EVERY CHILDâ€™S LIBRARY
It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my
little family sit down to dinner.
The Life a
THE SAALFIELD PUBLISHING COMPANY
CHICAGO AKRON, OHIO NEW YORK
MADE IN U. S&S A.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE
I was born in the year 1632, in the City of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchan-
dise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterward at
York, from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very good
family in that country, and from whom I was
called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England we are now called,
nay, we call ourselves, and write our name Crusoe.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early
with rambling thoughts. My father, who was very
ancient, had given me a competent share of
learning, as far as house education and a country
free school generally goes, and designed me for the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so
strongly against the will, nay, the commands, of
my father and all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother, that there seemed to be something fatal
in that propension of nature tending directly to the
life of misery which was to befall me, 7
8 ROBINSON CRUSOE
Being one day at Hull, where I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement
that time; but I say, being there, and one of my
companions being going by sea to London, in his
fatherâ€™s ship, and prompting me to go with them,
with the common allurement of sea-faring men,
viz., that it should cost me nothing for my passage,
I consulted neither father nor mother, nor so much
as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of
it as they might, without asking Godâ€™s blessing, or
my fatherâ€™s, without any consideration of circum-
stances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows, on the first of September, 1651, I went on
board a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurerâ€™s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner,
or continued longer than mine. The ship was no
sooner gotten out of the Humber, but the wind be-
gan to blow, and the waves to rise in a most fright-
ful manner; and as I had never been at sea before,
I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified
in my mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken
by the judgment of heaven for my wicked leaving
of my fatherâ€™s house, and abandoning my duty; all
the good counsel of my parents, my fatherâ€™s tears
and my motherâ€™s entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind, and my conscience, which was not yet
come to the pitch of hardness which it has been
since, reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased. I expected
â€œI warrant you were frighted, waâ€™nâ€™t you, last night, when
it blew but a capful of wind?â€
10 ROBINSON CRUSOE
every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought,
in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more; and in this agony of mind I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God
here to spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got
once my foot upon dry land again, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived; and that I would take his
advice, and never run myself into such miseries as
these any more.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm continued, and indeed some time
after; but the next day the wind was abated and
the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to
it. However, I was very grave for all that day,
being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night
the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over,
and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning.
I slept well in the night, and was now no more
sea-sick but very cheerful, looking with wonder up-
on the sea that was so rough and terrible the day
before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so
little time after. And now lest my good resolu-
tions should continue, my companion, who had in-
deed enticed me away, comes to me: â€œWell, Bob,â€
says he, clapping me on the shoulder, â€œhow do you
do after it? I warrant you were frighted, waâ€™nâ€™t
you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?â€
â€œA capful, do you call it?â€ said I; â€œ â€™twas a ter-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 11
rible storm.â€ â€œA storm, you fool you,â€ replies he;
â€œdo you call that astorm? Why, it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but
youâ€™re but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us
make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that;
dâ€™ye see what charming weather â€™tis now?â€ To
make short this sad part of my story, we went the
old way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I
was made drunk with it, and in that one nightâ€™s
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my
reflections upon my past conduct, and all my reso-
lutions for my future.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into
Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary
and the weather calm, we had made but little way
Since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight
days, during which time a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same roads, as the com-
mon harbor where the ships might wait for a wind
for the river.
The eighth day in the morning the wind in-
creased, and we had all hands at work to strike our
top-masts, and make everything snug and close,
that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By
noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rid forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought once or twice our anchor had come home;
upon which our master ordered out the gheet-
12 ROBINSON CRUSOE
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead,
and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the
faces even of the seamen themselves. When the
master himself came by me, and said we should
be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened; I got up
out of my cabin, and looked out. But such a
dismal sight I never saw; the sea went mountains
high and broke upon us every three or four minutes;
when I could look about, I could see nothing but
distress round us. Two ships that rid near us we
found had cut their masts by the board, being deep
loaden; and our men cried out that a ship which
rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged
the master of our ship to let them cut away the
fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to. But
the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not
the ship would founder, he consented; and when
they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut her away also, and make a
But the worst was not come yet; the storm con-
tinued with such fury that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never known a worse. We
had a good ship, but she was deep loaden, and
wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now
and then cried out she would founder. It was my
advantage in one respect, that I did not know what
ROBINSON CRUSOE 13
they meant by founder till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not
often seen: the master, the boatswain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers,
and expecting every moment when the ship would
go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and
under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men
that had been down on purpose to see cried out we
had sprung a leak; another said there was four feet
of water in the hold. Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon
the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin.
However, the men aroused me, and told me that I;
that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another; at which I stirred up and
went to the pump and worked very heartily.
The water increasing in the hold, it was apparent
that the ship would founder. The master fired
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it
| out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help
us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came
near us, but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the shipâ€™s side,
till at last the men rowing very heartily, and
venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they after
great labor and hazard took hold of, and we hauled
them close under our stern, and got all into their
s boat. It was to no purpose for them or us after we
14 ROBINSON CRUSOE
were in the boat to think of reaching to their own
ship, so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat
went away to the norward, sloping towards the
shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship but we saw her sink, and then
I understood for the first time what was meant by
a ship foundering in the sea.
We made but slow way towards the shore, and
walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as
unfortunate men, we were used with great human-
ity and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
As for me, having some money in my pocket, I
travelled to London by land; and there, as well as
on the road, had many struggles with myself and
whether I should go home, or go to sea.
It was my lot to fall into pretty good company in
London. I first fell acquainted with the master of
a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea, and
who, having had very good success there, was re-
solved to go again; and who, taking a fancy to my
conversation, told me if I would go the voyage with
him I should be at no expense; I should be his mess-
mate and his companion; and if I could carry any- |
thing with me, I should have all the advantage of |
it that the trade would admit, and perhaps I might â€”
meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and, entering into a strict '
friendship with this captain, who was an honest
and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, |
ROBINSON CRUSOE 15
and carried a small adventure with me, which, by
the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain,
I increased very considerably, for I carried about
Â£40 in such toys and trifies as the captain directed
me to buy. This Â£40 I had mustered together by
the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my
father, or at least my mother, to contribute so
much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to
the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain ;
under whom also I got a competent knowledge of
the mathematics and rules of navigation, learned
how to keep an account of the shipâ€™s course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a
sailor. For, as he took delight to introduce me, I
took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage
made me both a sailor and a merchant ; for I
brought him five pounds nine ounces of gold dust
for my adventure, which yielded me in London at
my return almost Â£300, and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so com-
pleted my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after hig
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again,
and I embarked in the same vessel with one who
was his mate in the former voyage, and had now
got command of the ship. This was the unhappiest
16 ROBINSON CRUSOE
voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite Â£100 of my new-gained wealth, so that
I had Â£200 left, and which I lodged with my
friendâ€™s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell
into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the
first was this, viz., our ship making her course to-
wards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised in the
grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. Finding the pirate gained upon us, we pre-
pared to fight, our ship having twelve guns, and the
rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he
came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern,
as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to
bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon
him, which made him sheer off again, after re-
turning our fire and pouring in also his small-shot
from near 200 men which he had on board. How-
ever, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again,
and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board
the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to
cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We
plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part
of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of
our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged
ROBINSON CRUSOE 17
to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended, being kept by the captain of
the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,
being young and nimble and fit for his business.
After about two years an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without
fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want
of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take
the shipâ€™s pinnace, and go out into the road a-
fishing; and as he always took me and a young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him
very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catch-
ing fish; insomuch, that sometimes he would send
me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth
the Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him. It happened one time that, going a-
fishing in a stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick,
that though we were not a half a league from the
| Shore we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not
whither or which way, we labored all day, and all
the next night, and when the morning came we
found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in
for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues
from the shore. However we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labor, and some danger,
for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the
18 ROBINSON CRUSOE
morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and
having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship which he had taken, he resolved he would not
go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who also was an English slave, to build a little
state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat,
like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer and haul home the main-sheet, and room
before for a hand or two to stand and work the
shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over
the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,
he never went without me. It happened that he
had appointed to go out in this boat with two or
three Moors of some distinction and had therefore
sent on board the boat overnight a larger store of
provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to
get ready three fuzees with powder and shot, which
were on board his ship, for that they designed some
sport of fowling as well as fishing.
The next morning my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going,
and ordered me with the man and the boy, as
usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house.
This moment my former notions of deliverance |
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was
ROBINSON CRUSOE 19
like to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone I prepared to furnish myself,
not for a fishing business, but for a voyage.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get something for our sub-
sistence on board; for I told him we must not pre-
sume to eat of our patronâ€™s bread. He said that
was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit of their kind, and three jars of fresh water,
into the boat. I knew where my patronâ€™s case of
bottles stood, and I conveyed them into the boat
while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been
there before for our master. I conveyed also a
great lump of beeswax into the boat, which weighed
about half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer. An-
other trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also. â€œMoely,â€ said I, â€œour patronâ€™s
guns are on board the boat; can you not get a little
powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves,
for I know he keeps the gunnerâ€™s stores in the ship.â€
: â€œYes,â€ says he, â€œIâ€™ll bring someâ€; and accordingly
he brought a great leather pouch which held about
a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds with
some bullets, and put all into the boat. Thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the en-
trance of the port, knew who we were, and took
no notice of us; and we were not above a mile
20 ROBINSON CRUSOE
out of the port before we set us down to fish.
After we had fished some time and catched
nothing, I said to the Moor, â€œThis will not do; our
master will not thus be served; we must stand
farther off.â€ He, thinking no harm, agreed, and
being in the head of the boat set the sails; and as
I had the helm I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then I brought her to as if I would
fish; when giving the boy the helm, I stepped for-
ward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by
surprise and tossed him clear overboard into the
sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
- cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told
me he would go all the world over with me. He
swam so strong after the boat, that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling pieces, I presented it at
him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if
he would be quiet I would do him none. â€œBut,â€
said I, â€œyou swim well enough to reach the shore,
and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to
shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come
near the boat Iâ€™ll shoot you through the head, for
I am resolved to have my liberty.â€ So he swam
for the shore, and I make ne doubt but he reached
it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, â€œXury, if you
will be faithful to me Iâ€™ll make you a great man;
ROBINSON CRUSOE 21
but if you will not stroke your face to be true to
me,â€ that is, swear by Mahomet and his fatherâ€™s
beard, â€œI must throw you into the sea too.â€ The
boy smiled in my face, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat.
But as soon as it grew dusk, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending
my course a little toward the east, that I might
keep in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh
gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such
sail that I believe by the next day at three oâ€™clock
in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling in-
to their hands, that I would not stop, or go on
shore, or come to anchor, the wind continuing fair,
till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then
the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded
also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me,
they also would now give over; so I ventured to
come to ar anchor in the mouth of a little river,
I knew not what, or where; neither what latitude,
what country, what nations, or what river. I
neither saw, or desired to see, any people; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We
came into this creek in the evening, resolving to
swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover
the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we
22 ROBINSON CRUSOE
heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring,
and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear,
and begged of me not to go on shore till day.
â€œWell, Xury,â€ said I, â€œthen I wonâ€™t ; but it may be
we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as
those lions.â€ â€œThen we give them the shoot gun,â€
Says Xury, laughing; â€œmake them run away.â€
Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
Slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so
cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our pa-
tronâ€™s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all,
Xuryâ€™s advice was good, and I took it; we dropped
our little anchor and lay still all night. I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw
vast great creatures (we knew not what to call
them) of many sorts come down to the seashore
and run into the water, wallowing and washing
themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves ;
and they made such hideous howlings and yellings,
that I never indeed heard the like.
The next morning we found we need not take
great pains for water, for a little higher up the
creek we found the water fresh when the tide was
out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled
our jars, and feasted on a hare we had killed, and
prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature.
After this stop we made on to the southward con-
tinually for ten or twelve days, living very sparing
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 23
and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was
to make the river Gambia or Senegalâ€”that is to
Say, anywhere about the Cape de Verdeâ€”where I
was in hopes to meet with some European ship;
and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to
take, but to seek out for the islands, or perish there
among the negroes. I knew that all the ships
from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made
this cape, or those islands; and in a word, I put the
whole of my fortune upon this single point, either
that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution many days,
Xury having the helm suddenly cried out, â€œMaster,
master, a ship with a sail!â€ I jumped out of the
cabin, and immediately saw it was a Portuguese
ship, and, as I thought, bound to the coast of
Guinea, for negroes. I stretched out to sea as
much as I could, resolved to speak with them if
possible. But after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the
help of their perspective glasses, so they shortened
sail and lay by for me; and in about three hoursâ€™
time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and
in Spanish, and in French, but I understood none
of them; but at last a Scots sailor, who was on
board, called to me, and I answered him, and told
him I was an Englishman, that I had made my es-
cape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee. -
24 ROBINSON CRUSOE
Then they bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me that I was thus
delivered from such a miserable condition as I was
in; and I immediately offered all I had to the cap-
tain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance.
But he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me when I came to the Brazils.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
shipâ€™s use, and asked me what I would have for it?
I told him he had been so generous to me in every-
thing, that I could not offer to make any price for
the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he
told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay
me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil, and when
it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, but I was very
loth to sell the poor boyâ€™s liberty, who had assisted
me so faithfully in procuring my own. However,
when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would
give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years if he turned Christian. Upon this, and
Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the
captain have him. |
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and
arrived, in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All
Saintsâ€™ Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
ROBINSON CRUSOE 25
now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do
next with myself I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I
Can never enough remember. He would take noth-
ing of me for my passage, and caused everything
I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me;
and what I was willing to sell he bought, such as
the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of
the lump of beeswaxâ€”for I had made candles of
the rest; in a word, I made about 220 pieces of
eight of all my cargo, and with this stock I went
on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended
to the house of a good honest man like himself,
who had a plantation and a sugar-house, I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself by
that means with the manner of their planting and
making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters
lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved,
if I could get a license to settle there, I would turn
planter among them, resolving in the meantime to
find out some way to get my money which I left in
London remitted to me. To this purpose, getting
a kind of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as
much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
Settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to
the stock which I proposed to myself to receive
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
26 ROBINSON CRUSOE
born of English parents, whose name was Wells,
and in much such circumstances as I was. My
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our
land began to come into order; so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us
a large piece of ground ready for planting canes in
the year to come. But we both wanted help; and
now I found more than before, I had done wrong
in parting with my boy Xury. I bought me a
negro slave, and two European servants also.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it
with me. I went on the next year with great suc-
cess in my plantation. I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had dis-
posed of for necessaries among my neighbors; and
these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred-
weight, were well cured, and laid by against the re-
turn of the fleet from Lisbon. And now, increas-
ing in business and in wealth, my head began to
be full of projects and undertakings beyond my
reach, such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the
best heads in business.
To come, then, by the just degrees to the particu-
lars of this part of my story. You may suppose,
that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very
well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 27
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was
our port, and that in my discourses among them I
had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trad-
ing with the negroes there, and how easy it was to
purchase upon the coast for triflesâ€”such as beads,
toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the likeâ€”not only gold dust, Guinea grains, ele-
phantsâ€™ teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service of
the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying of negroes; which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into,
but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assiento, or permission, of the Kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public, so that few
negroes were brought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance in St. Sal-
vador, and talking of those things very earnestly,
three of them came to me one morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what I
had discoursed with them of, the last night, and
they came to make a secret proposal to me. And
after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they
had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as
it was a trade that could not be carried on because
28 ROBINSON CRUSOE
they could not publicly sell the negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voy-
age, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and
divide them among their own plantations; and, in
a word, the question was, whether I would go their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part
upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that
I should have my equal share of the negroes with-
out providing any part of the stock.
I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct if I miscarried. This they all engaged to
do, and entered into writings or covenants to do
so; I made a formal will, disposing of my planta-
tion and effects, in case of my death; making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, before,
my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of
my effects as I had directed in my will; one-half
of the produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped to England.
Aceordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the
cargo furnished, and all things done as by agree-
ment by my partners in the voyage, I went on board
in an evil hour, the [first] of [September 1659],
being the same day eight year that I went from my
father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel
to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burthen, carried
six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself. We had on board no large cargo
ROBINSON CRUSOE 29
of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the negroesâ€”such as beads, bits of
glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little look-
ing-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, stand-
ing away to the northward upon our own coast, Â©
with design to stretch over for the African coast,
when they came about 10 or 12 degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days. We had very good weather,
only excessive hot, all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino,
frem whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost
sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for
the Isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course
N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east,
In this course we passed the line in about twelve
daysâ€™ time, and were, by our last observation, in 7
degrees 22 minutes northern latitude, when a vio-
lent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge. It began from the south-east, came
about to the north-west, and then settled into the
north-east, from whence it blew in such a terrible
manner, that for twelve days together we could
do nothing but drive, and scudding away before it,
let it carry us wherever fate and the fury of the
winds directed; and during these twelve days, I
need not say that I expected every day to be swal-
lowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect
to save their lives.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
30 ROBINSON CRUSOE
one of our men early in the morning cried out,
â€œLand!â€ and we had no sooner ran out of our
cabin to look out, but the ship struck upon the sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such manner, that we ex-
pected we should all have perished immediately.
The mate of our vessel lay hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men they got
her slung over the shipâ€™s side; and getting all into
her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven
in number, to Godâ€™s mercy and the wild sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging
wave, mountainlike, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. Ina
word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset
the boat at once; and separating us, as well from
the boat as from one another, gave us not time
hardly to say, â€œO God?â€ for we were all swallowed.
up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water ; for though
I swam very well, yet I could rot deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but
half dead with the water I tookin. I had so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that see-
ing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I
got upon my feet and endeavored to make on to-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 31
wards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at
once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body,
and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force.
and swiftness towards the shore a very great way;
but I held my breath and assisted myself to swim
still forward with all my might. The sea came
pouring in after me again and again and I was
lifted up by the waves and carried forward as be-
Now as the waves were not so high as at first,
being near land, I fetched another run, which
brought me to the mainland, where, to my great
comfort, I clambered up the cliffs and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of
reach of the water. .
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began
to look up and thank God that my life wags saved in
a case wherein there was some minutes before
Scarce any room to hope.
I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may Say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance, reflecting upon
all my comrades that were drowned, and that there
should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for
them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two
shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could
32 ROBINSON CRUSOE
hardly see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord!
how was it possible I could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfort-
able part:of my condition, I began to look round
me to see what kind of place I was in, and what
was next to be done, and I soon found my comforts
abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful de-
liverance ; for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me,
nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort me,
neither did I see any prospect before me but that
of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly af-
flicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that
might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco ina box. This was all my pro-
vision; and this threw me into terrible agonies of
mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart,
to consider what would be my lot if there were any.
ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night
they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at
that time was, to get up into a thick bushy tree
like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the
next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw
no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong
from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
ROBINSON CRUSOE 33
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth
to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting
up into it, endeavored to place myself so as that
if I should sleep I might not fail; and having cut
me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence,
I took up my lodging.
When I waked it was broad day and when I came
down from my apartment in the tree the first thing
I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and
the sea had tossed her upon the land, about two
34. ROBINSON CRUSOE
miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I
could upon the shore to have got to her, but found
a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I came back
for the present, being more intent upon getting at
the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out that I could come within
a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found
a fresh renewing of my grief, for I saw evidently
that if we had kept on board we had been all safe,
that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I
had not been so miserable as to be left entirely
destitute of all comfort and company.
I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I
pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to
extremity, and took the water. I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in
her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank
of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay
lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost.
to the water. By this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you
may be sure my first work was to search and to see
what was spoiled and what was free. And first I
found that all the shipâ€™s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water; and being very well dis-
posed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled
my pockets with biscuit and ate it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also
ROBINSON CRUSOE 35
found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of, to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish my-
self with many things which I foresaw would be
very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my appli-
cation. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a square top-mast
or two in the ship, and from this I made a raft
strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of
the sea; but I was not long considering this. I
first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I first got three of the seamenâ€™s chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and low-
ered them down upon my raft. The first of these I
filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goatâ€™s flesh, which we
lived much upon, and a little remainder of Euro-
pean corn. As for liquors, I found several cases
of bottles belonging to our skipper. While I was
doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though
very calm, and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waist-coat, which I had left on
shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-kneed,
IT swam on board in them, and my stockings.
36 ROBINSON CRUSOE
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes,
of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use. It was after long search-
ing that I found out the carpenterâ€™s chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me.
My next care was for some ammunition and
arms; there were two very good fowling-pieces in
the great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured
first, with some powder-horns, and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not
where our gunner had stowed them; but with much
search I found them, two of them dry and good,
the third had taken water; those two I got to my
raft with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I
should get to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind
would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements. 1. A smooth, calm
sea. 2. The tide rising and setting in to the shore.
3. What little wind there was blew me towards
the land. And thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the
tools which were in the chest, I found two saws,
an axe and a hammer, and with this cargo I put to
sea. For a mile or thereabouts my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before, by which I
perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently I hoped to find some creek or
ROBINSON CRUSOE 37
river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before
me a little opening of the land, and I found a
strong current of the tide set into it, so I guided
my raft as well as I could to keep in the middle of
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and diffi-
culty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in; and here I lay till the water ebbed Â©
away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on
My next work was to view the country and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether
on the continent, or on an island; whether inhab-
ited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild
beasts, or not. There was a hill, not above a mile
from me, which rose up very steep and high, and
which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces and one of the pistols, and
a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I
had with great labor and difficulty got to the top,
I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz., that I
was in an island environed every way with the
sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks which
38 ROBINSON CRUSOE
lay a great way off, and two small islands less than
this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to
my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on
shore, which took me up the rest of that day; and
what to do with myself at night, I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down
on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast
might devour me, though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears. However,
as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of a hut for that nightâ€™s lodging.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship, which would be
useful to me. And as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces,
I resolved to set all other things apart till I got
everything out of the ship that I could get.
I got on board the ship as before when the tide
was down, and prepared a second raft. I neither
made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but
yet I brought away several things very useful to
me; as, first, in the carpenterâ€™s stores I found two
or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above
all that most useful thing called a grindstone. All
these I secured, together with several things be-
longing to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets,
seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with
ROBINSON CRUSOE 39
some small quantity of powder more; a large bag
full of small-shot, and a great roll of sheet lead.
Besides these things, I took all the menâ€™s clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a ham-
mock, and some bedding.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks, I went to work to make me a little tent
with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
â€˜40 ROBINSON CRUSOE
purpose; and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun;
and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in
a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sud-
den attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this I blocked up the door of
the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without; and spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols
just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I
went to bed for the first time, and slept very
ROBINSON CRUSOE > 41
quietly all night, for I was very weary and heavy.
I had the biggest magazine of al] kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man ; but I was
not satisfied still, for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get everything
out of her that I could. So every day at low water
I went on board, and brought away something or
other; but, particularly, the third time I went I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could,
as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could
get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to
mend the sails upon occasion, the barrel of wet
gunpowder; in a word, I brought away all the sails
first and last, only that I was fain to cut them in
pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could;
for they were no more useful to be Sails, but as
mere canvas only.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had
been eleven times on board the ship; in which time
I had brought away all that one pair of hands
could well be supposed capable to bring, though I
believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship piece by piece.
But preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I
found the wind begin to rise. However, at low
water I went on board, and though I thought I
had rummaged the cabin so effectually as that noth-
ing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker
with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with
Some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in
42 ROBINSON CRUSOE
another, I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money, some European coin, some Brazil, some
pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
It blew very hard all that night, and in the morn-
ing, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to
My thoughts were now wholly employed about
securing myself against either savages, if any
should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the
I soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a low
moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would
not be wholesome; and more particularly because
there was no fresh water near it. So I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation, which
I found would be proper for me. First, health
and fresh water, I just now mentioned. Secondly,
shelter from the heat of the sun. Thirdly, secu-
rity from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts. Fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God
sent any ship in sight I might not lose any advan-
tage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a
little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come down upon me from the
top; on the side of this rock there was a hollow
ROBINSON CRUSOE 43
place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any cave,
or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above an hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door, and
at the end of it descended irregularly every way
down into the low grounds by the seaside. It was
on the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that I was shel-
tered from the heat every day, till it came to a W.
and by 8. sun, or thereabouts, which in those coun-
tries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle be- ;
fore the hollow place, which took in about ten yards
in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty
yards in its diameter from its beginning and end-
ing. In this half circle I pitched two rows of
strong stakes, driving them into the ground till
they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end be-
ing out of the ground about five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not
stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut
in the ship, and laid them in rows one upon an-
other, within the circle, between these two rows of
Stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the
inside leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a Spur to a post; and this fence was
So strong, that neither man nor beast could get
into it, or over it. This cost-me a great deal of
44 ROBINSON CRUSOE
time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not
by a door, but by a short ladder, to go over the top;
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me,
and so I was completely fenced in, and fortified, as
I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labor, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammuni-
tion, and stores, of which you have the account
above; and I made me a large tent, which, to pre-
serve me from the rains that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz.,
one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above
it, and covered the upper-most with a large tar-
paulin, which I had saved among the sails. And
now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I
had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which
was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the
mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and hay-
ing thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the en-
trance, which, till now, I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock; and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them
up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so
ROBINSON CRUSOE 45
that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; thus I made me a cave just behind my tent,
which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labor, and many days, before all
these things were brought to perfection, and there-
fore I must go back to some other things which
took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it
happened, after I had laid my scheme for the set-
ting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm
of rain falling from a thick dark cloud, a sudden
flash of lightning happened, and after that a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I
was not so much surprised with the lightning, as I
was with a thought which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself. O my powder! My
very heart sunk within me when I thought that at
one blast all my powder might be destroyed, on
which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was noth-
ing near so anxious about my own danger; though
had the powder took fire, I had never known who
had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me that
after the storm was over I laid aside all my works,
my building, and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes to separate the powder, and
keep it a little and a little ina parcel, in hope that
whatever might come it might not all take fire at
once, and to keep it so apart, that it should not be
possible to make one part fire another. I finished
this work in about a fortnight; and I think my
46 ROBINSON CRUSOE
powder, which in all was about 240 pounds weight,
was divided in not less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not appre-
hend any danger from that, so I placed it in my
new cave, which in my fancy I called my kitchen,
and the rest I hid up and down in holes among
the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, mark-
ing very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I
went out once, at least, every day with my gun, as
well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill
anything fit for food, and as near as I could to ac-
quaint myself with what the island produced. The
first time I went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats in the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with
this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the diffi-
cultest thing in the world to come at them. But I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon hap-
The first shot I made among these creatures I
killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her,
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily;
but when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still
by her till I came and took her up; and not only
so, but when I carried the old one with me upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my en-
closure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took
the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in
ROBINSON CRUSOE 47
hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat,
so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread espe-
cially, as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it ab-
Solutely necessary to provide a place to make a
fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that,
as also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of in
its place. But I must first give some little ac-
count of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which it may well be supposed were not a few.
48 ROBINSON CRUSOE
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I
was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and a great way,
viz., some hundreds of leagues out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it asa determination of Heaven, that in
this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I
should end my life. The tears would run plenti-
fully down my face when I made these reflections,
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself,
why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miser-
able, so without help abandoned, so entirely de-
pressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and par-
ticularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand
by the seaside, I was very pensive upon the subject
of my present condition, when Reason, as it were,
expostulated with me tâ€™other wry, thus: â€œWell,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true, but pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not
you come eleven of you into the boat? Where are
the ten? Why were they not saved, and you lost?
And now being to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order.
It was, by my account, the 30th of September when,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 49
in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
this horrid island, when the sun being to us in its
autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head,
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days,
it came into my thoughts that I should loge my
reckoning of time for want of books and pen and
ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days from
the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters;
and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the
shore where I first landed, viz., â€œI came on shore
here on the 30th of September, 1659.â€ Upon the
sides of this square post I cut every day a notch
with my knife and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month
50 ROBINSON CRUSOE
as long again as that long one; and thus I kept
my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reck-
oning of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among
the many things which I brought out of the ship in
the several voyages, which, as above mentioned, I
made to it, I got several things of less value, but
not all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as in particular, pens, ink, and paper,
several parcels in the captainâ€™s, mateâ€™s, gunnerâ€™s,
and carpenterâ€™s keeping, three or four compasses,
Some mathematical instruments, dials, perspec-
tives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or
no. Also I found three very good Bibles, which
came to me in my cargo from England, and which
I had packed up among my things; some Portu-
guese books also, and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all
which I carefully secured. And I must not forget,
that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of
whose eminent history I may have occasion to say
something in its place; for I carried both the cats
with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the
ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day
after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was
a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company
that he could make up to me; I only wanted to
have him talk to me, but that he would not do.
The want of tools made every work I did go on
ROBINSON CRUSOE Bi
heavily ; and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale or surrounded habi-
tation. The piles of stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more by far in bring-
ing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in
cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground.
But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had
time enough to do it in? nor had I any other em-
ployment, if that had been over, at least, that I
could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek
for food, which I did more or less every day.
I now drew up the state of my affairs in writing;
not so much to leave them to any that were to come
after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as
to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind. And as my reason
began now to master my despondency, I stated it
very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the com-
forts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered,
I am cast upon a hor- But I am alive, and
rible desolate island, not drowned, as all my
void of all hope of re- shipâ€™s company was.
I am singled out and But I am singled out,
Separated, as it were, too, from all the shipâ€™s
52 ROBINSON CRUSOE
from all the world to be
I am divided from
mankind, a_ solitaire,
one banished from hu-
I have not elothes to
I am without any de-
fence or means to resist
any violence of man or
I have no soul to
speak to, or relieve me.
crew to be spared from
death; and He that mi-
raculously saved me
from death, can deliver
me from this condition.
But I am not starved
and perishing on a bar-
ren place, affording no
But I am in a hot cli.
mate, where if I had
clothes I could hardly
But I am cast on an
island, where I see no
wild beasts to hurt me,
as I saw on the coast of
Africa; and what if I
had been shipwrecked
But God wonderfully
Sent the ship in near
enough to the _ shore,
that I have gotten out
SO. many necessary
things as will either
supply my wants, or en-
able me to supply my-
self even as long ag I
ROBINSON CRUSOE BS
Having now brought my mind a little to relish
my condition, and given over looking out to sea, to
see if I could spy a ship; I say, giving over these
things, I began to apply myself to accommodate
my way of living, and to make things as easy to
me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which
was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded
with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall
up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the
outside, and after some timeâ€”I think it was a year
and a halfâ€”lI raised rafters from it leading to the
rock, and thatched it with boughs of trees and
such things as I could get to keep out the rain,
which I found at some times of the year very
I have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I had
made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at
first this was a confused heap of goods, which as
they lay in no order, so they took up all my place;
I had no room to turn myself. So I set myself
to enlarge my cave and works farther into the
earth ; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded
easily to the labor I bestowed on it. And so, when
I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I
worked sideways to the right hand into the rock;
and then, turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out on the out-
side of my pale or fortification. This gave me not
54 ROBINSON CRUSOE
only egress and regress, as it were a back-way to
my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room
to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, as par-
ticularly a chair and a table.
So I went to work. I had never handled a tool
in my life; and yet in time, by labor, application,
and contrivance, I found at last that I wanted noth-
ing but I could have made it, especially if I had
had tools. However, I made an abundance of
things even without tools, and some with no more
tools than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps,
were never made that way before, and that with
infinite labor. For example, if I wanted a board,
I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it
on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side
with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a
plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It
is true, by this method I could make but one board
out of a whole tree; but my time or labor was little
worth, and so it was as well employed one way as
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I
observed above, in the first place, and this I did out
of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out
some boards, as above, I made large shelves of the
breadth of a foot and a half one over another, all
along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails,
and iron-work; and, in a word, to separate every-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 55
thing at large in their places, that I might come
easily at them.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal
of every dayâ€™s employment, of which I shall here
give you the copy ( though in it will be told all
these particulars over again) as long as it lasted;
for, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it
September 30, 1659.â€”I, poor miserable Robin-
son Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a dreadful
storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dismal
unfortunate island, which I called the Island of
Despair, all the rest of the shipâ€™s company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting my-
Self at the dismal circumstances I was brought to,
viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, or
place to fly to; and in despair to any relief, saw
nothing but death before me; either that I should
be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages,
or starved to death for want of food. At the ap-
preach of night, I slept in a tree for fear of wild
creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all
Oct. 1. In the morning I saw, to my great sur-
prise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and
was driven on shore again much nearer the island;
which, as it was some comfort on one hand, for see-
56 ROBINSON CRUSOE
ing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for
my relief; so, on the other hand, it renewed my
grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imag-
ined, if we had all stayed on board, might have
saved the ship, or at least that they would not have
been all drowned as they were; and that had the
men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a
boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us
to some other part of the world. Seeing the ship
almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I
could, and then swam on board; this day also it
continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th.â€”All these
days entirely spent in many several voyages to get
all I could out of the ship, which I brought on
Shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much
Oct. 25.â€”It rained all night and all day, with
Some gusts of wind, during which time the ship
broke in pieces, and was no more to be seen, except
the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
spent this day in securing the goods which I had
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.â€”I walked about the shore almost all
day to find out a place to fix my habitation. To-
wards night I fixed upon a proper place under a
rock, and marked out a semicirgle for my encamp-
ment, which I resolved to strengthen with a work.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 57
wall, or fortification made of double piles, lined
within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation,
though part of the time it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st, the morning, I went out with my gun
to see for some food, and discover the country ;
when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me
home, which I afterwards killed also, because it
would not feed.
Nov. 1â€”I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there the first night, making it as large as I could,
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.â€”I set up all my chests and boards, and
the pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with
them formed a fence round me, a little within the
place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.â€”I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls, like ducks, which were very good food. In
the afternoon went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.â€”This morning I began to order my times
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep,
and time of diversion, viz., every morning I walked
out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did
not rain; then employed myself to work till about
eleven oâ€™clock; then eat what I had to live on; and
from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessive hot; and then in the evening to
work again. The working part of this day and of
the next were wholly employed in making my table.
58 ROBINSON CRUSOE
Nov. 5.â€”This day went abroad with my gun and
my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft,
but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I
killed, I took off the skins and preserved them.
Nov. 7.â€”Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for
the 11th was Sunday) I took wholly up to make
me a chair, and with much ado, brought it to a
tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even
in the making, I pulled it in pieces several times.
Note, I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot
which was which.
Nov. 13.â€”This day it rained, which refreshed
me exceedingly, and cooled the earth, but it was
accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning,
which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my
powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
Separate my stock of powder into as many little
parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16â€”These three days I spent in
making little square chests or boxes, which might
hold about a pound, or two pound at most, of
powder; and so putting the powder in, I stowed it
in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a
large bird that was good to eat, but I know not
what to call it.
Nov. 17.â€”This day I began to dig behind my
tent into the rock, to make room for my farther
conveniency. Note, three things I wanted exceed-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 59
ingly for this work, viz., a pick-axe, a shovel, and a
wheel-barrow or basket; so I desisted from my
work, and made me some tools. As fora pick-axe,
I made use of the iron crows, which were proper
enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a
shovel or spade. What kind of one to make, I
Nov. 18.â€”The next day, in searching the woods,
I found a tree which in the Brazils they call the
iron tree. Of this, with great labor, and almost
spoiling my axe, I cut a piece and brought it home
though it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it
effectually, by little and little, into the form of a
shovel or spade, the handle exactly shaped like
ours in England, only that the broad part having
no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last
â€˜me so long.
For carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the
laborers carry mortar in, when they serve the
Nov. 23.â€”My other work having now stood still
because of my making these tools, I spent eighteen
days entirely in widening and deepening my cave,
that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note.â€”During all this time I worked to make
this room or cave spacious enough to accommodate
me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a din-
ing-room, and a cellar; as for my lodging, I kept
60 ROBINSON CRUSOE
to the tent, except that sometimes in the wet sea-
son of the year it rained so hard, that I could not
keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to
cover all my place within my pale with long poles,
in the form of rafters, leaning against the rocks,
and load them with fiags and large leaves of trees,
like a thatch.
Dec. 10.â€”I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when on a sudden a great quantity of
earth fell down from the top and one side, so much
that if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a great
deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose
earth to carry out; and, which was of more im-
portance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I
might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 17â€”From this day to the twentieth I
placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts
to hang everything up that could be hung up; and
now I began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20.â€”Now I carried everything into the cave,
and began to furnish my house, and set up some
pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me;
also I made me another table.
Dec. 24.â€”Much rain all night and all day; no
Dec. 25.â€”Rain all day.
Dec. 26.â€”No rain, and the earth much coeler
than before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.â€”Killed a young goat, and lamed a
ROBINSON CRUSOE 61
other, so that I catched it. When I had it home,
I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N.B.â€”I took such care of it, that it grew well and
as strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it
grew tame. This was the first time I entertained
a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that
I might have food when my powder and shot was
Dec. 28, 29, 30.â€”Great heats and no breeze, so
that there was no stirring abroad, except in the
evening, for food.
Jan. 1â€”vVery hot still. This evening, going
farther into the valleys which lay towards the cen-
tre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
though exceeding shy, and hard to come at.
Jan. 2.â€”I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog; and he knew his danger
too well, for he would not come near them.
Jan. 3.â€”I began my fence or wall ; which, being
still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I
resolved to make very thick and strong.
N.Bâ€”This wall being described before, I pur-
posely omit what was said in the journal. It ig
sufficient tv observe that I was no less time than
from the 3rd of J anuary to the 14th of April work-
ing, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it
was no more than about twenty-four yards in
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods
for game every day, when the rain admitted me,
62 ROBINSON CRUSOE
and made frequent discoveries to my advantage;
particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, who
built in the holes of the rocks. I frequen*.y found
their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat.
And now in the managing my household affairs I
found myself wanting in many things, which I
thought at first it was impossible for me to make.
I was at a great loss for candle; so that as soon
as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven
oâ€™clock, I was obliged to go to bed. The only rem-
edy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I
saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a
wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this
gave me light, though not a clear steady light like
In rummaging my things, I found a little bag,
which had been filled with corn. What little re-
mainder of corn had been in the bag was all de-
voured with the rats, and I shook the husks of
corn out of it on one side of my fortification, un-
der the rock. It was a little before the great
rains that I threw this stuff away, ard, about a
month after I saw some few stalks ot something
green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was
surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a
little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears
come out, which were perfect green barley of the
same kind as our European, nay, as our English
ROBINSON CRUSOE 63
barley. And because I saw near it, all along
by the side of the rock, some other straggling
stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in
Not doubting but that there was more in the
place, I went all over that part of the island where
I had been before, peering in every corner, and
under every rock, to see for more of it; but I could
not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts
that I had shook the bag out on that place, and
then the wonder began to cease.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, and I
resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with
bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I
could allow myself the least grain of this corn to
eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say
afterwards in its order.
I worked excessive hard these three or four
months to get my wall done; and the 14th of April
I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a
door, but over the wall by a ladder, that there
might be no sign in the outside of my habitation.
April 16.â€”I finished the ladder, so I went up
with the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up
after me, and let it down on the inside. This was
a complete enclosure to me; for within I had room
enough, and nothing could come at me from with-
out, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I
64 ROBINSON CRUSOE
had almost had all my labor overthrown at once,
and myself killed. The case was thus: As I was
busy just in the entrance into my cave, all on a
sudden I found the earth come crumbling down
from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the
hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set up
in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I ran
forward to my ladder; and not thinking myself
safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of
the pieces of the hill which I expected might roll
down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down
upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on
shook three times at about eight minutesâ€™ distance,
and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood
about half a mile from me next the sea, fell down
with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all
my life. I perceived also the very sea was put
into violent motion by it; and I believed the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the
After the third shock was over, and I felt no
more for some time, I began to take courage; and
yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall
again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconso-
late, not knowing what to do. All this while I
had not the least serious religious thought, nothing
but the common, â€œLord, have mercy upon me!â€ and
when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus the wind rose by little and little,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 65
so that in less than half an hour it blew a most
dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden
covered over with foam and froth; the shore was
covered with the breach of the water; the trees were
torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was:
and this held about three hours, and then began to
abate; and in two hours more it was stark calm,
and began to rain very hard. The rain was 80
violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down
with it, and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it
should fall on my head.
It continued raining all that night and great
part of the next day, so that I could not stir
abroad; but my mind being more composed, I
began to think of what I had best do, concluding
that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but I
must consider of building me some little hut in an
open place, which I might surround with a wall,
as I had done here, and so make myself secure from
wild beasts or men.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my
tent from the place where it stood, which was just
under the hanging precipice of the hill, and which,
if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall
upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, be-
ing the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where
and how to remove my habitation.
In the meantime it occurred to me that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and
66 ROBINSON CRUSOE
that I must be contented to run the venture where
I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and
had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this
resolution I composed myself for a time, and re-
solved that I would go to work with all speed to
build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a
circle as before, and set my tent up in it when it
was finished, but that I would venture to stay
where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove
to. This was the 21st.
April 22.â€”The next morning I began to consider
of means to put this resolve in execution; but I
was at a great loss about my tools. I had three
large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we car-
ried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but
with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches and dull; and though
I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind
my tools too. At length I contrived a wheel with
a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have
both my hands at liberty. Note, I had never seen
any such thing in England, or at least not to take
notice how it was done, though since I have ob-
served it is very common there; besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This ma-
chine cost me a full weekâ€™s work to bring it to per-
April 28, 29.â€”These two whole days I took up in
grinding my tools, my machine for turning my
grindstone performing very well.
April 30.â€”Having perceived my bread had been
ROBINSON CRUSOE 67
low a great while, now I took a survey of it, and re-
duced myself to one biscuit-cake a day.
May 1.â€”In the morning, looking towards the
seaside, I found the ship strangely removed. The
stern, which was broken to pieces, and parted from
the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had
left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up,
and cast on one side, and the sand was thrown
so high on that side next her stern, that whereas
there was a great place of water before, so that I
could not come within a quarter of a mile of the
wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite
up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be
done by the earthquake.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the de-
sign of removing my habitation; and I busied my-
self mightily, that day especially, in searching
whether I could make any way into the ship. But
I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for that all the inside of the ship was choked up
with sand. However, as I had learned not to
despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything
to pieces that I could of the ship.
I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a
long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks ;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I
cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and ate
May 24.â€”Every day to this day I worked on the
wreck, and with hard labor I loosened some things
68 ROBINSON CRUSOE
so much with the crow, that the first blowing tide
several casks floated out, and two of the seamenâ€™s
I continued this work every day to the 15th of
June, except the time necessary to get food, which
I always appointed, during this part of my employ-
ment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be
ready when it was ebbed out. .
June 16.â€”Going down to the seaside, I found a
large tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had
June 17.â€”I spent in cooking the turtle. I found
in her threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me, at
that time, the most savory and pleasant that ever
I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of
goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.
June 18.â€”Rained all day, and I stayed within.
I thought the rain felt cold, and I was something
chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.â€”Very ill, and shivering, as if the
weather had been cold.
June 20.â€”No rest all night; violent pains in my
head, and feverish.
June 21.â€”Very ill, frighted almost to death
with the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be
sick, and no help. Prayed to God for the first
time since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew
what I said, or why.
June 22.â€”A little better, but under dreadful ap-
prehensions of sickness.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 69
June 23.â€”Very bad again; cold and shivering,
and then a violent headache.
June 24.â€”Much better.
June 25.â€”An ague very violent; the fit held me
seven hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats
June 26.â€”Better; and having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak. How-
ever, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate.
June 27.â€”The ague again so violent that I lay
abed all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was
ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water
to drink. Prayed to God again, and had this ter-
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on
the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm
blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man
descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame
of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all
over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just
bear to look towards him.
He moved forward towards me, and I heard a
voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the
terror of it. All that I can say I understood was
this: â€œSeeing all these things have not brought
thee to repentance, now thou shalt dieâ€; at which
words I thought he lifted up the spear that was in
his hand to kill me.
70 ROBINSON CRUSOE
I had, alas! no divine knowledge; what I had re-
ceived by the good instruction of my father was
then worn out, by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a con-
Stant conversation with nothing but such as were,
like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree.
I was all that the most hardened, unthinking,
wicked creature among our common sailors can be
supposed to be; not having the least sense, either
of the fear of God in danger, or of thankfulness to
God in deliverances.
In relating what is already past of my story,
this will be the more easily believed, when I shall
add, that through all the variety of miseries that
had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as
one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it
was a just punishment for my sin; my rebellious
behavior against my father, or my present sins,
which were great; or so much as a punishment
for the general course of my wicked life.
June 28.â€”Having been somewhat refreshed with
the sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off,
I got up; and though the fright and terror of my
dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit
of the ague would return again the next day, and
now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill. And the first
thing I did I filled a large square case-bottle with
water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my
bed ; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition
of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 71
rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got
me a piece of the goatâ€™s flesh, and broiled it on the
coals, but could eat very little. I walked about,
but was very weak, and at night I made my supper
of three of the turtleâ€™s eggs, which I roasted in the
ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell; and this
was the first bit of meat I had ever asked Godâ€™s
blessing to, as I could remember, in my whole
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found
myself so weak that I could hardly carry the gun
(for I never went out without that) ; so I went but
a little way, and sat down upon the ground, look-
ing out upon the sea, which was just before me,
and very calm and smooth. As I sat there, some
such thoughts as these occurred to me.
What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen
So much? whence is it produced? And what am I,
and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human
and brutal, whence are we? Sure we are all made
by some secret Power, who formed the earth and
Sea, the air and sky. And who is that?
Then it followed most naturally, It ig God that
has made it all. Well, if God has made all these
things, He guides and governs them all, and all
things that concern them; for the Power that could
make things, must certainly have power to guide
and direct them.
If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of
-His works, either without His knowledge or ap-
pointment. And if nothing happens without His
72 ROBINSON CRUSOE
Knowledge, He knows that I am here, and am in
this dreadful condition. And if nothing happens
without His appointment, He has appointed all
this to befall me.
Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict
any of these conclusions; and therefore it rested
upon me with the greater force, that it must needs
be that God had appointed all this to befall me,
that I was brought to this miserable circumstance
by His direction, He having the sole power, not of
me only, but of everything that happened in the
world. Immediately it followed, Why has God
done this to me? What have I done to be thus
My conscience presently checked me in that in-
quiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it
spoke to me like a voice: â€œWretch! dost thou ask
what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful
misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not
done? Ask, Why is it that thou wert not long ago
destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yar-
mouth Roads; killed in the fight when the ship
was taken by the Sallee man-of-war; devoured by
the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned
here, when all the crew perished but thyself?
Dost thou ask, What have I done?â€
I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished and had not a word to say, no, not to
answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat, and went up Over my
wall, as if I had been going to bed. But my
ROBINSON CRUSOE Â© 73
thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no in-
clination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and
lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, .
as the apprehension of the return of my distemper
terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought
that the Brazilians take no physic but their to-
bacco for almost all distempers; and I had a piece
of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was
quite cured, and some also that was green.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this
chest I found a cure for both soul and body. I
opened the chest, and found what I looked for, viz.,
the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay
there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I men-
tioned before, and which to this time I had not
found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look
into. I say, I took it out, and brought both that
and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as
to my distemper, or whether it was good for it or
no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if
I was resolved it should hit one way or other. I
first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it in my
mouth, which indeed at first almost stupefied my
brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and that
I had not been much used to it. Then I took some
and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and
resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down.
And lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and
held my nose close over the smoke of it, as long
as I could bear it.
74 ROBINSON CRUSOE
In the interval of this operation, I took up the
Bible, and began to read, but my head was too
much disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading,
at least that time; only having opened the book
casually, the first words that occurred to me were
these, â€œCall on Me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver, and thou shalt glorify Me.â€
It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said,
dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep.
But before I lay down, I did what I never had
done in my life; I kneeled down and prayed to God
to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon
Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver me.
After my broken and imperfect prayer was over,
I drank the rum in which I had steeped the to-
bacco; which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco that indeed I could scarce get it down.
When I awaked I found myself exceedingly re-
freshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful. I was
stronger than I was the day before, and my stom-
ach better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had
no fit the next day, but continued much altered
for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day. I ate some more of
the turtleâ€™s eggs, which were very good. This
evening I renewed the medicine, which I had sup-
posed did me good the day before, viz., the tobacco
steeped in rum; only I did not take so much as be-
fore, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my
head over the smoke. However, I was not so well
ROBINSON CRUSOE 75
the next day, which was the first of July, as I
hoped I should have been; for I had a little spice
of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2.â€”I renewed the medicine all the three
ways; and dosed myself with it as at first, and
doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3.â€”I missed the fit for good and all, though
T did not recover my full strength for some weeks
after. While I was thus gathering strength, my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, â€œI
will deliver theeâ€; and the impossibility of my
deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my
ever expecting it. But as I was discouraging my-
self with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind
that I pored so much upon my deliverance from
the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliver-
ance I had received; and I was, as it were, made
to ask myself such questions as these, viz., Have I
not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from
Sickness? from the most distressed condition that
could be, and that was so frightful to me? and
what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my
part? God had delivered me, but I had not glor-
ified Him; that is to say, I had not owned and
been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how
could I expect greater deliverance?
This touched my heart very much; and immedi-
ately I kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud
for my recovery from my sickness.
July 4.â€”In the morning I took the Bible: and
76 ROBINSON CRUSOE
beginning at the New Testament, I began seriously
to read it, and imposed upon myself to read awhile
every morning and every night, not tying myself
to the number of chapters, but as long as my
thoughts should engage me.
My condition began now to be, though not less
miserable as to my way of living, yet much easier
to my mind; and my thoughts being directed, by a
constant reading the Scripture, and praying to
God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew
nothing of. Also, as my health and strength re-
turned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with
everything that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiens
employed in walking about with my gun in my
hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sick-
ness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I
was, and to what weakness I was reduced.
I had been now in this unhappy island above ten
months; all possibility of deliverance from this
condition seemed to be entirely taken from me;
and I firmly believed that no human shape had
ever set foot upon that place.
It was the 15th of July that I began to take a
more particular survey of the island itself. I went
up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought
my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about
two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 7
and that it was no more than a little brook of run-
ing water, and very fresh and good.
On the bank of this brook I found many pleas-
ant savannas or meadows, plain, smooth, and cov-
ered with grass; and on the rising parts of them,
next to the higher grounds, where the water, asâ€
might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a
great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a
great and very strong stalk.
The next day, the 16th, after going something
farther than I had the day before, I found the
brook and the savannas began to cease, and the
country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly I
found melons upon the ground in great abundance,
and great clusters of grapes were just now in their
prime, very ripe and rich. I found an excellent
use for these grapes; and that was, to cure or dry
them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or
raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as in-
deed they were, as wholesome as agreeable to eat,
when no grapes might be to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back
to my habitation; which, by the way, was the first
night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In
the night, I took my first contrivance, and got up
into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morn-
ing proceeded upon my discovery, travelling near
four miles, as I might judge by the length of the
valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills
on the south and north side of me.
78 ROBINSON CRUSOE
At the end of this march I came to an opening,
where the country seemed to descend to the west ;
and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out
of the side of the hill by me, ran the other way,
that is, due east; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in
a constant verdure or flourish of spring, that it
looked like a planted garden.
I saw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and
lemon, and citron trees; but all wild, and very few
bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant
to eat, but very wholesome.
I was so enamored of this place that I spent
much of my time there for the whole remaining
part of the month of July; and, though, upon sec-
ond thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I built
me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a
distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge
as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled
between with brushwood. And here I lay very se-
cure, sometimes two or three nights together, al-
ways going over it with a ladder, as before; so that
I fancied now I had my country house and my sea-
coast house; and this work took me up to the be-
ginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to
enjoy my labor, but the rains came on, and made
me stick close to my first habitation; for though
I had made me a tent like the other, with a piece
of a sail, and spread it very well, yet.I had not the
ROBINGON CRUSOE 79
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a eave
retreat when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had
finished my bower and began to enjoy myself.
The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I had hung
up were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent
good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them
down from the trees. And it was very happy that
I did so, for the rains whick followed would have
spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my
winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all
down, and carried most of them home to my cave,
but it began to rain; and from hence, which was
the 14th of August, it rained, more or less, every
day tilt the middle of October, and sometimes so
violently that I could not stir out of my cave for
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant
rain, so that I could not stir, and was now very
careful not to be much wet. In this confinement,
I began to be straitened for food; but venturing
out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day,
which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me, and my food was regulated
thus: I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast, a
piece of the goatâ€™s flesh, or of the turtle, for my
dinner, broiled; for, to my great misfortune, I had
no vessel to boil or stew anything; and two or three
of the turtleâ€™s eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the
80 ROBINSON CRUSOE
rain, I worked daily two or three hours at enlarg-
ing my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards
one side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and
made a door, or way out, which came beyond my
fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way.
Sept. 30.â€”I was now come to the unhappy anni-
versary of my landing. I cast up the notches on
my post, and found I had been on ghore three hun-
dred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a
Solemn fast, setting it apart to religious exercise,
prostrating myself on the ground with the most se-
rious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, ac-
knowledging His righteous judgments upon me,
and praying to Him to have mercy on me through
Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least re-
freshment for twelve hours, even till. the going
down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a
bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day
as I began it.
I had all this time observed no Sabbath day, for
as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind,
I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the
weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for
the Sabbath day, and so did not really know what
any of the days were. But now, having cast up
the days, as above, I found I had been there a year,
so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every
seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the
end of my account, I had lost a day or two in my
A little after this my ink began to fail me, and so
ROBINSON CRUSOE 81
I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to
write down only the most remarkable events of my
life, without continuing a daily memorandum of
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears
of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly
found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and
believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and
about twenty of barley. Now I thought it a
proper time to sow it after the rains, the sun being
in its southern position, going from me.
Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground as well
as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it
into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sow-
ing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I
would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it, so I sowed
about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a hand-
ful of each.
Finding my first seed did not grow, which I
easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for
a moister piece of ground to make another trial in,
and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower,
and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox. And this having the
rainy months of March and April to water it,
sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good
crop; but having part of the seed left only, and
not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small
quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to
above half a peck of each kind. But by this ex-
82 ROBINSON CRUSOE
periment I was made master of my business, and
knew I might expect two seed-times and two har-
vests every year.
While this corn was growing, I made a little dis-
covery, which was of use to me afterwards. As
soon as the rains were over, and the weather began
to settle, which was about the month of November,
I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found
all things just as I left them. The circle or
double hedge that I had made was not only firm
and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out,
and grown with long branches, as much as a wil-
low-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping
its head. I could not tell what tree to call it that
these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and
yet very well pleased to see the young trees grow,
and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as
much alike as I could. And it is scarce credible
how beautiful a figure they grew into in three
years; so that though the hedge made a circle of
about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees,
for such I might now call them, soon covered it,
and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge
under all the dry season.
This made me resolve to cut some more stakes,
and make me a hedge like this, in a semicircle
round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling),
which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a
double row, at about eight yards distant from my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 83
first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a
fine cover to my habitation, and afterward served
for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might
generally be divided, not into summer and winter,
as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the
dry seasons; which were generally thus:
Half i \Rainy, the sun being then on,
Half April J or near the equinox.
Half April 7}
? re Dry, the sun being then to the
en north of the line.
Half August a ie
September Rainy, the sun being then come
Half October back.
Dry, the sun being then to the
eee eer south of the line.
Half February J
The rainy season sometimes held longer or
shorter as the winds happened to blow, but this was
the general observation I made. After I had found
by experience the ill consequence of being abroad
in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with pro-
84 ROBINSON CRUSOE
visions beforehand, that I might not be obliged
to go out; and I sat within doors as much as pos-
sible during the wet months.
In this time I found much employment; particu-
larly, I tried many ways to make myself a basket;
but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved
so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved
of excellent advantage to me now, that when I was
a boy I used to take great delight in standing at a
basket-makerâ€™s in the town where my father lived,
and sometimes lending a hand, I had by this means
full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted
nothing but the materials; when it came into my
mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut
my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as
the sallows, and willows, and osiers in England.
Accordingly, the next day, I went to my country
house, as I called it; and cutting some of the
smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much
as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time
prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity.
These I set up to dry within my circle of hedge,
and when they were fit for use, I carried them to
my cave; and here during the next season I em-
ployed myself in making, as well as I could, a great
many baskets, both to carry earth, or to lay up
anything as I had occasion.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to
see the whole island, and that I had travelled up
the brook, and so on to where I built my bower,
and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on
ROBINSON CRUSOE 85
the other side of the island. I now resolved to
travel quite across to the seashore on that side;
so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a
larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, ~
with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins
in my pouch for my store, I began my journey.
When I passed the vale where my bower stood, as
above, I came within view of the sea to the west;
and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried
land, whether an island or a continent I could not
tell; but it lay very high, extending from the west
to the W.S.W. at a very great distance; by my
guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
I could not tell what pet of the world this might
be, otherwise than that I know it must be part of
America, and, as I concluded, by all my observa-
tions, must be near the Spanish dominions, and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I
should have landed, I had been in a worse con-
dition than I was now; and therefore I acqui-
esced in the dispositions of Providence, which I
began now to believe ordered everything for the
With these considerations I walked very lei-
surely forward. I found that side of the island,
where I now was, much pleasanter than mine, the
open or savanna fields sweet, adorned with flow-
ers and full of very fine woods.
I saw abundance of parrots, and I did, after some
painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked
86 ROBINSON CRUSOE
it down with a stick, and having recovered it, I
brought it home; but it was some years before I
could make him speak. However, at last I taught
him to call me by my name very familiarly.
As soon as I came to the seashore, I was sur-
prised to see that I had taken up my lot on the
worst side of the island, for here indeed the shore
was covered with innumerable turtles; whereas, on
the other side, I had found but three in a year and
a half. |
I traveled along the shore of the sea towards the
east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting
up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I con-
cluded I would go home again; and that the next
journey I took should be on the other side of the
island, east from my dwelling, and so round till
I came to my post again.
I took another way to come back than that I
went, thinking I could easily keep all the island so
much in my view, that I could not miss finding my
first dwelling by viewing the country. But I
found myself mistaken; for being come about two
or three miles, I found myself descended into a
very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and
those hills covered with wood, that I could not see
which was my way by any direction but that of
It happened to my farther misfortune that the
weather proved hazy for three or four days while
I was in this valley; and not being able to see the
sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at
ROBINSON CRUSOE 87
last was obliged to find out the seaside, look for
my post, and come back the same way I went; and
then by easy journeys I turned homeward, the
weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammuni-
tion, hatchet, and other things very heavy.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid,
and seized upon it, and I running in to take hold
of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog.
I made a collar to this little creature, and with
a string, which I made of some rope-yarn, which I
always carried about me, I led him along though
with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and
there I enclosed him and left him, for I was very
impatient to be home, from whence I had been ab-
sent above a month.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale
myself after my long journey; during which most
of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of
making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a
mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted
with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned in within my little circle,
and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it
some food. Accordingly I went, and found it was
so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to
tie it, for it followed me like a dog. And as I con-
tinually fed it, the creature became so loving, so
gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time
one of my domestics also, and would never leave
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was
88 ROBINSON CRUSOE
now come, and I kept the 30th of September in
the same solemn manner as before, being the anni-
versary of my landing on the island, having now
been there two years, and no more prospect of be-
ing delivered than the first day I came there. I
spent the whole day in humble and thankful ac-
knowledgments of the many wonderful mercies
which my solitary condition was attended with,
and without which it might have been infinitely
Thus I began my third year; and though I have
not given the reader the trouble of so particular
account of my works this year as the first, yet in
general it may be observed that I was very seldom
idle, but having regularly divided my time, accord-
ing to the several daily employments that were
before me, such as, first, my duty to God, and the
reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set
apart some time for, thrice every day; secondly,
the going abroad with my gun for food, which
generally took me up three hours in every morning,
when it did not rain; thirdly, the ordering, cur-
ing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or
catched for my supply; these took up a great part of
the day; also, it is to be considered that the middle
of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the vio-
lence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that
about four hours in the evening was all the time I
could be supposed to work in, with this exception,
that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 89
working, and went to work in the morning, and
abroad with my gun in the afternoon. |
I was now, in the months of November and De-
cember, expecting my crop of barley and rice. The
ground I had manured or dug up for them was not
great; for as I observed, my seed of each was not
above the quantity of half a peck; for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season. But
now my crop promised very well, when on a sud-
den I found I was in danger of losing it all again
by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarce
possible to keep from it; as, first the goats and
wild creatures which I called hares, who, tasting
the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day,
as soon as it came up, and ate it so close, that it
could get no time to shoot up into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for but by making an en-
closure about it with a hedge, which I did with a
great deal of toil, and the more, because it required
speed. However, as my arable land was but small,
Suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in
about three weeksâ€™ time, and shooting some of the
creatures in the daytime, I set my dog to guard it
in the night.
But as the beasts ruined me before while my corn
was in the blade, so the birds were as likely to
ruin me now when it was in the ear; for going
along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my
little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not
how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching
90 ROBINSON CRUSOE
till I should be gone. I immediately let fly among
them, for I always had my gun with me. I had
no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the
corn itself. For as I walked off, as if I was gone,
I was no sooner out of their sight but they dropped
down, one by one, into the corn again. I was so
provoked, that I could not have patience to stay
till more came on, knowing that every grain that
they ate now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf
to me in the consequence; but coming up to the
hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them.
This was what I wished for; so I took them up,
and served them as we serve notorious thieves in
England, viz., hanged them in chains, for a terror
to others. It is impossible to imagine almost that
this should have such an effect as it had, for the
fowls would not only not come at the corn, but, in
short, they forsook all that part of the island, and
I could never see a bird near the place as long as
my scare-crows hung there.
This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and
about the latter end of December, which was our
second harvest of the year, I reaped my crop.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or a sickle to
cut it down, and all I could do was to make one as
well as I could out of one of the broadswords, or
cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of
the ship. However, as my first crop was but small,
I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away
ROBINSON CRUSOE 91
in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed
it out with my hands; and at the end of all my har-
vesting, I found that out of my half peck of seed
I had near two bushels of rice, and above two
bushels and a half of barley, that is to say, by my
guess, for I had no measure at that time.
However, this was a great encouragement to me,
and I foresaw that, in time, it would please God to
supply me with bread. And yet here I was per-
plexed again, for I neither knew how to grind or
make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it
and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make
bread of it, and if how to make it, yet I knew not
how to bake it. These things being added to my
desire of having a good quantity for store, and to
secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste
any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season, and in the meantime, to
employ all my study in hours of working to accom-
plish this great work of providing myself with corn
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my
bread. â€™Tis a little wonderful, and what I believe
few people have thought much upon, viz., the
strange multitude of little things necessary in the
providing, producing, curing, dressing, making,
and finishing this one article of bread.
I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature,
found this to my daily discouragement, and was
made more and more sensible of it every hour, even
92 ROBINSON CRUSOE
after I had got the first handful of seed-corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and
indeed to a surprise.
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth, no
spade or shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered
by making a wooden spade, as I observed before,
but this did my work in but a wooden manner; and
though it cost me a great many days to make it,
yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out the
Sooner, but made my work the harder, and made it
be performed much worse.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 93
When the corn was sowed, I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great
heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it
may be called, rather than rake or harrow it.
When it was growing and grown, I have ob-
served already how many things I wanted to fence
it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it
home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it.
Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it,
yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to
bake it, and yet all these things I did without, as
shall be observed; and yet the corn was an ines-
timable comfort and advantage to me, too. All
this, as I said, made everything laborious and te-
dious to me, but that there was no help for;
neither was my time so much loss to me, because,
as I Lad divided it, a certain part of it was every
day appointed to these works, and as I resolved
to use none of the corn for bread till I hada greater
quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply
myself wholly, by labor and invention, to furnish
myself with utensils proper for the performing all
the operations necessary for the making the corn,
when I had it, fit for my use.
But first I was to prepare more land, for I had
now seed enough to sow above an acre of ground.
Before I did this, I had a weekâ€™s work at least to
make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but
a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required
double labor to work with it. However, I went
through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat
94 ROBINSON CRUSOE
pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find
them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good
hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood
which I had set before, and knew it would grow;
so that in one yearâ€™s time I knew I should have a
quick or living hedge, that would want but little
repair. This work was not so little as to take me
up less than three months, because a great part of
that time was of the wet season, when I could not
Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I
could not go out, I found employment on the fol-
lowing occasions; always observing, that all the
while I was at work, I diverted myself talking to
my parrot, and teaching him to speak, and I quickly
taught him to know his own name, and at last to
speak it out pretty loud, â€œPoll,â€ which wus the
first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any
mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my
work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I
said, I had a great employment upon my hands, as
follows, viz., I had long studied, by some means
or other, to make myself some earthen vessels,
which indeed I wanted sorely, but knew not where
to come at them. However, considering the heat
of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find
out any such clay, I might botch up some such pot
as might, being dried in the sun, be hard enough
and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold
anything that was dry, and required to be kept so;
and as this was necessary in the preparing corn,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 95
meal, etc., which was the thing I was upon, I re-
solved to make some as large as I could, and fit
only to stand like jars, to hold what should be
put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather
laugh at me, to tell how many awkward ways I
took to raise this paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly
things I made; how many of them fell in, and how
many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to
bear its own weight; how many cracked by the
over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too
hastily; and how many fell in pieces with only re-
moving, as well before as after they were dried;
and, in a word, how, after having labored hard to
find the clay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring it
home, and work it, I could not make above two
large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars)
in about two monthsâ€™ labor.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for
large pots, yet I made several smaller things with
better success; such as little round pots, flat dishes,
pitchers, and pipkins, and any things my hand
turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them
strangely hard. But all this would not answer my
end, which was to get an earthen pot to hold what
was liquid, and bear the fire, which none of these
could do. It happened after some time, making
a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I
went to put it out after I had done with it, I found
a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels
in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a
96 ROBINSON CRUSOE
tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said
to myself, that certainly they might be made to
burn whole, if they would burn broken.
This set me to studying how to order my fire, so
as to make it burn me some pots. I had no notion
ROBINSON CRUSOE 97
of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or glazing
them with lead, though I had some lead to do it
with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or
three pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed
my firewood all round it, with a great heap of em-
bers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel
round the outside, and upon the top, till I saw the
pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and ob-
served that they did not crack at all. When I saw
them clear red, I Jet them stand in that heat about
five or six hours, till I found one of them, though it
did not crack, did melt or run, for the sand which
was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of
the heat, and would have run into glass, if I had
gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots
began to abate of the red color; and watching them
all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast,
in the morning I had three very good, I will not
say handsome, pipkins, and two other earthen pots,
as hard burnt as could be desired, and one of them
perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.
No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever
equal to mine, when I found I had made an earthen
pot that would bear the fire; and had hardly pa-
tience to stay till they were cold, before I set one
upon the fire again, with some water in it, to boil
me some meat, which it did admirably well; and
with a piece of a kid I made some very good broth.
My next concern was to get me a stone mortar
to stamp or beat some corn in. I spent many a day
to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow,
98 ROBINSON CRUSOE
and make fit fora mortar, and could find none at
all, except what was in the solid rock, and which I
had no way to dig or cut out; nor indeed were the
rocks in the island of hardness sufficient, but were
all of a sandy crumbling stone, which neither would
bear the weight of a heavy pestle, or would break
the corn without filling it with sand. So, after a
great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I
gave it over, and resolved to look out for a great
block of hard wood, which I found indeed much
easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to
stir, I rounded it, and formed it in the outside with
my axe and hatchet, and then, with the help of fire,
and infinite labor, made a hollow place in it, as the
Indians in Brazil made their canoes. After this,
I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood
called the iron-wood; and this I prepared and laid
by against I had my next crop of corn, when I pro-
posed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn
into meal, to make my bread.
The baking part was the next thing to be con-
sidered, and how I should make bread when I
came to have corn; for, first, I had no yeast. As
to that part, as there was no Supplying the want,
so I did not concern myself much about it; but for
an oven I was indeed in great pain. At length I
found out an experiment for that also, which was
this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but
not deep, that is to say, about two feet diameter,
and not above nine inches deep; these I burned
in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them
ROBINSON CRUSOE 99
by; and when I wanted to bake, I made a great
fire upon my hearth, which I had paved with some
square tiles, of my own making and burning also;
but I should not call them square.
When the firewood was burned pretty much into
embers, or live coals, I drew them forward upon
this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there I
let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then
sweeping away all the entbers, I set down my loaf,
or loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon
them, drew the embers all round the outside of the
pot, to keep in and add to the heat. And thus I
baked my barley-loaves.
It need not be wondered at if all these things
took me up most part of the third year of my abode
here; for it is to be observed, that in the intervals
of these things I had my new harvest and hus-
bandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its sea-
son, and carried it home as well as I could, and
laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had
time to rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it
on, or instrument to thrash it with.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I
really wanted to build my barns bigger. I wanted
a place to lay it up in, for the increase of the corn
now yielded me so much that I had of the barley
about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or
more, insomuch that now I resolved to begin to
use it freely; for my bread had been quite gone a
Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels
100 ROBINSON CRUSOE
of barley and rice was much more than I could
consume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the
sane quantity every year that I sowed the last, in
hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me
with bread, ete.
All the while these things were doing, you may
be sure my thoughts ran many times upon the
prospect of land which I had seen from the other
side of the island, and I was not without secret
wishes that I were on shore there, fancying the
Seeing the mainland, and in an inhabited country,
I might find some way or other to convey myself
farther, and perhaps at last find some means of
Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-
boat with the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which
I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of
Africa; but this was in vain.
This at length put me upon thinking whether it
was not possible to make myself a canoe, or peri-
agua, such as the natives of those climates make,
even without tools, or, as I might say, without
hand, viz., of the trunk of a great tree.
I went to work upon this boat the most like a
fool that ever man did who had any of his senses
awake. I pleased myself with the design, without
cetermining whether I was ever able to undertake
it. Not but that the difficulty of launching my
boat came often into my head; but I put a stop to
my own inquiries into it, by this foolish answer
ROBINSON CRUSOE 101
which I gave myself, â€œLetâ€™s first make it; Iâ€™ll war-
rant Pâ€™ll find some way or other to get it along
when â€™tis done.â€
This was a most preposterous method; but the
eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and to work I
went. I felled a cedar tree: I question much
whether Solomon ever had such a one for the build-
ing of the Temple at Jerusalem. It was five feet
ten inches diameter at the lower part next the
stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at
the end of twenty-two feet, after which it lessened
102 ROBINSON CRUSOE
for a while, and then parted into branches. It
was not without infinite labor that I felled this
tree. I was twenty days hacking and hewing at
it at the bottom; I was fourteen more getting the
branches and limbs, and the vast spreading head
of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through
with axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labor.
After this, it cost me a month to shape it and dub
it to a proportion, and to something like the bot-
tom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it
ought to do. It cost me near three months more
to clear the inside, and work it so as to make an ex-
act boat of it. This I did, indeed, without fire,
by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard
labor, till I had brought it to be a very handsome
periagua and big enough to have carried six and
twenty men, and consequently big enough to have
carried me and all my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, I was ex-
tremely delighted with it. Many a weary stroke it
had cost, you may be sure; and there remained
nothing but to get it into the water.
But all my devices to get it into the water failed
me, though they cost me infinite labor too. It lay
about one hundred yards from the water, and not
more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up-
hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this
discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface
of the earth, and so make a declivity. This I be-
gan, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains; but
who grudges pains, that have their deliverance in
ROBINSON CRUSOE 103
view? But when this was worked through, and
this difficulty managed, it was still much at one,
for I could not stir the canoe.
Then I measured the distance of ground, and re-
solved to cut a dock or canal, to bring the water
up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe
down to the water. Well, I began this work; and
when I began to enter into it, and calculate how
deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff to
be thrown out, I found that by the number of
hands I had, being none but my own, it must have
been ten or twelve years before I should have gone
through with it; for the shore lay high, so that at
the upper end it must have been at least twenty
feet deep; so at length, though with great reluc-
tancy, I gave this attempt over also.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though
too late, the folly of beginning a work before we
count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our
own strength to go through with it.
In the middle of this work I finished my fourth
year in this place, and kept my anniversary with
the same devotion as before.
I had now been here so long, that many things
which I brought on shore for my help were either
quite gone, or very much wasted, and near spent.
My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some
time, all but a very little, which I eked out with
water, a little and a little, till it was so pale it
scarce left any appearance of black upon the paper.
As long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute
104 ROBINSON CRUSOE
down the days of the month on which any remark-
able thing happened to me.
My clothes began to decay, too, mightily. As to
linen, I had none a good while, except some check-
ered shirts which I found in the chests of the
other seamen, and which I carefully preserved, be-
cause many times I could bear no other clothes on
but a shirt; and it was a very great help to me that
I had, among all the menâ€™s clothes of the ship, al-
most three dozen of shirts. There were also sev-
eral thick watch-coats of the seamenâ€™s which were
ROBINSON CRUSOE 105
left indeed, but they were too hot to wear; and
though it is true that the weather was so violent
hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I could
not go quite naked, no, though I had been inclined
to it, which I was not nor could abide the thoughts
of it, though I was all alone.
The reason why I could not go quite naked was,
I could not bear the heat of the sun so well when
quite naked as with some clothes on; nay, the very
heat frequently blistered my skin; whereas, with a
shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and whis-
tling under that shirt, was twofold cooler than
without it. No more could I ever bring myself to
go out in the heat of the sun without a cap or hat.
The heat of the sun beating with such violence, as
it does in that place, would give me the headache
presently, by darting so directly on my head, with-
out a cap or hat on, so that I could not bear it.
Upon those views, I began to consider about put-
ting the few rags I had, which I called clothes,
into some order. I had worn out all the waist-
coats I had, and my business was now to try if I
could not make jackets out of the great watch-
coats which I had by me, and with such other ma-
terials as I had; so I set to work a-tailoring, or
rather, indeed, a-botching, for I made most piteous
work of it. However, I made shift to make me
two or three new waistcoats, which I hoped would
serve me a great while. |
I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all
the creatures that I killed, I mean four-footed ones,
106 ROBINSON CRUSOE
and I had hung them up stretched out with sticks
in the sun, by which means some of them were so
dry and hard that they were fit for little, but oth-
ers it seems were very useful. The first thing I
made of these was a great cap for my head, with
the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain; and
this I performed so well, that after this I made
me a suit of clothes wholly of these skins, that is
to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open at the knees,
and both loose, for they were rather wanting to
keep me cool than to keep me warm. I must. not
omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly
made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse
tailor. However, they were such as I made very
good shift with; and when I was abroad, if it hap-
pened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap
being outermost, I was kept very dry.
After this I spent a great deal of time and pains
to make me an umbrella. I was indeed in great
want of one, and had a great mind to make one.
I had seen them made in the Brazils, where they
are very useful in the great heats which are there;
and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and
greater too, being nearer the equinox. Besides, as
I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a most
useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the
heats. I took a world of pains at it, and was a
great while before I could make anything likely to
hold; nay, after I thought I had hit the way, I
spoiled two or three before I made one to my mind;
but at last I made one that answered indifferently
ROBINSON CRUSOE 107
well. The main difficulty I found was to make it
to let down. I could make it to spread; but if it
did not let down too, and draw in, it was not
portable for me any way but just over my head,
which would not do. However, at last, as I said,
I made one to answer, and covered it with skins,
im Ma re
the hair upwards, so that it cast off the rains like
a pent-house, and kept off the sun so effectually
that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather
with greater advantage than I could before in the
I cannot say that after this, for five years, any
extraordinary thing happened to me; but I lived on
in the same course, in the same posture and place,
just as before. The chief things I was employed
in, besides my yearly labor of planting my barley
108 ROBINSON CRUSOE
and rice, and curing my raisins, of â€˜both which I
always kept up just enough to have sufficient stock
of one yearâ€™s provisions beforehandâ€”I say, besides
this yearly labor, and my daily labor of going out
with my gun, I had one labor, to make me a canoe,
which at last I finished ; so that by digging a canal
to it of six feet wide, and four feet deep, I brought
it into the creek, almost half a mile. As for the
first, which was so vastly big, as I made it without
considering beforehand, as â€˜T ought to do, how I
should be able to launch it; so, never being able to
bring it to the water, or bring the water to it, I
was obliged to let it lie where it was, as a memo-
randum to teach me to be wiser next time. In-
deed, the next time, though I could not get a tree
proper for it, and in a place where I could not get
the water to it at any less distance than near half
a mile, yet as I saw it was practicable at last, I
never gave it over; and though I was near two years
about it, yet I never grudged my labor, in hopes of
having a boat to go off to sea at last.
However, though my little periagua was finished,
yet the size of it was not at all answerable to the
design which I had in view when I made the first ;
I mean, of venturing over to the terra firma, where
it was above forty miles broad. Accordingly, the
smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that
design, and now I thought no more of it. But as
I had a boat, my next design was to make a tour
round the island.
For this purpose, that I might do everything
ROBINSON CRUSOE 109
with discretion and consideration, I fitted up a
little mast to my boat, and made a sail to it out
of some of the pieces of the shipâ€™s sail, which lay in
store, and of which I had a great stock by me.
Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the
boat, I found she would sail very well. Then I
made little lockers, or boxes, at either end of my
boat, to put provisions, necessaries, and ammuni-
tion, etc., into, to be kept dry, either from rain
or the spray of the sea; and a little long hollow
place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could
lay my gun, making a flap to hang down over it to
keep it dry.
I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern,
like a mast, to stand over my head, and keep the
heat of the sun off me, like an awning; and thus
T every now and then took a little voyage upon the
sea, but never went far out, nor far from the little
creek. But at last, being eager to view the circum-
ference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my
tour; and accordingly I victualled my ship for the
voyage, putting in two dozen of my loaves (cakes I
should rather call them) of barley bread, an
earthen pot full of parched rice, a food I ate a great
deal of, a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and pow-
der and shot for killing more, and two large watch-
coats, of those which, as I mentioned before, I had
Saved out of the seamenâ€™s chests; these I took, one
to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night.
It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of
my reign, or my captivity, which you please, that I
110 ROBINSON CRUSOE
set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer
than I expected; for though the island itself was
not very large, yet when I came to the east side
of it I found a great ledge of rocks lie out about
two leagues into the sea, some above water, some
under it, and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying
dry half a league more; so that I was obliged to
go a great way out to sea to double the point.
When first I discovered them, I was going to
give over my enterprise, and come back again, not
knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to
sea, and, above all, doubting how I should get back
again, so I came to an anchor; for I had made me
a kind of an anchor with a piece of a broken grap-
pling which I got out of the ship.
Waving secured my boat, I took my gun and
went on shore, climbing up upon a hill, which
Seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the
full extent of it, and resolved to venture.
In my viewing the sea from that hill, where I
stood, I perceived a strong, and indeed a most fu-
rious current, which ran to the east, and even came
close to the point; and I took the more notice of it,
because I saw that there might be some danger that
when I came into it I might be carried out to sea by
the strength of it, and not be able to make the
island again. And indeed, had I not gotten first
up upon this hill, I believe it would have been so;
for there was the same current on the other side
the island, only that it set off at a farther dis-
tance; and I saw there was a strong eddy under
ROBINSON CRUSOE 111
the shore; so I had nothing to do but to get in out
of the first current, and I should presently be in
I lay here, however, two days; because the wind,
blowing pretty fresh at E.S.E., and that being just
contrary to the said current, made a great breach
of the sea upon the point; so that it was not safe
for me to keep too close to the shore for the breach,
nor to go too far off because of the stream.
The third day, in the morning, the wind having
abated overnight, the sea was calm, and I ventured.
But I am a warning-piece again to all rash and
ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to the
point, when even I was not my boatâ€™s length from
the shore, but I found myself in a great depth of
water, and a current like the sluice of a mill. It
carried my boat along with it with such violence
that all I could do could not keep her so much as
on the edge of it, but I found it hurried me farther
and farther out from the eddy, which was on my
left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me,
and all I could do with my paddles signified noth-
ing. And now I began to give myself over for lost;
for, as the current was on both sides the island, I
knew in a few leaguesâ€™ distance they must join
again, and then I was irrecoverably gone. Nor did
I see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had
no prospect before me but of perishing; not by the
sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving for
hunger. I had indeed found a tortoise on the
shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed
112 ROBINSON CRUSOE
it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh
water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but
what was all this to being driven into the vast
ocean, where there was no Shore, no mainland or
island, for a thousand leagues at least.
It is scarce possible to imagine the consternation
I was now in, being driven from my beloved island
(for so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide
ocean, almost two leagues, and in the utmost
despair of ever recovering it again. Ilowever, I
worked hard, till indeed my streneth was almost
exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the north-
ward, that is, towards the side of the current which
the eddy lay on, as possibly I could; when about
noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought I
felt a litle breeze of wind in my face, springing up
from the 8.8.6. This cheered my heart a little,
and especially when, in about half an hour more, it
blew a pretty small gentle gale. By this time I
was gotten at a frightful distance from the island;
and had the least cloud or hazy weather inter-
vened, I had been undone another way too; for I
had no compass on board, and should never have
known how to have steered towards the island if
I had but once lost sight of it. But the weather
continuing clear, I applied myself to get up my
mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to
the north as much as possible, to get out of the
Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat
began to stretch away, I saw even by the clearness
ROBINSON CRUSOE 113
of the water some alteration of the current was
near; for where the current was so strong, the
water was foul. But perceiving the water clear, I
found the current abate, and presently I found to
the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the sea
upon some rocks. These rocks I found caused the
current to part again; and as the main stress of it
ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the
north-east, so the other returned by the repulse of
the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran back
again to the north-west with a very sharp stream.
They who know what it is to have a reprieve
brought to them upon the ladder, or to be rescued
from thieves just going to murder them, or who
have been in such like extremities, may guess what
my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I
put my boat into the stream of this eddy; and the
wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail
to it, running cheerfully before the wind, and with
a strong tide or eddy under foot.
This eddy carried me about a league in my way
back again, directly towards the island, but about
two leagues more to the northward than the cur-
rent which carried me away at first; so that when
I came near the island, I found myself open to the
northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of
the island, opposite to that which I went out from.
When I had made something more than a league
of way by the help of this current or eddy, I found
it was spent, and served me no farther. However,
I found that being between the two great currents,
114 ROBINSON CRUSOE
viz., that on the south side, which had hurried me
away, and that on the north, which lay about a
league on the other side; I say, between these two,
in the wake of the island, I found the water at least
still, and running no way; and having still a breeze
of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly
for the island, though not making such fresh way
as I did before.
About four oâ€™clock in the evening, being then
within about a league of the island, I found the
point of the rocks which occasioned this disaster
stretching out, as is described before, to the south-
ward, and casting off the current more south-
wardly had, of course, made another eddy to the
north, and this I found very Strong, but not di-
rectly setting the way my course lay, which was
due west, but almost full north. However, hav-
ing a fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy, slant-
ing north-west; and in about an hour came within
about a mile of the shore, where, it being smooth
water, I soon got to land.
When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and
gave God thanks for my deliverance, resolving to
lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by my
.boat; and refreshing myself with such things as I
had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a little
cove that I had spied under some trees, and laid
me down to sleep, being quite spent with the labor
and fatigue of the voyage.
I was now at a great loss which way to get home
with my boat. I had run so much hazard, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 115
knew too much the cause, to think of attempting it
by the way I went out; and what might be at the
other side (I mean the west side) I knew not, nor
had I any mind to run any more ventures. - So I
only resolved in the morning to make my way west-
ward along the shore, and to see if there was no
creek where I might lay up my frigate in safety,
So as to have her again if I wanted her. In about
three miles, or thereabouts, coasting the shore, I
came to a very good inlet or bay, about a mile over,
which narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet
or brook, where I found a very convenient harbor
for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been
in a little dock made on purpose for her. Here I
put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I
went on shore to look about me, and see where I
I soon found I had but a little passed by the
place where I had been before, when I travelled on
foot to that shore; so taking nothing out of my boat
but my gun and my umbrella, for it was exceed-
ingly hot, I began my march. The way was com-
fortable enough after such a voyage as I had been
upon, and I reached my old bower in the evening,
where I found everything standing as I left it.
I got over the fence, and laid me down in the
shade to rest my limbs, for I was very weary, and
fell asleep. But judge you, if you can, that read
my story, what a surprise I must be in, when I was
waked out of my sleep by a voice calling me by my ~
name several times, â€œRobin, Robin, Robin Crusoe,
116 ROBINSON CRUSOE
poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin
Crusoe? Where have you been?â€
I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with
rowing, or paddling, as it is called, the first part of
the day, and with walking the latter part, that I
did not wake thoroughly ; but dozing between sleep-
ing and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me. But as the voice continued to repeat
â€œRobin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe,â€ at last I began to
wake more perfectly, and was at first dreadfully
frighted, and started up in the utmost consterna-
tion. But no sooner were my eyes open, but I saw
my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge, and imme-
diately knew that it was he that spoke to me; for
just in such bemoaning language I had used to
talk to him, and teach him; and he had learned it
so perfectly, that he would sit upon my finger, and
lay his bill close to my face, and ery, â€œPoor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you been?
How came you here?â€ and such things as I had
However, even though I knew it was the parrot,
and that indeed it could be nobody else, it was a
good while before I could compose myself. First,
I was amazed how the creature got thither, and
then, how he should just keep about the place, and
nowhere else. But as I was well satisfied it could
be nobody but honest Poll, I got it over; and hold-
ing out my hand, and calling him by his name,
Poll, the sociable creature, came to me, and sat
upon my thumb, as he used to do, and continued
ROBINSON CRUSOE 117
talking to me, â€œPoor Robin Crusoe! and how did
I come here; and where had I been?â€ just as if he
had been overjoyed to see me again; and so I car-
ried him home along with me.
I had now enough of rambling to sea and for
nearly a year lived a very sedate, retired life, as
you may well suppose; and my thoughts being very
much composed as to my condition, and fully com-
forted in resigning myself to the dispositions of
Providence, I thought I lived really very happily
in all things, except that of society.
I improved myself in this time in all the me-
chanic exercises which my necessities put me upon
applying myself to, and I believe could, upon oc-
casion, make a very good carpenter, especially con-
sidering how few tools I had. Besides this, I ar-
rived at an unexpected perfection in my earthen-
ware, and contrived well enough to make them
with a wheel, which I found infinitely easier and
better, because I made things round and shapable
which before were filthy things indeed to look on. â€”
But I think I was never more vain of my own per-
formance, or more joyful for anything I found out,
than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe.
And though it was a very ugly, clumsy thing when
it was done, and only burnt red, like other earthen-
ware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would draw
the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it;
for I had been always used to smoke.
I began now to perceive my powder abated con-
siderably, and this was a want which it was impos-
118 ROBINSON CRUSOE
sible for me to supply, and I began seriously to
consider what I must do when I should have no
more powder; that is to say, how I should do to
kill any goats. I had, as is observed, in the third
year of my being here kept a young kid, and bred
her up tame, and I was in hope of getting a he-
goat. But I could not by any means bring it to
pass, till my kid grew an old goat; and I could
never find in my heart to kill her, till she died at
last of mere age.
But being now in the eleventh year of my resi-
dence, and, as I have said, my ammunition grow-
ing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and
snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch
some of them alive; and particularly, I wanted a
she-goat great with young.
To this purpose, I made snares to hamper them,
but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire,
and I always found them broken, and my bait de-
voured. At length I resolved to try a pitfall; so I
dug several large pits in the earth, in places where
I had observed the goats used to feed, and over
these pits I placed hurdles, of my own making too,
with a great weight upon them; and several times
I put ears of barley and dry rice, without setting
the trap, and I could easily perceive that the goats
had gone in and eaten up the corn, for I could see
the mark of their feet. At length I set three traps
in one night, and going the next morning, I found
them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone;
this was very discouraging. However, I altered
Very often I would carry them some ears of barley or a
handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand.
120 ROBINSON CRUSOE
my trap; and, not to trouble you with particulars,
going one morning to see my trap, I found in one
of them a large old he-goat, and in one of the other
three kids, a male and two females.
As to the old one, I knew not what to do with
him, he was so fierce I durst not go into the pit to
him; so I even let him out, and he ran away, as if
he had been frightened out of his wits. But I had
forgotten then what I learned afterwards, that
hunger will tame a lion. Then I went to the three
kids, and taking them one by one, I tied them with
strings together, and with some difficulty brought
them all home. It was a good while before they
would feed, but throwing them some sweet corn, it
tempted them, and they began to be tame.
But then it presently occurred to me that I must
keep the tame from the wild, or else they would al-
ways run wild when they grew up; and the only
way for this was to have some enclosed piece of
ground, well fenced either with hedge or pale, to
keep them in so effectually that those within might
not break out, or those without break in.
This was a great undertaking for one pair of
hands; yet as I saw there was an absolute necessity
of doing it, my first piece of work was to find out a
proper piece of ground, viz., where there was likely
to be herbage for them to eat, water for them to
drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.
I resolved to enclose a piece of about 150 yards
in length, and 100 yards in breadth, and I went to
work with courage. I was about three months at
ROBINSON CRUSOE 121
the task, and, till I had done it, I tethered the three
kids in the best part of it, and used them to feed
as near me as possible, to make them familiar; and
very often I would go and carry them some ears of
barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of
my hand; so that after my enclosure was finished,
and I let them loose, they would follow me up and
down, bleating after me for a handful of corn.
This answered my end, and in about a year and
half I had a flock of about twelve goats, kids and
all; and in two years more I had three and forty,
besides several that I took and killed for my food.
And after that I enclosed five several pieces of
ground to feed them in, with little pens to drive
them into, to take them as I wanted, and gates out
of one piece of ground into another.
But this was not all, for now I not only had
goatâ€™s flesh to feed on when I pleased, but milk too,
a thing which, indeed, in my beginning, I did not
so much as think of, and which, when it came into
my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise.
For now I set up my dairy, and made both butter
It would have made a stoic smile to have seen
me and my little family sit down to dinner. There
was my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole
island; I had the lives of all my subjects at my ab-
solute command. I could hang, draw, give liberty,
and take it away; and no rebels among all my sub-
Then to see how like a king I dined, too, all
122 ROBINSON CRUSOE
alone, attended by my servants. Poll, as if he had
been my favorite, was the only person permitted to
talk to me. My dog, who was now grown very old
and crazy, and had found no species to multiply
his kind upon, sat always at my right hand, and
two cats, one on one side the table, and one on the
other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand,
as a mark of special favor.
But these were not the two eats which I brought
on shore at first, for they were both of them dead.
But one of them having multiplied by I know not
what kind of creature, these were two which I
had preserved tame, whereas the rest ran wild in
the woods, and became indeed troublesome to me
at last. With this attendance, and in this plenti-
ful manner, I lived; neither could I be said to want
anything but society; and of that in some time
after this, 1 was like to have too much.
I was something impatient, as T have observed,
to have the use of my boat, though very loth to run
ainy hazards; and therefore sometimes I sat con-
triving ways to get her about the island. This in-
clination increased upon me every day, and at
length I resolved to travel babi by land, follow-
ing the edge of the shore. I did so; but had any
one in England been to meet such a man as I was,
it must either have frighted them, or raised a great
deal of laughter. Be pleased to take a sketch of
my figure, as follows.
YT had a great high shapeless cap, made of a
goat's skin, with a flap hanging down behind, as
ROBINSON CRUSOE 123
well to keep the sun from me, as to shoot the rain
off from running into my neck.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, the skirts
coming down to about the middle of my thighs;
and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same.
The breeches were made of the skin of an old he-
goat, whose hair hung down such a length on
either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the
middle of my legs. Stockings and shoes I had
none, but had made me a pair of somethings, I
scarce knew what to call them, like buskins, to
flap over my legs and lace on either side like
I had on a broad belt of goatâ€™s skin dried, and
in a kind of a frog on either side of this hung a
little saw and a hatchet. I had another belt, not
so broad, which hung over my shoulder; and at
the end of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches,
both made of goatâ€™s skin too; in one of which hung
my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I
carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun, and
over my head a great clumsy ugly goat-skin um-
brella, but which, after all, was the most necessary
thing I had about me, next to my gun. As for my
face, the color of it was really not so mulatto-like
as one might expect from a man not at all careful
of it, and living within nineteen degrees of the
equinox. My beard I had cut pretty short, except
what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed
into a large pair of Mohometan whiskers, such as
I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee.
124 ROBINSON CRUSOE
In this kind of figure I went my new journey,
and was out five or six days. I travelled first
along the sea-shore, directly to the place where I
first brought my boat to an anchor, to get up upon
the rocks. And having no boat now to take care
of, I went over the land, a nearer way, to the same
height that I was upon before; when, looking for-
ward to the point of the rocks which lay out, and
which I was obliged to double with my boat, as is
said above, I was surprised to see the sea all
smooth and quiet, no rippling, no motion, no eur-
rent, any more there than in other places.
lurther observations convinced me J] might
very easily bring my boat about the island again.
But when T began to think of putting it in prac-
tice, I had such a terror upon my spirits at the re-
membrance of the danger I had been in, that I
could not think of it again with any patience; but,
on the contrary, [ took up another resolution,
which was more safe, though more laborious; and
this was, that I would build, or rather make me
another periagua or canoe; and so have one for
one side of the island, and one for the other.
You are to understand that now I had, as I may
call it, two plantations in the island; one, my little
fortitication or tent, with the wall about it, under
the rock, with the cave behind me, which, by this
time, I had enlarged into several apartments or
caves, one within another.
As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes
or piles, those piles grew all like trees, and were
ROBINSON CRUSOE 125
by this time grown so big, and spread so very much,
that there was not the least appearance, to any
oneâ€™s view, of any habitation behind them.
Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had
now a tolerable plantation there also; for, first, I
had my little bower, as I called it, which I kept in
repair; that is to say, I kept the hedge which cir-
cled it in constantly fitted up to its usual height,
the ladder standing always in the inside. In the
middle of this, I had my tent always standing and
under this I had made me a squab or couch, with
the skins of the creatures I had killed; and here,
whenever I had occasion to be absent from my
chief seat, I took up my country habitation.
Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my
cattle, that is to say, my goats. And as I had
taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and
enclose this ground, so I was so uneasy to see it
kept entire, lest the goats should break through,
that I never left off till, with infinite labor, I had
stuck the outside of the hedge so full of small
stakes, and so near to one another, that it was
rather a pale than hedge, and there was scarce
room to put a hand through between them.
This will testify for me that I was not idle, and
that I spared no pains to bring to pass whatever
appeared necessary for my comfortable support;
for I considered the keeping up a breed of tame
creatures thus that at my hand would be a living
magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me
as long as I lived in the place.
126 ROBINSON CRUSOE
In this place also I had my grapes growing,
which I principally depended on for my winter
store of raisins, and which I never failed to pre-
serve very carefully, as the best and most agreeable
dainty of my whole diet. And indeed they were
not agreeable only, but physical, wholesome, nour
ishing, and refreshing to the last degree.
I used frequently to visit my boat, and I kept all
things about, or belonging to her, in very good
order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert my:
ROBINSON CRUSOE 127
self, but scarce ever above a stoneâ€™s cast or two
from the shore. But now I come to a new scene
of my life.
It happened one day about noon, going towards
my boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the
print of a manâ€™s naked foot on the shore, which
was very plain to be seen in the sand. I stood
like one thunderstruck. I listened, I looked round
me, I could hear nothing, nor see anything. I
went up to a rising ground, to look farther. I.
went up the shore, and down the shore, but it was
all one; I could see no other impression but that
one. I went to it again to see if there were any
more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy;
but there was no room for that, for there was ex-
actly the very print of a footâ€”toes, heel, and every
part of a foot. But after innumerable fluttering
thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out
of myself, I came home to my fortification, terri-
fied to the last degree, looking behind me at every
two or three steps, mistaking every bush and tree,
and fancying every stump at a distance to be a
When I came to my castle, for so I think I
called it ever after this, I fled into it like one pur-
sued. Whether I went over by the ladder, as first
contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock, which
I called a door, I cannot remember; no, nor could
I remember the next morning, for never frighted
hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror
of mind than I to this retreat.
128 ROBINSON CRUSOE
I slept none that night. The farther I was from
the occasion of my fright, the greater my appre-
hensions were; which is something contrary to the
nature of such things, and especially to the usual
practice of all creatures in fear. Sometimes I
fancied it must be the devil, and reason joined in
with me upon this supposition; for how should any
other thing in human shape come into the place?
Where was the vessel that brought them? What
marks were there of any other footsteps? And
how was it possible a man should come there?
ROBINSON CRUSOE 129
I presently concluded then, that it must be some
more dangerous creature, viz., that it must be some
of the savages of the mainland over against me,
who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and,
either driven by the currents or by contrary winds,
had made the island, and had been on shore, but
were gone away again to sea, being as loth, per-
haps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I
would have been to have had them.
While these reflections were rolling upon my
mind, I was very thankful in my thoughts that I
was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that time,
or that they did not see my boat, by which they
would have concluded that some inhabitants had
been in the place, and perhaps have searched far-
ther for me. Then terrible thoughts racked my
imagination about their having found my boat,
and that there were people here; and that if so, I
should certainly have them come again in greater
numbers, and devour me; and if it should happen
so that they should not find me, yet they would
find my enclosure, destroy all my corn, carry away
all my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at
last for mere want.
How strange a checker-work of Providence is
the life of man! and by what secret differing
springs are the affections hurried about as differ-
ing circumstances present! To-day we love what
to-morrow we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow
we shun; to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear;
nay, even tremble at the apprehensions of. This
130 ROBINSON CRUSOE
was exemplified in me, at this time, in the most
lively manner imaginable; for I, whose only afflic-
tion was that I seemed banished from human go-
ciety, that I was alone, circumscribed by the
boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and con-
demned to what I called silent life; that I was as
one whom Heaven thought not worthy to be num-
bered among the living, or to appear among the
rest of His creatures; that to have seen one of my
own species would have seemed. to me a raising me
from death to life, and the greatest blessing that
Ileaven itself, next to the supreme blessing of sal-
vation, could bestow; I say, that IT should now
tremble at the very apprehensions of seeing a
man, and was ready to sink into the ground at but
the shadow or silent appearance of a manâ€™s having
set his foot in the island!
These thoughts took me up many hours, days,
nay, I may say, weeks and months; and one par-
ticular effect of my cogitations on this occasion I
cannot omit, viz., one morning early, lying in my
bed, and filled with thought about my danger
from the appearance of savages, I found it discom-
posed me very much; upon which those words of
the Scripture came into my thoughts, â€œCall upon
Me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver, and
thou shalt glorify Me.â€
Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my
heart was not only comforted, but I was guided
and encouraged to pray earnestly to God for de-
liverance. When I had done praying, I took up
ROBINSON CRUSOE 131
my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words
that presented to me were, â€œWait on the Lord, and
be of good cheer, and He shall strengthen thy
heart; wait, I say, on the Lord.â€ It is impossible
to express the comfort this gave me. In answer,
I thankfully laid down the book, and was no more
sad, at least, not on that occasion.
In the middle of these cogitations, apprehen-
sions, and reflections, it came into my thought one
day, that all this might be a mere chimera of my
own; and that this foot might be the print of my
own foot, when I came on shore from the boat.
This cheered me up a little too, and I began to per-
suade myself it was all a delusion, that it was
nothing else but my own foot.
Now I began to take courage, and to peep
abroad again, for I had not stirred out of my cas-
tle for three days and nights, so that I began to
starve for provision; for I had little or nothing
within doors but some barley-cakes and water.
Then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked
too, which usually was my evening diversion; and
the poor creatures were in great pain and incon-
venience for want of it; and, indeed, it almost
spoiled some of them, and almost dried up their
I went down to my flock two or three days, and
having seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder,
and to think there was really nothing in it but my
own imagination. But I could not persuade my- .
self fully of this till I should go down to the shore
132 ROBINSON CRUSOE
again, and when I came to measure the mark with
my own foot, I found my own foot not so large by
a great deal. This filled my head with new imag-
inations, and gave me the vapors again to the high-
est degree; so that I shook with cold, like one in
an ague; and I went home again, filled with the
belief that some man or men had been on shore
there. What course to take for my security, I
This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking
all night, but in the morning I fell asleep; and
having, by the amusement of my mind, been, as it
were, tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept very
soundly, and waked much better composed than I
had ever been before. And now I began to think
sedately; and upon the utmost debate with myself,
I concluded that this island, which was so exceed-
ing pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the
mainland than as I had seen, was not so entirely
abandoned as I might imagine; that although there
were no stated inhabitants who lived on the spot,
yet that there might sometimes come boats off
from the shore, who, either with design, or perhaps
never but when they were driven by cross winds,
might come to this place; that I had lived here
fifteen years now, and had not met with the least
shadow or figure of any people yet; and that if at
any time they should be driven here, it was prob-
able they went away again as soon as ever they
could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix there
upon any occasion to this time; that the most I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 133
could suggest any danger from, was from any such
casual accidental landing of straggling people
from the main, who, as it was likely if they were
driven hither, were here against their wills; so
they made no stay here, but went off again with
all possible speed, seldom staying one night on
shore, lest they should not have the help of the
tides and daylight back again; and that, there-
fore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some
safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land
upon the spot.
Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug
my cave so large as to bring a door through again,
which door, as I said, came out beyond where my
fortification joined to the rock. Upon maturely
considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me
a second fortification in the same manner of a
semicircle, at a distance from my wall, just where .
I had planted a double row of trees about twelve
years before, of which I made mention. These
trees having been planted so thick before, they
wanted but a few piles to be driven between them,
that they should be thicker and stronger, and my
wall would be soon finished.
So that I had now a double wall; and my outer
wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old
cables, and everything I could think of, to make
it strong, having in it seven little holes, about as
big as I might put my arm out at. In the inside
of this I thickened my wall to above ten feet thick, .
with coutinual bringing earth out of my cave, and
134 ROBINSON CRUSOE
laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon
it; and through the seven holes I contrived to
plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I got
seven on shore out of the ship. These, I say, I
planted like my cannon, and fitted them into
frames, that held them like a carriage, that so I
could fire all the seven guns in two minutesâ€™ time.
This wall I was many a weary month a-finishing,
and yet never thought myself safe till it was done.
I also had a great concern upon me for my little
herd of goats and after long consideration, I could
think of but two ways to preserve them. One was,
to find another convenient place to dig a cave un-
der ground, and to drive them into it every night;
and the other was, to enclose two or three little
bits of land, remote from one another, and as much
concealed as I could, where I might keep about half
a dozen young goats in each place; so that if any
disaster happened to the flock in general, [ might
be able to raise them again with little trouble and
time. And this, though it would require a great
deal of time and labor, I thought was the most ra-
tional design. ;
Accordingly I spent some time to find out the
most retired parts of the island and I pitched upon
one which was as private indeed ag my heart could
wish for. It was a little damp piece of ground,
near three acres, so surrounded with woods that it
was almost an enclosure by Nature; at least, it did
not want near so much labor to make it so as the
other pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 185
I immediately went to work and in less than a
monthâ€™s time I had so fenced it round, that my
flock, or herd, call it which you please, who were
not so wild now as at first they might be supposed
to be, were well enough secured in it. So, without
any further delay, I removed ten young she-goats
and two he-goats to this piece.
After I had thus secured one part of my little
living stock, I went about the whole island, search-
ing for another private place to make such another
deposit; when, wandering more to the west point
of the island than I had ever done yet, and looking
out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at
a great distance. I had found a perspective glass
or two in one of the seamenâ€™s chests, which I saved
out of our ship, but I had it not about me; and this
was so remote, that I could not tell what to make
of it, though I looked at it till my eyes were not
able to hold to look any longer. Whether it was a
boat or not, I do not know; but when I was come
down the hill to the shore, I was perfectly con-
founded and amazed; nor is it possible for me to
express the horror of my mind at seeing the shore
spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of
human bodies; and particularly, I observed a place
where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug
in the earth, like a cockpit, where it is supposed
the savage wretches had sat down to their inhu-
man feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-
I was so astonished with the sight of these
136 ROBINSON CRUSOE
things that I entertained no notion of any danger
to myself from it for a long while. Al] my appre-
hensions were buried in the thoughts of such a
pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror
of the degeneracy of human nature, which though
I had heard of often, yet I never had so near a
view of before. In short, I turned away my face
from the horrid spectacle. My stomach grew sick,
and I was just at the point of fainting, when Na-
ture discharged the disorder from my stomach.
And having yomited with an uncommon violence,
I was a little relieved, but could not bear to stay in
the place a moment; so I got me up the hill again
with all the speed I could, and walked on towards
my own habitation.
I began to be much easier now, as to the safety
of my circumstances, than ever I was before; for
I observed that these wretches never came to this
island in search of what they could get; perhaps
not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting, any-
thing here; and having often, no doubt, been up in
the covered, woody part of it, without finding any-
thing to their purpose. I knew I had been here
now almost eighteen years, and never saw the least
footsteps of human creatures there before; and I
might be here eighteen more ag entirely concealed
as I was now, if I did not discover myself to them,
which I had no manner of occasion to do; it being
my only business to keep myself entirely concealed
where I was, unless I found a better sort of crea-
tures than cannibals to make myself known to.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 137
Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the sav-
age wretches that I have been speaking of, and of
the wretched, inhuman custom of their devouring
and eating one another up, that I continued pen-
sive and sad, and kept close within my own circle
for almost two years after this. When I say my
own circle, I mean by it my three plantations, viz.,
my castle, my country seat, which I called my
bower, and my enclosure in the woods. Nor did I
look after this for any other use than as an enclo-
sure for my goats; for the aversion which Nature
gave me to these hellish wretches was such that I
was fearful of seeing them as of seeing the devil
himself. Nor did I so much as go to look after my
boat in all this time, but began rather to think of
making me another; for I could not think of ever
making any more attempts to bring the other boat
round the island to me, lest I should meet with
some of these creatures at sea, in which, if I had
happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew
what would have been my lot.
Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I
was in no danger of being discovered by these peo-
ple, began to wear off my uneasiness about them ;
and I began to live just in the same composed man-
ner as before; only with this difference, that I used
more caution, and kept my eyes more about me,
than I did before, lest I should happen to be seen
by any of them; and particularly, I was more cau-
tious of firing my gun, lest any of them being on
the island should happen to hear of it.
138 ROBINSON CRUSOE
Only this I did, I went and removed my boat,
which I had on the other side the island, and car-
ried it down to the east end of the whole island,
where I ran it into a little cove, which I found
under some high rocks, and where I knew, by rea-
son of the currents, the savages durst not, at least
would not come, with their boats, upon any ac-
With my boat I carried away everything that I
had left there belonging to her, though not neces-
sary for the bare going thither, viz., a mast and sail
which I had made for her, and a thing like an an-
chor, but indeed which could not be called either
anchor or grappling; however, it was the best I
could make of its kind. All these I removed, that
there might not be the least shadow of any discov-
ery, or any appearance of any boat, or of any hu-
man habitation, upon the island.
I believe the reader of this will not think strange
if I confess that these anxieties, these constant dan-
gers I lived in, and the concern that was now upon
me, put an end to all invention, and to all the con-
trivances that I had laid for my future accommo-
dations and conveniences, I had the care of my
safety more now upon my hands than that of my
food. I cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick
of wood now, for fear the noise I should make
should be heard; much less would I fire a gun, for
the same reason; and above all, I was intolerably
uneasy at making any fire, lest the smoke, which is
visible at a great distance in the day, should betray
ROBINSON CRUSOE | 139
me; and for this reason I removed that part of my
business â€˜which required fire, such as burning of
pots and pipes, etc., into my new apartment in the
woods ; where, after I had been some time, I found,
to my unspeakable consolation, a mere natural
cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and
where, I dare say, no savage, had he been at the
mouth of it, would be so hardy as to venture in;
nor, indeed, would any man else, but one who, like
me, wanted nothing so much as a safe retreat.
The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of
a great rock, where, by mere accident I would say
[if I did not see abundant reason to ascribe all
such things now to Providence], I was cutting
down some thick branches of trees to make char-
coal; and before I go on, I must observe the reason
of my making this charcoal, which was thus.
I was afraid of making a smoke about my habi-
tation, as I said before; and yet I could not live
there without baking my bread, cooking my meat,
etc. So I contrived to burn some wood here, as I
had seen done in England under turf, till it became
chark, or dry coal; and then putting the fire out, I
preserved the coal to carry home, and perform
the other services which fire was wanting for at
home, without danger of smoke.
But this is by the bye. While I was cutting
down some wood here, I perceived that behind a
very thick branch of low brushwood, or underwood,
there was a kind of hollow place. I was curious
to look into it; and getting with difficulty into the
140 ROBINSON CRUSOE
mouth of it, I found it was pretty large; that is to
Say, sufficient for me to stand upright in it, and
perhaps another with me. But I must confess to
you I made more haste out than I did in when,
looking farther into the place, and which was per-
fectly dark, I saw two broad shining eyes of some
creature, whether devil or man I knew not, which
twinkled like two stars, the dim light from the
cave's mouth shining directly in, and making the re-
However, after some pause I recovered myself,
and began to call myself a thousand fools, and tell
myself that he that was afraid to see the devil was
not fit to live twenty years in an island all alone,
and that I durst to believe there was nothing in
this cave that was more frightful than myself.
Upon this, plucking up my courage, I took up a
great firebrand, and in I rushed again, with the
stick flaming in my hand. I had not gone three
steps in, but I was almost as much frighted as I
was before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like that
of a man in some pain, and it was followed by a
broken noise, as if of words half expressed, and
then a deep sigh again. I stepped back, and was
indeed struck with such a surprise that it put me
into a cold sweat; and if I had had a hat on my
head, I will not answer for it, that my hair might
not â€˜have lifted it off. But still plucking up my
spirits as well as I could, and encouraging myself
a little with considering that the power and pres-
ence of God was everywhere, and was able to pro-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 141
tect me, upon this I stepped forward again, and
by the light of the firebrand, holding it up a little
over my head, I saw lying on the ground a mon-
strous, frightful, old he-goat, just making his will,
as we say, and gasping for life; and dying, indeed,
of mere old age.
I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out,
and he essayed to get up, but was not able to raise
himself; and I thought with myself he might even
lie there; for if he had frighted me so, he would
certainly fright any of the savages, if any of them
should be so hardy as to come in there while he had
any life in him.
I was now recovered from my surprise, and be-
gan to look round me, when I found the cave was
but very small; that is to say, it might be about
twelve feet over, but in no manner of shape, either
round or square, no hands having ever been em-
ployed in making it but those of mere Nature. I
observed also that there was a place at the farther
side of it that went in farther, but was so low that
it required me to creep upon my hands and knees
to go into it, and whither I went I knew not; so
having no candle, I gave it over for some time, but
resolved to come again the next day, provided with
candles and a tinder-box, which I had made of the
lock of one of the muskets, with some wild-fire in
Accordingly, the next day I came provided with
six large candles of my own making, for I made
very good candles now of goatâ€™s tallow; and going
142 ROBINSON CRUSOE
into this low place, I was obliged to creep upon
all fours, as I have said, almost ten yards; which,
by the way, I thought was a venture bold enough,
considering that I knew not how far it might go,
nor what was beyond it. When I was got through
the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I believe
nearly twenty feet. But never was such a glorious
sight seen in the island, I dare Say, as it was, to
look round the sides and roof of this vault or cave;
the walls reflected a hundred thousand lights to me
from my two candles, What it was in the rock,
whether diamonds, or any other precious stones,
or gold, which I rather Supposed it to be, I knew
The place I was in was a most delightful cavity
or grotto of its kind, as could be expected, though
perfectly dark. The floor was dry and level, and
had a sort of small loose gravel upon it, so that
there was no nauseous or venomous creature to be
Seen; neither was there any damp or wet on the
sides or roof. The only difficulty in it was the
entrance, which, however, as it was a place of se-
curity, and such a retreat ag I wanted, I thought
that was a convenience; so that I was really re-
joiced at the discovery, and resolved, without any
delay, to bring some of those things which I was
most anxious about to thig place; particularly, I
resolved to bring hither my magazine of powder,
and all my spare arms, viz., two fowling-pieces, for
I had three in all, and three muskets, for of them
I had eight in all. Â§o J kept at my castle only
ROBINSON CRUSOE 143
five, which stood ready-mounted, like pieces of can-
non, on my outmost fence; and were ready also to
take out upon any expedition.
Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition,
I took occasion to open the barrel of powder, which
I took up out of the sea, and which had been wet;
and I found that the water had penetrated about
three or four inches into the powder on every side,
which caking, and growing hard, had preserved the
inside like a kernel in a shell; so that I had near
sixty pounds of very good powder in the centre of
the cask. And this was an agreeable discovery to
me at that time; so I carried all away thither,
never keeping above two or three pounds of powder
with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any
kind. I also carried thither all the lead I had left
I fancied myself now like one of the ancient
giants, which were said to live in caves and holes
in the rocks, where none could come at them; for
I persuaded myself, while I was here, if five hun-
dred savages were to hunt me, they could never
find me out; or, if they did, they would not venture
to attack me here.
The old goat, whom I found expiring, died in the
mouth of the cave the next day after I made this
discovery; and I found it much easier to dig a
great hole there and throw him in and cover him
with earth, than to drag him out; so I interred
him there, to prevent the offence to my nose.
I was now in my twenty-third year of residence
144 ROBINSON CRUSOE
in this island; and was so naturalized to the place,
and to the manner of living, that could I have but
enjoyed the certainty that no savages would come
to the place to disturb me, I could have been con-
tent to have capitulated for spending the rest of
my time there, even to the last moment, till I laid
me down and died, like the old goat in the cave. I
had also arrived to some little diversions and
amusements, which made the time pass more pleas-
antly with me a great deal than it did before. As,
first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to
speak; and he did it so familiarly, and talked so
articulately and plain, that it was very pleasant to
me; and he lived with me no less than six and
twenty years. How long he might live afterwards
I know not, though I know they have a notion in
the Brazils that they live a hundred years. Per-
haps poor Poll may be alive there still, calling after
poor Robin Crusoe to this day. I wish no Eng-
lishman the ill luck to come there and hear him;
but if he did, he would certainly believe it was the
devil. My dog was a very pleasant and loving
companion to me for no less than sixteen years of
my time, and then died of mere old age. As for
my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to
that degree, that I was obliged to shoot several
of them at first to keep them from devouring me
and all I had; but at length, when the two old ones
I brought with me were gone, and after some time
continually driving them from me, and letting
them have no provision with me, they all ran wild
My dog was a very pleasant and loving companion to me,
146 ROBINSON CRUSOE
into the woods, except two or three favorites, which
I kept tame, and whose young, when they had any,
I alway drowned; and these were part of my fam-
ily. Besides these, I always kept two or three
household kids about me, whom I taught to feed out
of my hand. And I had two more parrots, which
talked pretty well, and would all call â€œRobin Cru-
soe,â€ but none like my first; nor, indeed, did I take
the pains with any of them that I had done with
him. I had also several tame sea-fowls, whose
names I know not, whom I caught upon the shore,
and cut their wings; and the little stakes which I
had planted before my castle wall being now
grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all
lived among these low trees, and bred there, which
was very agreeable to me; so that, as I said above,
I began to be very well contented with the life I
led, if it might but have been secured from the
dread of the savages.
It was now the month of December, in my
twenty-third year; and this, being the particular
time of my harvest, required my being pretty much
abroad in the fields; when, going out pretty early
in the morning, even before it was thorough day-
light, I was surprised with seeing a light of some
fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of about
two miles, towards the end of the island, where I
had observed some savages had been, as before.
But not on the other side; but, to my great afflic-
tion, it was on my side of the island.
I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 147
stopped short within my grove, not daring to go
out, lest I might be surprised; and yet I had no
more peace within, from the apprehensions I had
that if these savages, in rambling over the island,
should find my corn standing or cut, or any of my
works and improvements, they would immediately
conclude that there were people in the place, and
would then never give over till they had found me
out. In this extremity I went back directly to my
castle, pulled up the ladder after me, and made
all things without look as wild and natural as I
Then I prepared myself within, putting myself
in a posture of defence. I loaded all my cannon,
as I called them, that is to say, my muskets, which
were mounted upon my new fortification, and all
my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the
last gasp; not forgetting seriously to commend
myself to the Divine protection, and earnestly to
pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of the
barbarians. And in this posture I continued
about two hours; but began to be mighty impa-
tient for intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to
After sitting a while longer, and musing what I
should do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting
in ignorance any longer; so setting up my ladder to
the side of the hill where there was a flat place, as
I observed before, and then pulling the ladder up
after me, I set it up again, and mounted to the
top of the hill; and pulling out my perspective-
148 ROBINSON CRUSOE
glass, which I had taken on purpose, I laid me
down flat on my belly on the ground, and began to
look for the place. I presently found there was no
less than nine naked savages sitting round a small
fire they had made, not to warm them, for they had
no need of that, the weather being extreme hot,
but, as I supposed, to dress some of their barbarous
diet of human flesh which they had brought with
them, whether alive or dead, I could not know.
They had two canoes with them, which they had
hauled up upon the shore; and as it was then tide
of ebb, they seemed to me to wait for the return of
the flood to go away again. It is not easy to im-
agine what confusion this sight put me into, espe-
cially seeing them come on my side of the island,
and so near me, too.
As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the
tide made to the westward, I saw them all take
boat, and row (or paddle, as we call it) all away.
I should have observed that for an hour and more
before they went off, they went to dancing; and I
could easily discern their postures and gestures
by my glasses. I could not perceive, by my nicest
observation, but that they were stark naked, and
had not the least covering upon them; but whether
they were men or women, that I could not distin-
This was a dreadful sight to me, especially when,
going down to the shore, I could see the marks of
horror which the dismal work they had been about
had left behind it, viz., the blood, the bones, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 149
part of the flesh of human bodies, eaten and de-
voured by those wretches with merriment and
sport. I was so filled with indignation at the
sight, that I began now to premeditate the destruc-
tion of the next that I saw there, let them be who
or how many soever.
It seemed evident to me that the visits which
they thus made to this island are not very fre-
quent, for it was above fifteen months before any
more of them came on shore there again; that is to
say, I neither saw them, or any footsteps or sig-
nals of them, in all that time; for, as to the rainy
150 ROBINSON CRUSOE
seasons, then they are sure not to come abroad, at
least not so far. Yet all this while I lived uncom-
fortably, by reason of the constant apprehensions
I was in of their coming upon me by surprise;
from whence I observe that the expectation of evil
is more bitter than the suffering, especially if there
is no room to shake off that expectation, or those
I spent my days now in great perplexity and
anxiety of mind, expecting that I should, one day
or other, fall into the hands of these merciless
creatures; and if I did at any time venture abroad,
it was not without looking round me with the
greatest care and caution imaginable. And now I
found, to my great comfort, how happy it was that
I provided for a tame flock or herd of goats; for I
durst not, upon any account, fire my gun, espe-
cially near that side of the island where they
usually came, lest I should alarm the savages. And
if they had fled from me now, I was sure to have
them come back again, with perhaps two or three
hundred canoes with them, in a few days, and then
I knew what to expect.
However, I wore out a year and three months
more before I ever saw any more of the savages,
and then I found them again, as I shall soon ob-
serve. It is true they might have been there once
or twice, but either they made no stay, or at least
I did not hear them; but in the month of May, as
near as I could calculate, and in my four and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 151
twentieth year, I had a very strange encounter
with them; of which in its place.
The perturbation of my mind during this fifteen
or sixteen monthsâ€™ interval was very great. I
slept unquiet, dreamed always frightful dreams,
and often started out of my sleep in the night. In
the day great troubles overwhelmed my mind, and
in the night I dreamed often of killing the sav-
ages, and of the reasons why I might justify the
doing of it. But, to waive all this for a while, it
was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I
think, as well as my poor wooden calendar would
reckon, for I marked all upon the post still; I say,
it was the sixteenth of May that it blew a very
great storm of wind all day, with a great deal of
lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it
was after it. I know not what was the particular
occasion of it, but as I was reading in the Bible,
and taken up with very serious thoughts about
my present condition, I was surprised with a noise
of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea.
This was, to be sure, a surprise of quite a differ- |
ent nature from any I had met with before; for the
notions this put into my thoughts were quite of an-
other kind. I started up in the greatest haste im-
aginable, and, in a trice, clapped my ladder to the
middle place of the rock, and pulled it after me;
and mounting it the second time, got to the top of
the hill the very moment that a flash of fire bid me
listen for a second gun, which accordingly, in about
152 ROBINSON CRUSOE
half a minute, I heard; and, by the sound, knew
that it was from that part of the sea where I was
driven down the current in my boat.
I immediately considered that this must be some
ship in distress, and that they had some comrade,
or some other ship in company, and fired these
guns for signals of distress, and to obtain help. I
had this presence of mind, at that minute, as to
think that though I could not help them, it may
be they might help me; so I brought together all
the dry wood I could get at hand, and, making a
good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the hill.
The wood was dry, and blazed freely; and though
the wind blew very hard, yet it burnt fairly out;
so that I was certain, if there was any such thing
as a ship, they must needs see it, and no doubt
they did; for soon as ever my fire blazed up I heard
another gun, and after that several] others, all from
the same quarter. I plied my fire all night long
till day broke; and when it was broad day, and the
air cleared up, I saw something at a great distance
at sea, full east of the island, whether a sail or a
hull I could not distinguish, no, not with my
glasses, the distance was so great, and the weather
still something hazy also; at least it was so out at
I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon
perceived that it did not move; so I presently con-
cluded that it was a ship at an anchor. And being
eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 153
gun in my hand and ran toward the south side of
the island, to the rocks where I had formerly been
carried away with the current; and getting up
there, the weather by this time being perfectly
clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the
wreck of a ship, cast away in the night upon those
concealed rocks which I found when I was out in
I cannot explain, by any possible energy of
words, what a strange longing or hankering of de-
sires I felt in my soul upon this sight, breaking out
sometimes thus: â€œOh that there had been but one
or two, nay, or but one soul, saved out of this ship,
to have escaped to me, that I might but have had
one companion, one fellow-creature, to have spoken
to me, and to have conversed with!â€ In all the
time of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest, so
strong a desire after the society of my fellow-
creatures, or so deep a regret at the want of it.
I had a great mind to venture out in my boat to
this wreck, not doubting but I might find some-
thing on board that might be useful to me. But
that did not altogether press me so much as the
possibility that there might be yet some living
creature on board, whose life I might not only save,
but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to
the last degree.
Under the power of this impression, I hastened
back to my castle and prepared everything for my
voyage. Loading myself with everything neces-
154 ROBINSON CRUSOE
sary, I went down to my boat, got the water out
of her, and praying to God to direct my voyage, I
I went at a great rate directly for the wreck, and
in less than two hours I came up to it.
It was a dismal sight to look at. The ship,
which, by its building, was Spanish, stuck fast,
jammed in between two rocks. All the stern and
quarter of her was beaten to pieces with the sea;
and as her forecastle, which stuck in the rocks, had
run on with great violence, her mainmast and fore-
mast were brought by the board; that is to say,
broken short off; but her bowsprit was sound, and
the head and bow appeared firm. When I came
close to her a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing
me coming, yelped and cried; and as soon as I
called him, jumped into the sea to come to me,
and I took him into the boat, but found him al-
most dead for hunger and thirst. I gave him a
cake of my bread, and he ate it like a ravenous wolf
that had been starving a fortnight in the snow. I
then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with
which, if I would have let him, he would have burst
After this I went on board; but the first sight I
met with was two men drowned in the cook-room,
or forecastle of the ship, with their arms fast about
one another. Besides the dog, there was nothing
left in the ship that had life; nor any goods that I
could see, but what were spoiled by the water.
I saw several chests, which I believed belonged to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 155
some of the seamen; and I got two of them into
the boat, without examining what was in them.
Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the
forepart broken off, I am persuaded I might have
made a good voyage; for by what I found in these
two chests, I had room to suppose the ship had a
great deal of wealth on board.
I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which I wanted ex-
tremely; as also two little brass kettles, a copper
pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron. And with
this cargo, and the dog, I came away, the tide be-
ginning to make home again; and the same eve-
ning, about an hour within night, I reached the
island again, weary and fatigued to the last degree.
I reposed that night in the boat; and in the
morning I resolved to harbor what I had gotten
in my new cave, not to carry it home to my castle.
After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo on
shore, and began to examine the particulars. When
I came to open the chests, I found several things
of great use tome. For example, I found in onea
fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and
filled with cordial waters, fine, and very good; the
bottles held about three pints each, and were tipped
with silver. I found two pots of very good suc-
cades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on top that
the salt water had not hurt them; and two more of
the same, which the water had spoiled. I found
some very good shirts, which were very welcome
to me; and about a dozen and half of linen white
handkerchiefs and colored neckcloths. The former
156 ROBINSON CRUSOE
were also very welcome, being exceeding refresh-
ing to wipe my face in a hot day. Besides this,
when I came to the till in the chest, I found there
three great bags of pieces of eight, which held out
about eleven hundred pieces in all; and in one of
them, wrapped in a paper, six doubloons of gold,
and some small bars or wedges of gold. I suppose
they might all weigh near a pound.
Tbe other chest I found had some clothes in it,
put of little value. Upon the whole, I got very lit-
tle by this voyage that was of any use to me, for as
to the money, I had no manner of occasion for it;
â€™+was to me as the dirt under my feet; and I would
have given it all for three or four pair of English
shoes and stockings, which were things I greatly
wanted, but had not had on my feet now for many
years. I had indeed gotten two pairs of shoes
now, which I took off of the feet of the two drowned
men whom I saw in the wreck, and I found two
pair more in one of the chests, which were very
welcome to me; but they were not like our English
shoes, either for ease or service, being rather what
we call pumps than shoes.
Having now brought all my things on shore, and
secured them, I went back to my boat, and rowed or
paddled her along the shore to her old harbor,
where I laid her up, and made the best of my way
to my old habitation, where lI found everything
safe and quiet. So I began to repose myself, live
after my old fashion, and take care of my family
ROBINSON CRUSOE 157
affairs; and, for a while, I lived easy enough, only
that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked
out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if
at any time I did stir with any freedom, it was al-
ways to the east part of the island, where I was
pretty well satisfied the savages never came, and
where I could go without so many precautions, and
such a load of arms and ammunition as I always
carried with me if I went the other way.
I lived in this condition nearly two years more;
but my unlucky head, that was always to let me
know it was born to make my body miserable, was
all this two years filled with projects and designs,
how, if it were possible, I might get away from this
island; for sometimes I was for making another
voyage to the wreck, though my reason told me that
there was nothing left there worth the hazard of
my voyage; sometimes for a ramble one way, some-
times another; and I believe verily, if I had had the
boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have ven-
tured to sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither.
I have been in all my circumstances a memento
to those who are touched with the general plague of
mankind, whence, for aught I know, one-half of
their miseries flow; I mean, that of not being satis-
fied with the station wherein God and Nature has
placed them; for not to look back upon my primi-
tive condition, and the excellent advice of my fa-
ther, the opposition to which was, as I may call it,
my original sin, my subsequent mistakes of the
158 ROBINSON CRUSOE
same kind had been the means of my coming into
this miserable condition; for had that Providence,
which so happily had seated me at the Brazils as a
planter, blessed me with confined desires, and I
could have been contented to have gone on grad-
ually, I might have been, by this time, I mean in
the time of my being in this island, one of the most
considerable planters in the Brazils; nay, I am
persuaded that by the improvements I had made in
that little time I lived there, and the increase I
should probably have made if I had stayed, I might
have been worth an hundred thousand moidores.
But as this is ordinarily the fate of young heads,
so reflection upon the folly of it is as ordinarily the
exercise of more years, or of the dear-bought experi-
ence of time; and so it was with me now. And
yet, so deep had the mistake taken root in my tem-
per, that I could not satisfy myself in my station,
but was continually poring upon the means and
possibility of my escape from this place. And that
I may, with the greater pleasure to the reader,
bring on the remaining part of my story, it may not
be improper to give some account of my first con-
ceptions on the subject of this foolish scheme for
my escape, and how, and upon what foundation, I
I am now to be supposed retired into my castle,
after my late voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid
up and secured under water, as usual, and my con-
dition restored to what it was before. I had more
wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was not at
ROBINSON CRUSOE 159
all the richer; for I had no more use for it than the
Indians of Peru had before the Spaniards came
It was one of the nights in the rainy season in
March, the four and twentieth year of my first set-
ting foot in this island of solitariness. I was ly-
ing in my bed, or hammock, awake, very well in
health, had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of
body, no, nor any uneasiness of mind, more than
ordinary, but could by no means close my eyes,
that is, so as to sleep; no, not a wink all night long,
otherwise than as follows.
It is as impossible, as needless, to set down the
innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled
through that great thoroughfare of the brain, the
memory, in this nightâ€™s time. I ran over the whole
history of my life in miniature, or by abridgment,
as I may call it, to my coming to this island, and
also of the part of my life since I came to this
island. In my reflections upon the state of my
case since I came on shore on this island, | was
comparing the happy posture of my affairs in the
first years of my habitation here compared to the
life of anxiety, fear, and care which I had lived
ever since I had seen the print of a foot in the
sand; not that I did not believe the savages had
frequented the island even all the while, and might
have been several hundreds of them at times on
shore there; but I had never known it, and was
incapable of any apprehensions about it. My satis-
faction was perfect, though my danger was the
160 ROBINSON CRUSOE
same; and I was as happy in not knowing my dan-
ger, as if I had never really been exposed to it.
This furnished my thoughts with many very prof-
itable reflections, and particularly this one: how
infinitely good that Providence is which has pro-
vided, in its government of mankind, such narrow
bounds to his sight and knowledge of things; and
though he walks in the midst of so many thousand
dangers, the sight of which, if discovered to him,
would distract his mind and sink his spirits, he is
kept serene and calm, by having the events of
things hid from his eyes, and knowing nothing of
the dangers which surround him.
After these thoughts had for some time enter-
tained me, I came to reflect seriously upon the
real danger I had been in for so many years in this
very island, and how I had walked about in the
greatest security, and with all possible tranquil-
lity, even when perhaps nothing but a brow of a
hill, a great tree, or the casual approach of night
had been between me and the worst kind of de-
struction, viz., that of falling into the hands of
cannibals and savages, who would have seized on
me with the same view as I did of a goat or a turtle,
and have thought it no more a crime to kill and de-
vour me than I did of a pigeon or a curlew. I
would unjustly slander myself if I should say I
was not sincerely thankful to my great Preserver,
to whose singular protection I acknowledged, with
great humility, that all these unknown deliver-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 161
ances were due, and without which I must inevit-
ably have fallen into their merciless hands.
When these thoughts were over, my head was
for some time taken up in considering the nature
of these wretched creatures, I mean savages, and
how it came to pass in the world that the wise
Governor of all things should give up any of His
creatures to such inhumanity; nay, to something
so much below even brutality itself, as to devour
its own kind. But as this ended in some (at that
time fruitless) speculations, it occurred to me to
inquire what part of the world these wretches lived
in? how far off the coast was from whence they
came? what they ventured over so far from homeâ€™
for? what kind of boats they had? and why I might
not order myself and my business so that I might
be as able to go over thither as they were to come
I never so much as troubled myself to consider
what I should do with myself when I came thither;
what would become of me, if I fell into the hands
of the savages; or how I should escape from them,
if they attempted me; no, nor so much as how it
was possible for me to reach the coast, and not be
attempted by some or other of them, without any
possibility of delivering myself; and if I should
not fall into their hands, what I should do for pro-
vision; or whither I should bend my course.
None of these thoughts, I say, so much as came in
my way; but my mind was wholly bent upon the
162 ROBINSON CRUSOE
notion of my passing over in my boat to the main-
land. I looked back upon my present condition as
the most miserable that could possibly be; that I
was not able to throw myself into anything, but
death, that could be called worse; that if I reached
the shore of the main, I might perhaps meet with
relief, or I might coast along, as I did on the shore
of Africa, till I came to some inhabited country,
and where I might find some relief; and after all,
perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship
that might take me in; and if the worse came to
the worst, I could but die, which would put an end
to all these miseries at once. Pray note, all this
was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impatient
temper, made as it were desperate by the long con-
tinuance of my troubles, and the disappointments
I had met in the wreck I had been on board of,
and where I had been so near the obtaining what I
so earnestly longed for, viz., somebody to speak to,
and to learn some knowledge from the place where
I was, and of the probable means of my deliverance.
I say, I was agitated wholly by these thoughts.
All my calm of mind, in my resignation to Provi-
dence, and waiting the issue of the dispositions of
Heaven, seemed to be suspended; and I had, as it
were, no power to turn my thoughts to anything
but to the project of a voyage to the main, which
came upon me with such force, and such an impetu-
osity of desire, that it was not to be resisted.
When this had agitated my thoughts for two
hours, or more, with such violence that it set my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 163
very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as
high as if I had been in a fever, merely with the
extraordinary fervor of my mind about it, Nature,
as if I had been fatigued and exhausted with the
very thought of it, threw me into a sound sleep.
One would have thought I should have dreamed of
it, but I did not, nor of anything relating to it; but
I dreamed that as I was going out into the morn-
ing, as usual, from my castle, I saw upon the shore
two canoes and eleven savages coming to land,
and that they brought with them another savage,
whom they were going to kill in order to eat him ;
when, on a sudden, the savage that they were going
to kill jumped away, and ran for his life. And I
thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my
little thick grove before my fortification to hide
himself; and that I, seeing him alone, and not per-
ceiving that the other sought him that way, showed
myself to him, and smiling upon him, encouraged
him; that he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray
me to assist him; upon which I showed my ladder,
made him go up, and carried him into my cave, and
he became my servant; and that as soon as I had
gotten this man, I said to myself, â€œNow I may cer-
tainly venture to the mainland; for this fellow will
serve me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do,
and whither to go for provisions, and whither not
to go for fear of being devoured; what places to
venture into, and what to escape.â€ I waked with
this thought, and was under such inexpressible
impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in
164 ROBINSON CRUSOE
my dream, that the disappointments which I felt
upon coming to myself and finding it was no more
than a dream were equally extravagant the other
way, and threw me into a very great dejection of
Upon this, however, I made this conclusion: that
my only way to go about an attempt for an escape
was, if possible, to get a savage into my possession ;
and, if possible, it should be one of their prisoners
whom they had condemned to be eaten, and should
bring thither to kill. But these thoughts still
were attended with this difficulty, that it was im-
possible to effect this without attacking a whole
caravan of them, and killing them all; and this
was not only a very desperate attempt, and might
miscarry, but, on the other hand, I had greatly
scrupled the lawfulness of it to me; and my heart
trembled at the thoughts of shedding so much
blood, though it was for my deliverance.
However, at last, after many secret disputes
with myself, and after great perplexities about it,
for all these arguments, one way and another,
struggled in my head a long time, the eager prevail-
ing desire of deliverance at length mastered all
the rest, and I resolved, if possible, to get one of
those savages into my hands, cost what it would.
My next thing then was to contrive how to do it,
and this indeed was very difficult to resolve on.
But as I could pitch upon no probable means for
it, so I resolved to put myself upon the watch, to
see them when they came on shore, and leave the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 165
rest to the event, taking such measures as the
opportunity should present, let be what would be.
With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set my-
self upon the scout as often as possible, and indeed
so often, till I was heartily tired of it; for it was
above a year and half that I waited; and for great
part of that time went out to the west end, and to
the south-west corner of the island almost every
day, to see for canoes, but none appeared. This
was very discouraging, and began to trouble me
much; though I cannot say that it did in this case,
as it had done some time before that, viz., wear off
the edge of my desire to the thing. But the longer
it seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was for
it. Ina word, I was not at first so careful to shun
the sight of these savages, and avoid being seen by
them, as I was now eager to be upon them.
About a year and a half after I had entertained
these notions, and by long musing had, as it were,
resolved them all into nothing, for want of an occa-
sion to put them in execution, I was surprised, one
morning early, with seeing no less than five canoes
all on shore together on my side the island, and the
people who belonged to them all landed, and out of
my sight. The number of them broke all my meas-
ures; for seeing so many, and knowing that they
always came four, or six, or sometimes more, in a
boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or how
to take my measures to attack twenty or thirty men
single-handed; so I lay still in my castle, perplexed
and discomforted. However, I put myself into
166 ROBINSON CRUSOE
all the same postures for an attack that I had
formerly provided, and was just ready for action
if anything had presented. Having waited a good
while, listening to hear if they made any noise, at
length, being very impatient, I set my guns at the
foot of my ladder, and.clambered up to the top of
the hill, by my two stages, as usual, standing so,
however, that my head did not appear above the
hill, so that they could not perceive me by any
means. Here I observed, by the help of my per-
spective-glass, that they were no less than thirty
in number, that they had a fire kindled, that they
had had meat dressed. How they had cooked it,
that I knew not, or what it was; but they were all
dancing, in I know not how many barbarous ges-
tures and figures, their own way, round the fire.
While I was thus looking on them, I perceived by
my perspective two miserable wretches dragged
from the boats, where, it seems, they were laid by,
and were now brought out for the slaughter. I
perceived one of them immediately fell, being
knocked down, I suppose, with a club or wooden
sword, for that was their way, and two or three
others were at work immediately, cutting him open
for their cookery, while the other victim was left
standing by himself, till they should be ready for
him. In that very moment this poor wretch seeing
himself a little at liberty, Nature inspired him with
hopes of life, and he started away from them, and
ran with incredible swiftness along the sands di-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 167
rectly towards me, I mean towards that part of the
coast where my habitation was.
I was dreadfully frighted (that I must acknowl-
edge) when I perceived him to run my way, and
especially when, as I thought, I saw him pursued
by the whole body; and now I expected that part
of my dream was coming to pass, and that he would
certainly take shelter in my grove; but I could not
depend, by any means, upon my dream for the
rest of it, viz. that the other savages would not
pursue him thither, and find him there. How-
ever, I kept my station, and my spirits began to re-
cover when I found that there was not above three
men that followed him; and still more was I en-
couraged when I found that he outstripped them
exceedingly in running, and gained. ground of
them; so that if he could but bold it for half an
hour, I saw easily he would fairly get away from
There was between them and my castle the creek,
which I mentioned often at the first part of my
story, when I landed my cargoes out of the ship;
and this I saw plainly he must necessarily swim
over, or the poor wretch would be taken there. But
when the savage escaping came thither he made
nothing of it, though the tide was then up; but
plunging in, swam through in about thirty strokes
or thereabouts, landed, and ran on with exceeding
strength and swiftness. When the three persons
came to the creek. I found that two of them could
168 ROBINSON CRUSOE
swim, but the third could not, and that, standing
on the other side, he looked at the other, but went
no further, and soon after went softly back, which,
as it happened, was very well for him in the main.
I observed that the two who swam were yet more
than twice as long swimming over the creek as the
fellow was that fled from them. It came now very
warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly,
that now was my time to get me a servant, and
perhaps a companion or assistant, and that I was
called plainly by Providence to save this poor crea-
tureâ€™s life. I immediately ran down the ladders
with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns,
for they were both but at the foot of the ladders,
as I observed above, and getting up again, with
the same haste, to the top of the hill, I crossed to-
ward the sea, and having a very short cut, and all
down hill, clapped myself in the way between the
pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud to him
that fled, who, looking back, was at first perhaps
as much frighted at me as at them; but I beckoned
with my hands to him to come back; and, in the
meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two that
followed; then rushing at once upon the foremost,
I knocked him down with the stock of my piece.
I was loth to fire, because I would not have the
rest hear; though, at that distance, it would not
have been easily heard, and being out of sight of
the smoke too, they would not have easily known
what to make of it. Having knocked this fellow
down, the other who pursued with him stopped, as
ROBINSON CRUSOE 169
if he had been frighted, and I advanced apace to-
wards him; but as I came nearer, I perceived pres-
ently he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it
to shoot at me; so I was then necessitated to shoot
at him first, which I did, and killed him at the first
The poor savage who fled, but had stopped,
though he saw both his enemies fallen and killed,
as he thought, yet was so frighted with the fire and
noise of my piece that he stood stock-still, and
neither came forward nor went backward, though
he seemed rather inclined to fly still than to come
on. I hallooed again to him and made signs to
come forward, which he easily understood, and
came a little way, then stopped again, and then a
little further, and stopped again; and I could then
perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been
taken prisoner, and had just been to be killed, as
his two enemies were. I beckoned him again to
come to me, and gave him all the signs of encour-
agement that I could think of; and he came nearer
and nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve
steps, in token of acknowledgment for my saving
his life. I smiled to him, and looked pleasantly,
and beckoned to him to come still nearer. At
length he came close to me, and then he kneeled
down again, kissed the ground, and laid his head
upon the ground, and taking me by the foot, set my
foot upon his head. This, it seems, was a token of
swearing to be my slave for ever. I took him up,
and made much of him, and encouraged him all I
170 ROBINSON CRUSOE
could. But there was more work to do yet; for I
perceived the savage whom I knocked down was
not killed, but stunned by the blow, and began to
come to himself; so I pointed to him, and showing
him the savage, that he was not dead, upon this he
spoke some words to me; and though I could not
understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant
to hear; for they were the first sound of a manâ€™s
voice that I had heard, my own excepted, for above
twenty-five years. But there was no time for such
reflections now. The savage who was knocked
down recovered himself so far as to sit up upon the
ground, and I perceived that my savage began to
be afraid; but when I saw that, I presented my
other piece at the man, as if I would shoot him.
Upon this my savage, for so I call him now, made
a motion to me to lend him my sword, which hung
naked in a belt by my side; soI did. He no sooner
had it but he runs to his enemy, and, at one blow,
cuts off his head as cleverly, no executioner in Ger-
many could have done it sooner or better; which I
thought very strange for one who, I had reason to
believe, never saw a sword in his life before, except
their own wooden swords. However, it seems, as
I learned afterwards, they make their wooden
swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard,
that they will cut off heads even with them, ay,
and arms, and that at one blow too. When he had
done this, he comes laughing to me in sign of tri-
umph, and brought me the sword again, and with
abundance of gestures, which I did not understand,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 171
laid it down, with the head of the savage that he
had just killed before me.
But that which astonished him most, was to know
how I had killed the other Indian so far off; so
pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go
to him; so I bade him go, as well as I could. When
he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking
at him, turned him first on one side, then on tâ€™other,
looked at the wound the bullet had made, which, it
seems, was just in his breast, where it had made a
hole, and no great quantity of blood had followed;
but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead.
He took up his bow and arrows, and came back;
so I turned to go away, and beckoned to him to
follow me, making signs to him that more might
come after them.
Upon this he signed to me that he should bury
them with sand, that they might not be seen by the
rest if they followed; and so I made signs again to
him to do so. He fell to work, and in an instant
he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands
big enough to bury the first in, and then dragged
him into it, and covered him, and did so also by
the other. I believe he had buried them both in a
quarter of an hour. Then calling him away, I
carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my
cave, on the farther part of the island; so I did not
let my dream come to pass in that part, viz., that
he came into my grove for shelter.
Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to
eat, and a draught of water, which I found he was
172 ROBINSON CRUSOE
indeed in great distress for, by his running; and
having refreshed him, I made signs for him to go
lie down and sleep, pointing to a place where I had
laid a great parcel of rice-straw, and a blanket
upon it, which I used to sleep upon myself some-
times; so the poor creature lay down, and went to
He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well
made, with straight strong limbs, not too large,
tall, and well-shaped, and, as I reckon, about
twenty-six years of age. He had a very good coun-
tenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed
to have something very manly in his face; and yet
he had all the sweetness and softness of an Ieuro-
pean in his countenance too, especially when he
smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled
like wool; his forehead very high and large; and a
great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes.
The color of his skin was not quite black, but very
tawny; and yet not of an ugly, yellow, nauseous
tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other
natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a
dun olive color, that had in it something very agree-
able, though not very easy to describe. His face
was round and plump; his nose small, not flat like
the negroes; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his
fine teeth well set, and white as ivory.
After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about
half an hour, he waked again, and comes out of the
cave to me, for I had been milking my goats, which
I had in the enclosure just by. When he espied
BT NUAY =
I understood him in many things, and let him know I was
very well pleased with him.
174 ROBINSON CRUSOE
me, he came running to me, laying himself down
again upon the ground, with all the possible signs
of an humble, thankful disposition, making many
antic gestures to show it. At last he lays his head
flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my
other foot upon his head, as he had done before,
and after this made all the signs to me of subjec-
tion, servitude, and submission imaginable, to let
me know how he would serve me as long as he
lived. I understood him in many things, and let
him know I was very well pleased with him. In
a little time I began to speak to him, and teach him
to speak to me; and, first, I made him know his
name should be Friday, which was the day I saved
his life. I called him so for the memory of the
time. I likewise taught him to say master, and
then let him know that was to be my name. I like-
wise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know
the meaning of them. I gave him some milk in an
earthen pot, and let him see me drink it before
him, and sop my bread in it; and I gave him a cake
of bread to do the like, which he quickly complied
with, and made signs that it was very good for him.
I kept there with him all that night; but as soon
as it was day, I beckoned to him to come with me,
and let him know I would give him some clothes ;
at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark
naked. As we went by the place where he had
buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place,
and showed me the marks that he had made to
find them again, making signs to me that we should
ROBINSON CRUSOE 175
dig them up again, and eat them. At this I ap-
peared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it,
made as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and
beckoned with my hand to him to come away;
which he did immediately, with great submission.
I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if
his enemies were gone; and pulling out my glass, I
looked, and saw plainly the place where they had
been, but no appearance of them or of their canoes;
so that it was plain that they were gone, and had
left their two comrades behind them, without any
search after them.
Thus we came back to our castle, and there I fell
to work for my man Friday; and, first of all, I
gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out
of the poor gunnerâ€™s chest I mentioned, and which
I found in the wreck; which, with a little altera-
tion, fitted him very well. Then I made him a
jerkin of goatâ€™s skin, as well as my skill would al-
low, and I was now grown a tolerable good tailor;
and I gave him a cap, which I had made of a hare-
skin, very convenient and fashionable enough ; and
thus he was clothed for the present tolerably well,
and was mighty well pleased to see himself almost
as well clothed as his master. It is true he went
awkwardly in these things at first; wearing the
drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves
of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the in-
side of his arms; but a little easing them where he
complained they hurt him, and using himself to
them, at length he took to them very well.
176 ROBINSON CRUSOE
The next day after I came home to my hutch
with him, I began to consider where I should lodge
him. And that I might do well for him, and yet
be perfectly easy myself, I made a little tent for
him in the vacant place between my two fortifica-
tions, in the inside of the last and in the outside of
the first; and as there was a door or entrance
there into my cave, I made a formal framed door-
case, and a door to it of boards, and set it up in
the passage, a little within the entrance; and caus-
ing the door to open on the inside, I barred it up
in the night, taking in my ladders too; so that
Friday could in no way come at me in the inside of
my innermost wall without making so much noise
in getting over that it must needs waken me; for
my first wall had now a complete roof over it of
long poles, covering all my tent, and leaning up to
the side of the hill, which was again laid cross with
smaller sticks instead of laths, and then thatched
over a great thickness with the rice-straw, which
was strong, like reeds; and at the hole or place
which was left to go in or out by the ladder, I had
placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been at-
tempted on the outside, would not have opened at
all, but would have fallen down, and made a great
noise; and as to weapons, I took them all into my
side every night.
But I needed none of all this precaution; for
never man had a more faithful, loving, sincere serv-
ant than Friday was to me; without passions, sul-
lenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and engaged;
ROBINSON CRUSOE 177
his very affections were tied to me, like those of a
child to a father; and I dare say he would have
sacrificed his life for the saving of mine upon any
occasion whatsoever. The many testimonies he
gave me of this put it out of doubt, and soon con-
vinced me that I needed to use no precautions as
to my safety on his account.
I was greatly delighted with him, and made it
my business to teach him everything that was
proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful;
put especially to make him speak, and understand
me when I spake. And he was the aptest scholar
that ever was; and particularly was so merry, so
constantly diligent, and so pleased when he could
but understand me, or make me understand him,
that it was very pleasant to me to talk to him.
And now my life began to be so easy, that I began
to say to myself, that could I but have been safe
from more savages, I cared not if I was never to
remove from the place while I lived.
After I had been two or three days returned to
my castle, I thought that, in order to bring Friday
off from his horrid way of feeding, and from the
relish of a cannibalâ€™s stomach, I ought to let him
taste other flesh; so I took him out with me one
morning to the woods.. I went, indeed, intending
to kill a kid out of my flock, and bring him home
and dress it; but as I was going, I saw a she-goat
lying down in the shade, and two young kids sit-
ting by her. I catched hold of Friday. â€œHold,â€
says I, â€œstand still,â€ and made signs to him not to
178 ROBINSON CRUSOE
stir. Immediately I presented my piece, shot and
killed one of the kids. The poor creature, who
had, at a distance indeed, seen me kill the savage,
his enemy, but did not know, or could imagine, how
it was done, was sensibly surprised, trembled and
shook, and looked so amazed that I thought he
would have sunk down. He did not see the kid I
had shot at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped
up his waistcoat to feel if he was not wounded ;
and, as I found presently, thought I was resolved
to kill him; for he came and kneeled down to
me, and embracing my knees, said a great many
things I did not understand ; but I could easily
see that the meaning was to pray me not to kill
I soon found a way to convince him that I would
do him no harm; and taking him up by the hand,
laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which I
had killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it,
which he did; and while he was wondering, and
looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded
my gun again; and by and by I saw a great fowl,
like a hawk, sit upon a tree, within shot; 80, to
let Friday understand a little what I would do, I
called him to me again, pointing at the fowl, which
was indeed a parrot, though I thought it had been
a hawk; I say, pointing to the parrot, and to my
gun, and to the ground under the parrot, to let him
see I would make it fall, I made him understand
that I would shoot and kill that bird. Accord-
ingly I fired, and bade him look, and immediately
ROBINSON CRUSOE 179
he saw the parrot fall. He stood like one frighted
again, notwithstanding all I had said to him; and
I found he was the more amazed, because he did
not see me put anything into the gun, but thought
that there must be some wonderful fund of death
and destruction in that thing, able to kill man,
beast, bird, or anything near or far off; and the
astonishment this created in him was such as could
not wear off for a long time; and I believe, if I
would have let him, he would have worshipped me
and my gun. As for the gun itself, he would not
so much as touch it for several days after; but
would speak to it, and talk to it, as if it had an-
swered him, when he was by himself; which, as I
afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not to
Well, after his astonishment was a little over at
this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I
had shot, which he did, but stayed some time; for
the parrot, not being quite dead, was fluttered a
good way off from the place where she fell. How-
ever, he found her, took her up, and brought her to
me; and as I had perceived his ignorance about the
gun before, I took this advantage to charge the gun
again, and not let him see me do it, that I might
be ready for any other mark that might present.
But nothing more offered at that time; so I brought
home the kid, and the same evening I took the
skin off, and cut it out as well as I could; and hav-
ing a pot for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some
of the flesh, and made some very good broth; and
180 ROBINSON CRUSOE
after I had begun to eat some, I gave some to my
man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very
well; but that which was strangest to him, was to
see me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me that
the salt was not good to eat, and putting a little
into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and
would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth
with fresh water after it.
Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth,
I was resolved to feast him the next day with
roasting a piece of the kid. This I did by hang-
ing it before the fire in a string, as I had seen many
people do in England, setting two poles up, one
on each side of the fire, and one cross on the top,
and tying the string to the cross stick, letting the
meat turn continually. This Friday admired very
much. But when he came to taste the flesh, he
took so many ways to tell me how well he liked
it, that I could not but understard him; and at
last he told me he would never eat manâ€™s flesh any
more, which I was very glad to hear.
The next day I set him to work to beating some
corn out, and sifting it in the manner I used to do,
as I observed before; and he soon understood how
to do it as well as I, especially after he had seen
what the meaning of it was, and that it was to
make bread of; for after that I let him see me make
my bread, and bake it too; and in a little time Fri- .
day was able to do all the work for me, as well as
I could do it myself.
I began now to consider that, having two mouths
ROBINSON CRUSOE 181
to feed instead of one, I must provide more ground
for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn
than I used to do; so I marked out a larger piece
of land, and began the fence in the same manner as
before, in which Friday not only worked very will-
ingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully ; and
I told him what it was for; that it was for corn to
make more bread, pecause he was now with me,
and that I might have enough for him and myself
too. He appeared very sensible of that part, and
let me know that he thought I had much more
labor upon me on his account, than I had for my-
self; and that he would work the harder for me,
if I would tell him what to do.
This was the pleasantest year of all the life I
led in this place. Friday began to talk pretty
well, and understand the names of almost every-
thing I had occasion to call for, and of every place
I had to send him to, and talk a great deal to me;
so that, in short, I began now to have some use for
my tongue again, which, indeed, I had very little
occasion for before, that is to say, about speech.
Besides the pleasure of talking to him, I had a
singular satisfaction in the fellow himself. His
simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me more
and more every day, and I began really to love the
creature; and, on his side, I believe he loved me
more than it was possible for him ever to love any-
I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering
inclination for his own country again; and having
182 ROBINSON CRUSOE
taught him English so well that he could answer
me almost any questions, I asked him whether the
nation that he belonged to never conquered in bat-
tle? At which he smiled, and said, â€œYes, yes, we
always fight the betterâ€; that is, he meant, always
get the better in fight; and so we began the follow-
ing discourse: â€œYou always fight the better,â€
said I. â€œHow came you to be taken prisoner then,
Friday. My nation beat much for all that.
Master. How beat? If your nation beat them,
how came you to be taken?
Friday. They more many than my nation in the
place where me was; they take one, two, three, and
me. My nation overbeat them in yonder place,
where me no was: there my nation take one, two,
Master. But why did not your side recover you
from the hands of your enemies then?
Friday. They run one, two, three, and me, and
make go in the canoe; my nation have no canoe
Master. Well, Friday, and what does your na-
tion do with the men they take? Do they carry
them away and eat them, as these did?
Friday. Yes, my nation eat mans too; eat all
Master. Where do they carry them?
Friday. Go to other place, where they think.
Master. Do they come hither?
ROBINSON CRUSOE 188
Friday. Yes, yes, they come hither; come other
Master. Have you been here with them?
Friday. Yes, I been here. (Points to the N.W.
side of the island, which, it seems, was their side.)
By this I understood that my man Friday had
formerly been among the savages who used to come
on shore on the farther part of the island, on the
same man-eating occasions that he was now
brought for; and, some time after, when I took the
courage to carry him to that side, being the same
I formerly mentioned, he presently knew the place,
and told me he was there once when they ate up
twenty men, two women, and one child. He could
not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them
by laying so many stones on a row, and pointing to
me to tell them over.
I have told this passage, because it introduces
what follows; that after I had had this discourse
with him, I asked him how far it was from our
island to the shore, and whether the canoes were
not often lost. He told me that there was no
danger, no canoes were ever lost; but that, after a
little way out to the sea, there was a current and a
wind, always one way in the morning, and the
other in the afternoon.
This I understood to be no more than the sets of
the tide, as going out or coming in; but I after-
wards understood it was occasioned by the great
draught and reflux of the mighty river Oroonoko,
184 ROBINSON CRUSOE
in the mouth of the gulf of which river, as I found
afterwards, our island lay; and this land which I
perceived to the W. and N.W. was the great island
Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth of the
river. I asked Friday a thousand questions about
the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and
what nations were near. He told me all he knew,
with the greatest openness imaginable. I asked
him the names of the several nations of his sort
of people, but could get no other name than Caribs;
from whence I easily understood that these were
the Carribbees, which our maps place on the part
of America which reaches from the mouth of the
river Oroonoko to Guiana, and onwards to St.
Martha. He told me that up a great way beyond
the moon, that was, beyond the setting of the moon,
which must be W. from their country, there dwelt
white bearded men, like me, and pointed to my
great whiskers, which I mentioned before; anid that
they had killed much mans, those were his words;
by all which I understood he meant the Spaniards,
whose cruelties in America had been spread over
the whole countries, and was remembered by all
the nations from father to son.
I inquired if he could tell me how I might come
from this island and get among those white men.
He told me, â€œYes, yes, I might go in two canoe.â€
T could not understand what he meant, or make
him describe to me what he meant by two canoe;
till at last, with great difficulty, I found he meant
ROBINSON CRUSOE 185
it must be in a large great boat, as big as two
This part of Fridayâ€™s discourse began to relish
with me very well; and from this time I enter-
tained some hopes that, one time or other, I might
find an opportunity to make my escape from this
place, and that this poor savage might be a means
to help me to do it.
During the long time that Friday had now been
with me, and that he began to speak to me, and un-
derstand me, I was not wanting to lay a foundation
of religious knowledge in his mind}; particularly I
asked him one time, Who made him? The poor
creature did not understand me at all, but thought
I had asked who was his father. But I took it by
another handle, and asked him who made the sea,
the ground we walked on, and the hills and woods?
He told me it was one old Benamuckee, that lived
beyond all. He could describe nothing of this
great person, but that he was very old, much older,
he said, than the sea or the land, than the moon or
the stars. I asked him then, if this old person had
made all things, why did all things worship him?
He looked very grave, and with a perfect look of
innocence said, â€œAll things do say O to him.â€ I
asked him if the people who die in his country went
away anywhere? He said, â€œYes, they all went to
Benamuckee.â€ Then I asked him whether these
they ate up went thither too? He said â€œYes.â€
From these things I began to instruct him in the
186 ROBINSON CRUSOE
knowledge of the true God. I told him that the
great Maker of all things lived up there, pointing
up towards heaven; that He governs the world by
the same power and providence by which He had
made it; that He was omnipotent, could do every-
thing for us, give everything to us, take everything
from us; and thus, by degrees, I opened his eyes.
He listened with great attention, and received with
pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to
redeem us, and of the manner of making our pray-
ers to God, and His being able to hear us, even into
heaven. He told me one day that if our God could
hear us up beyond the sun, He must needs be a
greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived but
a little way off, and yet could not hear till they
went up to the great mountains where he dwelt to
speak to him. I asked him if he ever went thither
to speak to him? He said, No; they never went
that were young men; none went thither but the
old men, whom he called their Oowokakee, that is,
as I made him explain it to me, their religious, or
clergy; and that they went to say O (so he called
saying prayers), and then came back, and told
them what Benamuckee said. By this I observed
that there is a priestcraft even amongst the most
blinded, ignorant pagans in the world; and the
policy of making a secret religion in order to pre-
serve the veneration of the people to the clergy is
not only to be found in the Roman, but perhaps
among all religions in the world, even among the
most brutish and barbarous savages.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 187
I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowl-
edge in all the methods I took for this poor crea-
tureâ€™s instruction, and must acknowledge, what I
believe all that act upon the same principle will
find, that in laying things open to him, I really in-
formed and instructed myself in many things that
either I did not know, or had not fully considered
before, but which occurred naturally to my mind
upon my searching into them for the information
of this poor savage. And I had more affection in
my inquiry after things upon this occasion than
ever I felt before; so that whether this poor wild
wretch was the better for me or no, I had great rea-
son to be thankful that ever he came to me.
In this thankful frame I continued all the re-
mainder of my time, and the conversation which
employed the hours between Friday and me was
such as made the three years which we lived there
together perfectly and completely happy, if any
such things as complete happiness can be found
in a sublunary state. The savage was now a good
Christian, a much better than I; though I have
reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we were
equally penitent, and comforted, restored peni-
tents. We had here the Word of God to read, and â€”
no farther off from His Spirit to instruct than if
we had been in England.
After Friday and I became more intimately ac-
quainted, and he could understand almost all
I said to him, and speak fluently, though in broken
English, to me, I acquainted him with my own
188 ROBINSON CRUSOE
story, or at least so much of it as related to my
coming into the place; how I had lived there, and
how long. I let him into the mystery of gunpow-
der and bullet, and taught him how to shoot; I
gave him a knife, which he was wonderfully de-
lighted with, and I made him a belt, with a frog
hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers
in; and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him
I described to him the country of Europe, and
particularly England, which I came from; how we
lived, how we worshipped God, how we behaved
to one another, and how we traded in ships to all
parts of the world. I gave him an account of the
wreck which I had beer on board of, and showed
him, as near as I could, the place where she lay;
but she was beaten in pieces before, and gone.
I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we
lost when we escaped, and which I could not stir
with my whole strength then, but was now fallen
almost all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Fri-
day stood musing a great while, and at last says
he, â€œMe see such â€˜boat like come to place at my na-
tion. We save the white mans from drown. The
boat full of white mans.â€ I asked him how many.
He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him
then what became of them. He told me, â€œThey
live, they dwell at my nation.â€
This put new thoughts into my head; for I pres-
ently imagined that these might be the men belong-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 189
ing to the ship that was cast away in sight of my
island, as I now call it.
Upon this I inquired of him more critically what
was become of them. He assured me they lived
still there; that they had been there about four
years; that the savages let them alone, and gave
them victuals to live. I asked him how it came to
pass they did not kill them and eat them. He said,
â€œNo, they make brother with themâ€; that is, as I
understood him, a truce; and then he added,
â€œThey no eat mans but when make the war fightâ€;
that is to say, they never eat any men but such as
come to fight with them and are taken in battle.
It was after this some considerable time, that
being on the top of the hill, at the east side of the
island (from whence, .as I have said, I had in a
clear day discovered the main continent of Amer-
ica), Friday, the weather being very serene, looks
very earnestly towards the mainland, and, in a
kind of surprise, falls a-jumping and dancing, and
calls out to me, â€œO joy! O glad! there see my coun-
try, there my nation!â€
I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure
appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and
his countenance discovered a strange eagerness,
as if he had a mind to be in his own country again;
and I made no doubt but that if Friday could get
back to his own nation again, he would not only
forget all his religion, but all his obligation to
me; and would be forward enough to give his coun-
190 ROBINSON CRUSOE
trymen an account of me, and come back perhaps
with a hundred or two of them, and make a feast
upon me, at which he might be as merry as he
used to be with those of his enemies, when they
were taken in war.
But I wronged the poor honest creature very
much, for which I was very sorry afterwards.
However, as my jealousy increased, and held me
some weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and
not so familiar and kind to him as before; in which
I was certainly in the wrong, too, the honest, grate-
ful creature having no thought about it but what
consisted with the best principles, both as a reli-
gious Christian and as a grateful friend, as
appeared afterwards to my full satisfaction.
One day, walking up the same hill, but the
weather being hazy at sea, so that we could not
see the continent, I called to him, and said, â€œFri-
day, do not you wish yourself in your own country,
your own nation?â€ â€œYes,â€ he said, â€œT be much
O glad to be at my own nation.â€ â€œWhat would
you do there?â€ said I. â€œWould you turn wild
again, eat menâ€™s flesh again, and be a savage as
you were before?â€ He looked full of concern, and
shaking his head, said, â€œNo, no; Friday tell them
to live good; tell them to pray God; tell them to
eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk, no eat man
again.â€ â€œWhy, then,â€ said I to him, â€œthey will
kill you.â€ He looked grave at that, and then said,
â€œNo, they no kill me, they willing love learn.â€ He
meant by this they would be willing to learn. He
ROBINSON CRUSOE 191
added, they learned much of the bearded mans
that come in the boat. Then I asked him if he
would go back to them? He smiled at that, and
told me he could not swim so far. I told him I
would make a canoe for him. He told me he would
go, if I would go with him. â€œI go?â€ says I; â€œwhy,
they will eat me if I come there.â€ â€œNo, no,â€ says
he, â€œme make they no eat you; me make they much
From this time I confess I had a mind to ven-
ture over, and see if I could possibly join with
these bearded men, not doubting we might find
some method to escape from thence, being upon
the continent, and a good company together, bet-
ter than I could from an island forty miles off the
shore, and alone, without help. So, after some
days, I took Friday to work again, by way of dis-
course, and told him I would give him a boat to
go back to his own nation. Accordingly I carried
him to my frigate on the other side of the island,
showed it him, and we both went into it.
I found he was a most dexterous fellow at man-
aging it, and would make it go almost as swift and
fast again as I could. So when he was in I said
to him, â€œWell now, Friday, shall we go to your
nation?â€ He looked very dull at my saying so,
which, it seems, was because he thought the boat
too small to go so far. I told him then I had a
bigger; so the next day I went to the place where
the first boat lay which I had made, but which I
could not get into the water. He said that was
192 ROBINSON CRUSOE
big enough; but then, as I had taken no care of it,
and it had lain two or three and twenty years
there, the sun had split and dried it, that it was
in a manner rotten. Friday told me such a boat
would do very well, and would carry â€œmuch enough
victual, drink, bread.â€
I told him we would go and make one as big
as that, and he should go home in it. He an-
swered not a word, but looked very grave and sad.
I asked him what was the matter with him? He
asked me again thus, â€œWhy you angry mad with
Friday? what me done?â€ I told him I was not
angry with him at all. â€œNo angry! no angry!â€
says he, repeating the words several times. â€œWhy
send Friday home away to my nation?â€ â€œWhy,â€
says I, â€œFriday, did you not say you wished you
were there?â€ â€˜Yes, yes,â€ says he, â€œwish we both
there, no wish Friday there, no master there.â€ In
a word, he would not think of going there without
me. â€œI go there, Friday!â€ says I; â€œwhat shall I
do there?â€ He turned very quick upon me at
this: â€œYou do great deal much good,â€ says he;
â€œyou teach wild mans to be good, sober, tame
mans; you tell them know God, pray God, and
live new life.â€™ â€œAlas! Friday,â€ says I, â€œthou
knowest not what thou sayest. I am but an ig-
norant man myself.â€ â€œYes, yes,â€ says he, â€œyou
teachee me good, you teachee them good.â€ â€œNo,
no, Friday,â€ says I, â€œyou shall go without me;
leave me here to live by myself, as I did before.â€
He looked confused again at that word, and run-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 193
ning to one of the hatchets which he used to wear,
he takes it up hastily, comes and gives it me.
â€œWhat must I do with this?â€ says Ito him. â€œYou
take kill Friday,â€ says he. â€œWhat must I kill you
for?â€ said I again. He returns very quick, â€œWhat
you send Friday away for? Take kill Friday, no
send Friday away.â€ This he spoke so earnestly
that I saw tears stand in his eyes. In a word, I
so plainly discovered the utmost affection in him
to me that I told him then, and often after, that I
would never send him away from me if he was
willing to stay with me.
But still I found a strong inclination to my at-
tempting an escape, founded on the supposition
that there were seventeen bearded men there; and,
therefore, without any more delay I went to work
with Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell,
and make a large periagua, or canoe, to undertake
At last Friday pitched upon a tree growing so
near the water we might launch it when it was
made. Friday was for burning the hollow or
cavity of this tree out, to make it for a boat, but I
showed him how rather to cut it out with tools;
and in about a monthâ€™s hard labor we finished it,
and made it very handsome. After this, it cost us
near a fortnightâ€™s time to get her along, as it were
inch by inch, upon great rollers into the water; but
when she was in, she would have carried twenty
men with great ease.
When she was in the water, and though she was
194 ROBINSON CRUSOE
so big, it amazed me to see with what dexterity and
how swift my man Friday would manage her, turn
her, and paddle her along. So I asked him if he
would, and if we might venture over in her.
â€œYes,â€ he said, â€œhe venture over in her very well,
though great blow wind.â€ However, I had a far-
ther design that he knew nothing of, and that was
to make a mast and sail, and to fit her with an
anchor and cable. As to a mast, I pitched upon a
straight young cedar tree, and I set Friday to
work to cut it down, and gave him directions how
to shape and order it. But as to the sail, that was
my particular care. I knew I had pieces of old
sails enough; with a great deal of awkward tedious
stitching for want of needles, I made a three-
cornered ugly thing, like what we call in England
a shoulder-of-mutton sail.
I was near two months rigging and fitting my
mast and sails; and, which was more than all, I
fixed a rudder to the stern of her to steer with;
and though I was but a bungling shipwright, yet
as I knew the usefulness, and even necessity, of
such a thing, I applied myself with so much pains
to do it, that at last I brought it to pass!
After all this was done too, I had my man Fri-
day to teach as to what belonged to the navigation
of my boat; for though he knew very well how to
paddle a canoe, he knew nothing what belonged to
a sail and a rudder; and was the most amazed
when he saw me work the boat to and again in the
sea by the rudder, and how the sail jibbed, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 195
filled this way, or that way, as the course we sailed
I was now entered on the seven and twentieth
year of my captivity in this place; though the three
last years that I had this creature with me ought
rather to be left out of the account, my habitation
being quite of another kind than in all the rest of
the time. I kept the anniversary of my landing
here with the same thankfulness to God for His
mercies as at first; and if I had such cause of ac-
knowledgment at first, now I had an invincible im-
pression upon my thoughts that my deliverance
was at hand, and that I should not be another
year in this place. However, I went on with my
husbandry, digging, planting, fencing, as usual.
When the settled season began to come in, as the
thought of my design returned with the fair wea-
ther, I was preparing daily for the voyage. I was
busy one morning upon something of this kind,
when Friday came running from the shore and
flew over my outer wall, and before I had time to
speak to him, he cries out to me, â€œO master! O
master! O sorrow! O bad!â€ â€˜â€œWhatâ€™s the matter,
Friday?â€ says I. â€˜â€œO yonder, there,â€ says he, â€œone,
two, three canoe one, two, three?â€™ â€œWell, Fri-
day,â€ says I, â€œdo not be frighted.â€ I comforted
him as well as I could, and told him I was in as
much danger as he, and that they would eat me as
well as him. â€œBut,â€ says I, â€œFriday, we must re-
solve to fight them. Can you fight, Friday?â€ â€˜Me
shoot,â€ says he; â€œbut there come many great num-
196 ROBINSON CRUSOE
ber.â€ â€œNo matter for that,â€ said I again; â€œour
guns will fright them that we do not kill.â€ So
I asked him whether, if I resolved to defend him,
he would defend me, and stand by me, and do just
as I bid him. He said, â€œMe die when you bid die,
master.â€ So I went and fetched a good dram of
rum, and gave him; for I had been so good a hus-
band of my rum, that I had a great deal left.
When he had drank it, I made him take the two
fowling-pieces, which we always carried, and load
them with large swan-shot, as big as small pistol-
bullets. Then I took four muskets, and loaded
them with two slugs and five small bullets each;
and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets
each. I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by
my side, and gave Friday his hatchet.
When I had thus prepared myself, I went up
to the side of the hill to see what I could discover;
and I found quickly, by my glass, that there were
one and twenty savages, three prisoners, and three
canoes, and that their whole business seemed to be
the triumphant banquet upon these three human
I entered the wood, and with all possible wa-
riness and silence, Friday following close at my
heels, I marched till I came to the skirt of the
- wood, on the side which was next to them; only
that one corner of the wood lay between me and
them. Here I called softly to Friday, and show-
ing him a great tree, which was just at the corner
of the wood, I bade him to go to the tree and bring
ROBINSON CRUSOE 197
me word if he could see there plainly what they
were doing. He came immediately back to me,
and told me they were all about their fire, eating
the flesh of one of their prisoners, and that another
lay bound upon the sand; and, which fired all the
very soul within me, he told me it was not one of
their nation, but one of the bearded men, that
came to their country in the boat. I was filled
with horror at the very naming the white, bearded
man; and going to the tree, I saw plainly, by my
glass, a white man, who lay upon the beach of the
sea, with his hands and his feet tied with flags,
or things like rushes, and that he was an Euro-
pean, and had clothes on.
There was another tree, and a little thicket be-
yond it, about fifty yards nearer to them than the
place where I was, which, by going a little way
about, I saw I might come at undiscovered, and
that then I should be within half shot of them; so
I withheld my passion, though I was indeed en-
raged to the highest degree; and going back about
twenty paces, I got behind some bushes, which
held all the way till I came to the other tree; and
then I came to a little rising ground, which gave
me a full view of them, at the distance of about
I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of
the dreadful wretches sat upon the ground, all
close huddled together, and had just sent the other
two to butcher the poor Christian, and bring him,
perhaps limb by limb, to their fire; and they were
198 ROBINSON CRUSOE
stooped down to untie the bands at his feet. I
turned to Friday: â€œNow, Friday,â€ said I, â€œdo
exactly as you see me do; fail in nothing.â€ So I
set down one of the muskets and the fowling-piece
upon the ground, and Friday did the like by his;
and with the other musket I took my aim at the
savages, bidding him do the like. Then asking
him if he was ready, he said, â€œYes.â€ â€œThen fire
at them,â€ said I; and the same moment I fired also.
Iriday took his aim so much better than I that
he killed two of them, and wounded three more;
and on my side I killed one, and wounded two.
They were, you may be sure, in a dreadful con-
sternation; and all of them who were not hurt
jumped up upon their feet, but did not immedi-
ately know which way to run, or which way to
look, for they knew not from whence their destruc-
tion came. [T*riday kept his eyes close upon me,
that, as I had bid him, he might observe what I
did. He sees me cock and present; he did the
same again. â€œAre you ready, Friday?â€ said I.
â€œYes,â€ says he. â€œLet fly, then,â€ says I, â€œin the
name of God!â€ and with that I fired again among
the amazed wretches, and so did Friday; and as
our pieces were now loaded with what I called
swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we found only
two drop, but so many were wounded that they
ran about yelling and screaming like mad crea-
tures, all bloody, and miserably wounded most of
them; whereof three more fell quickly after,
though not quite dead.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 199
â€œNow, Friday,â€ says I, laying down the dis-
charged pieces, and taking up the musket which
was yet loaded, â€œfollow me,â€ upon which I rushed
out of the wood, and showed myself, and Friday
close at my foot. As soon as I perceived they
saw me, I shouted as loud as I could, and bade
Friday do so too; and running as fast as I could,
loaden with arms as I was, I made directly towards
the poor victim, who was, as I said, lying upon
the beach. The two butchers had left him at our
first fire, and fled in a terrible fright to the seaside,
and had jumped into a canoe, and three more of
the rest made the same way. I turned to Friday,
and bid him step forwards and fire at them. He
understood me immediately, he killed two of them,
and wounded the third, so that he lay down in the
bottom of the boat as if he had been dead.
While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled
out my knife and cut the flags that bound the
poor victim; and loosing his hands and feet, I
lifted him up, and asked him in the Portuguese
tongue what he was. He answered in Latin,
Christianus; but was so weak and faint that he
could scarce stand or speak. I took my bottle out
of my pocket and gave it him, making signs that
he should drink, which he did; and I gave him a
piece of bread, which he ate. Then I asked him
what countryman he was; and he said, Espagniole;
and being a little recovered, let me know by all the
signs he could possibly make how much he was
in my debt for his deliverance. â€˜â€œSeignior,â€ said
200 ROBINSON CRUSOE
I, with as much Spanish as I could make up, â€œwe
will talk afterwards, but we must fight now. If
you have any strength left, take this pistol and
sword, and lay about you.â€ He took them very
thankfully, and no sooner had he the arms in his
hands but, as if they had put new vigor into him,
he flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had
cut two of them in pieces in an instant; for the
truth is, as the whole was a surprise to them, so
the poor creatures were so much frighted with the
noise of our pieces, that they fell down for mere
amazement and fear, and had no more power to
attempt their own escape than their flesh had to
resist our shot.
I called to Friday, and bade him run up to the
tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the arms
which lay there that had been discharged, which
he did with great swiftness; and then giving him
my musket, I sat down myself to load all the rest
again, and bade them come to me when they
wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there
happened a fierce engagement between the Span-
iard and one of the savages, who made at him with
one of their great wooden swords. The Spaniard,
who was as bold and as brave as cou!d be imagined,
though weak, had fought this Indian a good while,
and had cut him two great wounds on his head;
but the savage being a stout lusty fellow, closing
in with him, had thrown him down, being faint,
and was wringing my sword out of his hand, when
the Spaniard, though undermost, wisely quitting
ROBINSON CRUSOE 201
the sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot the
savage through the body, and killed him upon the
spot, before I, who was running to help him, could
come near him.
Friday being now left to his liberty, pursued the
flying wretches with no weapon in his hand but his
hatchet; and with that he despatched those three
who were wounded at first, and fallen, and all the
rest he could come up with; and the Spaniard
coming to me for a gun, I gave him one of the
fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of the
savages, and wounded them both; but as he was
not able to run, they both got from him into the
wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed one
of them; but the other was too nimble for him, and
though he was wounded, yet had plunged himself
into the sea, and swam with all his might off to
those two who were left in the canoe; which three
in the canoe, with one wounded, who we know not
whether he died or no, were all that escaped our
hands of one and twenty. The account of the rest
is as follows :â€”
3 killed at our first shot from the tree.
2 killed at the next shot.
2 killed by Friday in the boat.
2 killed by ditto, of those at first wounded.
1 killed by ditto in the wood.
3 killed by the Spaniard.
4 killed, being found dropped here and there of
202 ROBINSON CRUSOE
their wounds, or killed by Friday in his
chase of them.
4 escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded, if
21 in all.
Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get
out of gun-shot. Running to one of their canoes,
I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me. But
when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find
another poor creature there, alive, bound hand
and foot for the slaughter, and almost dead with
fear. I immediately cut the twisted flags or
rushes, which they had bound him with, and would
have helped him up; but he could not stand or
speak, but groaned most piteously, believing that
he was only unbound in order to be killed.
When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to
him, and tell him of his deliverance; and pulling
out my bottle made him give the poor wretch a
dram; which, with the news of his being delivered,
revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But when
Friday came to hear him speak, and look in his
face, it would have moved any one to tears to
have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced him,
hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped
about, danced, and sung; but when he came a little
to himself, he told me that it was his father.
It is not easy for me to express how it moved me
to see what ecstasy and filial affection had worked
ROBINSON CRUSOE 203
in this poor savage at the sight of his father, nor,
indeed, can I describe half the extravagances of
his affection after this. When he went in to him,
he would sit down by him, open his breast, and
hold his fatherâ€™s head close to his bosom half an
hour together to nourish it; then he took his arms
and ankles, which were numbed and stiff with the
binding, and chafed and rubbed them with his
hands; and I, perceiving what the case was, gave
him some rum out of my bottle to rub them with,
which did them a great deal of good.
This action put an end to our pursuit of the
canoe with the other savages, and it was happy for
us that we did not, for it blew so hard within two
hours after, and continued blowing so hard all
night, that I could not suppose their boat could
live, or that they ever reached to their own coast.
But to return to Friday. He was so busy about
his father, that I could not find in my heart to take
him off for some time; but after I thought he
could leave him a little, I called him to me, and
I asked him if he had given his father any bread.
He shook his head, and said, â€œNone; ugly dog eat
all up self.â€ So I gave him a cake of bread. I
had in my pocket also two or three bunches of my
raisins, so I gave him a handful of them for his
father. He had no sooner given his father these
raisins, but i saw him come out of the boat and run
away at such a rate that he was out of sight, as
it were, in an instant; and though I called, and
hallooed after him, it was all one, away he went,
204 ROBINSON CRUSOE
and in a quarter of an hour I saw him come back
I found he had been quite home for an earthen
jug, or pot, to bring his father some fresh water,
and that he had got two more cakes or loaves of
bread. This water revived his father more than
all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he was
just fainting with thirst.
When his father had drank, I called to him to
know if there was any water left. He said, â€œYesâ€ ;
and I bade him give it to the poor Spaniard, and
I sent one of the cakes that Friday brought to
the Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak, and
was reposing himself upon a green place under the
shade of a tree; and whose limbs were also very
stiff, and very much swelled with the rude band-
age he had been tied with. When I saw that upon
Fridayâ€™s coming to him with the water he sat up
and drank and took the bread, and began to eat,
I went to him, and gave him a handful of raisins.
He tried to stand two or three times, but was really
not able, his ankles were so swelled and so painful
to him; so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday
to rub his ankles, and bathe them with rum, as he
had done his fatherâ€™s.
Presently I spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday
help him up, if he could, and lead him to the boat,
and then he should carry him to our dwelling,
where I would take care of him. But Friday, a
lusty strong fellow, took the Spaniard quite up
upon his back, and carried him away to the boat,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 205
and set him down softly upon the side of the
gunnel of the canoe, with his feet in the inside of
it, and then lifted him quite in, and set him close
to his father; and presently stepping out again,
launched the boat off, and paddled it along the
shore faster than I could walk, though the wind
blew pretty hard too. So he brought them both
safe into our creek, and leaving them in the boat,
ran away to fetch the other canoe. As he passed
me, I spoke to him, and asked him whither he
went. He told me, â€œGo fetch more boat.â€ So
away he went like the wind, for sure never man
or horse ran like him; and he had the other canoe
in the creek almost as soon as I got to it by land;
so he wafted me over, and then went to help our
new guests out of the boat, which he did; but they
were neither of them able to walk, so that poor
Friday knew not what to do. To remedy this, I
soon made a kind of handbarrow to lay them on,
and Friday and I carried them up both together
upon it between us.
I then began to enter into a little conversation
with my two new subjects; and first, I set Friday
to inquire of his father what he thought of the
escape of the savages in that canoe, and whether
we might expect a return of them, with a power
too great for us to resist. His first opinion was
that the savages must, of necessity, be drowned,
or driven south to those other shores, where they
were as sure to be devoured as they were to be
drowned if they were cast away. But as to what
206 ROBINSON CRUSOE
they would do if they came safe on shore, it was
his opinion that they would tell their people they
were all killed by thunder and lightning, not by
the hand of man; and that the two which appeared,
viz., Friday and me, were two heavenly spirits, or
furies, come down to destroy them, and not men
I was under continual apprehensions for a good
while, and kept always upon my guard, I and all
my army; for as we were now four of us, I would
have ventured upon a hundred of them, fairly in
the open field, at any time.
In a little time, however, no more canoes appear-
ing, the fear of their coming wore off, and I began
to take my former thoughts of a voyage to the
main into consideration. But my thoughts were
a little suspended when I had a serious discourse
with the Spaniard, and when I understood that
there were sixteen more of his countrymen and
Portuguese, who, having been cast away, and made
their escape to that side, lived there at peace, in-
deed, with the savages, but were very sore put to
it for necessaries, and indeed for life.
He told me they were all of them very civil, hon-
est men, and they were under the greatest distress
imaginable, having neither weapons nor clothes,
nor any food, but at the mercy and discretion of
the savages; out of all hopes of ever returning to
their own country; and that he was sure, if I
would undertake their relief, they would live and
die for me.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 207
Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to
relieve them, if possible, and to send the old savage
and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But
when we had gotten all things in a readiness to go,
the Spaniard himself started an objection, which
had so much prudence in it on one hand, and so
much sincerity on the other hand, that I could not
but be very well satisfied with it, and by his ad-
vice put off the deliverance of his comrades for at
least half a year. The case was thus.
He had been with us now about a month, during
which time I had let him see what stock of corn
and rice I had laid up; which, as it was more than
sufficient for myself, so it was not sufficient, at
least without good husbandry, for my family, now
it was increased to number four; but much less
would it be sufficient if his countrymen, who were,
as he said, fourteen, still alive, should come over;
and least of all would it be sufficient to victual
our vessel, if we should build one, for a voyage to
any of the Christian colonies of America. So he
told me he thought it would be more advisable to
let him and the two others dig and cultivate some
more land, as much as I could spare seed to sow;
and that we should wait another harvest, that we
might have a supply of corn for his countrymen
when they should come; for want might be a temp-
tation to them to disagree, or not to think them-
selves delivered, otherwise than out of one diffi-
culty into another.
His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so
208 ROBINSON CRUSOE
good that we fell to digging all four of us, as well
as the wooden tools permitted; and in about a
monthâ€™s time, by the end of which it was seed-time,
we had gotten as much land cured and trimmed
up as we sowed twenty-two bushels of barley on,
and sixteen jars of rice; which was, in short, all
the seed we had to spare.
Having now society enough, and our number be-
ing sufficient to put us out of fear of the savages,
if they had come, unless their number had been
very great, we went freely all over the island,
wherever we found occasion; and as here we had
our escape or deliverance upon our thoughts, it
was impossible, at least for me, to have the means
of it out of mine. To this purpose I marked out
several trees which I thought fit for our work, and
I set Friday and his father to cutting them down;
and then I caused the Spaniard, to whom I im-
parted my thought on that affair, to oversee and
direct their work. I showed them with what in-
defatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into
single planks, and I caused them to do the like, till
they had made about a dozen large planks of good
oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five feet long,
and from two inches to four inches thick. What
prodigious labor it took up, any one may imag-
At the same time I contrived to increase my lit-
tle flock of tame goats by capturing twenty young
kids to breed up with the rest. But above all, I
caused such a prodigious quantity of grapes to be
ROBINSON CRUSOE 209
hung up in the sun, that I believe we could have
filled sixty or eighty barrels.
It was now harvest, and our crop in good order.
It was not the most plentiful increase I had seen
in the island, but, however, it was enough to an-
swer our end; for from our twenty-two bushels we
brought in and thrashed out above two hundred
and twenty bushels, and the like in proportion of
the rice; which was store enough for our food to
the next harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards
had been on shore with me; or if we had been
ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully have
yictualled our ship to have carried us to any part
of the world, that is to say, of America.
And now having a full supply of food for all the
guests I expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go
over to the main, to see what he could do with
those he had left behind him there.
The Spaniard and the old savage, the father of
Friday, went away in one of the canoes which they
were brought in when they came as prisoners to
be devoured by the savages.
I gave each of them a musket, with a firelock on
it, and about eight charges of powder and ball,
charging them to be very good husbands of both,
and not to use either of them but upon urgent
This was a cheerful work, being the first meas-
ures used by me, in view of my deliverance, for
now twenty-seven years and some days. I gave
them provisions of bread and of dried grapes suf-
210 ROBINSON CRUSOE
ficient for themselves for many days, and sufficient
for all their countrymen for about eight daysâ€™ time;
and wishing them a good voyage, I saw them go,
agreeing with them about a signal they should
hang out at their return, by which I should know
them again, when they came back, at a distance,
before they came on shore.
It was no less than eight days I had waited for
them, and I was fast asleep in my hutch one morn-
ing, when my man Friday came running in to me,
and called aloud, â€œMaster, master, they are come,
they are come!â€
I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went
without my arms, which was not my custom to do;
but I was surprised when, turning my eyes to the
sea, I presently saw a boat at about a league and
a halfâ€™s distance standing in for the shore, with a
shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the
wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in. Upon
this I called Friday in, and bid him lie close, for
these were not the people we looked for, and that
we might not know yet whether they were friends
In the next place I went in to fetch my perspec-
tive-glass, to see what I could make of them; and
having taken the ladder out, I had scarce set my
foot on the hill, when my eye plainly discovered a
ship lying at an anchor at about two leagues and
a halfâ€™s distance from me, south-south-east, but not
above a league and a half from the shore. By my
observation, it appeared plainly to be an English
ROBINSON CRUSOE | 211
ship, and the boat appeared to be an English long-
I saw them run their boat on shore upon the
beach, at about half a mile from me, which was
very happy for me; for otherwise they would have
landed just, as I may say, at my door, and would
soon have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps
have plundered me of all I had.
When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied
that they were Englishmen, at least most of them.
There were in all eleven men, whereof three of
them I found were unarmed, and, as I thought,
bound; and when the first four or five of them
were jumped on shore, they took those three out
of the boat, as prisoners. One of the three I could
perceive using the most passionate gestures of en-
treaty, affliction, and despair, even to a kind of
extravagance; the other two lifted up their hands
sometimes, and appeared concerned, indeed, but
not to such a degree as the first.
I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and
stood trembling with horror, expecting every mo-
ment when the three prisoners should be killed;
nay, once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm
with a great cutlass, as the seamen call it, or
sword, to strike one of the poor men; and I ex-
pected to see him fall every moment, at which all
the blood in my body seemed to run chill.
After I had observed the outrageous usage of the
three men by the insolent seamen, I observed the
_ fellows run scattering about the land, as if they
212 ROBINSON CRUSOE
wanted to see the country. I observed that the
three other men had liberty to go also where they
pleased; but they sat down all three upon the
ground, very pensive, and looked like men in des-
It was just at the top of high-water when these
people came on shore; they had carelessly stayed
till the tide was spent, and the water was ebbed
considerably away, leaving their boat aground.
They had left two men in the boat, who, as I
found afterwards, having drank a little too much
brandy, fell asleep. However, one of them waking
sooner than the other, and finding the boat too fast
aground for him to stir it, hallooed for the rest,
who were straggling about, upon which they all
soon came to the boat; but it was past all their
strength to launch her, the boat being very heavy,
and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand, Â©
almost like a quicksand.
In this condition, like true seamen, who are per-
haps the least of all mankind given to forethought,
they gave it over, and away they strolled about the
country again; and I heard one of them say aloud
to another, calling them off from the boat, â€œWhy,
let her alone, Jack, canâ€™t. ye? she will float next
tideâ€; by which I was fully confirmed in the main
inquiry of what countrymen they were.
All this while I kept myself very close, not once
daring to stir out of my castle, any farther than to
my place of observation near the top of the hill;
and very glad I was to think how well it was forti-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 213
fied. I knew it was no less than ten hours before
the boat could be on float again, and by that time
it would be dark, and I might be at more liberty
to see their motions, and to hear their discourse,
if they had any.
It was my design not to have made any attempt
till it was dark; but about two oâ€™clock, being the
heat of the day, I found that, in short, they were
all gone straggling into the woods, and, as I
thought, were laid down to sleep. The three poor
distressed men, too anxious for their condition to
get any sleep, were, however, set down under the
shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter of a mile
from me, and, as I thought, out of sight of any of
Upon this I resolved to discover myself to them,
and learn something of their condition. I came
as near them undiscovered as I could, and then,
before any of them saw me, I called aloud to them
in Spanish, â€œWhat are ye, gentlemen?â€
They started up at the noise, but were ten times
more confounded when they saw me, and the un-
couth figure that I made. They made no answer
at all, but I thought I perceived them just going.
to fly from me, when I spoke to them in English.
â€œGentlemen,â€ said I, â€œdo not be surprised at me;
perhaps you may have a friend near you, when you
did not expect it.â€ â€œHe must be sent directly
from heaven then,â€ said one of them very gravely
to me, and pulling off his hat at the same time to
me, â€œfor our condition is past the help of man.â€ |
214 ROBINSON CRUSOE
â€œAll help is from heaven, sir,â€ said I. â€œBut can
you put a stranger in the way how to help you,
for you seem to me to be in some great distress?
I saw you when you landed; and when you seemed
to make applications to the brutes that came with
you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill
The poor man, with tears running down his
face, and trembling, looking like one astonished,
returned, â€œAm I talking to God, or man? Is ita
real man, or an angel?â€ â€˜Be in no fear about that,
sir,â€™ said I. â€œIf God had sent an angel to relieve
you, he would have come better clothed, and armed
after another manner than you see me in. Pray
lay aside your fears; I am a man, an Englishman,
and disposed to assist you, you see. I have one
servant only; we have arms and ammunition; tell
us freely, can we serve you? What is your case?â€
â€œOur case,â€ said he, â€œsir, is too long to tell you
while our murderers are so near; but in short, sir,
I was commander of that ship; my men have mu-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 215
tinied against me, they have been hardly prevailed
on not to murder me; and at last have set me on
shore in this desolate place, with these two men
with me, one my mate, the other a passenger, where
we expected to perish, believing the place to be un-
inhabited, and know not yet what to think of it.â€
â€œWhere are those brutes, your enemies?â€ said I.
â€œThere they lie, sir,â€ said he, pointing to a thicket
of trees. â€œMy heart trembles for fear they have
seen us, and heard you speak. If they have, they
will certainly murder us all.â€
â€˜Have they any firearms?â€ said I. He answered,
â€œThey had only two pieces, and one which they left
in the boat.â€
â€œWell,â€ says I, â€œlet us retreat out of their view
or hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve
further.â€™ So they willingly went back with me,
till the woods covered us from them.
â€œLook you, sir,â€ said I, â€œif I venture upon your
deliverance, are you willing to make two condi-
tions with me?â€ He anticipated my proposals, by
telling me that both he and the ship, if recovered,
should be wholly directed and commanded by me
in everything; and if the ship was not recovered,
he would live and die with me in what part of the
world soever I would send him; and the two other
men said the same.
â€œWell,â€ says I, â€œmy conditions are but two. 1.
That while you stay on this island with me, you
will not pretend to any authority here; and if I put
arms into your hands, you will, upon all occasions,
216 ROBINSON CRUSOE
give them up to me, and do no prejudice to me or
mine upon this island; and in the meantime, be gov-
erned by my orders. 2. That if the ship is, or may
be, recovered, you will carry me and my man to
england, passage free.â€
He gave me all these assurances; and, besides,
would owe his life to me, and acknowledge it upon
all occasions, as long as he lived.
â€œWell, then,â€ said I, â€œhere are three muskets for
you, with powder and ball; tell me next what you
think is proper to be done.â€ He showed all the
testimony of his gratitude that he was able, but
offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him I
thought it was hard venturing anything; but the
best method I could think of was to fire upon them
at once, as they lay; and if any was not killed at
the first volley, and offered to submit, we might
save them, and so put it wholly upon Godâ€™s provi-
dence to direct the shot.
In the middle of this discourse we heard some of
them awake, and soon after we saw two of them on
their feet. I asked him if either of them were of
the men who he had said were the heads of the
mutiny? He said, â€œNo.â€ â€˜Well then,â€ said I,
â€œyou may let them escape; and Providence seems
to have wakened them on purpose to save them-
selves. Now,â€ says I, â€œif the rest escape you, it is
Animated with this, he took the musket I had
given him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and
his two comrades with him, with each man a piece
ROBINSON CRUSOE 217
in his hand. The two men who were with him go-
ing first made some noise, at which one of the sea-
men who was awake turned about, and seeing them
coming cried out to the rest; but it was too late
then, for the moment he cried out they fired; I
mean the two men, the captain wisely reserving his
own piece. They had so well aimed their shot at
the men they knew that one of them was killed on
the spot, and the other very much wounded; but
not being dead, he started up upon his feet, and.
called eagerly for help to the other. But the cap-
tain stepping to him, told him he should call upon
God to forgive his villainy; and with that word
knocked him down with the stock of his musket, so
that he never spoke more. There were three more
in the company, and one of them was also slightly
wounded. By this time I was come; and when
they saw it was in vain to resist, they begged for
mercy. The captain told them he would spare
their lives if they would give him any assurance of â€”
their abhorrence of the treachery they had been
guilty of, and would swear to be faithful to him in
recovering the ship, and afterwards in carrying her
back to Jamaica, from whence they came. They
gave him all the protestations of their sincerity
that could be desired, and he was willing to believe
them, and spare their lives, which I was not
against, only I obliged him to keep them bound
hand and foot while they were upon the island.
While this was doing, I sent Friday with the
captainâ€™s mate to the boat, with orders to secure
218 ROBINSON CRUSOE
her, and bring away the oars and sail, which they
did; and by and by three straggling men, that were
(happily for them) part of the rest, came back
upon hearing the guns fired; and seeing their cap-
tain, who before was their prisoner, now their con-
queror, they submitted to be bound also, and so our
victory was complete.
It now remained that the captain and I should
inquire into one anotherâ€™s circumstances. I first
told him my whole history, which he heard with
an attention even to amazement. But when he
reflected from thence upon himself, and how I
seemed to have been reserved there on purpose to
save his life, the tears ran down his face, and he
could not speak a word more.
After this I carried him and his two men into my
apartment, where I refreshed them with such pro-
visions as I had, and showed them all the con-
trivances I had made during my long, long in-
habiting that place.
But at present, our business was to consider how
to recover the ship. The captain agreed with me
as to that, but told me he was perfectly at a loss
what measures to take, for that there were still six
and twenty hands on board, who having entered
into a cursed conspiracy, by which they had all for-
feited their lives to the law, would be hardened in
it now by desperation, and would carry it on,
knowing that if they were reduced, they should be
brought to the gallows as soon as they came to Eng-
land, or to any of the English colonies; and that
ROBINSON CRUSOE 219
therefore there would be no attacking them with
so small a number as we were.
I told him the first thing we had to do was to
stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that
they might not carry her off; and taking every-
thing out of her, leave her so far useless as not to
be fit to swim. Accordingly we carried all the
things on shore (the oars, mast, sail, and rudder
of the boat were carried away before, as above),
and knocked a great hole in her bottom that if they
had come strong enough to master us, yet they
could not carry off the boat.
While we were thus preparing our designs, and
had first, by main strength, heaved the boat up
upon the beach so high that the tide would not
float her off at high-water mark; and besides, had
broke a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly
stopped, and were sat down musing what we should
do, we heard the ship fire a gun, and saw her make
a waft with her ancient as a signal for the boat to
come on board. But no boat stirred; and they
fired several times, making other signals for the
At last, when all their signals and firings proved
fruitless, and they found the boat did not stir, we
saw them, by the help of my glasses, hoist another
boat out, and row towards the shore; and we found,
as they approached, that there was no less than ten
men in her, and that they had firearms with them.
As the ship lay almost two leagues from the
shore, we had a full view of them as they came.
220 ROBINSON CRUSOE
The captain knew the persons and characters of
all the men in the boat, of whom he said that there
were three very honest fellows, who, he was sure,
were led into this conspiracy by the rest, being
overpowered and frighted; but that as for the boat-
swain, who, it seems, was the chief officer among
them, and all the rest, they were as outrageous as
any of the shipâ€™s crew, and were no doubt made
desperate in their new enterprise; and terribly
apprehensive he was that they would be too power-
ful for us.
I smiled at him, and told him that men in our
circumstances were past the operation of fear;
â€œFor my part,â€ said I, â€œthere seems to be but one
thing amiss in all the prospect of it.â€ â€˜â€œWhatâ€™s
that?â€ says he. â€œWhy,â€ said I, â€œâ€™tis that, as you
say, there are three or four honest fellows among
them, which should be spared; had they been all of
the wicked part of the crew I should have thought
Godâ€™s providence had singled them out. to deliver
them into your hands; for depend upon it, every
man of them that comes ashore is our own, and
shall die or live as they behave to us.â€
As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful
countenance, I found it greatly encouraged him;
So we set vigorously to our business. We had,
upon the first appearance of the boatâ€™s coming from
the ship, considered of separating our prisoners,
and had, indeed, secured them effectually.
Two of them, of whom the captain was less as-
sured than ordinary, I sent with Friday and one
ROBINSON CRUSOE 221 |
of the three delivered men to my cave, where they
were left bound, but promised if they continued
there quietly, their liberty in a day or two; but
that if they attempted their escape, they should
be put to death without mercy.
The other prisoners had better usage. Two of
them were kept pinioned, indeed, because the cap-
tain was not free to trust them; but the other two
were taken into my service, upon their captainâ€™s
recommendation, and upon their solemnly engag-
ing to live and die with us; so with them and the
three honest men we were seven men well armed;
and I made no doubt we should be able to deal well
enough with the ten that were a-coming, consider-
ing that the captain had said there were three or
four honest men among them also.
Being on shore, the first thing they did they ran
all to their other boat; and it was easy to see that
they were under a great surprise to find her
stripped, as above, of all that was in her, and a
great hole in her bottom.
After they had mused a while upon this, they set
up two or three great shouts, to try if they could
make their companions hear; but all was to no
purpose. Then they came all close in a ring, and
fired a volley of their small arms, and the echoes
made the woods ring. But it was all one; those in
the cave we were sure could not hear, and those in
our keeping, though they heard it well enough, yet
durst give no answer to them.
They were so astonished at the surprise of this,
222 ROBINSON CRUSOE
that, as they told us afterwards, they resolved to
go all on board again, to their ship, and let them
know there that the men were all murdered, and
the longboat staved. Accordingly, they imme-
diately launched their boat again, and gat all of
them on board.
The captain was terribly amazed, and even con-
founded at this, believing they would go on board
the ship again, and set sail, giving up their com-
rades for lost, and so he should still lose the ship,
which he was in hopes we should have recovered ;
but he was quickly as much frighted the other way.
They had not long been put off with the boat but
we perceived them all coming on shore again; but
ROBINSON CRUSOE 223
with this new measure in their conduct, which it
seems they consulted together upon, viz., to leave
three men in the boat, and the rest to go on shore,
and go up into the country to look for their fellows.
This was a great disappointment to us, for now
we were at a loss what to do; for our seizing those
seven men on shore would be no advantage to us if
we let the boat escape, because they would then
row away to the ship, and then the rest of them
would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our re-
covering the ship would be lost. However, we had
no remedy but to wait and see what the issue of
things might present. The seven men came on
shore, and the three who remained in the boat put
her off to a good distance from the shore, and came
to an anchor to wait for them; so that it was im-
possible for us to come at them in the boat.
Those that came on shore kept close together,
marching towards the top of the little hill under
which my habitation lay; and we could see them
plainly, though they could not perceive us. We
could have been very glad they would have come
nearer to us, so that we might have fired at them,
or that they would have gone farther off, that we
might have come abroad.
But when they were come to the brow of the hill,
where they could see a great way into the valleys
and woods which lay towards the north-east part,
and where the island lay lowest, they shouted and
hallooed till they were weary; and not caring, it
seems, to venture far from the shore, nor far from
224 ROBINSON CRUSOE
one another, they sat down together under a tree,
to consider of it.
We waited a great while, and were very uneasy
when, after long consultations, we saw them start
all up, and march down toward the sea. As
soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I
imagined it to be, as it really was, that they had
given over their search, and were for going back
again. I presently thought of a stratagem to fetch
them back again, and which answered my end to a
I ordered Friday and the captainâ€™s mate to go
over the little creek westward, and as soon as they
came to a little rising ground, at about half a mile
distance, I bade them halloo as loud as they could,
and wait till they found the seamen heard them;
that as soon as ever they heard the seamen answer
them, they should return it again; and then keep-
ing out of sight, take a round, always answering
when the other hallooed, to draw them as far into
the island and among the woods as possible, and
then wheel about again to me by such ways as I
They were just going into the boat when Friday
and the mate hallooed; and answering, they ran
along the shore westward, towards the voice they
heard, when they were presently stopped by the
creek, where the water being up, they could not get
over, and called for the boat to come up and set
them over, as, indeed, I expected.
When they had set themselves over, I observed
ROBINSON CRUSOE 225
that the boat being gone up a good way into the
creek, and, as it were, in a harbor within the land,
they took one of the three men out of her to go
along with them, and left only two in the boat, hav-.
ing fastened her to the stump of a little tree on
That was what I wished for; and immediately,
leaving Friday and the captainâ€™s mate to their busi-
ness, I took the rest with me, and crossing the
creek out of their sight, we surprised the two men
before they were aware; one of them lying on shore,
and the other being in the boat. The fellow on
shore was between sleeping and waking, and going
to start up. The captain ran in upon him, and
knocked him down, and then called out to him in
the boat to yield, or he was a dead man.
There needed very few arguments to persuade a
single man to yield when he saw five men upon him
and his comrade knocked down; besides, this was, it
seems, one of the three who were not so hearty in
the mutiny as the rest of the crew, and therefore
was easily persuaded not only to yield, but after-
wards to join very sincerely with us.
In the meantime, Friday and the captainâ€™s mate
so well managed their business with the rest, that
they drew them, by hallooing and answering, from
one hill to another, and from one wood to another,
till they not only heartily tired them, but left them
where they were very sure they could not reach
back to the boat before it was dark. We had noth-
ing now to do but to watch for them in the dark,
226 ROBINSON CRUSOE
and to fall upon them, so as to make gure work
It was several hours after Friday came back to
me before they came back to their boat; and we
could hear the foremost of them, long before they
came quite up, calling to those behind to come
along, and could also hear them answer and com-
plain how lame and tired they were, and not able
to come any faster; which was very welcome news
At length they came up to the boat; but â€™tis im-
possible to express their confusion when they
found the boat fast aground in the creek, the tide
ebbed out, and their two men gone.
They hallooed again, and called their two com-
rades by their names a great many times; but no
answer. After some time we could see them, by
the little light there was, run about, wringing their
hands like men in despair, and that sometimes they
would go and sit down in the boat to rest them-
selves; then come ashore again, and walk about
again, and so the same thing over again.
My men would fain have me give them leave to
fall upon them at once in the dark; but I resolved
to wait, to see if they did not separate; and, there-
fore, to make sure of them, I drew my ambuscade
nearer, and ordered Friday and the captain to
creep upon their hands and feet, as close to the
ground as they could, that they might not be dis-
covered, and get as near them as they could pos-
sibly, before they offered to fire.
ROBINSON CRUSOE . 227
They had not been long in that posture but that
the boatswain, who was the principal ringleader of
the mutiny, and had now shown himself the most
dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walk-
ing towards them, with two more of their crew.
The captain was so eager, as having this principal
rogue so much in his power, that he could hardly
have patience to let him come so near as to be sure
of him, for they only heard his tongue before; but
when they came nearer, the captain and Friday,
starting up on their feet, let fly at them.
The boatswain was killed upon the spot; the next
man was shot into the body, and fell just by him,
though he did not die till an hour or two after;
and the third ran for it.
At the noise of the fire I immediately advanced
with my whole army, which was now eight men.
We came upon them, indeed, in the dark, so
that they could not see our number; and I made
the man we had left in the boat, who was now one
of us, call to them by name, to try if I could bring
them to a parley, and so might perhaps reduce
them to terms, which fell out just as we desired ;
for indeed it was easy to think, as their condition
then was, they would be very willing to capitulate.
So he calls out as loud as he could to one of them,
â€œTom Smith! Tom Smith!â€ Tom Smith an-
swered immediately. â€˜â€œWhoâ€™s that? Robinson?â€
For it seems he knew his voice. The other an-
swered, â€œAy, ay; for Godâ€™s sake, Tom Smith, throw
228 ROBINSON CRUSOE
down your arms and yield, or you are all dead men
â€œWho must we yield to? Where are they?â€ says
Smith again. â€˜Here they are,â€ says he; â€œhereâ€™s
our captain and fifty men with him, have been
hunting you this two hours; the boatswain is killed,
Will Frye is wounded, and I am a prisoner; and if
you do not yield, you are all lost.â€
â€œWill they give us quarter then,â€ says Tom
Smith, â€œand we will yield?â€ â€œI'll go and ask, if
you promise to yield,â€ says Robinson. So he
asked the captain, and the captain then calls him-
self out, â€œYou, Smith, you know my voice, if you
lay down your arms, immediately, and submit, you
shall have your lives, all but Will Atkins.â€
Upon this Will Atkins cried out, â€œFor Godâ€™s
sake, captain, give me quarter; what have I done?
They have been all as bad as I.â€ The captain told
him he must lay down his arms at discretion, and
trust to the governorâ€™s mercy; by which he meant
me, for they all called me governor.
In a word, they all laid down their arms, and
begged their lives; and I sent the man that had
parleyed with them and two more, who bound them
all; and then my great army of fifty men, which,
particularly with those three, were all but eight,
came up and seized upon them all, and upon their
boat; only that I kept myself and one more out of
sight for reasons of state.
Our next work was to repair the boat, and think
ROBINSON CRUSOE 229
of seizing the ship; and as for the captain, now he
had leisure to parley with them, he expostulated
with them upon the villainy of their practices with
him, and at length upon the farther wickedness of
their design, and how certainly it must bring them
to misery and distress in the end, and perhaps to
They all appeared very penitent, and begged
hard for their lives. As for that, he told them
they were none of his prisoners, but the comman-
der of the island; that they thought they had set
him on shore in a barren, uninhabited island; but
it had pleased God so to direct them that the
island was inhabited, and that the governor was
an Englishman; that he might hang them all there,
if he pleased ; but as he had given them all quarter,
he supposed he would send them to England, to be
dealt with there as justice required, except Atkins,
whom he was commanded by the governor to ad-
vise to prepare for death, for that he would be
hanged in the morning.
Though this was all fiction of his own, yet it had
its desired effect. Atkins fell upon his knees, to
beg the captain to intercede with the governor for
his life; and all the rest begged for him, for Godâ€™s
sake, that they might not be sent to England.
It now occurred to me that the time of our de-
liverance was come, and that it would be a most
easy thing to bring these fellows in to be hearty
in getting possession of the ship; so I retired in
the dark from them, that they might not see what
230 ROBINSON CRUSOE
kind of a governor they had, and called the captain
Upon the captainâ€™s coming to me, I told him my
project for seizing the ship, which he resolved to
put in execution the next morning. But in order
to execute it with more art, I told him he should
take Atkins and two more of the worst of them,
and send them pinioned to the cave where the
They conveyed them to the cave, as to a prison.
The others I ordered to my bower, and as it was
fenced in, and they pinioned, the place was secure
enough, considering they were upon their behavior.
To these in the morning I sent the captain, who
was to try them, and tell me whether he thought
they might be trusted or no to go on board and sur-
prise the ship. He talked to them of the injury
done him, of the condition they were brought to;
and that though the governor had given them quar-
ter for their lives as to the present action, yet that
if they were sent to England they would all be
hanged in chains, to be sure; but that if they would
join in so just an attempt as to recover the ship, he
would have the governorâ€™s engagement for their
pardon. They fell down on their knees to the cap-
tain, and promised that they would be faithful to
him to the last drop.
â€œWell,â€ says the captain, â€œI must go and tell the
governor what you say, and see what I can do to
bring him to consent to it.â€ So he brought me
an account of the temper he found them in, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 231
that he verily believed they would be faithful.
However, that we might be very secure, I told
him he should go back again and choose out five of
them, and tell them they might see that he did not
want men, that he would take out those five to be
his assistants, and that the governor would keep
the other two and the three that were sent prison-
ers to the castle, my cave, as hostages for the fidel-
ity of those five.
This looked severe, and convinced them that the
governor was in earnest. However, they had no
way left them but to accept it; and it was now the
business of the prisoners, as much as of the cap-
tain, to persuade the other five to do their duty.
Our strength was now thus ordered for the ex-
pedition. 1. The captain, his mate, and passen-
ger. 2. Then the two prisoners of the first gang,
to whom, having their characters from the captain,
I had given their liberty, and trusted them with
arms. 3. The other two whom I had kept till now
in my bower, pinioned, but upon the captainâ€™s mo-
tion had now released. 4. These five released at
last; so that they were twelve in all, besides five we
kept prisoners in the cave for hostages.
I asked the captain if he was willing to venture
with these hands on board the ship; for as for me
and my man Friday, I did not think it was proper
for us to stir, having seven men left behind, and it
was employment enough for us to keep them asun-
der and supply them with victuals. As to the five
in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast; but Fri-
232 ROBINSON CRUSOE
day went in twice a day to them, to supply them
with necessaries, and I made the other two carry
provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was
to take it.
When I showed myself to the two hostages, it
was with the captain, who told them I was the
person the governor had ordered to look after them,
and that it was the governorâ€™s pleasure they should
not stir anywhere but by my direction; that if they
did, they should be fetched into the castle, and be
laid in irons; so that as we never suffered them to
see me as governor, so I now appeared as another
person, and spoke of the governor, the garrison,
the castle, and the like, upon all occasions.
The captain now had no difficulty before him but
to furnish his two boats, stop the breach of one,
and man them. He made his passenger captain
of one, with four other men; and himself, and his
mate, and five more went in the other; and they
contrived their business very well, for they came
up to the ship about midnight. As soon as they
came within call of the ship, he made Robinson
hail them, and tell them they had brought off the
men and the boat, but that it was a long time be-
fore they had found them, and the like, holding
them in a chat till they came to the shipâ€™s side;
when the captain and the mate entering first, with
their arms, immediately knocked down the second
mate and carpenter with the butt-end of their
muskets, being very faithfully seconded by their
men. They secured all the rest that were upon the
I was ready to sink down with the surprise, for I saw my
deliverance put into my hands.
234 ROBINSON CRUSOE
main and quarter-decks, and began to fasten the
hatches to keep them down who were below; when
the other boat and their men entering the fore-
chains, secured the forecastle of the ship, and the
scuttle which went down into the cookroom, mak-
ing three men they found there prisoners.
When this was done, and all safe upon deck, the
captain ordered the mate, with three men, to break
into the roundhouse, where the new rebel captain
lay, and having taken the alarm was gotten up, and
with two men and a boy had gotten firearms in
their hands; and when the mate with a crow split
open the door, the new captain and his men fired
boldly among them, and wounded the mate with a
musket-ball, which broke his arm, and wounded
two more of the men, but killed nobody.
The mate calling for help, rushed however into
the roundhouse, wounded as he was, and shot the
new captain through the head, so that he never
spoke a word; upon which the rest yielded, and the
ship was taken effectually, without any more lives
As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain
ordered seven guns to be fired, which was the sig-
nal agreed upon with me to give me notice of his
success, which you may be sure I was very glad to
hear, having sat watching upon the shore for it
till near two of the clock on the morning.
Having thus heard the signal plainly, I laid me
down; and it having been a day of great fatigue to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 235
me, I slept very sound, till I was something sur-
prised with the noise of a gun; and presently start-
ing up, I heard a man call me by the name of
â€œGovernor, Governor,â€ and presently I knew the
captainâ€™s voice; when climbing up to the top of the
hill, there he stood, and pointing to the ship, he
embraced me in his arms. â€œMy dear friend and
deliverer,â€ says he, â€œthereâ€™s your ship, for she is
all yours, and so are we, and all that belong to her.â€
I cast my eyes to the ship, and there she rode within
little more than half a mile of the shore.
I was at first ready to sink down with the sur-
prise; for I saw my deliverance, indeed, visibly put
into my hands, all things easy, and a large ship
just ready to carry me away whither I pleased to
go. At first, for some time I was not able to an-
swer him one word; but as he had taken me in his
arms, I held fast by him, or I should have fallen to
All this while the poor man was in as great an
ecstasy as I; he said a thousand kind things to me,
and we rejoiced together.
I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to
heaven; and what heart could forbear to bless Him,
who had not only in a miraculous manner provided
for one in such a wilderness, and in such a deso-
late condition, but from whom every deliverance
must always be acknowledged to proceed?
When we had talked a while, the captain told me
he had brought me some little refreshment, such as
236 ROBINSON CRUSOE
the ship afforded, and such as the wretches that
had been so long his masters had not plundered
First, he had brought me a case of bottles full of
excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of Ma-
deira wine (the bottles held two quarts apiece),
two pounds of excellent good tobacco, twelve good
pieces of the shipâ€™s beef, and six pieces of pork,
with a bag of peas, and about a hundredweight of
He brought me also a box of sugar, a box of
flour, a bag full of lemons, and two bottles of lime-
juice, and abundance of other things; but besides
these, and what was a thousand times more useful
to me, he brought me six clean new shirts, six very
good neck-cloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of
shoes, a hat, and one pair of stockings, and a very
good suit of clothes of his own, which had been
worn but very little; in a word, he clothed me from
head to foot.
After these ceremonies passed, and after all his
good things were brought into my little apartment,
we began to consult what was to be done with the
prisoners we had; for it was worth considering
whether we might venture to take them away with
us or no, especially two of them, whom we knew to
be incorrigible and refractory to the last degree;
and the captain said he knew they were such
rogues, that there was no obliging them; and if he
did carry them away, it must be in irons, as male-
factors, to be delivered over to justice at the first
ROBINSON CRUSOE 23T
English colony he could come at; and I found that
the captain himself was very anxious about it.
Upon this I told him that, if he desired it, I
durst undertake to bring the two men he spoke of
to make it their own request that he should leave
them upon the island. â€œI should be very glad of
that,â€ says the captain, â€œwith all my heart.â€
â€œWell,â€ says I, â€œI will send for them up, and talk
with them for you.â€ So I caused Friday and the
two hostages, for they were now discharged, their
comrades having performed their promise; I say,
I caused them to go to the cave and bring up the
' five men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and
keep them there till I came.
After some time I came thither, dressed in my
new habit; and now I was called governor again.
Being all met, and the captain with me, I caused
the men to be brought before me, and I told them I
had had a full account of their villainous behavior
to the captain, and how they had run away with
the ship, and were preparing to commit further
robberies, but that Providence had ensnared them
in their own ways, and that they were fallen into
the pit which they had digged for others.
I let them know that by my direction the ship
had been seized, that she lay now in the road, and
they might see, by and by, that their new captain
had received the reward of his villainy, for that
they might see him hanging at the yard-arm; that
as to them, I wanted to know what they had to say
238 ROBINSON CRUSOE
why I should not execute them as pirates, taken in
the fact, as by my commission they could not doubt
I had authority to do.
One of them answered in the name of the rest
that they had nothing to say but this, that when
they were taken the captain promised them their
lives, and they humbly implored my mercy. But I
told them I knew not what mercy to show them;
for as for myself, I had resolved to quit the island
with all my men, and had taken passage with the
captain to go for England. And as for the cap-
tain, he could not carry them to England other
than as prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny,
and running away with the ship; the consequence
of which, they must needs know, would be the gal-
lows; so that I could not tell which was best for
them, unless they had a mind to take their fate in
the island. If they desired that, I did not care, as
I had liberty to leave it. I had some inclination to
give them their lives, if they thought they could
shift on shore.
Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I
accordingly set them at liberty, and bade them re-
tire into the woods to the place whence they came,
and I would leave them some firearms, some am-
munition, and some directions how they should
live very well, if they thought fit.
Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship, but
told the captain that I would stay that night to
prepare my things, and desired him to go on board
in the meantime, and keep all right in the ship, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 239
send the boat on shore the next day for me; order-
ing him, in the meantime, to cause the new captain,
who was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that
these men might see him.
When the captain was gone, I sent for the men
to come to my apartment, and entered seriously
into discourse with them of their circumstances. I
told them I thought they had made a right choice;
that if the captain carried them away, they would
certainly be hanged. I showed them the new cap-
tain hanging at the yard-arm of the ship, and told
them they had nothing less to expect.
When they had all declared their willingness to
stay, I then told them I would let them into the
story of my living there, and put them into the way
of making it easy to them. Accordingly I gave
them the whole history of the place, and of my
coming to it, showed them my fortifications, the
way I made my bread, planted ay corn, cured my
grapes; and in a word, all that was necessary to
make them easy. I told them the story also of the
sixteen Spaniards that were to be expected, for
whom I left a letter, and made them promise to
treat them in common with themselves.
I left them my firearms, viz., five muskets, three
fowling-pieces, and three swords. I had above a
barrel and half of powder left; for after the first
year or two I used but little, ana wasted none. I
gave them a description of the way I managed the
goats, and directions to milk and fatten them, and
to make both butter and cheese.
240 ROBINSON CRUSOE
Having done all this, I went on board ship and
carried on board, for relics, the great goat-skin cap
I had made, my umbrella, and my parrot; also I
forgot not to take the money I formerly mentioned,
which had lain by me so long useless that it was
grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly pass
for silver till it had been a little rubbed and han-
dled; as also the money I found in the wreck of the
And thus I left the island, the 19th of Decem-
ber, as I found by the shipâ€™s account, in the year
1686, after I had been upon it eight and twenty
years, two months, and nineteen days, being de-
livered from this second captivity the same day of
the month that I first made my escape in the barco-
longo, from among the Moors of Sallee.
In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in
England, the 11th of June, in the year 1687, having
been thirty and five years absent.
I went down into Yorkshire; but my father was
dead, and my mother and all the family extinct,
except that I found two sisters, and two of the
children of one of my brothers; and as I had been
long ago given over for dead, there had been no pro-
vision made for me; so that, in a word, I found
nothing to relieve or assist me; and that little
money I had would not do much for me as to set-
tling in the world.
With this view I took shipping for Lisbon, where
I arrived in April following; my man Friday ac-
companying me very honestly in all these ram-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 241
blings, and proving a most faithful servant upon
When I came to Lisbon, I found out, by inquiry,
and to my particular satisfaction, my old friend
the captain of the ship who first took me up at sea
off of the shore of Africa. He was now grown
old, and had left off the sea, having put his
son into his ship, and who still used the Brazil
After some passionate expressions of the old ac-
quaintance, I inquired, you may be sure, after my
plantation and my partner. The old man told me
he had not been in the Brazils for about nine years;
but that he could assure me that, when he came
away, my partner was living; but the trustees,
whom I had joined with him to take cognizance of
my part, were both dead.
He told me he could not tell exactly to what de-
gree the plantation was improved ; but this he
knew, that my partner was growing exceedingly
rich upon the enjoying but one-half of it; and that,
to the best of his remembrance, he had heard that
the kingâ€™s third of my part, which was, it seems,
granted away to some other monastery or religious
house, amounted to above two hundred moidores a
year. That as to my being restored to a quiet pos-
session of it, there was no question to be made of
that, my partner being alive to witness my title,
and my name being also enrolled in the register of
I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at
242 ROBINSON CRUSOE
this account, and inquired of the old captain how it
came to pass that the trustees should thus dispose
my effects, when he knew that I had made my will
and had made him, the Portuguese captain, my uni-
versal heir, etc. He told me that was true; but
that as there was no proof of my being dead, he
could not act as executor until some certain ac-
count should come of my death.
When this was passed, the old man began to ask
me if he should put me into a method to make my
claim to my plantation? I told him I thought to
go over to it myself. He said I might do so if I
pleased; but that if I did not, there were ways
enough to secure my right, and immediately to ap-
propriate the profits to my use; and as there were
ships in the river of Lisbon just ready to go away
to Brazil, he made me enter my name in a public
register, with his affidavit, affirming, upon oath,
that I was alive, and that I was the same person
who took up the land for the planting the said plan-
tation at first.
This being regularly attested by a notary, and a
procuration affixed, he directed me to send it, with
a letter of his writing, to a merchant of his ac-
quaintance at the place, and then proposed my
staying with him till an account came of the re-
Never anything was more honorable than the
proceedings upon this procuration; for in less than
seven months I received a large packet from the
survivors-of my trustees, the merchants, for whose
ROBINSON CRUSOE 243
account I went to sea, in which were the following
particular letters and papers enclosed.
First, there was the account-current of the prod-
uce of my farm or plantation from the year when
their fathers had balanced with my old Portugal
captain, being for six years; the balance appeared
to be 1174 moidores in my favor.
Secondly, there was the account of four years
more, while they kept the effects in their hands, be-
fore the government claimed the administration,
as being the effects of a person not to be found,
which they called civil death; and the balance of
this, the value of the plantation increasing,
amounting to 38,892 crusadoes, which made 3241
Thirdly, there was the prior of the Augustinesâ€™
account, who had received the profits for above
fourteen years; but not being able to account for
what was disposed to the hospital, very honestly
declared he had 872 moidores not distributed,
which he acknowledged to my account; as to the
kingâ€™s part, that refunded nothing.
There was a letter of my partnerâ€™s, congratulat-
ing me very affectionately upon my being alive,
giving me an account how the estate was improved,
and what it produced a year, concluding with a
hearty tender of his friendship, and. that of his
family. He sent me also five chests of excellent
sweetmeats, and a hundred pieces of gold uncoined,
not quite so large as moidores. By the same fleet,
my two merchant trustees shipped me 1200 chests
244 ROBINSON CRUSOE
of sugar, 800 rolls of tobacco, and the rest of the
whole account in gold.
I was now master, all on a sudden, of above
Â£5000 sterling in money, and had an estate, as I
might well call it, in the Brazils of above a thou-
sand pounds a year.
The first thing I did was to recompense my orig-
inal benefactor, my good old captain, who had
been first charitable to me in my distress, kind
to me in my beginning, and honest to me at the
In the next place, my interest in the Brazils
seemed to summon me thither; but now I could not.
tell how to think of going thither till I had settled
my affairs, and left my effects in some safe hands
behind me. At first I thought of my old friend
the widow, who I knew was honest, and would be
just to me; but then she was in years, and but poor,
and for aught I knew might be in debt; so that, in
a word, I had no way but to go back to England
myself, and take my effects with me.
It was some months, however, before I resolved
upon this; and therefore, as I had rewarded the old
captain fully, and to his satisfaction, so I began to
think of my poor widow, whose husband had been
my first benefactor, and she, while it was in her
power, my faithful steward and instructor. So
the first thing I did, I got a merchant in Lisbon to
write to his correspondent in London, to go find
her out, and carry her in money an hundred pounds
from me, and to talk with her, and comfort her in
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 245
her poverty, by telling her she should, if I lived,
have a further supply. At the same time I sent
my two sisters in the country each of them an hun-
dred pounds, they being, though not in want, yet
not in very good circumstances; one having been
married, and left a widow; and the other having a
husband not so kind to her as he should be.
But among all my relations or acquaintances, I
could not yet pitch upon one to whom I durst com-
mit the gross of my stock, that I might go away to
the Brazils, and leave things safe behind me; and
this greatly perplexed me. So I resolved, at last,
to go to England with my wealth, where, if I
arrived, I concluded I should make some acquain-
tance, or find some relations, that would be faithful
to me; and accordingly I prepared to go for Eng-
land with all my wealth.
Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo,
and turned all â€˜my effects into good bills of ex-
change, my next difficulty was which way to go to
England. I had been accustomed enough to the
sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to going to
England by sea at that time. In a word, I was so
prepossessed against my going by sea at ail, except
from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to travel all
the way by land; and as I have troubled you with
none of my sea journals, so I shall trouble you now
with none of my land journal.
I landed safe at Dover, the 14th of January,
after having had a severe cold season to travel in.
I was now come to the centre of my travels, and
246 ROBINSON CRUSOE
had in a little time all my new-discovered estate
safe about me, the bills of exchange which I
brought with me having been very currently paid.
My principal guide and privy councillor was my
good ancient widow; who, in gratitude for the
money I had sent her, thought no pains too much,
or care too great, to employ for me; and I trusted
her so entirely with everything, that I was per-
fectly easy as to the security of my effects; and in-
deed I was very happy from my beginning, and
now to the end, in the unspotted integrity of this
And now I began to think of leaving my effects
with this woman and setting out for Lisbon, and
so to the Brazils. But now another scruple came
in my way, and that was religion; for as I had
entertained some doubts about the Roman religion
even while I was abroad, especially in my state of
solitude, so I knew there was no going to the Bra-
zils for me, much less going to settle there, unless
I resolved to embrace the Roman Catholic religion
without any reserve; unless on the other hand I
resolved to be a sacrifice to my principles, be a
martyr for religion, and die in the Inquisition.
So I resolved to stay at home, and if I could
find means for it, to dispose of my plantation.
To this purpose I wrote to my old friend at Lis-
bon, who in return gave me notice that he could
easily dispose of it there; but that if I thought fit
to give him leave to offer it in my name to the two
merchants, the survivors of my trustees. who lived
ROBINSON CRUSOE 247
in the Brazils, who must fully understand the
value of it, who lived just upon the spot, and whom
I knew were very rich, so that he believed they
would be fond of buying it, he did not doubt but I
should make 4000 or 5000 pieces of eight the more
Accordingly I agreed, gave him order to offer it
to them, and he did so; and in about eight months
more, the ship being then returned, he sent me an
account that they had accepted the offer, and had
remitted 33,000 pieces of eight to a correspondent
of theirs at Lisbon to pay for it. ;
In return, I signed the instrument of sale in the
form which they sent from Lisbon, and sent it to
my old man, who sent me bills of exchange for
32,800 pieces of eight to me, for the estate; re-
serving the payment of 100 moidores a year to him,
the old man, during his life, and 50 moidores after-
wards to his son for his life, which I had promised
them, which the plantation was to make good as a
rent-charge. And thus I have given the first part
of a life of fortune and adventure, a life of Provi-
denceâ€™s chequer-work, and of a variety which the
world will seldom be able to show the like of; be-
ginning foolishly, but closing much more happily
than any part of it ever gave me leave so much as
to hope for.
Any one would think that in this state of compli-
cated good fortune I was past running any more
hazards; and so indeed I had been, if other circum-
248 ROBINSON CRUSOE
stances had concurred. But I was inured to a
wandering life, had no family, not many relations,
nor, however rich, had I contracted much acquaint-
ance; and though I had sold my estate in the Bra-
zils, yet I could not keep the country out of my
head, and had a great mind to be upon the wing
again; especially I could not resist the strong in-
clination I had to see my island, and to know if
the poor Spaniards were in being there, and how
the rogues I left there had used them.
My true friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded
me from it, and so far prevailed with me, that for
almostâ€™ seven years she prevented my running
abroad, during which time I took my two nephews,
the children of one of my brothers, into my care.
The eldest having something of his own, I bred up
as a gentleman, and gave him a settlement of some
addition to his estate after my decease. The other
I put out to a captain of a ship, and after five
years, finding him a sensible, bold, enterprising
young fellow, I put him into a good ship, and sent
him to sea; and this young fellow afterwards drew
me in, as old as I was, to farther adventures my-
In the meantime, I in part settled myself here;
for, first of all, I married, and that not either to
my disadvantage or dissatisfaction, and had three
children, two sons and one daughter; but my wife
dying, and my nephew coming home with good
success from a voyage to Spain, my inclination to
go abroad, and his importunity, prevailed, and en-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 249
gaged me to go in his ship as a private trader to the
East Indies. This was in the year 1694. ;
In this voyage I visited my new colony in the
island, saw my successors the Spaniards, had the
whole story of their lives, and of the villains I left
there; how at first they insulted the poor Span-
iards, how they afterwards agreed, disagreed,
united, separated, and how at last the Spaniards
were obliged to use violence with them; how they
were subjected to the Spaniards; how honestly the
Spaniards used them; a history, if it were entered
into, as full of variety and wonderful accidents as
my own part; particularly also as to their battles
with the Caribbeans, who landed several times
upon the island, and as to the improvement they
made upon the island itself; and how five of them
made an attempt upon the mainland, and brought
away eleven men and five women prisoners, by
which, at my coming, I found about twenty young
children on the island.
Here I stayed about twenty days, left them sup-
plies of all necessary things, and particularly of
arms, powder, shot, clothes, tools, and two work-
men, which I brought from England with me, viz.,
a carpenter and a smith.
Besides this, I shared the island into parts with
them, reserved to myself the property of the whole,
but gave them such parts respectively as they
agreed on; and having settled all things with them,
and engaged them not to leave the place, I left
250 ROBINSON CRUSOE
From thence I touched at the Brazils, from
whence I sent a bark, which I bought there, with
more people, to the island; and in it, besides other
supplies, I sent seven women, being such as I
found proper for service, or for wives to such as
would take them. As to the Englishmen, I prom-
ised them to send them some women from England
with a good cargo of necessaries, if they would
apply themselves to planting; which I afterwards
performed; and the fellows proved very honest and
diligent after they were mastered, and had their
properties set apart for them. I sent them also
from the Brazils five cows, three of them being big
with calf, some sheep, and some hogs, which, when
I came again, were considerably increased.
But all these things, with an account how three
hundred Caribbees came and invaded them, and
ruined their plantations, and how they fought with
the whole number twice, and were at first defeated
and three of them killed; but at last a storm de-
stroying their enemiesâ€™ canoes, they famished or
destroyed almost all the rest, and renewed and re-
covered the possession of their plantation, and still
lived upon the island ;â€”all these things, with some
very surprising incidents in some new adventures
of my own, for ten years more, I may perhaps give
a farther account of hereafter.
THH END Ww. B.C.
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AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT 'UF' PROJECT 'UFDC'
DISSEMINATION_REQUEST NAME 'disseminate request placed' TIME '2013-12-09T17:37:23-05:00' NOTE 'request id: 299212; Dissemination from Lois and also Judy Russel see RT# 21871' AGENT 'Stephen'
finished' '2013-12-14T16:38:19-05:00' '' 'SYSTEM'
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MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM 'MD5' 03e354bceea5a60446ff99d61d5d59f1
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