Citation
The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title:
Riverside bookshelf
Added title page title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publisher:
Houghton Mifflin Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
435 p. : illus. ;

Subjects

Genre:
fiction ( marcgt )
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Illustrated by E. Boyd Smith.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
022266638 ( ALEPH )
30571749 ( OCLC )
AFC9545 ( NOTIS )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

UF00074474_00001.pdf

UF00074474_00001.txt

00006.txt

00265.txt

00199.txt

00399.txt

00409.txt

00206.txt

00026.txt

00047.txt

00080.txt

00410.txt

00415.txt

00288.txt

00058.txt

00339.txt

00372.txt

00105.txt

00060.txt

00054.txt

00092.txt

00282.txt

00233.txt

00430.txt

00280.txt

00051.txt

00269.txt

00177.txt

00380.txt

00231.txt

00263.txt

00416.txt

00252.txt

00055.txt

00061.txt

00320.txt

00153.txt

00162.txt

00137.txt

00205.txt

00253.txt

00392.txt

00296.txt

00183.txt

00067.txt

00142.txt

00181.txt

00237.txt

00326.txt

00290.txt

00381.txt

00262.txt

00033.txt

00440.txt

00215.txt

00100.txt

00358.txt

00224.txt

00291.txt

00096.txt

00335.txt

00388.txt

00308.txt

00448.txt

00108.txt

00316.txt

00338.txt

00333.txt

00174.txt

00317.txt

00062.txt

00002.txt

00336.txt

00112.txt

00146.txt

00243.txt

00076.txt

00057.txt

00378.txt

00293.txt

00433.txt

00359.txt

00148.txt

00373.txt

00182.txt

00455.txt

00158.txt

00087.txt

00066.txt

00186.txt

00402.txt

00419.txt

00073.txt

00075.txt

00267.txt

00279.txt

00343.txt

00442.txt

00367.txt

00194.txt

00385.txt

00007.txt

00127.txt

00398.txt

00235.txt

00027.txt

00404.txt

00063.txt

00387.txt

00315.txt

00270.txt

00352.txt

00114.txt

00221.txt

00091.txt

00120.txt

00059.txt

00223.txt

00136.txt

00439.txt

00259.txt

00284.txt

00150.txt

00303.txt

00386.txt

00341.txt

UF00074474_00001_pdf.txt

00444.txt

00330.txt

00042.txt

00012.txt

00201.txt

00360.txt

00445.txt

00156.txt

00125.txt

00023.txt

00350.txt

00167.txt

00039.txt

00449.txt

00218.txt

00122.txt

00462.txt

00258.txt

00368.txt

00408.txt

00163.txt

00255.txt

00407.txt

00256.txt

00133.txt

00210.txt

00072.txt

00426.txt

00081.txt

00382.txt

00020.txt

00318.txt

00274.txt

00038.txt

00322.txt

00268.txt

00309.txt

00213.txt

00250.txt

00356.txt

00188.txt

00179.txt

00403.txt

00379.txt

00425.txt

00193.txt

00383.txt

00390.txt

00151.txt

00429.txt

00327.txt

00447.txt

00101.txt

00011.txt

00238.txt

00277.txt

00190.txt

00285.txt

00160.txt

00034.txt

00010.txt

00083.txt

00377.txt

00311.txt

00157.txt

00422.txt

00143.txt

00024.txt

00405.txt

00110.txt

00093.txt

00354.txt

00423.txt

00117.txt

00247.txt

00234.txt

00152.txt

00310.txt

00184.txt

00022.txt

00204.txt

00119.txt

00168.txt

00328.txt

00111.txt

00154.txt

00248.txt

00207.txt

00019.txt

00289.txt

00203.txt

00251.txt

00126.txt

00135.txt

00172.txt

00421.txt

00363.txt

00191.txt

00396.txt

00170.txt

00220.txt

00246.txt

00169.txt

00299.txt

00070.txt

00032.txt

00374.txt

00337.txt

00411.txt

00138.txt

00068.txt

00342.txt

00323.txt

00294.txt

00437.txt

00346.txt

00428.txt

00128.txt

00140.txt

00212.txt

00355.txt

00064.txt

00454.txt

00008.txt

00035.txt

00095.txt

00200.txt

00264.txt

00271.txt

00427.txt

00090.txt

00196.txt

00312.txt

00016.txt

00222.txt

00116.txt

00118.txt

00005.txt

00103.txt

00304.txt

00208.txt

00166.txt

00394.txt

00301.txt

00197.txt

00017.txt

00139.txt

00178.txt

00097.txt

00321.txt

00451.txt

00050.txt

00397.txt

00121.txt

EGRZ34IPB_3WRD1J_xml.txt

00085.txt

00195.txt

00018.txt

00227.txt

00307.txt

00098.txt

00209.txt

00414.txt

00113.txt

00052.txt

00375.txt

00144.txt

00434.txt

00084.txt

00347.txt

00452.txt

00069.txt

00245.txt

00134.txt

00239.txt

00004.txt

00459.txt

00417.txt

00088.txt

00187.txt

00362.txt

00240.txt

00349.txt

00292.txt

00357.txt

00370.txt

00286.txt

00353.txt

00287.txt

00029.txt

00257.txt

00391.txt

00461.txt

00175.txt

00226.txt

00272.txt

00074.txt

00254.txt

00432.txt

00438.txt

00249.txt

00132.txt

00443.txt

00077.txt

00300.txt

00219.txt

00041.txt

00436.txt

00236.txt

00053.txt

00340.txt

00164.txt

00198.txt

00457.txt

00229.txt

00332.txt

00401.txt

00104.txt

00453.txt

00185.txt

00115.txt

00078.txt

00149.txt

00141.txt

00324.txt

00131.txt

00021.txt

00424.txt

00028.txt

00348.txt

00216.txt

00275.txt

00331.txt

00031.txt

00009.txt

00230.txt

00276.txt

00295.txt

00281.txt

00046.txt

00329.txt

00298.txt

00344.txt

00278.txt

00266.txt

00366.txt

00364.txt

00384.txt

00147.txt

00297.txt

00413.txt

00376.txt

00044.txt

00013.txt

00228.txt

00319.txt

00412.txt

00389.txt

00001.txt

00109.txt

00225.txt

00099.txt

00345.txt

00102.txt

00180.txt

00040.txt

00361.txt

00129.txt

00313.txt

00094.txt

00159.txt

00420.txt

00302.txt

00014.txt

00086.txt

00242.txt

00232.txt

00305.txt

00130.txt

00049.txt

00079.txt

00048.txt

00165.txt

00306.txt

00431.txt

00446.txt

00211.txt

00123.txt

00334.txt

00065.txt

00261.txt

00106.txt

00214.txt

00435.txt

00365.txt

00369.txt

00015.txt

00314.txt

00056.txt

00192.txt

00045.txt

00161.txt

00171.txt

00441.txt

00456.txt

00176.txt

00173.txt

00202.txt

00418.txt

00030.txt

00450.txt

00325.txt

00406.txt

00244.txt

00458.txt

00089.txt

00082.txt

00155.txt

00460.txt

00273.txt

00036.txt

00124.txt

00260.txt

00400.txt

00043.txt

00395.txt

00025.txt

00003.txt


Full Text
FRIDAY (page 292)

CUE

Nn
Za
4
12}
Oo
Nn
>
4

NC

ROBINS





ry RIVERSIDE BOOKSHELF Ee

THE LIFE AND STRANGE
SURPRISING ADVENTURES

ROBINSON
CRUSOE

By DANIEL DEFOE

a = ee) 2X of
ILLUSTRATED BY
E. BOYD SMITH
ah

Cy
HH

a

COE BS aN
: Re Eee _

=
pa
SSS

Disa
KY 67

abe



BOSTON AND NEW YORK
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
The Riverside Press Cambridge





ww
.
aie
2

GOPYRIGHT, 1909, BY HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
COPYRIGHT, 1937, BY E. BOYD SMITH

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The Riverside Press
CAMBRIDGE » MASSACHUSETTS
PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.



ILLUSTRATIONS

Rosinson CRUSOE RESCUES Fripay (p. 292) Colored Frontispiece

My FATHER GAVE ME EXCELLENT COUNSEL I
THE PUNCH WAS MADE AND | WAS MADE DRUNK 8
SuRPRISED BY A TURKISH ROVER 23

Ir YoU COME NEAR THE BOAT ILL sHOOT You (colored) 30

THE WIND DRIVING US TOWARD THE SHORE 46
STRUGGLING TO REACH THE SHORE (colored) 62
WITH THE CARGO I PUT TO SEA 67
I ENLARGED MY CAVE 84
DrivING THESE POLES WAS TEDIOUS WORK go
ALL MY GOODS IN SUCH ORDER (colored) 96
I BEGAN TO KEEP A JOURNAL 99
Ir was A BARREL OF GUNPOWDER 118
I TooK UP THE BIBLE AND BEGAN TO READ 130

So WEAK THAT I COULD HARDLY CARRY THE GUN (colored) 132
I FAIRLY DESCRIED LAND 151
I FIRED AGAIN AND KILLED THREE OF THEM 158
I HAD SEED ENOUGH TO SOW ABOUT AN ACRE OF GROUND 170

BURNING THE EARTHEN POTS (colored) 74



ILLUSTRATIONS

FINDING IT IMPOSSIBLE TO HEAVE HER 178
Rosinson CRUSOE, WHERE ARE You? 195
CARRIED BY THE CURRENT AWAY FROM THE ISLAND (colored) 200
My DoG sAT ALWAYS AT MY RIGHT HAND 208
I CONTRIVED TO PLANT THE MUSKETS 221
THE PRINT OF A MAN’S NAKED FOOT ON THE SHORE (colored) 222
THE SHORE SPREAD WITH THE BONES OF HUMAN BODIES 234

I TOOK MY FIREBRAND AND IN | RUSHED 249



As MY FIRE BLAZED UP I HEARD ANOTHER GUN 261

THERE WERE NO LESS THAN NINE NAKED SAVAGES (colored) 262

WHEN I caAME CLOSE TO HER A DOG APPEARED 271
ALMOST AS WELL CLOTHED AS HIS MASTER 289
I FIRED, AND BADE HIM LOOK 304
I WAS RESOLVED TO GO DOWN AND KILL THEM ALL 320

IN ABOUT A MONTH’S HARD LABOR WE FINISHED IT (colored) 328
HE TOLD ME THAT IT WAS HIS FATHER 337

LoosING HIS HANDS AND FEET I LIFTED HIM (colored) 346

WE PERCEIVED THEM ALL COMING ON SHORE AGAIN 363 |
WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN? (colored) 366 |
HE CLOTHED ME FROM HEAD TO FOOT 384
FRIDAY ACCOMPANIED ME IN ALL THESE RAMBLINGS 399



FRIDAY STEPPED UP CLOSE TO HIM AND SHOT HIM DEAD 418



i ache ti ae aa





ony, ae tty
mewn

\



was bornin the year 1632, in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country,
my father being a foreigner of Bremen, named
~ Kreutznaer, who settled first at Hull. He gota
+ good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his
trade, lived afterwards at York, from whence he had

~ married my mother, whose relations were named

Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
after whom I was so called, that is to say, Robin-
son Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of
words in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my
companions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was
lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot
in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battlenear
Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of
my second brother, I never knew, any more than
my father and mother did know what was become
of me.



2 THE ADVENTURES OF

Being the third son of the family, and not bred
to any trade, my head began to be filled very early
with rambling thoughts. My father, who was very
aged, had given me a competent share of learn-
ing, as far as house education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law;
but I would be satisfied with nothing but going
to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly
against the will, nay, the commands of my father,
and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother and other friends, that there seemed
to be something fatal in that propension of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to
befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me se-
rious and excellent counsel against what he foresaw
was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this sub-
ject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving his house,
and my native country, where I might be well in-
troduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune,
by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate for-
tunes, on one hand, or of superior fortunes, on the
other, who went abroad upon adventures, aspiring
to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous
in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road; that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me; that mine was the mid-



ROBINSON CRUSOE §

dle state, or what might be called the upper sta-
tion of low life, which he had found, by long ex-
perience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness; not exposed to the
miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings,
of the mechanic part of mankind, and not em-
barrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind: he told me, I
might judge of the happiness of this state by one
thing, viz. that this was the state of life which all
other people envied; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed
in the middle of two extremes, between the mean
and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony
to this as the just standard of true felicity, when
he prayed to have “ neither poverty nor riches.”

He bade me observe it, and I should always find,
that the calamities of life were shared among the
upper and lower part of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was
not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher
or lower part of mankind: nay, they were not sub-
jected toso many distempersand uneasinesses, either
of body or mind, as those were, who, by vicious
living, luxury, and extravagancies, on one hand, or,
by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean and
insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring distem-
pers upon themselves by the natural consequences
of their way of living; that the middle station of
life was calculated for all kind of virtues, and all



# THE ADVENTURES OF

kind ofenjoyments; that peace and plenty were the _
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, —
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable
diversions, and all desirable pleasures were the
blessings attending the middle station of life; that
this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embar-
rassed with the labours of the hands or of the head,
not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or
harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob
the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not en-
raged with the passion of envy, or secret burning
lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy cir-
cumstances, sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the
bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by
every day’s experience, to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to play the young
man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no ne-
cessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the
station of life which he had been just recommending
to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that
must hinder it; and that he should have nothing
to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in
warning me against measures which he knew would
be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very









ROBINSON CRUSOE 5

kind things for me if I would stay and settle at
homeas he directed; so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encour-
agement to go away: and, to close all, he told me
I had my elder brother for an example, to whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep
him from going into the Low Country wars; but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where he was killed; and
> though, he said, he would not cease to pray for me,
yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did
"take this foolish step, God would not bless me;
) and I would have leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse,
which was truly prophetic, though, I suppose, my
father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I
observed the tears run down his face very plenti-
fully, especially when he spoke of my brother who
® was killed; and that, when he spoke of my having
+ leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
+ moved, that he broke off the discourse, and told
me his heart was so full he could say no more to
me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as,
indeed, who could be otherwise? and I resolved
not to think of going abroad any more, but to set-
# tle at home, according to my father’s desire. But
alas! a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to
prevent any of my father’s further importunities,



6 THE ADVENTURES OF

in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away
from him. However, I did not actso hastily, neither,
as my first heat of resolution prompted; but I took
my mother, at a time when I thought her a little
pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that my
thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the
world, that I should never settle to anything with
resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had better give me his consent than force
me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years
old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade,
or clerk to an attorney: that I was sure, if I did, I
should never serve out my time, and I should cer-
tainly run away from my master before my time
was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to
my father to let me make but one voyage abroad,
if I came home again, and did not like it, I would
go no more; and I would promise by a double
diligence, to recover the time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion: she
told me she knew it would be to no purpose to
speak to my father upon any such a subject; that
he knew too well what was my interest to give his
consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing,
after such a discourse as I had from my father, and
such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would
ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it:
that for her part, she would not have so much hand



ROBINSON CRUSOE 7

in my destruction ; and I should never have it to
say, that my mother was willing when my father
was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, as I have heard afterwards, she reported
all the discourse to him; and that my father, after
showing a great concern at it, said to her with a
sigh, “ That boy might be happy if he would stay
at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no
consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose ; though in the mean time I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time, and one of my companions
then going to London by sea in his father’s ship,
and prompting me to go with them by the common
allurement of seafaring men, viz. that it should
cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but left them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God’s blessing, or my father’s,
without any consideration of circumstances or con-
sequences, and in an ill hour, God knows.



=U
\ WN
‘ i

LE

Ox the rst September, 1651, I went on board
a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began younger,
or continued longer, than mine. The ship had no
sooner got out of the Humber, than the wind —
began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a most _
frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and
terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect
upon what I had done, and how justly I was over-
taken by the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly
leaving my father’s house. All the good counsels
of my parents, my father’s tears, and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch
of hardness to which it has been since, reproached
me with the contempt of advice, and the abandon-

ment of my duty.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea,
which I had never been upon before, went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many









ROBINSON CRUSOE 9

times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after;
but, such as it was, enough to affect me then, who
was but a young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. I expected every wave
would have swallowed us up, and that every time
the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more;
/ and in this agony of mind I made many vows
) and resolutions, that if it would please God to
‘spare my life this voyage, if ever I got my foot
once on dry land, I would go directly home to
")my father, and never set it into a ship again while
>I lived; that I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more.
7 Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observa-
‘tions about the middle station of life; how easy,
how comfortable, he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea or
“troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would,
Jlike a true repenting prodigal, go home to my
father.

»_ These wise and sober thoughts continued during
the storm, and indeed some time after; but the
next day, as the wind was abated, and the sea
almer, I began to be a little inured to it. How-
yever, I was very grave that day, being also a lit-
“tle sea-sick still: but towards night the weather
Wcleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charm-
“Png fine evening followed; the sun went down
perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning ; and
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the

















10 THE ADVENTURES OF

sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, 1
the most delightful that I ever saw. 1

I had slept well in the night, and was now no —
more sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with —
wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terri- _
ble the day before, and could be so calm and
pleasant in a little time after.

And now lest my good resolutions should con-
tinue, my companion, who had indeed enticed me
away, came to me, and said, “Well, Bob,” clapping
me on the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I
warrant you you were frightened, wa’n’t you, last
night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind? ””»—“A
cap-full,do youcall it?” said I; “’t wasa terrible
storm.” — “ A storm, you fool!” replies he, “do
you call that a storm? Why, it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship, and sea-room, and
we think nothing of sucha squall of wind as that:
you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let
us make a bowl of punch, and we’ll forget all
that. D’ ye see what charming weather ’t is now?”
To make short this sad part of my story, we went
the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and
I was made drunk with it; and in that one night’s :
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my _
reflections upon my past conduct, and all my reso-
lutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was 4
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled |
calmness by the abatement of the storm, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and
apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea







ROBINSON CRUSOE II

forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises
I had made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection ; and serious thoughts did,
as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes ;
but I shook them off and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper, and, applying
myself to drink and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits — for so I called them; and I
had in five or six days got as complete a victory
over conscience as any young sinner, that resolved
not to be troubled with it, could desire. But I was
to have another trial for it still; and Providence,
as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse: for if I would
not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be
such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy of. The sixth day of our being at sea we
came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been
contrary and the weather calm, we had made but
little way since the storm. Here we were obliged
to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind
continuing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven
or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as
the common harbour where the ships might wait
for a wind for the river Thames. We had not,
however, rid here so long, but we should have tided
up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh;
and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very



12 THE ADVENTURES OF

hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good
as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned and
not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike
our topmasts and make everything snug and close,
that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By
noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought, once or twice, our anchor had come home;
upon which our master ordered out the sheet
anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead,
and the cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the
faces of even the seamen themselves, The master
was vigilant in the business of preserving the ship;
but, as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I
could hear him softly say to himself several times,
“Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we

shall be all undone!” and the like. During these
first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, —

which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my

temper. I could ill reassume the first penitence, ©
which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard- |
ened myself against ; I thought that the bitterness of
death had been past, and that this would be nothing |
too, like the first: but when the master himself —
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should |



ee EN ER SE Tg eee pee ee









ROBINSON CRUSOE 13

be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I got up
out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dis-
mal sight I never saw; the sea went mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four min-
utes. When I could look about, I could see no-
thing but distress around us; two ships that rid near
us, we found had cut their masts by the board,
being deeply laden; and our men cried out that a
ship which rid about a mile ahead of us was foun-
dered. Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all
adventures, and that with not a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away, with
only their spritsails out, before the wind. Toward
evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which
he was very loath to do; but the boatswain pro-
testing to him, that if he did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut
away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose,
and shook the ship so much, they were obliged
to cut it away also, and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be
in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who
had been in such a fright before at but a little. But
if I can express, at this distance, the thoughts I
had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former con-
Victions, and the having returned from them to the



14 THE ADVENTURES OF

resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was
at death itself; and these, added to the terror of
the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can
by no words describe it; but the worst was not
come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had
never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deep laden, and so wallowed in the sea, that
the seamen every now and then cried out she would
founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that
I did not know what they meant by founder, till I
inquired. However, the storm was so violent that
I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others, more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment the
ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the
night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of
the men, that had been down on purpose tosee, cried
out, we had sprung a leak; another said there was
four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart,
as I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards
upon the side of my bed, where I sat in the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me that [.
who was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another: at which I stirred up
and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were
obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not
come near us, ordered us to fire a gun as a signal



:







ROBINSON CRUSOE 15

of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant,
was so surprised, that I thought the ship had
broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In
a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his
own life to think of, no one minded me, or what
was become of me: but another man stepped up to
the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot,
let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it wasa
great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder ;
and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into a port, so the master continued firing guns for
help ; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with
the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship’s side; till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a
buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold
of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and
got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for
them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much
as we could: and our master promised them, that
if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make



16 THE ADVENTURES OF

it good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, slop-
ing towards the shore almost as far as Winterton- ~
Ness. ’

We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship when we saw her sink; and ©
then I understood, for the first time, what was _
meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must ac-
knowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when the
seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that
moment, they rather put me into the boat, than
that I might be said to go in. My heart was, as it
were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with
horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet
before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many peo-
ple running along the strand, to assist us when we
should come near; but we made slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being
past the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls
off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind,
Here we got in, and, though not without much diffi-
culty, got all safe on shore, and walked, afterwards
on foot to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the
magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quar-
ters, as by the particular merchants and owners of





ROBINSON CRUSOE 17

ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry
us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought
fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy:
and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for,
hearing the ship I went in was cast away in Yar-
mouth Roads, it was a great while before he had
any assurance that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason and my more com-
posed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power
to do it. —I know not what to call this, nor will
I urge that it is a secret, overruling decree, that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own de-

struction, even though it be before us, and that we



rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing
but some such decreed unavoidable misery attend-
ing, and which it was impossible for me to escape,
could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasonings and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me be-
fore, and who was the master’s son, was now less
forward than I: the first time he spoke to me after
we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or
three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me,



18 THE ADVENTURES OF

it appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very ©
melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me 3
how I did; telling his father who I was, and how :
I had come this voyage only fora trial, inorder to _
go farther abroad. His father, turning to me with ~
a grave and concerned tone, “Young man,” says —
he, “you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token,
that you are not to be a seafaring man.” —“ Why,
sir?” said I; “will you go to sea no more?” —
“‘ That is another case,” said he; “it is my calling,
and therefore my duty ; but as you made this voy-
age for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist.
Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account, —
like Jonah in theship of Tarshish.” —“ Pray,” con- |
tinues he, “ what are you, and on what account did _
you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of
my story; at the end of which he burst out witha
strange kind of passion. “ What had I done,” said
he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same
ship with thee again fora thousand pounds.” This
indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss,
and was farther than he could have authority to go.
— However, he afterwards talked very gravely to —
me; exhorted me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin; told me, I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me; and, |
“young man,” said he, “depend uponit,ifyoudo |













ROBINSON CRUSOE 19

not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
| father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little an-
swer, and I saw him no more; which way he went,
I know not : as for me, having some money in my
pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there,
as well as on the road, had many struggles with my-
self what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home or go tosea. As to going home,
shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how
I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and
should be ashamed to see, not my father and mo-
ther only, but even everybody else. From whence
I have often since observed how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is, es-
pecially of youth, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz. that they are not
ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent, not
ashamed of the action, for which they ought justly
to be esteemed fools ; but are ashamed of the re-
turning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some
time, uncertain what measures to take, and what
course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance con-
tinued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the
remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off;
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I



20 THE ADVENTURES OF

quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out |
for a voyage. That evil influence which carried me |
first away from my father’s house, that hurried me 3
into the wild and indigested notion of raising my ‘
fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forci-
bly upon me as to make me deaf to all good advice, ’
and to the entreaties and even the commands of ‘
my father; I say, the same influence, whatever it
was, presented the most unfortunate of all enter-
prises to my view; and I went on board a vessel 4
bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors 7
vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these ad-
ventures I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, |
though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had learned |
the duty and office of a foremast-man, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieuten- _
ant, if not a master: but as it was always my fate _
to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having ©
money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my |
back, I would always go on board in the habit of
a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in ~
the ship, nor learned to do any. It was my lot, |
first of all, to fall into pretty good company in 4
London; which does not always happen to such §
loose and misguided young fellows as I then was: q
the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some snare
for them very early. But it was not so with me: I 4
first fell acquainted with the master of a ship, who ’
had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having |







ROBINSON CRUSOE 21

had very good success there, was resolved to go
again. He, taking a fancy to my conversation, which
was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing
me say I had a mind to see the world, told me
that, if I would go the voyage with him, I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his
companion; and if I could carry anything with me,
I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
encouragement. I embraced the offer, and enter-
ing into a strict friendship with this captain, wha
was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me; which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably ;
for I carried about forty pounds in such toys and
trifles as the captain directed meto buy. This forty
pounds I had mustered together by the assistance
of some of my relations whom I corresponded
with ; and who, I believe, got my father, or, at least,
my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure. This was the only voyage which I
may say was successful in all my adventures, and
which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain; under whom also I got a com-
petent knowledge of mathematics and the rules of
@ navigation, learned how to keep an account of the
ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short,
to understand some things that were needful to be
understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, ina word,



22 ROBINSON CRUSOE

this voyage made me both a sailor anda merchant:
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of |
gold dust for my adventure, which yielded me |
in London, at my return, almost three hundred |
pounds, and this filled me with those aspiring |
thoughts which have since so completed my ruin, |
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too;
particularly, that I was continually sick, being ©
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive |
heat of the climate; our principal trading being ©
upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees
north even to the Line itself.







was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my

friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon
after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again; and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
_ had now got the command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
© though I did not carry quite a hundred pounds of
my new-gained wealth, so that I had two hundred
~ pounds left, and which I lodged with my friend’s
" widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first
was this, viz.—our ship, making her course to-

» wards the Canary Islands, or rather between those

islands and the African shore, was surprised, in
the gray of the morning, by a Turkish rover, of
Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she
could make. We crowded also as much canvas as
our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to get
clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
| would certainly come up with us in a few hours,



24 THE ADVENTURES OF

we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns |
and the rover eighteen. About three in the after- 4
noon he came up with us; and bringing to, by
mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of 4
athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought ~
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured ©

in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer
off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in
also his small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not
a man touched, all our men keeping close. He

prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but laying us on board the next time
upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men
upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting ©

and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them
with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our
story, our ship being disabled, and three of our

men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged —
to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,

a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as :
at first I apprehended: nor was I carried up the
country to the emperor’s court, as the rest of our
men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover |
as his proper prize, and made his slave, being |
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this :
surprising change of my circumstances, from a :
merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly |



it lat a a ok ie Ne





ROBINSON CRUSOE 25

overwhelmed ; and now looked back upon my
father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should
be miserable and have none to relieve me; which
I thought was now so effectually brought to pass,
that it could not be worse; that now the hand of
Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone,
without redemption. But, alas! this was but a
taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me
home to his house, so I was in hopes he would
take me with him when he went to sea again, be-
lieving that it would, some time or other, be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man
of war, and that then I should be set at liberty.
But this hope of mine was soon taken away, for
when he went to sea he left me on shore to look
after his little garden, and do the common drudg-
ery of slaves about his house; and when he came
home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin, to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and
what method I might take to effect it, but found
no way that had the least probability init. Nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me; no fellow-slave, no English-
man, Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself;
so that for two years, though I often pleased my-
self with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.



26 THE ADVENTURES OF

After about two years, an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making

some attempt for my liberty again in my head. |
My patron lying at home longer than usual, with- |

out fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for |

want of money, he used constantly, once or twice |

a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair,
to take the ship’s pinnace and go out into the road
a fishing; and as he always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him
very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catch-
ing fish, insomuch that sometimes he wouldsend me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth,
the Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a fishing in a
stark calm morning,a fog rose so thick, that though
we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither, or
which way, we laboured all day and all the next





night, and when the morning came, we found we |

had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the '
shore, and that we were at least two leagues from _
the shore: however, we got well in again, though |

with a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the
wind began to blowpretty freshin the morning; but
particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and
having lying by him the longboat of our English
ship he had taken, he resolved he would not goa





ov t ~~ VS ew

“ye

Re ore re a ee



ROBINSON CRUSOE 27

fishing any more without a compass and some pro-
vision ; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who
was an English slave, to build a little state-room
or cabin in the middle of the longboat, like that of
a barge, with a place to stand behind it, to steer
and haul home the main sheet, and room before
for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She
sailed with what we called a shoulder-of-mutton
sail, and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat
on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and par-
ticularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,
he never went without me. It happened that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure
or for fish, with two or three Moors of some dis-
tinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on
board the boat, overnight, a larger store of pro-
visions than ordinary, and had ordered me to get
ready three fusees, with powder and shot, which
were on board his ship, for that they designed some
sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her
ensign and pendants out, and everything to accom-
modate his guests: when, by and by, my patron
came on board alone, and told me his guests had



28 THE ADVENTURES OF

put off going, upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me with a man and boy, as usual, to
go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for
that his friends were to sup at his house ; and com-
manded, thatas soon as I had got somefish, I should
bring it home to his house: all which I prepared
to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was
like to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself,
not for a fishing business, but for a voyage; though
I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I should steer; for any where, to get out
of that place, was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get something for our
subsistence on board; for I told him we must not
presume to eat of our patron’s bread: he said that
was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with fresh wa-
ter, into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case
of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I con-
veyed them into the boat while the Moor was on
shore, as if they had been there before for our
master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax
into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet,
a saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use
to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make can-





ROBINSON CRUSOE 29

dles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also: his name was Ismael,
whom they called Muley, or Moley:so I called to
him: “ Moley,” said I, “ our patron’s guns are on
board the boat; can you not get a little powder and
shot? it may be we may kill some alcamies ” (fowls
like our curlews) “for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” — “ Yes,”
says he, “I will bring some” ; and accordingly he
brought a great leather pouch, which held about a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with
some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the same
time I found some powder of my master’s in the
great cabin, with which I filled one of the large
bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pour-
ing what was in it into another; and thus furnished
with every thing needful, we sailed out of the port
to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the
port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us ; and we were not above a mile out of the port,
before we hauled in our sail and set us down to
fish. The wind blew from NN.E., which was con-
trary to my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I
had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and
at last reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my reso-
lutions were, blow which way it would, I would be
gone from the horrid place where I was, and leave
the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and catched no-
thing, for when I had fish on my hook I would



30 THE ADVENTURES OF

not pull them up, that he might not see them, I
said to the Moor, “ This will not do; our master
will not be thus served; we must stand farther off.”
He, thinking no harm, agreed ; and being at the
head of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the
helm, I run the boat near a league farther, and then
brought to, as if I would fish. Then giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor
was, and I took him by surprise, with my arm un-
der his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into
the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, and
told me he would go all the world over with me.
He swam so strong after the boat, that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin,
and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented
it at him, and told him, I had done him no hurt,
and if he would be quiet, I would do him none;
“ But,” said I, “you swim well enough to reach
the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of
your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but
if you come near the boat, I will shoot you through
the head ; for I am resolved to have my liberty.”
So he turned himself about, and swam for the
shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it
with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this
Moor with me and have drowned the boy, but
there was no venturing to trust him. When he
was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called





IF YOU COME NEAR THE BOAT I'LL SHOOT YOU



ROBINSON CRUSOE 31

Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me I will make you a great man; but if you
will not stroke your face to be true to me” (that
is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard), “I
must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled
in my face, and spoke so innocently that I could
not mistrust him ; and swore to be faithful to me,
and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was
swimming, I stood out directly to sea with the
boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Strait’s mouth
(as indeed any one that had been in their wits
must have been supposed to do) ; for who would
have supposed we were sailing on to the south-
ward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us ; where we could never
once go on shore but we should be devoured by
savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind ?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore; and
having a fair fresh gale of wind and a smooth
quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe by the
next day, at three o’clock in the afternoon, when
I made the land, I could not be less than one
hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite be-
yond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or



32 THE ADVENTURES OF

indeed of any other king thereabout; for we saw
no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the
Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions I had of
falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or
go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind con-
tinuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five
days ; and then the wind shifting to the southward,
I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over: so I
ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew not
what or where, neither what latitude, what coun-
try, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor
desired to see, any people; the principal thing I
wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek
in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon
as it was dark, and discover the country: but as
soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that
the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. “ Well,
Xury,” said I, “then I will not; but it may be,
we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us
as those lions.” — “Then we may give’ them the
shoot-gun,” says Xury, laughing; “make them
run away.” Such English Xury spoke by con-
versing among us slaves. However, I was glad to
see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
out of our patron’s case of bottles to cheer him







ROBINSON CRUSOE 33

up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took
it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay still all
night: I say still, for we slept none; for in two or
three hours we saw vast creatures (we knew not
what to call them), of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves, for the pleasure of cool-
ing themselves, and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yellings, that I never indeed heard the
like.

Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so
was I too; but we were both more frightened
when we heard one of these mighty creatures
swimming towards our boat: we could not see
him, but we might hear him, by his blowing, to
be a monstrous, huge and furious beast. Xury
said it was a lion, and it might be so, for aught I
know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away. “ No,” says I, “ Xury; we
can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go off to
sea: they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner
said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it
was) within two oars’ length, which something sur-
prised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and
swam to the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrible
noises and hideous cries and howlings that were
raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of



34. THE ADVENTURES OF

the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had
never heard before. This convinced me there was
no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast: and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for to have fallen into the
hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to
have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at
least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger
of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on
shore somewhere or other for water, for we had
not a pint left in the boat: when and where to
get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him
go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I
asked him why he would go; why I should not
go, and he stay in the boat. The boy answered
with so much affection, that he made me love him
ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they
cat me, you go away.” —“ Well, Xury,” said I,
“‘we will both go; and if the wild mans come, we
will kill them; they shall eat neither of us.” So
I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a
dram out of our patron’s case of bottles, which I
mentioned before ; and we hauled in the boat as
near the shore as we thought was proper, and so
waded to shore, carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat,
fearing the coming of canoes with savages down
the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about





ROBINSON CRUSOE 35

a mile up the country, rambled to it; and, by and
by, I saw him come running towards me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frightened by
some wild beast, and I therefore ran forwards to
help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw
something hanging over his shoulders, which was
a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but differ-
ent in colour, and longer legs; however, we were
very glad of it, and it was very good meat: but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell
me he had found good water, and seen no wild
mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take
such pains for water ; for a little higher up the creek
where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so
we filled our jars, and having a fire, feasted on the
hare we had killed; and prepared to go on our
way, having seen no footsteps of any human crea-
ture in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before,
I knew very well that the islands of the Canaries,
and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation, to find what latitude we were in, and
did not exactly know, or at least remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them,
otherwise I might now have easily found some
of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till Icame to the part where the



36 THE ADVENTURES OF

English traded, I should find some of their ves-
sels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, the place where
I now was must be that country which, lying be-
tween the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and
the Negroes, lies waste, and uninhabited except
by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it,
and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and
the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by
reason of its barrenness ; and, indeed, both forsak-
ing it because of the prodigious number of tigers,
lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
harbour there, so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or
three thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for
near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring
of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice, in the day-time, I thought I saw
the Pico of Teneriffe, being the top of the moun-
tain Teneriffe, in the Canaries, and had a great
mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by
contrary winds ; the sea also going too high for my
little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first de-
sign, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once, in
particular, being early in the morning, we came to



ROBINSON CRUSOE 37

an anchor under a little point of land which was
pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than, it stems, mine were, calls softly to
me, and tells me, that we had best go farther off
the shore; for, says he, “ Look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast
asleep.” I looked where he pointed, and saw a
dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion, that lay on the side of the shore, under the
shade of a piece of the hill, that hung, as it were,
over him. “ Xury,” says I, “you shall go on
shore and kill him.” Xury looked frightened, and
said, “ Me kill! he eat me at one mouth”; one
mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to
the boy, but bade him be still; and I took our
biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets: and a third, for we had
three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I
took the best aim I could with the first piece, to
have shot him in the head; but he lay so, with his
leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit
his leg about the knee, and broke the bone: he
started up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not
hit him on the head; however, I took up the
second piece immediately, and though he began to



38 THE ADVENTURES OF

move off, fired again, and shot him in the head,
and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make
but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then
Xury took heart, and would have me let him go
onshore. “ Well, go,” said 1; so the boy jumped
into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece
to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite.

This was game, indeed, to us, butit was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of pow-
der and shot upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have
some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet: “ For what, Xury ?” said
I.—“ Me cut off his head,” said he. However,
Xury could not cut off his head; but he cut off a
foot, and brought it with him, and it was a mon-
Strous great one. I bethought myself, however,
that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or
other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to
take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him: but Xury was much the better
workmanatit, for I knew very ill how to doit. In-
deed, it took us both up the whole day; butat last
we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward con-
tinually, for ten or twelve days, living very spar



ROBINSON CRUSOE 39

ingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener into the shore than
we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this, was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal:
that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd,
where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship ; and if I did not, I knew not what course I
had to take, but to seek for the islands or perish
among the Negroes. I knew that all theships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea,
or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape,
or those islands: and in a word I put the whole of
my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet with some ship or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten
days longer, as I have said, I began to see that the
land was inhabited ; and in two or three places, as
we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore
to look at us: we could also perceive they were
quite black and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my
better counsellor, and said to me, “ No go, no go.”
However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that 1
might talk to them; and I found they ran along
the shore by mea good way. I observed they had
no weapons in their hands, except one, who hada
long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance,
and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked to
them by signs, as well as I could, and particularly
made signs for something to eat. They beckoned to



40 THE ADVENTURES OF

me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
meat: upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country ;
and in less than half an hour came back, and
brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some
corn, such as the produce of their country ; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was; how-
ever, we were willing to accept it. But how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I was not for ven-
turing on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us: but they took a safe way for usall, for
they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and
went and stood a great way off till we fetched it
on board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends; but an opportu-
nity offered that very instant to oblige them won-
derfully; for while we were lying by the shore,
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other
(as we took it) with great fury, from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursu-
ing the female, or whether they were in sport or in
rage, we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange; but I believe
it was the latter, because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night;
and, in the second place, we found the people ter-
ribly frightened, especially the women. The man
that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran
directly into the water, they did not seem to offer



ROBINSON CRUSOE 4!

to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged them-
selves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion; at last one of them be-
gan to come nearer our boat than I at first ex-
pected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade
Xury load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him di-
rectly in the head: immediately he sunk down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up
and down, as if he was struggling for life, and so
indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore,
but between the wound which was his mortal hurt,
and the strangling of the water, he died just before
he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of
these poor creatures at the noise and fire of my
gun; some of them were even ready to die for
fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror;
but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in
the water, and that I made signs to them to come
to the shore, they took heart and came to the
shore, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water; and
by the help of a rope, which I slung round him,
and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him
on shore, and found that it was a most curious
leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree;
and the Negroes held up their hands with admi-
ration, to think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frightened with the flash



42 THE ADVENTURES OF

of fire and the noise of the gun, swam onshore, and
ran up directly to the mountains from whence they
came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it
was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him; and though they had no knife,
yet with a sharpened piece of wood they took off
his skin as readily, and much more readily, than
we could have done witha knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if
I would give it them, but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought mea
great deal more of their provisions, which, though
I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of
my jars to them, turning it bottom upwards, to
show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have
it filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women, and brought
a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I sup-
pose, in the sun; this they set down to me, as be-
fore, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and
filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such
as it was, and water; and leaving my friendly Ne-
groes, I made forward for about eleven days more,
without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the



ROBINSON CRUSOE 43

land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to
make this point. At length, doubling the point,
at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly
land on the other side, to seaward: then I con-
cluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this was
the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called
from thence Cape de Verd Islands. However, they
were at a great distance, and I could not well tell
what I had best to do; for if I should be taken
with a gale of wind, I might neither reach one nor
the other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the
helm ; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
“Master, master, a ship with a sail!” and the
foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, think-
ing it must needs be some of his master’s ships
sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten
far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the
cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but
what she was, viz. that it was a Portuguese ship,
and, as I thought, was bound to the Coast of
Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the
course she steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to come
any nearer to the shore; upon which, I stretched
out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should



44 THE ADVENTURES OF

not be able to come in their way, but that they
would be gone by before I could make any signal to
them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and
began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the
help of their perspective glasses, and that it was
some European boat, which, they supposed, must
belong to some ship that was lost: so they short-
ened sail, to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this, and as I had my patron’s ensign on
board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of
distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for
they told me they saw the smoke, though they did
not hear the gun. Upon these signals, they very
kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in
about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and
in Spanish, and in French, but I understood none
of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor who was on
board, called to me, and I answered him, and told
him I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee:
they then bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any
one will believe, that I was thus delivered, as I
esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost
hopeless, condition as I wasin; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told
me he would take nothing from me, but that all I
had should be delivered safe to me when I came to



ROBINSON CRUSOE 45

the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your
life on no other terms than I would be glad to be
saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be
my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Be-
sides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should
take from you what you have, you will be starved
there, and then I only take away that life I had
given. No, no, Senhor Inglez” (Mr. Englishman),
says he, “ I will carry you thither in charity, and
these things will help to buy your subsistence there,
and your passage home again.”





A he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance, to a tittle: for he
ordered the seamen, that none should offer to touch
anything I had: then he took everything into his
own possession, and gave me back an exact inven-
tory of them, that I might have them, even so
much as my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship’s use ; and asked me what I would have for
it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in
everything, that I could not offer to make any price
of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which,
he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay
me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil ; and when
it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath
to take; not that I was not willing to let the cap-
tain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in

ara



ROBINSON CRUSOE 47

procuring my own. However, when I let him know
my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me
this medium, that he would give the boy an obli-
gation to set him free in ten years if he turned
Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he was will-
ing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All
Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most mis-
erable of all conditions of life; and what to do next
with myself, I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I
can never enough remember: he would take no-
thing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats
for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me;
and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me;
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax,— for I had made
candles of the rest; in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo;
and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here before I was recom-
mended to the house of a good honest man, like
himself, who had an ingenio as they call it (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him
some time, and acquainted myself, by that means,
with the manner of planting and of making sugar;
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how



48 THE ADVENTURES OF

they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get
a license to settle there, I would turn planter among
them: endeavouring, in the meantime, to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in
London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting
a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as
much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from
England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells,
and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next
to mine, and we went on very sociably together.
My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come into order; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in
the year to come; but we both wanted help; and
now I found more than before, I had done wrong
in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did
right, was no great wonder. I had no remedy but
to go on: I had got into an employment quite re-
mote to my genius, and directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father’s house and broke through all his good ad-



ROBINSON CRUSOE 49

vice: nay, I was coming into the very middle sta-
tion, or upper degree of low life, which my father
advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to
go on with, I might as well have staid at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world as I
had done: and I used often to say to myself, I could
have done this as wellin England, among my friends,
as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner, I used to look upon my con-
dition with the utmost regret. I had nobody to
converse with, but now and then this neighbour ;
no work to be done, but by the labour of my
hands: and I used to say, I lived just like a man
cast away upon some desolate island, that had no-
body there but himself. But how just has it been!
and how should all men reflect, that when they
compare their present conditions with others that
are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity
by their experience: I say, how just has it been,
that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an
island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who
had so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in which, had I continued, I
had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous
and rich !

I was in some degree settled in my measures
for carrying on the plantation, before my kind



go THE ADVENTURES OF

friend, the captain of the ship that tock me up at
sea, went back; for the ship remained there, in
providing his lading and preparing for his voyage,
near three months. When telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave
me this friendly and sincere advice: “ Senhor In-
glez,” says he (for so he always called me), “if
you will give me letters, and a procuration here
in form to me, with orders to the person who has
your money in London, to send your effects to
Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will
bring you the produce of them, God willing, at
my return: but since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give
orders for but one hundred pounds sterling, which,
you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be
run for the first, so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry,
you may have the other half to have recourse to
for your supply.” This was so wholesome advice,
and looked so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could take; so
I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I left my money, and a procuration to
the Portuguese captain, as he desired me.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full ac-
count of all my adventures: my slavery, escape,
and how I had met with the Portuguese captain
at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what
condition I was now in, with all other necessary



ROBINSON CRUSOE 51

directions for my supply; and when this honest
captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some
of the English merchants there, to send over, not
the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant at London, who represented it effectu-
ally to her: whereupon she not only delivered the
money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the
Portuguese captain a very handsome present for
his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had
wrote for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils:
among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work,
and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me. When this cargo
arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good stew-
ard, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him as a present for
himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years’ service, and would not
accept of any consideration except a little tobacco,
which I would have him accept, being of my own
produce. Neither was this all: but my goods
being all English manufactures, such as cloths,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I might



$2 THE ADVENTURES OF

say I had more than four times the value of my
first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of
my plantation: for the first thing I did, I bought
me a Negro slave, and a European servant also;
I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made
the very means of our adversity, so was it with me.
I went on the next year with great success in my
plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on
my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours: and these fifty
rolls, being each of above one hundred pounds
weight, were well cured, and laid by against the
return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now, increas-
ing in business and in wealth, my head began to
be full of projects and undertakings beyond
my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of
the best heads in business. Had I continued in
the station I was now in, I had room for all the
happy things to have yet befallen me, for which
my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and which he had so sensibly de-
scribed the middle station of life to be full of:
but other things attended me, and I was still to
be the wilful agent of all my own miseries ; and,
particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections upon myself, which in my future sor-
rows I should have leisure to make, all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate



ROBINSON CRUSOE 53

adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering
about, and pursuing that inclination, in contradic-
tion to the clearest views of doing myself good in
a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and
those measures of life, which nature and Provi-
dence concurred to present me with, and to make
my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from
my parents, so I could not be content now, but I
must go and leave the happy view I had of being
a rich and thriving man in my new plantation,
only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted;
and thus I cast myself down again into the deep-
est gulf of human misery that ever man fell into,
or perhaps could be consistent with life anda
state of health in the world.

To come then, by just degrees, to the particu-
lars of this part of my story. — You may suppose,
that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very
well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance
and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well
as among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was
our port: and that, in my discourses among them,
I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of
trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it
was to purchase on the coast for trifles— such as
beads, toys, knives, scissars, hatchets, bits of giass,



54. THE ADVENTURES OF

and the like — not only gold dust, Guinea grains,
elephants’ teeth, etc., but Negroes, for the service
of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying Negroes; which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into,
but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed from the public; so that
few Negroes were bought, and those excessively
dear.

It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talk-
ing of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me the next morning, and told me they
had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they
came to make a secret proposal to me: and, after
enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that they
had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that
as it was a trade that could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own plan-
tations ; and, in a word, the question was, whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to man-
age the trading part upon the coast of Guinea;



ROBINSON CRUSOE 55

and they offered me that I should have an equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part
of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,
had it been made to any one that had not a set-
tlement and plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair way of coming to be very con-
siderable, and with a good stock upon it. But for
me, that was thus entered and established, and
had nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for
three or four years more, and to have sent for the
other hundred pounds from England; and who,
in that time and with that little addition, could
scarce have failed of being worth three or four
thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too;
for me to think of such a voyage was the most
preposterous thing that ever man, in such circum-
stances, could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer than I could re-
strain my first rambling designs, when my father’s
good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told
them I would go with all my heart, if they would
undertake to look after my plantation in my ab-
sence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to
do, and entered into writings or covenants to do
so: and I made a formal will, disposing of my plan-
tation and effects in case of my death; making
the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as
before, my universal heir; but obliging him to



56 THE ADVENTURES OF

dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will;
one-half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England. In short, I took
all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to
keep up my plantation: had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, and
have made a judgment of what I ought to have
done and not to have done, I had certainly never
gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving cir-
cumstance, and gone a voyage to sea, attended with
all its common hazards, to say nothing of the
reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy, rather than my reason: and
accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the first of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my
parents at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty
tons burden, carried six guns and fourteen men,
besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had
on board no large cargo of goods, except of such
toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissars,
hatchets, and the like.



ROBINSON CRUSOE ly

The very same day I went on board we set sail,
standing away to the northward upon our own
coast, with design to stretch over for the African
coast. When they came about ten or twelve de-
grees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days, we had very
good weather, only excessively hot all the way
upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther
off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if
we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding our course N. E. by N. and leaving those
isles on the east. In this course we passed the
Line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our
last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two min-
utes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge:
it began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled in the north-east;
from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry
us whithersoever fate and the fury of the winds
directed; and, during these twelve days, I need
not say that I expected every day to be swallowed
up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and
one man and a boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master



58 THE ADVENTURES OF

made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude,
but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that
he found he was got upoa the coast of Guiana, or
the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Ama-
zons, toward that of the river Oronoco, commonly
called the Great River; and began to consult with
me what course he should take, for the ship was
leaky and very much disabled, and he was for
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him,
we concluded there was no inhabited country for
us to have recourse to, till we came within the cir-
cle of the Carribee islands, and therefore resolved
to stand away for Barbadoes; which by keeping
off to sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf
of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped,
in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa
without some assistance, both to our ship and our-
selves.

With this design, we changed our course, and
steered away N. W. by W. in order to reach some
of our English islands, where I hoped for relief:
but our voyage was otherwise determined ; for being
in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes,
a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and
drove us so out of the very way of all human com-



ROBINSON CRUSOE 59

merce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the
sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured
by savages than ever returning to our own coun-
try.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early in the morning, cried out,
Land! and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner that we
expected we should all have perished immedi-
ately; and we were immediately driven into our
close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in
the like condition to describe or conceive the
consternation of men in such circumstances: we
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land
it was we were driven, whether an island or the
main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as
the rage of the wind was still great, though rather
less than at first, we could not so much as hope to
have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of miracle,
should immediately turn about. In a word, we sat
looking upon one another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly,
as preparing for another world; for there was little
or nothing more for us to do in this; that which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we



60 THE ADVENTURES OF

had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a
little abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the
sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her get-
ting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed,
and had nothing to do but to think of saving our
lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern just before the storm, but she was first staved
by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and, in the
next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her:
we had another boat on board, but how to get her
off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the
ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold
of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the
men, they got her flung over the ship’s side; and
getting all into her, we let her go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy
and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated
considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon
the shore, and might be well called den wild Zee,
as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for
we all saw plainly, that the sea went so high that
the boat could not live, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had



ROBINSON CRUSOE 61

none; nor, if we had, could we have done anything
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to exe-
cution; for we all knew that, when the boat came
nearer to the shore, she would be dashed in a thou-
sand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we
committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner, and the wind driving us towards the shore,
we hastened our destruction with our own hands,
pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was — whether rock or sand,
whether steep or shoal — we knew not; the only
hope that could rationally give us the least shadow
of expectation was, if we might happen into some
bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by
great chance we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth
water. But nothing of this appeared; and as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked
more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain-like, camerolling astern of us, and plainly
bade us expect the coup de grace. Ina word, it took
us with such fury, that it overset the boat at once ;
and separating us, as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, “ O God!”
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water ; for though
U swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself



62 THE ADVENTURES OF

from the waves so as to draw my breath, till that
wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast
way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry,
but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected,
I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again; but I
soon found it was impossible to avoid it ; for I saw
the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and
as furious as an enemy which I had no means or
strength to contend with: my business was to hold
my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could ; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breath-
ing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible ;
my greatest concern now being that the wave, as it
would carry mea great way towards the shore when
it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me
at once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body;
and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore, a very great way;
but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim
still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head
and hands shoot out above the surface of the water;
and though it was not two seconds of time that I





ROBINSON CRUSOE STRUGGLING TO REACH THE SHORE



ROBINSON CRUSOE 63

could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long but
I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself,
and began to return, I struck forward against the
return of the waves, and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath
and till the water went from me, and then took to
my heels, and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring
in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up
by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well nigh been
fatal to me ; for the sea, having hurried me along
as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of a rock, and that with such force, that it
left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my
own deliverance ; for the blow, taking my side and
breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my
body ; and had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water: but I re-
covered a little before the return of the waves, and,
seeing I should again be covered with the water, I
resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so
to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went
back. Now, as the waves were not so high as the
first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,



64 THE ADVENTURES OF

though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me
up as to carry me away ; and the next run I took,
I got to the main land; where, to my great com-
fort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and
sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and
quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began
to look up and thank God that my life was saved,
in a case wherein there was, some minutes before,
scarcely any room to hope. I believe it is impos-
sible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I
may say, out of the grave: and I did not wonder
now at the custom, viz., that when a malefactor,
who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and
just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him; I say, I do not wonder that they
bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and
overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapped up
in the contemplation of my deliverance; making
a thousand gestures and motions which I cannot
describe; reflecting upon my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three



ROBINSON CRUSOE 65

of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel — when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off—and considered,
“ Lord ! how was it possible I could get on shore?”

After I had solaced my mind with the comfort-
able part of my condition, I began to look around
me, to see what kind of a place I was in, and what
was next to be done; and I soon found my com-
forts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful
deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift
me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to comfort
me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but
that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured
by wild beasts: and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that
might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my pro-
vision ; and this threw meinto such terrible agonies
of mind that, for a while, I ran about like a mad-
man. Night coming upon me, I began, witha heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing
at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at
that time, was, to get up into a thick bushy tree,
like a fir, but thorny — which grew near me, and



66 ROBINSON CRUSOE

where I resolved to sit all night—and consider
the next day what death I should die, for as yet I
saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong
from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy ; and
having drank, and put a little tobacco into my
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and
getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so
as that, if I should fall asleep, I might not fall;
and having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon,
for my defence, I took up my lodging ; and hav-
ing been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition; and found myself the most
refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such
an occasion.



i

oT

if

Li

Ww
SS



Wes I waked it was broad day, the weather
clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea
did not rage and swell as before; but that which
surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay, by the
swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as
far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where
I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to
stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that
at least I might save some necessary things for
my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the
tree, I looked about me again, and the first thing
I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and
the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about
two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I
could upon the shore to have got to her; but
found a neck, or inlet, of water, between me and
the boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I



68 THE ADVENTURES OF

came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find some-
thing for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm,
and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come
within a quarter of a mile of the ship: and here
I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw
evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had
been all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe
on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company,
as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes
again; but as there was little relief in that, I re-
solved, if possible, to get to the ship: so I pulled
off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extrem-
ity, and took the water; but when I came to the
ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how
to get on board ; for as she lay aground, and high
out of the water, there was nothing within my
reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and
the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which
I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by
the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty
I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold; but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter
was free, and all that was in that part was dry ; for



ROBINSON CRUSOE 69

you may be sure my first work was to search and
to see what was spoiled and what was free: and,
first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were
dry and untouched by the water ; and, being very
well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room
and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I
went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which
I took a large dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of, to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish my-
self with many things which I foresaw would be
very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my ap-
plication. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or
two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with
these, and flung as many overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a
rope, that they might not drive away. When this
was done, I went down the ship’s side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them fast together at
both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a
raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them, crossways, I found I could walk upon
it very well, but that it was not able to bear any
great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went
to work, and with the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare
topmast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. But the



70 THE ADVENTURES OF

hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encour-
aged me to go beyond what I should have been
able to have done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and having considered well what
I most wanted, I got three of the seamen’s chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and low-
ered them down upon my raft; these I filled with
provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goats’ flesh (which we lived
much upon), and a little remainder of European
corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which
we had brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat to-
gether, but, to my great disappointment, I found
afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all.
As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles be-
longing to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters ; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need
to put them into the chests, nor any room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the tide began to
flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifica-
tion to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
had left on shore upon the sand, swim away ; as for
my breeches, which were only linen, and open-
kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stock-



ROBINSON CRUSOE 71

ings. However, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon; as,
first, tools to work with on shore; and it was after
long searching that I found the carpenter’s chest,
which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to
my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time
to look into it, for I knew in general what it con-
tained.

My next care was for some ammunition and
arms. There were two very good fowling-pieces in
the great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured
first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not
where our gunner had stowed them; but with much
search I found them, two of them dry and good,
the third had taken water. Those two I got to my
raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I
should get to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, nor rudder ; and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm
sea; 2dly, the tide rising, and setting in to the
shore; 3dly, what little wind there was blew me
towards the land. And thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat, and be-



72 THE ADVENTURES OF

sides the tools which were in the chest, I found
two saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this
cargo I put to sea. Fora mile, or thereabouts, my
raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed
before ; by which I perceived that there was some
indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to
find some creek or river there, which I might make
use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before
mea little opening of the land, and I founda strong
current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft,
as well as I could, to get into the middle of the
stream. But here I had like to have suffered a sec-
ond shipwreck, which, if I had, I think it verily
would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing
of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it
upon a shoal, and, not being aground at the other
end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting
my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength; neither durst I stir from the posture |
was in, but holding up the chests with all my might,
I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level; anda little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the oar I had into the channel, and then driv-
ing up higher, I at length found myself in the



ROBINSON CRUSOE 73

mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and
a strong current or tide running up. I looked on
both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I
was not willing to be driven too high up the river,
hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and there-
fore resolved to place myself as near the coast as
I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and diffi-
culty I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in ; but here I had like to have dipped
all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no
place to land, but where one end of my float, if it
ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide
was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the
shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon
as I found water enough, for my raft drew about
a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece
of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground one
on one side, near one end, and one on the other
side, near the other end: and thus I lay till the
water ebbed away and left my raft and all my cargo
safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek



74 THE ADVENTURES OF

a proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was I yet knew not; whether on
the continent or on an island; whether inhabited
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, and which
seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as
in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of
the fowling-pieces and one of the pistols and a horn
of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discov-
ery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had,
with great labour and difficulty, got up to the top,
I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was
in an island, environed every way with the sea, no
land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this,
which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw
none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw
sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world: I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood
there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of
many sorts, making a confused screaming and cry-



ROBINSON CRUSOE 75

ing, every one according to his usual note; but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk,
its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no
talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was
carrion and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to
my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on
shore, which took me up the rest of that day: what
to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed
where to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there
was really no need for those fears. However, as
well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of hut for that night’s lodging.
As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply
myself, except that I had seen two or three crea-
tures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her
all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart
till I got everything out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my



76 THE ADVENTURES OF

thoughts, whether I should take back the raft; but
this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down ; and I did so, only
that I stripped before I went from my hut; having
nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared
a second raft; and having had experience of the
first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it
so hard, but yet I brought away several things very
useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s stores,
I found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a
great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grind-
stone. All these I secured together, with several
things belonging to the gunner ; particularly, two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket
bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece,
with some small quantity of powder more, a large
bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship’s side. Besides these
things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could
find, anda spare fore-topsail,a hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft,
and brought them all safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions lest, during my
absence from the land, my provisions might be de-
voured on shore: but when I came back, I found
no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature



ROBINSON CRUSOE 7

like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when
I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still. She sat very composed and un-
concerned, and looked full in my face, as if she
had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it,
she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit
of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free
of it, for my store was not great; however, I spared
her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but
I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though
I was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks —I went to work to make me a little
tent, with the sail, and some poles, which I cut for
that purpose ; and into this tent I brought every-
thing that I knew would spoil either with rain or
sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up
in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any
sudden attempt either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door
of the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without; and spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols
just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I
went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy ; for the



78 THE ADVENTURES OF

night before I had slept little, and had laboured
very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was
not satisfied still ; for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought 1 ought to get everything
out of her that I could ; so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or
other: but particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could,
as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could
get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to
mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. Ina word, I brought away all the
sails first and last; only that I was fain to cut them
in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could;
for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.

But that which comforted me still more was,
that, last of all, after I had made five or six such
voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more
to expect from the ship that was worth my med-
dling with; I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum
or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied
the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up,
parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut





ROBINSON CRUSOE 79

out ; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now,
having plundered the ship of what was portable and
fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and cutting
the great cable into pieces such as I could move,
I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all
the ironwork I could get; and having cut down
the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every-
thing I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all those heavy goods, and came away ; but
my good luck began now to leave me ; for this raft
was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water ; as for myself,
it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but
as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, es-
pecially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me: however, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore,
and some of the iron, though with infinite labour;
for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went
every day on board, and brought away what I
could get.

I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had
been eleven times on board the ship; in which time
I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well besupposed capable to bring; though I believe



80 THE ADVENTURES OF

verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing, the twelfth time, to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise. However, at low water, I
went on board; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually as that nothing could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissars, with some ten or a dozen
of good knivesand forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds in money, some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and
some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money;
“O drug!” I exclaimed, “ what art thou good for?
Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking off
the ground; one of those knives is worth all this
heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e’en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as
a creature whose life is not worth saving.” How-
ever, upon second thoughts, I took it away; and
Wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began ta
think of making another raft ; but while I was pre~
paring this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew
a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred
te me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my
business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
or otherwise I might not be able to reach the
shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down into



ROBINSON CRUSOE 81

the water, and swam across the channel which lay
between the ship and the sands, and even that
with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of
the things I had about me, and partly the rough-
ness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was got home to my little tent, where I
lay, with all my wealth about me very secure. It
blew very hard all that night, and in the morning,
when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be
seen ! I was alittle surprised, but recovered myself
with this satisfactory reflection, viz. that I had lost
no time, nor abated no diligence, to get every-
thing out of her that could be useful to me, and
that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was
able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship,
or of anything out of her, except what might drive
on shore from her wreck ; as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of
small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about
securing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to
do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether
I should make a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both;
the manner and description of which, it may not
be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my



82 THE ADVENTURES OF

settlement, particularly because it was upon a low,
moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed it
would not be wholesome; and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I re-
solved to find a more healthy and more convenient
spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which
I found would be proper for me: first, airand fresh
water, I just now mentioned ; secondly, shelter from
the heat of the sun; thirdly, security from raven-
ous creatures, whether men or beasts; fourthly, a
view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliver-
ance, of which | was not willing to banish all my
expectation yet.

In search for a place proper for this, I found a
little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come down upon me from
the top. On the side of this rock, there was a hol-
low place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any cave,
or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay likea green before my door ; and,
at the end of it, descended irregularly every way
down into the low ground by the seaside. It was
on the N. N. W. side of the hill; so that it was
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to



ROBINSON CRUSOE 83

a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those
countries is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drewa half-circle before
the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in
its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they
stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being
out of the ground about five feet and a half, and
sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand
above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows, one upon another,
within the circle, between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a half
high, like a spur toa post; and this fence was so
strong, that neither man nor beast could get into
it or over it. This cost mea great deal of time and
labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring
them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be not by
a door, but bya short ladder to go over the top;
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as
I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards,
there was no need of all this caution against the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.



G

mn
‘ : \

I 4 ed

nTOo this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I
| carried all my riches, all my provisions, am-
munition, and stores, of which you have the ac-
count above; and I made a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz. one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it,
and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin,
which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed
which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and having
thus enclosed all my goods I made up the entrance,
which till now I had left open, and so passed and
repassed as I said, by ashort ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them

SE
Ur
4
a
|
Kh
|

i
\







ROBINSON CRUSOE 85

up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so
that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made mea cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days, before all
these things were brought to perfection ; and there-
fore I must go back to some other things which
took up some of my thoughts. At the same time
it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the set-
ting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm
of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden
flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I
was not so much surprised with the lightning as I
was with a thought which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself: “O my powder!” My
very heart sunk within me when I thought that at
one blast all my powder might be destroyed; on
which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was no-
thing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder taken fire, I should never have
known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that
after the storm was over, I laid aside all my works,
my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and
to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope,
that whatever might come, it might not all take
fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should
not be possible to make one part fire another. I fin-



86 THE ADVENTURES OF

ished this work in about a fortnight; and I think
my powder, which in all was about two hundred
and forty pounds weight was divided into not less
than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from
that; so I placedit in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up
and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I
laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I
went out at least once every day with my gun, as
well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill any-
thing fit for food; and, as near as I could, to ac-
quaint myself with what the island produced. The
first time I went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats upon the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with
this misfortune to me, viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most
difficult thing in the world to come at them; but
I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon hap-
pened; for after I had found their haunts a little,
I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed, if
they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon
the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me;
from whence I concluded, that by the position of
their optics, their sight was so directed downward,





ROBINSON CRUSOE 87

that they did not readily see objects that were
above them: so afterwards I took this method—
I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot
I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck
to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old
one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came
and took her up; and not only so, but when I car-
ried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the
kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in
my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to
have bred it up tame: but it would not eat; so
I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These two
supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate spar-
ingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread espe-
cially) as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it ab-
solutely necessary to provide a place to make a
fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that,
as also how I enlarged my cave and what conven-
iences I made, I shall give a full account of it in
its proper place ; but I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about liv-
ing, which, it may well be supposed, were not a
few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as
I was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and a great way,



88 THE ADVENTURES OF

viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that
in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner,
I should end my life. The tears would run plenti-
fully down my face when I made these reflections ;
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself
why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable,
so abandoned without help, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for
such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me
to check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and
particularly, one day walking with my gun in my
hand, by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the
subject of my present condition, when reason, as it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus:
“Well, you are in a desolate condition it is true;
but, pray remember, where are the rest of you?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat?
Where are the ten ? Why were not they saved, and
you lost? Why were you singled out? Is it better
to be here or there?”” And then I pointed to the
sea. All evils are to be considered with the good
that is in them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was
furnished for my subsistence, and what would have
been my case if it had not happened (which was a
hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from
the place where she first struck, and was driven so



ROBINSON CRUSOE 89

near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her ; what would have been my case,
if I had been to have lived in the condition in
which [ at first came on shore, without necessaries
of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them?
“ Particularly,” said I aloud (though to myself),
“what should I have done without a gun, without
ammunition, without any tools to make anything,
or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent,
or any manner of covering?” And that now I had
all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner as to live
without my gun, when my ammunition was spent :
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, with-
out any want, as long as I lived; for I considered,
from the beginning, how I would provide for the
accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, not only after my ammunition should
be spent, but even after my health or strength
should decay.

I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my
ammunition being destroyed at one blast, I mean
my powder being blown up by lightning; and this
made the thoughts of it so surprising to me when
it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of ascene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order.
It was, by my account, the 3oth of September,
when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot



90 ROBINSON CRUSOE

upon this horrid island; when the sun, being to
us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over
my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation,
to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two
minutes north of the Line.





FTER I had been there about ten or twelve days,
it came into my thoughts that I should lose
my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen
and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days
from the working days; but, to prevent this, I cut
it with my knife upon a large post, in capital let-
ters; and making it into a great cross, I set it up
on the shore where I first landed, viz. “I came
on shore here on the 3oth of September, 1659.”
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day
a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was
as long again as the rest, and every first day of the
month as long again as that long one: and thus I
kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.

But it happened that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voy-
ages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less use-
ful to me, which I found some time after, in rum-
maging the chests: as, in particular, pens, ink, and



92 THE ADVENTURES OF

paper ; several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gun-
ner’s, and carpenter’s keeping ; three or four com-
passes, some mathematical instruments, dials, per-
spectives, charts, and books of navigation; all of
which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no; also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also, and, among them,
two or three popish prayer-books, and several
other books, all which I carefully secured. And J
must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog,
and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something, in its place; for I car-
ried both the cats with me; and as for the dog,
he jumped out of the ship himself, and swam on
shore to me the day after I went on shore with
my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me for
many years: I wanted nothing that he could fetch
me, nor any company that he could make up to
me, I only wanted to have him talk to me, but
that would not do. As I observed before, I found
pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to
the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink
lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
gone, I could not; for I could not make any ink,
by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many
things, notwithstanding all that I had amassed to-
gether ; and of these, this of ink was one; as also
a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the



ROBINSON CRUSOE 93

earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I
soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go
on heavily : and it was near a whole year before I
had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded
my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as
heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cut-
ting and preparing in the woods, and more by far,
in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two
days in cutting and bringing home one of those
posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground;
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at
first, but ai fast bethought myself of one of the
iron crows ; which, however, though I found it an-
swer, made driving these posts or piles very labori-
ous and tedious work. But what need I have been
concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had
I any other employment, if that had been over, at
least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food ; which I did, more or less,
every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew
up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much
to leave them to any that were to come after me
(for I was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver
my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now
to master my despondency, I began to comfort my-
self as well as I could, and to set the good against



Full Text


FRIDAY (page 292)

CUE

Nn
Za
4
12}
Oo
Nn
>
4

NC

ROBINS


ry RIVERSIDE BOOKSHELF Ee

THE LIFE AND STRANGE
SURPRISING ADVENTURES

ROBINSON
CRUSOE

By DANIEL DEFOE

a = ee) 2X of
ILLUSTRATED BY
E. BOYD SMITH
ah

Cy
HH

a

COE BS aN
: Re Eee _

=
pa
SSS

Disa
KY 67

abe



BOSTON AND NEW YORK
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
The Riverside Press Cambridge


ww
.
aie
2

GOPYRIGHT, 1909, BY HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
COPYRIGHT, 1937, BY E. BOYD SMITH

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The Riverside Press
CAMBRIDGE » MASSACHUSETTS
PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.
ILLUSTRATIONS

Rosinson CRUSOE RESCUES Fripay (p. 292) Colored Frontispiece

My FATHER GAVE ME EXCELLENT COUNSEL I
THE PUNCH WAS MADE AND | WAS MADE DRUNK 8
SuRPRISED BY A TURKISH ROVER 23

Ir YoU COME NEAR THE BOAT ILL sHOOT You (colored) 30

THE WIND DRIVING US TOWARD THE SHORE 46
STRUGGLING TO REACH THE SHORE (colored) 62
WITH THE CARGO I PUT TO SEA 67
I ENLARGED MY CAVE 84
DrivING THESE POLES WAS TEDIOUS WORK go
ALL MY GOODS IN SUCH ORDER (colored) 96
I BEGAN TO KEEP A JOURNAL 99
Ir was A BARREL OF GUNPOWDER 118
I TooK UP THE BIBLE AND BEGAN TO READ 130

So WEAK THAT I COULD HARDLY CARRY THE GUN (colored) 132
I FAIRLY DESCRIED LAND 151
I FIRED AGAIN AND KILLED THREE OF THEM 158
I HAD SEED ENOUGH TO SOW ABOUT AN ACRE OF GROUND 170

BURNING THE EARTHEN POTS (colored) 74
ILLUSTRATIONS

FINDING IT IMPOSSIBLE TO HEAVE HER 178
Rosinson CRUSOE, WHERE ARE You? 195
CARRIED BY THE CURRENT AWAY FROM THE ISLAND (colored) 200
My DoG sAT ALWAYS AT MY RIGHT HAND 208
I CONTRIVED TO PLANT THE MUSKETS 221
THE PRINT OF A MAN’S NAKED FOOT ON THE SHORE (colored) 222
THE SHORE SPREAD WITH THE BONES OF HUMAN BODIES 234

I TOOK MY FIREBRAND AND IN | RUSHED 249



As MY FIRE BLAZED UP I HEARD ANOTHER GUN 261

THERE WERE NO LESS THAN NINE NAKED SAVAGES (colored) 262

WHEN I caAME CLOSE TO HER A DOG APPEARED 271
ALMOST AS WELL CLOTHED AS HIS MASTER 289
I FIRED, AND BADE HIM LOOK 304
I WAS RESOLVED TO GO DOWN AND KILL THEM ALL 320

IN ABOUT A MONTH’S HARD LABOR WE FINISHED IT (colored) 328
HE TOLD ME THAT IT WAS HIS FATHER 337

LoosING HIS HANDS AND FEET I LIFTED HIM (colored) 346

WE PERCEIVED THEM ALL COMING ON SHORE AGAIN 363 |
WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN? (colored) 366 |
HE CLOTHED ME FROM HEAD TO FOOT 384
FRIDAY ACCOMPANIED ME IN ALL THESE RAMBLINGS 399



FRIDAY STEPPED UP CLOSE TO HIM AND SHOT HIM DEAD 418



i ache ti ae aa


ony, ae tty
mewn

\



was bornin the year 1632, in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country,
my father being a foreigner of Bremen, named
~ Kreutznaer, who settled first at Hull. He gota
+ good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his
trade, lived afterwards at York, from whence he had

~ married my mother, whose relations were named

Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
after whom I was so called, that is to say, Robin-
son Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of
words in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my
companions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was
lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot
in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battlenear
Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of
my second brother, I never knew, any more than
my father and mother did know what was become
of me.
2 THE ADVENTURES OF

Being the third son of the family, and not bred
to any trade, my head began to be filled very early
with rambling thoughts. My father, who was very
aged, had given me a competent share of learn-
ing, as far as house education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law;
but I would be satisfied with nothing but going
to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly
against the will, nay, the commands of my father,
and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother and other friends, that there seemed
to be something fatal in that propension of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to
befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me se-
rious and excellent counsel against what he foresaw
was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this sub-
ject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving his house,
and my native country, where I might be well in-
troduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune,
by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate for-
tunes, on one hand, or of superior fortunes, on the
other, who went abroad upon adventures, aspiring
to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous
in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road; that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me; that mine was the mid-
ROBINSON CRUSOE §

dle state, or what might be called the upper sta-
tion of low life, which he had found, by long ex-
perience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness; not exposed to the
miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings,
of the mechanic part of mankind, and not em-
barrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind: he told me, I
might judge of the happiness of this state by one
thing, viz. that this was the state of life which all
other people envied; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed
in the middle of two extremes, between the mean
and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony
to this as the just standard of true felicity, when
he prayed to have “ neither poverty nor riches.”

He bade me observe it, and I should always find,
that the calamities of life were shared among the
upper and lower part of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was
not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher
or lower part of mankind: nay, they were not sub-
jected toso many distempersand uneasinesses, either
of body or mind, as those were, who, by vicious
living, luxury, and extravagancies, on one hand, or,
by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean and
insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring distem-
pers upon themselves by the natural consequences
of their way of living; that the middle station of
life was calculated for all kind of virtues, and all
# THE ADVENTURES OF

kind ofenjoyments; that peace and plenty were the _
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, —
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable
diversions, and all desirable pleasures were the
blessings attending the middle station of life; that
this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embar-
rassed with the labours of the hands or of the head,
not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or
harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob
the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not en-
raged with the passion of envy, or secret burning
lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy cir-
cumstances, sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the
bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by
every day’s experience, to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to play the young
man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no ne-
cessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the
station of life which he had been just recommending
to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that
must hinder it; and that he should have nothing
to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in
warning me against measures which he knew would
be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very






ROBINSON CRUSOE 5

kind things for me if I would stay and settle at
homeas he directed; so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encour-
agement to go away: and, to close all, he told me
I had my elder brother for an example, to whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep
him from going into the Low Country wars; but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where he was killed; and
> though, he said, he would not cease to pray for me,
yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did
"take this foolish step, God would not bless me;
) and I would have leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse,
which was truly prophetic, though, I suppose, my
father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I
observed the tears run down his face very plenti-
fully, especially when he spoke of my brother who
® was killed; and that, when he spoke of my having
+ leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
+ moved, that he broke off the discourse, and told
me his heart was so full he could say no more to
me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as,
indeed, who could be otherwise? and I resolved
not to think of going abroad any more, but to set-
# tle at home, according to my father’s desire. But
alas! a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to
prevent any of my father’s further importunities,
6 THE ADVENTURES OF

in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away
from him. However, I did not actso hastily, neither,
as my first heat of resolution prompted; but I took
my mother, at a time when I thought her a little
pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that my
thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the
world, that I should never settle to anything with
resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had better give me his consent than force
me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years
old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade,
or clerk to an attorney: that I was sure, if I did, I
should never serve out my time, and I should cer-
tainly run away from my master before my time
was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to
my father to let me make but one voyage abroad,
if I came home again, and did not like it, I would
go no more; and I would promise by a double
diligence, to recover the time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion: she
told me she knew it would be to no purpose to
speak to my father upon any such a subject; that
he knew too well what was my interest to give his
consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing,
after such a discourse as I had from my father, and
such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would
ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it:
that for her part, she would not have so much hand
ROBINSON CRUSOE 7

in my destruction ; and I should never have it to
say, that my mother was willing when my father
was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, as I have heard afterwards, she reported
all the discourse to him; and that my father, after
showing a great concern at it, said to her with a
sigh, “ That boy might be happy if he would stay
at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no
consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose ; though in the mean time I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time, and one of my companions
then going to London by sea in his father’s ship,
and prompting me to go with them by the common
allurement of seafaring men, viz. that it should
cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but left them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God’s blessing, or my father’s,
without any consideration of circumstances or con-
sequences, and in an ill hour, God knows.
=U
\ WN
‘ i

LE

Ox the rst September, 1651, I went on board
a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began younger,
or continued longer, than mine. The ship had no
sooner got out of the Humber, than the wind —
began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a most _
frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and
terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect
upon what I had done, and how justly I was over-
taken by the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly
leaving my father’s house. All the good counsels
of my parents, my father’s tears, and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch
of hardness to which it has been since, reproached
me with the contempt of advice, and the abandon-

ment of my duty.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea,
which I had never been upon before, went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many






ROBINSON CRUSOE 9

times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after;
but, such as it was, enough to affect me then, who
was but a young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. I expected every wave
would have swallowed us up, and that every time
the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more;
/ and in this agony of mind I made many vows
) and resolutions, that if it would please God to
‘spare my life this voyage, if ever I got my foot
once on dry land, I would go directly home to
")my father, and never set it into a ship again while
>I lived; that I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more.
7 Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observa-
‘tions about the middle station of life; how easy,
how comfortable, he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea or
“troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would,
Jlike a true repenting prodigal, go home to my
father.

»_ These wise and sober thoughts continued during
the storm, and indeed some time after; but the
next day, as the wind was abated, and the sea
almer, I began to be a little inured to it. How-
yever, I was very grave that day, being also a lit-
“tle sea-sick still: but towards night the weather
Wcleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charm-
“Png fine evening followed; the sun went down
perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning ; and
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the














10 THE ADVENTURES OF

sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, 1
the most delightful that I ever saw. 1

I had slept well in the night, and was now no —
more sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with —
wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terri- _
ble the day before, and could be so calm and
pleasant in a little time after.

And now lest my good resolutions should con-
tinue, my companion, who had indeed enticed me
away, came to me, and said, “Well, Bob,” clapping
me on the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I
warrant you you were frightened, wa’n’t you, last
night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind? ””»—“A
cap-full,do youcall it?” said I; “’t wasa terrible
storm.” — “ A storm, you fool!” replies he, “do
you call that a storm? Why, it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship, and sea-room, and
we think nothing of sucha squall of wind as that:
you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let
us make a bowl of punch, and we’ll forget all
that. D’ ye see what charming weather ’t is now?”
To make short this sad part of my story, we went
the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and
I was made drunk with it; and in that one night’s :
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my _
reflections upon my past conduct, and all my reso-
lutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was 4
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled |
calmness by the abatement of the storm, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and
apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea




ROBINSON CRUSOE II

forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises
I had made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection ; and serious thoughts did,
as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes ;
but I shook them off and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper, and, applying
myself to drink and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits — for so I called them; and I
had in five or six days got as complete a victory
over conscience as any young sinner, that resolved
not to be troubled with it, could desire. But I was
to have another trial for it still; and Providence,
as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse: for if I would
not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be
such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy of. The sixth day of our being at sea we
came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been
contrary and the weather calm, we had made but
little way since the storm. Here we were obliged
to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind
continuing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven
or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as
the common harbour where the ships might wait
for a wind for the river Thames. We had not,
however, rid here so long, but we should have tided
up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh;
and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very
12 THE ADVENTURES OF

hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good
as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned and
not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike
our topmasts and make everything snug and close,
that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By
noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought, once or twice, our anchor had come home;
upon which our master ordered out the sheet
anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead,
and the cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the
faces of even the seamen themselves, The master
was vigilant in the business of preserving the ship;
but, as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I
could hear him softly say to himself several times,
“Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we

shall be all undone!” and the like. During these
first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, —

which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my

temper. I could ill reassume the first penitence, ©
which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard- |
ened myself against ; I thought that the bitterness of
death had been past, and that this would be nothing |
too, like the first: but when the master himself —
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should |



ee EN ER SE Tg eee pee ee






ROBINSON CRUSOE 13

be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I got up
out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dis-
mal sight I never saw; the sea went mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four min-
utes. When I could look about, I could see no-
thing but distress around us; two ships that rid near
us, we found had cut their masts by the board,
being deeply laden; and our men cried out that a
ship which rid about a mile ahead of us was foun-
dered. Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all
adventures, and that with not a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away, with
only their spritsails out, before the wind. Toward
evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which
he was very loath to do; but the boatswain pro-
testing to him, that if he did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut
away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose,
and shook the ship so much, they were obliged
to cut it away also, and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be
in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who
had been in such a fright before at but a little. But
if I can express, at this distance, the thoughts I
had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former con-
Victions, and the having returned from them to the
14 THE ADVENTURES OF

resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was
at death itself; and these, added to the terror of
the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can
by no words describe it; but the worst was not
come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had
never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deep laden, and so wallowed in the sea, that
the seamen every now and then cried out she would
founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that
I did not know what they meant by founder, till I
inquired. However, the storm was so violent that
I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others, more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment the
ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the
night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of
the men, that had been down on purpose tosee, cried
out, we had sprung a leak; another said there was
four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart,
as I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards
upon the side of my bed, where I sat in the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me that [.
who was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another: at which I stirred up
and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were
obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not
come near us, ordered us to fire a gun as a signal



:




ROBINSON CRUSOE 15

of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant,
was so surprised, that I thought the ship had
broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In
a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his
own life to think of, no one minded me, or what
was become of me: but another man stepped up to
the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot,
let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it wasa
great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder ;
and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into a port, so the master continued firing guns for
help ; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with
the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship’s side; till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a
buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold
of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and
got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for
them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much
as we could: and our master promised them, that
if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make
16 THE ADVENTURES OF

it good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, slop-
ing towards the shore almost as far as Winterton- ~
Ness. ’

We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship when we saw her sink; and ©
then I understood, for the first time, what was _
meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must ac-
knowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when the
seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that
moment, they rather put me into the boat, than
that I might be said to go in. My heart was, as it
were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with
horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet
before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many peo-
ple running along the strand, to assist us when we
should come near; but we made slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being
past the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls
off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind,
Here we got in, and, though not without much diffi-
culty, got all safe on shore, and walked, afterwards
on foot to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the
magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quar-
ters, as by the particular merchants and owners of


ROBINSON CRUSOE 17

ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry
us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought
fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy:
and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for,
hearing the ship I went in was cast away in Yar-
mouth Roads, it was a great while before he had
any assurance that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason and my more com-
posed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power
to do it. —I know not what to call this, nor will
I urge that it is a secret, overruling decree, that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own de-

struction, even though it be before us, and that we



rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing
but some such decreed unavoidable misery attend-
ing, and which it was impossible for me to escape,
could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasonings and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me be-
fore, and who was the master’s son, was now less
forward than I: the first time he spoke to me after
we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or
three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me,
18 THE ADVENTURES OF

it appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very ©
melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me 3
how I did; telling his father who I was, and how :
I had come this voyage only fora trial, inorder to _
go farther abroad. His father, turning to me with ~
a grave and concerned tone, “Young man,” says —
he, “you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token,
that you are not to be a seafaring man.” —“ Why,
sir?” said I; “will you go to sea no more?” —
“‘ That is another case,” said he; “it is my calling,
and therefore my duty ; but as you made this voy-
age for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist.
Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account, —
like Jonah in theship of Tarshish.” —“ Pray,” con- |
tinues he, “ what are you, and on what account did _
you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of
my story; at the end of which he burst out witha
strange kind of passion. “ What had I done,” said
he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same
ship with thee again fora thousand pounds.” This
indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss,
and was farther than he could have authority to go.
— However, he afterwards talked very gravely to —
me; exhorted me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin; told me, I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me; and, |
“young man,” said he, “depend uponit,ifyoudo |










ROBINSON CRUSOE 19

not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
| father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little an-
swer, and I saw him no more; which way he went,
I know not : as for me, having some money in my
pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there,
as well as on the road, had many struggles with my-
self what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home or go tosea. As to going home,
shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how
I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and
should be ashamed to see, not my father and mo-
ther only, but even everybody else. From whence
I have often since observed how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is, es-
pecially of youth, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz. that they are not
ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent, not
ashamed of the action, for which they ought justly
to be esteemed fools ; but are ashamed of the re-
turning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some
time, uncertain what measures to take, and what
course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance con-
tinued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the
remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off;
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I
20 THE ADVENTURES OF

quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out |
for a voyage. That evil influence which carried me |
first away from my father’s house, that hurried me 3
into the wild and indigested notion of raising my ‘
fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forci-
bly upon me as to make me deaf to all good advice, ’
and to the entreaties and even the commands of ‘
my father; I say, the same influence, whatever it
was, presented the most unfortunate of all enter-
prises to my view; and I went on board a vessel 4
bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors 7
vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these ad-
ventures I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, |
though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had learned |
the duty and office of a foremast-man, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieuten- _
ant, if not a master: but as it was always my fate _
to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having ©
money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my |
back, I would always go on board in the habit of
a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in ~
the ship, nor learned to do any. It was my lot, |
first of all, to fall into pretty good company in 4
London; which does not always happen to such §
loose and misguided young fellows as I then was: q
the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some snare
for them very early. But it was not so with me: I 4
first fell acquainted with the master of a ship, who ’
had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having |




ROBINSON CRUSOE 21

had very good success there, was resolved to go
again. He, taking a fancy to my conversation, which
was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing
me say I had a mind to see the world, told me
that, if I would go the voyage with him, I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his
companion; and if I could carry anything with me,
I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
encouragement. I embraced the offer, and enter-
ing into a strict friendship with this captain, wha
was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me; which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably ;
for I carried about forty pounds in such toys and
trifles as the captain directed meto buy. This forty
pounds I had mustered together by the assistance
of some of my relations whom I corresponded
with ; and who, I believe, got my father, or, at least,
my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure. This was the only voyage which I
may say was successful in all my adventures, and
which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain; under whom also I got a com-
petent knowledge of mathematics and the rules of
@ navigation, learned how to keep an account of the
ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short,
to understand some things that were needful to be
understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, ina word,
22 ROBINSON CRUSOE

this voyage made me both a sailor anda merchant:
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of |
gold dust for my adventure, which yielded me |
in London, at my return, almost three hundred |
pounds, and this filled me with those aspiring |
thoughts which have since so completed my ruin, |
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too;
particularly, that I was continually sick, being ©
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive |
heat of the climate; our principal trading being ©
upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees
north even to the Line itself.




was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my

friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon
after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again; and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
_ had now got the command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
© though I did not carry quite a hundred pounds of
my new-gained wealth, so that I had two hundred
~ pounds left, and which I lodged with my friend’s
" widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first
was this, viz.—our ship, making her course to-

» wards the Canary Islands, or rather between those

islands and the African shore, was surprised, in
the gray of the morning, by a Turkish rover, of
Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she
could make. We crowded also as much canvas as
our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to get
clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
| would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
24 THE ADVENTURES OF

we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns |
and the rover eighteen. About three in the after- 4
noon he came up with us; and bringing to, by
mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of 4
athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought ~
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured ©

in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer
off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in
also his small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not
a man touched, all our men keeping close. He

prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but laying us on board the next time
upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men
upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting ©

and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them
with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our
story, our ship being disabled, and three of our

men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged —
to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,

a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as :
at first I apprehended: nor was I carried up the
country to the emperor’s court, as the rest of our
men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover |
as his proper prize, and made his slave, being |
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this :
surprising change of my circumstances, from a :
merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly |



it lat a a ok ie Ne


ROBINSON CRUSOE 25

overwhelmed ; and now looked back upon my
father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should
be miserable and have none to relieve me; which
I thought was now so effectually brought to pass,
that it could not be worse; that now the hand of
Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone,
without redemption. But, alas! this was but a
taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me
home to his house, so I was in hopes he would
take me with him when he went to sea again, be-
lieving that it would, some time or other, be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man
of war, and that then I should be set at liberty.
But this hope of mine was soon taken away, for
when he went to sea he left me on shore to look
after his little garden, and do the common drudg-
ery of slaves about his house; and when he came
home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin, to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and
what method I might take to effect it, but found
no way that had the least probability init. Nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me; no fellow-slave, no English-
man, Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself;
so that for two years, though I often pleased my-
self with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
26 THE ADVENTURES OF

After about two years, an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making

some attempt for my liberty again in my head. |
My patron lying at home longer than usual, with- |

out fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for |

want of money, he used constantly, once or twice |

a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair,
to take the ship’s pinnace and go out into the road
a fishing; and as he always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him
very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catch-
ing fish, insomuch that sometimes he wouldsend me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth,
the Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a fishing in a
stark calm morning,a fog rose so thick, that though
we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither, or
which way, we laboured all day and all the next





night, and when the morning came, we found we |

had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the '
shore, and that we were at least two leagues from _
the shore: however, we got well in again, though |

with a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the
wind began to blowpretty freshin the morning; but
particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and
having lying by him the longboat of our English
ship he had taken, he resolved he would not goa


ov t ~~ VS ew

“ye

Re ore re a ee



ROBINSON CRUSOE 27

fishing any more without a compass and some pro-
vision ; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who
was an English slave, to build a little state-room
or cabin in the middle of the longboat, like that of
a barge, with a place to stand behind it, to steer
and haul home the main sheet, and room before
for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She
sailed with what we called a shoulder-of-mutton
sail, and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat
on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and par-
ticularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,
he never went without me. It happened that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure
or for fish, with two or three Moors of some dis-
tinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on
board the boat, overnight, a larger store of pro-
visions than ordinary, and had ordered me to get
ready three fusees, with powder and shot, which
were on board his ship, for that they designed some
sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her
ensign and pendants out, and everything to accom-
modate his guests: when, by and by, my patron
came on board alone, and told me his guests had
28 THE ADVENTURES OF

put off going, upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me with a man and boy, as usual, to
go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for
that his friends were to sup at his house ; and com-
manded, thatas soon as I had got somefish, I should
bring it home to his house: all which I prepared
to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was
like to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself,
not for a fishing business, but for a voyage; though
I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I should steer; for any where, to get out
of that place, was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get something for our
subsistence on board; for I told him we must not
presume to eat of our patron’s bread: he said that
was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with fresh wa-
ter, into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case
of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I con-
veyed them into the boat while the Moor was on
shore, as if they had been there before for our
master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax
into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet,
a saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use
to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make can-


ROBINSON CRUSOE 29

dles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also: his name was Ismael,
whom they called Muley, or Moley:so I called to
him: “ Moley,” said I, “ our patron’s guns are on
board the boat; can you not get a little powder and
shot? it may be we may kill some alcamies ” (fowls
like our curlews) “for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” — “ Yes,”
says he, “I will bring some” ; and accordingly he
brought a great leather pouch, which held about a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with
some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the same
time I found some powder of my master’s in the
great cabin, with which I filled one of the large
bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pour-
ing what was in it into another; and thus furnished
with every thing needful, we sailed out of the port
to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the
port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us ; and we were not above a mile out of the port,
before we hauled in our sail and set us down to
fish. The wind blew from NN.E., which was con-
trary to my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I
had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and
at last reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my reso-
lutions were, blow which way it would, I would be
gone from the horrid place where I was, and leave
the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and catched no-
thing, for when I had fish on my hook I would
30 THE ADVENTURES OF

not pull them up, that he might not see them, I
said to the Moor, “ This will not do; our master
will not be thus served; we must stand farther off.”
He, thinking no harm, agreed ; and being at the
head of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the
helm, I run the boat near a league farther, and then
brought to, as if I would fish. Then giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor
was, and I took him by surprise, with my arm un-
der his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into
the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, and
told me he would go all the world over with me.
He swam so strong after the boat, that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin,
and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented
it at him, and told him, I had done him no hurt,
and if he would be quiet, I would do him none;
“ But,” said I, “you swim well enough to reach
the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of
your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but
if you come near the boat, I will shoot you through
the head ; for I am resolved to have my liberty.”
So he turned himself about, and swam for the
shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it
with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this
Moor with me and have drowned the boy, but
there was no venturing to trust him. When he
was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called


IF YOU COME NEAR THE BOAT I'LL SHOOT YOU
ROBINSON CRUSOE 31

Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me I will make you a great man; but if you
will not stroke your face to be true to me” (that
is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard), “I
must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled
in my face, and spoke so innocently that I could
not mistrust him ; and swore to be faithful to me,
and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was
swimming, I stood out directly to sea with the
boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Strait’s mouth
(as indeed any one that had been in their wits
must have been supposed to do) ; for who would
have supposed we were sailing on to the south-
ward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us ; where we could never
once go on shore but we should be devoured by
savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind ?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore; and
having a fair fresh gale of wind and a smooth
quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe by the
next day, at three o’clock in the afternoon, when
I made the land, I could not be less than one
hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite be-
yond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or
32 THE ADVENTURES OF

indeed of any other king thereabout; for we saw
no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the
Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions I had of
falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or
go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind con-
tinuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five
days ; and then the wind shifting to the southward,
I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over: so I
ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew not
what or where, neither what latitude, what coun-
try, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor
desired to see, any people; the principal thing I
wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek
in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon
as it was dark, and discover the country: but as
soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that
the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. “ Well,
Xury,” said I, “then I will not; but it may be,
we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us
as those lions.” — “Then we may give’ them the
shoot-gun,” says Xury, laughing; “make them
run away.” Such English Xury spoke by con-
versing among us slaves. However, I was glad to
see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
out of our patron’s case of bottles to cheer him




ROBINSON CRUSOE 33

up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took
it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay still all
night: I say still, for we slept none; for in two or
three hours we saw vast creatures (we knew not
what to call them), of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves, for the pleasure of cool-
ing themselves, and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yellings, that I never indeed heard the
like.

Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so
was I too; but we were both more frightened
when we heard one of these mighty creatures
swimming towards our boat: we could not see
him, but we might hear him, by his blowing, to
be a monstrous, huge and furious beast. Xury
said it was a lion, and it might be so, for aught I
know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away. “ No,” says I, “ Xury; we
can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go off to
sea: they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner
said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it
was) within two oars’ length, which something sur-
prised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and
swam to the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrible
noises and hideous cries and howlings that were
raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of
34. THE ADVENTURES OF

the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had
never heard before. This convinced me there was
no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast: and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for to have fallen into the
hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to
have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at
least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger
of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on
shore somewhere or other for water, for we had
not a pint left in the boat: when and where to
get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him
go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I
asked him why he would go; why I should not
go, and he stay in the boat. The boy answered
with so much affection, that he made me love him
ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they
cat me, you go away.” —“ Well, Xury,” said I,
“‘we will both go; and if the wild mans come, we
will kill them; they shall eat neither of us.” So
I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a
dram out of our patron’s case of bottles, which I
mentioned before ; and we hauled in the boat as
near the shore as we thought was proper, and so
waded to shore, carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat,
fearing the coming of canoes with savages down
the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about


ROBINSON CRUSOE 35

a mile up the country, rambled to it; and, by and
by, I saw him come running towards me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frightened by
some wild beast, and I therefore ran forwards to
help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw
something hanging over his shoulders, which was
a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but differ-
ent in colour, and longer legs; however, we were
very glad of it, and it was very good meat: but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell
me he had found good water, and seen no wild
mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take
such pains for water ; for a little higher up the creek
where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so
we filled our jars, and having a fire, feasted on the
hare we had killed; and prepared to go on our
way, having seen no footsteps of any human crea-
ture in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before,
I knew very well that the islands of the Canaries,
and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation, to find what latitude we were in, and
did not exactly know, or at least remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them,
otherwise I might now have easily found some
of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till Icame to the part where the
36 THE ADVENTURES OF

English traded, I should find some of their ves-
sels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, the place where
I now was must be that country which, lying be-
tween the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and
the Negroes, lies waste, and uninhabited except
by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it,
and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and
the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by
reason of its barrenness ; and, indeed, both forsak-
ing it because of the prodigious number of tigers,
lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
harbour there, so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or
three thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for
near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring
of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice, in the day-time, I thought I saw
the Pico of Teneriffe, being the top of the moun-
tain Teneriffe, in the Canaries, and had a great
mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by
contrary winds ; the sea also going too high for my
little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first de-
sign, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once, in
particular, being early in the morning, we came to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 37

an anchor under a little point of land which was
pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than, it stems, mine were, calls softly to
me, and tells me, that we had best go farther off
the shore; for, says he, “ Look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast
asleep.” I looked where he pointed, and saw a
dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion, that lay on the side of the shore, under the
shade of a piece of the hill, that hung, as it were,
over him. “ Xury,” says I, “you shall go on
shore and kill him.” Xury looked frightened, and
said, “ Me kill! he eat me at one mouth”; one
mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to
the boy, but bade him be still; and I took our
biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets: and a third, for we had
three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I
took the best aim I could with the first piece, to
have shot him in the head; but he lay so, with his
leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit
his leg about the knee, and broke the bone: he
started up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not
hit him on the head; however, I took up the
second piece immediately, and though he began to
38 THE ADVENTURES OF

move off, fired again, and shot him in the head,
and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make
but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then
Xury took heart, and would have me let him go
onshore. “ Well, go,” said 1; so the boy jumped
into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece
to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite.

This was game, indeed, to us, butit was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of pow-
der and shot upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have
some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet: “ For what, Xury ?” said
I.—“ Me cut off his head,” said he. However,
Xury could not cut off his head; but he cut off a
foot, and brought it with him, and it was a mon-
Strous great one. I bethought myself, however,
that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or
other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to
take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him: but Xury was much the better
workmanatit, for I knew very ill how to doit. In-
deed, it took us both up the whole day; butat last
we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward con-
tinually, for ten or twelve days, living very spar
ROBINSON CRUSOE 39

ingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener into the shore than
we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this, was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal:
that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd,
where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship ; and if I did not, I knew not what course I
had to take, but to seek for the islands or perish
among the Negroes. I knew that all theships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea,
or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape,
or those islands: and in a word I put the whole of
my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet with some ship or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten
days longer, as I have said, I began to see that the
land was inhabited ; and in two or three places, as
we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore
to look at us: we could also perceive they were
quite black and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my
better counsellor, and said to me, “ No go, no go.”
However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that 1
might talk to them; and I found they ran along
the shore by mea good way. I observed they had
no weapons in their hands, except one, who hada
long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance,
and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked to
them by signs, as well as I could, and particularly
made signs for something to eat. They beckoned to
40 THE ADVENTURES OF

me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
meat: upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country ;
and in less than half an hour came back, and
brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some
corn, such as the produce of their country ; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was; how-
ever, we were willing to accept it. But how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I was not for ven-
turing on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us: but they took a safe way for usall, for
they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and
went and stood a great way off till we fetched it
on board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends; but an opportu-
nity offered that very instant to oblige them won-
derfully; for while we were lying by the shore,
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other
(as we took it) with great fury, from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursu-
ing the female, or whether they were in sport or in
rage, we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange; but I believe
it was the latter, because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night;
and, in the second place, we found the people ter-
ribly frightened, especially the women. The man
that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran
directly into the water, they did not seem to offer
ROBINSON CRUSOE 4!

to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged them-
selves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion; at last one of them be-
gan to come nearer our boat than I at first ex-
pected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade
Xury load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him di-
rectly in the head: immediately he sunk down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up
and down, as if he was struggling for life, and so
indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore,
but between the wound which was his mortal hurt,
and the strangling of the water, he died just before
he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of
these poor creatures at the noise and fire of my
gun; some of them were even ready to die for
fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror;
but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in
the water, and that I made signs to them to come
to the shore, they took heart and came to the
shore, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water; and
by the help of a rope, which I slung round him,
and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him
on shore, and found that it was a most curious
leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree;
and the Negroes held up their hands with admi-
ration, to think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frightened with the flash
42 THE ADVENTURES OF

of fire and the noise of the gun, swam onshore, and
ran up directly to the mountains from whence they
came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it
was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him; and though they had no knife,
yet with a sharpened piece of wood they took off
his skin as readily, and much more readily, than
we could have done witha knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if
I would give it them, but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought mea
great deal more of their provisions, which, though
I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of
my jars to them, turning it bottom upwards, to
show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have
it filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women, and brought
a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I sup-
pose, in the sun; this they set down to me, as be-
fore, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and
filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such
as it was, and water; and leaving my friendly Ne-
groes, I made forward for about eleven days more,
without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 43

land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to
make this point. At length, doubling the point,
at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly
land on the other side, to seaward: then I con-
cluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this was
the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called
from thence Cape de Verd Islands. However, they
were at a great distance, and I could not well tell
what I had best to do; for if I should be taken
with a gale of wind, I might neither reach one nor
the other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the
helm ; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
“Master, master, a ship with a sail!” and the
foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, think-
ing it must needs be some of his master’s ships
sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten
far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the
cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but
what she was, viz. that it was a Portuguese ship,
and, as I thought, was bound to the Coast of
Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the
course she steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to come
any nearer to the shore; upon which, I stretched
out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should
44 THE ADVENTURES OF

not be able to come in their way, but that they
would be gone by before I could make any signal to
them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and
began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the
help of their perspective glasses, and that it was
some European boat, which, they supposed, must
belong to some ship that was lost: so they short-
ened sail, to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this, and as I had my patron’s ensign on
board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of
distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for
they told me they saw the smoke, though they did
not hear the gun. Upon these signals, they very
kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in
about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and
in Spanish, and in French, but I understood none
of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor who was on
board, called to me, and I answered him, and told
him I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee:
they then bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any
one will believe, that I was thus delivered, as I
esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost
hopeless, condition as I wasin; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told
me he would take nothing from me, but that all I
had should be delivered safe to me when I came to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 45

the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your
life on no other terms than I would be glad to be
saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be
my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Be-
sides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should
take from you what you have, you will be starved
there, and then I only take away that life I had
given. No, no, Senhor Inglez” (Mr. Englishman),
says he, “ I will carry you thither in charity, and
these things will help to buy your subsistence there,
and your passage home again.”


A he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance, to a tittle: for he
ordered the seamen, that none should offer to touch
anything I had: then he took everything into his
own possession, and gave me back an exact inven-
tory of them, that I might have them, even so
much as my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship’s use ; and asked me what I would have for
it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in
everything, that I could not offer to make any price
of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which,
he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay
me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil ; and when
it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath
to take; not that I was not willing to let the cap-
tain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in

ara
ROBINSON CRUSOE 47

procuring my own. However, when I let him know
my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me
this medium, that he would give the boy an obli-
gation to set him free in ten years if he turned
Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he was will-
ing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All
Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most mis-
erable of all conditions of life; and what to do next
with myself, I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I
can never enough remember: he would take no-
thing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats
for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me;
and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me;
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax,— for I had made
candles of the rest; in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo;
and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here before I was recom-
mended to the house of a good honest man, like
himself, who had an ingenio as they call it (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him
some time, and acquainted myself, by that means,
with the manner of planting and of making sugar;
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how
48 THE ADVENTURES OF

they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get
a license to settle there, I would turn planter among
them: endeavouring, in the meantime, to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in
London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting
a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as
much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from
England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells,
and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next
to mine, and we went on very sociably together.
My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come into order; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in
the year to come; but we both wanted help; and
now I found more than before, I had done wrong
in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did
right, was no great wonder. I had no remedy but
to go on: I had got into an employment quite re-
mote to my genius, and directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father’s house and broke through all his good ad-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 49

vice: nay, I was coming into the very middle sta-
tion, or upper degree of low life, which my father
advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to
go on with, I might as well have staid at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world as I
had done: and I used often to say to myself, I could
have done this as wellin England, among my friends,
as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner, I used to look upon my con-
dition with the utmost regret. I had nobody to
converse with, but now and then this neighbour ;
no work to be done, but by the labour of my
hands: and I used to say, I lived just like a man
cast away upon some desolate island, that had no-
body there but himself. But how just has it been!
and how should all men reflect, that when they
compare their present conditions with others that
are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity
by their experience: I say, how just has it been,
that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an
island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who
had so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in which, had I continued, I
had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous
and rich !

I was in some degree settled in my measures
for carrying on the plantation, before my kind
go THE ADVENTURES OF

friend, the captain of the ship that tock me up at
sea, went back; for the ship remained there, in
providing his lading and preparing for his voyage,
near three months. When telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave
me this friendly and sincere advice: “ Senhor In-
glez,” says he (for so he always called me), “if
you will give me letters, and a procuration here
in form to me, with orders to the person who has
your money in London, to send your effects to
Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will
bring you the produce of them, God willing, at
my return: but since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give
orders for but one hundred pounds sterling, which,
you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be
run for the first, so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry,
you may have the other half to have recourse to
for your supply.” This was so wholesome advice,
and looked so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could take; so
I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I left my money, and a procuration to
the Portuguese captain, as he desired me.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full ac-
count of all my adventures: my slavery, escape,
and how I had met with the Portuguese captain
at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what
condition I was now in, with all other necessary
ROBINSON CRUSOE 51

directions for my supply; and when this honest
captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some
of the English merchants there, to send over, not
the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant at London, who represented it effectu-
ally to her: whereupon she not only delivered the
money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the
Portuguese captain a very handsome present for
his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had
wrote for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils:
among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work,
and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me. When this cargo
arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good stew-
ard, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him as a present for
himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years’ service, and would not
accept of any consideration except a little tobacco,
which I would have him accept, being of my own
produce. Neither was this all: but my goods
being all English manufactures, such as cloths,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I might
$2 THE ADVENTURES OF

say I had more than four times the value of my
first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of
my plantation: for the first thing I did, I bought
me a Negro slave, and a European servant also;
I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made
the very means of our adversity, so was it with me.
I went on the next year with great success in my
plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on
my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours: and these fifty
rolls, being each of above one hundred pounds
weight, were well cured, and laid by against the
return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now, increas-
ing in business and in wealth, my head began to
be full of projects and undertakings beyond
my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of
the best heads in business. Had I continued in
the station I was now in, I had room for all the
happy things to have yet befallen me, for which
my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and which he had so sensibly de-
scribed the middle station of life to be full of:
but other things attended me, and I was still to
be the wilful agent of all my own miseries ; and,
particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections upon myself, which in my future sor-
rows I should have leisure to make, all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
ROBINSON CRUSOE 53

adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering
about, and pursuing that inclination, in contradic-
tion to the clearest views of doing myself good in
a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and
those measures of life, which nature and Provi-
dence concurred to present me with, and to make
my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from
my parents, so I could not be content now, but I
must go and leave the happy view I had of being
a rich and thriving man in my new plantation,
only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted;
and thus I cast myself down again into the deep-
est gulf of human misery that ever man fell into,
or perhaps could be consistent with life anda
state of health in the world.

To come then, by just degrees, to the particu-
lars of this part of my story. — You may suppose,
that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very
well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance
and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well
as among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was
our port: and that, in my discourses among them,
I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of
trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it
was to purchase on the coast for trifles— such as
beads, toys, knives, scissars, hatchets, bits of giass,
54. THE ADVENTURES OF

and the like — not only gold dust, Guinea grains,
elephants’ teeth, etc., but Negroes, for the service
of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying Negroes; which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into,
but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed from the public; so that
few Negroes were bought, and those excessively
dear.

It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talk-
ing of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me the next morning, and told me they
had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they
came to make a secret proposal to me: and, after
enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that they
had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that
as it was a trade that could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own plan-
tations ; and, in a word, the question was, whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to man-
age the trading part upon the coast of Guinea;
ROBINSON CRUSOE 55

and they offered me that I should have an equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part
of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,
had it been made to any one that had not a set-
tlement and plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair way of coming to be very con-
siderable, and with a good stock upon it. But for
me, that was thus entered and established, and
had nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for
three or four years more, and to have sent for the
other hundred pounds from England; and who,
in that time and with that little addition, could
scarce have failed of being worth three or four
thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too;
for me to think of such a voyage was the most
preposterous thing that ever man, in such circum-
stances, could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer than I could re-
strain my first rambling designs, when my father’s
good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told
them I would go with all my heart, if they would
undertake to look after my plantation in my ab-
sence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to
do, and entered into writings or covenants to do
so: and I made a formal will, disposing of my plan-
tation and effects in case of my death; making
the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as
before, my universal heir; but obliging him to
56 THE ADVENTURES OF

dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will;
one-half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England. In short, I took
all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to
keep up my plantation: had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, and
have made a judgment of what I ought to have
done and not to have done, I had certainly never
gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving cir-
cumstance, and gone a voyage to sea, attended with
all its common hazards, to say nothing of the
reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy, rather than my reason: and
accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the first of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my
parents at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty
tons burden, carried six guns and fourteen men,
besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had
on board no large cargo of goods, except of such
toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissars,
hatchets, and the like.
ROBINSON CRUSOE ly

The very same day I went on board we set sail,
standing away to the northward upon our own
coast, with design to stretch over for the African
coast. When they came about ten or twelve de-
grees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days, we had very
good weather, only excessively hot all the way
upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther
off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if
we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding our course N. E. by N. and leaving those
isles on the east. In this course we passed the
Line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our
last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two min-
utes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge:
it began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled in the north-east;
from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry
us whithersoever fate and the fury of the winds
directed; and, during these twelve days, I need
not say that I expected every day to be swallowed
up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and
one man and a boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master
58 THE ADVENTURES OF

made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude,
but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that
he found he was got upoa the coast of Guiana, or
the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Ama-
zons, toward that of the river Oronoco, commonly
called the Great River; and began to consult with
me what course he should take, for the ship was
leaky and very much disabled, and he was for
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him,
we concluded there was no inhabited country for
us to have recourse to, till we came within the cir-
cle of the Carribee islands, and therefore resolved
to stand away for Barbadoes; which by keeping
off to sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf
of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped,
in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa
without some assistance, both to our ship and our-
selves.

With this design, we changed our course, and
steered away N. W. by W. in order to reach some
of our English islands, where I hoped for relief:
but our voyage was otherwise determined ; for being
in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes,
a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and
drove us so out of the very way of all human com-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 59

merce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the
sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured
by savages than ever returning to our own coun-
try.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early in the morning, cried out,
Land! and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner that we
expected we should all have perished immedi-
ately; and we were immediately driven into our
close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in
the like condition to describe or conceive the
consternation of men in such circumstances: we
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land
it was we were driven, whether an island or the
main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as
the rage of the wind was still great, though rather
less than at first, we could not so much as hope to
have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of miracle,
should immediately turn about. In a word, we sat
looking upon one another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly,
as preparing for another world; for there was little
or nothing more for us to do in this; that which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we
60 THE ADVENTURES OF

had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a
little abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the
sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her get-
ting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed,
and had nothing to do but to think of saving our
lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern just before the storm, but she was first staved
by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and, in the
next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her:
we had another boat on board, but how to get her
off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the
ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold
of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the
men, they got her flung over the ship’s side; and
getting all into her, we let her go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy
and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated
considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon
the shore, and might be well called den wild Zee,
as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for
we all saw plainly, that the sea went so high that
the boat could not live, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had
ROBINSON CRUSOE 61

none; nor, if we had, could we have done anything
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to exe-
cution; for we all knew that, when the boat came
nearer to the shore, she would be dashed in a thou-
sand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we
committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner, and the wind driving us towards the shore,
we hastened our destruction with our own hands,
pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was — whether rock or sand,
whether steep or shoal — we knew not; the only
hope that could rationally give us the least shadow
of expectation was, if we might happen into some
bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by
great chance we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth
water. But nothing of this appeared; and as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked
more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain-like, camerolling astern of us, and plainly
bade us expect the coup de grace. Ina word, it took
us with such fury, that it overset the boat at once ;
and separating us, as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, “ O God!”
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water ; for though
U swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
62 THE ADVENTURES OF

from the waves so as to draw my breath, till that
wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast
way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry,
but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected,
I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again; but I
soon found it was impossible to avoid it ; for I saw
the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and
as furious as an enemy which I had no means or
strength to contend with: my business was to hold
my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could ; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breath-
ing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible ;
my greatest concern now being that the wave, as it
would carry mea great way towards the shore when
it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me
at once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body;
and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore, a very great way;
but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim
still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head
and hands shoot out above the surface of the water;
and though it was not two seconds of time that I


ROBINSON CRUSOE STRUGGLING TO REACH THE SHORE
ROBINSON CRUSOE 63

could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long but
I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself,
and began to return, I struck forward against the
return of the waves, and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath
and till the water went from me, and then took to
my heels, and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring
in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up
by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well nigh been
fatal to me ; for the sea, having hurried me along
as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of a rock, and that with such force, that it
left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my
own deliverance ; for the blow, taking my side and
breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my
body ; and had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water: but I re-
covered a little before the return of the waves, and,
seeing I should again be covered with the water, I
resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so
to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went
back. Now, as the waves were not so high as the
first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
64 THE ADVENTURES OF

though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me
up as to carry me away ; and the next run I took,
I got to the main land; where, to my great com-
fort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and
sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and
quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began
to look up and thank God that my life was saved,
in a case wherein there was, some minutes before,
scarcely any room to hope. I believe it is impos-
sible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I
may say, out of the grave: and I did not wonder
now at the custom, viz., that when a malefactor,
who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and
just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him; I say, I do not wonder that they
bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and
overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapped up
in the contemplation of my deliverance; making
a thousand gestures and motions which I cannot
describe; reflecting upon my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three
ROBINSON CRUSOE 65

of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel — when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off—and considered,
“ Lord ! how was it possible I could get on shore?”

After I had solaced my mind with the comfort-
able part of my condition, I began to look around
me, to see what kind of a place I was in, and what
was next to be done; and I soon found my com-
forts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful
deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift
me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to comfort
me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but
that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured
by wild beasts: and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that
might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my pro-
vision ; and this threw meinto such terrible agonies
of mind that, for a while, I ran about like a mad-
man. Night coming upon me, I began, witha heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing
at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at
that time, was, to get up into a thick bushy tree,
like a fir, but thorny — which grew near me, and
66 ROBINSON CRUSOE

where I resolved to sit all night—and consider
the next day what death I should die, for as yet I
saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong
from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy ; and
having drank, and put a little tobacco into my
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and
getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so
as that, if I should fall asleep, I might not fall;
and having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon,
for my defence, I took up my lodging ; and hav-
ing been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition; and found myself the most
refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such
an occasion.
i

oT

if

Li

Ww
SS



Wes I waked it was broad day, the weather
clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea
did not rage and swell as before; but that which
surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay, by the
swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as
far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where
I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to
stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that
at least I might save some necessary things for
my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the
tree, I looked about me again, and the first thing
I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and
the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about
two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I
could upon the shore to have got to her; but
found a neck, or inlet, of water, between me and
the boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I
68 THE ADVENTURES OF

came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find some-
thing for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm,
and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come
within a quarter of a mile of the ship: and here
I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw
evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had
been all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe
on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company,
as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes
again; but as there was little relief in that, I re-
solved, if possible, to get to the ship: so I pulled
off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extrem-
ity, and took the water; but when I came to the
ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how
to get on board ; for as she lay aground, and high
out of the water, there was nothing within my
reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and
the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which
I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by
the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty
I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold; but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter
was free, and all that was in that part was dry ; for
ROBINSON CRUSOE 69

you may be sure my first work was to search and
to see what was spoiled and what was free: and,
first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were
dry and untouched by the water ; and, being very
well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room
and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I
went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which
I took a large dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of, to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish my-
self with many things which I foresaw would be
very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my ap-
plication. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or
two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with
these, and flung as many overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a
rope, that they might not drive away. When this
was done, I went down the ship’s side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them fast together at
both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a
raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them, crossways, I found I could walk upon
it very well, but that it was not able to bear any
great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went
to work, and with the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare
topmast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. But the
70 THE ADVENTURES OF

hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encour-
aged me to go beyond what I should have been
able to have done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and having considered well what
I most wanted, I got three of the seamen’s chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and low-
ered them down upon my raft; these I filled with
provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goats’ flesh (which we lived
much upon), and a little remainder of European
corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which
we had brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat to-
gether, but, to my great disappointment, I found
afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all.
As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles be-
longing to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters ; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need
to put them into the chests, nor any room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the tide began to
flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifica-
tion to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
had left on shore upon the sand, swim away ; as for
my breeches, which were only linen, and open-
kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stock-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 71

ings. However, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon; as,
first, tools to work with on shore; and it was after
long searching that I found the carpenter’s chest,
which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to
my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time
to look into it, for I knew in general what it con-
tained.

My next care was for some ammunition and
arms. There were two very good fowling-pieces in
the great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured
first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not
where our gunner had stowed them; but with much
search I found them, two of them dry and good,
the third had taken water. Those two I got to my
raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I
should get to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, nor rudder ; and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm
sea; 2dly, the tide rising, and setting in to the
shore; 3dly, what little wind there was blew me
towards the land. And thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat, and be-
72 THE ADVENTURES OF

sides the tools which were in the chest, I found
two saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this
cargo I put to sea. Fora mile, or thereabouts, my
raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed
before ; by which I perceived that there was some
indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to
find some creek or river there, which I might make
use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before
mea little opening of the land, and I founda strong
current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft,
as well as I could, to get into the middle of the
stream. But here I had like to have suffered a sec-
ond shipwreck, which, if I had, I think it verily
would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing
of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it
upon a shoal, and, not being aground at the other
end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting
my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength; neither durst I stir from the posture |
was in, but holding up the chests with all my might,
I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level; anda little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the oar I had into the channel, and then driv-
ing up higher, I at length found myself in the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 73

mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and
a strong current or tide running up. I looked on
both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I
was not willing to be driven too high up the river,
hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and there-
fore resolved to place myself as near the coast as
I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and diffi-
culty I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in ; but here I had like to have dipped
all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no
place to land, but where one end of my float, if it
ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide
was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the
shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon
as I found water enough, for my raft drew about
a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece
of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground one
on one side, near one end, and one on the other
side, near the other end: and thus I lay till the
water ebbed away and left my raft and all my cargo
safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek
74 THE ADVENTURES OF

a proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was I yet knew not; whether on
the continent or on an island; whether inhabited
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, and which
seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as
in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of
the fowling-pieces and one of the pistols and a horn
of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discov-
ery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had,
with great labour and difficulty, got up to the top,
I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was
in an island, environed every way with the sea, no
land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this,
which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw
none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw
sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world: I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood
there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of
many sorts, making a confused screaming and cry-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 75

ing, every one according to his usual note; but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk,
its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no
talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was
carrion and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to
my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on
shore, which took me up the rest of that day: what
to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed
where to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there
was really no need for those fears. However, as
well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of hut for that night’s lodging.
As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply
myself, except that I had seen two or three crea-
tures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her
all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart
till I got everything out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my
76 THE ADVENTURES OF

thoughts, whether I should take back the raft; but
this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down ; and I did so, only
that I stripped before I went from my hut; having
nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared
a second raft; and having had experience of the
first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it
so hard, but yet I brought away several things very
useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s stores,
I found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a
great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grind-
stone. All these I secured together, with several
things belonging to the gunner ; particularly, two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket
bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece,
with some small quantity of powder more, a large
bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship’s side. Besides these
things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could
find, anda spare fore-topsail,a hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft,
and brought them all safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions lest, during my
absence from the land, my provisions might be de-
voured on shore: but when I came back, I found
no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature
ROBINSON CRUSOE 7

like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when
I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still. She sat very composed and un-
concerned, and looked full in my face, as if she
had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it,
she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit
of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free
of it, for my store was not great; however, I spared
her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but
I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though
I was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks —I went to work to make me a little
tent, with the sail, and some poles, which I cut for
that purpose ; and into this tent I brought every-
thing that I knew would spoil either with rain or
sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up
in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any
sudden attempt either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door
of the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without; and spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols
just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I
went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy ; for the
78 THE ADVENTURES OF

night before I had slept little, and had laboured
very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was
not satisfied still ; for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought 1 ought to get everything
out of her that I could ; so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or
other: but particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could,
as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could
get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to
mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. Ina word, I brought away all the
sails first and last; only that I was fain to cut them
in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could;
for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.

But that which comforted me still more was,
that, last of all, after I had made five or six such
voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more
to expect from the ship that was worth my med-
dling with; I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum
or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied
the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up,
parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut


ROBINSON CRUSOE 79

out ; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now,
having plundered the ship of what was portable and
fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and cutting
the great cable into pieces such as I could move,
I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all
the ironwork I could get; and having cut down
the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every-
thing I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all those heavy goods, and came away ; but
my good luck began now to leave me ; for this raft
was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water ; as for myself,
it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but
as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, es-
pecially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me: however, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore,
and some of the iron, though with infinite labour;
for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went
every day on board, and brought away what I
could get.

I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had
been eleven times on board the ship; in which time
I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well besupposed capable to bring; though I believe
80 THE ADVENTURES OF

verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing, the twelfth time, to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise. However, at low water, I
went on board; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually as that nothing could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissars, with some ten or a dozen
of good knivesand forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds in money, some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and
some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money;
“O drug!” I exclaimed, “ what art thou good for?
Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking off
the ground; one of those knives is worth all this
heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e’en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as
a creature whose life is not worth saving.” How-
ever, upon second thoughts, I took it away; and
Wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began ta
think of making another raft ; but while I was pre~
paring this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew
a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred
te me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my
business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
or otherwise I might not be able to reach the
shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down into
ROBINSON CRUSOE 81

the water, and swam across the channel which lay
between the ship and the sands, and even that
with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of
the things I had about me, and partly the rough-
ness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was got home to my little tent, where I
lay, with all my wealth about me very secure. It
blew very hard all that night, and in the morning,
when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be
seen ! I was alittle surprised, but recovered myself
with this satisfactory reflection, viz. that I had lost
no time, nor abated no diligence, to get every-
thing out of her that could be useful to me, and
that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was
able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship,
or of anything out of her, except what might drive
on shore from her wreck ; as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of
small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about
securing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to
do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether
I should make a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both;
the manner and description of which, it may not
be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my
82 THE ADVENTURES OF

settlement, particularly because it was upon a low,
moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed it
would not be wholesome; and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I re-
solved to find a more healthy and more convenient
spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which
I found would be proper for me: first, airand fresh
water, I just now mentioned ; secondly, shelter from
the heat of the sun; thirdly, security from raven-
ous creatures, whether men or beasts; fourthly, a
view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliver-
ance, of which | was not willing to banish all my
expectation yet.

In search for a place proper for this, I found a
little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come down upon me from
the top. On the side of this rock, there was a hol-
low place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any cave,
or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay likea green before my door ; and,
at the end of it, descended irregularly every way
down into the low ground by the seaside. It was
on the N. N. W. side of the hill; so that it was
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 83

a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those
countries is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drewa half-circle before
the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in
its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they
stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being
out of the ground about five feet and a half, and
sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand
above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows, one upon another,
within the circle, between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a half
high, like a spur toa post; and this fence was so
strong, that neither man nor beast could get into
it or over it. This cost mea great deal of time and
labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring
them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be not by
a door, but bya short ladder to go over the top;
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as
I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards,
there was no need of all this caution against the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.
G

mn
‘ : \

I 4 ed

nTOo this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I
| carried all my riches, all my provisions, am-
munition, and stores, of which you have the ac-
count above; and I made a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz. one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it,
and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin,
which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed
which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and having
thus enclosed all my goods I made up the entrance,
which till now I had left open, and so passed and
repassed as I said, by ashort ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them

SE
Ur
4
a
|
Kh
|

i
\




ROBINSON CRUSOE 85

up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so
that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made mea cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days, before all
these things were brought to perfection ; and there-
fore I must go back to some other things which
took up some of my thoughts. At the same time
it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the set-
ting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm
of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden
flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I
was not so much surprised with the lightning as I
was with a thought which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself: “O my powder!” My
very heart sunk within me when I thought that at
one blast all my powder might be destroyed; on
which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was no-
thing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder taken fire, I should never have
known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that
after the storm was over, I laid aside all my works,
my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and
to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope,
that whatever might come, it might not all take
fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should
not be possible to make one part fire another. I fin-
86 THE ADVENTURES OF

ished this work in about a fortnight; and I think
my powder, which in all was about two hundred
and forty pounds weight was divided into not less
than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from
that; so I placedit in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up
and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I
laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I
went out at least once every day with my gun, as
well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill any-
thing fit for food; and, as near as I could, to ac-
quaint myself with what the island produced. The
first time I went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats upon the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with
this misfortune to me, viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most
difficult thing in the world to come at them; but
I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon hap-
pened; for after I had found their haunts a little,
I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed, if
they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon
the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me;
from whence I concluded, that by the position of
their optics, their sight was so directed downward,


ROBINSON CRUSOE 87

that they did not readily see objects that were
above them: so afterwards I took this method—
I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot
I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck
to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old
one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came
and took her up; and not only so, but when I car-
ried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the
kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in
my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to
have bred it up tame: but it would not eat; so
I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These two
supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate spar-
ingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread espe-
cially) as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it ab-
solutely necessary to provide a place to make a
fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that,
as also how I enlarged my cave and what conven-
iences I made, I shall give a full account of it in
its proper place ; but I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about liv-
ing, which, it may well be supposed, were not a
few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as
I was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and a great way,
88 THE ADVENTURES OF

viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that
in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner,
I should end my life. The tears would run plenti-
fully down my face when I made these reflections ;
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself
why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable,
so abandoned without help, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for
such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me
to check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and
particularly, one day walking with my gun in my
hand, by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the
subject of my present condition, when reason, as it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus:
“Well, you are in a desolate condition it is true;
but, pray remember, where are the rest of you?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat?
Where are the ten ? Why were not they saved, and
you lost? Why were you singled out? Is it better
to be here or there?”” And then I pointed to the
sea. All evils are to be considered with the good
that is in them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was
furnished for my subsistence, and what would have
been my case if it had not happened (which was a
hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from
the place where she first struck, and was driven so
ROBINSON CRUSOE 89

near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her ; what would have been my case,
if I had been to have lived in the condition in
which [ at first came on shore, without necessaries
of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them?
“ Particularly,” said I aloud (though to myself),
“what should I have done without a gun, without
ammunition, without any tools to make anything,
or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent,
or any manner of covering?” And that now I had
all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner as to live
without my gun, when my ammunition was spent :
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, with-
out any want, as long as I lived; for I considered,
from the beginning, how I would provide for the
accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, not only after my ammunition should
be spent, but even after my health or strength
should decay.

I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my
ammunition being destroyed at one blast, I mean
my powder being blown up by lightning; and this
made the thoughts of it so surprising to me when
it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of ascene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order.
It was, by my account, the 3oth of September,
when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
90 ROBINSON CRUSOE

upon this horrid island; when the sun, being to
us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over
my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation,
to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two
minutes north of the Line.


FTER I had been there about ten or twelve days,
it came into my thoughts that I should lose
my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen
and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days
from the working days; but, to prevent this, I cut
it with my knife upon a large post, in capital let-
ters; and making it into a great cross, I set it up
on the shore where I first landed, viz. “I came
on shore here on the 3oth of September, 1659.”
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day
a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was
as long again as the rest, and every first day of the
month as long again as that long one: and thus I
kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.

But it happened that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voy-
ages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less use-
ful to me, which I found some time after, in rum-
maging the chests: as, in particular, pens, ink, and
92 THE ADVENTURES OF

paper ; several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gun-
ner’s, and carpenter’s keeping ; three or four com-
passes, some mathematical instruments, dials, per-
spectives, charts, and books of navigation; all of
which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no; also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also, and, among them,
two or three popish prayer-books, and several
other books, all which I carefully secured. And J
must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog,
and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something, in its place; for I car-
ried both the cats with me; and as for the dog,
he jumped out of the ship himself, and swam on
shore to me the day after I went on shore with
my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me for
many years: I wanted nothing that he could fetch
me, nor any company that he could make up to
me, I only wanted to have him talk to me, but
that would not do. As I observed before, I found
pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to
the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink
lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
gone, I could not; for I could not make any ink,
by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many
things, notwithstanding all that I had amassed to-
gether ; and of these, this of ink was one; as also
a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 93

earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I
soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go
on heavily : and it was near a whole year before I
had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded
my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as
heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cut-
ting and preparing in the woods, and more by far,
in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two
days in cutting and bringing home one of those
posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground;
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at
first, but ai fast bethought myself of one of the
iron crows ; which, however, though I found it an-
swer, made driving these posts or piles very labori-
ous and tedious work. But what need I have been
concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had
I any other employment, if that had been over, at
least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food ; which I did, more or less,
every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew
up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much
to leave them to any that were to come after me
(for I was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver
my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now
to master my despondency, I began to comfort my-
self as well as I could, and to set the good against
94

THE ADVENTURES OF

the evil, that I might have something to distinguish
my case from worse ; and I stated very impartially,
like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus : —

EVIL.

I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all hope
of recovery.

I am singled out and sepa-
rated, as it were, from all the
world, to be miserable.

I am divided from mankind,
a solitaire ; one banished from
human society.

I have no clothes to cover
me.

I am without any defence,
or means to resist any violence
of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to,
or relieve me.

GOOD.

But I am alive; and not
drowned, as all my ship’s com-
pany were.

But I am singled out too from
all the ship’s crew, to be spared
from death; and He that miracu-
lously saved me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.

But I am not starved, and per-
ishing in a barren place, afford-
ing no sustenance,

But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beast to
hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa: and what if I had
been shipwrecked there ?

But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out so
many necessary things as will
either supply my wants, or en-
able me to supply myself, even
as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted test1-
mony that there was scarce any condition in the
world so miserable, but there was something nega-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 95

tive, or something positive, to be thankful for in
it: and let this stand as a direction, from the expe-
rience of the most miserable of all conditions in
this world, that we may always find in it some
thing to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the
description of good and evil, on the credit side of
the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish
my condition, and given over looking out to sea,
to see if I could spy aship; having, I say, given
over these things, I began to apply myself to ac-
commodate my way of living, and to make things
as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which
was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded
with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall
against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the out-
side ; and after some time (I think it was a year
and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the
rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of
trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out
the rain; which I found, at some times of the year,
very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I had
made behind me. But I must observe, too, that
at first this was a confused heap of goods, which,
as they lay in no order, so they took up all my
place. I had no room to turn myself,so I set my-
self to enlarge my cave, and work farther into the
96 THE ADVENTURES OF

earth; for it wasa loose sandy rock, which yielded
easily to the labour I bestowed on it; and when I
found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of prey, I
worked sideways, to the right hand, into the rock,
and then turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out in the out-
side of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it
were, a back way to my tent and to my storehouse,
but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, par-
ticularly a chair and a table; for without these
I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in
the world; I could not write, or eat, or do several
things with so much pleasure, without a table: so
I went to work. And here I must needs observe,
that as reason is the substance and original of the
mathematics, so by stating and squaring every-
thing by reason, and by making the most rational
judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled
a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, ap-
plication, and contrivance I found at last, that I
wanted nothing but I could have made, especially
if I had had tools. However, I made abundance
of things, even without tools; and some with no
more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which per-
haps were never made that way before, and that
with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a
board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
4
a
a
Z
5
L
9
j=)
n
Zz
n
gy
©
2

’
x

G

ALL MY


ROBINSON CRUSOE 97

set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on
either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be
as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with
my adze. It is true, by this method, I could make
but one board of a whole tree; but this I had no
remedy for but patience, any more than I had for
a prodigious deal of time and labour which it took
me up to make a plank or board: but my time or
labour was little worth, and so it was as well em-
ployed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I
observed above, in the first place; and this I did
out of the short pieces of boards that I brought
on my raft from the ship. But when I wrought
out some boards, as above, I made large shelves,
of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over an-
other, all along one side of my cave, to lay all my
tools, nails, and iron work on; and, in a word, to
separate everything at large in their places, that I
might easily come at them. I knocked pieces into
the wall of the rock, to hang my guns and all
things that would hang up: so that, had my cave
been seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things; and I had everything so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to
see all my goods in such order, and especially to
find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal
of every day’s employment; for, indeed, at first, I
was in too much hurry,and not onlyas to labour,
but in much discomposure of mind; and my jour-
98 ROBINSON CRUSOE

nal would, too, have been full of many dull things:
for example, I must have said thus — “Sept. 30th.
After I had got to shore, and had escaped drown-
ing, instead of being thankful to God for my de-
liverance, having first vomited, with the great
quantity of salt water which was gotten into my
stomach, and recovering myself little, I ran about
the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my
head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and cry-
ing out I was undone, undone! till, tired and faint,
I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose;
but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on
board the ship and got all that I could out of her,
I could not forbear getting up to the top ofa little
mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of see-
ing a ship: then fancy that, at a vast distance, I
spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and,
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose
it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and
thus increase my misery by my folly.

But, having gotten over these things in some
measure, and having settled my household stuff
and habitation, made mea table and a chair, and all
as handsome about me as I could, I began to keep
my journal : of which I shall here give you the copy
(though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted ; for, having no more ink,
I was forced to leave it off.




THE JOURNAL

1 anes 3oth, 1659. I, poor miserable Rob-
inson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a
dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this
dismal unfortunate island, which I called the IsLanp
or Despair; all the rest of the ship’s company be-
ing drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting my-
self at the dismal circumstances I was brought to,
viz. I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor
place to fly to: and, in despair of any relief, saw
nothing but death before me; that I should either
be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages,
or starved to death for want of food. At the ap-
proach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild
creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained all
night.

Ocroser 1. In the morning I saw, to my great
surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and
was driven on shore again much nearer the island ;
100 THE ADVENTURES OF

which, as it was some comfort on one hand (for see-
ing her sit upright, and not broken in pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for
my relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my
grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined,
if we had all staid on board, might have saved the
ship, or, at least, that they would not have been
all drowned, as they were: and that, had the men
been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat,
out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to
some other part of the world. I spent great part of
this day in perplexing myself on these things; but
at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon
the sand as near as I could, and then swam on
board. This day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.

From the rst of October to the 24th. All these
days entirely spent in many several voyages to
get all I could out of the ship ; which I brought
on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also in these days, though with some intervals
of fair weather: but, it seems, this was the rainy
season.

Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods
I had got upon it; but being in shoal water, and
the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many
of them when the tide was out.

Ocr. 25. It rained all night and all day, with
some gusts of wind; during which time the ship
broke in pieces (the wind blowing a little harder
ROBINSON CRUSOE 101

than before) and was no more to be seen, except
the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil
them.

Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all
day, to find out a place to fix my habitation ; greatly
concerned to secure myself from any attack in the
night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards
night I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock,
and marked out a semicircle for my encampment ;
which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall,
or fortification, made of double piles lined within
with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 3oth, I worked very hard
in carrying all my goods to my new habitation,
though some part of the time it rained exceedingly
hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the
island with my gun, to see for some food, and
discover the country; when I killed a she-goat,
and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards
killed also, because it would not feed.

Novemser 1. I set up my tent under a rock,
and lay there for the first night; making it as large
as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my ham-
mock upon.

Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and
the pieces of timber which made my rafts; and
with them formed a fence round me,a little within
the place I had marked out for my fortification.
102 THE ADVENTURES OF

Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In
the afternoon I went to work to make mea table.

Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my
times of work, of going out with my gun, time of
sleep, and time of diversion; viz., every morning
I walked out with my gun for two or three hours,
if it did not rain; then employed myself to work
till about eleven o’clock; then ate what I had to
live on; and from twelve to two I lay down to
sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then,
in the evening, to work again. The working part
of this day and the next was wholly employed in
making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry
workman: though time and necessity made me a
complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe
they would any one else.

Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft,
but her flesh good for nothing: of every creature
that I killed I took off the skins, and preserved
them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw many
sorts of sea fowl which I did not understand ; but
was surprised, and almost frightened, with two o1
three seals, which while I was gazing at them (not
well knowing what they were) got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6. After my morning walk I went to
work with my table again, and finished it, though
not to my liking: nor was it long before I learned
to mend it.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 103

Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, roth, and part of the roth (for
the 11th was Sunday, according to my reckoning),
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with
much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me; and, even in the making, I
pulled it in pieces several times.

Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays;
for, omitting my mark for them on my post, I for-
got which was which.

Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed
me exceedingly, and cooled the earth: but it was
accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning,
which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my pow-
der. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in
making little square chests or boxes, which might
hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of
powder : and so, putting the powder in, I stowed
it in places as secure and as remote from one an-
other as possible. On one of these three days I
killed a large bird that was good to eat; but I knew
not what to call it.

Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my
tent, into the rock, to make room for my farther
convenience.

Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this
work, viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow,
or basket; so I desisted from my work, and began
104 THE ADVENTURES OF

to consider how to supply these wants, and make
me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I made use of
the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy: but the next thing was a shovel or spade;
this was so absolutely necessary that, indeed, I
could do nothing effectually without it; but what
kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods,
I found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the
Brazils they call the iron tree, from its exceeding
hardness: of this, with great labour, and almost
spoiling my axe, I cuta piece ; and brought it home,
too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and
my having no other way, made me a long while
upon this machine: for I worked it effectually, by
little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade ;
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England,
only that the broad part having no iron shod upon
it at bottom, it would not last me so long: how-
ever, it served well enough for the uses which I had
occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel,
I believe, made after that fashion, or so long in
making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a
wheelbarrow. A basket I could not make by any
means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker ware, at least, none yet
found out; and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied
I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no
notion of; neither did I know how to go about



|
|
|
|
:
ROBINSON CRUSOE 105

it; besides, I had no possible way to make iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to
run in; so I gave it over, and, for carrying away
the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me
a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mor-
tar in for the bricklayers. This was not so diffi-
cult to me as the making the shovel: and yet this
and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in
vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less
than four days; I mean, always excepting my morn-
ing walk with my gun, which I seldom omitted, and
very seldom failed also bringing home something
fit to eat.

Nov. 23. My other work having now stood
still, because of my making these tools, when they
were finished I went on; and working every day,
as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen
days entirely in widening and deepening my cave,
that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note. During all this time, I worked to make
this room or cave spacious enough to accommo-
date me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a
dining-room, and acellar. As for a lodging, I kept
to the tent: except that sometimes, in the wet sea-
son of the year, it rained so hard that I could not
keep myself dry; which caused me afterwards to
cover all my place within my pale with long poles,
and in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock,
and load them with flags and large leaves of trees,
like a thatch,

Decemser 10. I began now to think my cave or
106 THE ADVENTURES OF

vault finished; when on a sudden (it seems I had
made it toolarge) a great quantity of earth fell down
from the top and oneside; so much, that, in short,
it frightened me, and not without reason too; for
if I had been under it, I should never have wanted
a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great
deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose
earth to carry out; and, which was of more import-
ance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might
be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accord-
ingly, and got two shores or posts pitched upright
to the top, with two pieces of board across over
each post; this I finished the next day, and setting
more posts up with boards, in about a week more |
had the roof secured; and the posts, standing in
rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.

Dec. 17. From this day to the 3oth I placed
shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang
everything up that could be hung up: and now I
began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces
of boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals upon;
but boards began to be very scarce with me; also
I made me another table.

Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no
stirring out.

Dec. 25. Rain all day.

Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler
than before, and pleasanter.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 107

Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed an-
other, so that I catched it, and led it home ina
string: when I had it home, I bound and splint-
ered up its leg, which was broke.

N.B. I took such care of it that it lived; andthe
leg grew well and as strong as ever: but, by nurs-
ing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little
green at my door, and would not go away. This was
the first time that I entertained a thought of breed-
ing up some tame creatures, that I might have food
when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats and no breeze;
so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the
evening, for food; this time I spent in putting all
my things in order within doors.

January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad
early and late with my gun, and lay still in the
middle of the day. This evening, going farther
into the valleys which lay towards the centre of
the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
though exceeding shy, and hard to come at; how-
ever, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog
tohunt them down. Accordingly, the next day, I
went out with my dog, and set him upon the goats:
but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon
the dog: and he knew his danger too well, for he
would not come near them.

Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being
still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I
resolved to make very thick and strong.

N.B. This wall being described before, I pur-
108 THE ADVENTURES OF

posely omit what was said in the journal; itis suf-
ficient to observe, that I was no less time than from
the 3d of January to the 14th of April, working,
finishing, and perfecting this wall; though it was
no more than about twenty-five yards in length,
being a half-circle, from one place in the rock to
another place, about twelve yards from it, the door
of the cave being in the centre, behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains
hindering me many days, nay, sometimes weeks
together: but I thought I should never be perfectly
secure till this wall was finished; and it is scarce
credible what inexpressible labour everything was
done with, especially the bringing piles out of
the woods and driving them into the ground; for
I made them much bigger than I needed to have
done.

When this wall was finished and the outside
double fenced, with a turf wall raised up close to
it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to
come on shore there they would not perceive any-
thing like a habitation ; and it was very well I did
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very re-
markable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods
for game every day, when the rain permitted me,
and made frequent discoveries, in these walks, of
something or other to my advantage; particularly,
I found a kind of wild pigeons, who build, not as
wood-pigeons, in atree, butrather as house-pigeons,
in the holes of the rocks; and taking some young
ROBINSON CRUSOE 109

ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did
so; but when they grew older they flew all away ;
which, perhaps, was, at first, for want of feeding
them, for I had nothing to give them; however, I
frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in
the managing my household affairs, I found my-
self wanting in many things, which I thought at
first it was impossible for me to make; as indeed,
as tosome of them, it was: for instance, I could
never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small
runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could
never arrive at the capacity of making one by them,
though I spent many weeks about it; I could
neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so
true to one another as to make them hold water ;
so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was
at a great loss for candle; so that, as soon as it
was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock, I
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump
of bees-wax with which I made candles in my
African adventure; but I had none of that now;
the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed
a goat, I saved the tallow, and with a little dish
made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which
I added a wick of some oakum, I made mea lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light like a candle. In the middle of all my lab-
ours it happened that, in rummaging my things,
I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had
been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry ; not
110 THE ADVENTURES OF

for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when
the ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder
of corn had been in the bag was all devoured by
the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust: and being willing to have the bag for
some other use (I think it was to put powder in,
when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some
such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it, on
one side of my fortification under the rock.

It was a little before the great rain just now
mentioned that I threw this stuff away, taking no
notice of anything, and not so much as remember-
ing that I had thrown anything there, when, about
a month after, I saw some few stalks of something
green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might besome plant I hadnotseen; but I was sur-
prised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a little
longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come
out, which were perfect green barley, of the same
kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and
confusion of my thoughts on this occasion. I had
hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all:
indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of any things
that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or,
as we lightly say, what pleases God; without so
much as inquiring into the end of Providence in
these things, or his order in governing events in the
world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a
climate which I knew was not proper for corn,
ROBINSON CRUSOE Il

and especially as I knew not how it came there, it
startled me strangely ; and I began to suggest that
God had miraculously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance, on that wild
miserable place.

This touched my hearta little, and brought tears
out of my eyes; and I began to bless myself that
such a prodigy of nature should happen upon my
account; and this was the more strange to me, be-
cause I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to
be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had
seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions
of Providence for my support, but, not doubting
that there was more in the place, I went over all
that part of the island where I had been before,
searching in every corner, and under every rock,
for more of it; but I could not find any. At last
it occurred to my thoughts that I had shook out a
bag of chicken’s-meat in that place, and then the
wonder began to cease; andI must confess, my
religious thankfulness to God’s providence began
to abate too, upon the discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common; though I ought
to have been as thankful for so strange and unfore-
seen a providence as if it had been miraculous;
for it was really the work of Providence, as to me,
that should order or appoint that ten or twelve
grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the
112 THE ADVENTURES OF

rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw
it out in that particular place, where, it being in the
shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately;
whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it would have been burned up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may
be sure, in their season, which was about the end
of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again ; hoping, in time, to have some
quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But
it was not till the fourth year that I could allow
myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even
then but sparingly, as I shall show afterwards in
its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first sea-
son, by not observing the proper time; as I sowed
just before the dry season, so that it never came
up at all, at least not as it would have done; of
which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty
or thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the
same care, and whose use was of the same kind,
or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread,
or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up
without baking, though I did that also after some
time. — But to return to my Journal.

I worked excessively hard these three or four
months, to get my wall done; and the 14th of
April I closed it up; contriving to get into it, not by
a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there
might be no sign, on the outside, of my habitation.




ROBINSON CRUSOE 113

Aprit 16, I finished the ladder; so I went up
with the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up
after me, and let it down in the inside: this was a
complete enclosure to me; for within I had room
enough, and nothing could come at me from with-
out, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished,
I had almost all my labour overthrown at once,
and myself killed; the case was thus: — As I was
busy in the inside of it, behind my tent, just at
the entrance into my cave, I was terribly fright-
ened with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed;
for, all on asudden, I found the earth come crumb-
ling down from the roof of my cave, and from
the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the
posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a fright-
ful manner. I was heartily scared; but thought
nothing of what really was the cause, only think-
ing that the top of my cave was falling in, as some
of it had done before: and for fear I should be
buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my
wall for fear of the pieces of the hill which I ex-
pected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly
saw it was a terrible earthquake: for the ground
I stood on shook three times at about eight min-
utes’ distance, with three such shocks as would
have overturned the strongest building that could
be supposed to have stood on the earth; anda
great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about
114 THE ADVENTURES OF

half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with
such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my
life. I perceived also that the very sea was put into
a violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks
were stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself
(having never felt the like, nor discoursed with any
one that had) that I was like one dead or stupi-
fied; and the motion of the earth made my stom-
ach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the
noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it
were, and, rousing me from the stupified condi-
tion I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought
of nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and
my household goods, and burying all at once; this
sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no
more for some time, I began to take courage ; yet
I had not heart enough to go over my wall again,
for fear of being buried alive; but sat still upon
the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate,
not knowing what to do. All this while I had not
the least serious religious thought; nothing but
the common “ Lord, have mercy upon me!” and
when it was over that went away, too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast and
grow cloudy, as if it would rain; and soon after
the wind rose by little and little, so that in less
than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurri-
cane: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with
foam and froth; the shore was covered with a
ROBINSON CRUSOE 115

breach of the water ; the trees were torn up by the
roots; anda terrible storm it was. This held about
three hours, and then began to abate; and in two
hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain
very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground,
very much terrified and dejected ; when, on a sud-
den, it came into my thoughts that these winds
and rain being the consequence of the earthquake,
the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I
might venture into my cave again. With this
thought my spirits began to revive; and the rain
also helping to persuade me, I went in, and sat
down in my tent; but the rain was so violent, that
my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and
I was forced to get into my cave, though very
much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on
my head. This violent rain forced me to a new
work, viz., to cut a hole through my new forti-
fication, like a sink, to let the water go out, which
would else have drowned my cave. After I had
been in my cave for some time, and found no
more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to
be more composed. And now, to support my
spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went
to my little store and took a small cup of rum;
which, however, I did then, and always, very spar-
ingly, knowing I could have no more when that
was gone. It continued raining all that night and
great part of the next day, so that I could not stir
abroad: but my mind being more composed, I be-
gan to think of what I had best do; concluding
116 THE ADVENTURES OF

that, if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but I
must consider of building me some little hut in
an open place, which I might surround with a wall,
as I had done here, and so make myself secure
from wild beasts or men: for if I staid where I was,
I should certainly, one time or other, be buried
alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my
tent from the place where it now stood, being just
under the hanging precipice of the hill, and which,
if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall
upon my tent. I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and 2oth of April, in contriving where
and how to remove my habitation. The fear of
being swallowed alive affected me so that I never
slept in quiet ; and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad, without any fence, was almost equal to it;
but still, when I looked about, and saw how every-
thing was put in order, how pleasantly I was con-
cealed, and how safe from danger, it made me very
loath to remove. In the mean time, it occurred to
me that it would require a vast deal of time for
me todo this; and that I must be contented to run
the risk where I was, till I had formed a conven-
ient camp, and secured it so as to remove to it.
With this conclusion I composed myself for a
time ; and resolved that I would go to work with
all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables,
etc., in a circle as before, and set up my tent in it
when it was finished ; but that I would venture to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 117

stay where I was till it was ready and fit to move
to. This was the 21st.

Aprit 22. The next morning I began to con-
sider of means to put this measure into execution;
but I was at a great loss about the tools. I had
three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we
carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians) ;
but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and
though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it
and grind my tools too. This caused me as much
thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon
a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life
and death of aman. At length I contrived a wheel
with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty.

Note. I had never seen any such thing in Eng-
land, or at least not to take notice how it was done,
though since I have observed it is very common
there; besides that, my grindstone was very large
and heavy. This machine cost me a full week’s
work to bring it to perfection.

ApriL 28,29. These two whole days I took up
in grinding my tools, my machine for turning my
grindstone performing very well.

ApRIL 30. Having perceived that my bread had
been low a great while, I now took a survey of it,
and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day,
which made my heart very heavy.


M” 1. In the morning, looking towards the
seaside, the tide being low, I saw some-
thing lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it
looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a
small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck
of the ship, which were driven on shore by the
late hurricane; and looking towards the wreck it-
self, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel
that was driven on shore, and soon found it was a
barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and
the powder was caked as hard as a stone: how-
ever, I rolled it farther on the shore for the pre-
sent, and went on upon the sands, as near as I
could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it
strangely removed. The forecastle, which lay be-
fore buried in the sand, was heaved up at least six
feet: and the stern (which was broke to pieces,
and parted from the rest, by the force of the sea,
soon after I had left rummaging of her) was tossed,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 119

as it were, up, and cast on one side: and the sand
was thrown so high on that side next her stern,
that I could now walk quite up to her when the
tide was out; whereas there was a great piece of
water before, so that I could not come within a
quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming.
I was surprised with this at first, but soon con-
cluded it must be done by the earthquake ; and as
by this violence the ship was more broken open
than formerly, so many things came daily on shore,
which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the de-
sign of removing my habitation; and I busied myself
mightily, that day especially, in searching whether I
could make any way into the ship; but I found no-
thing was to be expected of that kind, for all the in-
side of the ship was choked upwith sand. However,
as I had learned not todespair of anything, I resolved
to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship,
concluding that everything I could get from her
would be of some use or other to me.

May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece
of a beam through, which I thought held some of
the upper part or quarter-deck together ; and when
I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well
as I could from the side which lay highest ; but the
tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that
time.

May 4. I wenta-fishing, but caught not one fish
that I durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport;
120 THE ADVENTURES OF

when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-
yarn, but I had no hooks; yet | frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which
I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5. Worked on the wreck: cut another
beam asunder, and brought three great fir planks
off from the decks, which I tied together, and made
swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.

May 6. Worked on the wreck : got several iron
bolts out of her, and other pieces of iron work ;
worked very hard, and came home very much tired,
and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with
an intent to work; but found the weight of the
wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut;
that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose;
and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could
see into it, but almost full of water and sand.

May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron
crow to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite
clear of the water and sand. I wrenched up two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the
tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May g. Went to the wreck, and with the crow
made way into the body of the wreck, and felt sev-
eral casks, and loosened them with the crow, but
could not break them up. I felt also a roll of Eng-
lish lead, and could stir it; but it was too heavy to
remove.

May 10 to 14. Went every day to the wreck,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 121

and got a great many pieces of timber, and boards,
or plank, and two or three hundredweight of iron.

May 165. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could
not cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the
edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other;
but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I
could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and
the wreck appeared more broken by the force of
the water ; but I stayed so long in the woods, to
get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my
going to the wreck that day.

May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown
on shore, at a great distance, two miles off me, but
resolved to see what they were, and found it was
a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring
away.

May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on
the wreck ; and with hard labour I loosened some
things so much, with the crow, that the first flow-
ing tide several casks floated out, and two of the
seamen’s chests: but the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of
timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil
pork in it; but the salt water and the sand had
spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the
15th of June, except the time necessary to get food;
which I always appointed, during this part of my
employment, to be when the tide was up, that I
might be ready when it was ebbed out: and by
this time I had gotten timber, and plank, and iron
122 THE ADVENTURES OF

work, enough to have built a good boat, if I had
known how: and I also got, at several times, and
in several pieces, near one hundredweight of the
sheet-lead.

June 16. Going down to the seaside, I found
a large tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had
seen; which, it seems, was only my misfortune,
not any defect of the place, or scarcity ; for had I
happened to be on the other side of the island,
I might have had hundreds of them every day,
as I found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear
enough for them.

June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found
in her threescore eggs : and her flesh was to me, at
that time, the most savoury and pleasant that I
ever tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but
of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid
place.

June 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed
within. I thought, at this time, the rain felt cold,
and I was somewhat chilly ; which I knew was not
usual in that latitude.

June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the wea-
ther had been cold.

June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my
head, and feverish.

June 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death
with the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be
sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first time
since the storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I
said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 123

June 22. A little better: but under dreadful
apprehensions of sickness.

June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering,
and then a violent headache.

June 24. Much better.

June 25. An ague very violent: the fit held me
seven hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats
after it.

June 26. Better; and, having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak : how-
ever, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I
would fain have stewed it, and made some broth,
but had no pot.

June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay
a-bed all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was
ready to perish for thirst, but so weak I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to
drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed;
and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew
not what to say: only lay and cried, “ Lord, look
upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon
me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two or three
hours ; till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did
not wake till far in the night. When I awoke, I
found myself much refreshed, but weak, and ex-
ceeding thirsty : however, as I had no water in my
whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had
this terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting
on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where
124 THE ADVENTURES OF

I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake,
and that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the
ground; he was all over as bright as a flame, so
that I could but just bear to look towards him; his
countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, im-
possible for words to describe; when he stepped
upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth
trembled, just as it had done before in the earth-
quake; and all the air looked, to my apprehension,
as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He had
no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon
in his hand, to kill me; and when he came to a
rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me,
or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible
to express the terror of it; all that I can say I un-
derstood, was this: “ Seeing all these things have
not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt
die”’; at which words, I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand, to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will
expect that I should be able to describe the hor-
rors of my soul at this terrible vision ; I mean that,
even while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those
horrors; nor is it any more possible to describe
the impression that remained upon my mind when
I awaked, and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge: what I had
received by the good instruction of my father was
then worn out, by an uninterrupted series, for eight
ROBINSON CRUSOE 125

years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant con-
versation with none but such as were, like myself,
wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought
that so much as tended either to looking upward
towards God, or inward towards a reflection upon
my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, with-
out desire of good or consciousness of evil, had
entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the
most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among
our common sailors can be supposed to be; not
having the least sense, either of the fear of God, in
danger, or of thankfulness to him, in deliverances.

In the relating what is already part of my story,
this will be the more easily believed, when I shall
add, that through all the variety of miseries that
had to this day befallen me, I never had so much
as one thought of its being the hand of God, or
that it was a just punishment for my sin, either my
rebellious behaviour against my father, or my pre-
sent sins, which were great; or even as a punish-
ment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the
desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one
thought what would become of me, or one wish to
God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep
me from the danger which apparently surrounded
me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel sav-
ages ; but I was quite thoughtless of a God or a
Providence; acted like a mere brute, from the prin-
ciples of nature, and by the dictates of common
126 THE ADVENTURES OF

sense only; and indeed hardly that. When I was
delivered and taken up at sea by the Portuguese
captain, well used, and dealt with justly and hon-
ourably, as well as charitably, I had not the least
thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning,
on this island, I was as far from remorse, or look-
ing on it as a judgment; I only said to myself
often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to
be always miserable.

It is true, when I first got on shore here, and
found all my ship’s crew drowned and myself spared,
I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and some
transports of soul, which, had the grace of God
assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness ;
but it ended where it began, in a mere common
flight of joy; or, as I may say, being glad I was
alive, without the least reflection upon the distin-
guished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when
all the rest were destroyed, or any inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me: just the
same common sort of joy which seamen generally
have, after they are got safe ashore from a ship-
wreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of
punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over; and
all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was
afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of
my condition, — how I was cast on this dreadful
place, out of the reach of human kind, out of all
hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, — as


ROBINSON CRUSOE 127

soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and that I
should not starve and perish for hunger, all the
sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be
very easy, applied myself to the works proper for
my preservation and supply, and was far enough
from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment
from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me;
these were thoughts which very seldom entered
into my head.

The growing-up of the corn, as is hinted in my
Journal, had, at first, some little influence upon
me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long
as I thought it had something miraculous in it;
but as soon as that part of the thought was re-
moved, all the impression which was raised from it
wore off also, as I have noted already. Even the
earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible
in its nature, or more immediately directing to
the invisible Power which alone directs such things,
yet no sooner was the fright over, but the impres-
sion it had made went off also. I had no more
sense of God, or his judgments, much less of the
present affliction of my circumstances being from
his hand, than if I had been in the most prosper-
ous condition of life. But now, when I began to
be sick, and a leisure view of the miseries of death
came to place itself before me, when my spirits
began to sink under the burden of a strong dis-
temper, and nature was exhausted with the violence
of the fever, conscience, that had slept so long,
began to awake, and I reproached myself with my
128 THE ADVENTURES OF

past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncom-
mon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to
lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with
me in so vindictive a manner. These reflections
oppressed me for the second or third day of my
distemper; and in the violence as well of the fever
as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, ex-
torted from me some words like praying to God,
though I cannot say it was a prayer attended either
with desires or with hopes; it was rather the voice
of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were
confused, the convictions great upon my mind, and
the horror of dying in such a miserable condition
raised vapours in my head with the mere appre-
hension; and, in these hurries of my soul, I knew
not what my tongue might express; but it was
rather exclamation, such as, “ Lord, what a miser-
able creature am I! If I should be sick, I shall
certainly die for want of help; and what will be-
come of me?” Then the tears burst out of my
eyes, and I could say no more for a good while.
In this interval, the good advice of my father came
to my mind, and presently his prediction, which I
mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz., that
if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me; and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect
upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery. “ Now,”
said I aloud, “my dear father’s words are come to
pass: God’s justice has overtaken me, and I have
none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 129

Providence, which had mercifully put me in a sta-
tion of life wherein I might have been happy and
easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn
from my parents to know the blessing of it. I left
them to mourn over my folly; and now I am left
to mourn under the consequences of it; I refused
their help and assistance who would have pushed
me in the world, and would have made everything
easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle
with, too great for even nature itself to support;
and noassistance, no comfort, no advice.” Then I
cried out, “ Lord, be my help, for I am in great
distress.” This was the first prayer, if I may call
itso, that I had made for many years. — But I re-
turn to my Journal.
\ KN )

By ‘ \
\
\

IN
KN
Zh ‘i io)

\
\

A |



ie 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with
the sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely
off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of
my dream was very great, yet I considered that
the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to
refresh and support myself when I should be ill.
The first thing I did was to fill a large square
case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table,
in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or
aguish disposition of the water, I put about a
quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them
together. Then I got me a piece of the goat’s
flesh and broiled it on the coals, but could eat
very little. I walked about, but was very weak,
and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense
of my miserable condition, dreading the return of
my distemper the next day. At night, I made my
supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted
in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell:
and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
ROBINSON CRUSOE 131

God’s blessing to, as I could remember, in my
whole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but
found myself so weak that I could hardly carry
the gun (for I never went out without that); so
I went but a little way, and sat down upon the
ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just
before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat
here, some such thoughts as these occurred to me:
“What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen
so much? Whence is it produced? And what am
I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, hu-
man and brutal? Whence are we? Surely, we are
all made by some secret power, who formed the
earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that?”
Then it followed most naturally, “It is God that
has made all. Well, but then,” it came on, “if
God has made all these things, he guides and gov-
erns them all, and all things that concern them ;
for the power that could make all things must cer-
tainly have power to guide and direct them ; if so,
nothing can happen in the great circuit of his works,
either without his knowledge or appointment. And
if nothing happens without his knowledge, he
knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful
condition: and if nothing happens without his
appointment, he has appointed all this to befal me.”
Nothing occurred to my thought, to contradict
any of these conclusions; and therefore it rested
upon me with the greatest force, that it must needs
be that God had appointed all this to befal me;
that I was brought to this miserable circumstance
132 THE ADVENTURES OF

by his direction, he having the sole power, not of
me only, but of everything that happens in the
world. Immediately it followed, ““ Why has God
done this to me? What have I done to be thus
used?” My conscience presently checked me in
that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed: and me-
thought it spoke to me like a voice, “ Wretch !
dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look back
upon a dreadful mis-spent life, and ask thyself
what thou hast zo¢ done? Ask, why is it that thou
wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not
drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight
when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-
war ; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of
Africa; or drowned here, when all the crew per-
ished but thyself? Dost thou ask what thou hast
done?” I was struck dumb with these reflections,
as one astonished, and had not a word to say, no,
not to answer to myself; and, rising up pensive
and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went over
my wall, as if I had been going to bed: but my
thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no in-
clination to sleep; so I sat down in the chair, and
lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now,
as the apprehension of the return of my distem-
per terrified me very much, it occurred to my
thought that the Brazilians take no physic but
their tobacco for almost all distempers ; and I had
a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests,
which was quite cured, and some also that was
green, and not quite cured.


SO WEAK THAT I COULD HARDLY CARRY THE GUN




ROBINSON CRUSOE 133

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt: for in
this chest I found a cure both for soul and body.
I opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
viz., the tobacco; and as the few books I had
saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles
which I mentioned before, and which, to this time,
I had not found leisure or so much as inclination
to look into. I say, I took it out, and brought
both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as
to my distemper, nor whether it was good for it
or not; but I tried several experiments with it, as
if I was resolved it should hit one way or other.
I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it in my
mouth ; which, indeed, at first, almost stupified
my brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and
such as I had not been much used to. Then I
took some and steeped it an hour or two in some
rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay
down: and lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of
coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of
it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat
as almost for suffocation. In the interval of this
operation I took up the Bible and began to read ;
but my head was too much disturbed by the to-
bacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only,
having opened the book casually, the first words
that occurred to me were these: “Call on me in
the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou
shalt glorify me.” These words were very apt to
my case; and made some impression upon my
134 THE ADVENTURES OF

thoughts at the time of reading them, though not
so much as they did afterwards ; for, as for being
delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say,
to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible
in my apprehension of things, that, as the child-
ren of Israel said when they were promised flesh
to eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilder-
ness?” so I began to say, “ Can even God himself
deliver me from this place?” And as it was not
for many years that any hopes appeared, this pre-
vailed very often upon my thoughts: but, how-
ever, the words made a great impression upon
me, and I mused upon them very often. It now
grew late: and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed
my head so much that I inclined to sleep; so I
left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should
want anything in the night, and went to bed. But
before I lay down, I did what I never had done
in all my life: I kneeled down, and prayed to
God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called
upon him in the day of trouble he would deliver
me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was
over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped
the tobacco ; which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco that indeed I could scarce get it down;
immediately upon this I went to bed. I found
presently the rum flew up into my head violently ;
but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more
till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three
o’clock in the afternoon the next day ; nay, to this
hour, I am partly of opinion that I slept all the


ROBINSON CRUSOE 135

next day and night, and till almost three the day
after; for otherwise, I know not how I should
lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the
week, as it appeared, some years after, I had done;
for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the
Line, I should have lost more than one day ; but
certainly I lost a day in my account, and never
knew which way. Be that, however, one way or
the other, when I awaked I found myself exceed-
ingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful:
when I got up I was stronger than I was the day
before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry;
and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but contin-
ued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.

The 3oth was my well day, of course; and I went
abroad with my gun, but did not care to travel
too far. I killed a sea fowl or two, something like a
brand goose, and brought them home; but was not
very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of
the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This even-
ing I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed
did me good the day before, viz. the tobacco steeped
in rum; only I did not take so much as before, nor
did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over
the smoke: however, I was not so well the next
day, which was the first of July, as I hopedI should
have been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but it
was not much,

Juty 2. I renewed the medicine all the three
ways, and dosed myself with it as at first, and
doubled the quantity which I drank.
136 THE ADVENTURES OF

Jury 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though
I did not recover my full strength for some weeks
after. While I was thus gathering strength, my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, “ ]
will deliver thee”; and the impossibility of my de-
liverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my
ever expecting it. Butas I was discouraging myself
with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I
pored so much upon my deliverance from the main
affliction that I disregarded the deliverance I had
received ; and I was, as it were, made to ask myself
such questions as these, viz., “ Have I not been de-
livered, and wonderfully, too, from sickness ; from
the most distressed condition that could be and
that was so frightful to me? and what notice have
I taken of it? Have I done my part? God has de-
livered me, but I have not glorified him; that is
to say, I have not owned and been thankful for
that as a deliverance; and howcan I expect a greater
deliverance?” This touched my heart very much ;
and immediately I knelt down, and gave God
thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.

Jury 4. In the morning I took the Bible, and
beginning at the New Testament, I began seri-
ously to read it; and imposed upon myself to read
a while every morning and every night; not bind-
ing myself to the number of chapters, but as long
as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long
after I set seriously to this work that I found my
heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the
wickedness of my past life. The impression of my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 137

dream revived; and the words, “ All these things
have not brought thee to repentance,” ran seri-
ously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of
God to give me repentance, when it happened pro-
videntially, the very same day, that, reading the
Scripture, I came to these words, “He is exalted
a Prince and a Saviour; to give repentance and to
give remission.” I threw down the book ; and with
my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven,
in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud,
“Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou exalted
Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!” This
was the first time in all my life I could say, in the
true sense of the words, that I prayed; for now
I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with
a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the en-
couragement of the word of God: and from this
time, I may say, I began to have hope that God
would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned
above, “Call on me, and I will deliver thee,” in
a different sense from what I had ever done before;
for then I had no notion of anything being called
deliverance but my being delivered from the cap-
tivity I was in: for though | was indeed at large
in the place, yet the island was certainly a prison
to me, and that in the worst sense in the world.
But now I learned to take it in another sense: now
I looked back upon my past life with such horror,
and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul
sought nothing of God but deliverance from the
138 THE ADVENTURES OF

load of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As
for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did not so
much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of
it; it was all of no consideration, in comparison
with this. And I add this part here, to hint to
whoever shall read it that, whenever they come
to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance
from sin a much greater blessing than deliver-
ance from affliction.

My condition began now to be, though not less
miserable as to my way of living, yet much easier
to my mind; and my thoughts being directed, by
constantly reading the Scripture and praying to
God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew
nothing of; also, as my health and strength re-
turned, I bestirred me to furnish myself with every-
thing that I wanted, and make my way of living
as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly
employed in walking about with my gun in my
hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness:
for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and
to what weakness I was reduced. The application
which I made use of was perfectly new, and_per-
haps what had never cured an ague before; neither
can I recommend it to any one to practise, by this
experiment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet
it rather contributed to weakening me; for I had
frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for
ROBINSON CRUSOE 139

some time. I learned from it also this, in particu-
lar; that being abroad in the rainy season was the
most pernicious thing to my health that could be,
especially in those rains which came attended with
storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain
which came in the dry season was almost always
accompanied with such storms, so I found that
this rain was much more dangerous than the rain
which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above
ten months; all possibility of deliverance from this
condition seemed to be entirely taken from me,
and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever
set foot upon that place. Having secured my hab-
itation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a
great desire to make a more perfect discovery of
the island, and to see what other productions I
might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take
a more particular survey of the island itself. I went
up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my
rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two
miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher, and
that it was no more than a little brook of running
water, very fresh and good: but this being the dry
season, there was hardly any water in some parts
of it; at least, not any stream. On the banks of
this brook I found many pleasant savannahs or
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass;
and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher
grounds (where the water, as it might be supposed,
140 THE ADVENTURES OF

never overflowed), I found a great deal of tobacco,
green, and growing to a very great and strong stalk ;
and there were divers other plants, which I had
no knowledge of or understanding about, and that
might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I
could not find out. I searched for the cassava root,
which the Indians, in all that climate, make their
bread of; but I could find none. I saw large plants
of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw sev-
eral sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultiva-
tion, imperfect. I contented myself with these dis-
coveries for this time, and came back, musing with
myself what course I might take to know the virtue
and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which
I should discover; but could bring it to no con-
clusion; for, in short, I had made so little observa-
tion while I was in the Brazils that I knew little
of the plants in the field; at least, very little that
might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way
again; and after going something farther than I had
gone the day before, I found the brook and the
savannahs begin to cease, and the country become
more woody than before. In this part I found dif-
ferent fruits; and particularly I found melons upon
the ground in great abundance, and grapes upon
the trees: the vines, indeed, had spread over the
trees, and the clusters of grapes were now just in
their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a sur-
prising discovery, and I was exceedingly glad of
them, but I was warned by my experience to eat
ROBINSON CRUSOE 141

sparingly of them, remembering that when I was
ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed sev-
eral of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by
throwing them into fluxes and fevers. I found,
however, an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them
as dried grapes or raisins are kept; which I thought
would be (as indeed they were) as wholesome and
as agreeable to eat when no grapes were to be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back
to my habitation; which, by the way, was the first
night, as I might say, I had lain from home. At
night, I took my first contrivance, and got up into
a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning
proceeded on my discovery, travelling near four
miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley:
keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the
south and north sides of me. At the end of this
march I came to an opening, where the country
seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring
of fresh water, which issued out at the’ side of the
hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east ; and
the country appeared so fresh, so green, so flour-
ishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or
flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted
garden. I descended a little on the side of that
delicious vale, surveying it with a secret kind
of pleasure (though mixed with other afflicting
thoughts), to think that this was all my own; that
I was king and lord of all this country indefeas-
ibly, and had a right of possession ; and, if I could
142 THE ADVENTURES OF

convey it, I might have it in inheritance as com-
pletely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw
here abundance of cocoa trees, and orange, lemon,
and citron trees, but all wild, and very few bearing
any fruit; at least not then. However, the green
limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to
eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice
afterwards with water, which made it very whole-
some, and very cool and refreshing. I found now
I had business enough, to gather and carry home;
and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes
as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet
season, which I knew was approaching. In order
to this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one
place, a lesser heap in another place; and a great
parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and
taking a few of each with me, I travelled home-
ward, and resolved to come again and bring a bag
or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest
home. Accordingly, having spent three days in
this journey, I came home (so I must now call my
tent and my cave); but before I got thither, the
grapes were spoiled ; the richness of the fruits, and
the weight of the juice, having broken and bruised
them, they were good for little or nothing; as to
the limes, they were good, but I could bring only
a few.

The next day being the 19th, I went back, hav-
ing made me two small bags to bring home my
harvest; but I was surprised, when, coming to my
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when
ROBINSON CRUSOE 143

I gathered them, I found them all spread about,
trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this
I concluded there were some wild creatures there-
abouts which had done this, but what they were
I knew not. However, as I found there was no lay-
ing them up in heaps, and no carrying them away
in a sack, but that one way they would be de-
stroyed, and the other way they would be crushed
with their own weight, I took another course: I
then gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them upon the out-branches of the trees,
that they might cure and dry in the sun; and as
for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back
as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I con-
templated with great pleasure the fruitfulness of
that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation;
the security from storms on that side; the water
and the wood; and concluded that I had pitched
upon a place to fix my abode in which was by far
the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I
began to consider of removing my habitation, and
to look out for a place equally safe as where I was
now situate; if possible, in that pleasant fruitful
part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head; and I was
exceeding fond of it for some time, the pleasantness
of the place tempting me; but when I came to a
nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by
the seaside, where it was at least possible that some-
144 THE ADVENTURES OF

thing might happen to my advantage, and, by the
same ill-fate that brought me hither, might bring
some other unhappy wretches to the same place;
and though it was scarce probable that any such
thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself
among the hills and woods in the centre of the
island was to anticipate my bondage, and to render
such an affair not only improbable but impossible;
and that therefore I ought not by any means to
remove. However, I was so enamoured of this
place that I spent much of my time there for the
whole remaining part of the month of July ; and
though, upon second thoughts, I resolved, asabove
stated, not to remove, yet I built me a little kind
of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with
a strong fence, being a double hedge, as nigh as
I could reach, well staked, and filled between with
brushwood. Here I lay very secure sometimes
two or three nights together; always going over
it with a ladder, as before: so that I fancied now
I had my country and my sea-coast house. This
work took me up till the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began
to enjoy my labour, when the rains came on, and
made me stick close to my first habitation: for
though I had made a tent like the other, with a
piece of sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not
the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor
a cave behind me to retreat into when the rains
were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had
ROBINSON CRUSOE 145

finished my bower, and began to enjoy myself.
The 3d of August I found the grapes I had hung
up were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent
good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them
down from the trees; and it was very happy that
I did so, as the rains which followed would have
spoiled them, and I should have lost the best part
of my winter food; for I had above two hundred
large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken
them all down, and carried most of them home to
my cave, but it began to rain; and from hence,
which was the 14th of August, it rained, more or
less, every day till the middle of October; and
sometimes so violently that I could not stir out
of my cave for several days.

In this season, I was much surprised with the
increase of my family. I had been concerned for
the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me,
or, as I thought, had been dead; and I heard no
more of her, till) to my astonishment, she came
homewith three kittens. This was the more strange
to me, because, about the end of August, though
I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun,
yet I thought it was quite a different kind from our
European cats; yet the young cats were the same
kind of house-breed as the old one; and both of
my cats being females, I thought it very strange.
But from these three I afterwards came to be so
pestered with cats that I was forced to kill them
like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from
my house as much as possible.
146 THE ADVENTURES OF

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant
rain, so that I could not stir, and was now very
careful not to be much wet. In this confinement,
I began to be straitened for food; but venturing
out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day,
which was the 24th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me. My food was now reg-
ulated thus: I ate a bunch of raisins for my break-
fast, a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle,
broiled, for my dinner (for, to my great misfortune,
I had no vessel to boil or stew anything), and two
or three of the turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover from the
rain, I worked daily two or three hours at enlarg-
ing my cave ; and by degrees worked it on towards
one side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and
made a door, or way out, which came beyond my
fence or wall; and so I came in and out this
way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open: for as I had managed myself before, I was
in a perfect enclosure; whereas, now, I thought
I lay exposed ; and yet I could not perceive that
there was any living thing to fear, the biggest
creature that I had as yet seen upon the island
being a goat.

SEPTEMBER 30. I was now come to the unhappy
anniversary of my landing: I cast up the notches
on my post, and found I had been on shore three
hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a
solemn fast! setting it apart for religious exercise,
prostrating myself on the ground with the most
ROBINSON CRUSOE 147

serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God,
acknowledging his righteous judgments upon me,
and praying to him to have mercy on me through
Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least
refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going
down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit and a bunch
of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I
began it. I had all this time observed no sabbath-
day ; for as at first I had no sense of religion upon
my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to dis-
tinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than
ordinary for the sabbath-day, and so did not really
know what any of the days were: but now having
cast up the days, as above, I found I had been
there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set
apart every seventh day for a sabbath; though I
found, at the end of my account, I had lost a day
or two in my reckoning. A little after this, my ink
beginning to fail me, I contented myself to use it
more sparingly ; and to write down only the most
remarkable events of my life, without continuing
a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began
now to appear regular to me, and I learned to
divide them so as to provide for them accordingly ;
but I bought all my experience before I had it;
and what I am going to relate was one of the
most discouraging experiments that I had made ~
at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved a few ears
of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly
148 THE ADVENTURES OF

found sprung up, as I thought, of themselves. I
believe there were about thirty stalks of rice and
about twenty of barley; and now I thought it a
proper time to sow it after the rains; the sun being
in its southern position, going from me. Accord-
ingly I dug a piece of ground, as well as I could,
with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two
parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it
casually occurred to my thoughts that I would not
sow it all at first, because I did not know when
was the proper time for it; so I sowed about two
thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each:
and it was a great comfort to me afterwards that
I did so, for not one grain of what I sowed this
time came to anything; for the dry month follow-
ing, and the earth having thus had no rain after
the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its
growth, and never came up at all till the wet sea-
son had come again, and then it grew as if it had
been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did
not grow, which I easily imagined was from the
drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground
to make another trial in; and I dug up a piece of
ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest
of my seed in February, a little before the vernal
equinox. This, having the rainy months of March
and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly,
and yielded a very good crop; but having only
part of the seed left, and not daring to sow all that
I had, I got but a small quantity at last, my whole
crop not amounting to above half a peck of each
ROBINSON CRUSOE 149

kind. But by this experiment I was made master
of my business, and knew exactly when was the
proper time to sow; and that I might expect two
seed-times, and two harvests, every year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little dis-
covery, which was of use to me afterwards. As
soon as the rains were over, and the weather be-
gan to settle, which was about the month of Novem-
ber, I made a visit up the country to my bower,
where, though I had not been for some months,
yet I found all things just as I had left them. The
circle or double hedge that I had made was not
only firm and entire, but the stakes, which I had
cut out of some trees that grew thereabouts, were
all shot out and grown with long branches, as much
as a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after
lopping its head; but I could not tell what tree to
call it that these stakes were cut from. I was sur-
prised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young
trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them to
grow as much alike as I could; and it is scarce cred-
ible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three
years: so that, though the hedge made a circle of
about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees,
for such I might now call them, soon covered it,
and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge
under all the dry season. This made me resolve
to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge
like this,-in a semicircle round my wall (I mean
that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing
the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight

*
150 ROBINSON CRUSOE

yards distance from my first fence, they grew pre-
sently ; and were at first a fine cover to my habita-
tion, and afterwards served for a defence also, as
I shall observe in its order.


FOUND now that the seasons of the year might

generally be divided, not into summer and win-
teras in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the
dry seasons, which were generally thus: from the
middle of February to the middle of April, rainy,
the sun being then on or near the equinox; from
the middle of April till the middle of August, dry,
the sun being then north of the Line; from the
middle of August till the middle of October, rainy,
the sun being then come back to the Line; from
the middle of October till the middle of February,
dry, the sun being then to the south of the Line.

The rainy seasons held sometimes longer and
sometimes shorter, as the winds happened to blow;
but this was the general observation I made. After
I had found, by experience, the ill consequences of
being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish
myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not
be obliged to go out; and I sat within doors as
much as possible during the wet months. This
time I found much employment, and very suitable
152 THE ADVENTURES OF

also to the time; for I found great occasion for many
things which I had no way to furnish myself with
but by hard labour and constant application ; par-
ticularly, I tried many ways to make myself a
basket; but all the twigs I could get for the pur-
pose proved so brittle that they would do nothing.
It proved of excellent advantage to me now that,
when I was a boy, I used to take a great delight
in standing at a basket-maker’s in the town where
my father lived, to see them make their wicker-
ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious
to help, and a great observer of the manner how
they worked those things, and sometimes lending
a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the
methods of it, so that I wanted nothing but the
materials, when it came into my mind that the
twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that
grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows, wil-
lows, and osiers, in England; and I resolved to try.
Accordingly, the next day, I went to my country-
house, as I calledit; and cutting some of the smaller
twigs, | found them to my purpose as much as I
could desire: whereupon I came the next time pre-
pared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which
I soon found, for there was great plenty of them.
These I set up to dry within my circle or hedge:
and when they were fit for use, I carried them to
my cave: and here, during the next season, I em-
ployed myselfin making, as well as I could, several
baskets; both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up
anything as I had occasion for.. Though I did not
ROBINSON CRUSOE 153

finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose: and thus,
afterwards, I took care never to be without them;
and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, es-
pecially strong deep baskets, to place my corn in,
instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it. Having mastered this difficulty, and
employed a world of time about it, I bestirred
myself to see, if possible, how to supply two other
wants. I had no vessel to hold anything that was
liquid, except two runlets which were almost full of
rum, and some glass bottles, some of the common
size, and others (which were case-bottles) square,
for the holding of waters, spirits, etc. I had not so
much as a pot to boil anything, except a great ket-
tle which I saved out of the ship, and which was too
big for such use as I| desired it, viz., to make broth,
and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing
I would fain have had was a tobacco-pipe: but it
was impossible for me to make one; however, I
found a contrivance for that too at last. I employed
myself in planting my second row of stakes or piles,
and also in this wicker-working all the summer of
dry season, when another business took me up more
time than it could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to
see the whole island, and that I had travelled up
the brook, and so on to where I had built my
bower, and where I had an opening quite to the
sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved
to travel quite across to the sea-shore, on that side;
154 THE ADVENTURES OF

so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a
larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with
two biscuit-cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in
my pouch, for my store, I began my journey.
When I had passed the vale where my bower stood,
as above, I came within view of the sea, to the
west ; and it being a very clear day, I fairly de-
scried land, whether an island or continent I could
not tell; but it lay very high, extending from W.

to WSW. at a very great distance; by my guess, it _
could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off. |

I could not tell what part of the world this might —
be, otherwise than that I knew it must be part of —
America; and, as I concluded by all my observa- |
tions, must be near the Spanish dominions, and —

perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I

should have landed, I had been in a worse condi- |
tion than I was now. I therefore acquiesced in the |
dispositions of Providence, which I began now to |

own and to believe ordered everything for the best;
I say, I quieted my mind with this, and left off
afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being there.
Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I con-
sidered that if this land was the Spanish coast, I
should certainly, one time or other, see some ves-
sel pass or repass one way or other; but if not,
then it was the savage coast between the Spanish
country and the Brazils, whose inhabitants are in-
deed the worst of savages; for they are cannibals,
or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour
all human beings that fall into their hands.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 155

With these considerations, walking very leisurely
forward, I found this side of the island, where I
now was, much pleasanter than mine; the open or
savannah fields sweetly adorned with flowers and
grass, and full of very fine woods, I saw abund-
ance of parrots; and fain would have caught one,
if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught
it to speak to me. I did, after taking some pains,
catch a young parrot; for I knocked it down with
astick, and, having recovered it, I brought it home;
but it was some years before I could make him
speak; however, at last I taught him to call me
by my name very familiarly. But the accident that
followed, though it be a trifle, will be very divert-
ing in its place.

I was exceedingly amused with this journey. I
found in the low grounds hares, as I thought them
to be, and foxes: but they differed greatly from all
the other kinds I had met with; nor could I satisfy
myself to eat them, though I killed several. But
I had no need to be venturous, for I had no want
of food, and of that which was very good too;
especially these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and
turtle or tortoise. With these, added to my grapes,
Leadenhall-market could not have furnished a
table better than I, in proportion to the company ;
and though my case was deplorable enough, yet
I had great cause for thankfulness, as I was not
driven to any extremities for food, but had rather
plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled on this journey above two miles
156 THE ADVENTURES OF

outright in a day, or thereabout, but I took so
many turns and returns to see what discoveries ]
could make that I came weary enough to the place
where I resolved to sit down for the night; and
then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surround-
ed myself with a row of stakes, set upright in the
ground, either from one tree to another, or so as
no wild creature could come at me without waking
me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was sur-
prised to see that I had taken up my lot on the
worst side of the island, for here indeed the shore
was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on
the other side, I had found but three in a year
and a half. Here was also an infinite number of
fowls of many kinds; some of which I had seen,
and some of whichI had not seen before, and many
of them very good meat; but suchas I knew not the
names of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was
very sparing of my powder and shot; and there-
fore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could,
which I could better feed on. But, though there
were many goats here, more than on my side the
island, yet it was with much more difficulty that
I could come near them, the country being flat
and even, and they saw me much sooner than when
1 was upon a hill.

I confess this side of the country was much
pleasanter than mine; yet I had not the least in-
clination to remove; for as I was fixed in my hab-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 157

itation, it became natural to me, and I seemed all
the while I was here to be as it were upon a jour-
ney, and from home. However, I travelled along
the sea-shore towards the east, I suppose about
twelve miles; and then setting up a great pole upon
the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go home
again; and that the next journey I took should be
on the other side of the island, east from my dwell-
ing, and so round till I came to my post again: of
which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I
went, thinking I could easily keep so much of the
island in my view that I could not miss my first
dwelling by viewing the country ; but I found my-
self mistaken; for being come about two or three
miles, I found myself descended into a very large
valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those
hills covered with wood, that I could not see which
was my way by any direction but that of the sun,
nor even then, unless I knew very well the posi-
tion of the sun at that time of the day. And it hap-
pened, to my farther misfortune, that the weather
proved hazy for three or four days while I was in
this valley; and not being able to see the sun, I
wandered about very uncomfortable, and at last
was obliged to find out the sea-side, look for my
post, and come back the same way I went; and
then by easy journeys I turned homeward, the
weather being exceeding hot, and my gun,ammuni-
tion, hatchet, and other things very heavy.
ie

: N Sain
Sy

i
is

a Ba) ))
. , Ve
bn & ES

}





I this journey, my dog surprised a young kid,
and seized upon it; and running to take hold
of it, I caught it, and saved it alive from the dog.
I had a great mind to bring it home if I could;
for I had often been musing whether it might not
be possible to get a kid or two,and so raise a breed
of tame goats, which might supply me when my
powder and shot should be all spent. I made a
collar for this little creature, and with a string
which I had made of some rope-yarn, which ! al-
ways carried about me, I led him along, though
with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and
there I enclosed and left him; for I was very im-
patient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me
to come into my old hutch, and lie down in my
hammock bed. This little wandering journey,
without a settled place of abode, had been so un-
pleasant to me that my own house, as I called it to
myself, was a perfect settlement to me, compared


ROBINSON CRUSOE 159

to that; and it rendered everything about me so
comfortable that I resolved I would never go
a great way from it again while it should be my lot
to stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale
myself after my long journey : during which, most
of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of
making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be
more domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted
with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned within my little circle, and
resolved to fetch it home, or give it some food:
accordingly I went, and found it where I left it (for
indeed it could not get out), but was almost starved
for want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees,
and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and
threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did
before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with
being hungry that I had no need to have tied it,
for it followed me like a dog ; and as I continually
fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle,
and so fond that it was from that time one of my
domestics also, and would never leave me after-
wards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was
now come, and I kept the 3oth of September in
the same solemn manner as before, being the
anniversary of my landing on the island; having
now been there two years, and no more prospect
of being delivered than the first day I came here.
I spent the whole day in humble and thankful
160 THE ADVENTURES OF

acknowledgments for the many wonderful mercies
which my solitary condition was attended with, and
without which it might have been infinitely more
miserable. I gave humble and hearty thanks to
God for having been pleased to discover to me that
it was possible I might be more happy even in this
solitary condition than I should have been in the
enjoyment of society, and in all the pleasures of
the world; that he could fully make up to me the
deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of
human society, by his presence, and the commun-
ications of his grace to my soul; supporting, com-
forting, and encouraging me to depend upon his
providence here, and to hope for his eternal pre-
sence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how
much more happy the life I now led was, with
all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked,
cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of my
days; and now I changed both my sorrows and my
joys: my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new
from what they were at my first coming, or indeed
for the two years past. Before, as I walked about,
either on my hunting, or for viewing the country,
the anguish of my soul at my condition would
break out upon me ona sudden, and my very heart
would die within me, to think of the woods, the
mountains, the deserts I was in; and how I wasa
prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts
of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without




ROBINSON CRUSOE 161

redemption. In the midst of the greatest compos-
ures of my mind, this would break out upon me
like a storm, and make me wring my hands and
weep like a child; sometimes it would take me in
the middle of my work, and I would immediately
sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for
an hour or two together. This was still worse to
me; but if I could burst into tears, or give vent
to my feelings by words, it would go off; and my
grief, being exhausted, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new
thoughts ; I daily read the word of God, andapplied
all the comforts of it to my present state. One
morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon
these words, “I will never leave thee, nor forsake
thee” ; immediately it occurred that these words
were to me; why else should they be directed in
such a manner, just at the moment when I was
mourning over my condition, as one forsaken of
God and man? “Well then,” said I, “if God does
not forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be,
or what matters it, though the world should for-
sake me; seeing, on the other hand, if I had all the
world, and should lose the favour and blessing of
God, there would be no comparison in the loss?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my
mind that it was possible for me to be more happy
in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was
probable I should ever have been in any other par-
ticular state of the world; and with this thought I
was going to give thanks to God for bringing me
162 THE ADVENTURES OF

to this place. I know not what it was, but some-
thing shocked my mind at that thought, and I
durst not speak the words. “ How canst thou be
such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pre-
tend to be thankful for a condition, which, how-
ever thou mayest endeavour to be contented with,
thou wouldest rather pray heartily to be delivered
from?” Here I stopped; but though I could not
say I thanked God for being here, yet I sincerely
gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by what-
ever afflicting providences, to see the former con-
dition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness,
and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it,
but my very soul within me blessed God for direct-
ing my friend in England, without any order of
mine, to pack it up among my goods; and for as-
sisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck
of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began
my third year; and though I have not given the
reader the trouble of so particular an account of
my works this year as the first, yet in general it
may be observed that I was very seldom idle; but
having regularly divided my time, according to the
several daily employments that were before me;
such as, first, my duty to God, and the reading
the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some
time for, thrice every day; secondly, going abroad
with my gun for food, which generally took me up
three hours every morning, when it did not rain,
thirdly, ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking
ROBINSON CRUSOE 163

what I had killed or catched for my supply; these
took up great part of the day; also it is to be con-
sidered that in the middle of the day, when the
sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was
too great to stir out; so that about four hours in
the evening was all the time I could be supposed
to work in; with this exception, that sometimes I
changed my hours of hunting and working, and
went to work in the morning, and abroad with my
gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire
may be added the exceeding laboriousness of my
work, the many hours which, for want of tools,
want of help, and want of skill, everything I did
took up out of my time: for example, I was full
two-and-forty days making me a board for a long
shelf, which I wanted in my cave, whereas, two
sawyers, with their tools and a sawpit, would
have cut six of them out of the same tree in half
a day.

My case was this: it was a large tree that was
to be cut down, because my board was to be a
broad one. This tree I was three days cutting
down, and two more in cutting off the boughs, and
reducing it to a log or piece of timber. With in-
expressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both
the sides of it into chips, till it was light enough
to move; then I turned it, and made one side
of it smooth and flat as a board, from end to end;
then, turning that side downward, cut the other
side, till I brought the plank to be about three
164 THE ADVENTURES OF

inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one
may judge the labour of my hands in such a piece
of work; but labour and patience carried me
through that and many other things; I only ob-
serve this in particular, to show the reason why so
much of my time went away with so little work,
viz., that what might be a little, to be done with
help and tools, was a vast labour, and required a
prodigious time, to do alone, and by hand. Not-
withstanding this, with patience and labour | went
through many things; and, indeed, everything that
my circumstances made necessary for me to do, as
will appear by what follows.

I was now in the months of November and De-
cember, expecting my crop of barley and rice. The
ground I had manured or dug up for them was
not great; for, as I observed, my seed of each was
not above the quantity of half a peck, having lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season ; but
now my crop promised very well; when, on a
sudden, I found I was in danger of losing it all
again by enemies of several sorts, which it was
scarce possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats,
and wild creatures which I called hares, who, tast-
ing the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and
day, as soon as it came up, and ate it so close that
it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

I saw no remedy for this but by making an
enclosure about it with a hedge, which I did with
a great deal of toil; and the more, because it re-
quired speed. However, as my arable land was


ROBINSON CRUSOE 165

but small, suited to my crop, I got it tolerably
well fenced in about three weeks’ time ; and shoot-
ing some of the creatures in the daytime, I set my
dog to guard it in the night, tying him up toa
stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark
all night long ; so ina little time the enemies for-
sook the place, and the corn grew very strong and
well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my
corn was in the blade, so the birds were as likely
to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for going
along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my
little crop surrounded with fowls, I know not of
how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching
till I should be gone. I immediately let fly among
them (for I always had my gun with me); I had
no sooner shot but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among
the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in
a few days they would devour all my hopes; that
I should be starved, and never be able to raise a
crop at all; and what to do I could not tell: how-
ever, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible,
though I should watch it night and day. In the
first place, I went among it, to see what damage
was already done, and found they had spoiled a
good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green
for them, the loss was not so great but that the
remainder was likely to be a good crop if it could
be saved.
166 THE ADVENTURES OF

I staid by it to load my gun, and then coming
away, I could easily see the thieves sitting upon
all the trees about me, as if they only waited till
I was gone away; and the event proved it to be
so; for as I walked off, as if gone, I was no sooner
out of their sight than they dropped down, one by
one, into the corn again. I was so provoked that
I could not have patience to stay till more came
on, knowing that every grain they ate now was,
as it might be said, a peck loaf to me in the
consequence; so coming up to the hedge, I fired
again, and killed three of them. This was what I
wished for; so I took them up, and served them
as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz.,
hanged them in chains for a terror to others. It
is impossible to imagine that this should have
such an effect as it had; for the fowls not only
never came to the corn, but, in short, they forsook
all that part of the island, and I could never see
a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows
hung there. This I was very glad of, you may be
sure; and about the latter end of December, which
was our second harvest of the year, I reaped my
corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut
it down: and all I could do was to make one, as
well as I could, out of one of the broadswords, or
cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of
the ship. However, as my first crop was but small,
I had no great difficulty to cut it down: in short,
i reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off but the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 167

ears, and carried it away in a great basket which
I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands;
and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that
out of my half peck of seed I had near two bushels
of rice, and above two bushels and a half of bar-
ley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no
measure.

However, this was great encouragement to me;
and I foresaw that, in time, it would please God
to supply me with bread ; and yet here I was per-
plexed again, for I neither knew how to grind, or
make meal of my corn, or, indeed, how to clean it
and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make
bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I knew not
how to bake it. These things being added to my
desire of having a good quantity for store, and to
secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste
any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season ; and, in the mean time, to
employ all my study and hours of working to ac-
complish this great work of providing myself with
corn and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for
my bread. It is a little wonderful, and what I be-
lieve few people have thought much upon, viz., the
strange multitude of little things necessary in the
providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and
finishing this one article of bread. I, that was re-
duced to a mere state of nature, found this to my
daily discouragement, and was made more sensible
of it every hour, even after I had got the first hand-
168 THE ADVENTURES OF

ful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up
unexpectedly, and indeed to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth, no
spade or shovel to dig it: well, this I conquered,
by making a wooden spade, as I observed before;
but this did my work in but a wooden manner; |
and though it cost me a great many days to make |
it, yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out the |
sooner, but made my work the harder, and per- |
formed it much worse. However, this I bore with, ©
and was content to work it out with patience, and —
bear with the badness of the performance. When ©
the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced 1
to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough |
of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be called, |
rather than rake or harrow it. When it was grow- |
ing and grown, I have observed already how many |
things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap |
it, cure and carry it home, thresh, part it from the |
chaff, and save it: then I wanted a mill to grind it, |
sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into |
bread, and an oven to bake it; and yet all these |
things I did without, as shall be observed; and the |
corn was an inestimable comfort and advantage to
me. All this, as I said, made everything laborious
and tedious to me, but that there was no help for;
neither was my time so much loss to me, because,
as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every
day appointed to these works; and as I resolved
to use none of the corn for beeedl till I had a greater
quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply


ROBINSON CRUSOE 169

myself wholly, by labour and invention, to furnish
myself with utensils proper for the performing all
the operations necessary for making corn fit for
my use.


B” now I was to prepare more land; for I had
seed enough to sow above an acre of ground.
Before I did this, I had a week’s work at least to
make me a spade; which, when it was done, was
but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and re-
quired double labour to work with it. However, I
went through that, and sowed my seed in two large
flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could
find them to my mind, and fenced them in with
a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut off
that wood which I had set before, and knew it
would grow; so that, in one year’s time, I knew
I should have a quick or living hedge that would
want but little repair. This work took me up full
three months ; because a great part of the time was
in the wet season, when I could not go abroad.
Within doors, that is, when it rained and I could
not go out, I found employment on the following
occasions ; always observing that, while I was at
work, I diverted myself with talking to my parrot,
and teaching him to speak; and I quickly taught
ROBINSON CRUSOE 171

him to know his own name, and at last to speak
it out pretty loud, “ Poll” ; which was the first word
I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth
but my own. This, therefore, was not my work,
but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I
had a great employment upon my hands, as fol-
lows : I had long studied, by some means or other,
to make myself some earthen vessels, which indeed
I wanted much, but knew not where to come at
them; however, considering the heat of the climate,
I did not doubt but if I could find out any clay,
I might botch up some such pot as might, being
dried in the sun, be hard and strong enough to
bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry,
and required to be kept so; and as this was neces-
sary in the preparing corn, meal, etc., which was
the thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as
large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to
hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather
laugh at me, to tell how many awkward ways I
took to raise this pastil; what odd, misshapen, ugly
things I made ; how many of them fell in, and how
many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to
bear its own weight; how many cracked by the
over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too
hastily ; and how many fell in pieces with only re-
moving, as well before as after they were dried;
and, in a word, how, after having laboured hard to
find the clay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring it
home and work it, I could not make above two
172 THE ADVENTURES OF

large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars)
in about two months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry
and hard, I lifted them very gently up, and set them
down again in two great wicker baskets, which I
had made on purpose for them, that they might
not break ; and as between the pot and the basket
there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of
the rice and barley straw; and these two pots being
to stand always dry, I thought would hold my dry
corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn was
bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for
large pots, yet I made several smaller things with
better success; such as little round pots, flat dishes,
pitchers, and pipkins, and anything my hand turned
to; and the heat of the sun baked them very hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which
was to get an earthen pot to hold liquids and bear
the fire, which none of these could do. It happened
some time after, making a pretty large fire for cook-
ing my meat, when I went to put it out after I had
done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my
earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a
stone, and red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised
to see it, and said to myself that certainly they
might be made to burn whole if they would burn
broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire so
as to make it burn some pots. I had no notion of
a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or of glazing
ROBINSON CRUSOE 173

them with lead, though I had some lead to do it
with ; but I placed three large pipkins and two or
three pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed
my fire-wood all round it, with a great heap of
embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel
round the outside, and upon the top, till I saw the
pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and ob-
served that they did not crack at all: when I saw
them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about
five or six hours, till I found one of them, though
it did not crack, did melt or run; for the sand which
was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of
the heat, and would have run into glass if I had
gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the
pots began to abate of the red colour; and watch-
ing them all night, that I might not let the fire
abate too fast, in the morning I had three very
good, I will not say handsome, pipkins, and two
other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be de-
sired ; and one of them perfectly glazed with the
running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I
wanted no sort of earthenware for my use; but
I must needs say, as to the shapes of them, they
were very indifferent, as any one may suppose, as
I had no way of making them but as the children
make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies
that never learned to raise paste. No joy at a thing
of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine, when
I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear
the fire ; and I had hardly patience to stay till they
174 THE ADVENTURES OF

were cold, before I set one on the fire again, with
some water in it, to boil me some meat, which it
did admirably well; and with a piece of a kid I
made some very good broth; though I wanted oat-
meal and several other ingredients requisite to make
it so good as I would have had it been.

My next concern was to get a stone mortar to
stamp or beat some corn in; for as to the mill,
there was no thought of arriving to that perfection
of art with one pair of hands. To supply this want
I was at a great loss ; for, of all trades in the world,
I was as perfectly unqualified for a stonecutter as
for any whatever, neither had | any tools to go
about it with. I spent many a day to find out a
great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit
for a mortar; but could find none at all, except
what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way
to dig or cut out; nor, indeed, were the rocks in
the island of sufficient hardness, as they were all
of a sandy, crumbling stone, which would neither
bear the weight of a heavy pestle nor would break
the corn without filling it with sand; so, after a
great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I
gave it over, and resolved to look out a great block
of hard wood, which I found indeed much easier};
and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I
rounded it, and formed it on the outside with my
axe and hatchet; and then, with the help of the
fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it,
as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After
this, I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the


S

HERN PO'l

E EART

I

BURNING '
ROBINSON CRUSOE 175

wood called iron-wood: and this I prepared and
laid by against I had my next crop of corn, when I
proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my
corn into meal, to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or search,
to dress my meal, and to part it from the bran and
the husk, without which I did not see it possible
I could have any bread. This was a most difficult
thing, even but to think on; for I had nothing like
the necessary thing to make it; I mean fine thin
canvas or stuff, to search the meal through. Here
I was at a full stop for many months; nor did I
really know what to do: linen I had none left but
what was mere rags ; I had goats’ hair, but neither
knew how to weave it nor spin it ; and had I known
how, here were no tools to work it with. All the
remedy I found for this was at last recollecting I
had, among the seamen’s clothes which were saved
out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or mus-
lin; with some pieces of these I made three small
sieves, proper enough for the work, and thus I
made shift for some years; how I did afterwards,
I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be con-
sidered, and how I should make bread when I came
to have corn: for, first, I had no yeast; as to that
part, there was no supplying the want, so I did not
concern myself much about it; but for an oven I
was indeed puzzled. At length I found out an ex-
pedient for that also, which was this: I made some
earthen vessels, very broad but not deep, that is to
176 THE ADVENTURES OF

say, about two feet diameter, and not above nine
inches deep; these I burned in the fire, as I had
done the other, and laid them by ; and when I
wanted to bake, I madea great fire upon my hearth,
which I had paved with some square tiles, of my
own making and burning also; but I should not
call them square. When the fire-wood was burned
into embers, or live coals, I drew them forward
upon the hearth, so as to cover it all over, and
there let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then,
sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf,
or loaves, and, covering them with the earthen pot,
drew the embers all round the outside of the pot,
to keep in and add to the heat; and thus, as well as
in the best oven in the world, I baked my barley
loaves, and became, in a little time, a good pastry-
cook into the bargain; for I made myself several
cakes and puddings of the rice; but made no pies,
as I had nothing to put into them except the flesh
of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at if all these things
took me up most part of the third year of my abode
here; for it is to be observed, in the intervals of
these things, I had my new harvest and husbandry
to manage: I reaped my corn in its season, and
carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in
the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub
it out; for I had no floor to thresh it On, or instru-
ment to thresh it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing,
I really wanted to build my barns bigger: I wanted
ROBINSON CRUSOE 177

a place to lay it up in; for the increase of the corn
now yielded me so much that I had of the barley
about twenty bushels, and of rice as much, or more,
insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use it
freely; for my bread had been quite gone a great
while; I resolved also to see what quantity would
be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but
once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels
of barley and rice were much more than I could
consume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the
same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in
hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me
with bread, etc.


A” the while these things were doing, you may
be sure my thoughts ran many times upon
the prospect of land which I had seen from the
other side of the island; and I was not without
some secret wishes that I was on shore there; fan-
cying that, seeing the main land, and an inhabited
country, I might find some way or other to convey
myself farther, and perhaps at last find some means
of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the
dangers of such a condition, and that I might fall
into the hands of savages, and perhaps such as I
might have reason to think far worse than the lions
and tigers of Africa; and that if I once came in
their power, I should run a hazard of more than
a thousand to one of being killed, and perhaps of
being eaten; for I had heard that the people of the
Caribbean coast were cannibals, or man-eaters; and
I knew, by the latitude, that I could not be far off
from that shore. Then supposing they were not
cannibals, yet that they might kill me, as they had
ROBINSON CRUSOE 179

many Europeans who had fallen into their hands,
even when they have been ten or twenty together;
much more I, who was but one, and could make
little or no defence; all these things, I say, which
I ought to have considered well of, and did cast
up in my thoughts afterwards, took up none
of my apprehensions at first; yet my head ran
mightily upon the thought of getting over to
the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-
boat with the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which
I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of
Africa; but this was in vain. Then I thought I
would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as
I have said, was blown up upon the shore a great
way, in the storm, when we were first cast away.
She lay nearly where she did at first, but not quite;
having turned, by the force of the waves and the
winds, almost bottom upward, against a high ridge
of beachy rough sand; but no water about her, as
before. If I had had hands to have refitted her,
and to have launched her into the water, the boat
would have done very well, and I might have gone
back into the Brazils with her easily enough; but
I might have foreseen that I could no more turn
her and set her upright upon her bottom than I
could remove the island; however, I went to the
woods, and cut levers and rollers, and brought
them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do;
suggesting to myself that if I could but turn her
down, and repair the damage she had received, she
180 THE ADVENTURES OF

would be a very good boat, and I might venture
to sea in her.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruit-
less toil, and spent, I think, three or four weeks
bout it ; at last, finding it impossible to heave her
up with my little strength, I fell to digging away
the sand, to undermine her and soas to make her
fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and
guide her right in the fall. But when I had done
this, I was unable to stir her up again, or to get
under her, much less to move her forward towards
the water; so I was forced to give it over; and yet,
though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my
desire to venture over the main increased rather
than diminished, as the means for it seemed im-
possible.

At length, I began to think whether it was not
possible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such
as the natives of those climates make, even with-
out tools, or, as I might say, without hands, of
the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought
possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely
with the idea of making it, and with my having
much more convenience for it than any of the
Negroes or Indians; but not at all considering
the particular inconveniences which I lay under
more than the Indians did, viz., the want of hands
to move it into the water when it was made, a dif-
ficulty much harder for me to surmount than all
the consequences of want of tools could be to them;
for what could it avail me, if, after I had chosen my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 181

tree, and with much trouble cut it down, and might
be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside
into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out
the inside to make it hollow, so as to make a boat
of it — if, after all this, I must leave it just where
I found it, and was not able to launch it into the
water?

One would imagine, if I had had the least reflec-
tion upon my mind of my circumstances while I
was making this boat, I should have immediately
thought how I was to get it into the sea: but my
thoughts were so intent upon my voyage in it that
I never once considered how I should get it off
the land; and it was really, in its own nature, more
easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea
than the forty-five fathoms of land, where it lay,
to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a
fool that ever man did who had any of his senses
awake. I pleased myself with the design, without
determining whether I was able to undertake it;
not but that the difficulty of launching my boat
came often into my head; but I put a stop to my
own inquiries into it by this foolish answer: “Let
us first make it; I warrant I will find some way or
other to get it along when it is done.”

This was a most preposterous method; but
the eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and to work
I went. I felled a cedar tree, and I question much
whether Solomon ever had such a one for the build-
ing of the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five feet
182 THE ADVENTURES OF

teninches diameter at the lower part next the stump,
and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of
twenty-two feet, where it lessened and then parted
into branches. It was not without infinite labour
that I felled this tree; I was twenty days hacking
and hewing at the bottom, and fourteen more get-
ting the branches and limbs, and the vast spreading
head of it, cut off. After this, it cost me a month
to shape it and dub it toa proportion, and to some-
thing like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim
upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three
months more to clear the inside, and work it out
So as to make an exact boet of it: this I did, in-
deed, without fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and
by the dint of hard labour, till I had brought it
to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough
to have carried six-and-twenty men, and conse-
quently big enough to have carried me and all
my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was ex-
tremely delighted with it. The boat was really much
bigger thanever I sawacanoe or a periagua that was
made of one tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke
it had cost, you may be sure; and there remained
nothing but to get it into the water; which, had [
accomplished, I make no question but I should
have begun the maddest voyage, and the most un-
likely to be performed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed
me; though they cost me inexpressible labour too.
It lay about one hundred yards from the water, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 183

not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was
up-hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this
discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface
of the earth, and so make a declivity; this I began,
and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but who
grudge pains that have their deliverance in view?)
When this was worked through, and this difficulty
managed, it was still much the same, for I could
no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat.
Then I measured the distance of ground, and re-
solved tocut adock, or canal, to bring the water up
to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe
down to the water. Well, I began this work ; and
when I began to enter upon it, and calculate how
deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff
was to be thrown out, I found by the number of
hands I had, having none but my own, that it must
have been ten or twelve years before I could have
gone through with it; for the shore lay so high that
at the upper end it must have been at least twenty
feet deep; this attempt, though with great reluc-
tancy, I was at length obliged to give over also.

This grieved me heartily ; and now I saw, though
too late, the folly of beginning a work before we
count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our
own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth
year in this place, and kept my anniversary with
the same devotion, and with as much comfort as
before; for, by a constant study and serious ap-
plication to the word of God and by the assistance
184 THE ADVENTURES OF

of his grace, I gained a different knowledge from
what I had before; I entertained different notions
of things ; I looked now upon the world asa thing
remote, which I had nothing to do with, no ex-
pectation from, and, indeed, no desires about: in
a word, I had nothing to do with it, nor was ever
likely to have; I thought it looked, as we may
perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz., as a place I
had lived in, but was come out of it; and well
might I say, as Father Abraham to Dives, “ Between
me and thee is a great gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was here removed from all
the wickedness of the world; I had neither the lust
of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of
life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all that I
was now capable of enjoying: I was lord of the
whole manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself
king or emperor over the whole country which I
had possession of; there were no rivals; I had no
competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or com-
mand with me. I might have raised ship-loadings
of corn, but I had no use for it; so I let as little
grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had
tortoise or turtle enough, but now and then one
was as much as I could put to any use; I had
timber enough to have built a fleet of ships, and
I had grapes enough to have made winé, or to have
cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when
it had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was val-
uable ; I had enough to eat and supply my wants,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 185

and what was the rest to me? If I killed more
flesh than I could eat, the dog must eat it, or ver-
min; if I sowed more corn than I could eat, it
must be spoiled; the trees that I cut down were
lying to rot on the ground; I could make no more
use of them than for fuel, and that I had no other
occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things
dictated to me, upon just reflection, that all the
good things of this world are of no farther good
to us than for our use; and that whatever we may
heap up to give others, we enjoy only as muchas
we can use, and no more. The most covetous grip-
ing miser in the world would have been cured of
the vice of covetousness if he had been in my case,
for I possessed infinitely more than I knew what
to do with. I had no room for desire, except it was
for things which I had not, and they were com-
paratively but trifles, though indeed of great use
to me. I had, as I hinted before, a parcel of
money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-six
pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry,
useless stuff lay: I had no manner of business for
it; and I often thought within myself that I would
have given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-
pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay,
I would have given it all for a sixpenny-worth of
turnip and carrot seed from England, or for a
handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink
As it was, I had not the least advantage by it, o1
benefit from it; but there it lay in a drawer, ana
186 THE ADVENTURES OF

grew mouldy with the damp of the cave in the
wet seasons ; and if I had had the drawer full of
diamonds, it had been the same case, — they would
have been of no manner of value to me because of
no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much
more comfortable in itself than it was at first, and
much easier to my mind, as well as to my body.
I frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness,
and admired the hand of God’s providence, which
had thus spread my table in the wilderness; I
learned to look more upon the bright side of my
condition, and less upon the dark side, and to con-
sider what I enjoyed, rather than what I wanted;
and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts
that I cannot express them; and which I take
notice of here, to put those discontented people
in mind of it, who cannot enjoy comfortably what
God has given them, because they see and covet
something that he has not given them. All our
discontents about what we want appeared to me to
spring from the want of thankfulness for what we
have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and
doubtless would be so to any one that should fall
into such distress as mire was; and this was, to
compare my present condition with what I at first
expected it would be; nay, with what it would cer-
tainly have been if the good providence of God had
not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up near
totheshore where I not only couldcome at her, but
ROBINSON CRUSOE 187

could bring what I got out of her to the shore,
for my relief and comfort ; without which I had
wanted for tools to work, weapons for defence, and
gunpowder and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in
representing to myself, in the most lively colours,
how I must have acted if I had got nothing out
of the ship. I could not have so much as got any
food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it was
long before I found any of them,I must have
perished ; that I should have lived, if I had not
perished, like a mere savage; that if I had killed
a goat or a fowl by any contrivance, I had no way
to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin
and the bowels, or to cut it up, but must gnaw
it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws like a
beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the
goodness of Providence to me, and very thankful
for my present condition, with all its hardships and
misfortunes; and this part also I cannot but re-
commend to the reflection of those who are apt,
in their misery, to say, Is any affliction like mine?
Let them consider how much worse the cases of
some people are, and their case might have been,
if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also
to comfort my mind with hopes; and this was,
comparing my present condition with what I had
deserved, and had therefore reason to expect from
the hand of Providence. I had lived a dreadful
188 THE ADVENTURES OF

life, perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear
of God. I had been well instructed by my father
and mother; neither had they been wanting to me,
in their endeavours to infuse an early religious awe
of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and
what the nature and end of my being required of
me. But, alas! falling early into the seafaring life,
which, of all lives, is the most destitute of the fear
of God, though his terrors are always before them;
I say, falling early into the seafaring life, and into
_ seafaring company, all that little sense of religion
which I had entertained was laughed out of me by
my messmates, by a hardened despising of dangers,
and the views of death, which grew habitual to me,
by my long absence from all manner of opportun-
ities to converse with anything but what was like
myself, or to hear anything that was good, or tend-
ing towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or
of the least sense of what I was, or was to be, that
in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed (such as my
escape from Sallee, my being taken up by the
Portuguese master of a ship, my being planted so
well in the Brazils, my receiving the cargo from
England, and the like), I never had once the
words, “ Thank God,” so much as on my mind,
or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress had
I so much as a thought to pray to him, or so much
as to say, “ Lord, have mercy upon me!” no, nor
to mention the name of God, unless it was to
swear by, and blaspheme it.


ROBINSON CRUSOE 189

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for
many months, as I have already observed, on ac-
count of my wicked and hardened life past ; and
when I looked about me, and considered what
particular providences had attended me since my
coming into this place, and how God had dealt
bountifully with me, — had not only punished me
less than my iniquity had deserved, but had so
plentifully provided for me, —this gave me great
hopes that my repentance was accepted, and that
God had yet mercies in store for me.

With these reflections I worked my mind up,
not only to a resignation to the will of God in the
present disposition of my circumstances, but even
to a sincere thankfulness for my condition; and
that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to
complain, seeing I had not the due punishment
of my sins; that I enjoyed so many mercies which
I had no reason to have expected in that place
that I ought never more to repine at my condi-
tion, but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for
that daily bread which nothing but a crowd of
wonders could have brought ; that I ought to con-
sider I had been fed by a miracle, even as great as
that of feeding Elijah by ravens, nay, by a long
series of miracles; and that I could hardly have
named a place in the uninhabitable part of the
world where I could have been cast more to my
advantage; a place where, as I had no society,
which was my affliction on one hand, so I found
no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or tigers,
190 THE ADVENTURES OF

to threaten my life; no venomous or poisonous
creatures, which I might feed on to my hurt; no
Savages, to murder and devour me. In a word, as
my life was a life of sorrow one way, so it was a life
of mercy another; and I wanted nothing to make
it a life of comfort but to make myself sensible
of God’s goodness to me, and care over me in this
tondition ; and after I did make a just improve-
ment of these things, I went away, and was no
more sad.

I had now been here so long that many things
which I brought on shore for my help were either
quite gone, or very much wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some
time, all but a very little, which I eked out with
water, a little and a little, till it was so pale it
scarce left any appearance of black upon the paper.
As long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute
down the days of the month on which any remark-
able thing happened to me; and, first, by casting
up times past, I remember that there was a strange
concurrence of days in the various providences
which befel me, and which, if I had been super-
stitiously inclined to observe days as fatal or for-
tunate, | might have had reason to have looked
upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I
broke away from my father and my friends, and
ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the same
day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-of-
war, and made a slave; the same day of the year
ROBINSON CRUSOE 191

that I escaped out of the wreck of the ship in Yar-
mouth Roads, that same day, years afterwards, I
made my escape from Sallee in the boat: and the
same day of the year I was born on, the 3oth of
September, that same day I had my life so miracu-
lously saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast
onshore in this island; so that my wicked life and
my solitary life began both on one day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted was that
of my bread, I mean the biscuit which I brought
out of the ship: this I had husbanded to the last
degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread a
day for above a year; and yet I was quite without
bread for near a year before I got ‘any corn of my
own; and great reason I had to be thankful that I
had any at all, the getting it being, as has been
already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily: as to
linen, I had none for a great while, except some
chequered shirts which I found in the chests of the
other seamen, and which I carefully preserved, be-
cause many times I could bear no clothes on but
a shirt, and it was a very great help to me that I
had, among all the men’s clothes of the ship, almost
three dozen of shirts. There were also, indeed,
several thick watchcoats of the seamen’s which were
left, but they were too hot to wear; and though it
is true that the weather was so violently hot that
there was no need of clothes, yet I could not go
quite naked, no, though I had been inclined to it,
which I was not, nor could I abide the thought of
192 THE ADVENTURES OF

it, though I was all alone. The reason why I could
not go quite naked was, I could not bear the heat
of the sun so well when quite naked as with some
clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered
my skin: whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself
made some motion, and whistling under the shirt
was two-fold cooler than without it. No more could
I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun
without a cap or hat; the heat of the sun beating
with such violence, as it does in that place, would
give me the headache presently, by darting so
directly upon my head, without a cap or hat on,
so that I could not bear it; whereas, if I put on my
hat, it would presently go away.

Upon these views, I began to consider about
putting the few rags I had, which I called clothes,
into some order. I had worn out all the waistcoats
I had, and my business was now to try if I could
not make jackets out of the great watchcoats that
I had by me, and with such other materials as I
had; so I set to work a-tailoring, or rather, indeed,
a-botching, for I made most piteous work of it.
However, I made shift to make two or three new
waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great
while: as for breeches, or drawers, I made but a
very sorry shift indeed, till afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all
the creatures that I killed, I mean four-footed ones;
and I had hung them up, stretched out with sticks,
in the sun, by which means some of them were
so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but
ROBINSON CRUSOE 193

others I found very useful. The first thing I
made of these was a great cap for my head, with
the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain; and
this I performed so well that after this I made me
a suit of clothes wholly of the skins, that is to
say, a waistcoat and breeches, open at the knees,
and both loose; for they were rather wanting to
keep me cool than warm. I must not omit to ac-
knowledge that they were wretchedly made; for if
I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. How-
ever, they were such as I made very good shift
with; and when I was abroad, if it happened to
rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being upper-
most, I was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains
to make me an umbrella; I was indeed in great
want of one, and had a great mind to make one;
I had seen them made in the Brazils, where they
were very useful in the great heats which are there;
and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and
greater too, being nearer the equinox; besides, as I
was obliged to be much abroad, it was a most use-
ful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats.
I took a world of pains at it, and was a great while
before I could make anything likely to hold; nay,
after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or
three before I made one to my mind; but at last
I made one that answered indifferently well. The
main difficulty I found was to make it to let down:
I could make it spread, but if it did not let down
too, and draw in, it was not portable for me any
194 ROBINSON CRUSOE

way but just over my head, which would not do,
However, at last, as I said, I made one to answer,
and covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so that
it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off
the sun so effectually that I could walk out in the
hottest of the weather with greater advantage than
I could before in the coolest; and when I had no
need of it, could close it and carry it under my
arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being
entirely composed by resigning to the will uf God,
and throwing myself wholly upon the disposal of
his providence. This made my life better than
sociable; for when I began to regret the want of
conversation, I would ask myself whether thus
conversing mutually with my own thoughts,
and, as I hope I may say, with even God himself,
by ejaculations, was not better than the utmost
enjoyment of human society in the world!




CANNOT say that after this, for five years, any
| i extraordinary thing happened to me, but I lived
on in the same course, in the same posture and
place, just as before ; the chief things I was em-
ployed in, besides my yearly labour of planting
my barley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both
which I always kept just enough to have sufficient
stock of one year’s provision beforehand: I say,
besides this yearly labour, and my daily pursuit of
going out with my gun, I had one labour, to make
me a canoe, which at last I finished; so that, by
digging a canal to it of six feet wide, and four feet
deep, I brought it into the creek, almost half a
mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big, as
I made it without considering beforehand, as I
ought to do, how I should be able to launch it,
so, never being able to bring it into the water, or
bring the water to it, 1 was obliged to let it lie
where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to be
wiser the next time: indeed, the next time, though
I could not get a tree proper for it, and was ina
196 THE ADVENTURES OF

place where I could not get the water to it at
any less distance than, as I have said, near half a
mile, yet as I saw it was practicable at last, I never
gave it over; and though I was near two years
about it, yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes
of having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was fin-
ished, yet the size of it was not at all answerable
to the design which I had in view when I made
the first ; I mean, of venturing over to the serra
firma, where it was about forty miles broad; ac-
cordingly, the smallness of my boat assisted to
put an end to that design, and now I thought no
more of it. As I had a boat, my next design was
to make a cruise round the island; for, as I had
been on the other side in one place, crossing, as
I have already described it, over the land, so the
discoveries I made in that little journey made
me very eager to see other parts of the coast; and
now [ had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing
round the island.

For this purpose, that I might do everything
with discretion and consideration, I fitted up alit-
tle mast in my boat, and made a sail to it out
of some of the pieces of the ship’s sails which lay
in store, and of which I had a great stock by me.
Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the
boat, I found she would sail very well: then I
made little lockers, or boxes, at each end of my
boat, to put provisions, necessaries, ammunition,
etc., into, to be kept dry, either from rain or the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 197

spray of the sea; and a little long hollow place I
cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my
gun, making a flap to hang down over it, to keep
it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern,
like a mast, to stand over my head, and keep the
heat of the sun off me, like an awning; and thus
every now and then took a little voyage upon the
sea, but never went far out, nor far from the little
creek. At last, being eager to view the circumfer-
ence of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my
cruise ; and accordingly I victualled my ship for
the voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes
I should rather call them) of barley bread, an
earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I ate a
great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat,
and powder and shot for killing more, and two
large watch-coats, of those which, as I mentioned
before, I had saved out of the seamen’s chests ;
these I took, one to lie upon, and the other to
cover me in the night.

It was the sixth of November, in the sixth year
of my reign, or my captivity, which you please,
that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much
longer than I expected ; for though the island itself
was not very large, yet when I came to the east
side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out
about two leagues into the sea, some above water,
some under it; and beyond that a shoal of sand,
lying dry half a league more, so that I was obliged
to go a great way out to sea to double the point.
198 THE ADVENTURES OF

When first I discovered them, I was going to
give over my enterprise, and come back again, not
knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to
sea, and, above all, doubting how I should get back
again; so I came to an anchor; for I had made
me a kind of anchor with a piece of broken grap-
pling which I got out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and
went on shore, climbing up on a hill which seemed
to overlook that point, where I saw the full extent
of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I
stood, I perceived a strong, and indeed a most fu-
rious current, which ran to the east, and even came
close to the point; and I took the more notice
of it because I saw there might be some danger
that, when I came into it, I might be carried out
to sea by the strength of it, and not be able to
make the island again ; and, indeed, had I not got
first upon this hill I believe it would have been
so; for there was the same current on the other
side of the island, only that it set off ata farther
distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy under
the shore; so I had nothing to do but to get out
of the first current, and I should presently be in
an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind
blowing pretty fresh at ESE., and that being
just contrary to the said current, made a great
breach of the sea upon the point; 'so that it was
not safe for me to keep too close to the shore, for
ROBINSON CRUSOE 199

the breach, nor to go too far off, because of the
stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having
abated overnight, the sea was calm, and I ventured;
but I am a warning-piece again to all rash and igno-
rant pilots : for no sooner was I come to the point,
when I was not even my boat’s length from the
shore, but I found myself in a great depth of water,
and a current like the sluice of a mill; it carried
my boat along with it with such violence that all
I could do could not keep her so much as on the
edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and
farther out from the eddy, which was on my left
hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and
all I could do with my paddles signified nothing ;
and now I began to give myself over for lost ; for
as the current was on both sides of the island, I
knew in a few leagues’ distance they must join
again, and then I was irrecoverably gone; nor did
I see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had
no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the
sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving for
hunger. I had indeed found a tortoise on the shore,
as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it into
the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh water, that
is to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was all
this to being driven into the vast ocean, where, to
be sure, there was no shore, no main land or island,
for a thousand leagues at least?

And now I saw how easy it was for the pro-
vidence of God to make even the most miserable
200 THE ADVENTURES OF

condition of mankind worse. Now I looked back
upon my desolate, solitary island as the most pleas-
ant place in the world; and all the happiness my
heart could wish for was to be but there again, |
stretched out my hands to it, with eager wishes :
“O happy desert!” said I, “I shall never see thee
more. O miserable creature! whither am I going!”
Then I reproached myself with my unthankful
temper, and how I had repined at my solitary con-
dition ; and now what would I give to be on shore
there again! Thus we never see the true state of
our condition till it is illustrated to us by its con-
traries, nor know how to value what we enjoy but
by the want of it. It is scarce possible to imagine
the consternation I was now in, being driven from
my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now
to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues,
and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it
again. However, I worked hard, till indeed my
strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat
as much to the northward, that is, towards the side
of the current which the eddy lay on, as possibly
I could; when about noon, as the sun passed the
meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind
in my face, springing up from SSE. This cheered
my heart a little, and especially when, in about half
an hour more, it blew a pretty gentle gale. By this
time I was got at a frightful distance from the
island, and had the least cloudy or hazy weather
intervened, I had been undone another way too;
for I had no compass on board, and should never


BEING CARRIED BY ‘THE CURRENT AWAY FROM ‘THE ISLAND
ROBINSON CRUSOE 201

have known howto have steered towards the island
if I had but once lost sight of it; but the weather
continuing clear, I applied myself to get up my
mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to
the north as much as possible, to get out of the
current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat
began to stretch away, I saw even by the clearness
of the water some alteration of the current was
near; for where the current was so strong, the
water was foul; but perceiving the water clear, I
found the current abate ; and presently I found to
the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the sea
upon some rocks: these rocks I found caused the
current to part again, and as the main stress of it
ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the
north-east, so the other returned by the repulse of
the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran back
again to the north-west, with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve
brought to them upon the ladder, or to be rescued
from thieves just going to murder them, or who
have been in such-like extremities, may guess what
my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I
put my boat into the stream of this eddy ; and the
wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail
to it, running cheerfully before the wind, and with
a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way
back again, directly towards the island, but about
two leagues more to the northward than the cur-
202 THE ADVENTURES OF

rent which carried me away at first: so that, when
I came near the island, I found myself open to the
northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end
of the island, opposite to that which I went out
from.

When I had made something more than a league
of way by the help of this current or eddy, I found
it was spent, and served me no farther. However,
I found that being between two great currents, viz.,
that on the south side, which had hurried me away,
and that on the north, which lay about a league
on the other side; I say, between these two, in the
wake of the island, I found the water at least still,
and running no way ; and having still a breeze of
wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the
island, though not making such fresh way as I did
before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then
within a league of the island, I found the point of
the rocks which occasioned this disaster, stretching
out, as is described before, to the southward, and,
casting off the current more southerly, had, of
course, made another eddy to the north ; and this
I found very strong, but not directly setting the
way my course lay, which was due west, but al-
most full north. However, having a fresh gale, I
stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west;
and, in about an hour, came within about a mile
of the shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon
got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 203

gave God thanks for my deliverance, resolving to
lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by my
boat; and refreshing myself with such things as I
had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a
little cove that I had spied under some trees, and
laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with the
labour and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now ata great loss which way to get home
with my boat; I had run so much hazard, and knew
too much of the case, to think of attempting it
by the way I went out; and what might be at the
other side (I mean the west side) I knew not, nor
had I any mind to run any more ventures; so I
only resolved in the morning to make my way
westward along the shore, and see if there was no
creek where I might lay up my frigate in safety,
so as to have her again if I wanted her. In about
three miles, or thereabout, coasting the shore, I
came to a very good inlet or bay, about a mile
over, which narrowed till it came to a very little
rivulet or brook, where I found a very convenient
harbour for my boat, and where she lay as if she
had been in a little dock made on purpose for her.
Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very
safe, I went on shore, to look about me and see
where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the
place where I had been before, when I travelled
on foot to that shore ; so taking nothing out of my
boat but my gun and umbrella, for it was exceed-
ing hot, I began my march. The way was com-
204. THE ADVENTURES OF

fortable enough after such a voyage as I had been
upon, and I reached my old bower in the evening,
where I found everything standing as I had left it;
for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said
before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the
shade to rest my limbs, for I was very weary, and
fell asleep: but judge you, if you can that read
my story, what a surprise I must be in when I was
awaked out of my sleep by a voice, calling me by
my name several times, “Robin, Robin, Robin
Crusoe; poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin
Crusoe? Where are you? Where have you
been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with
rowing, or paddling, as it is called, the first part of
the day, and with walking the latter part, that I did
not wake thoroughly ; but, dozing between sleep-
ing and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat
* Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe,”’ at last I began to
wake more perfectly, and was at first dreadfully
frightened, and started up in the utmost consterna-
tion ; but no sooner were my eyes open but I saw
my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge ; and imme-
diately knew it was he that spoke to me: for just
in such bemoaning language I had used to talk to
him, and teach him; and he had learned it so per-
fectly that he would sit upon my finger, and lay
his bill close to my face, and cry, “ Poor Robin
Crusoe; Where are you? Where have you been?
ROBINSON CRUSOE 205

How came you here?” and such things as I had
taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the par-
rot, and that indeed it could be nobody else, it
was a good while before I could compose myself.
First, I was amazed how the creature got thither ;
and then how he should just keep about the place,
and nowhere else: but as I was well satisfied it
could be nobody but honest Poll, I got over it;
and holding out my hand, and calling him by his
name, Poll, the sociable creature came to me, and
sat upon my thumb, as he used to do, and con-
tinued talking to me, “ Poor Robin Crusoe!” and
how did I come here? and where had I been?
just as if he had been overjoyed to see me again;
and so I carried him home along with me.

I now had enough of rambling to sea for some
time, and had enough to do for many days to sit
still, and to reflect upon the danger I had been in,
I would have been very glad to have had my boat
again on my side of the island; but I knew not
how it was practicable to get it about. As to the
east side of the island, which I had gone round, I
knew well enough there was no venturing that way;
my very heart would shrink, and my very blood
run chill, but to think of it; and as to the other
side of the island, I did not know how it might
be there; but supposing the current ran with the
same force against the shore at the east as it passed
by it on the other, I might run the same risk of
being driven down the stream, and carried by the
206 THE ADVENTURES OF

island, as I had been before of being carried away
from it; so, with these thoughts, I contented my-
self to be without any boat, though it had been the
product of so many months’ labour to make it, and
of so many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained
near a year, lived a very sedate, retired life, as you
may well suppose; and my thoughts being very
much composed, as to my condition, and fully
comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of
Providence, I thought I lived really very happily
in all things, except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the me-
chanic exercises which my necessities put me upon
applying myself to; and I believe I could, upon
occasion, have made a very good carpenter, espe-
cially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfec-
tion in my earthenware, and contrived well enough
to make them with a wheel, which I found infin-
itely easier and better; because I made things round
and shapeable, which before were filthy things in-
deed to look upon. But I think I was never more
vain of my own performance, or more joyful for
anything I found out, than for my being able to
make a tobacco-pipe; and though it was a very ugly
clumsy thing when it was done, and only burned
red, like other earthenware, yet as it was hard and
firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly
comforted with it; for I had been always used to
smoke; and there were pipes in the ship; but I for-


ROBINSON CRUSOE 207

got them at first, not thinking that there was to-
bacco in theisland; and afterwards, when I searched
the ship again, I could not come at any pipes at all.

In my wicker-ware also I improved much, and
made abundance of necessary baskets, as well as my
invention showed me; though not very handsome,
yet they were such as were very handy and conven-
ient for my laying things up in, or fetching things
home. For example, if I killed a goat abroad, I
could hang it up in a tree, flay it, dress it, and cut
it in pieces, and bring it home in a basket; and the
like by aturtle; I could cut it up, take out the eggs,
and a piece or two of the flesh, which was enough
for me, and bring them home in a basket, and leave
the rest behind me. Also large deep baskets were
the receivers of my corn, which I always rubbed
out as soon as it was dry and cured, and kept it in
great baskets.

I began now to perceive my powder abated con-
siderably; this was a want which it was impossible
for me to supply, and I began seriously to consider
what I must do when I should have no more
powder, that is to say, how I should do to kill any
goats. I had, as is observed, in the third year of my
being here, kept a young kid, and bred her up tame,
and I was in hopes of getting ahe-goat: but I could
not by any means bring it to pass till my kid grew
an old goat; and as I could never find in my heart
to kill her, she died at last of mere age.


EING now in theeleventh year of my residence,
B and as I have said, my ammunition growing
low, I set myself to study some art to trap and
snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch
some of them alive; and particularly, I wanted a
she-goat great with young. For this purpose, I
made snares to hamper them; and I do believe they
were more than once taken in them, but my tackle
was not good, for I had no wire, and I always found
them broken, and my bait devoured. At length
I resolved to try a pitfall: so I dug several large
pits in the earth, in places where I had observed
the goats used to feed, and over those pits I placed
hurdles, of my own making too, with a great weight
upon them ; and several times I put ears of barley
and dry rice, without setting the trap; and I could
easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten
up the corn, for I could see the marks of their
feet. At length I set three traps in one night, and
going the next morning, I found them all standing.
and yet the bait eaten and gone. This was very dis-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 209

couraging ; however, I altered my traps; and, not
to trouble you with particulars, going one morn-
ing to see my traps, I found in one of them a large
old he-goat, and in one of the others three kids,
a male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with
him; he was so fierce I durst not go into the pit
to him; that is to say, to go about to bring him
away alive, which was what I wanted. I could have
killed him, but that was not my business, nor would
it answer my end; so I even let him out, and he
ran away, as if he had been frightened out of his
wits. But I had forgot then, what I had learned
afterwards, that hunger will tame a lion. If I had
let him stay there three or four days without food,
and then have carried him some water to drink, and
then a little corn, he would have been as tame as
one of the kids; for they are mighty sagacious,
tractable creatures, where they are well used. How-
ever, for the present I let him go, knowing no bet-
ter at that time: then I went to the three kids, and
taking them one by one, I| tied them with strings
together, and with some difficulty brought them all
home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but
throwing them some sweet corn, it tempted them,
and they began to be tame. And now I found that
if l expected to supply myself with goat’s flesh when
I had no powder or shot left, breeding some up
tame was my only way; when, perhaps, I might
have them about my house like a flock of sheep.
210 THE ADVENTURES OF

But then it occurred to me that I must keep the
tame from the wild, or else they would always run
wild when they grew up; and the only way for this
was to have some enclosed piece of ground, well
fenced, either with hedge or pale, to keep them in
so effectually that those within might not break out
or those without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of
hands; yet as I saw there was an absolute necessity
for doing it, my first work was to find out a proper
piece of ground, where there was likely to be herb-
age for them to eat, water for them to drink, and
cover to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such enclosures will think
I had very little contrivance when I pitched upon
a place very proper for all these (being a plain open
piece of meadow land, or savannah, as our people
call it in the western colonies) which had two or
three little drills of fresh water in it, and at one end
was very woody; I say, they will smile at my fore-
cast when I shall tell them I began my enclosing
this piece of ground in such a manner that my
hedge or pale must have been at least two miles
about. Nor was the madness of it so great as to
the compass, for if it was ten miles about, I was like
to have time enough to doit in; but I did not con-
sider that my goats would be as wild in so much
compass as if they had had the whole island, and
I should have so much room to chase them in that
I should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe,
ROBINSON CRUSOE aii

about fifty yards, when this thought occurred to
me; so I presently stopped short, and, for the first
beginning, I resolved to enclose a piece of about
one hundred and fifty yards in length, and one
hundred yards in breadth: which, as it would main-
tain as many as I should have in any reasonable
time, so, as my stock increased, I could add more
ground to my enclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went
to work with courage. I was about three months
hedging in the first piece; and, till I had done it,
I tethered the three kids in the best part of it, and
used them to feed as near me as possible, to make
them familiar ; and very often I would go and carry
them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and
feed them out of my hand: so that after my en-
closure was finished, and I let them loose, they
would follow me up and down, bleating after me
for a handful of corn.

This answered my end: and in about a year and
a half I hada flock of about twelve goats, kids and
all; andin two years more, I had three-and-forty,
beside several that I took and killed for my food.
After that I enclosed five several pieces of ground
to feed them in, with little pens to drive them into,
to take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece
of ground into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had
goat’s flesh to feed on when I pleased, but milk
too; a thing which, indeed, in the beginning, I did
not so much as think of, and which, when it came
212 THE ADVENTURES OF

into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise;
for now I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a
gallon or two of milk in a day. And as Nature,
who gives supplies of food to every creature, dic-
tates even naturally how to make use of it, so I,
that had never milked a cow, much less a goat, or
seen butter or cheese made, only when I was a boy,
after a great many essays and miscarriages, made
me both butter and cheese at last, and also salt
(though I found it partly made to my hand by the
heat of the sun upon some of the rocks of the sea),
and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully
can our Creator treat his creatures, even in those
conditionsin which they seemed to be overwhelmed
in destruction! How can he sweeten the bitterest
providences, and give us cause to praise him for
dungeons and prisons! What a table was here
spread for me ina wilderness, where I saw nothing,
at first, but to perish for hunger!

It would have made a stoic smile to have seen
me and my little family sit down to dinner. There
was my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole
island; I had the lives of all my subjects at my
absolute command; I could hang, draw, give lib-
erty, and take it away; and no rebels among all
my subjects.

Then to see how like a king I dined too, all
alone, attended by my servants: Poll, as if he had
been my favourite, was the only person permitted
to talk tome. My dog, who was now grown very
old and crazy, and had found no species to multi-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 213

ply his kind upon, sat always at my right hand;
and two cats, one on one side of the table, and one
on the other, expecting now and then a bit from
my hand, as a mark of special favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought
on shore at first, for they were both of them dead,
and had been interred near my habitation by my
own hand; but one of them having multiplied by
I know not what kind of creature, these were two
which I had preserved tame; whereas the rest ran
wild in the woods, and became indeed troublesome
to me at last; for they would often come into my
house, and plunder me too, till at last I was obliged
to shoot them, and did killa great many; at length
they left me.— With this attendance, and in this
plentiful manner, I lived; neither could I be said
towant anything butsociety ; and of that, some time
after this, I was like to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed,
to have the use of my boat, though very loath to
run any more hazards; and therefore sometimes I
sat contriving ways to get her about the island, and
at other times I sat myself down contented enough
without her. But I had astrange uneasiness in my
mind to go down to the point of the island, where,
as I have said, in my last ramble, I went up the hill
to see how the shore lay, and how the current set,
that I might see what I had to do: this inclination
increased upon me every day, and at length I re-
solved to travel thither by land, following the edge
of the shore. I did so; but had any one in England
214 THE ADVENTURES OF

been to meet such a man as I was, it must either
have frightened him, or raised a great deal of laugh-
ter; andas I frequently stood still to look at myself,
I could not but smile at the notion of my travel-
ling through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and
in such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my
figure, as follows.

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat’s
skin, with a flap hanging down behind, as well to
keep the sun from me as to shoot the rain off from
running into my neck; nothing being so hurtful in
these climates as the rain upon the flesh, under the
clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, theskirts com-
ing down to about the middle of the thighs, and
a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same; the
breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat,
whose hair hung down such a length on either side
that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle of
my legs: stockings and shoes I had none, but had
made me a pair of somethings, I scarce know what
to call them, like buskins, to flap over my legs, and
lace on either side like spatterdashes, but of a most
barbarous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my
clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which
I drew together with two thongs of the same, in-
stead of buckles; andin a kind of a frog on either
side of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hunga
little saw and a hatchet; one on one side, and one
on the other. I had another belt, not so broad, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 215

fastened in the same manner, which hung over my
shoulder; and at the end of it, under my left arm,
hung two pouches, both made of goat’s skin too:
in one of which hung my powder, in the other my
shot. At my back I carried my basket, and on my
shoulder my gun; and over my head a great clumsy
ugly goat’s-skin umbrella, but which, after all, was
the most necessary thing I had about me, next to
my gun. As for my face, the colour of it was really
not so mulatto-like as one might expect from a man
not at all careful of it, and living within nine or ten
degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suf-
fered to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard
long; but asI had bothscissars and razors sufficient,
I had cut it pretty short, except what grew on my
upper lip, which I had trimmed into a large pair of
Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by
some Turks at Sallee; for the Moors did not wear
such, though the Turks did. Of these mustachios
or whiskers, I will not say they were long enough
to hang my hat upon them, but they were of a length
and shape monstrous enough, and such as, in Eng-
land, would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure,
I had so few to observe me that it was of no man-
ner of consequence; sol say no more to that part.
In this kind of figure I went my new journey, and
was out five or six days. I travelled first along the
seashore, directly to the place where I first brought
my boat to an anchor, to get upon the rocks; and
having no boat now to take care of, I went over the
216 THE ADVENTURES OF

land, a nearer way, to the same height that I was
upon before; when, looking forward to the point of
the rocks which lay out, and which I was obliged
to double with my boat, as is said above, I was sur-
prised to see the sea all smooth and quiet; no rip-
pling, no motion, no current, any more than in any
other places. I was at a strange loss to understand
this, and resolved to spend some time in the ob-
serving it, to see if nothing from the sets of the tide
had occasioned it; but I was presently convinced
how it was, viz., that the tide of ebb, setting from the
west, and joining with the current of waters from
some great river on the shore, must be the occa-
sion of this current; and that according as the wind
blew more forcibly from the west or from the north,
this current came nearer or went farther from the
shore: for waiting thereabouts till evening, I went
up to the rock again, and then the tide of ebb being
made, I plainly saw the current again as before, only
that it ran farther off, being near half a league from
the shore; whereas, in my case, it set close upon the
shore, and hurried me and my canoe along with it,
which, at another time, it would not have done.
This observation convinced me that I had no-
thing to do but to observe the ebbing and the flow-
ing of the tide, and I might very easily bring my
boat about the island again: but when I began to
think of putting it in practice, I had such a terror
upon my spirits at the remembrance of the danger
I had been in that I could not think of it again
with any patience; but, on the contrary, I took up


ROBINSON CRUSOE 217

another resolution, which was more safe, though
more laborious; and this was that I would build
or rather make me another periagua or canoe; and
so have one for one side of the island and one for
the other.

You are to understand that now I had,as I may
call it, two plantations in the island: one, my little
fortification or tent with the wall about it, under the
rock, with the cave behind me, which, by this time,
I had enlarged into several apartments or caves,
one within another. One of these, which was the
driest and largest, and had a door out beyond my
wall or fortification, that is to say, beyond where
my wall joined to the rock, was all filled up with
the large earthen pots, of which I have given an
account, and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets,
which would hold five or six bushels each, where
Ilaid up my stores of provision, especially my corn,
some in the ear, cut off short from the straw, and
the other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes
or piles, these piles grew all like trees, and were
by this time grown so big, and spread so very much,
that there was not the least appearance, to any
one’s view, of any habitation behind them. Near
this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the
land, and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces
of corn land, which I kept duly cultivated and
sowed, and which duly yielded me their harvest in
its season ; and whenever I had occasion for more
corn, I had more land adjoining as fit as that.
218 THE ADVENTURES OF

Besides this, I had my country-seat ; and I had
now a tolerable plantation there also: for, first, I
had my little bower, as I called it, which I kept in
repair; that is to say, I kept the hedge which en-
circled it in constantly fitted up to its usual height,
the ladder standing always in the inside: I kept the
trees, which at first were no more than my stakes,
but were now grown very firm and tall, always cut,
so that they might spread and grow thick and wild,
and make the more agreeable shade, which they did
effectually to my mind. In the middle of this I had
my tent always standing, being a piece of a sail
spread over polesset up for that purpose, and which
never wanted any repair or renewing; and under
this I had made me a squab or couch, with the
skins of the creatures I had killed, and with other
soft things; and a blanket laid on them, such as
belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had saved,
and a great watch-coat to cover me; and here,
whenever I had occasion to be absent from my chief
seat, | took up my country habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my
cattle, that is to say, my goats; andas I had taken
an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and enclose
this ground, I was anxious to see it kept so entire,
lest the goats should break through, that I never
left off, till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the
outside of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so
near to one another, that it was rather a pale than
a hedge, and there was scarce room to put a hand
through between them; which afterwards, when
ROBINSON CRUSOE 219

those stakes grew, as they all did in the next rainy
season, made the enclosure strong like a wall, —
indeed, stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and
that I spared no pains to bring to pass whatever
appeared necessary for my comfortable support ;
for I considered the keeping-up a breed of tame
creatures thus at my hand would be a living mag-
azine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as
long as I lived in the place, if it were to be forty
years; and that keeping them in my reach de-
pended entirely upon my perfecting my enclosures
to such a degree that I might be sure of keeping
them together; which, by this method, indeed, I
so effectually secured that when these little stakes
began to grow, I had planted them so very thick
that I was forced to pull some of them up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing,
which I principally depended on for my winter store
of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very
carefully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of
my whole diet; and, indeed, they were not only
agreeable, but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing,
and refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my
other habitation and the place where I had laid up
my boat, I generally stayed and lay here in my way
thither: for I used frequently to visit my boat;
and I kept all things about or belonging to her
in very good order. Sometimes I went out in her
to divert myself, but no more hazardous voyages
220 ROBINSON CRUSOE

would I go, nor scarce ever abovea stone’s cast or
two from theshore, I was so apprehensive of being
hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents
or winds, or any other accident. — But now I come
to a new scene of my life.




T happened one day, about noon, going towards

my boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the
print of a man’s naked foot on the shore, which
was very plain to be seen in the sand. I stood like
one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an appari-
tion: I listened, I looked round me, but I could
hear nothing, nor see anything; I went up toa ris-
ing ground, to look farther; I went up the shore
and down the shore, but it was all one; I could see -
no other impression but that one. I went to it again
to see if there were any more, and to observe if it
might not be my fancy; but there was no room for
that, for there was exactly the print of a foot, toes,
heel, and every part of a foot. How it came thither
I knew not, nor could I in the least imagine; but,
after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man
perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home
to my fortification, not feeling, as we say, the ground
I went on, but terrified to the last degree ; looking
behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking
every bush and tree, and fancying every stump at
ao0 THE ADVENTURES OF

a distance to be a man. Nor is it possible to de-
scribe how many various shapes my affrighted imag-
ination represented things to me in, how many wild
ideas were found every moment in my fancy, and
what strange unaccountable whimsies came into my
thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I
called it ever after this), I fled into it like one pur-
sued ; whether I went over by the ladder, as first
contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock, which
I had called a door, I cannot remember ; no, nor
could I remember the next morning; for never
frightened hare fled to cover or fox to earth with
more terror of mind than I to this retreat.

I slept none that night: the farther I was from
the occasion of my fright, the greater my appre-
hensions were ; which is something contrary to the
nature of such things, and especially to the usual
practice of all creatures in fear; but I was so em-
barrassed with my own frightful ideas of the thing
that I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to
myself, even though I was now a great way off it.
Sometimes I fancied it must be the Devil, and rea-
son joined in with me upon this supposition ; for
how should any other thing in human shape come
into the place? Where was the vessel that brought
them? What marks were there of any other foot-
steps? And how was it possible a man should come
there? But then, to think that Satan should take
human shape upon him in such a place, where there
could be no manner of occasion for it but to leave




THE PRINT OF A MAN'S NAKED FOOT ON THE SHORE

Â¥


ROBINSON CRUSOE 223

the print of his foot behind him, and that even for
no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should
see it, —this was an amusement the other way. I
considered that the Devil might have found out
abundance of other ways to have terrified me than
this of the single print of a foot; that as I lived
quite on the other side of the island, he would
never have been so simple as to leave a mark in
a place where it was ten thousand to one whether
I should ever see it or not, and in the sand too,
which the first surge of the sea, upon a high wind,
would have defaced entirely ; all this seemed incon-
sistent with the thing itself, and with all the notions
we usually entertain of the subtlety of the Devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to
argue me out of all apprehensions of its being the
Devil; and I presently concluded, then, that it must
be some more dangerous creature, viz., that it must
be some of the savages of the main land over against
me who had wandered out to sea in their canoes,
and, either driven by the currents or by contrary
winds, had made the island, and had been on shore,
but were gone away again to sea; being as loth,
perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as
I would have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my
mind, I was very thankful in my thoughts that I
was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that time,
or that they did not see my boat, by which they
would have concluded that some inhabitants had
been in the place, and perhaps have searched farther
224 THE ADVENTURES OF

for me: then terrible thoughts racked my imagina-
tion about their having found my boat, and that
there were people here; and that if so, I should
certainly have them come again in greater numbers,
and devour me: that if it should happen so that
they should not find me, yet they would find my
enclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry away all
my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last
for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope,
all that former confidence in God, which was founded
upon such wonderful experience as I had had of
his goodness, as if he that had fed me by miracle
hitherto could not preserve, by his power, the pro-
vision which he had made for me by his goodness.
I reproached myself with my laziness, that would
not sow any more corn one year than would just
serve me till the next season, asif noaccident would
intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop that was
upon the ground; and this I thought so just a re-
proof that I resolved for the future to have two
or three years’ corn beforehand, so that, whatever
might come, I might not perish for want of bread.

— How strange a chequer-work of Providence is
the life of man ! and by what secret different springs
are the affections hurried about, as different circum-
stances present! To-day we love what to-morrow
we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun;
to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even
tremble at the apprehensions of; this was exempli-
fied in me, at this time, in the most lively manner
ROBINSON CRUSOE aor

imaginable; for I, whose only affliction was that
I seemed banished from human society, that I was
alone, circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut
off from mankind, and condemned to what I called
silent life; that I was as one whom Heaven thought
not worthy to be numbered among the living, or
to appear among the rest of his creatures; that to
have seen one of my own species would have
seemed to me a raising me from death to life, and
the greatest blessing that Heaven itself, next to the
supreme blessing of salvation, could bestow ; I say,
that I should now tremble at the very apprehen-
sions of seeing a man, and was ready to sink into
the ground at but the shadow or silent appearance
of a man’s having set his foot in the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it
afforded me a great many curious speculations after-
wards, when I had a little recovered my first sur-
prise. I considered that this was the station of life
the infinitely wise and good providence of God had
determined for me; that asI could not foresee what
the ends of divine wisdom might be in all this, so
I was not to dispute his sovereignty, who, as I was
his creature, had an undoubted right, by crea-
tion, to govern and dispose of me absolutely as he
thought fit; and who, as I was a creature that
had offended him, had likewise a judicial right to
condemn me to what punishment he thought fit;
and that it was my part to submit to bear his in-
dignation, because I had sinned against him. I
then reflected that as God, who was not only right-
226 THE ADVENTURES OF

eous but omnipotent, had thought fit thus to
punish and afflict me, so he was able to deliver me;
that if he did not think fit to do so, it was my
unquestioned duty to resign myself absolutely and
entirely to his will; and, on the other hand, it was
my duty also to hope in him, pray to him, and
quietly to attend the dictates and directions of his
daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days,
nay, I may say, weeks and months; and one par-
ticular effect of my cogitations on this occasion I
cannot omit. One morning early, lying in my bed,
and filled with thoughts about my danger from the
appearance of savages, I found it discomposed me
very much; upon which these words of the Scrip-
ture came into my thoughts: “ Call upon me in
the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, andthou
shalt glorify me.” Upon this, rising cheerfully out
of my bed, my heart was not only comforted, but
I was guided and encouraged to pray earnestly to
God for deliverance: when I had done praying, I
took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first
words that presented to me were, “ Wait on the
Lord, and be of good cheer, and he shall strengthen
thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord.” It is impos-
sible to express the comfort this gave me. In
answer, I thankfully laid down the book, and was
no more sad, at least on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehen-
sions, and reflections, it came into my thoughts
one day that all this might be a mere chimera of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 227

my own, and that this foot might be the print of
my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat.
This cheered me up a little too, and I began to
persuade myself it was all a delusion; that it was
nothing else but my own foot: and why might I
not come that way from the boat as well as I was
going that way to the boat? Again, I considered
also that I could by no means tell, for certain,
where I had trod, and where I had not; and that
if, at last, this was only the print of my own foot,
I had played the part of those fools who try to
make stories of spectres and apparitions, and then
are frightened at them more than anybody.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep
abroad again, for I had not stirred out of my cas-
tle for three days and nights, so that I began to
starve for provisions; for I had little or nothing
within-doors but some barley cakes and water.
Then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked,
too, which usually was my evening diversion; and
the poor creatures were in great pain and incon-
venience for want of it; and, indeed, it almost
spoiled some of them, and almost dried up their
milk. Encouraging myself, therefore, with the
belief that this was nothing but the print of one
of my own feet, and that I might be truly said to
start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad again,
and went to my country-house to milk my flock:
but to see with what fear I went forward, how often
I looked behind me, how I was ready, every now
and then, to lay down my basket, and run for my
228 THE ADVENTURES OF

life, it would have made any one think I was
haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been
lately most terribly frightened; and so, indeed, I
had. However, as I went down thus two or three
days, and having seen nothing, I began to be a lit-
tle bolder, and to think there was really nothing
in it but my own imagination; but I could not per-
suade myself fully of this till I should go down to
the shore again, and see this print of a foot and
measure it by my own, and see if there was any
similitude or fitness, that might be assured it was
my own foot. But when I came to the place, first, it
appeared evidently to me that when I laid up my
boat I could not possibly be on shore anywhere
thereabout; secondly, when I came to measure the
mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so
large by a great deal. Both these things filled my
head with new imaginations, and gave me the
vapours again to the highest degree, so that I shook
with cold like one in an ague; and I went home
again, filled with the belief that some man or men
had been on shore there; or, in short, that the
island was inhabited, and I might be surprised
before I was aware; and what course to take for
my security I knew not.

O what ridiculous resolutions men take when
possessed with fear! It deprives them of the use
of those means which reason offers for their relief.
The first thing I proposed to myself was to throw
down my enclosures, and turn all my tame cattle
wild into the woods, lest the enemy should find
ROBINSON CRUSOE 229

them, and then frequent the island in prospect of
the same or the like booty ; then tothe simple thing
of digging up my two corn-fields, lest they should
find such a grain there, and still be prompted to fre-
quent the island ; then to demolish my bower and
tent, that they might not see any vestiges of hab-
itation, and be prompted to look farther, in order
to find out the persons inhabiting.

These were the subject of the first night’s cog-
itations after I was come home again, while the
apprehensions which had so overrun my mind were
fresh upon me, and my head was full of vapours,
as above. Thus fear of danger is ten thousand times
more terrifying than danger itself when apparent
to the eyes; and we find the burden of anxiety
greater, by much, than the evil which we are anx-
ious about; and, which was worse than all this, I
had not that relief in this trouble from the resigna-
tion I used to practise, that I hoped to have. I
looked, I thought, like Saul, who complained not
only that the Philistines were upon him, but that
God had forsaken him ; for I did not now take due
ways to compose my mind, by crying to God in my
distress, and resting upon his providence, as I had
done before, for my defence and deliverance; which,
if I had done, I had at least been more cheerfully
supported under this new surprise, and perhaps
carried through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake
all night; but in the morning I fell asleep; and
having, by the amusement of my mind, been as it
230 THE ADVENTURES OF

were tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept very
soundly and waked much better composed than I
had ever been before. And now I began to think
sedately ; and, upon the utmost debate with myself,
I concluded that this island, which was so exceed-
ing pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the main
land than as I had seen, was not so entirely aban-
doned as I might imagine; that, although there
were no stated inhabitants who lived on the spot,
yet that there might sometimes come boats off
from the shore, who, either with design, or perhaps
never but when they were driven by cross-winds,
might come to this place; that I had lived here
fifteen years now, and had not met with the least
shadow or figure of any people yet; and that if at
any time they should be driven here, it was prob-
able they went away again as soon as ever they
could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix here
upon any occasion; that the most I could suggest
any danger from was from any casual accidental
landing of straggling people from the main, who,as
it was likely, if they were driven hither, were here
against their wills, so they made no stay here, but
went off again with all possible speed; seldom stay-
ing one night on shore, lest they should not have
the help of the tides and daylight back again; and
that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider
of some safe retreat, in case I should see any sav-
ages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug
my cave so large as to bring a door through again,


ROBINSON CRUSOE 231

which door, as I said, came out beyond where my
fortification joined to the rock: upon maturely con-
sidering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a
second fortification, in the same manner of a semi-
circle, at a distance from my wall, just where I had
planted a double row of trees about twelve years
before, of which I made mention. These trees hav-
ing been planted so thick before, they wanted but
few piles to be driven between them that they might
be thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon
finished : so that I had now a double wall; and my
outer wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old
cables, and everything I could think of, to make it
strong, having in it seven little holes about as big
as I might put my arm out at. In the inside of this,
I thickened my wall to about ten feet thick, with
continually bringing earth out of my cave, and lay-
ing it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon it;
and through the seven holes I contrived to plant
the muskets, of which I took notice that I had got
seven on shore out of the ship; these I planted
like my cannon, and fitted them into frames, that
held them like a carriage, so that I could fire all the
seven guns in two minutes’ time. This wall I was
many a weary month in finishing, and yet never
thought myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground
without my wall, for a great length every way, as
full with stakes, or sticks, of the osier-like wood,
which I found so apt to grow, as they could well
stand ; insomuch that I believe I might set in near
232 THE ADVENTURES OF

twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty large
space between them and my wall, that I might have
room to see an enemy, and they might have no
shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to
approach my outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove;
and in five or six years’time I had a wood before my
dwelling, growing so monstrous thick and strong
that it was indeed perfectly impassable; and no
men, of what kind soever, would ever imagine
that there was anything beyond it, much less a
habitation. As for the way which I proposed to
myself to go in and out (for I left no avenue), it
was by setting two ladders, one to a part of the
rock which was low, and then broke in, and left
room to place another ladder upon that: so when
the two ladders were taken down, no man living
could come down to me without doing himself mis-
chief; and if they had come down, they were still
on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence
could suggest for my own preservation; and it will
be seen, at length, that they were not altogether
without just reason, though I foresaw nothing at
that time more than my mere fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether care-
less of my other affairs: for I had a great concern
upon me for my little herd of goats ; they were not
only a ready supply to me on every occasion, and
began to be sufficient for me, without the expense
of powder and shot, but also without the fatigue
ROBINSON CRUSOE 233

of hunting after the wild ones; and I was loth to
lose the advantage of them, and to have them all
to nurse up over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I
could think of but two ways to preserve them: one
was, to find another convenient place to dig a cave
under ground, and to drive them into it every
night; and the other was, to enclose two or three
little bits of land, remote from one another, and
as much concealed as I could, where I might keep
about half a dozen young goats in each place: so
that if any disaster happened to the flock in gen-
eral, I might be able to raise them again with little
troubleand time; and this, though it would require
a great deal of time and labour, I thought was the
most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the
most retired parts of the island; and I pitched
upon one which was as private, indeed, as my heart
could wish for: it was a little damp piece of ground,
in the middle of the hollow and thick woods, where,
as is observed, I almost lost myself once before,
endeavouring to come back that way from the east-
ern part of the island. Here I found a clear piece
of land, near three acres, so surrounded with woods
that it was almost an enclosure by nature; at least,
it did not want near so much labour to make it
so as the other pieces of ground I had worked so
hard at.


IMMEDIATELY went to work with this piece of
I ground, and in less than a month’s time I had
so fenced it round that my flock, or herd, call it
which you please, who were not so wild now as
at first they might be supposed to be, were well
enough secured in it; so, without any further de-
lay, I removed ten young she-goats and two he-
goats to this piece; and when they were there, I
continued to perfect the fence till I had made it as
secure as the other, which, however, I did at more
leisure, and it took me up more time by a great
deal. All this labour I was at the expense of purely
from my apprehensions on the account of the print
ofa man’s foot which I had seen; for, as yet, I never
saw any human creature come near the island;
and I had now lived two years under this uneasi-
ness, which, indeed, made my life much less com-
fortable than it was before, as may be well im-
agined by any who know what it is to live in the
constant snare of the fear of man. And this I must
observe, with grief too, that the discomposure of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 235

my mind had too great impressions also upon the
religious part of my thoughts; for the dread and
terror of falling into the hands of savages and can-
nibals lay so upon my spirits that I seldom found
myself in a due temper for application to my
Maker, at least not with the sedate calmness and
resignation of soul which I was wont todo: I rather
prayed to God as under great affliction and press-
ure of mind, surrounded with danger, and in ex-
pectation every night of being murdered and de-
voured before morning; and I must testify from
my experience that a temper of peace, thankful-
ness, love, and affection is much the more proper
frame for prayer than that of terror and discom-
posure; and that, under the dread of mischief im-
pending, a man is no more fit for a comforting
performance of the duty of praying to God than
he is for a repentance on a sick-bed; for these dis-
composures affect the mind, as the others do the
body ; and the discomposure of the mind must
necessarily be as great a disability as that of the
body, and much greater: praying to God being
properly an act of the mind, not of the body.
But to go on: after I had thus secured one part
of my little living stock, I went about the whole
island, searching for another private place to make
such another deposit; when, wandering more to
the west point of the island than I had ever done
yet, and looking out to sea, I thought I sawa boat
upon the sea, at a great distance. I had found a per-
spective glass or two in one of the seaman’s chests
236 THE ADVENTURES OF

which I saved out of our ship, but I had it not
about me; and this was so remote that I could
not tell what to make of it, though I looked at it
till my eyes were not able to look any longer.
Whether it was a boat or not, I do not know, but
as I descended from the hill I could see no more
of it; so I gave it over; only I resolved to go no
more out without a perspective glass in my pocket.
When I was come down the hill to the end of the
island, where, indeed, I had never been before, |
was presently convinced that the seeing the print
of a man’s foot was not such a strange thing in the
island as ] imagined : and, but that it was a special
providence that I was cast upon the. side of the
island where the savages never came, I should
easily have known that nothing was more frequent
than for the canoes from the main, when they hap-
pened to bea little too far out at sea, to shoot over
to that side of the island for harbour; likewise, as
they often met and fought in their canoes, the
victors, having taken any prisoners, would bring
them over to this shore, where, according to their
dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they would
kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as
I said above, being the south-west point of the
island, I was perfectly confounded andamazed ; nor
is it possible for me to express the horror of my
mind at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands,
feet, and other bones of human bodies; and, par-
ticularly, I observed a place where there had been


ROBINSON CRUSOE 237

a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a
cock-pit, where I supposed the savage wretches had
sat down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies
of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things
that I entertained no notions of any danger to my-
self from it for a long while : all my apprehensions
were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch of
inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of the
degeneracy of human nature, which, though I had
heard of it often, yet I never had so near a view of
before: in short, I turned away my face from the
horrid spectacle ; my stomach grew sick, and I was
just at the point of fainting when nature discharged
the disorder from my stomach: and having vom-
ited with uncommon violence, I wasa little relieved,
but could not bear to stay in the place a moment;
so I got me up the hill again with all the speed I
could, and walked on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the
island, I stood still a while, as amazed, and then,
recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost
affection of my soul, and, with a flood of tears in
my eyes, gave God thanks that had cast my first lot
in a part of the world where I was distinguished
from such dreadful creatures as these; and that,
though I had esteemed my present condition very
miserable, had yet given me so many comforts in
it that I had still more to give thanks for than to
complain of: and this, above all, that I had, even
in this miserable condition been comforted with
238 THE ADVENTURES OF
the knowledge of himself, and the hope of his

blessing, which was a felicity more than sufficiently
equivalent to all the misery which I had suffered
or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness I went home to
my castle, and began to be much easier now, as
to the safety of my circumstances, than ever I was
before: for I observed that these wretches never
came to this island in search of what they could get ;
perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting,
anything here, and having often, no doubt, been up
in the covered woody part of it, without finding
anything to their purpose. I knew I had been here
now almost eighteen years, and never saw the least
footsteps of human creature there before; and I
might be eighteen years more as entirely concealed
as I was now if I did not discover myself to them,
which I had no manner of occasion to do; it being
my only business to keep myself entirely concealed
where I was, unless I found a better sort of crea-
tures than cannibals to make myself known to.
Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage
wretches that I have been speaking of, and of the
wretched inhuman custom of their devouring and
eating one another up, that I continued pensive
and sad, and kept close within my own circle, for
almost two years after this. When I say my own
circle, I mean by it my three plantations, viz., my
castle, my country-seat, which I called my bower,
and my enclosure in the woods; nor did I look
after this for any other use than as an enclosure for
ROBINSON CRUSOE 239

my goats; for the aversion which nature gave me
to these hellish wretches was such that I was as
fearful of seeing them as of seeing the Devil him-
self. I did not so much as go to look after my
boat all this time, but began rather to think of
making me another ; for I could not think of ever
making any more attempts to bring the other boat
round the island to me, lest I should meet with
some of these creatures at sea: in which, if I had
happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew
what would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that
I was in no danger of being discovered by these
people, began to wear off my uneasiness about
them; and I began to live just in the same com-
posed manner as before, only with this difference,
that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more
about me, than I did before, lest I should happen
to be seen by any of them; and particularly, I was
more cautious of firing my gun, lest any of them
being on the island should happen to hear it. It
was therefore a very good providence to me that
I had furnished myself with a tame breed of goats,
and that I had no need to hunt any more about
the woods, or shoot at them; and if I did catch
any of them after this, it was by traps and snares,
as I had done before; so that for two years after
this, I believe I never fired my gun once off,
though I never went out without it; and, which
was more, as I had saved three pistols out of the
ship, I always carried them out with me, or at
240 THE ADVENTURES OF

least two of them, sticking them in my goat’s-skin
belt. I also furbished up one of the great cutlasses
that I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to
hang it on also; so that I was now a most formid-
able fellow to look at when I went abroad, if you
add to the former description of myself the par-
ticular of two pistols, and a great broad sword hang-
ing at my side in a belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some
time, I seemed, excepting these cautions, to be re-
duced to my former calm sedate way of living. All
these things tended to show me, more and more,
how far my condition was from being miserable,
compared to some others; nay, to many other par-
ticulars of life which it might have pleased God to
have made my lot. It put me upon reflecting how
little repining there would be among mankind at
any condition of life if people would rather com-
pare their condition with those that were worse, in
order to be thankful, than be always comparing them
with those which are better, to assist their murmur-
ings and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not really
many things which I wanted, so, indeed, I thought
that the frights I had been in about these savage
wretches, and the concern I had been in for my own
preservation, had taken off the edge of my inven-
tion for my own conveniences; and I had dropped
a good design, which I had once bent my thoughts
too much upon, and that was to try if I could not
make some of my barley into malt, and then try
ROBINSON CRUSOE 241

to brew myself some beer. This was really a whim-
sical thought, and I reproved myself often for the
simplicity of it; for I presently saw there would
be the want of several things necessary to the
making my beer, that it would be impossible for
me to supply; as, first, casks to preserve it in,
which was a thing that, as I had observed already,
I could never compass; no, though I spent not
only many days, but weeks, nay, months, in at-
tempting it, but to no purpose. In the next place,
I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to make
it work, no copper or kettle to make it boil; and
yet, with all these things wanting, I verily believe,
had not the frights and terrors I was in about the
savages intervened, I had undertaken it, and per-
haps brought it to pass too; for I seldom gave any-
thing over without accomplishing it, when once I
had it in my head to begin it. But my invention
now ran quite another way; for, night and day, I
could think of nothing but how I might destroy
some of these monsters in their cruel, bloody en-
tertainment, and, if possible, save the victim they
should bring hither to destroy. It would take up
a larger volume than this whole work is intended
to be, to set down all the contrivances I hatched,
or rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the
destroying these creatures, or at least frightening
them so as to prevent their coming hither any
more ; but all this was abortive; nothing could be
possible to take effect, unless I was to be there to
do it myself; and what could one man do among
242 THE ADVENTURES OF

them,when perhaps there might be twenty or thirty
of them together, with their darts, or their bows and
arrows, with which they could shoot as true to a
mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under
the place where they made their fire, and putting
in five or six pounds of gunpowder, which, when
they kindled their fire, would consequently take
fire, and blow up all that was near it; but as, in
the first place, I should be unwilling to waste so
much powder upon them, my store being now
within the quantity of one barrel, so neither could
I be sure of its going-off at any certain time, when
it might surprise them : and, at best, that it would
do little more than just blow the fire about their
ears and fright them, but not sufficient to make
them forsake the place. So I laid it aside, and then
proposed that I would place myself in ambush in
some convenient place, with my three guns all
double-loaded, and, in the middle of their bloody
ceremony, let fly at them, when I should be sure
to kill or wound perhaps two or three at every
shot: and then falling in upon them with my three
pistols, and my sword, I made no doubt but that,
if there were twenty, I should kill them all. This
fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks ; and I
was so full of it that I often dreamed of it, and
sometimes that I was just going to let fly at them
in my sleep. I went so far with it in my imagina-
tion that I employed myself several days to find
out proper places to put myself in ambuscade, as


ROBINSON CRUSOE 2.43

I said, to watch for them; and I went frequently to
the place itself, which was now grown more famil-
iar to me. But while my mind was thus filled with
thoughts of revenge, and a bloody putting twenty
or thirty of them to the sword, as I may call it, the
horror I had at the place, and at the signals of the
barbarous wretches devouring one another, abated
my malice. Well, at length, I found a place in
the side of the hill, where I was satisfied I might
securely wait till I saw any of their boats coming;
and might then, even before they would be ready
to come on shore, convey myself, unseen, into some
thickets of trees, in one of which there was a hollow
large enough to conceal me entirely; and there I
might sit and observe all their bloody doings, and
take my full aim at their heads, when they were so
close together as that it would be next to impossi-
ble that I should miss my shot, or that I could fail
wounding three or four of them at the firstshot. In
this place, then, I resolved to fix my design ; and,
accordingly, I prepared two muskets and my ordin-
ary fowling-piece. The two muskets I loaded with
a brace of slugs each, and four or five smaller bul-
lets, about the size of pistol-bullets ; and the fowl-
ing-piece I loaded with near a handful of swan-shot
of the largest size: I also loaded my pistols with
about four bullets each; and in this posture, well
provided with ammunition for a second and third
charge, I prepared myself for my expedition.
After I had thus laid the scheme of my design,
and, in my imagination, put it in practice, I con-
244. THE ADVENTURES OF

tinually made my tour every morning up to the top
of the hill, which was from my castle, as I called it,
about three miles, or more, to see if I could observe
any boats upon the sea, coming near the island, or
standing over towards it: but I began to tire of this
hard duty, after I had, for two or three months,
constantly kept my watch, but came always back
without any discovery: there having not, in all that
time, been the least appearance, not only on or near
the shore, but on the whole ocean, so far as my eyes
or glasses could reach every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look
out, so long also I kept up the vigour of my design,
and my spirits seemed to be all the while in a suit-
able form for so outrageous an execution as the kill-
ing twenty or thirty naked savages, for an offence
which I had not at all entered into a discussion of
in my thoughts, any further than my passions were
at first fired by the horror I conceived at the un-
natural custom of the people of that country, who,
it seems, had been suffered by Providence, in his
wise disposition of the world, to have no other guide
than that of their own abominable and vitiated pas-
sions ; and, consequently, were left, and perhaps had
been so for some ages, to act such horrid things,
and receive such dreadful customs, as nothing but
nature, entirely abandoned by Heaven, and actu-
ated by some hellish degeneracy, could have run
them into. But now, when, as I have said, I began
to be weary of the fruitless excursion which I had
made so long and so far every morning in vain, so
ROBINSON CRUSOE 245

my opinion of the action itself began to alter ; and
I began, with cooler and calmer thoughts, to con-
sider what I was going to engage in: what authority
or call I had to pretend to be judge and executioner
upon these men as criminals, whom Heaven had
thought fit, for so many ages, to suffer, unpunished,
to go on, and to be, as it were, the executioners of
his judgments one upon another; how far these
people were offenders against me, and what right
I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood which
they shed promiscuously one upon another. I de-
bated this very often with myself, thus: How do
I know what God himself judges in this particular
case? It is certain these people do not commit this
as a crime; it is not against their own consciences
reproving, or their light reproaching them; they do
not know it to be an offence, and then commit it in
defiance of divine justice, as we do in almost all the
sins we commit. They think it no more a crime to
kill a captive taken in war than we do to kill an
ox; nor to eat human flesh than we do to eat
mutton.

When I considered this a little, it followed nec-
essarily that I was certainly in the wrong in it; that
these people were not murderers in the sense that
I had before condemned them in my thoughts, any
more than those Christians were murderers who
often put to death the prisoners taken in battle; or
more frequently, upon many occasions, put whole
troops of men to the sword, without giving quarter,
though they threw down their arms and submitted.
246 THE ADVENTURES OF

In the next place, it occurred to me that, although
the usage they gave one another was thus brutish
and inhuman, yet it was really nothing to me; these
people had done me no injury; that if they at-
tempted me, or I saw it necessary, for my immedi-
ate preservation, to fall upon them, something might
be said for it; but that I was yet out of their power,
and they really had no knowledge of me, and conse-
quently no design upon me; and therefore it could
not be just for me to fall upon them; that this would
justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their bar-
barities practised in America, where they destroyed
millions of these people ; who, however they were
idolaters and barbarians, and had several bloody
and barbarous rites in their customs, such as sacri-
ficing human bodies to their idols, were yet, as to
the Spaniards, very innocent people ; and that the
rooting them out of the country is spoken of with
the utmost abhorrence and detestation by even the
Spaniards themselves at this time, and by all other
Christian nations in Europe, as a mere butchery,
a bloody and unnatural piece of cruelty, unjusti-
fiable either to God or man, and for which the very
name of a Spaniard is reckoned to be frightful and
terrible to all people of humanity, or of Christian
compassion, —as if the kingdom of Spain were
particularly eminent for the produce of a race of
men who were without principles of tenderness, or
the common bowels of pity to the miserable, which
is reckoned to be a mark of generous temper in the
mind.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 247

These considerations really put me to a pause,
and to a kind of a full stop; and I began, by little
and little, to be off my design, and to conclude
I had taken wrong measures in my resolution to
attack the savages; and that it was not my busi-
ness to meddle with them, unless they first attacked
me; and that it was my business, if possible, to
prevent; but that if I were discovered and at-
tacked by them, I knew my duty. On the other
hand, I argued with myself that this really was the
way not to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin and
destroy myself; for unless I was sure to kill every
one that not only should be on shore at that time,
but that should ever come on shore afterwards,
if but one of them escaped to tell their country-
people what had happened, they would come over
again by thousands to revenge the death of their
fellows, and I should only bring upon myself a
certain destruction, which, at present, I had no
manner of occasion for. Upon the whole I con-
cluded that neither in principle nor in policy I
ought, one way or other, to concern myself in this
affair; that my business was, by all possible means,
to conceal myself from them, and not to leave the
least signal to them to guess by that there were any
living creatures upon the island, I mean of human
shape. Religion joined in with this prudential
resolution, and I was convinced now, many ways,
that I was perfectly out of my duty when I was
laying all my bloody schemes for the destruction
of innocent creatures, I mean innocent as to me.
248 ROBINSON CRUSOE

As to the crimes they were guilty of towards one
another, I had nothing to do with them; they
were national, and I ought to leave them to the
justice of God, who is the governor of nations,
and knows how, by national punishments, to make
a just retribution for national offences, and to bring
public judgments upon those who offend in a pub-
lic manner, by such ways as best please him. This
appeared so clear to me now that nothing was a
greater satisfaction to me than that I had not been
suffered to do a thing which I now saw so much
reason to believe would have been no less a sin
than that of wilful murder, if I had committed it;
and I gave most humble thanks on my knees to
God that had thus delivered me from blood-guilti-
ness; beseeching him to grant me the protection
of his providence, that I might not fall into the
hands of the barbarians, or that I might not lay my
hands upon them, unless I had a more clear call
from Heaven to do it, in defence of my own life.


"\ a

,

{



cE this disposition I continued for near a year
after this; and so far was I from desiring an
occasion for falling upon these wretches that in
all that time I never once went up the hill to see
whether there were any of them in sight, or to know
whether any of them had been on shore there or
not, that I might not be tempted to renew any of
my contrivances against them, or be provoked,
by any advantage which might present itself, to
fall upon them. Only this I did: I went and re-
moved my boat, which I had on the other side of
the island, and carried it down to the east end
of the whole island, where I ran it into a little cove
which I found under some high rocks, and where
I knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst
not, at least would not, come with their boats upon
any account whatever. With my boat I carried
away everything that I had left there belonging to
her, though not necessary for the bare going thither;
viz., a mast and sail which I had made for her, and
a thing like an anchor, but which, indeed, could
250 THE ADVENTURES OF

not be called either anchor or grapnel; however, it
was the best I could make of its kind; all these I
removed, that there might not be the least shadow
of any discovery, or any appearance of any boat,
wr of any human habitation, upon the island. Be-
sides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired
than ever, and seldom went from my cell, other
than upon my constant employment, viz., to milk
my she-goats, and manage my little flock in the
wood, which, as it was quite on the other part of
the island, was quite out of danger; for certain it is
that these savage people, who sometimes haunted
this island, never came with any thoughts of find-
ing anything here, and consequently never wan-
dered off from the coast: and I doubt not but they
might have been several times on shore after my
apprehensions of them had made me cautious, as
wellas before. Indeed, I looked back with some hor-
ror upon the thoughts of what my condition would
have been if I had popped upon them and been
discovered before that, when, naked and unarmed,
except with one gun, and that loaded often only
with small shot, I walked everywhere, peeping and
peering about the island to see what I could get;
what a surprise should I have been in if, when
I discovered the print of a man’s foot, I had, in-
stead of that, seen fifteen or twenty savages, and
found them pursuing me, and, by the swiftness of
their running, no possibility of my escaping them?
The thoughts of this sometimes sunk my very soul
within me, and distressed my mind so much that
ROBINSON CRUSOE 251

I could not soon recover it, to think what I should
have done, and how I should not only have been
unable to resist them, but even should not have
had presence of mind enough to do what I might
have done, much less what now, after so much con-
sideration and preparation, I might be able to do.
Indeed, after serious thinking on these things, I
would be very melancholy, and sometimes it would
last a great while; but I resolved it all, at last, into
thankfulness to that Providence which had deliv-
ered me from so many unseen dangers, and had
kept from me those mischiefs which I could have
no way been the agent in delivering myself from,
because I had not the least notion of any such
thing depending, or the least supposition of its be-
ing possible. This renewed a contemplation which
often had come to my thoughts in former time,
when first I began to see the merciful dispositions
of Heaven in the dangers we run through in this
life; how wonderfully we are delivered when we
know nothing of it; how, when we are in (a quan-
dary, as we call it) a doubt or hesitation, whether
to go this way, or that way, a secret hint shall
direct us this way when we intended to go that way ;
nay, when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps
business, has called to go the other way, yeta strange
impression upon the mind, from we know not what
springs, and by we know not what power, shall
overrule us to go this way; and it shall afterwards
appear that had we gone that way which we should
have gone, and even to our imagination ought to
252 THE ADVENTURES OF

have gone, we should have been ruined and lost.
Upon these, and many like reflections, I afterwards
made it a certain rule with me that whenever I
found those secret hints or pressings of mind, to
doing or not doing anything that presented, or
going this way or that way, I never failed to obey
the secret dictate; though I knew no other reason
for it than that such a pressure, or such a hint,
hung upon my mind. I could give many examples
of the success of this conduct in the course of my
life, but more especially in the latter part of my in-
habiting this unhappy island; besides many occa-
sions which it is very likely I might have taken
notice of if I had seen with the same eyes then
that I see with now. But it is never too late to be
wise; and I cannot but advise all considering men,
whose lives are attended with such extraordinary
incidents as mine, or even though not so extraor-
dinary, not to slight such secret intimations of
Providence, let them come from what invisible
intelligence they will. That I shall not discuss and
perhaps cannot account for; but certainly they are
a proof of the converse of spirits, and a secret com-
munication between those embodied and those
unembodied, and such a proof as can never be
withstood; of which I shall have occasion to give
some very remarkable instances in the remainder
of my solitary residence in this dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange
if I confess that these anxieties, these constant dan-
gers I lived in, and the concern that was now upon
ROBINSON CRUSOE 253

me, put an end toall invention, and to all the con-
trivances that I had laid for my future accommoda-
tions and conveniences. I had the care of my safety
more now upon my hands than that of my food. I
cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood
now, for fear the noise I might make should be heard;
much less would I fire a gun, for the same reason:
and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making
any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great
distance in the day,should betray me. Forthis reason
I removed that part of my business which required
fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, etc., into my
new apartment in the woods; where, after I had been
some time, I found, to my unspeakable consolation,
a mere natural cave in the earth, which went in
a vast way, and where, I dare say, no savage, had
he been at the mouth of it, would be so hardy as
to venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else,
but one who, like me, wanted nothing so much
as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of
a great rock, where by mere accident (I would say,
if I did not see abundant reason to ascribe all such
things now to Providence) I was cutting down some
thick branches of trees to make charcoal. And, be-
fore I go on, I must observe the reason of my mak-
ing this charcoal, which was this: I was afraid of
making a smoke about my habitation, as I said be-
fore; and yet I could not live there without baking
my bread, cooking my meat, etc.; so I contrived
to burn some wood here, as I had seen done in Eng:
254 THE ADVENTURES OF

land, under turf, till it became chark, or dry coal;
and then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal
to carry home, and perform the other services for
which fire was wanting, without danger of smoke.
But this is by the by. While I was cutting down
some wood here, I perceived that, behind a very
thick branch of low brushwood or underwood, there
was a kind of hollow place. I was curious to look
in it, and getting with difficulty into the mouth of
it, I found it was pretty large, that is to say, suf-
ficient for me to stand upright in it, and perhaps
another with me; but I must confess to you that I
made more haste out than I did in, when, looking
farther into the place, and which was perfectly dark,
I saw two broad shining eyes of some creature,
whether devil or man I knew not, which twinkled
like two stars, the dim light from the cave’s mouth
shining directly in,and making the reflection. How-
ever, after some pause, I recovered myself, and
began to call myself a thousand fools, and to think
that he that was afraid to see the Devil was not fit
to live twenty years in an island all alone; and that
I might well think there was nothing in this cave
that was more frightful than myself. Upon this,
plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand,
and in I rushed again, with the stick flaming in
my hand. I had not gone three steps in but I was
almost as much frightened as I was before; for I
heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in some
pain, and it was followed by a broken noise, as of
words half-expressed, and then a deep sigh again.


ROBINSON CRUSOE 255

I stepped back, and was indeed struck with such
a surprise that it put me into a cold sweat; and if
I had had a hat on my head I will not answer for it
that my hair might not have lifted it off. But still
plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and en-
couraging myself a little with considering that the
power and presence of God was everywhere, and
was able to protect me, upon this I stepped for-
ward again, and by the light of the firebrand, hold-
ing it up a little over my head, I saw lying on the
ground a most monstrous, frightful, old he-goat,
just making his will, as we say, and gasping for life,
and dying, indeed, of mere old age. I stirred him
a little to see if I could get him out, and he es-
sayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself;
and I thought with myself he might even lie there;
for if he had frightened me, so he would certainly
fright any of the savages if any of them should be
so hardy as to come in there while he had any life
in him.

I was nowrecovered from my surprise, and began
to look round me, when I found the cave was very
small, that is to say, it might be about twelve feet
over, but in no manner of shape, neither round nor
square, no hands having ever been employed in
making it but those of mere Nature. I observed
also that there was a place at the farther side of it
that went in further, but was so low that it required
me to creep upon my hands and knees to go into
it, and whither it went I knew not; so having no
candle, I gave it over for that time; but resolved
256 THE ADVENTURES OF

to come again the next day, provided with candles
and a tinder-box which I had made of the lock
of one of the muskets, with some wildfire in the
pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with
six large candles of my own making (for I made
very good candles now of goat’s tallow, but was hard
set for candle-wick, using sometimes rags or rope-
yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of a weed like
nettles); and going into this low place I was obliged
to creep upon all fours, as I have said, almost ten
yards ; which, by the way, I thought was a venture
bold enough, considering that I knew not how far
it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I had
got through the strait, I found the roof rose higher
up, I believe near twenty feet ; but never was such
a glorious sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it
was to look round the sides and roof of this vault
or cave; the wall reflected a hundred thousand
lights to me from my two candles. What it was in
the rock, whether diamonds, or any other precious
stones, or gold, which I rather supposed it to be,
I knew not. The place I was in was a most de-
lightful cavity or grotto of its kind, as could be ex-
pected, though perfectly dark; the floor was dry and
level, and had a sort of a small loose gravel upon
it, so that there was no nauseous or venomous crea-
ture to be seen, neither was there any damp or wet
on the sides or roof: the only difficulty in it was
the entrance; which, however, as it was a place of
security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought
ROBINSON CRUSOE 257

that was a convenience; so that I was really re-
joiced at the discovery, and resolved, without any
delay, to bring some of those things which I was
most anxious about to this place. Particularly I re-
solved to bring hither my magazine of powder, and
all my spare arms, viz., two fowling-pieces,for I had
three in all, and three muskets, for of them I had
eight in all; so I kept at my castle only five, which
stood ready-mounted like pieces of cannon, on my
outmost fence, and were ready also to take out
upon any expedition. Upon this occasion of re-
moving my ammunition, I happened to open the
barrel of powder which I took up out of the sea,
and which had been wet; and I found that the
water had penetrated about three or four inches
into the powder on every side, which caking and
growing hard, had preserved the inside like
a kernel in the shell; so that I had near sixty
pounds of very good powder in the centre of the
cask. This was a very agreeable discovery to me
at that time; so I carried all away thither, never
keeping above two or three pounds of powder
with me in my castle for fear of a surprise of any
kind; I also carried thither all the lead I had left
for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient
giants, which were said to live in caves and holes
in the rocks, where none could come at them; for
I persuaded myself, while I was here, that if five
hundred savages were to hunt me, they could never
find me out: or if thev did, they would not ven-
258 THE ADVENTURES OF

ture toattack me here. The old goat, whom I found
expiring, died in the mouth of the cave the next
day after I made this discovery ; and I found it
much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw
him in and cover him with earth, than to drag him
out; so I interred him there, to prevent offence to
my nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of my resid-
ence in this island, and was so naturalized to the
place and the manner of living that, could I have
but enjoyed the certainty that no savages would
come to the place to disturb me, I could have been
content to have capitulated for spending the rest
of my time there, even to the last moment, till I
had laid me down and died, like the old goat in the
cave. I had also arrived to some little diversions
and amusements, which made the time pass a great
deal more pleasantly with me than it did before : as,
first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to
speak ; and he did it so familiarly, and talked so
articulately and plain, that it was very pleasant to
me; for I believe no bird ever spoke plainer ; and
he lived with me no less than six-and-twenty years,
How long he might have lived afterwards I know
not, though I know they havea notion in the Bra-
zils that they live a hundred years. My dog wasa
very pleasant and loving companion to me for no
less than sixteen years of my time, and then died
of mere old age. As for my cats, they multiplied,
as I have observed, to that degree, that I was
obliged to shoot several of them at first, to keep




ROBINSON CRUSOE 259

them from devouring me and all I had; but at
length, when the two old ones I brought with me
were gone, and after some time continually driving
them from me, and letting them have no provision
with me, they all ran wild into the woods, except
two or three favourites, which I kept tame, and
whose young, when they hadany, I always drowned;
and these were part of my family. Besides these, I
always kept two or three household kids about me,
which I taught to feed out of my hand; and I had
two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and
would all call “ Robin Crusoe,” but none like my
first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any
of them that I had done with him. I had also sev-
eral tame seafowls, whose names I knew not, that
I caught upon the shore, and cut their wings ; and
the little stakes which I had planted before my
castle-wall being now grown up to a good thick
grove, these fowls all lived among these low trees,
and bred there, which was very agreeable to me:
so that, as I said above, I began to be very well
contented with the life I led, if I could have been
secured from the dread of the savages. But it was
otherwise directed ; and it may not be amiss for
all people who shall meet with my story to make
this just observation from it, viz., how frequently,
in the course of our lives, the evil which in itself we
seek most to shun, and which, when we are fallen
into, is the most dreadful to us, is oftentimes the
very means or door of our deliverance, by which
alone we can be raised again from the affliction we
260 ROBINSON CRUSOE

are fallen into. I could give many examples of this
in the course of my unaccountable life, but in
nothing was it more particularly remarkable than
in the circumstances of my last years of solitary
residence in this island.




c was now the month of December, as I said
above, in my twenty-third year; and this being
the southern solstice (for winter I cannot call it)
was the particular time of my harvest, and required
my being pretty much abroad in the fields; when
going out pretty early in the morning, even before
it was thorough daylight, I was surprised with see-
ing a light of some fire upon the shore, at a dis-
tance from me of about two miles, towards the end
of the island where I had observed some savages
had been, as before; and not on the other side, but.
to my great affliction, it was on my side of the
island,

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and
stopped short within my grove, not daring to go
out, lest I might be surprised; and yet I had no
more peace within, from the apprehensions I had
that if these savages, in rambling over the island,
should find my corn standing or cut, or any of my
works and improvements, they would immediately
conclude that there were people in the place, and
262 THE ADVENTURES OF

would then never give over till they had found me
out. In this extremity, I went back directly to my
castle, pulled up the ladder after me, and made all
things without look as wild and natural as I could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself
in a posture of defence: I loaded all my cannon,
as I called them, that is to say, my muskets, which
were mounted upon my new fortification, and all
my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the
last gasp; not forgetting seriously to commend
myself to the divine protection, and earnestly to
pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of the
barbarians. I continued in this posture about two
hours ; and began to be mighty impatient for in-
telligence abroad, for I had no spies to send out.
After sitting a while longer, and musing what I
should do in this, I was not able to bear sitting in
ignorance any longer; so setting up my ladder to
the side of the hill, where there was a flat place, as
I observed before, and then pulling the ladder up
after me, I set it up again, and mounted to the top
of the hill; and pulling out my perspective glass,
which I had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat
on my belly on the ground, and began to look for
the place. I presently found there were no less than
nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire they
had made, not to warm them, for they had no need
of that, the weather being extremely hot, but, as I
supposed, to dress some of their barbarous diet of
human flesh which they had brought with them,
whether alive or dead I could not tell.


THERE WERE NO LESS THAN NINE NAKED SAVAGES
ROBINSON CRUSOE 263

They had two canoes with them, which they had
hauled up upon the shore ; and as it was then tide
of ebb, they seemed to me to wait for the return
of the flood to go away again. It is not easy to
imagine what confusion this sight put me into, espe-
cially seeing them come on my side of the island,
and so near me too; but when I considered their
coming must be always with the current of the ebb,
I began, afterwards, to be more sedate in my mind,
being satisfied that I might go abroad with safety
all the time of the tide of flood, if they were not on
shore before ; and having made this observation, I
went abroad about my harvest work with the more
composure.

As I expected, so it proved ; for as soon as the
tide made to the westward, I saw them all take
boat, and row (or paddle, as we call it) away. I
should have observed that, for an hour or more be-
fore they went off, they went a-dancing; and I could
easily discern their postures and gestures by my
glass. I could not perceive, by my nicest observa-
tion, but that they were stark naked, and had not
the least covering upon them; but whether they
Were men or women, I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took
two guns upon my shoulders, and two pistols in
my girdle, and my great sword by my side, without
a scabbard, and with all the speed I was able to
make, went away to the hill where I had discovered
the first appearance of all; and as soon as I got
thither, which was not in less than two hours (for
264 THE ADVENTURES OF

I could not go apace, being so loaden with arms
as I was), I perceived there had been three canoes
more of savages at that place ; and looking out far-
ther, I saw they were all at sea together, making
over for the main. This was a dreadful sight to me,
especially as, going down to the shore, I could see
the marks of horror which the dismal work they
had been about had left behind it, viz., the blood,
the bones, and part of the flesh of human bodies,
eaten and devoured by those wretches with merri-
ment and sport. I was so filled with indignation
at the sight that I now began to premeditate the
destruction of the next that I saw there, let them
be whom or how many soever. It seemed evident
to me that the visits which they made thus to this
island were not very frequent, for it was above fif-
teen months before any more of them came on
shore there again; that is to say, I neither saw them,
nor any footsteps or signals of them, in all that
time; for, as to the rainy seasons, then they are
sure not to come abroad, at least not so far; yet
all this while I lived uncomfortably, by reason of
the constant apprehensions of their coming upon
me by surprise; from whence I observe that the
expectation of evil is more bitter than the suffer-
ing, especially if there is no room to shake off that
expectation, or those apprehensions.

During all this time I was in the murdering hu-
mour, and took up most of my hours, which should
have been better employed, in contriving how to
circumvent and fall upon them, the very next time
ROBINSON CRUSOE 265

I should see them; especially if they should be
divided, as they were the last time, into two parties:
nor did I consider at all that, if I killed one party,
suppose ten or a dozen, I was still the next day,
or week, or month, to kill another, and so another,
even ad infinitum, till I should be at length no less
a murderer than they were in being man-eaters, and
perhaps much more so. I spent my days now in
great perplexity and anxiety of mind, expecting that
I should, one day or other, fall into the hands of
these merciless creatures ; and if I did at any time
venture abroad, it was not without looking round
me with the greatest care and caution imaginable.
And now I found, to my great comfort, how happy
it was that I provided for a tame flock or herd of
goats; for I durst not, upon any account, fire my
gun, especially near that side of the island where
they usually came, lest I should alarm the savages;
and if they had fled from me now, I was sure to
have them come again, with perhaps two or three
hundred canoes with them, in a few days, and then
I knew what to expect. However, I wore out a year
and three months more before I ever saw any more
of the savages, and then I found them again, as I
shall soon observe. It is true, they might have
been there once or twice, but either they made no
stay, or at least I did not see them; but in the
month of May, as near as I could calculate, and
in my four-and-twentieth year, I had a very strange
encounter with them ; of which in its place.

The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen
266 THE ADVENTURES OF

or sixteen months’ interval, was very great: I slept
unquiet, dreamed always frightful dreams, and often
started out of my sleep in the night; in the day,
great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in the
night, I dreamed often of killing the savages, and
of the reasons why I might justify the doing of it.
— But to waive all this for a while. It was in the
middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as
well as my poor wooden calendar would reckon,
for I marked all upon the post still; I say, it was
on the sixteenth of May that it blew a very great
storm of wind all day, with a great deal of lightning
and thunder, and a very foul night it was after it.
I knew not what was the particular occasion of it,
but as I was reading in the Bible, and taken up with
very serious thoughts about my present condition,
I was surprised with the noise of a gun,as I thought,
fired at sea. This was, to be sure, a surprise quite
ofa different nature from any I had met with be-
fore; for the notions this put into my thoughts
were quite of another kind. I started up in the
greatest haste imaginable, and, in a trice, clapped
my ladder to the middle place of the rock, and
pulled it after me; and mounting it the second
time, got to the top of the hill the very moment
that a flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun,
which accordingly, in about halfa minute, I heard;
and, by the sound, knew that it was from that part
of the sea where I was driven down the current in
my boat. I immediately considered that this must
be some ship in distress, and that they had some
ROBINSON CRUSOE 267

comrade, or some other ship in company, and fired
these guns for signals of distress, and to obtain
help. I had the presence of mind, at that minute,
to think that, though I could not help them, it
might be they might help me: so I brought to-
gether all the dry wood I could get at hand, and
making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon
the hill. The wood was dry, and blazed freely ; and
though the wind blew very hard, yet it burnt fairly
out; so that I was certain, if there was any such
thing as a ship, they must needs see it; and no
doubt they did ; for as soon as ever my fire blazed
up I heard another gun, and after that severa:
others, all from the same quarter. I plied my fire
all night long, till daybreak ; and when it was broad
day, and the air cleared up, I saw something at a
great distance at sea, full east of the island, whether
a sail or a hull I could not distinguish, no, not with
my glass; the distance was so great, and the weather
still something hazy also; at least it was so out at
sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon
perceived that it did not move; sol presently con-
cluded that it was a ship at anchor ; and being eager,
you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took my gun in
my hand, and ran towards the south side of the
island, to the rocks where I had formerly been car-
ried away with the current; and getting up there,
the weather by this time being perfectly clear, I
could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck
of a ship cast away in the night upon those con-
268 THE ADVENTURES OF

cealed rocks which I found when I was out in m

boat; and which rocks, as they checked the violence
of the stream, and made a kind of counter-stream,
or eddy, were the occasion of my recovering from
the most desperate, hopeless condition that ever |
had been in in all my life. Thus, what is one man’s
safety is another man’s destruction; for it seems
these men, whoever they were, being out of their
knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water,
had been driven upon them in the night, the wind
blowing hard at ENE. Had they seen the island,
as I must necessarily suppose they did not, they
must, as I thought, have endeavoured to have
saved themselves on shore by the help of their boat;
but their firing-off guns for help, especially when
they saw, as imagined, my fire, filled me with many
thoughts. First, I imagined that, upon seeing my
light, they might have put themselves into their
boat and endeavoured to make the shore ; but that
the sea going very high, they might have been cast
away ; other times I imagined that they might
have lost their boat before, as might be the case
many ways ; as particularly, by the breaking of the
sea upon their ship, which many times obliges men
to stave, or take in pieces, their boat, and some-
times to throw it overboard with their own hands;
other times I imagined they had some other ship
or ships in company, who, upon the signals of dis-
tress they had made, had taken them up and car
ried them off; other times I fancied they were all
gone off to sea in their boat, and being hurried
ROBINSON CRUSOE 269

away by the current that I had been formerly in,
were carried out into the great ocean, where there
was nothing but misery and perishing ; and that,
perhaps, they might by this time be starving, and
in a condition to think of eating one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in
the condition I was in, I could do no more than
look upon the misery of the poor men, and pity
them ; which had still this good effect on my side
that it gave me more and more cause togive thanks
to God, who had so happily and comfortably pro-
vided for me in my desolate condition ; and that,
of two ship’s companies who were now cast away
upon this part of the world, not one life should be
spared but mine. I learned here again to observe
that it is very rare that the providence of God casts
us into any condition of life so low, or any misery
so great, but we may see something or other to be
thankful for, and may see others in worse circum-
stances than our own. Such certainly was the case
of these men, of whom I couldnot so much as see
toom to suppose any of them were saved ; nothing
could make it rational so much as to wish or ex-
pect that they did not all perish there, except the
possibility only of their being taken up by another
ship in company; and this was but mere possibility
indeed ; for I saw not the least sign or appearance
of any such thing. I cannot explain, by any pos-
sible energy of words, what a strange longing or
hankering of desires I felt in my soul upon this
sight, breaking out sometimes thus : “ O that there
270 ROBINSON CRUSOE

had been butone or two, nay, or but one soul saved
out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that |
might have had one companion, one fellow-creature
to have spoken to me,and to have conversed with!”
In all the time of my solitary life, I never felt so
earnest, so strong a desire after the society of my
fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret at the want
of it.




HERE are some secret moving springs in the
T affections, which, when they are set a-going
by some object in view, or, though not in view,
yet rendered present to the mind by the power of
imagination, that motion carries out the soul, by
its impetuosity, to such violent, eager embracings
of the object that the absence of it is insupport-
able. Such were these earnest wishings that but
one man had been saved. I believe I repeated the
words, “O that it had been but one!” a thousand
times; and my desires were so moved by it that
when I spoke the words my hands would clinch
together, and my fingers would press the palms of
my hands so that if I had had any soft thing in my
hand it would have crushed it involuntarily; and
the teeth in my head would strike together, and
set against one another so strong that for some
time I could not part them again. Let the nat-
uralists explain these things, and the reason and
manner of them; all I can say to them is, to de-
scribe the fact, which was even surprising to me,
272 THE ADVENTURES OF

when I found it, though I knew not from whence
it proceeded; it was doubtless the effect of ardent
wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my mind,
realising the comfort which the conversation of
one of my fellow-Christians would have been to
me. But it was not to be; either their fate or mine,
or both, forbade it; for till the last year of my
being on this island, I never knew whether any
were saved out of that ship or no; and had only
the affliction, some days after, to see the corpse of
a drowned boy come on shore at the end of the
island which was next the shipwreck. He had no
clothes on but a seaman’s waistcoat, a pair of open-
kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt ; but
nothing to direct me so much as to guess what
nation he was of; he had nothing in his pockets
but two pieces-of-eight and a tobacco-pipe, — the
last was to me of ten times more value than the
first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to ven-
ture out in my boat to this wreck, not doubting
but I might find something on board that might
be useful to me; but that did not altogether press
me so much as the possibility that there might be
yet some living creature on board, whose life I
might not only save, but might, by saving that
life, comfort my own to the last degree. And this
thought clung so to my heart that I could not be
quiet night or day, but I must venture out in my
boat on board this wreck ; and committing the rest
to God’s providence, I thought the impression


ROBINSON CRUSOE 273

was so strong upon my mind that it could not be
resisted, that it must come from some invisible
direction, and that I should be wanting to myself
if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened
back to my castle, prepared everything for my
voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great pot of
fresh water, a compass to steer by, a bottle of rum
(for I had still a great deal of that left), anda
basket of raisins; and thus loading myself with
everything necessary, I went down to my boat, got
the water out of her, put her afloat, loaded all my
cargo in her, and then went home again for more.
My second cargo was a great bag of rice, the um-
brella to set up over my head for a shade, another
large pot of fresh water, and about two dozen of
my small loaves, or barley-cakes, more than before,
with a bottle of goat’s milk anda cheese: all which,
with great labour and sweat, I carried to my boat;
and praying to God to direct my voyage, I put
out; and rowing, or paddling, the canoe along
the shore, came at last to the utmost point of the
island on the north-east side. And now I was to
launch out into the ocean, and either to venture or
hot to venture. I looked on the rapid currents
which ran constantly on both sides of the island at
a distance, and which were very terrible to me, from
the remembrance of the hazard I had been in
before, and my heart began to fail me; for I fore-
saw that if I was driven into either of those cur-
rents, I should be carried a great way out to sea,
274 THE ADVENTURES OF

and perhaps out of my reach, or sight of the island
again; and that then, as my boat was but small,
if any little gale of wind should rise, I should be
inevitably lost.

These thoughts so impressed my mind that |
began to give over my enterprise; and having
hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore, |
stepped out, and sat me down upon a rising bit of
ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear
and desire, about my voyage; when, as I was mus-
ing, I could perceive that the tide was turned, and
the flood come on; upon which my going was
impracticable for so many hours. Upon this, pre-
sently, it occurred to me that I should go up to the
highest piece of ground I could find, and observe,
if I could, how the sets of the tide, or currents, lay
when the flood came in, that I might judge whether,
if I was driven one way out, I might not expect to
be driven another way home, with the same rapid-
ness of the currents. This thought was no sooner
in my head than I cast my eye upon a little hill,
which sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways,
and from whence I had a clear view of the currents,
or sets of the tide, and which way I was to guide
myself in my return. Here I found that as the
current of the ebb set out close by the south point
of the island, so the current of the flood set in close
by the shore of the north side; and that I had no-
thing to do but to keep to the north side of the
island in my return, and I should do well enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 275

next morning, to set out with the first of the tide;
and reposing myself for the night in my canoe,
under the great watchcoat I mentioned, I launched
out. I first made a little out to sea, full north, till
I began to feel the benefit of the current, which set
eastward, and which carried me at a great rate, and
yet did not so hurry meas the current on the south
side had done before, so as to take from me all gov-
ernment of the boat ; but having a strong steerage
with my paddle, I went at a great rate directly for
the wreck, and in less than two hours I came up to
it. [twas a dismal sight to look at: the ship, which,
by its building, was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in
between two rocks ; all the stern and quarter of her
were beaten to pieces with the sea; and as her fore-
castle, which stuck in the rocks, had run on with
great violence, her mainmast and foremast were
brought by the board, that is to say, broken short
off; but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and
bow appeared firm. When I came close to her, a
dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming,
yelped and cried; and as soon as I called him,
jumped into the sea to come to me. I took him
into the boat, but found him almost dead with hun-
ger and thirst. I gave him a cake of my bread, and
he devoured it like a ravenous wolf that had been
starving a fortnight in the snow. I then gave the
poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I
would have let him, he would have burst himself.
After this, I went on board; but the first sight I
met with was two men drowned in the cook-room,
276 THE ADVENTURES OF

or forecastle of the ship, with their arms fast about
one another. I concluded, as is indeed probable,
that when the ship struck, it being in a storm, the
sea broke so high, and so continually over her, that
the men were not able to bear it, and were strangled
with the constant rushing in of the water, as much
as if they had been under water. Besides the dog,
there was nothing left in the ship that had life ; nor
any goods, that I could see, but what were spoiled
by the water. There were some casks of liquor,
whether wine or brandy I knew not, which lay lower
in the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out,
I could see ; but they were too big to meddle with,
I saw several chests, which I believed belonged to
some of the seamen; and I got two of them into
the boat, without examining what was in them. Had
the stern of the ship been fixed,and the forepart
broken off, I am persuaded I might have made a
good voyage: for, by what I found in these two
chests, | had room to suppose the ship had a great
deal of wealth on board ; and, if I may guess from
the course she steered, she must have been bound
from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the
south part of America, beyond the Brazils, to the
Havanna, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so perhaps
to Spain. She had, no doubt, a great treasure in her,
but of no use, at that time, to anybody ; and what
became of her crew, I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of
liquor, of about twenty gallons, which I got into my
boat with much difficulty. There were several mus-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 297

kets in the cabin, and a great powder-horn, with
about four pounds of powder in it: as for the mus-
kets, I had no occasion for them, so I left them, but
took the powder-horn, I took a fire-shovel and
tongs, which I wanted extremely ; as also two little
brass kettles, a copper pot to make chocolate, and
a gridiron: and with this cargo, and the dog, I came
away, the tide beginning to make home again ; and
the same evening, about an hour within night, I
reached the island again, weary and fatigued to the
last degree. I reposed that night in the boat; and
in the morning I resolved to harbour what I had
got in my new cave, and not carry it home to my
castle. After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo
on shore, and began to examine the particulars.
The cask of liquor I found to be a kind of rum,
but not such as we had at the Brazils, and, in aword,
not at all good ; but when I came to open the chests,
I found several things of great use to me: for ex-
ample, I found in one a fine case of bottles, of an
extraordinary kind, and filled with cordial waters,
fine and very good: the bottles held about three
pints each, and were tipped with silver. I found two
pots of very good succades or sweetmeats, so fast-
ened also on the top that the salt water had not
hurt them; and two more of the same, which the
water had spoiled. I found some very good shirts,
which were very welcome to me; and about a dozen
and a half of white linen handkerchiefs and coloured
neckcloths; the former were also very welcome,
being exceeding refreshing to wipe my face in a hot
278 THE ADVENTURES OF

day. Besides this, when I came to the till in the
chest, I found there three great bags of pieces-of-
eight, which held about eleven hundred pieces in
all; and in one of them, wrapped up ina paper, six
doubloons of gold and some small bars or wedges
of gold; I suppose they might all weigh near a
pound, In the other chest were some clothes, but
of iittle value; but, by the circumstances, it must
have belonged to the gunner’s mate; though there
was no powder in it, except two pounds of fine
glazed powder, in three small flasks, kept, I sup-
pose, for charging their fowling-pieces on occasion,
Upon the whole, I got very little by this voyage
that was of any use to me: for, as to the money,
I had no manner of occasion for it; it was to meas
the dirt under my feet; and I would have given it
all for three or four pair of English shoes and stock-
ings, which were things I greatly wanted, but had
none on my feet for many years. I had indeed got
two pair of shoes now, which I took off the feet of
the two drowned men whom I saw in the wreck and
I found two pair more in one of the chests, which
were very welcome to me; but they were not like
our English shoes, either for ease or service, being
rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found in
this seaman’s chest about fifty pieces-of-eight in rials,
but no gold: I suppose this belonged toa poorer
man than the other, which seemed to belong to
some officer. Well, however, I lugged this money
home to my cave, and laid it up, as I had done that
before which I brought from our own ship: but it


ROBINSON CRUSOE 279

was a great pity, as I said, that the other part of this
ship had not come to my share; for I am satisfied
I might have loaded my canoe several times over
with money; and, thought I, if I ever escape to
England, it might lie here safe enough till I may
come again and fetch it.

Having now brought all my things on shore, and
secured them, I went back to my boat, and rowed
or paddled her along the shore, to her old harbour,
where I laid her up, and made the best of my way
to my old habitation, where I found everything
safe and quiet. I began now to repose myself, live
after my old fashion, and take care of my family
affairs; and, for a while, I lived easy enough, only
that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked
out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and
if at any time I did stir with any freedom, it was
always to the east part of the island, where I was
pretty well satisfied the savages never came, and
where I could go without so many precautions, and
such a load of arms and ammunition as I alwavs
carried with me if I went the other way. I lived in
this condition near two years more; but my un-
lucky head, that was always to let me know it was
born to make my body miserable, was all these two
years filled with projects and designs, how, if it were
possible, I might get away from this island; for
sometimes I was for making another voyage to the
wreck, though my reason told me that there was
nothing left there worth the hazard of my voyage;
sometimes for aramble one way, sometimes another;
280 THE ADVENTURES OF

and I believe verily, if I had had the boat that [|
went from Sallee in, I should have ventured to sea,|_
bound anywhere, I knew not whither. I have been, |
in all my circumstances, a memento to those who}
are touched with the general plague of mankind, e
whence, for aught I know, one half of their mis-|
eries flow: I mean that of not being satisfied with 4
the station wherein God and nature hath placed |
them; for, not to look back upon my primitive con- | _
dition, and the excellent advice of my father, the|
opposition to which was, as I may call it, my orig-|
inal sin, my subsequent mistakes of the same kind | —
had been the means of my coming into this mis-| —
erable condition; for had that Providence, which | ~
so happily seated me at the Brazils as a planter, | ©
blessed me with confined desires, and I could have | ~
been contented to have gone on gradually, I might |
have been by this time, I mean in the time of my |”
being in this island, one of the most considerable | _
planters in the Brazils; nay, I am persuaded that, 4
by the improvements I had made in that little time | 7
I lived there and the increase I should probably |
have made if I had remained, I might have been by
worth a hundred thousand moideres. And what | 7
business had I to leave a settled fortune, a well- |
stocked plantation, improving and increasing, to |
turn supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when |
patience and time would have so increased our |
stock at home that we could have bought them at | _
our own door from those whose business it was to |
fetch them; and though it had cost us something |





ROBINSON CRUSOE 281

more, yet the difference of that price was by no
means worth saving at so great a hazard. But as
this is usually the fate of young heads, so reflection
upon the folly of it is as commonly the exercise
of more years, or of the dear-bought experience of
time; so it was with me now; and yet so deep had
the mistake taken root in my temper that I could
not satisfy myself in my station, but was continually
poring upon the means and possibility of my es-
cape from this place. And that I may with the
greater pleasure to the reader bring on the remain-
ing part of my story, it may not be improper to
give some account of my first conceptions on the
subject of this foolish scheme for my escape, and
how, and upon what foundation, I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle,
after my late voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid
up and secured under water, as usual, and my con-
dition restored to what it was before; I had more
wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was not at
all the richer; for I had no more use for it than the
Indians of Peru had before the Spaniards came
there. It was one of the nights in the rainy season
in March, the four-and-twentieth year of my first
setting foot in this island of solitude, I was lying
inmy bed, or hammock, awake; very well in health,
had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of body,
nor any uneasiness of mind, more than ordinary,
but could by no means close my eyes, that is, so
as to sleep: no, not a wink all night long, other-
wise than as follows: It is impossible to set down
282 THE ADVENTURES OF

the innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled
through that great thoroughfare of the brain, the
memory, in this night’s time; I ran over the whole
history of my life in miniature, or by abridgment,
as I may call it, to my coming to this island, and
also of that part of my life since I came to this
island. In my reflections upon the state of my case
since I came on shore on this island, I was com-
paring the happy posture of my affairs in the first
years of my habitation here, compared to the life
of anxiety, fear, and care which I had lived in ever
since I had seen the print of a foot in the sand; not
that I did not believe the savages had frequented
the island even all the while, and might have been
several hundreds of them at times on shore there;
but I had never known it, and was incapable of
any apprehensions about it; my satisfaction was
perfect, though my danger was the same, and I was
as happy in not knowing my danger as if I had
never really been exposed to it. This furnished
my thoughts with many very profitable reflections,
and particularly this one: How infinitely good that
Providence is, which has provided, in its govern-
ment of mankind, such narrow bounds to his sight
and knowledge of things; and though he walks in
the midst of so many thousand dangers, the sight
of which, if discovered to him, would distract his
mind and sink his spirits, he is kept serene and
calm by having the events of things hid from his
eyes, and knowing nothing of the dangers which
surround him.


ROBINSON CRUSOE 283

After these thoughts had for some time enter-
tained me, I came to reflect seriously upon the real
danger I had been in for so many years in this very
island, and how I had walked about in the greatest
security, and withall possible tranquillity, even when
perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great tree,
or the casual approach of night, had been between me
and the worst kind of destruction, viz., that of falling
into the hands of cannibals and savages, who would
have seized on me with the same view as I would on
a goat ora turtle, and have thought it no more a
crime to kill and devour me than I did a pigeon or
curlew. I would unjustly slander myself if I should
say I was not sincerely thankful to my great Pre-
server, to whose singular protection I acknowledged
with great humility all these unknown deliverances
were due, and without which I must inevitably have
fallen into their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for
some time taken up in considering the nature of
these wretched creatures, I mean the savages, and
how it came to pass in the world that the wise Gov-
ernor of all things should giveup any of his creatures
to such inhumanity, nay, tosomething so much be-
low even brutality itself, as to devour its own kind;
but as this ended in some (at that time) fruitless spec-
ulations, it occurred to me to inquire what part of the
world these wretches lived in? how far off the coast
was from whence they came? what they ventured
over so far from home for ? what kind of boats they
had? and why I might not order myself and my
284 THE ADVENTURES OF

business so that I might be as able to go over
thither as they were to come to me.

I never so much as troubled myself to consider
what I should do with myself when I went thither,
what would become of me if I fell into the hands of
the savages, or how I should escape from them, if
they attacked me: no, nor so much as how it was
possible for me to reach the coast, and not be at-
tacked by some or other of them, without any pos-
sibility of delivering myself; and if I should not fall
into their hands, what I should do for provision,
or whither I should bend my course; none of these
thoughts, I say,so much as came in my way; but my
mind was wholly bent upon the notion of my passing
over in my boat to the main land. I looked upon
my present condition as the most miserable that
could possibly be; that I was not able to throw my-
self into anything, but death, that could be called
worse; and if I reached the shore of the main, |
might perhaps meet with relief, or I might coast
along, as I did on the African shore, till I came to
some inhabited country, and where I might find
some relief; and after all, perhaps, I might fall in
with some Christian ship that might take me in; and
if the worst came to the worst, I could but die, which
would put an end to all these miseries at once. Pray
note, all this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an
impatient temper, made desperate, as it were, by the
long continuance of my troubles, and the disap-
pointments I had met in the wreck I had been on
board of, and where I had been so near obtaining
ROBINSON CRUSOE 285

what I so earnestly longed for, viz., somebody to
speak to, and to learn some knowledge from them
of the place where I was, and of the probable means
of my deliverance. I was agitated wholly by these
thoughts ; all my calm of mind, in my resignation
to Providence, and waiting the issue of the disposi-
tions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended; and I
had, as it were, no power to turn my thoughts to
anything but to the project of a voyage to the main,
which came upon me with such force, and such an
impetuosity of desire, that it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two
hours or more, with such violence that it set my
very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as if
I had been in a fever, merely with the extraordinary
fervour of my mind about it, nature, as if I had
been fatigued and exhausted with the very thought
of it, threw me into a sound sleep. One would have
thought I should have dreamed of it, but I did not,
nor of anything relating to it; but I dreamed that as
I was going out in the morning, as usual, from my
castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven
savages coming to land, and that they brought with
them another savage, whom they were going to kill,
in order to eat him; when, on a sudden, the savage
that they were going to kill jumped away, and ran
for his life; and I thought, in my sleep, that he
came running into my little thick grove before my
fortification, to hide himself; and that I,seeing him
alone,and not perceiving that theotherssought him
that way, showed myself to him, and smiling upon
286 THE ADVENTURES OF

him, encouraged him: that he kneeled down to me,
seeming to pray me to assist him; upon which |
showed him my ladder, made him go up, and carried
him into my cave, and he became my servant; and
that as soon as I had got this man, I said to myself,
“Now I may certainly venture to the main land;
for this fellow will serve me as a pilot, and will tell
me what todo, and whither to go for provisions, and
whither not to go for fear of being devoured; what
places to venture into, and what to shun.” I waked
with this thought; and was under such inexpressible
impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in
my dream that the disappointments which I felt
upon coming to myself, and finding that it was no
more than a dream, were equally extravagant the
other way, and threw me into a very great dejection
of spirits.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion : that
my only way to go about to attempt an escape was,
if possible, to get a savage into my possession;
and, if possible, it should be one of their prisoners
whom they had condemned to be eaten, and should
bring hither to kill. But these thoughts still were
attended with this difficulty that it was impossible
to effect this without attacking a whole caravan of
them, and killing them all: and this was not only
a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry: but,
on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the law-
fulness of it to myself, and my heart trembled at
the thought of shedding so much blood, though
it was for my deliverance. I need not repeat the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 287

arguments which occurred to me against this, they
being the same mentioned before; but though I
had other reasons to offer now, viz., that those men
were enemies to my life, and would devour me if
they could; that it was self-preservation, in the
highest degree, to deliver myself from this death
of a life, and was acting in my own defence as much
as if they were actually assaulting me, and the like;
I say, though these things argued for it, yet the
thoughts of shedding human blood for my deliver-
ance were very terrible to me, and such as I could
by no means reconcile myself to for a great while.
However, at last, after many secret disputes with
myself, and after great perplexities about it (for all
these arguments, one way and another, struggled
in my head a long time), the eager prevailing de-
sire of deliverance at length mastered all the rest;
and I resolved, if possible, to get one of those sav-
ages into my hands, cost what it would. My next
thing was to contrive how to doit, and this indeed
was very difficult to resolve on; but as I could pitch
upon no probable means for it,so I resolved to put
myself upon the watch, to see them when they
came on shore, and leave the rest to the event,
taking such measures as the opportunity should
present, let what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set
myself upon the scout as often as possible, and in-
deed so often, that I was heartily tired of it; for it
was above a year and a half that I waited; and for
great part of that time went out to the west end,
288 ROBINSON CRUSOE

and to the south-west corner, of the island, almost
every day, to look for canoes, but none appeared.
This was very discouraging, and began to trouble
me much, though I cannot say that it did in this
case (as it had done some time before) wear off the
edge of my desire to the thing; but the longer it
seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was for it;
in a word, I was not at first so careful to shun the
sight of these savages, and avoid being seen by
them, as I was now eager to be upon them. Be-
sides, I fancied myself able to manage one, nay,
two or three savages, if I had them, so as to make
them entirely slaves to me, to do whatever I should
direct them, and to prevent their being able at any
time to do me any hurt. It was a great while that
I pleased myself with this affair; but nothing still
presented ; all my fancies and schemes came to
nothing, for no savages came near me for a great
while.


An a year and a half after I entertained
these notions (and by long musing had, as
it were, resolved them all into nothing, for want
of an occasion to put them into execution), I was
surprised, one morning early, with seeing no less
than five canoes all on shore together on my side
the island, and the people who belonged to them
all landed, and out of my sight. The number of
them broke all my measures ; for seeing so many,
and knowing that they always came four or six, or
sometimes more, in a boat, I could not tell what
to think of it, or how to take my measures, to at-
tack twenty or thirty men single-handed; so lay
still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted.
However, I put myself into all the same postures
for an attack that I had formerly provided, and
was just ready for action, if anything had pre-
sented. Having waited a good while, listening to
hear if they made any noise, at length, being very
impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my ladder,
and clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two
290 THE ADVENTURES OF

stages, as usual; standing so, however, that my
head did not appear above the hill, so that they
could not perceive me by any means. Here I ob-
served, by the help of my perspective glass, that
they were no less than thirty in number ; that they
had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed.
How they had cooked it I knew not, or what it
was ; but they were all dancing, in I know not how
many barbarous gestures and figures, their own
way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived,
by my perspective, two miserable wretches dragged
from the boats, where, it seems, they were laid by,
and were now brought out for the slaughter. I per-
ceived one of them immediately fall, being knocked
down, I suppose, with a club or wooden sword, for
that was their way, and two or three others were
at work immediately, cutting him open for their
cookery, while the other victim was left standing
by himself, till they should be ready for him. In
that very moment, this poor wretch, seeing him-
self a little at liberty, and unbound, nature inspired
him with hopes of life, and he started away from
them, and ran with incredible swiftness along the
sands, directly towards me, I mean towards that
part of the coast where my habitation was. I was
dreadfully frightened, I must acknowledge, when
I perceived him run my way, and especially when,
as I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole
body ; and now I expected that part of my dream
was coming to pass, and that he would certainly
ROBINSON CRUSOE 291

take shelter in my grove; but I could not depend,
by any means, upon my dream for the rest of it,
viz., that the other savages would not pursue him
thither, and find him there. However, I kept my
station, and my spirits began to recover, when I
found that there was not above three men that fol-
lowed him ; and still more was I encouraged when
I found that he outstripped them exceedingly in
running, and gained ground of them, so that if he
could but hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he
would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle the
creek, which I mentioned often in the first part
of my story, where I landed my cargoes out of the
ship; and this I saw plainly he must necessarily
swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken
there: but when the savage escaping came thither,
he made nothing of it, though the tide was then
up; but plunging in, swam through in about thirty
strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran on with
exceeding strength and swiftness. When the three
persons came to the creek, I found that two of
them could swim, but the third could not, and
that, standing on the other side, he looked at the
others, but went no farther, and soon after went
softly back again ; which, as it happened, was very
well for him in the end. I observed that the two
who swam were yet more than twice as long swim-
ming over the creek as the fellow was that fled
from them. It came now very warmly upon my
thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now was
292 THE ADVENTURES OF

the time to get me a servant, and perhaps a com-
panion or assistant, and that I was called plainly
by Providence to save this poor creature’s life. I
immediately ran down the ladders with all possible
expedition, fetched my two guns, for they were
both at the foot of the ladders, as I observed
above, and getting up again, with the same haste,
to the top of the hill, I crossed toward the sea, and
having a very short cut, and all down-hill, placed
myself in the way between the pursuers and the
pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled, who,
looking back, was at first, perhaps, as much fright-
ened at me as at them. But I beckoned with my
hand to him to come back ; and, in the mean time,
I slowly advanced towards the two that followed ;
then, rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked
him down with the stock of my piece. I was loth
to fire, because I would not have the rest hear ;
though, at that distance, it would not have been
easily heard, and being out of sight of the smoke,
too, they would not have easily known what to
make of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the
other who pursued him stopped, as if he had been
frightened, and I advanced apace towards him;
but as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had
a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at
me: so I was then necessitated to shoot at him
first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot.
The poor savage who fled but had stopped,
though he saw both his enemies fallen and killed,
as he thought, yet was so frightened with the fire
ROBINSON CRUSOE 293

and noise of my piece that he stood stock-still,
and neither came forward nor went backward,
though he seemed rather inclined still to fly than
to come on. I hallooed again to him, and made
signs to come forward, which he easily understood,
and came a little way, then stopped again; and then
a little farther, and stopped again; and I could
then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had
been taken prisoner, and had just been to be killed,
as his two enemies were. I beckoned to him again
to come to me, and gave him all the signs of en-
couragement that I could think of; and he came
nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or
twelve steps, in token of acknowledgment for sav-
ing his life. I smiled at him, and looked pleasantly,
and beckoned to him to come still nearer; at length
he came close to me; and then he kneeled down
again, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon
the ground, and taking me by the foot, set my
foot upon his head: this, it seems, was in token
of swearing to be my slave for ever. I took him
up, and made much of him, and encouraged him
all I could.

But there was more work to do yet; for I per-
ceived the savage whom I knocked down was not
killed but stunned with the blow, and began to
come to himself; so I pointed to him, and showed
him the savage, that he was not dead; upon this
he spoke some words to me, and though I could
not understand them, yet I thought they were
pleasant to hear; for they were the first sound of a
294 THE ADVENTURES OF

man’s voice that I had heard, my own excepted,
for above twenty-five years. But there was no
time tor such reflections now; the savage who was
knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit
up upon the ground, and I perceived that my sav-
age began to be afraid ; but when I saw that, I pre-
sented my other piece at the man, as if I would
shoot him. Upon this my savage, for so I call him
now, made a motion to me to lend him my sword
which hung naked in a belt by my side, which I
did. He no sooner had it but he runs to his
enemy, and at one blow cut off his head so cleverly
no executioner in Germany could have done it
sooner or better; which I thought very strange
for one who, I had reason to believe, never saw a
sword in his life before, except their own wooden
swords. However, it seems, as I learned afterwards,
they make their wooden swords so sharp, so heavy,
and the wood is so hard, that they will cut off
heads even with them, aye, and arms, and that st
one blow, too. When he had done this, he comes
laughing to me, in sign of triumph, and brought
me the sword again, and with abundance of ges-
tures, which I did not understand, laid it down,
with the head of the savage that he had killed, just
before me.

But that which astonished him most was to know
how I killed the other Indian so far off; so point-
ing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to
him ; so I bade him go, as well as I could. When
he came to him, he stood like one amazed, look-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 295

ing at him, turning him first on one side, then on
the other, looked at the wound the bullet had
made, which, it seems, was just in his breast,
where it had made a hole, and no great quantity of
blood had followed, but he had bled inwardly,
for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and
arrows, and came back; so I turned to go away,
and beckoned him to follow me, making signs to
him that more might come after them. Upon
this, he made signs to me that he should bury
them with sand, that they might not be seen by
the rest, if they followed; and so I made signs to
him again to do so. He fell to work; and, in an
instant, he had scraped a hole in the sand with his
hands, big enough to bury the first in, and then
dragged him into it, and covered him; and did so
by the other also; I believe he had buried them
both. in a quarter of an hour. Then calling him
away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite
away, to my cave, on the farther part of the island;
so I did not let my dream come to pass in that
part, viz., that he came into my grove for shelter.
Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins te
eat, and a draught of water, which I found he
was indeed in great distress for, by his running ;
and having refreshed him, I made signs for him
to go and lie down to sleep, showing him a place
where I had laid some rice-straw, and a blanket
upon it, which I used to sleep upon myself some-
times; so the poor creature lay down, and went
to sleep.
296 THE ADVENTURES OF

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly
well-made, with straight, strong limbs, not too large,
tall and well-shaped, and, as I reckon, about twenty-
six years of age. He had a very good countenance,
not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have
something very manly in his face; and yet he had
all the sweetness and softness of an European in
his countenance too, especially when he smiled.
His hair was long and black, not curled like wool;
his forehead very high and large, anda great vivac-
ity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The col-
our of his skin was not quite black, but very tawny;
and yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as
the Brazilians and Virginians and other natives of
America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive-
colour, that had in it something very agreeable,
though not very easy to describe. His face was
round and plump; his nose small, not flat like the
Negroes; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his
fine teeth well-set, and as white as ivory.

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about
half an hour, he awoke again, and came out of the
cave to me, for I had been milking my goats, which
Thad in the enclosure just by. When he espied me,
he came running to me, laying himself down again
upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an
humble, thankful disposition, making a great many
antic gestures to show it. At last, he lays his head
flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my
other foot upon his head, as he had done before;
and after this made all the signs to me of subjec-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 297

tion, servitude, and submission imaginable, to let
me know how he would serve me as long as helived.
I understood him in many things, and let him know
i was very well pleased with him. Ina little time
I began to speak to him and teach him to speak to
me; and, first, I let him know his name should be
Fripay, which was the day I saved his life; I called
him so for the memory of the time. I likewise
taught him to say Master; and then let him know
that was to be my name. I likewise taught him to
say Yes and No, and to know the meaning of them.
I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let
him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread
in it; and gave him a cake of bread to do the like,
which he quickly complied with, and made signs
that it was very good. I kept there with him all that
night; but as soon as it was day, I beckoned to him
to come with me, and let him know I would give
him some clothes; at which he seemed very glad,
for he was stark naked. As we went by the place
where he had buried the two men, he pointed exactly
to the place, and showed me the marks that he had
made to find them again, making signs to me that
we should dig them up again, and eat them. At
this I appeared very angry, expressed my abhor-
rence of it, made as if I would vomit at the thoughts
of it, and beckoned with my hand to him to come
away, which he did immediately, with great sub-
mission. I then led him up to the top of the hill,
to see if his enemies were gone; and pulling out my
glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place where
298 THE ADVENTURES OF

they had been, but no appearance of them or their
canoes; so that it was plain that they were gone,
and had left their two comrades behind them, with-
out any search after them.

But I was not content with this discovery ; but
having now more courage, and consequently more
curiosity, I took my man Friday with me, giving
him the sword in his hand, with the bow and ar.
rows at his back, which I found he could use very
dexterously, making him carry one gun for me,
and I two for myself; and away we marched to the
place where these creatures had been, for I had a
mind now to get some fuller intelligence of them.
When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill
in my veins, and my heart sunk within me, at the
horror of the spectacle; indeed, it was a dreadful
sight, at least it was so to me, though Friday made
nothing of it. The place was covered with human
bones, the ground dyed with their blood, and great
pieces of flesh left here and there, half-eaten, man-
gled, and scorched ; and, in short, all the tokens of
the triumphant feast they had been making there,
after a victory over their enemies. I sawthree sculls,
five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and
feet, and abundance of other parts of the bodies;
and Friday, by his signs, made me understand that
they brought over four prisoners to feast upon;
that three of them were eaten up, and that he, point-
ing to himself, was the fourth; that there had been
a great battle between them and their next king,
whose subjects, it seems, he had been one of, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 299

that they had taken a great number of prisoners;
all which were carried to several places by those
who had taken them in the fight, in order to feast
upon them, as was done here by these wretches
upon those they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather up all the sculls, bones,
flesh, and whatever remained, and lay them to-
gether ina heap, and make a great fire upon it,
and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday had
still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh,
and was still a cannibal in his nature; but I dis-
covered so much abhorrence at the very thoughts
of it, and at the least appearance of it, that he durst
not discover it; for I had, by some means, let him
know that I would kill him if he offered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our
castle; and there I fell to work for my man Friday:
and, first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers,
which I had out of the poor gunner’s chest 1 men-
tioned which I found in the wreck ; and which, with
a little alteration, fitted him very well, and then I
made him a jerkin of goat’s skin, as well as my
skill would allow (for I was now grown a tolerable
good tailor); and I gave him a cap, which I made
of hare’s skin, very convenient and fashionable
enough; and thus he was clothed for the present
tolerably well, and was mighty well pleased to see
himself almost as well-clothed as his master. It is
true, he went awkwardly in those clothes at first:
wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and
the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoul-
300 THE ADVENTURES OF

ders, and the inside of his arms; but after a little
easing them where he complained they hurt him,
and using himself to them, he took to them at
length very well.

The next day after I came home to my hutch
with him, I began to consider where I should lodge
him; and that I might do well for him, and yet be
perfectly easy myself, I madea little tent for him in
the vacant place between my two fortifications, in
the inside of the last and in the outside of the first.
As there was a door or entrance there into my cave,
I made a formal framed doorcase, and a door to it
of boards, and set it up in the passage, a little within
the entrance; and causing the door to open in the
inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my
ladders too; so that Friday could no way come at
me in the inside of my innermost wall, without mak-
ing so much noise in getting over that it must needs
waken me; for my first wall had now a complete roof
over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and lean-
ing up to the side of the hill; which was again laid
across with smaller sticks, instead of laths, and then
thatched over a great thickness with the rice-straw,
which was strong, like reeds; and at the hole or
place which was left to go in or out by the ladder, I
had placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been
attempted on the outside, would not have opened
at all, but would have fallen down, and made a great
noise; as to weapons, I took them all into my side
every night. But I needed none of all this precau-
tion, for never man had a more faithful, loving, sin-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 301

cere servant than Friday was to me; without pas-
sions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and
engaged — his very affections were tied to me, like
those ofa child to a father; and I dare say he would
have sacrificed his life for the saving mine upon any
occasion whatsoever: the many testimonies he gave
me of this put it out of doubt, and soon convinced
me that I needed to use no precautions as to my
safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and
that with wonder, that however it had pleased God,
in his providence, and in the government of the
works of his hands, to take from so great a part of
the world of his creatures the best uses to which
their faculties and the powers of their souls are
adapted, yet that he has bestowed upon them the
same powers, the same reason, the same affections,
the sme sentiments of kindness and obligation,
the same passions and resentments of wrongs, the
same sense of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all
the capacities of doing good, and receiving good,
that he has given to us; and that when he pleases
to offer them occasions of exerting these, they are
as ready, nay, more ready, to apply them to the
right uses for which they were bestowed than we
are. This made me very melancholy sometimes, in
reflecting, as the several occasions presented, how
mean ause we make of all these, even though we
have these powers enlightened by the great lamp
of instruction, the Spirit of God, and by the know-
ledge of his word added to our understanding; and
302 THE ADVENTURES OF

why it has pleased God to hide the like saving know.
ledge from so many millions of souls, who, if I might
judge by this poor savage, would make a much bet-
ter use of it than we did. From hence I was some-
times led too far, to invade the sovereignty of
Providence, and as it were arraign the justice of so
arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide
that light from some and reveal it to others, and yet
expect a like duty from both. But I shut it up, and
checked my thoughts with this conclusion : first,
that we did not know by what light and law these
should be condemned; but that as God was neces-
sarily, and by the nature of his being, infinitely holy
and just, so it could not be but if these creatures
were all sentenced to absence from himself, it was on
account of sinning against that light, which, as the
Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and by such
rules as their consciences would acknowledge to be
Just, though the foundation was not discovered to
us; and, secondly, that still,as we all are the clay in
the hand of the potter, no vessel could say to him,
“‘ Why hast thou formed me thus?”

But to return to my new companion: —I was
greatly delighted with him, and made it my business
to teach him everything that was proper to make
him useful, handy, and helpful; but especially to
make him speak, and understand me when I spoke;
and he was the aptest scholar that ever was; and
particularly was so merry, so constantly diligent,and
so pleased when he could but understand me, or
make me understand him, that it was very pleasant
ROBINSON CRUSOE 303

to me to talk to him. Now my life began to be
so easy that I began to say to myself that could
I but have been safe from more savages, I cared

not if I was never to remove from the place where
I lived.


FTER I had been two or three days returned

to my castle,I thought that, in order to bring
Friday off from his horrid way of feeding, and from
the relish of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought to let
him taste of other flesh; so I took him out with
me one morning to the woods. I went, indeed, in-
tending to kill a kid out of my own flock, and bring
it home and dress it; but as I was going, I saw a
she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young
kids sitting by her. I catched hold of Friday :—
“Hold,” said I; “stand still” ; and made signs to
him not to stir. Immediately I presented my piece,
shot, and killed one of the kids. The poor creature,
who had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill the
savage, his enemy, but did not know, nor could
imagine, how it was done, was sensibly surprised,
trembled and shook, and looked so amazed, that
I thought he would have sunk down. He did not
see the kid I shot at, or perceive I had killed it,
but ripped up his waistcoat, to feel whether he was
not wounded, and,as I found presently, thought I


ROBINSON CRUSOE 305

was resolved to kill him; for he came and kneeled
down to me, and, embracing my knees, said a great
many things I did not understand; but I could
easily see the meaning was, to pray mé not to kill
him.

I soon found away to convince him that I would
do him no harm; and taking him up by the hand,
laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which I had
killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which
he did; and while he was wondering, and looking
to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun
again. By and by, I saw a great fowl, like a hawk,
sitting upon a tree, within shot; so, to let Friday
understand a little what I would do, I called him
to me again, pointed at the fowl, which was indeed
a parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I
say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to
the ground under the parrot, to let him see I would
make it fall, I made him understand that I would
shoot and kill that bird: accordingly I fired and
bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot
fall. He stood like one frightened again, notwith-
standing all I had said to him ; and I found he was
the more amazed, because he did not see me put
anything into the gun, but thought that there must
be some wonderful fund of death and destruction
in that thing, able to kill man, beast, or bird, or
anything near or far off; and the astonishment this
created in him was such as could not wear off for
a long time; and I believe, if I would have let him,
he would have worshipped me and my gun. As for
306 THE ADVENTURES OF

the gun itself, he would not so much as touch it
for several days after; but he would speak to it, and
talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he was
by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him,
was to desire it not to kill him. Well, after his
astonishment was a little over at this, I pointed to
him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he
did, but stayed some time; for the parrot, not be-
ing quite dead, had fluttered away a good distance
from the place where she fell: however, he found
her, took her up, and brought her to me; and as
I had perceived his ignorance about the gun before,
I took this advantage to charge the gun again, and
not to let him see me do it, that I might be ready
for any other mark that might present; but nothing
more offered at that time: so I brought home the
kid, and the same evening I took the skin off, and
cut it out as well as I could; and having a pot fit
for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the
flesh, and made some very good broth. After I had
begun to eat some, I gave some to my man, who
seemed very glad of it, and liked it very well; but
that which was strangest to him was to see me eat
salt with it. He made a sign to me that the salt
was not good to eat; and putting a little into his
mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and would spit
and sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh
water after it: on the other hand, I took some
meat into my mouth without salt, and I pretended
to spit and sputter for want of salt, as fast as he
had done at the salt; but it would not do: he
ROBINSON CRUSOE 307

would never care for salt with his meat or in his
broth; at least, not for a great while, and then but
very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth,
I was resolved to feast him the next day with roast-
ing a piece of kid; this I did by hanging it before
the fire on a string, as I had seen many people do
in England, setting two poles up, one on each side
of the fire, and one across on the top, and tying
the string to the cross-stick, letting the meat turn
continually. This Friday admired very much; but
when he came to taste the flesh, he took so many
ways to tell me how well he liked it that I could
not but understand him; and at last he told me,
as well as he could, he would never eat man’s flesh
any more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some
corn out, and sifting it in the manner I used to do,
as I observed before; and he soon understood how
to do it as well as I, especially after he had seen what
the meaning of it was, and that it was to make bread
of it: for after that I let him see me make my bread,
and bake it too; and in a little time Friday was able
to do all the work for me, as well as I could do it
myself.

I began now to consider that, having two mouths
to feed instead of one, I must provide more ground
for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn
than I used to do; soI marked out a larger piece
of land, and began the fence in the same manner as
before, in which Friday worked not only very will-
308 THE ADVENTURES OF
ingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully. And

I told him what it was for: that it was for corn to
make more bread, because he was now with me, and
that I might have enough for him and myself too,
He appeared very sensible of that part, and let me
know that he thought I had much more labour
upon me on his account than I had for myself, and
that he would work the harder for me if I would
tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led
in this place. Friday began to talk pretty well,
and understand the names of almost everything
I had occasion to call for and of every place I had
to send him to, and talked a great deal to me; so
that, in short, I began now to have some use for
my tongue again, which, indeed, I had very little
occasion for before, that is to say, about speech.
Besides the pleasure of talking to him, I had
a singular satisfaction in the fellow himself: his
simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me more
and more every day, and I began really to love
the creature; and, on his side, I believe he loved
me more than it was possible for him ever to
love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any hanker-
ing inclination to his own country again ; and hav-
ing taught him English so well that he could answer
me almost any question, I asked him whether the
nation that he belonged to never conquered in bat-
tle? At which he smiled, and said, “ Yes, yes, we
always fight the better” ; that is, he meant, always
ROBINSON CRUSOE 309

get the better in fight ; and so we began the follow-
ing discourse :

Master. You always fight the better? how came
you to be taken prisoner then, Friday ?

Fripay. My nation beat much, for all that.

Master. How beat? If your nation beat them,
how came you to be taken?

Fripay. They more many than my nation in
the place where me was; they take one, two, three,
and me; my nation overbeat them in the yonder
place, where me no was; there my nation take one,
two, great thousand.

Master. But why did not your side recover
you from the hands of your enemies, then?

Fripay. They run one, two, three, and me, and
make go in the canoe; my nation have no canoe
that time.

Master. Well, Friday, and what does your
nation do with the men they take? Do they carry
them away and eat them, as these did?

Fripay. Yes, my nation eat mans too; eat all up.

Master. Where do they carry them?

Fripay. Go to other place, where they think.

Master. Do they come hither?

Fripay. Yes, yes, they come hither; come other
else place.

Master. Have you been here with them?

Fripay. Yes, I have been here. (Points to the
north-west side of the island, which, it seems, was
their side.)

By this I understood that my man Friday had
310 THE ADVENTURES OF

formerly been among the savages who used to come
on shore on the farther part of the island, on the
same man-eating occasions he was now brought for:
and some time after, when I took the courage to
carry him to that side, being the same I formerly
mentioned, he presently knew the place, and told
me he was there once when they eat up twenty men,
two women, and one child: he could not tell twenty
in English, but he numbered them by laying so
many stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell
them over.

I have told this passage because it introduces what
follows : that after I had this discourse with him, I
asked him how farit was from ourisland to the shore,
and whether the canoes were not often lost. Hetold
me there was no danger, no canoes ever lost; but
that, after a little way out to sea, there was a current
and wind, always one way in the morning, the other
in the afternoon. This I understood to be no more
than the sets of the tide, as going out or coming in:
but I afterwards understood it was occasioned by
the great draft and reflux of the mighty river Oroo-
noko, in the mouth or gulf of which river,as I found
afterwards, our island lay; and that this land which
I perceived to the west and north-west was the great
island Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth
of the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions
about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast,
and what nations were near. He told meall he kn ew,
with the greatest openness imaginable. I asked him
the names of the several nations of his sort of peo:
ROBINSON CRUSOE 311

ple, but could get no other name than Caribs; from
whence I easily understood that these were the Ca-
ribbees, which our maps place on the part of America
which reaches from the mouth of the river Oroo-
noko to Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha. He
told me that up a great way beyond the moon, that
was, beyond the setting of the moon, which must
be west from their country, there dwelt white,
bearded men, like me, and pointed to my great
whiskers, which I mentioned before ; and that they
had killed much “mans,” that was his word ; by all
which I understood he meant the Spaniards, whose
cruelties in America had been spread over the whole
country, and were remembered by all the nations,
from father to son. I inquired if he could tell me
how I might go from this island and get among
those white men ; he told me, “ Yes, yes, you may
go in two canoe.” I could not understand what he
meant, or make him describe to me what he meant
by “two canoe”’s till, at last, with great difficulty,
I found he meant it must be in a large boat, as
big as two canoes. This part of Friday’s discourse
began to relish with me very well; and from this
time I entertained some hopes that, one time or
other, I might find an opportunity to make my
escape from this place, and that this poor savage
might be a means to help me.

During the long time that Friday had now been
with me, and that he began to speak to me and
understand me, I was not wanting to lay a founda-
tion of religious knowledge in his mind ; partic-
312 THE ADVENTURES OF

ularly I asked him, one time, who made him? The
poor creature did not understand me at all, but
thought I had asked him who was his father; but
I took it up by another handle, and asked him who
made the sea, the ground we walked on, and the
hills and woods? He told me, it was one old Bena-
muckee, that lived beyond all; he could describe
nothing of this great person but that he was very
old, much older, he said, than the sea or the land,
than the moon or the stars. I asked him then, if
this old person had made all things, why did not
all things worship him? He looked very grave,and
with a perfect look of innocence said, “All things
say ‘O’ to him.” I asked him if the people who
die in his country went away anywhere? He said,
“Yes; they all went to Benamuckee.” Then J
asked him whether these they ate up went thither
too? He said, “ Yes.” From these things I began
to instruct him in the knowledge of the true God:
I told him that the great Maker of all things lived
up there, pointing up towards heaven; that he gov-~
erned the world by the same power and providence
by which he made it; that he was omnipotent, and
could do everything for us, give everything to
us, take everything from us; and thus, by degrees,
I opened his eyes. He listened with great atten-
tion, and received with pleasure the notion of Jesus
Christ being sent to redeem us, and of the man-
ner of making our prayers to God, and his being
able to hear us, even in heaven. He told me one
day that, if our God could hear us up beyond the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 313

sun, he must needs be a greater God than their
Benamuckee, who lived but a little way off, and
yet could not hear till they went up to the great
mountains where he dwelt to speak to him. I
asked him if ever he went thither to speak to him?
He said, no, they never went that were young
men; none went thither but the old men, whom
he called their Oowokakee; that is, as I made him
explain it to me, their religious, or clergy; and
that they went to say “O” (so he called saying
prayers), and then came back, and told them what
Benamuckee said. By this I observed that there is
priestcraft even among the most blinded, ignorant
pagans in the world; and the policy of making a
secret of religion, in order to preserve the venera-
tion of the people to the clergy, is not only to be
found in the Roman, but perhaps among all relig-
ions in the world, even among the most brutish
and barbarous savages.

I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man
Friday, and told him that the pretence of their old
men going up to the mountains to say “O” to their
god Benamuckee was a cheat; and their bringing
word from thence what he said was much more so;
that if they met with any answer, or spake with any
one there, it must be with an evil spirit. And then
I entered into a long discourse with him about the
Devil, the original of him, his rebellion against God,
his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting him-
self up in the dark parts of the world to be wor-
shipped instead of God, and as God, and the many
314 THE ADVENTURES OF

stratagems he made use of to delude mankind to
their ruin; how he had a secret access to our pas-
sions and to our affections, and to adapt his snares
to our inclinations, so as to cause us even to be our
Own tempters, and run upon our destruction by
our own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right no-
tions in his mind about the Devil as it was about
the being of a God; nature assisted all my arguments
to evidence to him even the necessity of a great
First Cause and overruling, governing Power, a
secret, directing Providence, and of the equity and
justice of paying homage to him that made us, and
the like; but there appeared nothing of this kind
in the notion of an evil spirit; of his original, his
being, his nature, and, above all, of his inclination
to do evil, and to draw us in to do so too; and the
poor creature puzzled me once in such a manner,
by a question merely natural and innocent, that I
scarce knew what to say to him. I had been talk~
ing a great deal to him of the power of God, his
omnipotence, his aversion to sin, his being a con-
suming fire to the workers of iniquity; how, as he
had made us all, he could destroy us and all the
world in a moment; and he listened with great se-
riousness to me all the while. After this, I had been
telling him how the Devil was God’s enemy in the
hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill to
defeat the good designs of Providence, and to ruin
the kingdom of Christ in the world, and the like.
“Well,” says Friday,“ but you say Godis so strong,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 315

so great; is he not much strong, much mightas the
Devil?” —* Yes, yes,” says I, “F riday, God is
stronger than the Devil; God is above the Devil,
and therefore we pray to God to tread him down
under our feet, and enable us to resist his tempta-~
tions, and quench his fiery darts.” “But,” says he
again, “if God much stronger, much might as the
Devil, why God no kill the Devil, so make him no
more do wicked?” I was strangely surprised at this
question ; and, after all, though I was now an old
man, yet I was but a young doctor, and ill quali-
fied for a casuist, or a solver of difficulties, and, at
first, I could not tell what to say; so I pretended
not to hear him, and asked him what he said; but
he was too earnest for an answer to forget his ques-
tion, so that he repeated it in the very same broken
words as above. By this time I had recovered my-
self.a little, and I said, “ God will at last punish
him severely ; he is reserved for the judgment, and
is to be cast into the bottomless pit, to dwell with
everlasting fire.” This did not satisfy Friday; but
he returns upon me, repeating my words, “ Reserve
at last; me no understand; but why not kill the
Devil now; not kill great ago?” —“ You may as
well ask me,” said I, “why God does not kill you
and me when we do wicked things here that offend
him. Weare preserved to repent and be pardoned.”
He mused some time on this. “ Well, well,” says
he, mighty affectionately, “that well; so you, I,
Devil, all wicked, all preserve, repent, God pardon
all.” Here I was run down again by him to the last
316 THE ADVENTURES OF

degree ; and it was a testimony to me how the mere
notions of nature, though they will guide reason-
able creatures to the knowledge of a God, and of
a worship or homage due to the supreme being
of God, as the consequence of our nature, yet no-
thing but divine revelation can form the knowledge
of Jesus Christ, and of redemption purchased for
us, of a Mediator of the new covenant, and of an
Intercessor at the footstool of God’s throne; I say,
nothing but a revelation from Heaven can form
these in the soul; and that, therefore, the gospel
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the
Word of God, and the Spirit of God, promised
for the guide and sanctifier of his people, are the
absolutely necessary instructors of the souls of men
in the saving knowledge of God, and the means of
salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse be-
tween me and my man, rising up hastily, as upon
some sudden occasion of going out ; then sending
him for something a good way off, I seriously
prayed to God that he would enable me to instruct
savingly this poor savage, assisting, by his Spirit,
the heart of the poor ignorant creature to receive
the light of the knowledge of God in Christ, re-
conciling him to himself, and would guide me to
speak so to him from the word of God as his con-
science might be convinced, his eyes opened, and
his soul saved. When he came again to me I en-
tered into a long discourse with him upon the
subject of the redemption of man by the Saviour
ROBINSON CRUSOE 317

of the world, and of the doctrine of the gospel
preached from heaven, viz., of repentance towards
God, and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus. I then
explained to him, as well as I could, why our
blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature of
angels, but the seed of Abraham; and how, for
that reason, the fallen angels had no share in the
redemption ; that he came only to the lost sheep
of the house of Israel, and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than know-
ledge in all the methods I took for this poor crea-
ture’s instruction, and must acknowledge, what I
believe all that act upon the same principle will
find, that in laying things open to him I really in-
formed and instructed myself in many things that
either I did not know, or had not fully considered
before, but which occurred naturally to my mind
upon searching into them, for the information of
this poor savage ; and I had more affection in my
inquiry after things upon this occasion than ever
I felt before, so that, whether this poor wild wretch
was the better for me or no, I had great reason to
be thankful that ever he came to me. My grief
sat lighter upon me; my habitation grew comfort-
able to me beyond measure; and when I reflected
that in this solitary life which I had been confined
to, I had not only been moved to look up to
Heaven myself, and to seek the hand that had
brought me here, but was now to be made an in-
strument, under Providence, to save the life, and,
for aught I knew, the soul, of a poor savage, and
318 THE ADVENTURES OF

bring him to the true knowledge of religion and of
the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ
Jesus, in whom is life eternal ; I say, when I re-
flected uponall these things, a secret joy ran through
every part of my soul, and I frequently rejoiced
that ever I was brought to this place, which I had
so often thought the most dreadful of all afflictions
that could possibly have befallen me.

I continued in this thankful frame all the re-
mainder of my time; and the conversation which
employed the hours between F riday and me was
such as made the three years which we lived there
together perfectly and completely happy, if any
such thing as complete happiness can be formed
in a sublunary state. This savage was now a good
Christian, a much better than I; though I have
reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we were
equally penitent, and comforted, restored peni-
tents. We had here the word of God to read, and
no farther off from his Spirit to instruct than if
we had been in England. I always applied myself,
in reading the Scriptures, to let him know, as well
as I could, the meaning of what I read ; and he
again, by his serious inquiries and questionings,
made me, as I said before, a much better scholar
in the Scripture-knowledge than I should ever have
been by my own private reading. Another thing
I cannot refrain from observing here also, from
experience in this retired part of my life, viz., how
infinite and inexpressible a blessing it is that the
Knowledge of God, and of the doctrine of salva-


ROBINSON CRUSOE 319

tion by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid down in the
word of God, so easy to be received and under-
stood, that, as the bare reading the Scripture made
me capable of understanding enough of my duty
to carry me directly on to the great work of sin-
cere repentance for my sins, and laying hold of a
Saviour for life and salvation, to a stated reforma-
tion in practice, and obedience to all God’s com-
mands, and this without any teacher or instructor,
I mean human; so, the same plain instruction suf-
ficiently served to the enlightening this savage
creature, and bringing him to be such a Christian
as I have known few equal to him in my life.

As to all the disputes, wrangling, strife, and con-
tention, which have happened in the world about
religion, whether niceties in doctrines, or schemes
of church government, they were all perfectly use-
less to us, and, for aught I can yet see, they have
been so to the rest of the world. We had the sure
guide to heaven, viz., the word of God, and we had,
blessed be God, comfortable views of the Spirit of
God teaching and instructing us by his word, lead-
ing us into all truth, and making us both willing
and obedient to the instruction of his word. And I
cannot see the least use that the greatest knowledge
of the disputed points of religion, which have made
such confusions in the world, would have been to
us, if we could have obtained it.— But I must go
on with the historical part of things, and take every
part in its order.
Fs







i] f ny i )

7 Y
Pie ae

ve

Ae Friday and I became more intimately
acquainted, and that he could understand
almost all I said to him, and speak pretty fluently,
though in broken English, to me, I acquainted him
with my own history, or at least so much of it as
related to my coming to this place: how I had lived
here, and how long; I let him into the mystery, for
such it was to him, of gunpowder and bullet, and
taught him how to shoot. I gave hima knife, which
he was wonderfully delighted with; and I made him
a belt with a frog hanging to it, such as in England
we wear hangers in; and in the frog, instead of a
hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only
as good a weapon, in some cases, but much more
useful upon other occasion.

I described to him the country of Europe, par-
ticularly England, which I came from ; how we lived,
how we worshipped God, how we behaved to one
another; and how we traded in ships to all parts
ofthe world. I gave him an account of the wreck
which I had been on board of, and showed him, as
ROBINSON CRUSOE 321

near as I could, the place where she lay; but she
was all beaten in pieces before, and gone. I showed
him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when we
escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole
strength then; but was now fallen almostall to pieces.
Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great
while, and said nothing. I asked him what it was
he studied upon? At last, says he, “ Me see such
boat like come to place at my nation.” I did not
understand him a good while; but, at last, when I
had examined farther into it, I understood by him
that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore
upon the country where he lived; that is, as he ex-
plained it, was driven thither by stress of weather.
I presently imagined that some European ship must
have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat
might get loose, and drive ashore; but was so dull
that I never once thought of men making their
escape from a wreck thither, much less whence they
might come: so I only inquired after a description
of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough;
but brought me better to understand him when he
added, with some warmth, “ We save the white
mans from drown.” Then I presently asked him if
there were any white mans, as he called them, in the
boat? “Yes,” hesaid ; “the boat full of white mans.”
T asked him how many? He told upon his fingers
seventeen. I asked him then what became of them?
He told me, “ They live, they dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I pres
322 THE ADVENTURES OF

sently imagined that these might be the men be-
longing to the ship that was cast away in the sight of
my island, as I now called it; and who, after the ship
was struck on the rock, and they saw her inevitably
lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and were
landed upon that wild shore among the savages.
Upon this, I inquired of him more critically what
was become of them; he assured me they lived still
there; that they had been there about four years;
that the savages let them alone, and gave them vict-
uals to live on. I asked him how it came to pass
they did not kill them, and eat them? He said,
“No, they make brother with them”; that is, as I
understood him,a truce; and then headded, “ They
no eat mans but when make the war fight”; that
is to say, they never eat any men but such as come
to fight with them, and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time that be-
ing upon the top of the hill, at the east side of the
island, from whence, as I have said, I had, in a clear
day, discovered the main or continent of America,
Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very
earnestly towards the main land, and in a kind of
surprise falls a-jumping and dancing, and calls out
to me, for I was at some distance from him. I asked
him what was the matter? “O joy!” says he, “O
glad! there see my country, there my nation!” J
observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure ap-
peared in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his
countenance discovered a strange eagerness, as if he
had a mind to be in his own country again. This
ROBINSON CRUSOE 323

observation of mine put a great many thoughts into
me, which made me at first not so easy about my
new man, Friday, as I was before; and I made no
doubt but that if Friday could get back to his own
nation again, he would not only forget all his relig-
ion, but all his obligation to me, and would be for-
ward enough to give his countrymen an account
of me, and come back perhaps with a hundred o1
two of them, and make a feast upon me, at which
he might be as merry as he used to be with those of
his enemies, when they were taken in war. But I
wronged the poor honest creature very much, for
which I was very sorry afterwards. However, as my
jealousy increased, and held me some weeks, I was
a little more circumspect, and not so familiar and
kind to him as before: in which I was certainly in
the wrong, too; the honest, grateful creature having
no thought about it but what consisted with the
best principles, both as a religious Christian, and
as a grateful friend, as appeared afterwards to my
full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be
sure I was every day pumping him, to seeif he would
discover any of the new thoughts which I suspected
were in him: but I found everything he said was so
honest and so innocent that I could find nothing tq
nourish my suspicion ; and, in spite of all my un.
easiness, he made meat last entirely his own again;
nor did he, in the least, perceive that I was uneasy,
and therefore I could not suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the
324 THE ADVENTURES OF

weather being hazy at sea, so that we could not see
the continent, I called to him, and said, “ Friday,
do not you wish yourself in your own country, your
own nation?” “Yes,” he said, “I be much O glad
to be at my own nation.” “ What would you do
there?” said 1; “would you turn wild again, eat
men’s flesh again, and be a savage, as you were be-
fore?” He looked full of concern, and shaking his
head, said, “ No, no; Friday tell them to live good,
tell them to pray God, tell them to eat corn-bread,
cattle-flesh, milk; no eat man again.” ‘ Why,
then,” said I to him, “they will kill you.” He
looked grave at that, and then said, “ No, no; they
no kill me, they willing love learn.” He meant by
this, they would be willing to learn. He added, they
learned much of the bearded mans that came in the
boat. Then I asked him if he would go back to
them. He smiled at that, andtold me that he could
not swim so far. I told him I would make a canoe
for him. He told me he would go if I would go
with him. “Igo?” saysI; “ why, they will eat me,
if I come there.” “No, no,” says he; “me make
they no eat you; me make they much love you.”
He meant he would tell them how I had killed his
enemies and saved his life, and so he would make
them love me. Then hetold me,as wellas he could,
how kind they were to seventeen white men, or
bearded men, as he called them, who came on shore
there in distress.

From this time I confess I had a mind to ven-
ture over, and see if I could possibly join with those
ROBINSON CRUSOE 325

bearded men, who, I made no doubt, were Span-
iards, and Portuguese: not doubting but if I could,
we might find some method to escape from thence,
being upon the continent, and a good company
together, better than I could from an island forty
miles off the shore, and alone, without help. So,
after some days, I took Friday to work again, by
way of discourse; and told him I would give him a
boat to go back to his own nation ; and accordingly
I carried him to my frigate, which lay on the other
side of the island, and having cleared it of water
(for I always kept it sunk in water) I brought it out,
showed it him, and we both went into it. I found
he was a most dexterous fellow at managing it, and
would make it go almost as swift again as I could.
So when he was in, I said to him, “ Well, now, Fri-
day, shall we go to your nation?”” He looked very
dull at my saying so; which, it seems, was because
he thought the boat too small to go so far; I then
told him I had a bigger; so the next day I went
to the place where the first boat lay which I had
made, but which I could not get intothe water. He
said that was big enough: but then, as I had taken
no care of it, and it had lain two- or three-and-
twenty years there, the sun had split and dried it,
that it was in amanner rotten. Friday told me such
a boat would do very well, and would carry “much
enough vittle, drink, bread”; that was his way of
talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon
my design of going over with him to the continent
326 THE ADVENTURES OF

that I told him we would go and make one as big
as that, and he should go home in it. He answered
not one word, but looked very grave and sad. |
asked him what was the matter with him? He asked
me again, “ Why you angry mad with Friday?
What me done?” I asked him what he meant? I
told him I was not angry with him at all. “No
angry ?”’ says he, repeating the words several times;
“why send Friday home away to my nation?”
“Why,” says I, “Friday,did not yousay you wished
you were there?”’ “Yes, yes,” says he, “wish be
both there; no wish Friday there, no master there.”
In a word, he would not think of going there with-
out me. “TI go there, Friday!” says I; ‘what shall
Ido there?” He returned very quick upon me at
this: “ You do great deal much good,” says he;
“you teach wild mans be good, sober, tame mans ;
you tell them know God, pray God, and live new
life.” “Alas! Friday,” says I, “thou knowest not
what thou sayest; I am but an ignorant man my-
self.” “Yes, yes,” says he, “you teachee me good,
you teachee them good.” “ No, no, Friday,” says
I, “you shall go without me; leave me here to live
by myself, as I did before.” He looked confused
again at that word; and running to one of the hatch-
ets which he used to wear, he takes it up hastily, and
gives it tome. “ What must I do with this?” says
I tohim. “You take kill Friday,” sayshe. “What
must I kill you for?” said Tagain, He returns very
quick, “ What you send Friday away for? Take kill
Friday, no send Friday away.” This he spoke so
ROBINSON CRUSOE 327

earnestly that I saw tears stand in his eyes; ina
word, I so plainly discovered the utmost affection in
him to me, anda firm resolution in him, that I told
him then, and often after, that I would never send
him away from me if he was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found, by all his discourse,
a settled affection to me, and that nothing should
part him from me, so I found all the foundation of
his desire to go to his own country was laid in his
ardent affection to the people, and his hopes of my
doing them good; athing, which, as I had no notion
of myself, so I had not the least thought, or inten-
tion, or desire, of undertaking it. But still I found
a strong inclination to my attempting an escape, as
above, founded on the supposition gathered from
the discourse, viz., that there were seventeen bearded
men there; and, therefore, without any more delay,
I went to work with Friday to find out a great tree
proper to.fell, and make a large periagua, or canoe,
to undertake the voyage. There were trees enough
in the island to have builta little fleet, not of peri-
aguas, or canoes, but even of good large vessels ;
but the main thing I looked at was to get one so
near the water that we might launch it when it was
made, to avoid the mistake I committed at first.
At last, Friday pitched upon a tree ; for I found he
knew much better than I what kind of wood was
fittest for it; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood
to call the tree we cut down, except that it was very
like the tree we call fustic, or between that and the
Nicaragua wood, for it was much of the same colour
328 THE ADVENTURES OF

and smell. Friday was for burning the hollow or
cavity of this tree out, to make it for a boat, but I
showed him how to cut it with tools; which, after
I had showed him how to use, he did very handily:
and in about a month’s hard labour we finished it,
and made it very handsome; especially when, with
our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we
cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of
a boat. After this, however, it cost us near a fort-
night’s time to get her along, as it were inch by
inch, upon great rollers into the water; but when
she was in, she would have carried twenty men with
great ease.

When she was in the water, and though she was
so big, it amazed me to see with what dexterity, and
how swift, my man Friday would manage her, turn
her, and paddle her along. So I asked him if he
would, and if we might, venture over in her. “Yes,”
he said, ‘we venture over in her very well, though
great blow wind.” However, I had a further de-
sign, that he knew nothing of, and that was to
make a mast and a sail, and to fit her with an an-
chor and cable. As toa mast, that was easy enough
to get: so I pitched upon a straight young cedar
tree, which I found near the place, and which there
were great plenty of in the island; and I set Fri-
day to work to cut it down, and gave him direc-
tions how to shapeand order it. But as to the sail,
that was my particular care. I knew I had old sails,
or rather pieces of old sails, enough ; but as I had
had them now six-and-twenty years by me, and
IN ABOUT A MONTH’S HARD LABOR WE FINISHED IT


ROBINSON CRUSOE 329

had not been very careful to preserve them, not
imagining that I should ever have this kind of use
for them, I did not doubt but they were all rotten,
and, indeed, most of them were so. However, I
found two pieces, which appeared pretty good, and
with these I went to work; and with a great deal
of pains, and awkward stitching, you may be sure,
for want of needles, I, at length, made a three-
cornered ugly thing, like what we call in England
a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at
bottom, and a little short sprit at the top, such as
usually our ship’s long-boats sail with, and such as
I best knew how to manage, as it was such a one
I had to the boat in which I made my escape from
Barbary, as related in the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last
work, viz., rigging and fitting my mast and sails;
for I finished them very complete, making a small
stay, and a sail, or foresail, to it, to assist if we
should turn to windward; and, which was more
than all, I fixed a rudder to the stern of her to steer
with. I was but a bungling shipwright, yet, as I
knew the usefulness, and even necessity, of such
a thing, I applied myself with so much pains to do
it that at last I brought it to pass; though, con-
sidering the many dull contrivances I had for it that
failed, I think it cost me almost as much labour
as making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday
to teach as to what belonged to the navigation of
my boat; for, though he knew very well how to
330 THE ADVENTURES OF

paddle a canoe, he knew nothing what belonged
to a sail and a rudder; and was the most amazed
when he saw me work the boat to and again in the
sea by the rudder, and how the sail gibed, and
filled this way, or that way, as the course we sailed
changed; I say, when he saw this, he stood like
one astonished and amazed. However, with a lit-
tle use, I made all these things familiar to him,
and he became an expert sailor, except that, as to
the compass, I could make him understand very
little of that. On the other hand, as there was very
little cloudy weather, and seldom or never any fogs
in those parts, there was the less occasion for a
compass, seeing the stars were always to be seen
by night, and the shore by day, except in the rainy
seasons, and then nobody cared to stir abroad,
either by land or sea.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth
year of my captivity in this place; though the
three last years that I had this creature with me
ought rather to be left out of the account, my hab-
itation being quite of another kind than in all the
rest of the time. I kept the anniversary of my
landing here with the same thankfulness to God
for his mercies as at first: and if I had such cause
of acknowledgment at first, I had much more so
now, having such additional testimonies of the care
of Providence over me, and the great hopes I had
of being effectually and speedily delivered ; for I
had an invincible impression upon my thoughts
that my deliverance was at hand, and that I should
ROBINSON CRUSOE 33%

not be another year in this place. I went on, how-
ever, with my husbandry, digging, planting, and
fencing, as usual. I gathered and cured my grapes,
and did every necessary thing as before.

The rainy season was, in the mean time, upon
me, when I kept more within-doors than at other
times. We had stowed our own vessel as secure as
we could, bringing her up into the creek, where,
as I said in the beginning, I landed my rafts from
the ship; and hauling her up to the shore, at high-
water mark, | made my man Friday dig a little
dock, just big enough to hold her, and just deep
enough to give her water enough to float in; and
then, when the tide was out, we made a strong
dam across the end of it, to keep the water out;
and so she lay dry, as to the tide, from the sea;
and to keep the rain off, we laid a great many
boughs of trees, so thick that she was as well
thatched as a house; and thus we waited for the
months of November and December, in which I
designed to make my adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as
the thought of my design returned with the fair
weather, I was preparing daily for the voyage, and
the first thing I did was to lay by a certain quan-
tity of provisions, being the stores for our voyage;
and intended, in a week or a fortnight’s time, to
open the dock, and launch out our boat. I was
busy one morning upon something of this kind
when I called to Friday, and bid him go to the
sea-shore, and see if he could find a turtle, or tor-
332 THE ADVENTURES OF

toise, a thing which we generally got once a week,
for the sake of the eggs as well as the flesh. Fri-
day had not been long gone when he came run-
ning back, and flew over my outer wall, or fence,
like one that felt not the ground, or the steps he
set his feet on; and before I had time to speak to
him, he cries out to me, “O master! O master! O
sorrow! O bad!” “What’s the matter, Friday?”
says I. “O yonder, there,” says he, “one, two,
three canoe: one, two, three!” By this way of
speaking I concluded there were six; but, on in-
quiry, I found it was but three, “ Well, Friday,”
says I, “do not be frightened!” So I heartened
him up as well as I could; however, I saw the poor
fellow was most terribly scared; for nothing ran in
his head but that they were come to look for him,
and would cut him in pieces, and eat him; and the
poor fellow trembled so that I scarce knew what
to do with him. I comforted him as well as I could,
and told him I was in as much danger as he, and
that they would eat me as well as him. “ But,” says
I, “ Friday, we must resolve to fight them. Can
you fight, Friday?” “Me shoot,” says he; “but
there come many great number.” “No matter
for that,” said I, again, “ our guns will fright them
that we do not kill.’”” So I asked him whether, if I
resolved to defend him, he would defend me, and
stand by me; and do just as I bid him. He said,
“Me die, when you bid die, master.”” So I went
and fetched a good dram of rum and gave him ; for
I had been so good a husband of my rum that I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 333

had a great deal left. When he drank it, I made
him take the two fowling-pieces, which we always
carried, and loaded them with large swan-shot, as
big as small pistol-bullets; then I took four mus-
kets, and loaded them with two slugs and five small
bullets each; and my two pistols I loaded with a
brace of bullets each; I hung my great sword, as
usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet.
When I had thus prepared myself, I took my per-
spective glass, and went up to the side of the hill,
to see what I could discover ; and I found quickly,
by my glass, that there were one-and-twenty sav-
ages, three prisoners, and three canoes; and that
their whole business seemed to be the triumphant
banquet upon these three human bodies; a bar-
barous feast indeed ! but nothing more than, as I
had observed, was usual with them. I observed also
that they were landed, not where they had done
when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my
creek, where the shore was low, and where a thick
wood came almost close down to the sea. This,
with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these
wretches came about, filled me with such indigna-
tion that I came down again to Friday, and told
him I was resolved to go down to them and kill
them all; and asked him if he would stand by me.
He had now got over his fright, and his spirits
being a little raised with the dram I had given him,
he was very cheerful, and told me, as before, he
would die when I bid die.

In this fit of fury, I took and divided the arms
334 THE ADVENTURES OF

which I had charged, as before, between us: I gave
Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle, and three
guns upon his shoulder; and I took one pistol, and
the other three guns myself; and in this posture we
marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my
pocket, and gave Friday a large bag with more
powder and bullets; and, as to orders, I charged
him to keep close behind me, and not to stir, or
shoot, or do anything, till I bid him; and, in the
mean time, not to speak a word. In this posture,
I fetched a compass to my right hand of near a
mile, as well to get over the creek as to get into the
wood, so that I might come within shot of them
before I should be discovered, which I had seen, by
my glass, it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former
thoughts returning, I began to abate my resolu-
tion: I do not mean that I entertained any fear of
their number; for, as they were naked, unarmed
wretches, it is certain I was superior to them; nay,
though I had been alone. But it occurred to my
thoughts, what call, what occasion, much less what
necessity I was in, to go and dip my hands in blood,
to attack people who had neither done nor intended
me any wrong; who, as to me, were innocent, and
whose barbarous customs were their own disaster;
being, in them, a token indeed of God’s having left
them, with the other nations of that part of the
world, to such stupidity, and to such inhuman
courses; but did not call me to take upon me to be
a judge of their actions, much less an executioner of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 335

his justice ; that, whenever he thought fit, he would
take the cause into his own hands, and, by national
vengeance, punish them, as a people, for national
crimes ; but that, in the mean time, it was none of
my business ; that, it was true, Friday might justify
it, because he was a declared enemy, and in a state
of war with those very particular people, and it was
lawful for him to attack them; but I could not say
the same with respect to myself. These things were
so warmly pressed upon my thoughts all the way as
I went that I resolved I would only go and place
myself near them, that I might observe their
barbarous feast, and that I would act then as God
should direct: but that, unless something offered
that was more a call to me than yet I knew of, I
would not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and,
with: all possible wariness and silence, Friday fol-
lowing close at my heels, I marched till I came to
the skirt of the wood, on the side which was next
to them, only that one corner of the wood lay be-
tween me and them. Here I called softly to Friday,
and showing him a great tree, which was just at the
corner of the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and
bring me word if he could see there plainly what
they were doing. He did so, and came immediately
back to me, and told me they might be plainly
viewed there; that they were all about their fire,
eating the flesh of one of their prisoners, and that
another lay bound upon the sand, alittle from them,
which, he said, they would kill next, and which fired
336 ROBINSON CRUSOE

all the very soul within me. He told me it was not
one of their nation, but one of the bearded men he
had told me of, that came to their country in the
boat. I was filled with horror at the very naming
the white, bearded man ; and, going to the tree, |
saw plainly, by my glass, a white man, who lay upon
the beach of the sea, with his hands and his feet tied
with flags, or things like rushes, and that he was an
European, and had clothes on,

There was another tree, and a little thicket be-
yond it, about fifty yards nearer to them than the
place where I was, which, by going a little way about,
I saw I might come at undiscovered, and that then
I should be within half a shot of them; so I with-
held my passion, though I was indeed enraged to
the highest degree ; and going back about twenty
paces, I got behind some bushes, which held all the
way till I came to the other tree ; and then came to
a little rising ground, which gave mea full view of
them, at the distance of about eighty yards.


I HAD now not a moment to lose, for nineteen
of the dreadful wretches sat upon the ground,
all close-huddled together, and had just sent the
other two to butcher the poor Christian, and bring
him, perhaps, limb by limb, to their fire; and they
were stooping down to untie the bands at his feet.
I turned to Friday — “Now, Friday,” said I, “do
as I bid thee.” Friday said he would. “Then, Fri-
day,” says I, “do exactly as you see me do; fail
in nothing.” So I set down one of the muskets
and the fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday
did the like by his; and with the other musket I
took my aim at the savages, bidding him to do the
like; then asking him if he was ready, he said,
“Yes.” “Then fire at them,” said I; and the
same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I that
on the side that he shot, he killed two of them,
and wounded three more ; and on my side, I killed
one and wounded two. They were, you may be
sure, in a dreadful consternation; and all of them
338 THE ADVENTURES OF

who were not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did
not immediately know which way to run, or which
way to look, for they knew not from which their
destruction came. Friday kept his eyes close upon
me that, as I had bid him, he might observe what
I did; so, as soon as the first shot was made, I
threw down the piece, and took up the fowling-
piece, and Friday did the like: he saw me cock and
present ; he did the same again. “Are you ready,
Friday?” said I. “ Yes,” says he. “ Let fly, then,”
says I, “in the name of God!” And with that, I
fired again among the amazed wretches, and so did
Friday ; and as our pieces were now loaden with
what I called swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we
found only two drop, but so many were wounded
that they ran about yelling and screaming like mad
creatures, all bloody, and most of them miserably
wounded, whereof three more fell quickly after,
though not quite dead.

“Now, Friday,” says I, laying down the dis-
charged pieces, and taking up the musket which
was yet loaden, “follow me”; which he did, with
a great deal of courage; upon which I rushed out
of the wood, and showed myself, and F riday close
at my foot. As soon as I perceived they saw me,
I shouted as loud as I could, and bade Friday do
so too; and running as fast as I could, which, by
the way, was not very fast, being loaded with arms
as I was, I made directly towards the poor victim,
who was, as I said, lying upon the beach, or shore,
between the place where they sat and the sea. The
ROBINSON CRUSOE 339

two butchers, who were just going to work with
him, had left him at the surprise of our first fire,
and fled ina terrible fright to the sea-side, and had
jumped into a canoe, and three more of the rest
made the same way. I turned to Friday, and bade
him step forwards and fireat them; he understood
me immediately, and running about forty yards,
to be nearer them, he shot at them, and I thought
he had killed them all, for I saw them all fall of
a heap into the boat, though I saw two of them up
again quickly; however, he killed two of them, and
wounded the third, so that he lay down in the
bottom of the boat as if he had been dead.
While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out
my knife, and cut the flags that bound the poor
victim ; and loosing his hands and feet, I lifted him
up, and asked him in the Portuguese tongue, what
he was. He answered in Latin, “ Christianus”’ ;
but was so weak and faint that he could scarce stand
or speak. I took my bottle out of my pocket, and
gave it him, making signs that he should drink,
which he did; and I gave him a piece of bread,
which he ate. Then I asked him what countryman
he was, and he said, “ Espagniole” ; and being a
little recovered, let me know, by all the signs he
could possibly make, how much he was in my debt
for his deliverance. ‘ Signor,” said I, with as much
Spanish as I could make up, “we will talk after-
wards, but we must fight now: if you have any
strength left, take this pistol and sword, and lay
about you.” He took them very thankfully ; and
340 THE ADVENTURES OF

no sooner had he the arms in his hands but, as if
they had put new vigour into him, he flew upon his
murderers like a fury, and had cut two of them in
pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as the whole
was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures were
so much frightened with the noise of our pieces
that they fell down for mere amazement and fear,
and had no more power to attempt their own es-
cape than their flesh had to resist our shot; and
that was the case of those five that Friday shot at
in the boat; for as three of them fell with the hurt
they received, so the other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand, still without firing,
being willing to keep my charge ready, because |
had given the Spaniard my pistol and sword; so
I called to Friday, and bade him run up to the
tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the arms
which lay there that had been discharged, which
he did with great swiftness ; and then giving him
my musket, I sat down myself to load all the rest
again, and bade them come to me when they
wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there
happened a fierce engagement between the Spaniard
and one of the savages, who made at him with one
of their great wooden swords, the same-like weapon
that was to have killed him before, if I had not
prevented it. The Spaniard, who was as bold and
brave as could be imagined, though weak, had
fought this Indian a good while, and had cut him
two great wounds on his head; but the savage, being
a stout, lusty fellow, closing in with him, had
ROBINSON CRUSOE 341

thrown him down, being faint, and was wringing
my sword out of his hand; when the Spaniard,
though undermost, wisely quitted the sword, drew
the pistol from his girdle, shot the savage through
the body, and killed him upon the spot, before I,
who was running to help him, could come near
him.

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the
flying wretches with no weapon in his hand but
his hatchet ; and with that he dispatched those
three, who, as I said before, were wounded at first,
and fallen, and all the rest he could come up with;
and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave
him one of the fowling-pieces, with which he pur-
sued two of the savages, and wounded them both;
but, as he was not able to run, they both got from
him into the wood, where Friday pursued them,
and killed one of them, but the other was too
nimble for him ; and though he was wounded, yet
had plunged himself into the sea, and swam, with
all his might, off to those two who were left in the
canoe, which three in the canoe, with one wounded,
that we knew not whether he died or no, were all
that escaped our hands of one-and-twenty. The
account of the whole is as follows: three killed at
our first shot from the tree ; two killed at the next
shot ; two killed by Friday in the boat; two killed
by Friday of those at first wounded ; one killed by
Friday in the wood; three killed by the Spaniard ;
four killed, being found dropped here and there
of their wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase
34.2 THE ADVENTURES OF

of them; four escaped in the boat, whereof one
wounded, if not dead, — twenty-one in all.
Those that were in the canoe worked hard to
get out of gunshot, and though Friday made two
or three shots at them, I did not find that he hit
any of them. Friday would fain have had me take
one of their canoes and pursue them; and indeed,
I was very anxious about their escape, lest, carry-
ing the news home to their people, they should
come back perhaps with two or three hundred of
the canoes, and devour us by mere multitude ; so
I consented to pursue them by sea, and running
to one of their canoes, I jumped in and bade Fri-
day follow me ; but when I was in the canoe, I was
surprised to find another poor creature lie there,
bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the
slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not knowing
what was the matter, for he had not been able to
look up over the side of the boat, he was tied so
hard neck and heels, and had been tied so long
that he had really but little life in him. I immedi- ©
ately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they
had bound him with, and would have helped him
up; but he could not stand or speak, but groaned
most piteously, believing, it seems, still, that he was
only unbound in order to be killed. When Friday
came to him, I bade him speak to him, and tell him
of his deliverance; and, pulling out my bottle, made
him give the poor wretch a dram; which, with the
news of his being delivered, revived him, and he sat
up in the boat. But when Friday came to hear him
ROBINSON CRUSOE 343

speak, and look in his face, it would have moved
any one into tears to have seen how Friday kissed
him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed,
hallooed, jumped about, danced, sung; then cried
again, wrung his hands, beat his own face and head ;
and then sung and jumped about again, like a dis-
tracted creature. It was a good while before I could
make him speak to me, or tell me what was the
matter; but when he came a little to himself, he
told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me
to see what ecstasy and filial affection had worked
in this poor savage at the sight of his father, and
of his being delivered from death; nor, indeed, can
I describe half the extravagancies of his affection
after this ; for he went into the boat and out of the
boat a great many times; when he went in to him,
he would sit down by him, open his breast, and
hold his father’s head close to his bosom for many
minutes together, to nourish it; then he took his
arms and ankles, which were numbed and stiff with
the binding, and chafed and rubbed them with his
hands; and I, perceiving what the case was, gave
him some rum out of my bottle to rub them with,
which did them a great deal of good.

This affair put an end to our pursuit of the canoe
with the other savages, who were got now almost
out of sight; and it was happy for us that we did
not, for it blew so hard within two hours after,and
before they could be got a quarter of their way,
and continued blowing so hard all night, and that
344 THE ADVENTURES OF

from the north-west, which was against them, that
I could not suppose their boat could live, or that
they ever reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday: he was so busy about
his father that I could not find in my heart to take
him off for some time; but after I thought he could
leave him a little, I called him to me, and he came
jumping and laughing, and pleased to the highest
extreme. Then I asked him if he had given his
father any bread. He shook his head, and said,
“None; ugly dog eat all up self.” I then gave him
a cake of bread, out of a little pouch I carried on
purpose ; I also gave him a dram for himself, but
he would not taste it, but carried it to his father. I
had in my pocket two or three bunches of raisins,
so I gave him a handful of them for his father. He
had no sooner given his father these raisins but I
saw him come out of the boat, and run away as if
he had been bewitched, he ran at such a rate; for
he was the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever |
saw; I say, he ran at such a rate that he was out
of sight, as it were, in an instant; and though I
called and hallooed out, too, after him, it was all
one, away he went; and in a quarter of an hour |
saw him come back again, though not so fast as he
went; and as he came nearer, I found his pace
slacker, because he had something in his hand.
When he came up to me, I found he had been
quite home for an earthen jug, or pot, to bring his
father some fresh water, and that he had two more
cakes or loaves of bread. The bread he gave me,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 345

but the water he carried to his father; however, as
I was very thirsty too, I took a little sup of it.
The water revived his father more than all the
rum or spirits I had given him, for he was just
fainting with thirst.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to
know if there was any water left ; he said “ Yes ue
and I bade him give it to the poor Spaniard, who
was in as much want of it as his father ; and I sent
one of the cakes that Friday brought to the Span-
iard, too, who was indeed very weak, and was re-
posing himself upon a green place under the shade
of a tree ; and whose limbs were also very stiff, and
very much swelled with the rude bandage he had
been tied with. When I saw that, upon Friday’s
coming to him with the water, he sat up and drank,
and took the bread, and began to eat, I went to him
and gave him a handful of raisins: he looked up in
my face with all the tokens of gratitude and thank-
fulness that could appear in any countenance; but
was so weak, notwithstanding he had so exerted
himselfin the fight, that he could not stand up upon
his feet; he tried to do it two or three times, but
was really not able, his ankles were so swelled and
so painful to him; so I bade him sit still, and caused
Friday to rub his ankles,and bathe them with rum,
as he had done his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every
_ two minutes, or perhaps less, all the while he was
here, turn his head about to see if his father was
in the same place and posture as he left him sit-
346 THE ADVENTURES OF

ting; and at last he found he was not to be seen; at
which he started up, and, without speaking a word,
flew with that swiftness to him that one could scarce
perceive his feet to touch the ground as he went ;
but when he came, he only found he had laid him-
self down to ease his limbs, so Friday came back to
me presently ; and then I spoke to the Spaniard to
let Friday help him up, if he could, and lead him
to the boat, and then he should carry him to our
dwelling, where I would take care of him. But Fri-
day, a lusty strong fellow, took the Spaniard quite
up upon his back, and carried him away to the boat,
and set him down softly upon the side or gunnel
of the canoe, with his feet in the inside of it; and
then, lifting him quite in, he set him close to his
father; and presently stepping out again, launched
the boat off, and paddled it along the shore faster
thanI could walk, though the wind blew pretty hard
too; so he brought them both safe into our creek,
and leaving them in the boat, ran away to fetch the
other canoe. As he passed me, I spoke to him, and
asked him whither he went. He told me, “Go fetch
more boat ”’; so away he went like the wind, for sure
never man or horse ran like him; and he had the
other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I got to
it by land; so he wafted me over, and then went to
help our new guests out of the boat, which he did;
but they were neither of them able to walk, so that
poor Friday knew not what to do.

To remedy this, I went to work in my thought,
and calling to Friday to bid them sit down on the


LOOSING HIS HANDS AND FEET I LIFTED HIM UP
ROBINSON CRUSOE 347

bank while he came to me, I soon made a kind
of a hand-barrow to lay them on, and F riday and I
carried them both up together-upon it, between us.
But when we got them to the outside of our wall,
or fortification, we were at a worse loss than before,
for it was impossible to get them over, and I was
resolved not to break it down. So I set to work
again; and Friday and I, in about two hours’ time,
made a very handsome tent, covered with old sails,
and above that with boughs of trees, being in the
space without our outward fence, and between that
and the grove of young wood which I had planted;
and here we made them two beds of such things as
I had, ‘viz., of good rice-straw, with blankets laid
upon it, to lie on, and another, to cover them, on
each bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought my-
self rich in subjects; and it was a merry reflection,
which I frequently made, how like a king I looked.
First of all, the whole country was my own mere
property, so that I had an undoubted right of do-
minion. Secondly, my people were perfectly sub-
jected; I was absolutely lord and lawgiver; they all
owed their lives to me, and were ready to lay down
their lives, if there had been occasion for it, for me.
It was remarkable, too, I had but three subjects,
and they were of three different religions; my man
Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Pagan and
a cannibal, and the Spaniard was a Papist; however,
I allowed liberty of conscience throughout my
dominions. —But this is by the way.
348 THE ADVENTURES OF

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued
prisoners, and given them shelter, and a place to
rest them upon, I began to think of making some
provision for them; and the first thing I did, I or-
dered Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid
and a goat, out of my particular flock, to be killed;
when I cut off the hinder quarter, and chopping it
into small pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling
and stewing, and made them a very good dish, I as-
sure you, of flesh and broth, having put some bar-
ley and rice also into the broth. And as I cooked
it without-doors, for I made no fire within my inner
wall, so I carried it all into the new tent, and hav-
ing set a table there for them, I sat down, and ate
my dinner also with them, and, as well as I could,
cheered them, and encouraged them. Friday was
my interpreter, especially to his father, and, indeed,
to the Spaniard too; for the Spaniard spoke the
language of the savages pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered
Friday to take one of the canoes, and go and fetch
our muskets and other fire-arms, which, for want of
time, we had left upon the place of battle; and, the
next day, I ordered him to go and bury the dead
bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun,
and would presently be offensive. I also ordered
him to bury the horrid remains of their barbarous
feast, which I knew were pretty much, and which
I could not think of doing myself; nay, I could
not bear to see them, if I went that way; all which
he punctually performed, and effaced the very ap-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 349

pearance of the savages being there; so that when
I went again, I could scarce know where it was,
otherwise than by the corner of the wood pointing
to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation
with my two subjects: and, first, I set F riday to
inquire of his father what he thought of the escape
of the savages in that canoe, and whether we might
expect a return of them, with a power too great for
us to resist. His first opinion was, that the savages
in the boat could never live out the storm which
blew that night they went off, but must of necess-
ity be drowned, or driven south to those other
shores, where they were as sure to be devoured as
they were to be drowned, if they were cast away ;
but, as to what they would do, if they came safe on
shore, he said he knew not; but it was his opinion
that they were so dreadfully frightened with the
manner of their being attacked, the noise, and the
fire, that he believed they would tell the people
they were all killed by thunder and lightning, not
by the hand of man; and that the two which
appeared, viz., Friday and I, were two heavenly
spirits, or furies, come down to destroy them, and
not men with weapons. This, he said, he knew;
because he heard them all cry out so, in their lan-
guage, one to another; for it was impossible for
them to conceive that a man could dart fire, and
speak thunder, and kill at a distance, without lift-°
ing up the hand, as was done now; and this old
Savage was in the right; for, as I understood since,
350 THE ADVENTURES OF

by other hands, the savages never attempted to go
over to the island afterwards, they were so terrified
with the accounts given by those four men (for, it
seems, they did escape the sea) that they believed
whoever went to that enchanted island would be
destroyed by fire from the gods. This, however, I
knew not; and therefore was under continual ap-
prehensions for a good while, and kept always upon
my guard, with all my army: for as there were now
four of us, I would have ventured upon a hundred
of them, fairly in the open field, at any time.

Ina little time, however, no more canoes appear-
ing, the fear of their coming wore off; and I began
to take my former thoughts of a voyage to the main
into consideration; being likewise assured, by Fri-
day’s father, that I might depend upon good usage
from their nation, on his account, if I would go.
But my thoughts were a little suspended when I
had a serious discourse with the Spaniard, and when
I understood that there were sixteen more of his
countrymen and Portuguese, who, having been cast
away and made their escape to that side, lived there
at peace, indeed, with the savages, but were very
sore put to it for necessaries, and indeed for life.
I asked him all the particulars of their voyage, and
found they were a Spanish ship, bound from the
Rio de la Plata to the Havanna, being directed to
leave their loading there, which was chiefly hides
and silver, to bring back what European goods
they could meet with there; that they had five Por-
tuguese seamen on board, whom they took out of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 351

another wreck; that five of their own men were
drowned, when first the ship was lost, and that
these escaped through infinite dangers and hazards,
and arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal coast,
where they expected to have been devoured every
moment. He told me they had some arms with
them, but they were perfectly useless, for that they
had neither powder nor ball, the washing of the sea
having spoiled all their powder but a little, which
they used at their first landing, to provide them-
selves some food.

I asked what he thought would become of them
there, and if they had formed no design of making
any escape. He said they had many consultations
about it; but that having neither vessel, nor tools
to build one, nor provisions of any kind, their coun-
cils always ended in tears and despair. I asked him
how he thought they would receive a proposal from
me, which might tend towards an escape; and
whether, if they were all here, it might not be done.
I told him, with freedom, I. feared mostly their
treachery and ill usage of me, if I put my life in
their hands, for that gratitude was no inherent
virtue in the nature of man, nor did men always
square their dealings by the obligations they had
received, so much as they did by the advantages
they expected. I told him it would be very hard
that I should be the instrument of their deliver-
ance, and that they should afterwards make me
their prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman
was certain to be made a sacrifice, what necessity or
352 THE ADVENTURES OF

what accident soever brought him thither; and that
I had rather be delivered up to the savages, and
be devoured alive, than fall into the merciless claws
of the priests, and be carried into the Inquisition.
I added, that otherwise I was persuaded, if they
were all here, we might, with so many hands, build
a bark large enough to carry us all away, either
to the Brazils, southward, or to the islands, or
Spanish coast, northward; but that if, in requital,
they should, when I had put weapons into their
hands, carry me by force among their own people,
I might be ill used for my kindness to them, and
make my case worse than it was before.

He answered, with a great deal of candour and
ingenuousness, that their condition was so misera-
ble, and they were so sensible of it, that he believed
they would abhor the thought of using any man
unkindly that should contribute to their deliver-
ance; and thatif I pleased, he would goto them with
the old man, and discourse with them about it, and
return again, and bring me their answer; that he
would make conditions with them, upon their sol-
emn oath, that they should be absolutely under my
leading, as their commander and captain ; and that
they should swear, upon the holy sacraments and
gospel, to be true to me, and go to such Christian
country as that I should agree to, and no other,
and to be directed wholly and absolutely by my
orders, till they were landed safely in such country
as I intended ; and that he would bring a contract
from them, under their hands, for that purpose.


ROBINSON CRUSOE 353

Then he told me he would first swear to me him-
self that he would never stir from me as long as he
lived, till I gave him orders ; and that he would take
my side to the last drop of his blood, if there should
happen the least breach of faith among his country-
men. He told me they were all of them very civil,
honest men, and they were under the greatest distress
imaginable, having neither weapons, nor clothes,
nor any food, but at the mercy and discretion of
the savages; out of all hopes of ever returning to
their own country; and that he was sure, if I would
undertake their relief, they would liveand die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to
relieve them, if possible, and to send the old savage
and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But when
we had got all things in readiness to go, the Spaniard
himself started an objection, which had so much
prudence in it, on one hand, and so much sincerity,
on the other hand, that I could not but be very well
satisfied in it; and, by his advice, put off the de-
liverance of his comrades for at least half a year.
The case was thus: He had been with us now about
a month, during which time I had let him see in what
manner I had provided, with the assistance of Pro-
vidence, for my support, and he saw evidently what
stock of corn and rice I had laid up ; which, though
it was more than sufficient for myself, yet it was not
sufficient, without good husbandry, for my family,
now it was increased to four; but much less would
it be sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he
said, sixteen, still alive, should come over ; and least
354. THE ADVENTURES OF

of all would it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if
we should build one, for a voyage to any of the
Christian colonies of America; so he told me he
thought it would be more advisable to let him and
the other two dig and cultivate some more land,
as much as I could spare seed to sow, and that we
should wait another harvest, that we might have a
supply ofcorn for his countrymen, when they should
come ; for want might be a temptation to them to
disagree, or not to think themselves delivered, other-
wise than out of one difficulty into another. “You
know,” says he, “the children of Israel, though
they rejoiced at first for their being delivered out
of Egypt, yet they rebelled even against God him-
self, that delivered them, when they came to want
bread in the Wilderness.” His caution was so sea-
sonable, and his advice so good, that I could not but
be very well pleased with his proposal, as well as
I was satisfied with his fidelity : so we fell to dig-
ging, all four of us, as well as the wooden tools we
were furnished with permitted; and in about a
month’s time, by the end of which it was seed-time,
we had got as much land cured and trimmed up as
we sowed two-and-twenty bushels of barley on, and
sixteen jars of rice ; which was, in short, all the seed
we had to spare: nor, indeed, did we leave ourselves
barely sufficient for our own food for the six months
that we had to expect our crop; that is to say,
reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for
sowing; for it is not to be supposed it is six months
in the ground in that country.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 355

Having now society enough, and our number
being sufficient to put us out of fear of the sav-
ages, if they had come, unless their number had
been very great, we went freely all over the island,
whenever we found occasion : and as here we had
our escape or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was
impossible, at least for me, to have the means of it
out of mine. For this purpose, I marked out sev-
eral trees which I thought fit for our work, and I
set Friday and his father to cutting them down;
and then I caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted
my thought on that affair, to oversee and direct
their work. I showed them with what indefatigable
pains I had hewed a large tree into single planks,
and I caused them to do the like, till they had made
about a dozen large planks of good oak, near two
feet broad, thirty-five feet long, and from two inches
to four inches thick ; what prodigious labour it took
up, any one may imagine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my
little flock of tame goats as much as I could; and,
for this purpose, I made Friday and the Spaniard
go out one day, and myself with Friday the next
day (for we took our turns), and by this means we
got about twenty young kids to breed up with the
rest ; for whenever we shot the dam, we saved the
kids, and added them to our flock. But, above all,
the season for curing the grapes coming on, I caused
such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun
that I believe, had we been at Alicant, where the
raisins of the sun are cured, we could have filled
356 THE ADVENTURES OF

sixty or eighty barrels ; and these, with our bread,
was a great part of our food, and was very good
living, too, I assure you, for it is exceedingly nour-
ishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order:
it was not the most plentiful increase I had seen in
the island, but, however, it was enough to answer
our end; for from twenty-two bushels of barley we
brought in and threshed out above two hundred
and twenty bushels, and the like in proportion of
the rice: which was store enough for our food to
the next harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards
had been on shore with me; or if we had been ready
for a voyage, it would very plentifully have vict-
ualled our ship to have carried us to any part of the
world, that is to say, any part of America. When
we had thus housed and secured our magazine of
corn, we fell to work to make more wicker-ware,
viz., great baskets in which we kept it; and the
Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at this part,
and often blamed me that I did not make some
things for defence of this kind of work; but I saw
no need of it.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the
guests I expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go
over to the main, to see what he could do with
those he had left behind him there. I gave hima
strict charge not to bring any man with him who
would not first swear, in the presence of himself
and the old savage, that he would no way injure,
fight with, or attack the person he should find in


ROBINSON CRUSOE 357

the island, who was so kind as to send for them in
order to their deliverance; but that they would
stand by him, and defend him against all such at-
tempts, and wherever they went would be entirely
under and subjected to his command; and that this
should be put in writing and signed with their hands.
How they were to have done this, when I knew
they had neither pen nor ink, was a question which
we never asked. Under these instructions, the
Spaniard and the old savage, the father of F riday,
went away in one of the canoes which they might
be said to come in, or rather were brought in, when
they came as prisoners to be devoured by the sav-
ages. I gave each of thema musket, witha firelock
onit, and about eight charges of powder and ball,
charging them to be very good husbands of both,
and not to use either of them but upon urgent oc~
casions.

This wasacheerful work, being the first measures
used by me, in view of my deliverance, for now
twenty-seven years and some days. I gave them
provisions of bread, and of dried grapes, sufficient
for themselves for many days, and sufficient for all
the Spaniards for about eight days’ time ; and wish-
ing them a good voyage, I saw them go ; agreeing
with them about a signal they should hang out at
their return, by which I should know them again,
when they came back, at a distance, before they
came on shore. They went away with a fair gale,
on the day that the moon was at full, by my ac-
count in the month of October ; but as for an exact
358 THE ADVENTURES OF

reckoning of days, after I had once lost it, I could :
never recover it again; nor had I kept even the |
number of years so punctually as to be sure I was |
right; though, as it proved, when I afterwards 4
examined my account, I found I had kept a true _
reckoning of years. E

It was no less than eight days I had waited for ||
them, when a strange and unforeseen accident —
intervened, of which the like has not perhaps been ~
heard of in history. I was fast asleep in my hutch
one morning, when my man Friday came running
in to me, and called aloud, ‘“‘ Master, master, they —
are come, they are come!”’ I jumped up, and, re- 4
gardless of danger, I went out as soon as I could q
get my clothes on, through my little grove, which, —
by the way, was by this time grown to bea very —
thick wood; I say, regardless of danger, I went q
without my arms, which it was not my custom to —
do; but I was surprised, when, turning my eyes —
to the sea, I presently saw a boat about a league —
and a half distance, standing in for the shore, with —
a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the
wind blowing pretty fairto bring them in; also I obk |
served presently that they did not come from that |
side which the shore lay on, but from the southern- |
most end of the island. Upon this, I called Friday 7
in, and bade him lie close, for these were not the —
people we looked for, and that we might not know 4
yet whether they were friends or enemies. In the ©
next place, I went in to fetch my perspective glass, —
to see what I could make of them; and having ~


ROBINSON CRUSOE 359

taken the ladder out, I climbed up to the top of
the hill, as I used to do when I was apprehensive
of anything, and to take my view the plainer with-
out being discovered. I had scarce set my foot
upon the hill, when my eye plainly discovered a
ship lying at an anchor, at about two leagues and
a half distance from me, SSE., but not above a
league and a half from the shore. By my observa-
tion, it appeared plainly to be an English ship, and
the boat appeared to be an English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though
the joy of seeing a ship, and one that I had reason
to believe was manned by my own countrymen,
and, consequently, friends, was such as I cannot de-
scribe; but yet I had some secret doubts hang about
me —I cannot tell from whence they came, bid-
ding me to keep upon my guard. Inthe first place,
it occurred to me to consider what business an ~
English ship could have in that part of the world,
since it was not the way to or from any part of the
world where the English had any traffic; and I
knew there had been no storms to drive them in
there, as in distress; and that if they were really
English, it was most probable that they were here
upon no good design ; and that I had better con-
tinue as I was than fall into the hands of thieves
and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices
of danger, which sometimes are given him when
he may think there is no possibility of its being
real. That such hints and notices are given us, I
360 THE ADVENTURES OF

believe few that have made any observations of
things can deny ; that they are certain discoveries
of an invisible world, and a converse of spirits, we
cannot doubt ; and if the tendency of them seems
to be to warn us of danger, why should we not
suppose they are from some friendly agent (whether
supreme, or inferior and subordinate, is not the
question), and that they are given for our good?

The present question abundantly confirms me
in the justice of this reasoning ; for had I not been
made cautious by this secret admonition, come it
from whence it will, I had been undone inevitably,
and in a far worse condition than before, as you
will see presently. I had not kept myself long in
this posture but I saw the boat draw near the
shore, as if they looked for a creek to thrust in at,
for the convenience of landing; however, as they
did not come quite far enough, they did not see
the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts,
but run their boat on shore upon the beach, at
about half a mile from me, which was very happy
for me; for otherwise they would have landed just
at my door, as I may say, and would soon have
beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps have plun-
dered me of all I had. When they were on shore,
I was fully satisfied they were Englishmen, at least
most of them; one or two I thought were Dutch,
but it did not prove so; there were in all eleven
men, whereof three of them I found were un-
armed, and, as I thought, bound; and when the
first four or five of them were jumped on shore,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 361

they took those three out of the boat as prisoners;
one of the three I could perceive using the most
passionate gestures of entreaty, affliction, and de-
spair, even to a kind of extravagance; the other
two, I could perceive, lifted up their hands some-
times, and appeared concerned, indeed, but not to
such a degree as the first. I was perfectly con-
founded at the sight, and knew not what the mean-
ing of it should be. Friday called out to me in
English, as well as he could, “O master! you see
English mans eat prisoner as well as savage mans.”
“Why, Friday,” says I, “do you think they are
going to eat them?” “Yes,” says Friday, “ they
will eat them.” “No, no,” says I, “ Friday; I am
afraid they will murder them, indeed, but you may
be sure they will not eat them.”

All tkis while I had no thought of what the mat-
ter.really was, but stood trembling with the horror
of the sight, expecting every moment when the
three prisoners should be killed; nay, once I saw
one of the villains lift up his arm with a great cut-
lass, as the seamen call it, or sword, to strike one
of the poor men; and I expected to see him fall
every moment; at which all the blood in my body
seemed to run chill in my veins. I wished heartily
now for my Spaniard, and the savage that was gone
with him, or that I had any way to have come un-
discovered within shot of them, that I might have
rescued the three men, for I saw no fire-arms they
had among them: but it fell out to my mind an-
other way. After I had observed the outrageous
362 ROBINSON CRUSOE

usage of the three men by the insolent seamen, |
observed the fellows run scattering about the island,
as if they wanted to see the country. I observed
that the three other men had liberty to go also
where they pleased; but they sat down all three
upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like
men in despair. This put me in mind of the first
time when I came on shore, and began to look
about me: how I gave myself over for lost ; how
wildly I looked around me; what dreadful appre-
hensions I had; and how I lodged in the tree all
night, for fear of being devoured by wild beasts.
As I knew nothing that night of the supply I was
to receive by the providential driving of the ship
nearer the land by the storms and tide, by which I
have since been so long nourished and supported, | —
so these three poor desolate men knew nothing | _
how certain of deliverance and supply they were, |
how near it was to them, and how effectually and |
really they were in acondition of safety, at the same |
time that they thought themselves lost, and their |
case desperate. So little do we see before us in the
world, and so much reason have we to depend
cheerfully upon the great Maker of the world, |
that he does not leave his creatures so absolutely |
destitute but that, in the worst circumstances, they |
have always something to be thankful for, and |
sometimes are nearer their deliverance than they |
imagine; nay, are even brought to their deliver- |
ance by the means by which theyseem to bebrought |”
to their destruction.




oie ee

=



T was just at the top of high water when these
I people came on shore; and partly while they
rambled about to see what kind of a place they
were in, they had carelessly stayed till the tide was
spent, and the water was ebbed considerably away,
leaving their boat aground. They had left two men
in the boat, who, as I found afterwards, having drunk
a little too much brandy, fell asleep; however, one
of them waking a little sooner than the other, and
finding the boat too fast aground for him to stir
it, hallooed out for the rest, who were straggling
about ; upon which they all soon came to the boat:
but it was past all their strength to launch her, the
boat being very heavy, and the shore on that side
being a soft oozy sand, almost like a quicksand. In
this condition, like true seamen, who are perhaps
the least of all mankind given to forethought, they
gave it over, and away they strolled about the
country again ; and I heard one of them say aloud
to another, calling them off from the boat, “ Why,
let her alone, Jack, can’t you? she’ll float next
364 THE ADVENTURES OF

tide”: by which I was fully confirmed in the main
inquiry of what countrymen they were. All this
while I kept myself very close, not once daring to
stir out of my castle, any farther than to my place
of observation, near the top of the hill; and very
glad I was to think how well it was fortified. I
knew it was no less than ten hours before the boat
could float again, and by that time it would be
dark, and I might be at more liberty to see their
motions, and to hear their discourse, if they had
any. In the mean time, I fitted myself up for a bat-
tle, as before, though with more caution, knowing
I had to do with another kind of enemy than I had
at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had made
an excellent marksman with his gun, to load him-
self with arms. I took myself two fowling-pieces,
and I gave him three muskets. My figure, indeed,
was very fierce; I had my formidable goats’-skin
coat on, with the great cap I have mentioned, a
naked sword by my side, two pistols in my belt,
and a gun upon each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have
made any attempt till it was dark: but about two
o'clock, being the heat of the day, I found that, in
short, they were all gone straggling into the woods,
and as I thought, laid down to sleep. The three
poor distressed men, too anxious for their condi-
tion to get any sleep, were, however, sat down under
the shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter of a
mile from me, and, as I thought, out of sight of any
of the rest. Upon this I resolved to discover myself


ROBINSON CRUSOE 365

to them, and learn something of their condition ;
immediately I marched in the figure as above, my
man Friday at a good distance behind me, as for-
midable for his arms as I, but not making quite so
staring a spectre-like figure as I did. I came as near
them undiscovered as I could, and then, before any
of them saw me, I called aloud to them in Spanish,
“What are ye, gentlemen?” They started up at the
noise; but were ten times more confounded when
they saw me, and the uncouth figure that I made.
They made no answer at all, but I thought I per-
ceived them just going to fly from me, when I spoke
to them in English: “Gentlemen,” said I, “do not
be surprised at me; perhaps you may have a friend
near, when you did not expect it.” ‘He must be
sent directly from Heaven then,” said one of them
very gravely to me, and pulling off his hat at the
same time to me; “for our condition is past the
help of man.” “All help is from Heaven, sir,”
said I. “ But can you puta stranger in the way how
to help you? for you seem to be in some great dis-
tress. I saw you when you landed; and when you
seemed to make supplication to the brutes that came
with you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to
kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face,
and trembling, looking like one astonished, re-
turned, “ Am I talking to God or man? Is it a real
man or an angel?” “Be in no fear about that,
sir,” said I; “if God had sent an angel to relieve
you, he would have come better clothed, and armed
366 THE ADVENTURES OF

after another manner than you see me: pray lay
aside your fears; | am a man, an Englishman, and
disposed to assist you: you see I have one servant
only; we have arms and ammunition; tell us freely,
can we serve you? What is your case?” “Our
case,” said he, “sir,is too long to tell you, while our
murderers are so near us; but, in short, sir, I was
commander of that ship, my men have mutinied
against me; they have been hardly prevailed on not
to murder me; and at last have set me on shore in
this desolate place, with these two men with me, one
my mate, the other a passenger, where we expected
to perish, believing the place to be uninhabited, and
know not yet what to think of it.”’ “Where are
these brutes, your enemies?” said I. “ Do you know
where they are gone?” “There they lie, sir,”’ said
he, pointing to a thicket of trees; “my heart trem-
bles for fear they have seen us,and heard you speak;
if they have, they will certainly murder us all.”
“ Have they any fire-arms?”’ said I. He answered
they had only two pieces, one of which they left in
the boat. “Well, then,” said I, “leave the rest to
me; I see they are all asleep,it is an easy thing to
kill them all: but shall we rather take them pris-
oners?”” He told me there were two desperate vil-
lains among them, that it was scarce safe to show
any mercy to; but if they were secured, he believed
all the rest would return to their duty. I asked him
which they were? He told me he could not at that
distance distinguish them, but he would obey my
orders in anything I would direct. “ Well,” says f
T ARE YE, GENTLEMEN ?




ROBINSON CRUSOE 367

“Jet us retreat out of their view or hearing, lest they
awake, and we will resolve further.” So they will-
ingly went back with me, till the woods covered us
from them.

“ Look you, sir,” said I, “if I venture upon
your deliverance, are you willing to make two con-
ditions with me?” He anticipated my proposals,
by telling me that both he and the ship, if recoy-
ered, should be wholly directed and commanded
by me in everything; and, if the ship was not
recovered, he would live and die with me in what
part of the world soever I would send him ; and
the two other men said the same. “ Well,” says I,
“my conditions are but two: first, that while you
stay in this island with me, you will not pretend
to any authority here; and if I put arms in your
hands, you will, upon all occasions, give them up
to me, and do no prejudice to me or mine upon
this island, and, in the mean time, be governed by
my orders: secondly, that if the ship is, or may be
recovered, you will carry me and my man to Eng-
land, passage free.”

He gave meall the assurances that the invention
or faith of man could devise that he would com-
ply with these most reasonable demands ; and, be-
sides, would owe his life to me, and acknowledge it
upon all occasions, as long as he lived. “Well,
then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you, with
powder and ball: tell me next what you think is
Proper to be done.” He showed me all the testi-
monies of his gratitude that he was able, but offered

>
368 THE ADVENTURES OF

to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it
was hard venturing anything; but the best method
I could think of was to fire upon them at once, as
they lay, and if any was not killed at the first vol-
ley, and offered to submit, we might save them,
and so put it wholly upon God’s providence to
direct the shot. He said very modestly that he was
loath to kill them, if he could help it: but that
those two were incorrigible villains, and had been
the authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if
they escaped, we should be undone still; for they
would go on board and bring the whole ship’s com-
pany, and destroy us all. “ Well then,” says I, “ ne-
cessity legitimates my advice, for it is the only way
to save our lives.” However, seeing him still cau-
tious of shedding blood, I told him they should go
themselves and manage as they found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of
them awake, and soon after we saw two of them
on their feet. I asked him if either of them were
the heads of the mutiny? He said, “ No.” “Well
then,” said I, “you may let them escape; and Provi-
dence seems to have awakened them on purpose to
save themselves. Now,” says I, “if the rest escape
you, it is your fault.” Animated with this, he took
the musket I had given him in his hand, and a pis-
tol in his belt, and his two comrades with him, with
each a piece in his hand; the two men who were
with him going first, made some noise, at which one
of the seamen who was awake turned about, and
seeing them coming, cried out to the rest; but it
ROBINSON CRUSOE 369

was too late then, for the moment he cried out
they fired ; I mean the two men, the captain wisely
reserving his own piece. They had so well aimed
their shot at the men they knew, that one of them
was killed on the spot, and the other very much
wounded ; but not being dead, he started up on his
feet and called eagerly for help to the others; but
the captain, stepping to him, told him it was too
late to cry for help, he should call upon God to for-
give his villainy ; and with that word knocked him
down with the stock of his musket, so that he never
spoke more; there were three more in the company,
and one of them was also slightly wounded. By this
time I was come; and when they saw their danger,
and that it was in vain to resist, they begged for
mercy. The captain told them he would spare their
lives, if they would give him any assurance of their
abhorrence of the treachery they had been guilty of,
and would swear to be faithful to him in recover-
ing the ship, and afterwards in carrying her back to
Jamaica, from whence they came. They gave him
all the protestations of their sincerity that could be
desired, and he was willing to believe them, and
spare their lives, which I was not against, only that
I obliged him to keep them bound hand and foot
while they were on the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the cap-
tain’s mate to the boat, with orders to secure her,
and bring away the oars and sails, which they did:
and by and by the three straggling men, that were
(happily for them) parted from the rest, came back
370 THE ADVENTURES OF

upon hearing the guns fired, and seeing the captain,
who before was their prisoner, now their conqueror,
they submitted to be bound also; and so our vic-
tory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should
inquire into one another’s circumstances: I began
first, and told him my whole history, which he heard
with an attention even to amazement; and particu-
larly at the wonderful manner of my being furnished
with provisions and ammunition; and, indeed, as
my story is a whole collection of wonders, it affected
him deeply. But when he reflected from thence upon
himself, and how I seemed to have been preserved
there on purpose to save his life, the tears ran down
his face,and he could not speak a word more. After
this communication was at an end, I carried him and
his two men into my apartment, leading them in
just where I came out, viz., at the top of the house,
where I refreshed them with such provisions as I
had, and showed them all the contrivances I had
made, during my long, long inhabiting that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was per-
fectly amazing; but, above all, the captain admired
my fortification, and how perfectly I had concealed
my retreat with a grove of trees, which, having been
now planted near twenty years, and the trees grow-
ing much faster than in England, was becomea little
wood, and so thick that it was impassable in any
part of it but at that one side where I had reserved
my little winding passage into it. I told him this
was my castle and my residence, but that I had a
ROBINSON CRUSOE 371

seat in the country, as most princes have, whither I
could retreat upon occasion, and I would show him
that too another time; but at present our business
was to consider how to recover the ship. He agreed
with me as to that; but told me he was perfectly at
a loss what measures to take, for that there were still
six-and-twenty hands on board, who, having entered
into a cursed conspiracy, by which they had all for-
feited their lives to the law, would be hardened in it
now by desperation,and would carry it on, knowin
that, if they were subdued, they would be brought
to the gallows as soon as they came to England, or
to any of the English colonies; and that, therefore,
there would be no attacking them with so small a
number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said,
and found it was a very rational conclusion, and that,
therefore, something was to be resolved on speedily,
as well to draw the men on board into some snare
for their surprise, as to prevent their landing upon
us, and destroying us. Upon this, it presently oc-
curred to me that in a little while the ship’s crew,
wondering what was become of their comrades, and
of the boat, would certainly come on shore in their
other boat, to look for them; and that then, perhaps,
they might come armed, and be too strong for us:
this he allowed to be rational. Upon this, I told him
the first thing we had to do was to stave the boat,
which lay upon the beach, so that they might not
carry her off; and taking everything out of her,
leave her so far useless as not to be fit to swim: ac-
372 THE ADVENTURES OF

cordingly we went on board, took the arms which
were left on board out of her, and whatever else we
found there, which was a bottle of brandy, and an-
other of rum, a few biscuit cakes, a horn of pow-
der, and a great lump of sugar ina piece of canvas
(the sugar was five or six pounds); all which was
very welcome to me, especially the brandy and sugar,
of which I had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore
(the oars, mast, sail, and rudder of the boat were car-
ried away before, as above), we knocked a great hole
in her bottom, that if they had come strong enough
to master us, yet they could not carry off the boat.
Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we
could be able to recover the ship; but my view was,
that if they went away without the boat, I did not
much question to make her fit again to carry us to
the Leeward Islands, and call upon our friends the
Spaniards in my way; for I had them still in my
thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and
had first, by main strength, heaved the boat upon
the beach so high that the tide would not float her
off at high-water mark, and besides had brokea hole
in her bottom too big to be quickly stopped, and
were set down musing what we should do, we heard
the ship fire a gun, and saw her make a waft with her
ensignas a signal for the boat to come on board: but
no boatstirred; and they fired several times, making
other signals for the boat. At last, when all their
signals and firing proved fruitless, and they found
ROBINSON CRUSOE 373

the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help of my
glasses, hoist another boat out, and row towards the
shore; and we found, as they approached, that there
were no less than ten men in her, and that they had
fire-arms with them.

Astheship lay almost two leagues from theshore,
we had a full view of them as they came, and a plain
sight even of their faces; because the tide having set
them alittle to the east of the other boat, they rowed
up under shore, to come to the same place where the
other had landed, and where the boat lay; by this
means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the cap-
tain knew the persons and characters ofall the men
in the boat, of whom, he said, there were three very
honest fellows, who, he was sure, were led into this
conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and fright-
ened; but that, as for the boatswain, who, it seems,
was the chief officer among them, and all the rest,
they were as outrageous as any of the ship’s crew,
and were no doubt made desperate in their new en-
terprise; and terribly apprehensive he was that they
would be too powerful for us. I smiled at him, and
told him that men in our circumstances were past
the operation of fear; that seeing almost every con-
dition that could be was better than that which we
were supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the
consequence, whether death or life, would be sure
to bea deliverance. I asked him what he thought of
the circumstances of my life, and whether a deliver-
ance were not worth venturing for? “ And where,
sir,” said I, “is your belief of my being preserved
374 THE ADVENTURES OF

here on purpose to save your life, which elevated
you a little while ago; for my part,” said I, “there
seems to me but one thing amiss in all the prospect
of it.” “What is that?” sayshe. “Why,” says I, “it
is, that as you say there are three or four honest
fellows among them, which should be spared;
had they been all of the wicked part of the crew,
I should have thought God’s providence had
singled them out to deliver them into your hands ;
for, depend upon it, every man that comes ashore
are our own, and shall die or live as they behave to
us.” As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheer-
ful countenance, I found it greatly encouraged
him ; so we set vigorously to our business.

We had, upon the first appearance of the boat’s
coming from the ship, considered of separating our
prisoners; and we had, indeed, secured them ef-
fectually. Two of them, of whom the captain was
less assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday, and
one of the three delivered men, to my cave, where
they were remote enough, and out of danger of
being heard or discovered, or of finding their way
out of the woods if they could have delivered them-
selves: here they left them bound, but gave them
provisions ; and promised them, if they continued
there quietly, to give them their liberty in a day
or two; but that, if they attempted their escape,
they should be put to death without mercy. They
promised faithfully to bear their confinement with
patience, and were very thankful that they had such
good usage as to have provisions and light left
ROBINSON CRUSOE 375

them; for Friday gave them candles (such as we
made ourselves) for their comfort; and they did
not know but that he stood sentinel over them at
the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage: two of
them were kept pinioned, indeed, because the
captain was not free to trust them; but the other
two were taken into my service, upon the captain’s
recommendation, and upon their solemnly engag-
ing to live and die with us; so with them and the:
three honest men we were seven men well armed;
and I made no doubt we should be able to deal
well enough with the ten that were coming, con-
sidering that the captain had said that there were
three or four honest men among them also. As
soon as they got to the place where their other boat
lay, they ran their boat into the beach, and came
on shore, hauling the boat up after them, which I
was glad to see; for I was afraid they would rather
have left the boat at an anchor, some distance from
the shore, with some hands in her to guard her,
and so we should not be able to seize the boat.
Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran
all to their other boat ; and it was easy to see they
were under a great surprise to find her stripped, as
above, of all that was in her, and a great hole in
her bottom. After they had mused a while upon
this, they set up two or three great shouts, halloo-
ing with all their might, to try if they could make
their companions hear; but all was to no purpose;
then they came all close in a ring, and fired a vol-
376 THE ADVENTURES OF

ley of their small arms, which, indeed, we heard,
and the echoes made the woods ring; but it was
all one: those in the cave we were sure could not
hear; and those in our keeping, though they heard
it well enough, yet durst give no answer to them,
They were so astonished at the surprise of this,
that, as they told us afterwards, they resolved to
go all on board again to their ship, and let them
know that the men were all murdered, and the
long-boat staved ; accordingly, they immediately
launched their boat again, and got all of them on
board.

The captain was terribly amazed and even con-
founded at this, believing they would go on board
the ship again, and set sail, giving their comrades
over for lost, and so he should still lose the ship,
which he was in hopes we should have recovered ;
but he was quickly as much frightened the other
way.

They had not been long put off with the boat
but we perceived them all coming on shore again;
but with this new measure in their conduct, which
it seems they consulted together upon, viz., to leave
three men in the boat and the rest to go on shore,
and go up into the country to look for their fel-
lows. This was a great disappointment to us, for
now we were at a loss what to do; as our seizing
those seven men on shore would be no advantage
tous, if we let the boat escape ; because they would
then row away to the ship, and then the rest of
them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so
ROBINSON CRUSOE Ss]

our recovering the ship would be lost. However,
we had no remedy but to wait and see what the
issue of things might present. The seven mencame
on shore, and the three who remained in the boat
put her off to a good distance from the shore, and
came to an anchor to wait for them: so that it was
impossible for us to come at them in the boat.
Those that came on shore kept close together,
marching towards the top of the little hill under
which my habitation lay ; and we could see them
plainly, though they could not perceive us. We
could have been very glad they would have come
nearer to us, so that we might have fired at them,
or that they would have gone farther off, that we
might have comeabroad. But when they were come
to the brow of the hill, where they could see a great
way into the valleys and woods, which lay towards
the north-east part, and where the island lay low-
est, they shouted and hallooed till they were weary ;
and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the
shore, nor far from one another, they sat down
together under a tree, to consider it. Had they
thought fit to have gone to sleep there as the other
part of them had done, they had done the job for
us; but they were too full of apprehensions of dan-
ger to venture to go to sleep, though they could not
tell what the danger was they had to fear neither.

The captain made a very just proposal to me
upon this consultation of theirs, viz., that perhaps
they would all fire a volley again, to endeavour to
make their fellows hear, and that we should all sally
378 THE ADVENTURES OF

upon them, just at the juncture when their pieces
were all discharged, and they would certainly yield,
and we should have them without bloodshed. I
liked this proposal, provided it was done while we
were near enough to come up to them before they
could load their pieces again. But this even did not
happen; and we lay still a long time, very irre-
solute what course to take. At length I told them
there would be nothing done, in my opinion, till
night; and then, if they did not return to the boat,
perhaps we might find a way to get between them
and the shore, and so might use some stratagem
with them in the boat to get them on shore. We
waited a great while, though very impatient for
their removing; and were very uneasy, when, after
long consultations, we saw them all start up, and
march down towards the sea: it seems they had
such dreadful apprehensions upon them of the
danger of the place that they resolved to go on
board the ship again, give their companions over
for lost, and so go on with their intended voyage
with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them to go towards the
shore, I imagined it to be, as it really was, that they
had given over their search, and were for going back
again; and the captain, as soon as I told him my
thoughts, was ready to sink at the apprehensions
of it: but I presently thought ofa stratagem to fetch
them back again, and which answered my end toa
tittle. I ordered Friday and the captain’s mate to
go over the little creek westward, towards the place
ROBINSON CRUSOE 379

where the savages came on shore when Friday was
rescued, and as soon as they came toa little rising
ground, at about half a mile distance, I bade them
halloo out, as loud as they could, and wait till they
found the seamen heard them; that as soon as ever
they heard the seamen answer them, they should
return it again ; and then keeping out of sight, take
a round, always answering when the others hallooed,
to draw them as far into the island, and among the
woods, as possible, and then wheel about again to
me, by such ways as I directed them.

They were just going into the boat when Friday
and the mate hallooed: and they presently heard
them, and answering, run along the shore westward,
towards the voice they heard, when they were pre-
sently stopped by the creek, where the water being
up, they could not get over, and called for the boat
to come up and set them over; as, indeed, I ex-
pected. When they had set themselves over, I ob-
served that the boat being gone a good way into the
creek, and, as it were, in a harbour within the land,
they took one of the three men out of her, to go
along with them, and left only two in the boat, hav-
ing fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the
shore. This was what I wished for; and immedi-
ately leaving Friday and the captain’s mate to their
business, I took the rest with me, and crossing the
creek out of their sight, we surprised the two men
before they were aware; one of them lying on the
shore, and the other being in the boat. The fellow
on shore was between sleeping and waking, and
380 THE ADVENTURES OF

going to start up; the captain, who was foremost,
ran in upon him, and knocked him down; and then
called out to him in the boat to yield, or he was
a dead man. There needed very few arguments to
persuade a single man to yield, when he saw five
men upon him, and his comrade knocked down;
besides, this was, it seems, one of the three who were
not so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew,
and therefore was easily persuaded not only to yield,
but afterwards to join very sincerely with us. In the
mean time, Friday and the captain’s mate so well
managed their business with the rest that they drew
them, by hallooing and answering, from one hill to
another, and from one wood to another, till they
not only heartily tired them, but left them where
they were very sure they could not reach back to
the boat before it was dark; and, indeed, they were
heartily tired themselves also, by the time they came
back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them
in the dark, and to fall upon them, so as to make
sure work with them. It was several hours after
Friday came back to me before they came back to
their boat; and we could hear the foremost of them,
long before they came quite up, calling to those
behind to come along; and could also hear them
answer, and complain howlame and tired they were,
and not able to come any faster, which was very
welcome news to us. At length they came up to the
boat: but it is impossible to express their confusion
when they found the boat fast aground in the creek,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 381

the tide ebbed out, and their two men gone. We
could hear them call to one another in a most
lamentable manner, telling one another they were
got into an enchanted island: that either there were
inhabitants in it, and they should all be murdered,
or else there were devils and spirits in it, and they
should be all carried away and devoured. They
hallooed again, and called their two comrades by
their names a great many times; but no answer.
After some time, we could see them, by the little
light there was, run about, wringing their hands like
men in despair ; and that sometimes they would go
and sit down in the boat, to rest themselves ; then
come ashore again, and walk about again, and so the
same thing over again. My men would fain have
had me give them leave to fall upon them at once
in the dark; but I was willing to take them at some
advantage, so to spare them, and kill as few of them
as I could ; and especially I was unwilling to hazard
the killing any of our men, knowing the others were
very well armed. I resolved to wait, to see if they
did not separate ; and, therefore, to make sure of
them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered
Friday and the captain to creep upon their hands
and feet, as close to the ground as they could, that
they might not be discovered, and get as near them
as they could possibly, before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when
the boatswain, who was the principal ringleader of
the mutiny, and had now shown himself the most
dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walking
382 THE ADVENTURES OF

towardsthem, withtwomoreof the crew: the captain
was so eager at having this principal rogue so much
in his power that he could hardly have patience to
let him come so near as to be sure of him, for they
only heard his tongue before: but when they came
nearer, the captain and Friday, starting up on their
feet, let fly at them. The boatswain was killed upon
the spot; the next man was shot in the body, and
fell just by him, though he did not die till an hour
or two after; and the third ran for it. At the noise
of the fire, I immediately advanced with my whole
army, which was now eight men, viz., myself, gen-
eralissimo ; Friday, my lieutenant-general ; the cap-
tain and his two men, and the three prisoners of
war, whom we had trusted with arms. We came
upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that they could
not see our number; and I made the man they had
left in the boat, who was now one of us, to call them
by name, to try if I could bring them to a parley,
and so might perhaps reduce them to terms; which
fell out just as we desired : for, indeed, it was easy
to think,as their condition then was, they would be
willing to capitulate. So he calls out, as loud as he
could, to one of them,“Tom Smith! Tom Smith!”
Tom Smith answered immediately, “Is that Rob-
inson?” For it seems he knew the voice. The other
answered, “Aye, aye; for God’s sake, Tom Smith,
throw down your arms and yield, or you are all
dead men this moment.” “Who must we yield to?
Where are they?” says Smith again. “Here they
are,” says he; “here’s our captain and fifty men
ROBINSON CRUSOE 383

with him, have been hunting you these two hours:
the boatswain is killed, Will Fry is wounded, and
I am a prisoner; and if you do not yield you are
all lost.” ‘Will they give us quarter then,” says
Tom Smith, “and we will yield?” “I will go ask
if you promise to yield,” says Robinson: so he asked
the captain; and the captain himself then calls out,
“You, Smith, you know my voice; if you lay down
your arms immediately,and submit, you shall have
your lives,all but Will Atkins.”


Le this Will Atkins cried out, “For God’s
sake, captain, give me quarter ; what have I
done? They have al] been as bad as I”: which, by
the way, was not true neither; for, it seems, this
Will Atkins was the first man that laid hold of the
captain when they first mutinied, and used him
barbarously, in tying his hands, and giving him
injurious language. However, the captain told him
he must lay down his arms at discretion, and trust
to the governor’s mercy: by which he meant me,
for they all called me governor. Ina word, they
all laid down their arms, and begged their lives;
and I sent the man that had parleyed with them,
and two more, who bound them all; and then my
great army of fifty men, which, particularly with
those three, were in all but eight, came up and
seized upon them, and upon their boat; only that
I kept myself and one more out of sight for reasons
of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and think
of seizing the ship: and as for the captain, now he
ROBINSON CRUSOE 385

had leisure to parley with them, he expostulated
with them upon the villainy of their practices with
him, and at length upon the further wickedness of
their design, and how certainly it must bring them
to misery and distress in the end, and perhaps to
the gallows. They all appeared very penitent, and
begged hard for their lives. As for that, he told
them they were none of his prisoners, but the com-
mander’s of the island; that they thought they had
set him on shore on a barren, uninhabited island;
but it had pleased God so to direct them, that it was
inhabited, and that the governor was an English-
man; that he might hang them all there, if he
pleased ; but as he had given them all quarter, he
supposed he would send them to England, to be
dealt with there as justice required, except Atkins,
whom he was commanded by the governor to
advise to prepare for death, for that he would be
hanged in the morning.

Though all this was but a fiction of his own, yet
it had its desired effect: Atkins fell upon his knees,
to beg the captain to intercede with the governor
for his life; and all the rest begged of him, for God’s
sake, that they might not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our
deliverance was come, and that it would be a most
easy thing to bring these fellows in to be hearty in
getting possession of the ship; so I retired in the
dark from them, that they might not see what kind
of a governor they had, and called the captain to
me: when I called, as at a good distance, one of the
386 THE ADVENTURES OF

men was ordered to speak again, and say to the cap-
tain, “ Captain, the commander calls for you”; and
presently the captain replied, “Tell his excellency
I am just a-coming.” This more perfectly amused
them, and they all believed that the commander
was just by with his fifty men. Upon the captain’s
coming to me, I told him my project for seizing
the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and re-
solved to put it in execution the next morning,
But, in order to execute it with more heart, and to
be secure of success, I told him we must divide the
prisoners, and that he should go and take Atkins
and two more of the worst of them, and send them
pinioned to the cave where the others lay. This
was committed to Friday and the two men who
came on shore with the captain. They conveyed
them to the cave as toa prison: and it was, indeed,
a dismal place, especially to men in their condition.
The others I ordered to my bower, as I called it, of
which I have given a full description: and as it was
fenced in, and they pinioned, the place was secure
enough, considering they were upon their behaviour.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who
was to enter into a parley with them ; in a word, to
try them, and tell me whether he thought they
might be trusted or no to go on board and sur-
prise the ship. He talked to them of the injury
done him, of the condition they were brought to,
and that though the governor had given them quar-
ter for their lives as to the present action, yet that
if they were sent to England, they would all be
ROBINSON CRUSOE 387

hanged in chains, to be sure; but that if they would
join in so just an attempt as to recover the ship,
he would have the governor’s engagement for their
pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal
would be accepted by men in their condition; they
fell down on their knees to the captain, and pro-
mised, with the deepest imprecations, that they
would be faithful to him to the last drop, and that
they should owe their lives to him, and would go
with him all over the world; that they would own
him as a father as long as they lived. “Well,” says
the captain, “I must go and tell the governor what
you say, and see what I can do to bring him to con-
sent to it.” Sohe brought mean account of the tem-
per he found them in, and that he verily believed |
they would be faithful. However, that we might be
_very secure, I told him he should go back again and
choose out those five, and tell them that they might
see he did not want men, that he would take out
those five to be his assistants, and that the gov-
ernor would keep the other two, and the three that
were sent prisoners to the castle (my cave) as host-
ages for the fidelity of those five; and that if they
proved unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages
should be hanged in chains alive on the shore. This
looked severe, and convinced them that the gov-
ernor was in earnest: however, they had no way left
them but to accept it; and it was now the business
of the prisoners, as much as of the captain, to per-
suade the other five to do their duty.
388 THE ADVENTURES OF

Our strength was now thus ordered for the ex-
pedition: first, the captain, his mate, and passenger;
second, the two prisoners of the first gang, to whom,
having their character from the captain, I had given
their liberty, and trusted them with arms; third,
the other two that I had kept till now in my bower
Pinioned, but, on the captain’s motion, had now
released ; fourth, these five released at last; so that
they were twelve in all, besides five we kept pris-
oners in the cave for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture
with these hands on board the ship: but as for me
and my man Friday, I did not think it was proper
for us to stir, having seven men left behind; and
it was employment enough for us to keep them
asunder, and supply them with victuals. As to the
five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but
Friday went in twice a day to them, to supply them
with necessaries ; and I made the other two carry
provisions to a certain distance, where F riday was
to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it
was with the captain, who told them I was the person
the governor had ordered to look after them; and
that it was the governor’s pleasure they should not
stir anywhere but by my direction ; that if they did,
they would be fetched into the castle, and be laid
in irons: so that as we never suffered them to see
me as a governor, I now appeared as another per-
son, and spoke of the governor, the garrison, the
castle, and the like, upon all occasions,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 389

The captain now had no difficulty before him
but to furnish his two boats, stop the breach of one,
and man them. He made his passenger captain of
one, with four of the men; and himself, his mate,
and five more, went in the other; and they con-
trived their business very well, for they came up to
the ship about midnight. As soon as they came
within call of the ship, he made Robinson hail them,
and tell them they had brought off the men and
the boat, but that it was a long time before they
had found them, and the like, holding them in a
chat till they came to the ship’s side; when the cap-
tain and the mate, entering first, with their arms,
immediately knocked down the second mate and
carpenter with the butt end of their muskets, being
very faithfully seconded by their men; they secured
all the rest that were upon the main and quarter
decks, and began to fasten the hatches, to keep them
down that were below; when the other boat and
their men, entering at the fore-chains, secured the
forecastle of the ship, and the scuttle which went
down into the cook-room, making three men they
found there prisoners. When this was done, and all
safe upon deck, the captain ordered the mate, with
three men, to break into the round-house, where
the new rebel captain lay, who, having taken the
alarm, had got up, and with two men and a boy
had got fire-arms in their hands; and when the mate,
with a crow, split open the door, the new captain
and his men fired boldly among them, and wounded
the mate with a musket-ball, which broke his arm,
390 THE ADVENTURES OF

and wounded two more of the men, but killed no-
body. The mate, calling for help, rushed, however,
into the round-house, wounded as he was, and with
his pistol shot the new captain through the head,
the bullet entering at his mouth, and came out again
behind one of his ears, so that he never spoke a
word more: upon which the rest yielded, and the
ship was taken effectually, without any more lives
lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured the captain
ordered seven guns to be fired, which was the
signal agreed upon with me to give me notice of
his success, which you may be sure I was very glad
to hear, having sat watching upon the shore for it
till near two o’clock in the morning. Having thus
heard the signal plainly, I laid me down; and it
having been a day of great fatigue to me, I slept
very sound, till I was something surprised with the
noise of a gun; and presently starting up, I heard
a man call me by the name of “ Governor, Gov-
ernor,” and presently I knew the captain’s voice ;
when climbing up to the top of the hill, there he
stood, and pointing to the ship he embraced me in
his arms, “ My dear friend and deliverer,” says he,
“there ’s your ship, for she is all yours, and so are
we, and all that belong to her.” I cast my eyes to
the ship, and there she rode within a little more
than half a mile of the shore ; for they had weighed
her anchor as soon as they were masters of her, and
the weather being fair, had brought her toananchor
just against the mouth of the little creek ; and the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 391

tide being up, the captain had brought the pinnace
in near the place where I had first landed my rafts,
and so landed just at my door. I was at first ready
to sink down with surprise; for I saw my deliver-
ance, indeed, visibly put into my hands, all things
easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away
whither] pleased to go. At first, for some time, I was
not able to answer him one word; but as he had
taken me in his arms,I held fast by him, orI should
have fallen to the ground. He perceived the sur-
prise, and immediately pulls a bottle out of his
pocket, and gave me a dram of cordial, which he
had brought on purpose for me. After I had drank
it, I sat down upon the ground; and though it
brought me to myself, yet it was a good while
before I could speak a word to him. All this time
the poor man was in as great an ecstasy as I, only
not under any surprise, as I was; and he said a
thousand kind and tender things to me, to com-
pose and bring me to myself: but such was the
flood of joy in my breast that it put all my spirits
into confusion: at last it broke out into tears ; and
in a little while after I recovered myspeech. I then
took my turn, and embraced him as my deliverer,
and we rejoiced together. I told him I looked upon
him as a man sent from Heaven to deliver me,
and that the whole transaction seemed to be a chain
of wonders ; that such things as these were the
testimonies we had of a secret hand of providence
governing the world, and an evidence that the eye
of an infinite power could search into the remotest
392 THE ADVENTURES OF

corner of the world, and send help to the miser-
able whenever he pleased. I forgot not to lift up
my heart in thankfulness to Heaven; and what
heart could forbear to bless him, who had not only
in a miraculous manner provided for me in such
a wilderness, and in such a desolate condition, but
from whom every deliverance must always be ac-
knowledged to proceed ?

When we had talked a while, the captain told me
he had brought me some little refreshment, such as
the ship afforded, and such as the wretches that had
been so long his masters had not plundered him of.
Upon this he called aloud to the boat, and bade his
men bring the things ashore that were for the gov-
ernor; and, indeed, it wasa present as if I had been
one that was not to be carried away with them, but
as if [had been to dwell upon the island still. First,
he had brought me a case of bottles full of excel-
lent cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira
wine (the bottles held two quarts each), two pounds
of excellent good tobacco, twelve good pieces of
the ship’s beef, and six pieces of pork, with a bag of
peas, and about a hundredweight of biscuit: he also
brought me a box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag
full of lemons, and two bottles of lime juice, and
abundance of other things. But, besides these,
and what was a thousand times more useful to me,
he brought me six new clean shirts, six very good
neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes,
a hat, and one pair of stockings, with a very good
suit of clothes of his own, which had been worn but
ROBINSON CRUSOE 393

very little; in a word, he clothed me from head to
foot. It was a very kind and agreeable present, as
any one may imagine, to one in my circumstances ;
but never was anything in the world of that kind
so unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy, as it was to
me to wear such clothes at first.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all
his good things were brought into my little apart-
ment, we began to consult what was to be done
with the prisoners we had; for it was worth con-
sidering whether we might venture to take them
away with us or no, especially two of them, whom
we knew to be incorrigible and refractory to the
last degree; and the captain said he knew they
were such rogues that there was no obliging them,
and if he did carry them away, it must be in irons,
as malefactors, to be delivered over to justice at the
first English colony he could come at; and | found
that the captain himself was very anxious about it.
Upon this I told him that, if he desired it, I would
undertake to bring the two men he spoke of to
make it their own request that he should leave
them upon the island. “I should be very glad
of that,” says the captain, “with all my heart.”
“ Well,” says I, “I will send for them up, and
talk with them for you.” So I caused Friday and
the two hostages, for they were now discharged,
their comrades having performed their promise ;
I say, I caused them to go to the cave, and bring
up the five men, pinioned, as they were, to the
bower, and keep them there till I came. After some
394 THE ADVENTURES OF

time, I came thither dressed in my new habit; and
now I was called Governor again. Being all met,
and the captain with me, I caused the men to be
brought before me, and I told them I had got a
full account of their villanous behaviour to the
captain, and how they had run away with the ship,
and were preparing to commit farther robberies,
but that Providence had ensnared them in their
own ways, and that they were fallen into the pit
which they had dug for others. I let them know
that by my direction the ship had been seized; that
she lay now in the road; and they might see, by
and by, that their new captain had received the re-
ward of his villainy, and that they would see him
hanging at the yard-arm: that as to them, I wanted
to know what they had to say why I should not
execute them as pirates, taken in the fact, as by my
commission they could not doubt but I had author-
ity so to do. One of them answered in the name
of the rest that they had nothing to say but this,
that when they were taken, the captain promised
them their lives, and they humbly implored my
mercy. But I told them I knew not what mercy to
show them; for as for myself I had resolved to quit
the island with all my men, and had taken passage
with the captain to go for England; and as for the
captain he could not carry them to England other
than as prisoners, in irons, to be tried for mutiny,
and running away with the ship; the consequence
of which, they must needs know, would be the gal-
lows; so that I could not tell what was best for them,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 395

unless they had a mind to take their fate in the
island: if they desired that, as I had liberty to leave
the island, I had some inclination to give them
their lives, if they thought they could shift on
shore. They seemed very thankful for it, and said
they would much rather venture to stay there than
be carried to England to be hanged: so I left it
on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some
difficulty of it, as if he durst not leave them there.
Upon this I seemed a little angry with the cap-
tain, and told him that they were my prisoners, not
his; and seeing that I had offered them so much
favour, I would be as good as my word; and that
if he did not think fit to consent to it, I would set
them at liberty, as I found them; and if he did
not like it, he might take them again if he could
catch them. Upon this they appeared very thank-
ful, and I accordingly set them at liberty, and bade
them retire into the woods to the place whence
they came, and I would leave them some fire-
arms, some ammunition, and some directions how
they should live very well, if they thought fit.
Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship;
but told the captain I would stay that night to pre-
pare my things, and desired him to go on board,
in the mean time, and keep all right in the ship,
and send the boat on shore next day for me; or-
dering him, at all events, to cause the new captain,
who was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that
these men might see him.
396 THE ADVENTURES OF

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men
up to me to my apartment, and entered seriously
into discourse with them on their circumstances
I told them I thought they had made a right
choice ; that if the captain had carried them away,
they would certainly be hanged. I showed them the
new captain hanging at the yard-arm of the ship,
and told them they had nothing less to expect.

When they had all declared their willingness to
stay, I then told them I would let them into the
story of my living there, and put them into the
way of making it easy to them: accordingly, I gave
them the whole history of the place, and of my
coming to it; showed them my fortifications, the
way I made my bread, planted my corn, cured my
grapes; and, in a word, all that was necessary to
make them easy. I told them the story also of the
seventeen Spaniards that were to be expected, for
whom I left a letter, and made them promise to
treat them in common with themselves. Here it
may be noted, that the captain had ink on board,
who was greatly surprised that I never hit upon a
way of making ink of charcoal and water, or of
something else, as I had done things much more
difficult.

I left them my fire-arms, viz., five muskets,
three fowling-pieces, and three swords. I had above
a barrel and a half of powder left; for after the first
year or two I used but little, and wasted none. I
gave them a description of the way I managed the
goats, and directions to milk and fatten them, and




ROBINSON CRUSOE 397

to make both butter and cheese: in a word, I gave
them every part of my own story, and told them
I should prevail with the captain to leave them
two barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden-
seeds, which I told them I would have been very
glad of: also I gave them the bag of peas which
the captain had brought me to eat, and bade them
be sure to sow and increase them.

Having done all this, I left them the next day,
and went on board the ship. We prepared imme-
diately to sail, but did not weigh that night. The
next morning early, two of the five men came
swimming to the ship’s side, and, making a most
lamentable complaint of the other three, begged to
be taken into the ship, for God’s sake, for they
should be murdered, and begged the captain to
take them on board, though he hanged them im-
mediately. Upon this, the captain pretended to
have no power without me; but after some dif-
ficulty, and after their solemn promises of amend-
ment, they were taken on board, and were some
time after soundly whipped and pickled: after
which they proved very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, the boat was ordered on
shore, the tide being up, with the things promised
to the men; to which the captain, at my interces-
sion, caused their chests and clothes to be added,
which they took, and were very thankful for. I
also encouraged them, by telling them that if it
lay in my power to send any vessel to take them
in, I would not forget them.
398 ROBINSON CRUSOE

When I took leave of this island, I carried on
board, for reliques, the great goat-skin cap I had
made, my umbrella, and one of my parrots; also
I forgot not to take the money I formerly men-
tioned, which had laid by me so long useless that
it was grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly
pass for silver till it had been a little rubbed and
handled ; as also the money I found in the wreck
of the Spanish ship. And thus I left the island,
the 19th of December, as I found by the ship’s
account, in the year 1686, after I had been upon it
eight-and-twenty years, two months, and nineteen
days; being delivered from this second captivity
the same day of the month that I first made my
escape in the long-boat, from among the Moors of
Sallee. In this vessel, after a long voyage, I ar-
rived in England the 11th of June, in the year
1687, having been thirty-five years absent.











aes fy si}
wy. = p f
Lv Ape ae,
\ * n - , ‘ea
ae Dice: PPA SD ees |
a B A Sige
MSS AQ
iT, ee

f i

i i \ iy j The
NR : Wh g
<4 F201 HY | A
2 Wi hs i





eS
2 @



ane

f
Hig

\ ' J uEn I came to England, I was as perfect a

stranger to all the world as if I had never

been known there. My benefactor and faithful

steward, whom I had left my money in trust with,
was. alive, but had had great misfortunes in the

_ world; was become a widow the second time, and

very low in the world. I made her very easy as
to what she owed me, assuring her I would give
her no trouble; but on the contrary, in gratitude
for former care and faithfulness to me, I relieved
‘her as my little stock would afford; which, at
that time, would indeed allow me to do but little
for her; but I assured her I would never forget
her former kindness to me; nor did I forget her
when I had sufficient to help her, as shall be.ob-

’ served in its proper place. I went down afterwards

into Yorkshire: but my father and mother were
dead, and all the family extinct, except that I found
two sisters, and two of the children of one of my
brothers ; and as I had been long ago given over
for. dead, there had been no provision made for
400 THE ADVENTURES OF

me: so that, in a word, I found nothing to relieve
or assist me ; and that the little money I had would
not do much for me as to settling in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed, which
I did not expect; and this was that the master of
the ship whom I had so happily delivered, and by
the same means saved the ship and cargo, having
given a very handsome account to the owners of
the manner how I had saved the lives of the men,
and the ship, they invited me to meet them, and
some other merchants concerned, and all together
made me a very handsome compliment upon the
subject, and a present of almost two hundred
pounds sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the
circumstances of my life, and how little way this
would go towards settling me in the world, I re-
solved togo to Lisbon, and see if I might not come
by some information of the state of my plantation
in the Brazils, and of what was become of my part-
ner, who, I had reason to suppose, had some years
past given me over for dead. With this view I took
shipping for Lisbon, where I arrived in April follow-
ing ;my man Friday accompanying me very honestly
in all these ramblings, and proving a most faithful
servantuponall occasions. When I cameto Lisbon,
I found out, by inquiry, and to my particular satis-
faction, my old friend the captain of the ship who
‘irst took me up at sea off the shore of Africa. He
was now grown old, and had left off going to sea,
having put his son, who was far from a young man,




ROBINSON CRUSOE 401

into his ship, and who still used the Brazil trade.
The old man did not know me: and, indeed, I
hardly knew him: but I soon brought him to my
remembrance, and as soon brought myself to his
remembrance, when I told him who I was.

After some passionate expressions of the old ac-
quaintance between us, I inquired, you may besure,
after my plantation and my partner. The old man
told me he had not been in the Brazils for about
nine years; but that he could assure me that when
he came away my partner was living; but the trust-
ees, whom I had joined with him to take cogniz-
ance of my part, were both dead: that, however, he
believed I would have a very good account of the
improvement of the plantation; for that upon the
general belief of my being cast away and drowned,
my trustees had given in the account of the pro-
duce of my part of the plantation to the procurator-
fiscal, who had appropriated it,in case I never came
to claim it, one third to the king, and two thirds
to the monastery of St. Augustine, to be expended
for the benefit of the poor, and for the conversion of
the Indians to the Catholic faith; but that if I ap-
peared, or any one for me, to claim the inheritance,
it would be restored: only that the improvement, or
annual production, being distributed to charitable
uses, could not be restored; but he assured me that
thesteward of the king’s revenue from lands and the
proviedore or steward of the monastery had taken
great care all along that the incumbent, that is to
say, my partner, gave every year a faithful account
402 THE ADVENTURES OF

of the produce, of which they had duly received
my moiety. I asked him if he knew to what height
of improvement he had brought the plantation, and
whether he thought it might be worth lookingafter;
or whether, on my going thither, I should meet
with any obstruction to my possessing my just right
in the moiety. He told me he could not tell exactly
to what degree the plantation was improved, but
this he knew, that my partner was grown exceed-
ing rich upon the enjoying his part of it; and that,
to the best of his remembrance, he had heard that
the king’s third of my part, which was, it seems,
granted away to some other monastery or religious
house, amounted to above two hundred moidores
a year; that as to my being restored to a quiet pos-
session of it, there was no question to be made of
that, my partner being alive to witness my title,
and my name being also enrolled in the register of
the country: also he told me that the survivors of
my two trustees were very fair honest people, and
very wealthy; and he believed I would not only have
their assistance for putting me in possession, but
would find a very considerable sum of money in
their hands for my account, being the produce of the
farm while their fathers held the trust, and before
it was given up, as above; which, as he remem-
bered, was for about twelve years.

I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy
at this account, and inquired of the old captain how
it came to pass that the trustees should thus dis-
pose of my effects, when he knew that I had made


ROBINSON CRUSOE 403

my will,and had made him, the Portuguese captain,
my universal heir, etc.

He told me that was true; but that, as there was
no proof of my being dead, he could not act as
executor, until some certain account should come
of my death; and, besides, he was not willing to
intermeddle with a thing so remote ; that it was true
he had registered my will, and put in his claim;
and could he have given any account of my being
dead or alive, he would have acted by procuration,
and taken possession of the ingenio (so they called
the sugar-house), and have given his son, who was
now at the Brazils, orders to doit. “ But,” says the
old man, “I have one piece of news to tell you,
which, perhaps, may not be so acceptable to you
as the rest; and that is, believing you were lost,
and all the world believing so also, your partner
and trustees did offer to account with me, in your
name, for six or eight of the first years’ profits,
which I received. There being at that time great
disbursements for increasing the works, building
an ingenio, and buying slaves, it did not amount
to near so much as afterwards it produced; how-
ever,” says the old man, “I shall give you a true
account of what I have received in all, and how
I have disposed of it.”

After a few days’ further conference with this
ancient friend, he brought me an account of the
first six years’ income of my plantation, signed by
my partner and the merchant trustees, being always
delivered in goods, viz., tobacco in roll, and sugar
404. THE ADVENTURES OF

in chests, besides rum, molasses, etc., which is the
consequence of asugar-work; and I found, by this
account, that every year the income considerably
increased; but, as above, the disbursements being
'arge, the sum at first was small: however, the old
man let me see that he was debtor to me four hun-
dred and seventy moidores of gold, besides sixty
chests of sugar, and fifteen double rolls of tobacco,
which were lost in his ship; he having been ship-
wrecked coming hometo Lisbon, abouteleven years
after my leaving the place. The good man then
began to complain of his misfortunes, and how he
had been obliged to make use of my money to re-
cover his losses, and buy him ashare ina new ship.
“However, my old friend,” says he, “you shall not
want a supply in your necessity; and as soon as my
son returns you shall be fully satisfied.” Upon this,
he pulls out an old pouch, and gives me one hun-
dred and sixty Portugal moidores in gold ; and giv-
ing the writings of his title to the ship, which his
son was gone to the Brazils in, of which he was a
quarter-part owner, and his son another, he puts
them both into my hands, for security of the rest.

I was too much moved with the honesty and
kindness of the poor man to be able to bear this ;
and remembering what he had done for me, how
he had taken me up at sea, and how generously he
had used me on all occasions, and particularly how
sincere a friend he was now to me, I could hardly
refrain weeping at what he had said to me; there-
fore I asked him if his circumstances admitted him


ROBINSON CRUSOE 405

to spare so much money at that time, and if it would
not straiten him? He told me he could not say but
it might straiten him a little ; but, however, it was
my money, and I might want it more than he.
Everything the good man said was full of affec-
tion, and I could hardly refrain from tears while he
spoke ; in short, I took one hundred of the moi-
dores, and called for a pen and ink to give him a
receipt for them: then I returned him the rest, and
told him if ever I had possession of the plantation,
I would return the other to him also (as, indeed, I
afterwards did); and that as to the bill of sale of his
part in his son’s ship, I would not take it by any
means : but that if I wanted the money, I found he
was honest enough to pay me; and if I did not, but
came to receive what he gave me reason to expect,
I would never have a penny more from him.
When this was past, the old man asked me if he
should put me into a method to make my claim to
my plantation? I told him I thought to go over to
it myself. He said I might do so if I pleased; but
that, if I did not, there were ways enough to secure
my right, and immediately to appropriate the pro-
fits to my use: and as there were ships in the river
of Lisbon just ready to go away to Brazil, he made
me enter my name ina public register, with his affi-
davit, affirming, upon oath, that I was alive, and that
I was the same person who took up the land for
the planting the said plantation at first. This being
regularly attested by a notary, and a procuration
affixed, he directed me to send it, with a letter of
406 THE ADVENTURES OF

his writing, to a merchant of his acquaintance at the
place; and then proposed my staying with him till
an account came of the return.

Never was anything more honourable than the
proceedings upon this procuration ; for in less than
seven months I received a large packet from the
survivors of my trustees, the merchants, for whose
account I went to sea, in which were the following
particular letters and papers enclosed.

First, there was the account-current of the pro-
duce of my farm or plantation, from the year when
their fathers had balanced with my old Portugal
captain, being for six years: the balance appeared
to be one thousand one hundred and seventy-four
moidores in my favour.

Secondly, there was the account of four years
more, while they kept the effects in their hands,
before the government claimed the administration,
as being the effects of a person not to be found,
which they called civil death ; and the balance of this,
the value of the plantation increasing, amounted to
nineteen thousand four hundred and forty-six cru-
sadoes, being about three thousand two hundred
and forty moidores.

Thirdly, there was the prior of Augustine’s ac-
count, who had received the profits for above four-
teen years; but not being to account for what was
disposed of by the hospital, very honestly declared
he had eight hundred and seventy-two moidores
not distributed, which he acknowledged to my ac-
count: as to the king’s part, that refunded nothing.


ROBINSON CRUSOE 407

There was a letter of my partner’s, congratulat-
ing me very affectionately upon my being alive,
giving me an account how the estate was improved,
and what it produced a year; with a particular of
the number of squares oracres that it contained, how
planted, how many slaves there were upon it, and,
making two and twenty crosses for blessings, told
me he had said so many Ave Marias to thank the
Blessed Virgin that I was alive ; inviting me very
passionately to come over and take possession of
my own; and, in the mean time, to give him orders
to whom he should deliver my effects, if I did not
come myself; concluding with a hearty tender of
his friendship and that of his family; and sent me,
as a present, seven fine leopards’ skins, which he
had, it seems, received from Africa, by some other
ship that he had sent thither, and who, it seems, had
made a better voyage than I. He sent me also five
chests of excellent sweetmeats,and a hundred pieces
of gold uncoined, not quite so large as moidores.
By the same fleet, my two merchant trustees shipped
me one thousand two hundred chests of sugar, eight
hundred rolls of tobacco, and the rest of the whole
account in gold.

I might well say now, indeed, that the latter end
of Job was better than the beginning. It is im-
possible to express the flutterings of my very heart
when I found all my wealth about me; for as the
Brazil ships come all in fleets, the same ships which
brought my letters brought my goods: and the
effects were safe in the river before the letters came
408 THE ADVENTURES OF

to my hand. Ina word, I turned paleand grew sick ;
and had not the old man run and fetched mea cor-
dial, I believe the sudden surprise of joy had over-
set nature, and I had died upon the spot: nay, after
that, I continued very ill, and was so some hours,
till a physician being sent for, and something of
the real cause of my illness being known, he or-
dered me to be let blood; after which I had relief, |
and grew well: but I verily believe, ifI had not been |
eased by a vent given in that manner to the spirits,
I should have died. .
I was now master, all on a sudden, of above five
thousand pounds sterling in money, and had an
estate, as I might well call it, in the Brazils of above
a thousand pounds a year, as sure as an estate of
lands in England; and, in a word, I was in a con-
dition which I scarce knew how to understand, or
how to compose myself for the enjoyment of it.
The first thing I did was to recompense my orig-
inal benefactor, my good old captain, who had been
first charitable to me in my distress, kind to me
in my beginning, and honest to me at the end. I
showed him all that was sent to me; I told him
- that next to the providence of Heaven, which dis-
posed all things, it was owing to him; and that it
now lay on me to reward him, which I would doa
hundred-fold: so I first returned to him the hun-
dred moidores I had received of him; then I sent
for a notary, and caused him to draw up a general
release or discharge from the four hundred and
seventy moidores, which he had acknowledged he






ROBINSON CRUSOE 409

owed me, in the fullest and firmest manner pos-
sible. After which I caused a procuration to be
drawn, empowering him to be my receiver of the
annual profits of my plantation, and appointing my
partner to account with him, and make the returns
by the usual fleets to him in my name; and a clause
in the end, being a grant of one hundred moidores
a year to him during his life, out of the effects, and
fifty moidores a year to his son after him, for his
life: and thus I requited my old man.

I was now to consider which way to steer my
course next, and what to do with the estate that
Providence had thus put into my hands; and, in-
deed, I had more care upon my head now than I
had in my silent state of life in the island, where I
wanted nothing but what I had, and had nothing
but what I wanted; whereas I had now a great
charge upon me, and my business was how to se-
cure it. I had never a cave now to hide my money
in, or a place where it might lie without lock or key,
till it grew mouldy and tarnished, before anybody
would meddle with it; on the contrary, I knew not
where to put it, or whom to trust with it. My old
patron, the captain, indeed, was honest, and that was
the only refuge I had. In the next place, my inter-
est in the Brazils seemed to summon me thither;
but now I could not tell how to think of going
thither till I had settled my affairs, and left my
effects in some safe hands behind me. At first I
thought of my old friend the widow, who I knew
was honest, and would be just to me; but then she
410 THE ADVENTURES OF

was in years, and but poor, and for aught I knew,
might be in debt: so that, in a word, I had no way
but to go back to England myself, and take my
effects with me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved
upon this; and, therefore, as I had rewarded the old
captain fully, and to his satisfaction, who had been
my former benefactor, so I began to think of my
poor widow, whose husband had been my first bene-
factor, and she, while it was in her power, my faith-
ful steward and instructor. So the first thing I did,
I got a merchant in Lisbon to write to his corre-
spondent in London, not only to pay a bill, but to
go find her out, and carry her in money a hundred
pounds for me, and to talk with her, and comfort
her in her poverty; by telling her she should, if
I lived, have a further supply: at the same time
I sent my two sisters in the country a hundred
pounds each, they being, though not in want, yet
not in very good circumstances; one having been
married and left a widow, and the other having a
husband not so kind to her as he should be. But
among all my relations or acquaintances, I could
not yet pitch upon one to whom I durst commit
the gross of my stock, that I might go away to the
Brazils, and leave things safe behind me; and this
greatly perplexed me.

I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazils,
and have settled myself there; for I was, as it were,
naturalized to the place; but I had some little
scruple in my mind about religion, which insensibly




ROBINSON CRUSOE 411

drew me back. However, it was not religion that
kept me from going there for the present; and
as I had made no scruple of being openly of the
religion of the country all the while I was among
them, so neither did I yet; only that, nowand then,
having of late thought more of it than formerly,
when I began to think of living and dying among
them, I began to regret my having professed my-
self a Papist, and thought it might not be the best
religion to die with.

But, as I have said, this was not the main thing
that kept me from going to the Brazils, but that
really I did not know with whom to leave my effects
behind me: so I resolved, at last, to go to England
with it, where, if I arrived, I concluded I should
make some acquaintance, or find some relationsthat
would be faithful to me; and, accordingly, I pre-
pared to go to England with all my wealth.

In order to prepare things for my going home,
I first, the Brazil fleet being just going away, re-
solved to give answers suitable to the just and faith-
ful account of things I had from thence; and, first,
to the prior of St. Augustine I wrote a letter full
of thanks for their just dealings, and the offer of
the eight hundred and seventy-two moidores which
were undisposed of, which I desired might be given,
five hundred to the monastery, and three hundred
and seventy-two to the poor, as the prior should
direct; desiring the good padre’s prayers for me,
and the like. I wrote next a letter of thanks to my
two trustees, with all the acknowledgment that so
412 THE ADVENTURES OF

much justice and honesty called for; as for sending
them any present, they were far above having any
occasion for it. Lastly, I wrote to my partner,
acknowledging his industry in the improving the
plantation, and his integrity in increasing the stock
of the works; giving him instructions for his future
government of my part, according to the powers
I had left with my old patron, to whom I desired
him to send whatever became due to me, till he
should hear from me more particularly; assuring
him that it was my intention not only to come to
him, but to settle myself there for the remainder
of my life. To this I added a very handsome pre-
sent of some Italian silks for his wife and two
daughters, for such the captain’s son informed me
he had; with two pieces of fine English broadcloth,
the best I could get in Lisbon, five pieces of black
baize, and some Flanders lace of a good value.

Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo,
and turned all my effects into good bills of ex-
change, my next difficulty was, which way to go to
England: I had been accustomed enough to the
sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to go to Eng-
land by sea at that time; and though I could give
no reason for it, yet the difficulty increased upon
me so much, that though I had once shipped my
baggage, in order to go, yet I altered my mind, and
that not once, but two or three times.

It is true, I had been very unfortunate by sea,
and this might be some of the reasons; but let no
man slight the strong impulses of his own thoughts
ROBINSON CRUSOE 413

in cases of such moment: two of the ships which
I had singled out to go in, I mean more particu-
larly singled out than any other, having put my
things on board one of them, and in the other to
have agreed with the captain; I say, two of these
ships miscarried, viz., one was taken by the Alge-
rines, and the other was cast away on the Start, near
Torbay, and all the people drowned, except three;
so that in either of those vessels I had been made
miserable.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my
old pilot, to whom I communicated everything,
pressed me earnestly not to go by sea, but either
to go by land to the Groyne (Corunna), and cross
over the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, from whence
it was but an easy and safe journey by land to Paris,
and so to Calais and Dover; or to go up to Madrid,
and so all the way by land through France. In a
word, I was so prepossessed against my going by
sea at all, except from Calais to Dover, that I re-
solved to travel all the way by land; which, as I
was not in haste, and did not value the charge, was
by much the pleasanter way: and to make it more
so, my old captain brought an English gentleman,
the son of a merchant in Lisbon, who was willing
to travel with me; after which we picked up two
more English merchants also, and two young Por-
tuguese gentlemen, the last going to Paris only; so
that in all there were six of us, and five servants,
the two merchants and the two Portuguese con-
tenting themselves with one servant between two,
414 THE ADVENTURES OF

to save the charge; and as for me, I got an Eng-
lish sailor to travel with me as a servant, besides
my man Friday, who was too much a stranger to
be capable of supplying the place of a servant on
the road.

In this manner I set out from Lisbon ; and our
company being very well mounted and armed, we
made a little troop, whereof they did me the hon-
our to call me captain, as well because I was the
oldest man as because I had two servants, and, in-
deed, was the original of the whole journey.

As I have troubled you with none of my sea
journals, so I shall trouble you now with none of
my land journal; but some adventures that hap-
pened to us in this tedious and difficult journey
I must not omit.

When we came to Madrid, we, being all of us
strangers to Spain, were willing to stay some time
to see the Court of Spain, and to see what was worth
observing; but it being the latter part of the sum-
mer, we hastened away, and set out from Madrid
about the middle of October; but when we came
to the edge of Navarre, we were alarmed, at several
towns on the way, with an account that so much
snow was fallen on the French side of the moun-
tains that several travellers were obliged to come
back to Pampeluna, after having attempted, at an
extreme hazard, to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it
so, indeed; and to me, that had been always used
to a het climate, and to countries where I could
ROBINSON CRUSOE 415

scarce bear any clothes on, the cold was insuffer-
able: nor, indeed, was it more painful than surpris-
ing to come but ten days before out of Old Castile,
where the weather was not only warm but very hot,
and immediately to feel a wind from the Pyrenean
Mountains, so very keen, so severely cold, as to be
intolerable, and to endanger the benumbing and
perishing of our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frightened when he saw
the mountains all covered with snow, and felt cold
weather, which he had never seen or felt before in
his life. To mend the matter, when we came to
Pampeluna it continued snowing with so much
violence, and so long, that the people said winter
was come before its time, and the roads, which were
difficult before, were now quite impassable ; for, in
a word, the snow lay in some places too thick for
us to travel, and being not hard frozen, as is the
case in the northern countries, there was no going
without being in danger of being buried alive every
step. We stayed no less than twenty days at Pam-
peluna ; when seeing the winter coming on, and no
likelihood of its being better, for it was the severest
winter all over Europe that had been known in the
memory of man, I proposed that we should all go
away to Fontarabia, and there take shipping for
Bourdeaux, which was a very little voyage. But
while I was considering this, there came in four
French gentlemen, who, having been stopped on
the French side of the passes as we were on the
Spanish, had found out a guide, who, traversing the
416 THE ADVENTURES OF

country near the head of Languedoc, had brought
them over the mountains by such ways that they
were not much incommoded with the snow; for
where they met with snow in any quantity, they
said it was frozen hard enough to bear them and
their horses. We sent for this guide, who told us
he would undertake to carry us the same way with
no hazard from the snow, provided we were armed
sufficiently to protect ourselves from wild beasts:
for, he said, upon these great snows it was frequent
for some wolves to show themselves at the foot
of the mountains, being made ravenous for want of
food, the ground being covered with snow. We
told him we were well enough prepared for such
creatures as they were, if he would insure us from
a kind of two-legged wolves, which, we were told,
we were in most danger from, especially on the
French side of the mountains. He satisfied us that
there was no danger of that kind in the way that
we were to go: so we readily agreed to follow him,
as did also twelve other gentlemen, with their serv-
ants, some French, some Spanish, who, as I said,
had attempted to go, and were obliged to come
back again.

Accordingly, we set out from Pampeluna, with
our guide, on the 15th of November; and, indeed,
I was surprised when, instead of going forward, he
came directly back with us on the same road that
we came from Madrid, about twenty miles; when,
having passed two rivers, and come into the plain
country, we found ourselves in a warm climate


ROBINSON CRUSOE 417

again, where the country was pleasant, and no snow
to be seen; but on a sudden turning to his left, he
approached themountainsanother way, and though
it is true the hills and precipices looked dreadful,
yet he made so many tours, such meanders, and
led us by such winding ways, that we insensibly
passed the height of the mountains without being
much incumbered with the snow; and, all on a sud-
den, he showed us the pleasant fruitful provinces
of Languedoc and Gascony, all green and flourish-
ing, though, indeed, at a great distance, and we had
some rough way to pass still.

We were a little uneasy, however, when we found
it snowed one whole day and a night, so fast that
we could not travel; but he bid us be easy; we
should soon be past it all: we found, indeed, that
we began to descend every day, and to come more
north than before; and so,depending upon our
guide, we went on.


I was about two hours before night when, our
guide being something before us, and not just
in sight, out rushed three monstrous wolves, and
after them a bear, out of a hollow way, adjoining
to a thick wood; two of the wolves made at the
guide, and had he been far before us, he would have
been devoured before we could have helped him;
one of them fastened upon his horse, and the other
attacked the man with that violence, that he had
not time, or presence of mind enough, to draw his
pistol, but hallooed and cried out to us most lustily.
My man Friday being next me, I bade him ride
up, and see what was the matter. As soon as Fri-
day came in sight of the man, he hallooed out as
loud as the other, “O master! O master!” but,
like a bold fellow,rode directly up to the poor man,
and with his pistol shot the wolf, that attacked him,
in the head.

It was happy for the poor man that it was my
man Friday; for he having been used to such crea-
tures in his country, he had no fear respecting




ROBINSON CRUSOE 419

them, but went close up to him and shot him as
above; whereas any other of us would have fired
at a greater distance, and have perhaps either
missed the wolf, or endangered shooting the
man.

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man
than I, and, indeed, it alarmed all our company,
when, with the noise of Friday’s pistol, we heard
on both sides the most dismal howling of wolves;
and the noise, redoubled by the echo of the moun-
tains, appeared to us as if there had been a prodi-
gious number of them; and, perhaps, there was not
such a few as that we had nocause of apprehensions:
however, as Friday had killed this wolf, the other
that had fastened upon the horse left him imme-
diately, and fled, without doing him any damage,
having happily fastened upon his head, where the
bosses of the bridle had stuck in his teeth. But the
man was most hurt; for the raging creature had
bit him twice, once in the arm, and the other time
a little above his knee; and though he had made
some defence, he was just as it were tumbling down
by the disorder of his horse, when Friday came up
and shot the wolf.

It is easy to suppose that at the noise of Friday’s
pistol we all mended our pace, and rode up as fast
as the way, which. was very difficult, would give us
leave, to see what was the matter. As soon as we
came clear of the trees, which blinded us before, we
saw clearly what had been the case, and how Fri-

day had disengaged the poor guide, though we did
420 THE ADVENTURES OF

not presently discern what kind of creature it was
he had killed.

But never was a fight managed so hardily, and
insuch a surprising manner, as that which followed
between Friday and the bear, which gave us all,
though at first we were surprised and afraid for him,
the greatest diversion imaginable. As the bear is a
heavy, clumsy creature, and does not gallop as the
wolf does, who is swift and light, so he has two par-
ticular qualities, which generally are the rule of his
actions: first, as to men, who are not his proper
prey (he does not usually attempt them, except
they first attack him, unless he be excessively hun-
gry, which it is probable might now be the case, the
ground being covered with snow), if you do not
meddle with him, he will not meddle with you : but
then you must take care to be very civil to him and
give him the road, for he is a very nice gentleman ;
he will not go a step out of his way for a prince ;
nay, if you are really afraid, your best way is to look
another way, and keep going on; for sometimes,
if you stop, and stand still, and look steadfastly at
him, he takes it for an affront ; but if you throw or
toss anything at him, and it hits him, though it
were but a bit of stick as big as your finger, he thinks
himself abused, and sets all other business aside to
pursue his revenge, and will have satisfaction in
point of honour, —this is his first quality : the next
is, if he be once affronted, he will never leave you,
night nor day, till he has his revenge, but follows,
at a good round rate, till he overtakes you.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 421
My man Friday had.delivered our guide, and

when we came up to him he was helping him off
from his horse, for the man was both hurt and
frightened, when, on a sudden, we espied the bear
come out of the wood, and a vast, monstrous one
it was, the biggest by far that ever I saw. We were
all a little surprised when we saw him ; but when
Friday saw him, it was easy to see joy and courage
in the fellow’s countenance ; “O,O, O!” says Fri-
day, three times, pointing to him ; “ O master, you
give me te leave, me shakee te hand with him; me
makee you good laugh.”

I was surprised to see the fellow so well pleased:
“ You fool,” says I, “he will eat you up.” “ Eatee
me up!eatee me up!” says Friday, twice over
again ; “me eatee him up; me makee you good
laugh : youall stay here, me show you good laugh.”
So down he sits, and gets off his boots in a mo-
ment, and puts on a pair of pumps (as we call the
flatshoes they wear, and which he hadin his pocket),
gives my other servant his horse, and with his gun
away he flew, swift like the wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to
meddle with nobody, till Friday, coming pretty
near, calls to him, as if the bear could understand
him, “Hark ye, hark ye,” says Friday, “me speakee
with you.” We followed at a distance; for now,
beingcome down on the Gascony side of the moun-
tains, we were entered a vast great forest, where the
country was plain and pretty open, though it had
many trees in it scattered here and there. Friday,
422 THE ADVENTURES OF

who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came up
with him quickly, and takes up a great stone and
throws it at him, and hit him just on the head, but
did him no more harm than if he had thrown it
against a wall; but it answered Friday’s end, for
the rogue was so void of fear that he did it purely
to make the bear follow him, and show us “some
laugh,” as he called it. As soon as the bear felt the
blow, and saw him, he turns about, and comes after
him, taking devilish long strides, and shuffling on
at a strange rate, such as would have putahorse to
a middling gallop ; away runs Friday, and takes his
course as if he run towards us for help; so we all
resolved to fire at once upon the bear, and deliver
my man; though I was angry at him heartily for
bringing the bear back upon us, when he was go-
ing about his own business another way; and
especially I was angry that he had turned the bear
upon us, and then run away; and I called out,
“You dog, is this your making us laugh? Come
away, and take your horse, that we may shoot the
creature.” He heard me, andcried out, “ No shoot,
no shoot; standstill, and you get much laugh” ; and
as the nimble creature ran two feet for the bear’s
one, he turned on a sudden, on one side of us, and
seeing a great oak tree fit for his purpose, he beck-
oned to us to follow; and doubling his pace, he
gets nimbly up the tree, laying his gun down upon
the ground, at about five or six yards from the
bottom of the tree. The bear soon came to the tree,
and we followed at a distance: the first thing he
ROBINSON CRUSOE 423

did, he stopped at the gun, smelt to it, but let it
lie, and up he scrambles into the tree, climbing like
acat, though so monstrous heavy. I was amazed at
the folly,as I thought it, of my man,and could not
for my life see anything to laugh at yet, till, seeing
the bear get up the tree, we all rode near to him.

When we came tothe tree, there was Friday got
out to the small end of a large branch, and the bear
got about halfway to him. As soon as the bear got
out to that part where the limb of the tree was
weaker, —“ Ha!” says he to us, “ now you see me
teachee the bear dance” ; so he falls a~jumping and
shaking the bough, at which the bear began to tot-
ter, but stood still, and began to look behind him,
to see how he should get back; then, indeed, we
did laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with
him by a great deal; when, seeing him stand still,
he calls out to him again, as if he had supposed the
bear could speak English, “ What, you come no far-
ther? pray you come farther” ; so he left jumping
and shaking the tree, and the bear, just as if he
understood what he said, did come alittle farther;
then he fell a-jumping again and the bear stopped
again. We thought now was a good time to knock
him on the head, and called to Friday to stand still,
and we would shoot the bear; but he cried out
earnestly, ““O pray! O pray! no shoot, me shoot
by and then.” He would have said “ by and by.”
However, to shorten the story, Friday danced so
much, and the bear stood so ticklish, that we had
laughing enough, but still could not imagine what
424 THE ADVENTURES OF

the fellow would do: for first we thought he de-
pended upon shaking the bear off, and we found the
bear was too cunning for that too; for he would not
go out far enough to be thrown down, but clings
fast with his great broad claws and feet, so that we
could not imagine what would be the end of it, and
what the jest would beat last. But Friday puts us
out of doubt quickly : for seeing the bear cling fast
to the bough, and that he would not be persuaded
to come any farther, — “ Well, well,” says Friday,
“you no come farther, me go; you no come tome,
me come to you”: and upon this he goes out to
the smaller end of the bough, where it would bend
with his weight, and gently lets himself down by it,
sliding down the bough, till he came near enough to
jump down on his feet, and away he runs to his gun,
takes it up,and stands still. “‘ Well,” said I to him,
“ Friday, what will you do now? Why don’t you
shoot him?” “No shoot,” says Friday, “no yet;
me no shoot now, me no kill; me stay, give you one
more laugh.” And, indeed, so he did, as you will
see presently; for when the bear saw his enemy
gone, he comes back from the bough where he
stood, but did it mighty cautiously, looking behind
him every step, and coming backward till he got
into the body of the tree; then, with the same
hinder-end foremost, he came down the tree, grasp-
ing it with his claws, and moving one foot at a time,
very leisurely. At this juncture, and just before
he could set his hind-foot on the ground, Friday
stepped up close to him, clapped the muzzle of his
ROBINSON CRUSOE 425

piece into his ear, and shot him dead. Then the
rogue turned about, to see if we did not laugh; and
when he saw we were pleased, by our looks, he falls
a-laughing himself very loud. “So we kill bear in
my country,” says Friday. “So you kill them?”
says I; “why you have no guns.” “No,” says he,
“no gun, but shoot great much long arrow.” This
was a good diversion to us; but we werestill ina
wild place, and our guide very much hurt, and what
to do we hardly knew: the howling of wolves run
much in my head ; and, indeed, except the noise I
once heard on the shore of Africa, of which I have
said something already, I never heard anything that
filled me with so much horror.

These things, and the approach of night, called
us off, or else, as Friday would have had us, we
should certainly have taken the skin of this mon-
strous creature off, which was worth saving; but
we had near three leagues to go, and our guide
hastened us, so we left him, and went forward on
our journey.

The ground was still covered with snow, though
not so deep and dangerous as on the mountains ;
and the ravenous creatures, as we heard afterwards,
were come down into the forest and plain country,
pressed by hunger, to seek for food, and had done
a great deal of mischief in the villages, where they
surprised the country people, killed a great many
of their sheep and horses, and some people too.
We had one dangerous place to pass, of which our
guide told us, if there were more wolves in the
426 THE ADVENTURES OF

country, we should find them there; and this was a
small plain, surrounded with woods on every side,
and a long narrow defile, or lane, which we were to
pass to get through the wood, and then we should
come to the village where we were to lodge. It was
within half an hour of sunset when we entered the
first wood, and a little after sunset when we came
into the plain. We met with nothing in the first
wood, except that, ina little plain within the wood,
which was not above two furlongs over, we saw five
great wolves cross the road, full speed one after
another, as if they had been in chase of some prey,
and had it in view; they took no notice of us, and
were gone out of sight in a few moments. Upon
this our guide, who, by the way, was but a faint-
hearted fellow, bid us keep in a ready posture, for
he believed there were more wolves a-coming. We
kept our arms ready, and oureyes about us; but we
saw no more wolves till we came through that wood,
which was near half a league, and entered the plain.
As soon as we came into the plain, we had occa-
sion enough to look about us: the first object we
met with was a dead horse, that is to say, a poor
horse which the wolves had killed, and at least a
dozen of them at work, we could not say eating of
him, but picking of his bones rather: for they had
eaten up all the flesh before. We did not think fit
to disturb them at their feast; neither did they
take much notice of us. Friday would have let fly
at them, but I would not suffer him by any means;
for I found we were like to have more business


ROBINSON CRUSOE 427

upon our hands than we were aware of. We were
not gone half over the plain, when we began to hear
the wolves howl in the wood on our left ina fright-
ful manner, and presently after we saw about a hun-
dred coming on directly towards us, all in a body,
and most of them in a line, as regularly as an army
drawn up by an experienced officer. I scarce knew
in what manner to receive them, but found to draw
ourselves in a close line was the only way; so we
formed in a moment: but that we might not have
too much interval, I ordered that only every other
man should fire, and that the others who had not
fired should stand ready to give them a second vol-
ley immediately, if they continued toadvance upon
us; and then that those who had fired at first should
not pretend to load their fusees again, but stand
ready every one witha pistol, for we were all armed
with a fusee and a pair of pistols each man; so we
were, by this method, able to fire six volleys, half
of us at a time. However, at present we had no
necessity: for upon firing the first volley, the enemy
made a full stop, being terrified as well with the
noise as with the fire; four of them, being shot in
the head, dropped; several others were wounded,
and went bleeding off, as we could see by the snow.
I found they stopped, but did not immediately re-
treat; whereupon, remembering that I had been
told that the fiercest creatures were terrified at the
voice of a man, I caused all the company to halloo
as loud as we could; and I found the notion not
altogether mistaken; for upon our shout they
428 THE ADVENTURES OF

began to retire and turn about. I then ordered a
second volley to be fired in their rear, which put
them to the gallop, and away they went to the
woods, This gave us leisure to charge our pieces
again; and that we might lose no time, we kept
going; but we had but little more than loaded our
fusees, and put ourselves in readiness, when we
heard a terrible noisein the same wood, on our left,
only that it was farther onward, the same way we
were to go.

The night was coming on, and the light began
to be dusky, which made it worse on our side; but
the noise increasing, we could easily perceive that
it was the howling and yelling of those hellish crea-
tures ; and on a sudden we perceived two or three
troops of wolves, one on our left, one behind us,
and one in our front, so that we seemed to be sur-
rounded with them: however, as they did not fall
upon us, we kept our way forward, as fast as we
could make our horses go, which, the way being
very rough, was only a good hard trot. In this man-
ner we came in view of the entrance of the wood,
through which we were to pass, at the farther side
of the plain; but we were greatly surprised, when,
coming nearer the lane or pass, we saw a confused
number of wolves standing just at the entrance.
On a sudden, at another opening of the wood, we
heard the noise of a gun, and looking that way out
rushed a horse, with a saddle and a bridle on him
flying like the wind, and sixteen or seventeen wolves
after him full speed; indeed, the horse had the heels

Pe
i
3
ul

:




ROBINSON CRUSOE 429

of them, but as we supposed that he could not hold
it at that rate, we doubted not but they would get
up with him at last; no question but they did.
But here we had a most horrible sight; for rid-
ing up to the entrance where the horse came out,
we found the carcasses of another horse and of two
men, devoured by the ravenous creatures; and one
of the men was no doubt the same whom we heard
fire the gun, for there lay a gun just by him, fired
off; but as to the man, his head and the upper
part of his body were eaten up. This filled us with
horror, and we knew not what course to take; but
the creatures resolved us soon, for they gathered
about us presently, in hopes of prey ; and I verily
believe there were three hundred of them. It hap-
pened very much to our advantage that at the en-
trance into the wood, buta little way from it, there
lay some large timber trees, which had been cut
down the summer before, and I suppose lay there
for carriage. I drew my little troop in among those
trees, and, placing ourselves in a line behind one
long tree, I advised them all to alight, and keeping
that tree before us for a breastwork, to stand in
a triangle or three fronts enclosing our horses in
the centre. We did so, and it was well we did; for
never was a more furious charge than the creatures
made upon us in this place. They came on with a
growling kind of noise, and mounted the piece of
timber, which, as I said, was our breastwork, as if
they were only rushing upon their prey; and this
fury of theirs, it seems, was principally occasioned
430 THE ADVENTURES OF

by their seeing our horses behind us. I ordered our
men to fire as before, every other man: and they
took their aim so sure that they killed several of
the wolves at the first volley; but there was a ne-
cessity to keep a continual firing, for they came on
like devils, those behind pushing on those before.

When we had fired a second volley of our fusees,
we thought they stopped a little, and I hoped
they would have gone off; but it was but a mo-
ment, for others came forward again: so we fired
two volleys of our pistols ; and I believe in these
four firings we had killed seventeen or eighteen of
them, and lamed twice as many, yet they came on
again. I was loth tospend our shot too hastily; so I
called my servant, not my man Friday, for he was
better employed, for, with the greatest dexterity
imaginable, he had charged my fusee and his own
while we were engaged: but as I said, I called my
other man, and giving him a horn of powder, I bade
him lay a train all along the piece of timber, and let
it be a large train. He did so; and had but just time
to get away, when the wolves came up toit,and some
got upon it, when I, snapping an uncharged pistol
close to the powder, set it on fire: those that were
upon the timber were scorched with it; and six
or seven of them fell or rather jumped in among
us, with the force and fright of the fire: we dis-
patched these in an instant, and the rest were so
frightened with the light, which the night, for it was
now very near dark, made more terrible, that they
drew back a little ; upon which I ordered our last


ROBINSON CRUSOE 431

pistols to be fired off in one volley, and after that
we gave a shout: upon this the wolves turned tail,
and we sallied immediately upon near twenty lame
ones, that we found struggling on the ground, and
fell a-cutting them with our swords, which an-
swered our expectation ; for the crying and howl-
ing they made was better understood by their fel-
lows; so that they all fled and left us.

We had, first and last, killed about threescore
of them; and had it been daylight, we had killed
many more. The field of battle being thus cleared,
we made forward again, for we had still near a
league to go. We heard the ravenous creatures
howl and yell in the woods as we went, several times,
and sometimes we fancied we saw some of them,
but the snow dazzling our eyes, we were not cer-
tain: in about an hour more we came to the town
where we were to lodge, which we found in a ter-
rible fright, and all in arms; for, it seems, the night
before, the wolves and some bears had broke into
the village, and put them in such terror that they
were obliged to keep guard night and day, but
especially in the night, to preserve their cattle, and,
indeed, their people.

The next morning our guide was so ill, and his
limbs swelled so much with the rankling of his two
wounds, that he could go no farther; so we were
obliged to take a new guide here, and go to Thou-
louse, where we found a warm climate, a fruitful
pleasant country, and nosnow, no wolves, nor any-
thing like them; but when we told our story at
432 THE ADVENTURES OF

Thoulouse, they told us it was nothing but what
was ordinary in the great forest at the foot of the
mountains, especially when the snow lay on the
ground; but they inquired much what kind of a
guide we had got, who would venture to bring us that
way in such asevere season; and told us it was sur-
prising we were not all devoured. When we told
them how we placed ourselves, and the horses inthe
middle, they blamed us exceedingly, and told us
it was fifty to one but we had been all destroyed;
for it was the sight of the horses which made the
wolves so furious, seeing their prey: and that, at
other times, they are really afraid ofa gun; but be-
ing excessive hungry, and raging on that account,
the eagerness to come at the horses had made them
senseless of danger; and that if we had not, by the
continued fire, and at last by the stratagem of the
train of powder, mastered them, it had been great
odds but that we had been torn to pieces: whereas,
had we been content to have sat still on horseback,
and fired as horsemen, they would not have taken
the horses so much for their own, when men were
on their backs, as otherwise; and withal they told
us, that, at last, if we had stood altogether, and left
our horses, they would have been so eager to have
devoured them that we might have come off safe,
especially having our fire-arms in our hands, and
being so many in number. For my part, I was
never so sensible of danger in my life; for seeing
above three hundred devils comeroaring and open-
mouthed to devour us, and having nothing to shel-


ROBINSON CRUSOE 433

terus, or retreat to, I gave myself over for lost; and,
as it was, I believe I shall never care to cross those
mountains again: I think I would much rather go
a thousand leagues by sea, though I was sure to
meet with a storm once a week.

I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in
my passage through France, nothing but what other
travellers have given an account of, with much
more advantage than I can. I travelled from Thou-
louse to Paris, and without any considerable stay
came to Calais, and landed safe at Dover, the 14th
of January, after having a severe cold season to
travel in.

I was now come to the centre of my travels, and
had ina little time all my new discovered estate safe
about me; the bills of exchange which I brought
with me having been very currently paid.

My principal guide and privy counsellor was
my good ancient widow, who, in gratitude for the
money I had sent her, thought no pains too much,
nor care toogreat, to employ for me; and I trusted
her so entirely with everything that I was per-
fectly easy as to the security of my effects: and,
indeed, I was very happy from the beginning, and
now to the end, in the unspotted integrity of this
good gentlewoman.

I now resolved to dispose of my plantation in
the Brazils, if I could find means. For this pur-
pose, I wrote to my old friend at Lisbon, who hav-
ing offered it to the two merchants, the survivors
of my trustees, who lived in the Brazils, they ac-
434 THE ADVENTURES OF

cepted the offer, and remitted thirty-three thou-
sand pieces-of-eight to a correspondent of theirs
at Lisbon, to pay for it. Having signed the in-
strument of sale, and sent it to my old friend, he
remitted me bills of exchange for thirty-two thou-
sand eight hundred pieces-of-eight for the estate,
reserving the payment of a hundred moidores a
year to himself during his life, and fifty moidores
afterwards to his son for life, which I had pro-
mised them.

Though I had sold my estate in the Brazils, yet
I could not keep the country out of my head; nor
could I resist the strong inclination I had to see my
island. My true friend, the widow, earnestly dis-
suaded me from it, and so far prevailed with me
that, for almost seven years, she prevented my run-
ning abroad; during which time I took my two
nephews, the children of one of my brothers, into
my care: the eldest having something of his own,
I bred up as a gentleman, and gave him a settle-
ment of some addition to his estate, after my de-
cease. The other I put out to acaptain of a ship;
and after five years, finding him a sensible, bold,
enterprising young fellow, I put him into a good
ship, and sent him to sea: and this young fellow
afterwards drew me in, old as I was, to further
adventures myself.

In the mean time, I in part settled myself here;
for, first of all, I married, and that not either to my
disadvantage or dissatisfaction, and had three
children, two sons and one daughter; but my wife
ROBINSON CRUSOE 435

dying, and my nephew coming home with good
success from a voyage to Spain, my inclination togo
abroad and his importunity prevailed, and engaged
me to go in his ship as a private trader to the East
Indies: this was in the year 1694.

But these things, with some very surprising in-
cidents in some new adventures of my own, for ten
years more, I may perhaps give a further account
of hereafter.



xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EGRZ34IPB_3WRD1J INGEST_TIME 2016-12-08T22:12:23Z PACKAGE UF00074474_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES