every part of my own story; and
I told them I would prevail with the captain to leave them
two barrels of gunpowder more and some garden seeds,
which I told them I would have been very glad of; also
I gave them the bag of peas which the captain had
brought me to eat, and bade them be sure to sow and in-
crease them.

Having done all this, I left them the next day and went
on board the ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but
did not weigh that night. The next morning early, two of
the five men came swimming to the ship’s side, and mak-
ing a most lamentable complaint of the other three,
begged to be taken into the ship, for God’s sake, for they
should be murdered and begged the captain to take them
on board, though he hanged them immediately.

Upon this the captain pretended to have no power
without me; but after some difficulty, and after their sol-
emn promises of amendment, they were taken on board,
and were some time after soundly whipped and pickled;
after which, they proved very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shore,
the tide being up, with the things promised to the men,
to which the captain, at my intercession, caused their
chests and clothes to be added, which they took and were
very thankful for; I also encouraged them by telling them’
that if it lay in my way to send any vessel to take them in,
I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board for
relics, the great goatskin cap I had made, my wnbrellad
and my parrot; also I forgot not to take the money I for-
merly mentioned, which had lain by me so long useless —
that it was grown rusty, or tarnished, and could hardly
pass for silver, till it had been a little rubbed and handled;
as also the money I found in the wreck of the Spanish

ship.
308 ROBINSON CRUSOE

And thus I left the island, the 19th of December, as I
_ found by the ship’s account, in the year 1686, after I had
been upon it eight-and-twenty years, two months, and
nineteen days; being delivered from this second captivity
the same day of the month that I first made my escape
in the barco-longo, from among the Moors of Sallee.

In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in England,
the 11th of June, in the year 1687, having been thirty-and-

five years absent.

Settling in the World



WHEN I came to England, I was as perfect a stranger
to all the world as if I had never been known there. My
benefactor and faithful steward, who I had left in trust
with my money, was alive; but had had great misfortunes
in the world; was become a widow the second time, and
very low in the world. I made her easy as to what she
owed me, assuring her I would give her no trouble; but
on the contrary, in gratitude to her former care and faith-
fulness to me, I relieved her as my little stock would
afford, which, at that time, would indeed allow me to do
but little for her; but I assured her, I would never forget
her former kindness to me nor did I forget her, when I
had sufficient to help her, as shall be observed in its place.

I went down afterwards into Yorkshire; but my father
was dead, and my mother and all the family extinct, ex-
cept that I found two sisters, and two of the children of
one of my brothers; and as I had been long ago given over
for dead, there had been no provision made for me; so
that in a word, I found nothing to relieve or assist me;
and that little money I had would not do much for me as
to settling in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude indeed, which I did
SETTLING IN THE WORLD 30G

not expect; and this was that the master of the ship, whom ,
I had so happily delivered, and by the same means saved |
the ship and cargo, having given a very handsome ac-
count to the owners of the manner how I had saved the
lives of the men and the ship, they invited me to meet
them, and some other merchants concerned, and all to-
gether made me a very handsome compliment upon the |
subject, and a present of almost two hundred pounds |
sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the circum-
stances of my life, and how little way this would go to-
ward settling me in the world, I resolved to go to Lisbon
and see if I might not come by some information of the
state of my plantation in the Brazils, and of what was be-
come of my partner, who I had reason to suppose had
some years now given me over for dead.

With this view I took shipping for Lisbon, where I ar-.
rived in April following; my man Friday accompanying }
me very honestly in all these ramblings and proving a
most faithful servant upon all occasions.

When I came to Lisbon, I found out by inquiry, and to|
my particular satisfaction, my old friend the captain of:
the ship, who first took me up at sea off of the shore of |
Africa. He was now grown old and had left off emai
having put his son, who was far from a young many, into
his ship; and who still used the Brazil trade. The old man
did not know me, and, indeed, I hardly knew him; but I |
soon brought him to my remembrance, and as soon.
brought myself to his remembrance, when I told him who '
IT was.

After some passionate expressions of the old acquaint-
ance, I inquired, you may be sure, after my plantation
and my partner. The old man told me he had not been in
the Brazils for about nine years; but that he could assure
meé that when he came away my partner was living, but
310 ROBINSON CRUSOE

the trustees, who I had joined with him to take cogni-
zance of my part, were both dead; that however, he be-
lieved that I would have a very good account of the
improvement of the plantation; for that, upon the general
belief of my being cast away and drowned, my trustees
had given in the account of the produce of my part of the
plantation to the procurator fiscal, who had appropriated
it, in case I never came to claim it, one third to the king,
and two thirds to the monastery of St. Augustine, to be
expended for the benefit of the poor and for the conver-
sion of the Indians to the Catholic faith; but that if I
appeared, or anyone for me, to claim the inheritance, it
should be restored; only that the improvement, or annual
production, being distributed to charitable uses, could
not be restored; but he assured me that the steward of
the king’s revenue (from lands) and the proviedore, or
steward of the monastery, had taken great care all along
that the incumbent, that is to say, my partner, gave every
year a faithful account of the produce, of which they re-
ceived duly my moiety,

I asked him if he knew to what height of improvement
he had brought the plantation, and whether he thought
it might be worth looking after; or whether, on my going
thither, I should meet with no obstruction to my possess-
ing my just right in the moiety.

_ He told me, he could not tell exactly to what degree
the plantation was improved; but this he knew, that my
partner was growing exceeding rich upon the enjoying
but one half of it; and that to the best of his remem-
brance, he had heard that the king’s third of my part,
which was, it seems, granted away to some other mon-
astery, or religious house, amounted to above two hun-
dred moidores a year; that as to my being restored to a
quiet possession of it, there was no question to be made
SETTLING IN THE WORLD 311

of that, my partner being alive to witness my title, and my
name being also enrolled in the register of the country;
also he told me that the survivors of my two trustees were
very fair, honest people, and very wealthy; and he be-
lieved I would not only have their assistance for putting
me in possession but would find a very considerable sum
of money in their hands for my account, being the pro-
duce of the farm while their fathers held the trust, and
before it was given up as above, which, as he remem-
bered, was for about twelve years,

I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this
account and inquired of the old captain how it came to
pass that the trustees should thus dispose my effects,
when he knew that I had made my will and had made
him, the Portuguese captain, my universal heir, etc.

He told me that was true; but that as there was no
proof of my being dead, he could not act as executor until
some certain account should come of my death; and that |
besides, he was not willing to intermeddle with a thing
so remote; that it was true he had registered my will and
put in his claim; and could he have given any account of
my being dead or alive, he would have acted by procura-
tion, and taken possession of the ingenio, so they called
the sugar-house, and had given his son, who was now at
the Brazils, order to do it.

“But,” says the old man, “I have one piece of news to
tell you, which perhaps may not be so acceptable to you
as the rest, and that is, that believing you were lost, and
all the world believing so also, your partner and trustees
did offer to account to me, in your name, for six or eight
of the first years of profits, which I received; but there
being at the time,” says he, “great disbursements for in-
creasing the works, building an ingenio, and buying
slaves, it did not amount to near so much as afterwards
312 ROBINSON CRUSOE

it produced. However,” says the old man, “I shall give
you a true account of what I have received in all, and how
I have disposed of it.”

After a few days’ farther conference with this ancient °
friend, he brought me an account of the six first years’
income of my plantation, signed by my partner and the
merchant trustees, being always delivered in goods, viz.,
tobacco in roll, and sugar in chests, besides rum, molasses,
etc., which is the consequence of a sugar work; and I
found by this account, that every year the income con-
siderably increased; but as above, the disbursement being
large, the sum at first was small. However, the old man
let me see, that he was debtor to me 470 moidores of gold,
besides sixty chests of sugar, and fifteen double rolls of
tobacco, which were lost in his ship; he having been ship-
wrecked coming home to Lisbon, about eleven years after
my leaving the place.

The good man then began to complain of his misfor-
tunes, and how he had been obliged to make use of my
money to recover his losses, and buy him a share in a new
ship. “However, my old friend,” says he, “you shall not
want a supply in your necessity; and as soon as my son
returns, you shall be fully satisfied.” .

Upon this, he pulls out an old pouch, and gives me 160
Portugal moidores in gold; and giving me the writing of
his title to the ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils
in, of which he was a quarter part owner, and his son
another, he puts them both into my hands for security of
the rest.

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness
of the poor man to be able to bear this; and remembering
what he had done for me, how he had taken me up at
sea, and how generously he had used me on all occasions,
and particularly how sincere a friend he was now to me,
I could hardly refrain weeping at what he said to me.
SETTLING IN THE WORLD 313
Therefore, first I asked him, if his circumstances admitted
him to spare so much money at that time, and if it would
not straiten him. He told me he could not say but it might
straiten him a little; but however, it was my money, and
I might want it more than he.

Everything the good man said was full of affection,
and I could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke. In
short, I took 100 of the moidores and called for a pen and
ink to give him a receipt for them; then I returned him
the rest, and told him if ever I had possession of the plan-
tation, I would return the other to him also, as indeed I
afterwards did; and that as to the bill of sale of his part
in his son’s ship, I would not take it by any means; but
that if I wanted the money, I found he was honest enough
to pay me; and if I did not, but came to receive what he
gave me reason to expect, I would never have a penny
more from him.

When this was passed, the old man began to ask me if
he should put me into a method to make my claim to my
plantation. I told him I thought to go over to it myself.
He said I might do so if I pleased; but that if I did not,
there were ways enough to secure my right, and immedi-
ately to appropriate the profits to my use; and as there
were ships in the river of Lisbon just ready to go away to
Brazil, he made me enter my name in a public register,
with his affidavit, affirming upon oath that I was alive,
and that I was the same person who took up the land for
the planting the said plantation at first.

This being regularly attested by a notary, and a pro-
curation affixed, he directed me to send it, with a letter
of his writing, to a merchant of his acquaintance at the
place, and then proposed my staying with him till an ac-
count came of the return. :

Never anything was more honorable than the proceed-
ings upon this procuration; for in less than seven months
314 ROBINSON CRUSOE

I received a large packet from the survivors of my trus-)
tees, the merchants, for whose account I went to sea, in
which were the following particular letters and papers
enclosed,

First, there was the account current of the produce of
my farm, or plantation, from the year when their fathers
had balanced with my old Portugal captain, being for
six years; the balance appeared to be 1174 moidores in
my favor. *

Secondly, there was the account of four years more,
while they kept the effects in their hands, before the
government claimed the administration, as being the ef-
fects of a person not to be found, which they called civil
death; and the balance ‘of this, the value of the planta-
tion increasing, amounted to [38,892] crusadoes, which
made 8241 moidores.

Thirdly, there was the Prior of the Augustines’ account,
who had received the profits for above fourteen years;
but not being to account for what was disposed to the
hospital, very honestly declared he had 872 moidores not
distributed, which he acknowledged to my account; as
to the king’s part, that refunded nothing.

There was a letter of my partner's, congratulating me
very affectionately upon my being alive, giving me an
account how the estate was improved, and what it pro-
duced a year, with a particular of the number of squares
or acres that it contained; how planted, how many slaves
there were upon it, and making two-and-twenty crosses
for blessings, told me he had said so many Ave Marias to
thank the Blessed Virgin that I was alive; inviting me
very passionately to come over and take possession of my
own; and in the meantime to give him orders to whom
he should deliver my effects, if I did not come myself;
concluding with a hearty tender of his friendship, and
that of his family; and sent me, as a present, seven fine
SETTLING IN THE WORLD 315

leopards’ skins, which he had it seems received from
Africa, by some other ship which he had sent thither, and
who it seems had made a better voyage than I. He sent
me also five chests of excellent sweetmeats, and an hun-
dred pieces of gold uncoined, not quite so large as
moidores.

By the same fleet, my two merchant trustees shipped
me 1200 chests of sugar, 800 rolls of tobacco, and the rest
of the whole account in gold.

I might well say now indeed that the latter end of Job
was better than the beginning. It is impossible to express
here the flutterings of my very heart when I looked over
these letters, and especially when I found all my wealth
about me; for as the Brazil ships come all in fleets, the
same ships which brought my letters brought my goods;
and the effects were safe in the river before the letters
came to my hand. In a word, I turned pale, and grew sick;
and had not the old man run and fetched me a cordial, |
I believe the sudden surprise of joy had overset Nature;
and I had died upon the spot.

Nay after that, I continued very ill, and was so some,
hours, till a physician being sent for, and something of |
the real cause of my illness being known, he ordered me;
to be let blood; after which I had relief and grew well.
But I verily believe, if it had not been eased by a vent:
given in that manner to the spirits, I should have died.

I was now master, all on a sudden, of above £5000
sterling in money, and had an estate, as I might well call
it, in the Brazils, of above a thousand pounds a year, as
sure as an estate of lands in England. And in a word, I
was in a condition which I scarce knew how to under-
stand, or how to compose myself for the enjoyment of it.

The first thing I did was to recompense my original
benefactor, my good old captain, who had been first
charitable to'me in my distress, kind to me in my begin-
310 ROBINSON CRUSOE

ning, and honest to me at the end. I showed him all that.
was sent me; I told him that next to the Providence of
Heaven, which disposes all things, it was owing to him;
and that it now lay on me to reward him, which I would
do a hundredfold. So I first returned to him the hundred
moidores I had received of him; then I sent for a notary,
and caused him to draw up a general release or discharge
for the 470 moidores, which he had acknowledged he
owed me, in the fullest and firmest manner possible; after
which, I caused a procuration to be drawn, empowering
him to be my receiver of the annual profits of my planta-
tion, and appointing my partner to account to him and
make the return by the usual fleets to him in my name;
and a clause in the end, being a grant of one hundred
moidores a year to him, during his life, out of the effects,
and fifty moidores a year to his son after him, for his life.
_ And thus I requited my old man.

~~ I was now to consider which way to steer my course
next, and what to do with the estate that Providence had
thus put into my hands; and indeed I had more care upon
my head now, than I had in my silent state of life in the
island, where I wanted nothing but what I had, and had
nothing but what I wanted; whereas I had now a great
charge upon me, and my business was how to secure it.
I had ne'er a cave now to hide my money in, or a place
where it might lie without lock or key, till it grew moldy
and tarnished before anybody would meddle with it. On
the contrary, I knew not where to put it, or whom to trust
with it. My old patron, the captain, indeed was honest,
and that was the only refuge I had.

In the next place, my interest in the Brazils seemed to
summon me thither, but now I could not tell how to think
of going thither till I had settled my affairs and left my
effects in some safe hands behind me. At first I thought of
my old friend the widow, who I knew was honest, and
SETTLING IN THE WORLD 317

would be just to me; but then she was in years, and but
poor, and for aught I knew, might be in debt; so that in
a word, I had no way but to go back to England myself,
and take my effects with me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved upon
this; and therefore, as I had rewarded the old captain
fully, and to his satisfaction, who had been my former
benefactor, so I began to think of my poor widow, whose
husband had been my first benefactor, and she, while it
was in her power, my faithful steward and instructor. So
the first thing I did, I got a merchant in Lisbon to write
to his correspondent in London, not only to pay a bill, but
to go find her out and carry her in money a hundred
pounds from me and to talk with her and comfort her in
her poverty, by telling her she should, if I lived, have a
further supply. At the same time I sent my two sisters in
the country each of them a hundred pounds, they being,
though not in want, yet not in very good circumstances;
one having been married and left a widow; and the other
having a husband not so kind to her as he should be.

But among all my relations, or acquaintances, I could
not yet pitch upon one to whom I durst commit the gross
of my stock, that I might go away to the Brazils and leave
things safe behind me; and this greatly perplexed me.

I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazils, and |
have settled myself there, for I was, as it were, naturalized
to the place; but I had some little scruple in my mind’
about religion, which insensibly drew me back, of which
I shall say more presently. However, it was not religion
that kept me from going there for the present; and as I
had made no scruple of being openly of the religion of
the country, all the while I was among them, so neither
did I yet; only that now and then having of late thought
more of it than formerly, when I began to think of living
and dying among them, I began to regret my having pro-
318 ROBINSON CRUSOE

fessed myself a Papist, and thought it might not be the
best religion to die with.

But, as I have said, this was not the main thing that
ept me from going to the Brazils, but that really I did
ot know with whom to leave my effects behind me; so
resolved at last to go to England with it, where, if I

arrived, I concluded I should make some acquaintance,
or find some relations that would be faithful to me; and
accordingly I prepared to go for England with all my
wealth.

In order to prepare things for my going home, I first,
the Brazil fleet being just going away, resolved to give
answers suitable to the just and faithful account of things
I had from thence; and first, to the Prior of St. Augustine
I wrote a letter full of thanks for their just dealings, and
the offer of the 872 moidores which was indisposed of,
which I desired might be given, 500 to the monastery,
and 872 to the poor, as the Prior should direct, desiring
the good padre’s prayers for me, and the like.

I wrote next a letter of thanks to my two trustees, with
all the acknowledgment that so much justice and honesty
called for; as for sending them any present, they were far
above having any occasion of it.

Lastly, I wrote to my partner, acknowledging his in-
dustry in the improving the plantation and his integrity
in increasing the stock of the works, giving him instruc-
tions for his future government of my part, according to
the powers I had left with my old patron, to whom I de-
sired him to send whatever became due to me, till he
should hear from me more particularly; assuring him that
it was my intention not only to come to him, but to settle
myself there for the remainder of my life. To this I added
a very handsome present of some Italian silks for his wife
and two daughters, for such the captain’s son informed
me he had; with two pieces of fine English broadcloth,
OVER THE MOUNTAINS 319

the best I could get in Lisbon, five pieces of black baize,
and some Flanders lace of a good value.

Over the M ountains



HAVING thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo, a
turned all my effects into good bills of exchange, my n
difficulty was, which way to go to England. I had been
accustomed enough to the sea, and yet I had a strange
aversion to going to England by sea at that time; and
though I could give no reason for it, yet the difficulty in-
creased upon me so much, that though I had once
shipped my baggage, in order to go, yet I altered my
mind, and that not once but two or three times.

It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this
might be some of the reason. But let no man slight the
strong impulses of his own thoughts in cases of such mo-
ment. Two of the ships which I had singled out to go in,
I mean more particularly singled out than any other, that
is to say, so as in one of them to put my things on board
and in the other to have agreed with the captain; I say,
two of these ships miscarried, viz., one was taken by the
Algerines, and the other was cast away on the Start, near
Torbay, and all the people drowned except three; so that
in either of those vessels I had been made miserable; and
in which most, it was hard to say.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old
pilot, to whom I communicated everything, pressed me
earnestly not to go by sea, but either to go by land to the
Groyne, and cross over the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle,
from whence it was but an easy and safe journey by land
to Paris, and so to Calais and Dover; or to go up to Ma-
drid, and so all the way by land through France.

In a word, I was so prepossessed against my going by
320 ROBINSON CRUSOE

sea at all, except from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to
travel all the way by land; which, as I was not in haste,
and did not value the charge, was by much the pleasanter
way; and to make it more so, my old captain brought an
English gentleman, the son of a merchant in Lisbon, who
was willing to travel with me. After which, we picked up
two more English merchants also, and two young Portu-
guese gentlemen, the last going to Paris only; so that we
were in all six of us, and five servants; the two merchants
and the two Portuguese contenting themselves with one
servant between two, to save the charge; and as for me,
I got an English sailor to travel with me as a servant, be-
sides my man Friday, who was too much a stranger to be
capable of supplying the place of a servant on the road.

In this manner I set out from Lisbon; and our company
being all very well mounted and armed, we made a little
troop, whereof they did me the honor to call me captain,
as well because I was the oldest man as because I had two
servants, and indeed was the original of the whole jour-
ney,

As I have troubled you with none of my sea journals,
so I shall trouble you now with none of my land journal;
but some adventures that happened to us in this tedious
and difficult journey I must not omit.

When we came to Madrid, we, being all of us strangers
to Spain, were willing to stay some time to see the court
of Spain, and to see what was worth observing; but it
being the latter part of the summer, we hastened away,
and set out from Madrid about the middle of October.
But when we came to the edge of Navarre, we were
alarmed at several towns on the way with an account that
so much snow was fallen on the French side of the moun-
tains, that several travelers were obliged to come back to
Pampeluna, after having attempted, at an extreme hazard,
to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so in-


- OVER THE MOUNTAINS 321

deed; and to me that had been always used to a hot cli-
mate, and indeed to countries where we could scarce bear
any clothes on, the cold was insufferable; nor indeed was
it more painful than it was surprising to come but ten
days before out of the Old Castile, where the weather
was not only warm, but very hot, and immediately to
feel a wind from the Pyrenean mountains so very keen,
so severely cold‘as to be intolerable and to endanger be-
numbing and perishing of our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frighted when he saw the moun-
tains all covered with snow, and felt cold weather, which
he had never seen or felt before in his life.

To mend the matter, when we came to Pampeluna, it
continued snowing with so much violence and so long
that the people said winter was come before its time; and
the roads which were difficult before were now quite im-
passable. For, in a word, the snow lay in some places too
thick for us to travel; and being not hard frozen, as is the
case in northern countries, there was no going without
being in danger of being buried alive every step. We
stayed no less than twenty days at Pampeluna; when see-
ing the winter coming on, and no likelihood of its being
better, for it was the severest winter all over Europe that
had been known in the memory of man, I proposed that
we should all go away to Fontarabia, and there take ship-
ping for Bordeaux, which was a very little voyage.

But while we were considering this, there came in four
French gentlemen, who, having been stopped on the ;
French side of the passes, as we were on the Spanish, had |
found out a guide, who, traversing the country near the }
head of Languedoc, had brought them over the moun-
tains by such ways that they were not much incommoded
with the snow; and where they met with snow in any
quantity, they said it was frozen hard enough to bear
them and their horses.

We sent for this guide, who told us he would undertake
322 ROBINSON CRUSOE

to carry us the same way with no hazard from the snow,
provided we were armed sufficiently to protect us from
wild beasts; for, he said, upon these great snows it was
frequent for some wolves to show themselves at the foot
of the mountains, being made ravenous for want of food,
the ground being covered with snow. We told him we
were well enough prepared for such creatures as they
were, if he would ensure us from a kind of two-legged
wolves, which we were told, we were in most danger
from, especially on the French side of the mountains.
He satisfied us there was no danger of that kind in the
way that we were to go; so we readily agreed to follow
him, as did also twelve other gentlemen, with their serv-
ants, some French, some Spanish, who, as I said, had
attempted to go, and were obliged to come back again.
Accordingly, we all set out from Pampeluna, with our
guide, on the 15th of November; and indeed, I was sur-
prised, when instead of going forward, he came directly
back with us, on the same road that we came from Ma-
drid, above twenty miles; when being passed two rivers,
and come into the plain country, we found ourselves in
a warm climate again, where the country was pleasant,
and no snow to be seen; but on a sudden, turning to his
left, he approached the mountains another way; and
though it is true the hills and precipices looked dreadful,
yet he made so many tours, such meanders, and led us by
such winding ways, that we were insensibly passed the
height of the mountains without being much encumbered
with the snow; and all on a sudden, he showed us the
pleasant fruitful provinces of Languedoc and Gascoigne,
all green and flourishing, though indeed it was at a great
distance, and we had some rough way to pass yet. j
We were a little uneasy however, when we found it
snowed one whole day and a night so fast that we could
not travel; but he bid us be easy, we should soon be past
OVER THE MOUNTAINS 323,
it all. We found indeed that we began to descend every
day, and to come more north than before; and so depend-
ing upon our guide, we went on.

It was about two hours before night, when our guide ;
being something before us, and not just in sight, out
rushed three monstrous wolves, and after them a bear, |
out of a hollow way, adjoining to a thick wood; two of
the wolves flew upon the guide, and had he been half a
mile before us, he had been devoured indeed before we
would have helped him. One of them fastened upon his
horse, and the other attacked the man with that violence
that he had not time, or not presence of mind enough to
draw his pistol, but hallooed and cried out to us most
lustily; my man Friday being next to me, I bid him ride
up and see what was the matter; as soon as Friday came
in sight of the man, he hallooed as loud as tother, “O
master! O master!” but like a bold fellow, rode directly
up to the poor man and with his pistol shot the wolf that
attacked him into the head.

It was happy for the poor man that it was my man
Friday; for he having been used to that kind of creature
in his country, had no fear upon him, but went close up
to him and shot him, as above; whereas any of us would
have fired at a farther distance, and have perhaps either
missed. the wolf, or endangered shooting the man.

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than
I; and indeed it alarmed all our company, when, with the
noise of Friday’s pistol, we heard on both sides the dis-
malest howling of wolves, and the noise redoubled by
the echo of the mountains, that it was to us as if there
had been a prodigious multitude of them; and perhaps
indeed there was such a few as that we had no cause of
apprehensions.

However, as Friday had killed this wolf, the other that \
had fastened upon the horse left him immediately and |
324 ROBINSON CRUSOE

fled; having happily fastened upon his head, where the
bosses of the bridle had stuck in his teeth; so that he had
not done him much hurt. The man indeed was most hurt;
for the raging creature had bit him twice, once on the
arm, and the other time a little above his knee; and he
was just as it were tumbling down by the disorder of his
horse, when Friday came up and shot the wolf.

It is easy to suppose that at the noise of F riday’s pistol
we all mended our pace and rid up as fast as the way
(which was very difficult) would give us leave, to see
what was the matter; as soon as we came clear of the
trees, which blinded us before, we saw clearly what had
been the case, and how Friday had disengaged the poor
guide; though we did not presently discern what kind of
creature it was he had killed.

But never was a fight managed so hardily, and in such
a surprising manner, as that which followed between Fri-
day and the bear, which gave us all (though at first we
were surprised and afraid for him) the greatest diversion
- imaginable. As the bear is a heavy, clumsy creature, and
does not gallop as the wolf does, who is swift and light,
so he has two particular qualities, which generally are the
tule of his actions; first, as to men, who are not his proper
prey; I say, not his proper prey, because though I cannot
say what excessive hunger might do, which was now their
case, the ground being all covered with snow; but as to
men, he does not usually attempt them, unless they first
attack him. On the contrary, if you meet him in the
woods, if you don’t meddle with him, he won’t meddle
with you; but then you must take care to be very civil to
him, and give him the road; for he is a very nice gentle-
man, he won't go a step out of his way for a prince; nay,
if you are really afraid, your best way is to look another
way and keep going on; for sometimes if you stop, and
OVER THE MOUNTAINS 325

stand still, and look steadily at him, he takes it for an
affront; but if you throw or toss anything at him, and it
hits him, though it were but a bit of a stick as big as your
finger, he takes it for an affront and sets all his other busi-
ness aside to pursue his revenge; for he will have satisfac-
tion in point of honor; that is his first quality. The next is,
that if he be once affronted, he will never leave you, night
or day, till he has his revenge; but follows at a good round
rate till he overtakes you.

My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we
came up to him, he was helping him off from his horse;
for the man was both hurt and frighted, and indeed, the
last more than the first; when on the sudden, we spied
the bear come out of the wood, and a vast monstrous one
it was, the biggest by far that ever I saw. We were all a
little surprised, when we saw him; but when Friday saw
him, it was easy to see Jey and courage in the fellow’s
countenance. “O! O! Ol!” says Friday, three times, point-_
ing to him; “O master! You give me te leavel Me shakee |
te hand with him. Me make you good laugh.”

I was surprised to see the fellow so pleased. “You fool |
you, " says I, “he will eat you up.” “Eatee me up! Eatee
me up!” says Friday, twice over again; “me eatee him up.
Me make you good laugh. You all stay here, me show
you good laugh!” So down he sits, and gets his boots off
in a moment, and put on a pair of pumps (as we call the
flat shoes they wear) and which he had in his pocket,
gives my other servant his horse, and with his gun away
he flew, swift like the wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle
with nobody till Friday coming pretty near, calls to him, »\
as if the bear could understand him. “Hark ye, hark ye,”
says Friday, “me speakee wit you.” We followed at a dis-
tance; for now being come down on the Gascoigne side
326 ROBINSON CRUSOE

of the mountains, we were entered a vast great forest,
where the country was plain and pretty open, though
many trees in it scattered here and there.

Friday, who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came
up with him quickly and takes up a great stone, and
throws at him, and hit him just on the head, but did him
no more harm than if he had thrown it against a wall; but
it answered Friday's end, for the rogue was so void of
fear, that he did it purely to make the bear follow him
and show us “some laugh,” as he called it.

As soon as the bear felt the stone, and saw him, he turns
about, and comes after him, taking devilish long strides,
and shuffling along ata strange rate, so as would have put
a horse to a middling gallop; away runs F riday, and takes
his course, as if he run toward us for help; so we all re-
solved co fire at once upon the bear, and deliver my man;
though I was angry at him heartily for bringing the bear
back upon us, when he was going about his own busi-
ness another way; and especially I was angry that he had
turned the bear upon us, and then run away; and I called
out, “You dog,” said I, “is this your making us laugh?
Come away, and take your horse, that we may shoot the
creature.” He hears me, and cries out, “No shoot, no
shoot; stand still, you get much laugh.” And as the nimble
creature run two foot for the beast’s one, he turned on a
sudden, on one side of us, and seeing a great oak tree fit
for his purpose, he beckoned to us to follow; and dou-
bling his pace, he gets nimbly up the tree, laying his gun
down upon the ground, at about five or six yards from the
bottom of the tree.

The bear soon came to the tree, and we followed at a
distance; the first thing he did, he stopped at the gun,
smelt to it, but let it lie, and up he scrambles into the tree,
climbing like a cat, though so monstrously heavy. I was
amazed at the folly, as I thought it, of my man and could
OVER THE MOUNTAINS 327
not for my life see anything to laugh at yet, till seeing the

bear get up the tree, we all rode nearer to him.

When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to
the small end of a large limb of the tree, and the bear got
about half way to him; as soon as the bear got out to that
part where the limb of the tree was weaker, “Ha!” says
he to us, “now you see me teachee the bear dance”; so he
falls a-jumping and shaking the bough, at which the bear
began to totter, but stood still and begun to look behind
him, to see how he should get back; then, indeed, we did
laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with him by a
great deal; when he sees him stand still, he calls out to
him again, as if he had supposed the bear could speak
English, “What, you no come farther? pray you come far-
ther”; so he left jumping and shaking the tree; and the
bear, just as if he had understood what he said, did come
a little further; then he fell a-jumping again, and the bear
stopped again.

We thought now was a good time to knock him on the
head, and I called to Friday to stand still, and we would
shoot the bear; but he cried out earnestly, “O pray! O
pray! No shoot, me shoot, by and then”; he would have
said “by and by.” However, to shorten the story, Friday
danced so much, and the bear stood so ticklish, that we
had laughing enough indeed, but still could not imagine
what the fellow would do; for first we thought he de-
pended upon shaking the bear off; and we found the bear
was too cunning for that too; for he would not go out far
enough to be thrown down, but clings fast with his great
broad claws and feet, so that we could not imagine what
would be the end of it and where the jest would be at
last.

But Friday put us out of doubt quickly; for seeing the
bear cling fast to the bough, and that he would not be
persuaded to come any farther, “Well, well,” says Friday,

evenee
328 ROBINSON CRUSOE

“you no come farther, me go, me go; you no come to me,
me gv come to you’; and upon this, he goes out to the
smallest end of the bough, where it would bend with his
weight, and gently lets himself down by it, sliding down
the bough, till he came near enough to jump down on
his feet, and away he run to his gun, takes it up, and
stands still.

“Well,” said I to him, “Friday, what will you do now?
Why don’t you shoot him?” “No shoot,” says Friday, “no
yet; me shoot now, me no kill; me stay, give you one more
laugh”; and indeed so he did, as you will see presently;
for when the bear see his enemy gone, he comes back
from the bough where he stood, but did it mighty lei-
‘surely, looking behind him every step and coming back-
ward till he got into the body of the tree; then with the
same hinder end foremost, he came down the tree, grasp-
ing it with his claws, and moving one foot at a time, very
leisurely; at this juncture, and just before he could set his
_ hind feet upon the ground, Friday stepped up close to
. him, clapped the muzzle of his piece into his ear, and shot

him dead as a stone.

' Then the rogue turned about to see if we did not laugh;
and when he saw we were pleased by our looks, he falls
a-laughing himself very loud. “So we kill bear in my
country,” says Friday. “So you kill them?” says I; “why,
you have no guns.” “No,” says he, “no gun, but shoot,
great much long arrow.”

This was indeed a good diversion to us; but we were
still in a wild place, and our guide very much hurt, and
what to do we hardly knew; the howling of wolves run
much in my head; and indeed, except the noise I once
heard on the shore of Africa, of which I have said some-
thing already, I never heard anything that filled me with
so much horror.

These things and the approach of night called us off,
OVER THE MOUNTAINS 329

or else, as Friday would have had us, we should certainly
have taken the skin of this monstrous creature off, which
was worth saving; but we had three leagues to go, and
our guide hastened us; so we left him and went forward
on our journey.

The ground was still covered with snow, though not so
deep and dangerous as on the mountains; and the raven-
ous creatures, as we heard afterwards, were come down
into the forest and plain country, pressed by hunger to
seek for food; and had done a great deal of mischief in
the villages, where they surprised the country people,
killed a great many of their sheep and horses, and some
people too.

We had one dangerous place to pass, which our guide
told us, if there were any more wolves in the country, we
should find them there; and this was in a small plain, sur-
rounded with woods on every side, and a long narrow
defile or lane, which we were to pass to get through the
wood, and then we should come to the village where we
were to lodge.

It was within half an hour of sunset when we entered
the first wood; and a little after sunset when we came
into the plain. We met with nothing in the first wood,
except that in a little plain within the wood, which was
not above two furlongs over, we saw five great wolves
cross the road,