Citation
The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title:
The Golden days series
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731 ( Author, Primary )
Burne, Eldiee ( Illustrator )
M.A. Donohue & Co ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Chicago
New York
Publisher:
M.A. Donohue & Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
252 p. : ill. (1 col.) ; 21 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1935 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
fiction ( marcgt )
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage:
United States of America -- Illinois -- Chicago
United States of America -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Series from spine.
General Note:
Illustrated endpapers signed Eldiee Burne.
General Note:
Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
SN01273 ( lccn )
26812731 ( oclc )
001762034 ( aleph )

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THE
ADVENTURES OF
ROBINSON CRUSOE

By
DaniEL DEFOE

Ca
@

ILLUSTRATED

®

M. A. DONOHUE & CO.

CHICAGO NEW YORK



MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



THE ADVENTURES OF
ROBINSON CRUSOE

























e





























ADVENTURES OF
ROBINSON CRUSOE

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of
York, of a good family, though not of that
country, my father being a foreigner, of
Bremen, who settled first at Hull; he got a
good estate by merchandise, and leaving
off his trade, lived afterward at York;
from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a
very good family in that country, and
from whom I was called Robinson.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts; my
father had given me a competent share of learning, and designed
me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to
sea, and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will
of my father, and entreaties of my mother, that there seemed to be
something fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to
the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me
one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the
gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject,
asking me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination,
I had for leaving my father’s house and my native country.

And though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet
he would venture to say to me that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and I resolved not

7





8 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home accord-
ing to my father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off;
and a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little
more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were
entirely bent upon seeing the world, and that my father had bet-
ter give me his consent than force me to go without it; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I
came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more.

But this my mother refused to do, saying “she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject.”

It was not till almost a year after this, being one day at Hull,
that, meeting one of my companions about to go by sea to London
in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them, I con-
sulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might,
without asking God’s blessing or my father’s, on the 1st of Sep-
tember, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never
any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or
continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of
the Humber than the wind began to blow, and the sea to rise in
a most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before,
I was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my duty.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no,
nor what I saw a few days after. I expected every wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as
I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should
never rise more; in this agony of mind I made many vows and
resolutions that if it would please God to spare my life in this
one voyage, if ever I got my foot upon dry land again, I would
go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived.




Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 9

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the
wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it; however, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little seasick still; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening fol-
lowed. The sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning; having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful
that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more seasick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so
rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so
pleasant in so little a time after.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we
had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged
to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the common
harbor where the ships might wait for a wind for the River.

But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and
we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or
twice our anchor had come home.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen them-
selves. The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving
the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear
him softly to himself say, several times, “Lord, be merciful to
us! We shall be all lost! We shall be all undone!”

Toward evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very
unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he



10 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

did not the ship would founder, he consented; and when they
had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and
shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away also,
and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But the worst was not come yet; the storm
continued with such fury that the seamen themselves acknowl-
edged they had never seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she
was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder. It was my
advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they meant
by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent
that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and
some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and ex-
pecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men, that had been down to see, cried out we had
sprung a leak; another said there was four feet of water in the
hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my
heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon
the side of my bed, where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men
roused me, and told me that I, that was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and
went to the pump, and worked very heartily.

But the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the
ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a
little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might
run into any port, so the master continued firing guns for help;
and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a
boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came
near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the
boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it
out a great length, which they after much labor and hazard took



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe II

hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat; and partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost
as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time
what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea.

We made but slow way, nor were we able to reach the shore
till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to
the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little
the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without
much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have
gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our
blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me;
for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I
was not drowned. But my ill fate pushed me on now with an
obstinacy that nothing could resist; having some money in my
pocket, I traveled to London by land; and there, as well as on
the road, had many struggles with myself what course of life I
should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresist-
ible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed a while,
the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off; and as
that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to return wore
off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and
looked out for a voyage.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and mis-
guided young fellows as I then was, the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not



12 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who
had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again. This captain, taking a
fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at
that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me
if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no expense;
I should be his messmate and his companion; and if I could carry
anything with me I should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encour-
agement.

I embraced the offer; and this was the only voyage which I
may say was successful in all my adventures, and which I owe
to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain; under
whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and
the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the
ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand
some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor. For,
as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a
word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant; for
I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
£300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have
since so completed my ruin.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got
the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite {100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left which I had lodged
with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes in this voyage. And the first was this, viz.,
our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather
between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised in
the gray of the morning by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 13

much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to
have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight,
our ship having twelve guns and the rogue eighteen. About three
in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake,
just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he in-
tended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and
poured in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off



again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot
from near two hundred men which he had on board. However,
we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying
us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and
hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with small-shot,
half-pikes, powder chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of
them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our
story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried
all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor’s court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the
rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble, and fit for his business.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,



14 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war; and
that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away; for when he went to sea he left me on shore to look
after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house; and when he came home again from his cruise
he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship. Here I
meditated nothing but my escape and what method I might take
to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it.

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. It happened one time that, going
a-fishing with him in a calm morning, a fog rose so thick that
though we were not half a league from the shore we lost sight of
it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we labored
all day, and all the next night. And when the morning came we
found we had pulled out to sea instead of pulling in for shore;
and that we were at least two leagues from the land. However,
we got well in again, though with a great deal of labor and some
danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long
boat of our English ship which he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provisions. So he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was
an English slave, to build a little stateroom, or cabin, in the
middle of the long boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand
behind it to steer and haul home the mainsheet, and room before
for a hand or two to stand and work the sails.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It
happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for
pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction
in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and
had therefore sent on board the boat overnight a larger store of



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 15

provisions than usual; and had ordered me to get ready three
muskets with powder and shot, which were on board his ship,
for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed; when by and by my
patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with
the Moor and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch
them some fish, and that his friends were to sup at his house.
He commanded me, too, that as soon as I had got some fish I
should bring it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship
at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to
furnish myself not for fishing business but for a voyage; though
I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I would
steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread.

He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat,
which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a parcel of
twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which
were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also; his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or
Moely; so I called to him: “Moely,” said I, “our patron’s guns are
all on board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot? It
may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for
ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.”
“Yes,” says he, “I’ll bring some.” Accordingly, he brought a
great leather pouch, which held about a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or
six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the
same time I had found some powder of my master’s in the great



16 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case,
which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another;
and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port,
knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not
above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and sat
us down to fish.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, I said to
the Moor, “This will not do; our master will not be thus served;
we must stand farther off.” He, thinking no harm, set the sails;
and, as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to as if I would fish; when, giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise
with my arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard
into the sea.

He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to
me, begged to be taken in, telling me he would go all over the
world with me. He swam so strong after the boat that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling
pieces, I presented it at him and told him I had done him no
hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none. “But,”
said I, “you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea
is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no
harm; but if you come near the boat I’ll shoot you through the
head, for I am resolved to have my liberty.” So he turned himself
about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he
reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to
be true to me,” that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard,
“I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my face,
and spoke so innocently that I could not mistrust him, and swore
to be faithful to me and go all over the world with me.



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 17

While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea, that they might think me gone towards
the Straits’! mouth. But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I
changed my course, and steered directly south and by east,
bending my course a little towards the east that I might keep in
with the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a
smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day
at three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of
Sallee. Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days.

Then, the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me they also would
now give over. So I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what nor where;
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the principal thing I
wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover
the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till
day. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it. We dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one mighty creature
come swimming toward our boat. However, I immediately
stepped to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards
the shore again. .

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous

1 Straits. The Straits of Gibraltar.



18 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of
a gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures had
never heard before. This convinced me that there was no going
on shore for us in the night upon that coast; and how to venture
on shore in the day was another question too; for to have fallen
into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to have
fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least we were equally
apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat. When
or where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go
on shore with one of the jars he would find if there was any
water and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? Why
I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with
so much affection that made me love him ever after. Says he,
“I£ wild mans come, they eat me, you go way.” “Well, Xury,”
said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill
them. They shall eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of
ruskbread to eat, and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as
we thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing
but our arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by and by I
saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by
some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran for-
ward towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to him
I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a crea-
ture that he had shot, like a hare but different in color, and longer
legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good
meat; but the great joy poor Xury came with was to tell me he
had found good water, and seen no wild mans; so we filled our
jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go
on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature in
that part of the country.



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe - 19

After this stop we made on to the southward continually for
ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which
began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the shore
than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was
to make the River Gambia or Senegal; that is to say, anywhere
about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had
to take but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the
negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe which sailed either
to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made
this cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of my
fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some
ship, or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the
shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black,
and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them; but Xury was my better counselor, and said to me, “No go,
no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk
to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good
way: I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one,
who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and
that they could throw them a great way with good aim. So I
kept at a'distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could; and particularly made signs for something to eat; they
beckoned to me to stop my boat and they would fetch me some
meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and
two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an
hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried
flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country; but
we neither knew what the one nor the other was. However, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I would not venture on shore to them, and they were
as much afraid of us. But they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a



20 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends. But an opportunity offered that very instant to
oblige them wonderfully, for while we were lying on the shore,
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took
it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea. The man
that had the lance or dart did not fly from them, as the rest did;
however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they
did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged them-
selves into the sea, and swam about. At last one of them began
to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready
for him, for I had loaded my gun, and bade Xury load both the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and
shot him directly in the head; immediately he sank down into
the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he
was struggling for life, and so indeed he was. He immediately
made to the shore; but between the wound and the strangling
of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor crea-
tures at the noise and fire of my gun. Some of them were ready
even to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror.
But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk into the water,
and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took
heart and began to search for the creature. I found him by his
blood staining the water: and by the help of a rope, which I
slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him
on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted,
and fine to an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their
hands with admiration to think what it was I killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam to the shore, and disappeared.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, till I saw the land run out a great length
into the sea. Doubling the point at about two leagues from the



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 21

land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I
concluded, as it was indeed, the Cape de Verd Islands. However,
they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had
best do; for if I should be taken with a fresh gale of wind, I
might neither reach one nor other.

In this dilemma, I stepped into the cabin, and sat me down,
Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden the boy cried out,
“Master, master, a ship with a sail!” and the foolish boy was
frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his
master’s ships sent to pursue us. I jumped out of the cabin, and
immediately saw not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese
ship; upon which I stretched out to the sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them. But after I had crowded to the
utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help
of their glasses, and that it was some European boat, which they
supposed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and
as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to
them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they
saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not
hear the gun. Upon these signals they very kindly brought to,
and lay by for me; and in about three hours’ time I came up
with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a
Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me: and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman that had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They then bade
me come on board and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship as a return for my



22 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

deliverance. But he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on
no other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself; and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils, so
great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, no,” says he, “Seignor Inglese
(Mr. Englishman), I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help you to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again.”

As to my boat, he told me he would pay me eighty pieces of
eight for it. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my
boy Xury; but I was very loath to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who
had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, he
said that he would set him free in ten years, if he turned Chris-
tian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I
let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered from
the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next
with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember. He would take nothing of me for my
passage, and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered to me. And what I was willing to sell he bought of me:
such as two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax, for
I had made candles of the rest. In a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo, and with
this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house
of a good, honest man, I lived with him some time, and ac-
quainted myself, by that means, with the manner of their plant-
ing and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived,
and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 23

to settle there, I would turn planter among them, resolving in
the meantime to find out some way to get my money, which I
had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, I purchased
land and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement.

I had a neighbor, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. My stock but was low, as well as his;
and we had rather planted for food than anything else, for about
two years. However, we began to increase, and our land began to
come in order, so that the third year we planted some tobacco,
and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting
canes in the year to come. But we both wanted help; and now I
found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.

I was, in some degree, settled, before my kind friend, the cap-
tain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship
remained there near three months; when, telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice: “Seignor Inglese,” says he, “if you will give
me letters, with orders to the person who has your money in
London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall
direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will
bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but I
would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling,
which, you say, is half your stock; and if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentleman with whom
I had left my money.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my
adventures, and when this honest captain came to Lisbon he
found means to send over not the order only, but a full account
of my story, to a merchant in London, who represented it ef-
fectually to her. Whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but out of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very hand-
some present for his humanity and charity to me.



oa Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in Eng-
lish goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them directly
to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the
Brazils. When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made; for
I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward the
captain had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent
him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manu-
facture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valu-
able and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them at
a very great advantage. The first thing I did, I bought me a negro
slave, and an European servant also: I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation. And now increasing in
business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed often the ruin
of the best heads in business.

To come, then, by just degrees to the particulars of this part
of my story: You may suppose, that having now lived almost
four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the
language but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salva-
dore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse among them
I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles—
such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the
like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

It happened, being in company one day with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning and told



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 25

me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
of with them the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me; and after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they
had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be car-
ried on, because they could not publicly sell the negroes when
they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring
the negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations; and, in a word, the question was whether I would
go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon
the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my
equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the
stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation of his
own to look after, which could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—
for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing
that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs
when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence. This they all engaged
to do, and entered into writings to do so; and I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my death,
making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before,
my heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and
the other to be shipped to England.

Accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo finished,
and all things done as by agreement by my partners in the voyage,
I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659
being the same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority.



26 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns, and fourteen men besides the master, his boy,
and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking
glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
northward upon our own coasts. In this course we passed the
line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation,
in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.
It blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together
we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it,
let it carry us wherever fate and the fury of the winds directed.

About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master
made an observation as well as he could, and found that he was
gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil,
beyond the river Amazones; and now he began to consult with
me what course he should take; for the ship was leaky, and very
much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the coast
of Brazil. I was positively against that; so we changed our course,
and steered away N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was
otherwise determined; for a second storm came upon us, which
carried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove
us out of the way of all human commerce.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early one morning cried out, “Land!” and we had no sooner
run out of the cabin than the ship struck upon the sand, and in a
moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in
such a manner that we expected we should all have perished
immediately. It is not easy for any one who has not been in the
like condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men
in such circumstances. We could not hope to have the ship hold
many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by
a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word,



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 27

we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death every
moment.

Now, though we thought the wind did a little abate, yet the
ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for
us to expect her getting off. We had a boat at our stern just before
the storm, but she had either sunk, or was driven off to sea. We
had another boat on board; but how to get her off into the sea
was a doubtful thing. In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays
hold of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, they
got her flung over the ship’s side; and getting all into her, we let
go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s
mercy and the wild sea.

And now our case was very dismal iidecd: for we all say
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not escape,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. However, we com-
mitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner, and, the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with
our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land. But as
we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came roll-
ing astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace.
In a word, it took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, “O God!” for we were
all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sank into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath,
till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left
me upon the land, but half dead with the water I took in. I had
so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing my-
self nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could,



28 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

before another wave should return and take me up again.

The next wave that came upon me buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great
way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still for-
ward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my
breath, when as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate
relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of
the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath
and new courage. I was covered again with water a good while,
but not so long but I held it out; and finding the water had spent
itself, and began to return, I struck forward against the return of
the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath, and till the waters went from me,
and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had,
farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and
twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as
before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me; for
the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of rock, and that with such force as it
left me senseless. But I recovered a little before the return of the
waves, and seeing I should be covered again with water, I re-
solved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my
breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves
were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold
till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought
me so near the shore that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next
run I took I got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort,
I clambered up the clifts of the shore, and sat me down upon the
grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 29

some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I walked about on
the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as I may
say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflect-
ing upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that there
should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never
saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their
hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on
shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I
was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my com-
forts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance, for
I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat
or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before
me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild
beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was that
I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my
sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature that
might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about
me but a knife, a tobacco pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This
was all my provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies of
mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing
at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to
get up into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew
near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the
next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of
life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find
any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having
drunk, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger,



30 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut
me a short stick, like a trucheon, for my defense, I took up my
lodging; and being excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than I think
I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear and the
storm abated so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself
on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for my
use.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of
the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I
saw evidently that, if we had kept on board, we had been all safe;
that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so
miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all other comfort and
company, as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again; but
as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship. So I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to
extremity, and took to the water. But when I came to the ship my
difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for, as
she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I espied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I
did not see at first, hanging down by the fore-chains so low that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope
got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship
was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that
she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 31

her stern lay lifted upon the bank, and her head low, almost to
the water. By this means all her quarter was free and all that was
in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to
search, and to see what was spoiled and what was free. And, first,
I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and untouched by
the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread
room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things which
I foresaw would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had;
and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast
or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with them, and I
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down the ship’s side, and pull-
ing them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends, as well
as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short
pieces of plank upon them, crossways, I found I could walk upon
it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the
pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with the carpenter’s
saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to
my raft, with a great deal of labor and pains.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long in con-
sidering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I first
got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and
emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these
I filled with provisions—viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and
a little remainder of European corn. While I was doing this, I
found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had



32 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

left on shore upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in
them and my stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging
for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore; and it was
after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder horns, a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, and with much search I found them.

And thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging
to the boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest, two
saws, an ax and a hammer. With this cargo I put to sea. For a
mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well. But here I had like
to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think
verily would have broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not
being aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against
the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off
the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the pos-
ture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my might, I
stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising
of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little
after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust
her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up
higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river,
with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
but here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep, there was no place to land, but
where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high,



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 33

and the other sink lower. All that I could do was to wait till the
tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground. As soon as I found water enough, I thrust her upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking
my two broken oars into the ground, till the water ebbed away,
and left my raft and cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to seek a proper place for my habitation,
and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever
might happen. There was a hill not above a mile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to over-
top some other hills. I took out one of the fowling pieces, and one
of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed I traveled
for discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with
great labor and difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my
great affliction—viz., that I was in an island environed every way
with the sea; no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay
a great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of
which, however, I saw none. At my coming back I shot at a great
bird which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood.
I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired but from all the parts
of the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls of
many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying, but not
one of them of any kind that I knew; as for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of a hawk.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft and fell
to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest
of the day. What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor in-
deed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me; though, as
I afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could I barricaded myself round with



34 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible, as I knew
that the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in
pieces. I resolved to go as before, when the tide was down; and I
did so, only that I stripped before I went from my hut, having
nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a
pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and, having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s stores I found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a
dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with several
things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron
crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling piece, with some small quantity of powder and
a large bagful of small shot. Besides these things, I took all the
men’s clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, a ham-
mock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft,
and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large casks—I went to work to make
me a little tent, with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew
would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 35

some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed the first time, and slept very quietly all night.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man; but still I was not satisfied, for while
the ship sat upright in that posture I thought I ought to get
everything out of her that I could; so every day, at low water, I
went on board, and brought away something or other; but
particularly, the third
time I went, I brought
away as much of the
rigging as I could, as
also all the small ropes
and rope twine I could
get, with a piece of
spare canvas, which was
to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the bar-
rel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought
away all the sails. But
that which comforted
me more still was, that
at last of all, after I had
made five or six such
voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing
more to expect from ~
the ship that was worth my meddling with—I say, after all thus,
I found a great hogshead of bread, a box of fine sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given
over expecting any more provisions except what was spoiled by
the water.

I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all





36 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable of bringing;
but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise; however, at low water I went on board, and though
I thought I had rummaged the cabin effectually, yet I discovered
a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds’
value in money. I smiled to myself at the sight of this money.
“Oh drug!” said I aloud, “what are thou good for?” However, upon
second thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all in a piece of
canvas, I began to think of making another raft; but while I was
preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to
rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind offshore; and that it was my business
to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not
be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between
the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly
from the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night,
and in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was
to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to me;
and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to
bring away, if I had had more time.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about what kind of
dwelling to make—whether'I should make me a cave in the earth,
or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the
manner and description of which it may not be improper to give
an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 37

so I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground. I consulted several things; first, health and fresh water;
secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly, security from
ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; fourthly, a view to the
sea, that if God sent any ship in sight I might not lose any
advantage for my deliverance.

In search of a proper place for this I found a little ‘plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top. On the side of the rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there
was not really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my
door; and, at the end of it, descending irregularly every way
down into the low ground by the seaside.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the
rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning and
ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm, like piles, the
biggest end being put out of the ground above five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, upon one another, within the circle, be-
tween these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes
in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half
high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me a
great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was



38 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you
have the account above; and I made me a large tent also, to pre-
serve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are very
violent there. I made it double—viz., one smaller tent within, and
one larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost part of it
with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down, out
through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labor and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time it occurred, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up the
tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a
thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after
that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was
not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself. “Oh, my powder!” My very heart sank within me, when
I thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed;



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 39

on which not my defense only, but the providing me food, as I
thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about
my own danger; though, had the powder took fire, I had never
known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me that, after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my work, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes to separate my
powder; to keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make
one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight;
and I think my powder, which in all was about one hundred and
forty pounds’ weight was divided into no less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in
my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down
in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, mark-
ing very carefully where I had laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to
see if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I could,
to acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time
I went out I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so
subtle, and so swift of foot that it was the most difficult thing in
the world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened. The first shot I made among these creatures I killed
a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which grieved me
heartily. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I
ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as
much as I possibly could.

But I must now give some little account of myself, and of my
thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not
a few. I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and



40 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it
as a determination of Heaven that in this desolate place, and
in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would
run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections: and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence
should thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so
absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned, and so entirely
depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such
a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking
with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when Reason, as it were, put
in expostulating with me the other way, thus: “Well, you are in
a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the
rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat? Where
are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost? Why are
you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?”

Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished for
my subsistence. What should I have done without a gun, without
ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work
with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of coverings?

And now, being about to enter into a melancholy relation of
a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it
in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September, when,
in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island;
when the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of nine’ degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there ten or twelve days it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books, and pen, and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath day
from the working days; but to prevent this I cut it with my knife
upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 41

cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., “I came
on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest,
and every first day of the month as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calender, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that, among the many
things which I brought from the ship, I got several things of less
value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several
parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping;
three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials,
perspectives, charts and books of navigation; all which I huddled
together, whether I might want them or no; also I found three
very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things; some Portuguese
books also; and several other books; all which I carefully secured.
And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats,
of whose eminent history I must have occasion to say something
in its place, for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the
dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and. swam on shore to
me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he could
fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me; I only
wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted
I kept things very exact; but after that was gone, I could not,
for I could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these, ink
was one: as also a spade, pick-ax, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned
to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and



42 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles or stakes, which were
as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one of
those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground; for
which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last be-
thought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though
I found it, yet made driving those posts or piles very laborious
and tedious work. But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to
do itin? Nor had I any other employment, if that had been over,
at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek
for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were
to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to
deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind. And as my reason began now to master my despond-
ency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the
good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish
my case from worse, and I stated it very impartially, like debtor
and creditor, the comfort I enjoyed, against the miseries I suf-
fered, thus:

EVIL

I am cast upon a horrible, desolate island; void of all hope of
recovery.

I am singled out and separated, as it were, from all the world,
to be miserable.

I am divided from mankind, a solitary; one banished from
human society.

I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defense, or means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to or relieve me.



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 43

GOOD

But I am alive, and not drowned, as all my ship’s company
was.

But I am singled out, too, from all the ship’s crew to be spared
from death; and He that miraculously saved me from death can
deliver me from this condition.

But I'am not starved and perishing on a barren place, affording
no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where if I had clothes I could hardly
wear them.

But I am cast on an island where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of Africa; and what if I had been ship-
wrecked there?

But God wonderfully sent the ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have got out so many necessary things as will either
supply my wants or enable me to supply myself even as long as I
live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was
something negative, or something positive, to be thankful for
in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the experience of the
most miserable of all conditions in this world—that we may always
find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the
description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and giving over looking out to sea to see if I could spy a ship;
I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as
I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall up against it of turfs about two feet thick on the
outside: and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered
it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get to keep out



44 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must
observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which,
as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself. So I set myself to enlarge my cave, and
worked farther into the earth; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it: and so when I found
I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the
right hand, into the rock; and then turning to the right again,
worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the
outside of my pale or fortification.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted. So I went to work; and here
I must needs observe that every man may be, in time, master of
every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life; and
yet in time by labor, application, and contrivance I found at last
that I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had
had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without
tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet
which, perhaps, were never made that way before, and that with
infinite labor. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other
way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew
it flat on either side with my ax till I had brought it to be as thin
as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree, but
my time and labor was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.

When I had wrought out some boards as above, I made
large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and an half, one over an-
other, all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails and
ironwork on; also I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock, to
hang my guns and all things that would hang up: so that had my
cave been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand that
it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 45

especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry,
and not only a hurry as to labor, but in too much discomposure of
mind; and my journal would have been full of many dull things;
for example, I must have said thus:

“September 30. After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
I ran about the shore wringing my hands and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery and crying out I was undone,
till tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground for
repose.”

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and hav-
ing settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a table
and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began,
I say, to keep my journal; of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again),
as long as it lasted; for at last, having no more ink, I was forced
to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659——I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called “The
Island of Despair,” all the rest of the ship’s company being
drowned, and myself almost dead. .

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, or place to fly to; and in despair of any relief,
saw nothing but death before me; either that I should be de-
voured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death
for want of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a tree for
fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all night.

Oct. 1—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again
much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort on one
hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I



46 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief; so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the
ship, or at least that they would not have been all drowned as
they were; and that had the men been saved, we might perhaps
have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us
to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself on these things; but at length seeing the ship
almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then
swam on board; this day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.

From the Ist of October to the 24th—All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also in those days, though with some intervals of fair weather;
but, it seems, this was the rainy season.

Oct. 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon
it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy,
I recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this
day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved, that
the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day to find out a
place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 3oth I worked very hard in carrying all
my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time
it rained exceeding hard.



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 47

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun to seek for some food, and discover the country; when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.

Nov. 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there the first
night, making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to
swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fouls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

Nov. 4—This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion, viz.,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours,
if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o’clock; then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to two
I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then in
the evening to work again. The working part of this day and of
the next were wholly employed in making my table; for I was
yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me
a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do to
any one else.

Nov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off the skins and pre-
served them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw many sorts of
sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was surprised, and
almost frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea,
and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6—After my morning walk, I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.



48 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Nov. 7—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, gth, roth, and part of the 12th, (for the 11th was Sunday ac-
cording to my reckoning) I took wholly up to make me a chair,
and with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me; and even in the making, I pulled it in pieces several
times.

Nore, I soon neglected keeping Sundays; for, omitting my
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear
of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that
it might not be in danger. :

Nov. 14, 15, 16—These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two
pound at most, of powder; and so putting the powder in, I stowed
it in places as secure and remote from one another as possible.
On one of these three days I killed a large bird that was good
to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock, to make room for my further conveniency.

Nore, three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a
pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket; so I desisted
from my work, and began to consider how to supply that want,
and make me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel or spade. This was so absolutely neces-
sary, that indeed I could do nothing effectually without it; but
what kind of one to make, I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron
tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labor, and
almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.

The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other way,



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 49

made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it ef-
fectually, by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade,
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
board part having no iron shod upon it at the bottom, it would
not last me so long. However, it served well enough for the uses
which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware, at least none yet
found out. And as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all
but the wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither did I know how
to go about it; besides I had no possible way to make the iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so I gave
it over; and so for carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the laborers carry
mortar in.

This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and
yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to
make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days; I mean
always, excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
failed, and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to
eat.

Nov. 23——My other work having now stood still because of my
making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.

Nore.—During all this time I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining room, and a cellar; as for a lodging,
I kept to the tent, except that sometimes in the wet season of the
year it rained so hard, that I could not keep myself dry, which
caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with
long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and
load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.



50 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Dec. 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when
on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of
earth fell down from the top and one side, so much, that, in short,
it frighted me, and not without reason too; for if I had been
under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I
had a great deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose earth
to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling
to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of boards across over each post. This I finished the next
day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the roof secure; and the posts standing in rows, served me
for partitions to part of my house.

Dec. 17—From this day to the twentieth I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up that could
be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of board, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me; also I made me another table.

Dec. 24——Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I
caught it, and led it home in a string. When I had it at home, I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

N. B—I took such good care of it that it lived; and the leg
grew well and as strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it
grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would
not go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31—Great heats and no breeze, so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food. This time



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 51

I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

Jan. 1—Very hot still, but I went abroad early and late with
my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening,
going farther into the valleys which lay towards the center of
the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceeding
shy, and hard to come at. However, I resolved to try if I could not
bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2—Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog; and he knew his danger too well, for
he would not come near them.

Jan. 3—I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous of
my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.

N. B—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what
was said in the journal. It is sufficient to observe that I was no
less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of April work-
ing, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half circle from
one place in the rock to another place about eight yards from it,
the door of the cave being in the center behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never
be perfectly secure till this wall was finished. And it is scarce
credible what inexpressible labor everything was done with,
especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them
into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I needed to
have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced
with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if
any people were to come on shore there, they would not perceive
anything like a habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed afterward upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time, I made rounds in the woods for game every
day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries
in these walks of something or other to my advantage; particularly



52 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood pigeons,
in a tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of rocks. And
taking some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up tame,
and did so; but when they grew older they flew all away, which,
perhaps, was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing
to give them. However, I frequently found their nests, and got
their young ones, which were very good meat.

And now in the managing my household affairs I found my-
self wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was im-
possible for me to make, as indeed, as to some of them, it was.
For instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped; I had a
small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive
to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent many
weeks about it. I could neither put in the heads, or joint the
staves so true to one another, as to make them hold water; so I
gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle; so that as
soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock, I
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of beeswax with
which I made candles in my African adventure, but I had none
of that now. The only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a
goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which
I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear,
steady light like a candle.

In the middle of all my labors it happened, that rummaging
my things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had
been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this
voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon.
What little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all de-
voured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and
dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use, I
think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the
lightning, or some such use, I shook the husks of corn out of it
on one side of my fortification, under the rock. It was a little before
the great rains, just now mentioned, that I threw this stuff away,



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 53

taking no notice of anything, and not so much as remembering
that I had thrown anything there; when, about a month after, or
thereabout, I saw some few stalks of something green shooting
out of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had
not seen; but I was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when,
after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out,
which were perfect green barley of the same kind as our European,
nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of
my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, or had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God; without so much as inquiring into the
end of Providence in these things, or His order in governing
events in the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew
not how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to
suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes; and I began to bless myself, that such a prodigy of Nature
should happen on my account; and this was the more strange to
me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock,
some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice,
and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I
was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting but that there was more in the
place, I went all over that part of the island where I had been
before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see for
more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts that I had shook a bag of chickens’ meat out in that
place, and then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my
religious thankfulness to Gods’ providence began to abate too,



54 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what was
common; though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange
and unforeseen providence, as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence as to me, that should order or ap-
point, that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unsoiled
(when the rats had destroyed all the rest), as if it had been dropped
from heaven; as also that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang out
immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their
season, which was about the end of June; and laying up every
corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to have
some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not
till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least grain of
this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say after-
wards in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season, by
not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry
season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would
have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there was, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was
of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread,
or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without baking,
though I did that also after some time. But to return to my
journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my
wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go
into it, not by a door, but over the wall by a ladder, that there
might be no sign in the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder, so I went up with the ladder to
the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down on the
inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless
it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 55

had all my labor overthrown at once, and myself killed. The
case was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a
most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I
found the earth come
crumbling down from
the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of
the hill over my head,
and two of the posts I
had set up in the cave
cracked in a frightful
manner. I was heartily
scared, but thought
nothing of what was
really the cause, only
thinking that the top

ieaens\

of my cave was falling Hy

es
an

in, as some of it had : aM ¢ i, N
done before; and for ¥ HH Yy Ih sees :
fear I should be buried HURL To \
in it, I ran forward to
my ladder; and not
thinking myself safe :
there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill
which I expected might roll down upon me. I was no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes distance, with three such shocks, as would have
overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock, which
stood about half a mile from me next the sea, fell down with
such a terrible noise, as I never heard in all my life. I perceived
also the very sea was put in violent motion by it; and I believe
the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like,





56 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or
stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick,
like one that was tossed at sea. But the noise of the falling of the
rock awakened me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied
condition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing
then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods,
and burying all at once; and thus sunk my very soul within me a
second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to
go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing
what to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious
thought, nothing but the common, “Lord, have mercy upon me!”
and when it was over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as
if it would rain. Soon after that the wind rose by little and little,
so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurri-
cane. The sea was all on a sudden covered with foam and froth;
the shore was covered with the breach of the water; the trees
were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was: and this
held about three hours, and then began to abate; and in two
hours more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.

All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and
dejected; when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these
winds and rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive; and
the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in
my tent. But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to
be beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on
my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out,
which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 57

cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I began to be more composed. And now to support my
spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little
store, and took a small stimulant, which, however, I did then,
and always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when
that was gone.

It continued raining all that night and great part of the next
day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do, concluding
that if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would
be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place, which I might surround with
a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men; but concluded, if I stayed where I was, I should
certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would cer-
tainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the next two days, being the
igth and the 20th of April, in contriving where and how to re-
move my habitation.

The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never
slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without
any fence was almost equal to it. But still, when I looked about
and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly con-
cealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loth to
remove.

In the meantime it occurred to me that it would require a vast
deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to run
the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and
had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I
composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a
circle as before, and set my tent up in it when it was finished, but
that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
fit to remove to. This was the 21st.



58 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

April 22—The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about my
tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we
carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with much
chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of
notches and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not turn
it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a
statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or
a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I contrived
a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have
both my hands at liberty. Note, I had never seen any such thing
in England, or at least not to take notice how it was done, though
since I have observed it is very common there; besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full
week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29—These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very
well.

April 30—Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1—In the morning, looking towards the seaside the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask. When I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven
on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as stone.
However, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went
on upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of the ship to
look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six feet; and the stern, which was broken to pieces, and



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 59

parted from the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had left
rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side,
and the sand thrown so high on that side next her stern, that
whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I could
not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swim-
ming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out.
I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must be
done by the earthquake. And as by this violence the ship was
more broken open than formerly, so many things came daily on
shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and
water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching whether I could make any way into the ship. But I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for that all the
inside of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had
learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to
pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could
get from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck
together; and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand
as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but the tide
coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off,
I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some
rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough,
as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and eat
them dry.

May 5—Worked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder, and
brought three great fir-planks off from the decks, which I tied
together, and made swim on shore, when the tide of flood came on.

May 6—Worked on the wreck, got several iron bolts out of
her, and other pieces of ironwork; worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.



60 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, but with an intent not to
work, but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down,
the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to
lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay, so open, that I could see
into it, but almost full of water and sand.

May 8—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water and
sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore
also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for the next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into
the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them
with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also the roll
of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14—Went every day to the wreck, and got
a great deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or
three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets to try if I could not cut a piece
off of the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and
driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in
the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blowed hard in the night, and the wreck ap-
peared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so
long in the woods to get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented
me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a
great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day to this day I worked on the wreck, and
with hard labor I loosened some things so much with the crow,
that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen’s chests. But the wind blowing from the shore, nothing
came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which
had some Brazil pork in it, but the salt water and the sand had
spoiled it.

I continued this work every day to the 15th of June, except the



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 61

time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during this
part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might
be ready when it was ebbed out. And by this time I had gotten
timber and plank, and ironwork enough to have builded a good
boat, if I had known how; and also, I got at several times, and in
several pieces, near one hundredweight of the sheet lead.

June 16.—Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise,
or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which it seems was only my
misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for had I
happened to be on the other side of the island, I might have had
hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards.

June 17 1 spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore
eggs; and her flesh was to me most savoury.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at
this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I
knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
cold.

June 20—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
feverish.

June 21—Very ill, frightened almost to death with the appre-
hensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help. Prayed to
God for the first time since the storm off of Hull, but scarce knew
what I said, or why; my thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of
sickness.

June 23—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24——Much better.

June 25——An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and
with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and eat.
I would fain have stewed it and made some broth, but had no pot.

June 27—The ague again so violent that I lay abed all day,



62 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so
weak, I had no strength to stand up, or to get myself any water
to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed; and when I
was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what so say; only I lay
and cried: “Lord, look upon me! Lord pity me! Lord have mercy
upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours,
till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in
the night. When I waked, I found myself much refreshed, but
weak and exceeding thirsty. However, as I had no water in my
whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to
sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible dream.

I thought that I was sitting on the ground and saw a man come
down from a great black cloud in a flame of light. When he stood
on the earth, it shook as it had done a few days since; and all the
world to me was full of fire. He came up and said: “As I see that
all these things have not brought thee to pray, now thou shalt die.”
Then I woke and found it was a dream. Weak and faint, I was in
dread all day lest my fit should come on.

Too ill to get out with my gun, I sat on the shore to think, and
thus ran my thoughts: “What is this sea which is all round me?
And whence is it? There can be no doubt that the hand that made
it made the air, the earth, the sky. And who is that? It is God,
who hath made all things. Well, then, if God hath made all
things, it must be He who guides them; and if so, no one thing in
the whole range of His works can take place and He not know it.
Then God must know how sick and sad I am, and He wills me to
be here. Oh, why hath God done this to me?”

Then some voice would seem to say: “Dost thou ask why God
hath done this to thee? Ask why thou wert not shot by the Moors,
who came on board the ship, and took the lives of thy mates. Ask
why thou wert not torn by the beasts of prey on the coasts. Ask
why thou didst not go down in the deep sea with the rest of the
crew, but didst come to this isle and art safe.”

A sound sleep then fell on me, and when I woke it must have
been three o’clock the next day, by the rays of the sun; nay, it
may have been more than that; for I think that this must have



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 63

been the day that I did not mark on my post, as I have since
found that there was one notch too few.

I now took from my store the Book of God’s Word, which I
had brought from the wreck, not one page of which I had as yet
read. My eyes fell on five words, that would seem to have been
put there for my good at this time; so well did they cheer my faint
hopes and touch the true source of my fears. They were these:
“T will not leave thee.” And they have dwelt in my heart to this
day. I laid down the book, to pray. My cry was, “O Lord! help me
to love and learn Thy ways.” This was the first time in all my
life that I had felt a sense that God was near and heard me. As
for my dull life here, it was not worth a thought; for now a new
strength had come to me; and there was a change in my griefs,
as well as in my joys.

I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months; all
possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be en-
tirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no human shape
had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured my habita-
tion, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make
a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other
productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular
survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about
two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher, and that it
was no more than a little brook of running water, and very fresh
and good; but this being the dry season, there was hardly any
water in some parts of it, at least, not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived.

On the bank of this brook I found many pleasant savannas
or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water,
as might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of
tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk.
There were divers other plants, which I had no notion of, or
understanding about.



64 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw several
sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came
back, musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover; but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field, at least very little that might serve
me to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and
after going something farther than I had done the day before, I
found the brook and the savannas began to cease, and the country
became more woody than before. In this part I found different
fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground in great
abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had spread in-
deed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in
their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery,
and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned by my ex-
perience to eat sparingly of them, remembering that when I was
ashore in Barbary the eating of grapes killed several of our
Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes
and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes
or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they
were, as wholesome as agreeable to eat, when no grapes might
be to be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habita-
tion; which; by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had
lain from home. In the night, I took my first contrivance, and
got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning pro-
ceeded upon my discovery, traveling near four miles, as I might
judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north, with a
ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 65

country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh
water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the other
way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh, so green,
so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure or flourish
of spring, that it looked like a planted garden.

I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying
it with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with my other
afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that I was
king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of
possession; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance
as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here
abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and citron trees;
but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not then.
However, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant
to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards
with water, which made it very wholesome, and also very cool
and refreshing.

I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home;
and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and
lemons to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was
approaching.

In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place,
and a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and
lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I
travelled homeward; and resolved to come again, and bring a
bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home.

Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I
got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruits and
the weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised them,
they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they were
good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me
two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised,
when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and
fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread about, trod



66 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and abun-
dance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were some
wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they
were, I knew not.

However, as I found that there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way
they would be destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for I
gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them up upon
the out-branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in
the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back
as I could stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness
of the situation; the security from storms on that side the water
and the wood; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to
fix my abode, which was by far the worst part of the country.
Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation,
and to look out for a place equally safe as where I now was
situate, if possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, and to consider that T
was now by the seaside, where it was at least possible that some-
thing might happen to my advantage, and, by the same ill fate
that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy
wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce probable
that any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose” myself
among the hills and woods in the centre of the island, was to
anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not only
improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by
any means to remove.

However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent much
of my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of
July; and, though, upon second thoughts, I resolved, as above,
not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and sur-



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 67

rounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge
as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with
brushwood. And here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three
nights together, always going over it with a ladder, as before;
so that I fancied now I had my country house and my seacoast
house; and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my
labor, but the rains came on, and made me stick close to my
first habitation; for though I had made me a tent like the other,
with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me
to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found
the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and indeed were
excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down
from the trees. And it was very happy that I did so, for the rains
which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the
best part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and
carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and
from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained more or
less, every day till the middle of October, and sometimes
so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several
days.

In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my
family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
run away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard
no more tale or tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she came
home about the end of August with three kittens.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I
could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In
this confinement, I began to be straightened for food; but ven-
turing out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day, which
was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to
me, and my food was regulated thus: I eat a bunch of raisins



68 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

for my breakfast, a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for
my dinner, broiled; for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to
boil or stew anything; and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for
my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door, or way out, which came beyond my fence
or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not per-
fectly easy at lying so open; for as I had managed myself before,
I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay ex-
posed, and open for anything to come in upon me; and yet
I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear,
the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a
goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my
landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been
on the shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day
as a solemn fast, setting it apart to religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, con-
fessing my sins to God, acknowledging His righteous judgments
upon me, and praying to Him to have mercy on me through
Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for
twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then eat a
biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing
the day as I had began it.

I had all this time observed no Sabbath day, for as at first I
had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after some time,
omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than
ordinary for the Sabbath day, and so did not really know what
any of the days were. But now, having cast up the days as above,
I found I had been there a year, so I divided it into weeks, and
set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the
end of my account, I had lost a day or two in my reckoning.

A little after this my ink began to fail me, and so I contented
myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the most



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 69

remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily memo-
randum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly; but I bought all my experience before I had
it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most discouraging
experiments that I made at all. I have mentioned that I had
saved the few ears of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly
found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and believe there
were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and
now I thought it a proper time to sow it after the rains, the sun
being in its southern position, going from me.

Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could
with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed
my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my
thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-
thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.

It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not
one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything, for the dry
months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed was
sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came
up at all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as
if it had been but newly sown.

Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to
make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my
new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox. And this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and
yielded a very good crop; but having part of the seed left only,
and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at
last, my whole crop not amounting to above a half a peck of each
kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business,
and knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that
I might expect two seed-times and two harvests every year.



70 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which
was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and
the weather began to settle, which was about the month of
November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found all things just
as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I had made was
not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out, and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the
first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call
it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very
well pleased to see the young trees grow, and I pruned them, and
led them up to grow as much alike as I could. And it is scarce
credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three years; so
that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards
in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon
covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under
all the dry season.

This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me
a hedge like this, in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of
my first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in
a double row, at about eight yards distance from my first fence,
they grew presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habita-
tion, and afterward served for a defence also, as I shall observe in
its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be
divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the
rainy seasons and the dry seasons; which were generally thus:
Half February

March Rainy, the sun being then on, or near the
Half April equinox.
Half April
May
June Dry, the sun being then to the north of the
July line.

Half August



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 71

Half August
September

Half October

Half October
November
December ) Dry, the sun being then to the south of the
January line.

Half February

The rainy season sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds
happened to blow, but this was the general observation I made.
After I had found by experience the ill consequence of being
abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out; and I sat
within doors as much as possible during the wet months.

In this time I found much employment, and very suitable also
to the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I
had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labor and constant
application; particularly, I tried many ways to make myself a
basket; but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so
brittle, that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advan-
tage to me now, that when I was a boy I used to take a great
delight in standing at a basket-maker’s in the town where my
father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being, as
boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer of
the manner how they worked those things, and sometimes lend-
ing a hand, I had by this means full knowledge of the methods of
it, that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came into
my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes
that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows, and willows,
and osiers in England, and I resolved to try.

Accordingly, the next day, I went to my country house, as I
called it; and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to
my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the
next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which
I soon found, for there was plenty of them. These I set up to dry
within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use, I

Rainy, the sun being then come back.



72 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

carried them to my cave; and here during the next season I em-
ployed myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets,
both to carry earth, or to lay up anything as I had occasion. And
though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose. And thus, afterwards,
I took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially I made strong deep baskets to
place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have
any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time
about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two
wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except
two runlets, which were almost full, and some glass bottles, some
of the common size, and others which were case-bottles square,
for the holding of waters, spirits, etc. I had not so much as a pot
to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out of the
ship, and which was too big for such use as I desired it, viz., to
make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I
would fain have had was a tobacco-pipe; but it was impossible
for me to make one. However, I found a contrivance for that,
too, at last.

I employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes or
piles and in this wicker-working all the summer or dry season,
when another business took me up more time. than it could be
imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole
island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I
built my bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on
the other side of the island. I now resolved to travel quite across
to the seashore:on that side; so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my
dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with
two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my
store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to the west;
and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried land, whether an
island or a continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, ex-



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 73

tending from the west to the W. S. W. at a very great distance;
by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues
off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I know it must be part of America, and, as I concluded,
by all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions, and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should have
landed, I had been in a worse condition than I was now; and
therefore I acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence, which I
began now to own and to believe ordered everything for the best.
I quieted my mind and left afflicting myself with fruitless wishes.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that if
this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or
other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if not,
then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country and
Brazils, which are indeed the worst of savages; for they are can-
nibals or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all the
human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I
found that side of the island, where I now was, much pleasanter
than mine, the open or savanna fields sweet, adorned with flowers
and full of very fine woods.

I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one,
if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to
me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I
knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought
it home; but it was some years before I could make him speak.
However, at last I taught him to call me by my name very
familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle,
will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the
low grounds hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes; but they
differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor
could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I
had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and of
that which was very good too; especially these three sorts, viz.,



74 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise; which, added to my grapes,
Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than
I, in proportion to the company. And though my case was de-
plorable enough, yet I had great cause for thankfulness, and that
I was not driven to any extremities for food, but rather plenty,
even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a
day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns, to see
what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the
place where I resolved to sit down for all night; and then I either
reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of
stakes, set upright in the ground, either from one tree to another,
or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the seashore, I was surprised to see that
I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here
indeed the shore was covered with innumerable turtles; whereas,
on the other side, I had found but three in a year and a half. Here
also was an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some which
I had seen, and some which I had not seen before, and many of
them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names of except
those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a
she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on; and though
there were many goats here, more than on my side the island, yet
it was with much more difficulty that I could come near them, the
country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than
when I was on the hill.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I
was fixed in my habitation, it became natural to me, and I seemed
all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and from
home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea towards
the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up a
great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go
home again; and that the next journey I took should be on the



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 75

other side of the island, east from my dwelling, and so round till
I came to my post again; of which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I
could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could
not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country. But
I found myself mistaken; for being come about two or three
miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley, but so
surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that
I could not see which was my way by any direction but that of
the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of
the sun at that time of the day.

It happened to my farther misfortune, that the weather proved
hazy for three or four days while I was in this valley; and not
being able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably,
and at last was obliged to find out the seaside, look for my post,
and come back the same way I went; and then by easy journeys I
turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my
gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon
it, and I running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive
from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for
I had often been musing whether it might not be possible to get
a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might
supply me when my powder and shot should be all spent.

I made a collar to this little creature, and with a string, which
I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led
him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower,
and there I enclosed him and left him, for I was very impa-
tient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above a
month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into
my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little
wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had been so
unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself, was
a perfect settlement to be compared to that; and it rendered
everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would



76 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to
stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey; during which most of the time was taken up
in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began
now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted
with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had
penned in within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it
home, or give it some food. Accordingly, I went, and found it
where I left it, for indeed it could not get out, but almost starved
for want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of
such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having fed it,
I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with
being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed
me like a dog. And as I continually fed it, the creature became
so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time
one of my domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and
I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as
before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island, having
now been there two years, and no more prospect of being de-
livered than the first day I came there. I spent the whole day in
humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful
mercies which my solitary condition was attended with, and
without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I
gave humble and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to
discover to me even that it was possible I might be more happy in
this solitary condition, than I should have been in a liberty of
society, and in all the pleasures of the world; that He could fully
make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want
of human society,, by His presence, and the communications of
His grace to my soul, supporting, comforting, and encouraging
me to depend upon His providence here and hope for His eternal
presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy
this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe a7,

the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of my
days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my
very desires altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my
delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first
coming.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing
the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break
out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die within
me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in,
and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and
bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemp-
tion. In the midst of the great composures of my mind, this
would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my
hands and weep like a child. Sometimes it would take me in the
middle of my work, and I would immediately sit down and sigh,
and look upon the ground for an hour or two together; and this
was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or vent
myself by words, it would go off, and the grief, having exhausted
itself, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily
read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my
present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible
upon these words, “I will never, never leave thee, nor forsake
thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words were to me;
why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one for-
saken of God and man? “Well then,” said I, “if God does not
forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it,
though the world should all forsake me, seeing on the other hand,
if I had all the world, and should lose the favour and blessing of
God, there would be no comparison in the loss?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken solitary
condition, than it was probable I should ever have been in any
other particular state in the world, and with this thought I was
going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.



78 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at
that thought, and I durst not speak the words. “How canst thou
be such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be
thankful for a condition which, however thou mayest endeavour
to be contented with, thou wouldest rather pray heartily to be
delivered from?” So I stopped there; but though I could not say
I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to
God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences,
to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for my
wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but
my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in
England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck
of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year;
and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so partic-
ular account of my works this year as the first, yet in general it
may be observed, that I was very seldom idle, but having reg-
ularly divided my time, according to the several daily employ-
ments that were before me, such as, first, my duty to God, and
the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some time
for, thrice every day; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for
food, which generally took me up three hours in every morning,
when it did not rain; thirdly, the ordering, curing, preserving,
and cooking what I had killed or catched for my supply; these
took up great part of the day; also, it is to be considered, that the
middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the violence
of the heat was too great to stir out; so that about four hours in
the evening was all the time I could be supposed to work in,
with this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunt-
ing and working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad
with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labor, I desire, may be added the
exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many hours which, for
want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I did
took up out of my time. For example, I was full two and forty



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 79

days making me a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my
cave; whereas two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would
have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: It was to be a large tree which was to be cut
down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was
three days a-cutting down, and two more cutting off the boughs,
and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With inexpressible
hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into chips till
it begun to be light enough to move; then I turned it, and made
one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end to end; then
turning that side downward, cut the other side, till I brought the
plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expect-
ing my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured or
dug up for them was not great; for as I observed, my seed of
each was not above the quantity of half a peck; for I had lost one
whole crop by sowing in the dry season. But my crop promised
very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it
all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarce possible
to keep from it; as, first the goats and wild creatures which I
called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it
night and day, as soon as it came up, and eat it so close, that it
could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure about
it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil, and the
more, because it required speed. However, as my arable land was
but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about
three weeks’ time and shooting some of the creatures in the day-
time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a
stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long;
so in a little time the enemies forsook the place, and the corn
grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before while my corn was in the
blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now when it was in
the ear; for going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw
my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many



80 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I im-
mediately let fy among them, for I always had my gun with me.
I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of fowls,
which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days
they would devour all my hopes, that I should be starved, and
never able to raise a crop at all, and what to do I could not tell.
However, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I
should watch it night and day. In the first place, 1 went among it
to see what damage was already done, and found they had
spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for them,
the loss was not so great but that the remainder was like to be a
good crop if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they
only waited till I was gone away. And the event proved it to be
so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of
their sight but they dropped down, one by one, into the corn
again. I was so provoked that I could not have the patience to
stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they eat
now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the conse-
quence; but coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed
three of them. This was what I wished for; so I took them up,
and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz.,
hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to
imagine almost that this should have such an effect as it had, for
the fowls would not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they
forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird
near the place as long as my scare-crows hung there.

This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and about the latter
end of December, which was our second harvest of the year, I
reaped my crop.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or a sickle to cut it down, and
all I could do was to make one as well as I could out of one of the
broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of
the ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had no great



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 81

difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped in my way, for I
cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket
which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands; and at
the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half peck of
seed I had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels and a
half of barley, that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at
that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread. And
yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind
or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and part it;
nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it, and if how to
make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These things being added
to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to secure a
constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to
preserve it all for seed against the next season, and in the mean-
time to employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish
this great work of providing myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. ’Tis a
little wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought
much upon, viz., the strange multitude of little things necessary
in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and fin-
ishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my
daily discouragement, and was made more and more sensible of
it every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed to a
surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth, no spade or shovel
to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making a wooden spade, as I
observed before, but this did my work in but a wooden manner;
and though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet, for want
of iron, it not only wore out the sooner, but made my work the
harder, and made it be performed much worse.

However, this I bore with, and was content to work it out with
patience, and bear with the badness of the performance. When



82 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

the corn was sowed, I had no harrow, but was forced to go over
it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch
it, as it may be called, rather than rake or harrow it.

When it was growing and grown, I have observed already how
many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure
and carry it. home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it. Then
I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make
it into bread, and an oven to bake it, and yet all these things I
did without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn was an
estimable. comfort and advantage to me too. All this, as I said,
made everything laborious and tedious to me, but that there was
no help for; neither was my time so much loss to me, because, as
I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day appointed to
these works, and as I resolved to use none of the corn for bread
till I had a greater quantity by me, I had the next six months to
apply myself wholly, by labor and invention, to furnish myself
with utensils proper for the performing all the operations
necessary for the making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had
a week’s work at least to make me a spade which, when it was
done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required
double labor to work with it. However, I went through that,
and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as near
my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them in
with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood
which I had set before, and knew it would grow; so that in one
year’s time I knew I should have a quick or living hedge, that
would want but little repair. This work was not so little as to
take me up less than three months, because great part of that time
was of the wet season, when I could not go abroad.

Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not go out,
I found employment on the following occasions; always observ-
ing, that all the while I was at work, I diverted myself with talk-
ing to my parrot, and teaching him to speak, and I quickly
learned him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 83

pretty loud, “Poll,” which was the first word I ever heard spoken
in the island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not
my work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had
a great employment upon my hands, as follows, viz., I had long
studied, by some means or other, to make myself some earthen
vessels, which indeed I wanted sorely, but knew not where to
come at them. However, considering the heat of the climate, I
did not doubt but if I could find out any such clay, I might botch
up some such pot as might, being dried in the sun, be hard
enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold any-
thing that was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was
necessary in the preparing corn, meal, etc., which was the thing
I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit
only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to
tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what odd,
misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of them fell in, and
how many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own
weight; how many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun,
being set out too hastily; and how many fell to pieces with only
removing, as well before as after they were dried; and, in a word,
how, after having labored hard to find the clay, to dig it, to
temper it, to bring it home, and work it, I could not make above
two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about
two months’ labor.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I
lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two great
wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for them, that they
might not break; and as between the pot and the basket there was
a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw,
and these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought would
hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn was
bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet
I made several smaller things with better success; such as little
round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any things my



84 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

hand turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them strangely
hard. But all this would not answer my end, which was to get
an earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire, which
none of these could do. It happened after some time, making a
pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out
after I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my
earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red
as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself, that
certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they would burn
broken.

This set me to studying how to order my fire, so as to make it
burn me some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters
burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had some lead to
do it with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or three
pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all
around it, with a great heap of embers under them. I plied the
fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the top, till I saw
the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that
they did not crack at all. When I saw them clear red, I let them
stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I found one of them,
though it did not crack, did melt or run, for the sand which was
mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would
have run into glass, if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire grad-
ually till the pots began to abate of the red color; and watching
them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the
morning I had three very good, I will not say handsome, pipkins,
and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and
one of them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of
earthenware for my use; but I must needs say, as to the shapes
of them, they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose,
when I had no way of making them but as the children make dirt
pies, or as a woman would make pies that never learned to raise
paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine,
when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 85

fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before
I set one upon the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me
some meat, which it did admirably well; and with a piece of a
kid I made some very good broth, though I wanted oatmeal and
several other ingredients requisite to make it so good as I would
have had it been.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or
beat some corn in; for, as to the mill, there was no thought at
arriving to that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To sup-
ply this want I was at a great loss; for, of all the trades in the
world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as for any
whatever; neither had I any tools to go about it with. I spent
many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow,
and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what
was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut out;
nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hardness sufficient, but
were all of a sandy crumbling stone, which neither would bear
the weight of a heavy pestle, or would break the corn without
filling it with sand. So, after a great deal of time lost in searching
for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look out for a great
block of hard wood, which I found indeed much easier; and get-
ting one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed
it in the outside with my axe and hatchet, and then, with the help
of fire and infinite labor, made a hollow place in it, as the Indians
in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great heavy
pestle, or beater, of the wood called the iron-wood; and this I
prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, when I
proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn into meal,
to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or search, to dress my
meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk, without which
I did not see it possible I could have any bread. This was a most
difficult thing, so much as but to think on, for to be sure I had
‘nothing like the necessary thing to make it; I mean fine thin
canvas or stuff, to search the meal through. And here I was at a
full stop for many months, nor did I really know what to do;



86 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

linen I had none left, but what was mere rags; I had goats’ hair,
but neither knew I how to weave it or spin it; and had I known
how, here were no tools to work it with. All the remedy that I
found for this was, that at last I did remember I had, among the
seaman’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neck-
cloths of calico or muslin; and with some pieces of these I made
three small sieves, but proper enough for the work; and thus I
made shift for some years. How I did afterwards, I shall show in
its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how
I should make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, I had
no yeast. As to that part, as there was no supplying the want, so I
did not concern myself much about it; but for an oven I was
indeed in great pain. At length I found out an experiment for that
also, which was this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but
not deep, that is to say, about two feet diameter, and not above
nine inches deep; these I burned in the fire, as I had done the
other, and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I made a
great fire upon my hearth, which I had paved with some square
tiles, of my own making and burning also; but I should not call
them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or
live coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it
all over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then
sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf, or loaves, and
whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers
all round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat.
And thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my
barley-loaves, and became, in a little time, a mere pastry cook into
the bargain; for I made myself several cakes of the rice, and pud-
dings; indeed I made no pies, neither had I anything to put into
them, supposing I had, except the flesh either of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me up most
part of the third year of my abode here; for it is to be observed,
that in the intervals of these things I had my new harvest and
husbandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its season, and



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 87

carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my
large baskets, till I had time to rub it out, for I had no floor to
thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted
to build my barns bigger. I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the
increase of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the
barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more,
insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use it freely; for my
bread had been quite gone a great while; also, I resolved to see
what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to
sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and
tice was much more than I could consume in a year; so I re-
solved to sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed the
last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with
bread, etc.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts run many times upon the prospect of land which I had
seen from the other side of the island, and I was not without
secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying the seeing the
mainland, and in an inhabited country, I might find some way or
other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find some
means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such
a condition, and how I might fall into the hands of savages, and
perhaps such as I might have reason to think far worse than the
lions and tigers of Africa; that if I once came into their power, I
should run a hazard more than a thousand to one of being killed,
and perhaps of being eaten; for I had heard that the people of the
Carribean coasts were cannibals, or man-eaters, and I knew by the
latitude that I could not be far off from that shore. That suppose
they were not cannibals, yet that they might kill me, as many
Europeans who had fallen into their hands had been served, even
when they had been ten or twenty together, much more I, that
was but one, and could make little or no defence; all these things,
I say, which I ought to have considered well of, and did cast up



88 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

in my thoughts afterwards, yet took up none of my apprehen-
sions at first, but my head ran mightily upon the thought of get-
ting over to the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand
miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain. Then I thought
I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was
blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we
were first cast away. She lay almost where she did at first, but
not quite; and was turned, by the force of the waves and the
winds, almost bottom upward, against a high ridge of beachy
rough sand, but no water about her, as before.

If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched
her into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and I
might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily enough;
but I might have foreseen that I could no more turn her and set
her upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the island.
However, I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers, and
brought them to the boat, resolved to try what I could do; sug-
gesting to myself that if I could but turn her down, I might easily
repair the damage she had received, and she would be a very
good boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and
spent, I think, three or four weeks about it. At last finding it im-
possible to heave it up with my little strength, I fell to digging
away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall down, set-
ting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall. But
when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or to get
under it, much less to move it forward towards the water; so I
was forced to give it over. And yet, though I gave over the hopes
of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main increased,
rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible.

This at length put me upon thinking whether it was not pos-
sible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of
those climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say, with-
out hands, viz., of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 89

thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with the
thoughts of making it, and with my having much more con-
venience for it than any of the negroes or Indians; but not at all
considering the particular inconveniences which I lay under more
than the Indians did, viz., want of hands to move it, when it was
made, into the water, a difficulty much harder for me to sur-
mount than all the consequences of want of tools could be to
them. For what was it to me, that when I had chosen a vast tree
in the woods, I might with much trouble cut it down, if, after I
might be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into the
proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it
hollow, so as to make a boat of it; if, after all this, I must leave it
just there where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the
water?

One would have thought I could not have had the least re-
flection upon my mind of my circumstance while I was making
this boat, but I should have immediately thought how I should
get into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage
over the sea in it, that I never once considered how I should get
it off of the land; and it was really, in its own nature, more easy
for me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea, than about forty-five
fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever
man did who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with
the design, without determining whether I was ever able to
undertake it. Not but that the difficulty of launching my boat
came often into my head; but I put a stop to my own inquiries
into it, by this foolish answer which I gave myself, “Let’s first
make it; Pll warrant I'll find some way or other to get it along
when ’tis done.”

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my
fancy prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar tree: I ques-
tion much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building
of the Temple at Jerusalem. It was five feet ten inches diameter
at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches
diameter at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it lessened for



90 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

awhile, and then parted into branches. It was not without infinite
labor that I felled this tree. I was twenty days hacking and hew-
ing at it at the bottom; I was fourteen more getting the branches
and limbs, and the vast spreading head of it cut off, which I
hacked and hewed through with axe and hatchet, and inex-
pressible labor. After this, it cost me a month to shape it and dub
it to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that
it might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three
months more to clear the inside, and work it so as to make an
exact boat of it. This I did, indeed, without fire, by mere mallet
and chisel, and by the dint of hard labor, till I had brought it to
be a very handsome periagua and big enough to have carried six
and twenty men, and consequently big enough to have carried
me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted
with it. The boat was really much bigger than I ever saw a canoe
or periagua, that was made of one tree in my life. Many a weary
stroke it had cost, you may be sure; and there remained nothing
but to get it into the water; and had I gotten it into the water, I
make no question but I should have begun the maddest voyage,
and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me, though
they cost me infinite labor too. It lay about one hundred yards
from the water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was,
it was uphill towards the creek. Well, to take away this discour-
agement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so
make a declivity. This I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal
of pains; but who grudges pains, that have their deliverance in
view? But when this was worked through, and this difficulty
managed, it was still much at one, for I could no more stir the
canoe than I could the other boat.

Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a
dock or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could
not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work;
and when I began to enter into it, and calculate how deep it was
to be dug, how broad, how the stuff to. be thrown out, I found



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 91

that by the number of hands I had, being none but my own, it
must have been ten or twelve years before I should have gone
through with it; for the shore lay high, so that at the upper end
it must have been at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though
with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the
folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before
we judge rightly of our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this
place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and
with as much comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study and
serious application of the Word of God, and by the assistance of
His grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had be-
fore. I entertained different notions of things. I looked now upon
the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do with, no
expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about. In a word, I had
nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever like to have; so I
thought it looked, as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz.,
as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it; and well might
I say, as Father Abraham to Dives, “Between me and thee is a
great gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the
world here. I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye,
or the pride of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all that I was
now capable of enjoying. I was lord of the whole manor; or, if I
pleased, I might call myself king or emporer over the whole
country which I had possession of. There were no rivals: I had
no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or command with me.
I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use for it;
so I let as little grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had
tortoise or turtles enough, but now and then one was as much as
I could put to any use. I had timber enough to have built a fleet
of ships. I had grapes enough to have made wine, or to have cured
into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when they had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable. I had
enough to eat, and to supply my wants, and what was all the rest



92 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

to me? If I killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog must eat it,
or the vermin. If I sowed more corn than I could eat, it must be
spoiled. The trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the ground;
I could make no more use of them than for fuel, and that I had
no occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me,
upon just reflection, that all the good things of this world are no
farther good to us than they are for our use; and that whatever we
may heap up indeed to give others, we enjoy just as much as we
can use, and no more. The most covetous, griping miser in the
world would have been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had
been in my case; for I possessed infinitely more than I knew what
to do with. I had no room for desire, except it was of things which
I had not, and they were but trifles, though indeed of great use to
me. I had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as
silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty,
sorry, usless stuff lay; I had no manner of business for it; and I
often thought with myself, that I would have given a handful of it
for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind my corn;
nay, I would have given it all for six-pennyworth of turnip and
carrot seed out of England, or for a handful of peas and beans,
and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least advantage by it,
or benefit from it; but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy
with the damp of the cave in the wet season; and if I had had the
drawer full of diamonds, it had been the same case, and they had
been of no manner of value to me because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself
than it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my
body. I frequently sat down’ to my meat with thankfulness, and
admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread my
table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side
of my condition, and less upon the dark side, and to consider what
I enjoyed, rather than what I wanted; and this gave me sometimes
such secret comforts, that I cannot express them; and which I take
notice of here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who
cannot enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 93

see and covet something that He has not given them. All our
discontents about what we want, appeared to me to spring from
the want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would
be so to any one that should fall into such distress as mine was; and
this was, to compare my present condition with what I at first
expected it should be; nay, with what it would certainly have
been, if the good providence of God had not wonderfully ordered
the ship to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I not only could
come at her, but could bring what I got out of her to the shore,
for my relief and comfort; without which I had wanted for tools
to work, weapons for defence, or gunpowder and shot for getting
my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to
myself, in the most lively colors, how I must have acted if I had
got nothing out of the ship. How I could not have so much as got
any food, except fish and turtles; and that as it was long before I
found any of them, I must have perished first; that I should have
lived, if I had not perished, like a mere savage; that if I had killed
a goat or a fowl, by any contrivance, I had no way to flay or open
them, or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to cut it up;
but must gnaw it with my teeth; and pull it with my claws, like
a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of
Providence to me, and very thankful for my present condition, with
all its hardships and misfortunes; and this part also I cannot but
recommend to the reflection of those who are apt, in their misery,
to say, Is any affliction like mine? Let them consider how much
worse the cases of some people are, and their case might have been,
if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my
mind with hopes; and this was, comparing my present condition
with what I had deserved, and had therefore, reason to expect from
the hand of Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly
destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had been well
instructed by father and mother; neither had they been wanting



94 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

to me in their early endeavors to infuse a religious awe of God
into my mind, a sense of my duty, and of what the nature and
end of my being required of me. But, alas! falling early into the
seafaring life, which, of all the lives, is the most destitute of the
fear of God, though His terrors are always before them; I say,
falling early into the seafaring life, and into seafaring company,
all that little sense of religion which I had entertained was laughed
out of me by my messmates; by a hardened despising of dangers,
and the views of death, which grew habitual to me; by my long
absence from all manner of opportunities to converse with any-
thing but what was like myself, or to hear anything that was
good, or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least sense
of what I was, or was to be, that in the greatest deliverances I
enjoyed, such as my escape from Sallee; my being taken up by the
Portuguese master of the ship; my being planted so well in the
Brazils; my receiving the cargo from England, and the like; I
never had once the words, “Thank God,” as much as on my mind,
or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress had I so much as a
thought to pray to Him, or so much as to say, “Lord, have mercy
upan me!” no, nor to mention the name of God, unless it was
to swear by and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I
have already observed, on the account of my wicked and hardened
life past; and when I looked about me, and considered what
particular providences had attended me since my coming into this
place, and how God had dealt bountifully with me, had not only
punished me less than my iniquity had deserved, but had so plenti-
fully provided for me; this gave me great hopes that my repentance
was accepted, and that God had yet mercy in store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to
resignation to the will of God in the present disposition of my
circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my condition;
and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to complain, see-
ing I had not the due punishment of my sins; that I enjoyed so
many mercies, which I had no reason to have expected in that



Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 95

place; that I ought never more to repine at my condition, but to
rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which nothing
but a crowd of wonders could have brought; that I ought to con-
sider I had been fed even by miracle, even as great as that of
feeding Elijah by ravens; nay, by a long series of miracles; and
that I could hardly have named a place in the unhabitable part of
the world where I could have been cast more to my advantage; a
place where, as I had no society, which was my affliction on one
hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or tigers,
to threaten my life; no venomous creatures or poisonous, which
I might feed on to my hurt; no savages to murder and devour me.

In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way, so it was a
life of mercy another; and I wanted nothing to make it a life of
comfort, but to be able to make my sense of God’s goodness to me,
and care over me in this condition, be my daily consolation; and
after I did make a just improvement of these things, I went away,
and was no more sad.

I had now been here so long, that many things which I brought
on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very much wasted,
and near spent. My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some
time, all but a very little, which I eked out with water, a little and
a little, till it was so pale it scarce left any appearance of black
upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute
down the days of the month on which any remarkable thing
happened to me. And, first, by casting up times past, I remember
that there was a strange concurrence of days in the various pro-
vidences which befell me, and which, if I had been superstitiously
inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had
reason to have looked upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I broke away
from my father and my friends, and run away to Hull, in order to
go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-
of-war, and made a slave.

The same day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of
that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day-year afterwards I
made my escape from Sallee in the boat.



96 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

The same day of the year I was born on, viz., the 30th of
September, that same day I had my life so miraculously saved
twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore in this island;
so that my wicked life and my solitary life began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink’s being wasted, was that of my bread;
I mean the biscuit, which I brought out of the ship. This I had
husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread
a day for above a year; and yet I was quite without bread for near
a year before I got any corn of my own; and great reason I had to
be thankful that I had any at all, the getting it being, as has been
already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes began to decay, too, mightily. As to linen, I had
none a good while, except some chequered shirts which I found in
the chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully preserved,
because many times I could bear no other clothes on but a shirt;
and it was a very great help to me that I had, among all the men’s
clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There was also
several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s which were left indeed,
but they were too hot to wear; and though it is true that the
weather was so violent hot that there was no need of clothes, yet
I could not go quite naked, no, though I had been inclined to it,
which I was not, nor could abide the thoughts of it, though I was
all alone.

The reason why I could not go quite naked was, I could not
bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked as with some
clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered my skin;
whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and
whistling under that shirt, was twofold cooler than without it. No
more could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun
without a cap or hat. The heat of the sun beating with such
violence, as it does in that place, would give me the headache
presently, by darting so directly on my head, without a cap or
hat on, so that I could not bear it; whereas, if I put on my hat, it
would presently go away.

Upon those views, I began to consider about putting the few
rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order. I had worn



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THE
ADVENTURES OF
ROBINSON CRUSOE

By
DaniEL DEFOE

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THE ADVENTURES OF
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ADVENTURES OF
ROBINSON CRUSOE

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of
York, of a good family, though not of that
country, my father being a foreigner, of
Bremen, who settled first at Hull; he got a
good estate by merchandise, and leaving
off his trade, lived afterward at York;
from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a
very good family in that country, and
from whom I was called Robinson.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts; my
father had given me a competent share of learning, and designed
me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to
sea, and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will
of my father, and entreaties of my mother, that there seemed to be
something fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to
the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me
one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the
gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject,
asking me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination,
I had for leaving my father’s house and my native country.

And though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet
he would venture to say to me that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and I resolved not

7


8 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home accord-
ing to my father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off;
and a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little
more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were
entirely bent upon seeing the world, and that my father had bet-
ter give me his consent than force me to go without it; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I
came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more.

But this my mother refused to do, saying “she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject.”

It was not till almost a year after this, being one day at Hull,
that, meeting one of my companions about to go by sea to London
in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them, I con-
sulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might,
without asking God’s blessing or my father’s, on the 1st of Sep-
tember, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never
any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or
continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of
the Humber than the wind began to blow, and the sea to rise in
a most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before,
I was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my duty.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no,
nor what I saw a few days after. I expected every wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as
I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should
never rise more; in this agony of mind I made many vows and
resolutions that if it would please God to spare my life in this
one voyage, if ever I got my foot upon dry land again, I would
go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived.

Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 9

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the
wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it; however, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little seasick still; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening fol-
lowed. The sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning; having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful
that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more seasick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so
rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so
pleasant in so little a time after.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we
had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged
to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the common
harbor where the ships might wait for a wind for the River.

But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and
we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or
twice our anchor had come home.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen them-
selves. The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving
the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear
him softly to himself say, several times, “Lord, be merciful to
us! We shall be all lost! We shall be all undone!”

Toward evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very
unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he
10 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

did not the ship would founder, he consented; and when they
had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and
shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away also,
and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But the worst was not come yet; the storm
continued with such fury that the seamen themselves acknowl-
edged they had never seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she
was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder. It was my
advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they meant
by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent
that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and
some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and ex-
pecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men, that had been down to see, cried out we had
sprung a leak; another said there was four feet of water in the
hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my
heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon
the side of my bed, where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men
roused me, and told me that I, that was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and
went to the pump, and worked very heartily.

But the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the
ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a
little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might
run into any port, so the master continued firing guns for help;
and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a
boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came
near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the
boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it
out a great length, which they after much labor and hazard took
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe II

hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat; and partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost
as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time
what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea.

We made but slow way, nor were we able to reach the shore
till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to
the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little
the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without
much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have
gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our
blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me;
for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I
was not drowned. But my ill fate pushed me on now with an
obstinacy that nothing could resist; having some money in my
pocket, I traveled to London by land; and there, as well as on
the road, had many struggles with myself what course of life I
should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresist-
ible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed a while,
the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off; and as
that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to return wore
off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and
looked out for a voyage.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and mis-
guided young fellows as I then was, the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not
12 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who
had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again. This captain, taking a
fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at
that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me
if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no expense;
I should be his messmate and his companion; and if I could carry
anything with me I should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encour-
agement.

I embraced the offer; and this was the only voyage which I
may say was successful in all my adventures, and which I owe
to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain; under
whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and
the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the
ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand
some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor. For,
as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a
word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant; for
I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
£300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have
since so completed my ruin.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got
the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite {100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left which I had lodged
with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes in this voyage. And the first was this, viz.,
our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather
between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised in
the gray of the morning by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 13

much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to
have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight,
our ship having twelve guns and the rogue eighteen. About three
in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake,
just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he in-
tended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and
poured in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off



again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot
from near two hundred men which he had on board. However,
we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying
us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and
hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with small-shot,
half-pikes, powder chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of
them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our
story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried
all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor’s court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the
rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble, and fit for his business.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
14 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war; and
that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away; for when he went to sea he left me on shore to look
after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house; and when he came home again from his cruise
he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship. Here I
meditated nothing but my escape and what method I might take
to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it.

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. It happened one time that, going
a-fishing with him in a calm morning, a fog rose so thick that
though we were not half a league from the shore we lost sight of
it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we labored
all day, and all the next night. And when the morning came we
found we had pulled out to sea instead of pulling in for shore;
and that we were at least two leagues from the land. However,
we got well in again, though with a great deal of labor and some
danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long
boat of our English ship which he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provisions. So he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was
an English slave, to build a little stateroom, or cabin, in the
middle of the long boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand
behind it to steer and haul home the mainsheet, and room before
for a hand or two to stand and work the sails.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It
happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for
pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction
in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and
had therefore sent on board the boat overnight a larger store of
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 15

provisions than usual; and had ordered me to get ready three
muskets with powder and shot, which were on board his ship,
for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed; when by and by my
patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with
the Moor and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch
them some fish, and that his friends were to sup at his house.
He commanded me, too, that as soon as I had got some fish I
should bring it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship
at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to
furnish myself not for fishing business but for a voyage; though
I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I would
steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread.

He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat,
which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a parcel of
twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which
were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also; his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or
Moely; so I called to him: “Moely,” said I, “our patron’s guns are
all on board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot? It
may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for
ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.”
“Yes,” says he, “I’ll bring some.” Accordingly, he brought a
great leather pouch, which held about a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or
six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the
same time I had found some powder of my master’s in the great
16 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case,
which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another;
and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port,
knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not
above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and sat
us down to fish.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, I said to
the Moor, “This will not do; our master will not be thus served;
we must stand farther off.” He, thinking no harm, set the sails;
and, as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to as if I would fish; when, giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise
with my arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard
into the sea.

He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to
me, begged to be taken in, telling me he would go all over the
world with me. He swam so strong after the boat that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling
pieces, I presented it at him and told him I had done him no
hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none. “But,”
said I, “you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea
is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no
harm; but if you come near the boat I’ll shoot you through the
head, for I am resolved to have my liberty.” So he turned himself
about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he
reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to
be true to me,” that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard,
“I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my face,
and spoke so innocently that I could not mistrust him, and swore
to be faithful to me and go all over the world with me.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 17

While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea, that they might think me gone towards
the Straits’! mouth. But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I
changed my course, and steered directly south and by east,
bending my course a little towards the east that I might keep in
with the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a
smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day
at three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of
Sallee. Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days.

Then, the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me they also would
now give over. So I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what nor where;
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the principal thing I
wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover
the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till
day. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it. We dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one mighty creature
come swimming toward our boat. However, I immediately
stepped to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards
the shore again. .

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous

1 Straits. The Straits of Gibraltar.
18 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of
a gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures had
never heard before. This convinced me that there was no going
on shore for us in the night upon that coast; and how to venture
on shore in the day was another question too; for to have fallen
into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to have
fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least we were equally
apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat. When
or where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go
on shore with one of the jars he would find if there was any
water and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? Why
I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with
so much affection that made me love him ever after. Says he,
“I£ wild mans come, they eat me, you go way.” “Well, Xury,”
said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill
them. They shall eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of
ruskbread to eat, and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as
we thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing
but our arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by and by I
saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by
some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran for-
ward towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to him
I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a crea-
ture that he had shot, like a hare but different in color, and longer
legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good
meat; but the great joy poor Xury came with was to tell me he
had found good water, and seen no wild mans; so we filled our
jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go
on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature in
that part of the country.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe - 19

After this stop we made on to the southward continually for
ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which
began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the shore
than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was
to make the River Gambia or Senegal; that is to say, anywhere
about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had
to take but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the
negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe which sailed either
to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made
this cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of my
fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some
ship, or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the
shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black,
and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them; but Xury was my better counselor, and said to me, “No go,
no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk
to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good
way: I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one,
who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and
that they could throw them a great way with good aim. So I
kept at a'distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could; and particularly made signs for something to eat; they
beckoned to me to stop my boat and they would fetch me some
meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and
two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an
hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried
flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country; but
we neither knew what the one nor the other was. However, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I would not venture on shore to them, and they were
as much afraid of us. But they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a
20 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends. But an opportunity offered that very instant to
oblige them wonderfully, for while we were lying on the shore,
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took
it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea. The man
that had the lance or dart did not fly from them, as the rest did;
however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they
did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged them-
selves into the sea, and swam about. At last one of them began
to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready
for him, for I had loaded my gun, and bade Xury load both the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and
shot him directly in the head; immediately he sank down into
the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he
was struggling for life, and so indeed he was. He immediately
made to the shore; but between the wound and the strangling
of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor crea-
tures at the noise and fire of my gun. Some of them were ready
even to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror.
But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk into the water,
and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took
heart and began to search for the creature. I found him by his
blood staining the water: and by the help of a rope, which I
slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him
on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted,
and fine to an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their
hands with admiration to think what it was I killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam to the shore, and disappeared.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, till I saw the land run out a great length
into the sea. Doubling the point at about two leagues from the
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 21

land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I
concluded, as it was indeed, the Cape de Verd Islands. However,
they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had
best do; for if I should be taken with a fresh gale of wind, I
might neither reach one nor other.

In this dilemma, I stepped into the cabin, and sat me down,
Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden the boy cried out,
“Master, master, a ship with a sail!” and the foolish boy was
frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his
master’s ships sent to pursue us. I jumped out of the cabin, and
immediately saw not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese
ship; upon which I stretched out to the sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them. But after I had crowded to the
utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help
of their glasses, and that it was some European boat, which they
supposed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and
as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to
them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they
saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not
hear the gun. Upon these signals they very kindly brought to,
and lay by for me; and in about three hours’ time I came up
with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a
Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me: and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman that had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They then bade
me come on board and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship as a return for my
22 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

deliverance. But he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on
no other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself; and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils, so
great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, no,” says he, “Seignor Inglese
(Mr. Englishman), I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help you to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again.”

As to my boat, he told me he would pay me eighty pieces of
eight for it. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my
boy Xury; but I was very loath to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who
had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, he
said that he would set him free in ten years, if he turned Chris-
tian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I
let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered from
the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next
with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember. He would take nothing of me for my
passage, and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered to me. And what I was willing to sell he bought of me:
such as two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax, for
I had made candles of the rest. In a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo, and with
this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house
of a good, honest man, I lived with him some time, and ac-
quainted myself, by that means, with the manner of their plant-
ing and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived,
and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 23

to settle there, I would turn planter among them, resolving in
the meantime to find out some way to get my money, which I
had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, I purchased
land and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement.

I had a neighbor, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. My stock but was low, as well as his;
and we had rather planted for food than anything else, for about
two years. However, we began to increase, and our land began to
come in order, so that the third year we planted some tobacco,
and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting
canes in the year to come. But we both wanted help; and now I
found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.

I was, in some degree, settled, before my kind friend, the cap-
tain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship
remained there near three months; when, telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice: “Seignor Inglese,” says he, “if you will give
me letters, with orders to the person who has your money in
London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall
direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will
bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but I
would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling,
which, you say, is half your stock; and if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentleman with whom
I had left my money.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my
adventures, and when this honest captain came to Lisbon he
found means to send over not the order only, but a full account
of my story, to a merchant in London, who represented it ef-
fectually to her. Whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but out of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very hand-
some present for his humanity and charity to me.
oa Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in Eng-
lish goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them directly
to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the
Brazils. When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made; for
I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward the
captain had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent
him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manu-
facture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valu-
able and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them at
a very great advantage. The first thing I did, I bought me a negro
slave, and an European servant also: I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation. And now increasing in
business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed often the ruin
of the best heads in business.

To come, then, by just degrees to the particulars of this part
of my story: You may suppose, that having now lived almost
four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the
language but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salva-
dore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse among them
I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles—
such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the
like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

It happened, being in company one day with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning and told
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 25

me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
of with them the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me; and after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they
had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be car-
ried on, because they could not publicly sell the negroes when
they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring
the negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations; and, in a word, the question was whether I would
go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon
the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my
equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the
stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation of his
own to look after, which could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—
for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing
that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs
when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence. This they all engaged
to do, and entered into writings to do so; and I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my death,
making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before,
my heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and
the other to be shipped to England.

Accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo finished,
and all things done as by agreement by my partners in the voyage,
I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659
being the same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority.
26 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns, and fourteen men besides the master, his boy,
and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking
glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
northward upon our own coasts. In this course we passed the
line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation,
in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.
It blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together
we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it,
let it carry us wherever fate and the fury of the winds directed.

About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master
made an observation as well as he could, and found that he was
gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil,
beyond the river Amazones; and now he began to consult with
me what course he should take; for the ship was leaky, and very
much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the coast
of Brazil. I was positively against that; so we changed our course,
and steered away N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was
otherwise determined; for a second storm came upon us, which
carried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove
us out of the way of all human commerce.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early one morning cried out, “Land!” and we had no sooner
run out of the cabin than the ship struck upon the sand, and in a
moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in
such a manner that we expected we should all have perished
immediately. It is not easy for any one who has not been in the
like condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men
in such circumstances. We could not hope to have the ship hold
many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by
a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word,
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 27

we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death every
moment.

Now, though we thought the wind did a little abate, yet the
ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for
us to expect her getting off. We had a boat at our stern just before
the storm, but she had either sunk, or was driven off to sea. We
had another boat on board; but how to get her off into the sea
was a doubtful thing. In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays
hold of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, they
got her flung over the ship’s side; and getting all into her, we let
go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s
mercy and the wild sea.

And now our case was very dismal iidecd: for we all say
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not escape,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. However, we com-
mitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner, and, the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with
our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land. But as
we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came roll-
ing astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace.
In a word, it took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, “O God!” for we were
all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sank into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath,
till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left
me upon the land, but half dead with the water I took in. I had
so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing my-
self nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could,
28 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

before another wave should return and take me up again.

The next wave that came upon me buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great
way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still for-
ward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my
breath, when as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate
relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of
the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath
and new courage. I was covered again with water a good while,
but not so long but I held it out; and finding the water had spent
itself, and began to return, I struck forward against the return of
the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath, and till the waters went from me,
and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had,
farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and
twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as
before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me; for
the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of rock, and that with such force as it
left me senseless. But I recovered a little before the return of the
waves, and seeing I should be covered again with water, I re-
solved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my
breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves
were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold
till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought
me so near the shore that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next
run I took I got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort,
I clambered up the clifts of the shore, and sat me down upon the
grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 29

some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I walked about on
the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as I may
say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflect-
ing upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that there
should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never
saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their
hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on
shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I
was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my com-
forts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance, for
I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat
or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before
me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild
beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was that
I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my
sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature that
might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about
me but a knife, a tobacco pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This
was all my provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies of
mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing
at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to
get up into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew
near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the
next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of
life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find
any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having
drunk, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger,
30 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut
me a short stick, like a trucheon, for my defense, I took up my
lodging; and being excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than I think
I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear and the
storm abated so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself
on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for my
use.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of
the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I
saw evidently that, if we had kept on board, we had been all safe;
that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so
miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all other comfort and
company, as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again; but
as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship. So I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to
extremity, and took to the water. But when I came to the ship my
difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for, as
she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I espied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I
did not see at first, hanging down by the fore-chains so low that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope
got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship
was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that
she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 31

her stern lay lifted upon the bank, and her head low, almost to
the water. By this means all her quarter was free and all that was
in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to
search, and to see what was spoiled and what was free. And, first,
I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and untouched by
the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread
room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things which
I foresaw would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had;
and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast
or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with them, and I
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down the ship’s side, and pull-
ing them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends, as well
as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short
pieces of plank upon them, crossways, I found I could walk upon
it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the
pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with the carpenter’s
saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to
my raft, with a great deal of labor and pains.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long in con-
sidering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I first
got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and
emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these
I filled with provisions—viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and
a little remainder of European corn. While I was doing this, I
found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
32 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

left on shore upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in
them and my stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging
for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore; and it was
after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder horns, a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, and with much search I found them.

And thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging
to the boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest, two
saws, an ax and a hammer. With this cargo I put to sea. For a
mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well. But here I had like
to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think
verily would have broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not
being aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against
the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off
the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the pos-
ture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my might, I
stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising
of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little
after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust
her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up
higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river,
with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
but here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep, there was no place to land, but
where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high,
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 33

and the other sink lower. All that I could do was to wait till the
tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground. As soon as I found water enough, I thrust her upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking
my two broken oars into the ground, till the water ebbed away,
and left my raft and cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to seek a proper place for my habitation,
and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever
might happen. There was a hill not above a mile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to over-
top some other hills. I took out one of the fowling pieces, and one
of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed I traveled
for discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with
great labor and difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my
great affliction—viz., that I was in an island environed every way
with the sea; no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay
a great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of
which, however, I saw none. At my coming back I shot at a great
bird which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood.
I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired but from all the parts
of the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls of
many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying, but not
one of them of any kind that I knew; as for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of a hawk.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft and fell
to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest
of the day. What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor in-
deed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me; though, as
I afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could I barricaded myself round with
34 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible, as I knew
that the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in
pieces. I resolved to go as before, when the tide was down; and I
did so, only that I stripped before I went from my hut, having
nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a
pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and, having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s stores I found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a
dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with several
things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron
crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling piece, with some small quantity of powder and
a large bagful of small shot. Besides these things, I took all the
men’s clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, a ham-
mock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft,
and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large casks—I went to work to make
me a little tent, with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew
would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 35

some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed the first time, and slept very quietly all night.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man; but still I was not satisfied, for while
the ship sat upright in that posture I thought I ought to get
everything out of her that I could; so every day, at low water, I
went on board, and brought away something or other; but
particularly, the third
time I went, I brought
away as much of the
rigging as I could, as
also all the small ropes
and rope twine I could
get, with a piece of
spare canvas, which was
to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the bar-
rel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought
away all the sails. But
that which comforted
me more still was, that
at last of all, after I had
made five or six such
voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing
more to expect from ~
the ship that was worth my meddling with—I say, after all thus,
I found a great hogshead of bread, a box of fine sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given
over expecting any more provisions except what was spoiled by
the water.

I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all


36 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable of bringing;
but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise; however, at low water I went on board, and though
I thought I had rummaged the cabin effectually, yet I discovered
a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds’
value in money. I smiled to myself at the sight of this money.
“Oh drug!” said I aloud, “what are thou good for?” However, upon
second thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all in a piece of
canvas, I began to think of making another raft; but while I was
preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to
rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind offshore; and that it was my business
to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not
be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between
the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly
from the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night,
and in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was
to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to me;
and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to
bring away, if I had had more time.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about what kind of
dwelling to make—whether'I should make me a cave in the earth,
or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the
manner and description of which it may not be improper to give
an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 37

so I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground. I consulted several things; first, health and fresh water;
secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly, security from
ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; fourthly, a view to the
sea, that if God sent any ship in sight I might not lose any
advantage for my deliverance.

In search of a proper place for this I found a little ‘plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top. On the side of the rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there
was not really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my
door; and, at the end of it, descending irregularly every way
down into the low ground by the seaside.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the
rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning and
ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm, like piles, the
biggest end being put out of the ground above five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, upon one another, within the circle, be-
tween these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes
in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half
high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me a
great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
38 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you
have the account above; and I made me a large tent also, to pre-
serve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are very
violent there. I made it double—viz., one smaller tent within, and
one larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost part of it
with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down, out
through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labor and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time it occurred, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up the
tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a
thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after
that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was
not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself. “Oh, my powder!” My very heart sank within me, when
I thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed;
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 39

on which not my defense only, but the providing me food, as I
thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about
my own danger; though, had the powder took fire, I had never
known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me that, after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my work, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes to separate my
powder; to keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make
one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight;
and I think my powder, which in all was about one hundred and
forty pounds’ weight was divided into no less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in
my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down
in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, mark-
ing very carefully where I had laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to
see if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I could,
to acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time
I went out I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so
subtle, and so swift of foot that it was the most difficult thing in
the world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened. The first shot I made among these creatures I killed
a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which grieved me
heartily. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I
ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as
much as I possibly could.

But I must now give some little account of myself, and of my
thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not
a few. I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and
40 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it
as a determination of Heaven that in this desolate place, and
in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would
run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections: and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence
should thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so
absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned, and so entirely
depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such
a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking
with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when Reason, as it were, put
in expostulating with me the other way, thus: “Well, you are in
a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the
rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat? Where
are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost? Why are
you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?”

Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished for
my subsistence. What should I have done without a gun, without
ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work
with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of coverings?

And now, being about to enter into a melancholy relation of
a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it
in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September, when,
in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island;
when the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of nine’ degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there ten or twelve days it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books, and pen, and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath day
from the working days; but to prevent this I cut it with my knife
upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 41

cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., “I came
on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest,
and every first day of the month as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calender, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that, among the many
things which I brought from the ship, I got several things of less
value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several
parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping;
three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials,
perspectives, charts and books of navigation; all which I huddled
together, whether I might want them or no; also I found three
very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things; some Portuguese
books also; and several other books; all which I carefully secured.
And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats,
of whose eminent history I must have occasion to say something
in its place, for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the
dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and. swam on shore to
me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he could
fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me; I only
wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted
I kept things very exact; but after that was gone, I could not,
for I could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these, ink
was one: as also a spade, pick-ax, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned
to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and
42 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles or stakes, which were
as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one of
those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground; for
which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last be-
thought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though
I found it, yet made driving those posts or piles very laborious
and tedious work. But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to
do itin? Nor had I any other employment, if that had been over,
at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek
for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were
to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to
deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind. And as my reason began now to master my despond-
ency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the
good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish
my case from worse, and I stated it very impartially, like debtor
and creditor, the comfort I enjoyed, against the miseries I suf-
fered, thus:

EVIL

I am cast upon a horrible, desolate island; void of all hope of
recovery.

I am singled out and separated, as it were, from all the world,
to be miserable.

I am divided from mankind, a solitary; one banished from
human society.

I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defense, or means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to or relieve me.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 43

GOOD

But I am alive, and not drowned, as all my ship’s company
was.

But I am singled out, too, from all the ship’s crew to be spared
from death; and He that miraculously saved me from death can
deliver me from this condition.

But I'am not starved and perishing on a barren place, affording
no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where if I had clothes I could hardly
wear them.

But I am cast on an island where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of Africa; and what if I had been ship-
wrecked there?

But God wonderfully sent the ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have got out so many necessary things as will either
supply my wants or enable me to supply myself even as long as I
live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was
something negative, or something positive, to be thankful for
in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the experience of the
most miserable of all conditions in this world—that we may always
find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the
description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and giving over looking out to sea to see if I could spy a ship;
I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as
I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall up against it of turfs about two feet thick on the
outside: and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered
it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get to keep out
44 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must
observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which,
as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself. So I set myself to enlarge my cave, and
worked farther into the earth; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it: and so when I found
I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the
right hand, into the rock; and then turning to the right again,
worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the
outside of my pale or fortification.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted. So I went to work; and here
I must needs observe that every man may be, in time, master of
every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life; and
yet in time by labor, application, and contrivance I found at last
that I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had
had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without
tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet
which, perhaps, were never made that way before, and that with
infinite labor. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other
way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew
it flat on either side with my ax till I had brought it to be as thin
as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree, but
my time and labor was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.

When I had wrought out some boards as above, I made
large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and an half, one over an-
other, all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails and
ironwork on; also I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock, to
hang my guns and all things that would hang up: so that had my
cave been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand that
it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 45

especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry,
and not only a hurry as to labor, but in too much discomposure of
mind; and my journal would have been full of many dull things;
for example, I must have said thus:

“September 30. After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
I ran about the shore wringing my hands and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery and crying out I was undone,
till tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground for
repose.”

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and hav-
ing settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a table
and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began,
I say, to keep my journal; of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again),
as long as it lasted; for at last, having no more ink, I was forced
to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659——I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called “The
Island of Despair,” all the rest of the ship’s company being
drowned, and myself almost dead. .

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, or place to fly to; and in despair of any relief,
saw nothing but death before me; either that I should be de-
voured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death
for want of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a tree for
fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all night.

Oct. 1—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again
much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort on one
hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I
46 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief; so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the
ship, or at least that they would not have been all drowned as
they were; and that had the men been saved, we might perhaps
have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us
to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself on these things; but at length seeing the ship
almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then
swam on board; this day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.

From the Ist of October to the 24th—All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also in those days, though with some intervals of fair weather;
but, it seems, this was the rainy season.

Oct. 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon
it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy,
I recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this
day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved, that
the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day to find out a
place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 3oth I worked very hard in carrying all
my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time
it rained exceeding hard.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 47

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun to seek for some food, and discover the country; when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.

Nov. 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there the first
night, making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to
swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fouls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

Nov. 4—This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion, viz.,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours,
if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o’clock; then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to two
I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then in
the evening to work again. The working part of this day and of
the next were wholly employed in making my table; for I was
yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me
a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do to
any one else.

Nov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off the skins and pre-
served them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw many sorts of
sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was surprised, and
almost frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea,
and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6—After my morning walk, I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.
48 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Nov. 7—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, gth, roth, and part of the 12th, (for the 11th was Sunday ac-
cording to my reckoning) I took wholly up to make me a chair,
and with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me; and even in the making, I pulled it in pieces several
times.

Nore, I soon neglected keeping Sundays; for, omitting my
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear
of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that
it might not be in danger. :

Nov. 14, 15, 16—These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two
pound at most, of powder; and so putting the powder in, I stowed
it in places as secure and remote from one another as possible.
On one of these three days I killed a large bird that was good
to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock, to make room for my further conveniency.

Nore, three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a
pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket; so I desisted
from my work, and began to consider how to supply that want,
and make me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel or spade. This was so absolutely neces-
sary, that indeed I could do nothing effectually without it; but
what kind of one to make, I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron
tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labor, and
almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.

The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other way,
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 49

made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it ef-
fectually, by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade,
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
board part having no iron shod upon it at the bottom, it would
not last me so long. However, it served well enough for the uses
which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware, at least none yet
found out. And as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all
but the wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither did I know how
to go about it; besides I had no possible way to make the iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so I gave
it over; and so for carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the laborers carry
mortar in.

This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and
yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to
make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days; I mean
always, excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
failed, and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to
eat.

Nov. 23——My other work having now stood still because of my
making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.

Nore.—During all this time I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining room, and a cellar; as for a lodging,
I kept to the tent, except that sometimes in the wet season of the
year it rained so hard, that I could not keep myself dry, which
caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with
long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and
load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
50 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Dec. 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when
on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of
earth fell down from the top and one side, so much, that, in short,
it frighted me, and not without reason too; for if I had been
under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I
had a great deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose earth
to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling
to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of boards across over each post. This I finished the next
day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the roof secure; and the posts standing in rows, served me
for partitions to part of my house.

Dec. 17—From this day to the twentieth I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up that could
be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of board, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me; also I made me another table.

Dec. 24——Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I
caught it, and led it home in a string. When I had it at home, I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

N. B—I took such good care of it that it lived; and the leg
grew well and as strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it
grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would
not go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31—Great heats and no breeze, so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food. This time
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 51

I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

Jan. 1—Very hot still, but I went abroad early and late with
my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening,
going farther into the valleys which lay towards the center of
the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceeding
shy, and hard to come at. However, I resolved to try if I could not
bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2—Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog; and he knew his danger too well, for
he would not come near them.

Jan. 3—I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous of
my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.

N. B—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what
was said in the journal. It is sufficient to observe that I was no
less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of April work-
ing, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half circle from
one place in the rock to another place about eight yards from it,
the door of the cave being in the center behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never
be perfectly secure till this wall was finished. And it is scarce
credible what inexpressible labor everything was done with,
especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them
into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I needed to
have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced
with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if
any people were to come on shore there, they would not perceive
anything like a habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed afterward upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time, I made rounds in the woods for game every
day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries
in these walks of something or other to my advantage; particularly
52 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood pigeons,
in a tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of rocks. And
taking some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up tame,
and did so; but when they grew older they flew all away, which,
perhaps, was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing
to give them. However, I frequently found their nests, and got
their young ones, which were very good meat.

And now in the managing my household affairs I found my-
self wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was im-
possible for me to make, as indeed, as to some of them, it was.
For instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped; I had a
small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive
to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent many
weeks about it. I could neither put in the heads, or joint the
staves so true to one another, as to make them hold water; so I
gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle; so that as
soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock, I
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of beeswax with
which I made candles in my African adventure, but I had none
of that now. The only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a
goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which
I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear,
steady light like a candle.

In the middle of all my labors it happened, that rummaging
my things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had
been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this
voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon.
What little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all de-
voured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and
dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use, I
think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the
lightning, or some such use, I shook the husks of corn out of it
on one side of my fortification, under the rock. It was a little before
the great rains, just now mentioned, that I threw this stuff away,
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 53

taking no notice of anything, and not so much as remembering
that I had thrown anything there; when, about a month after, or
thereabout, I saw some few stalks of something green shooting
out of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had
not seen; but I was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when,
after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out,
which were perfect green barley of the same kind as our European,
nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of
my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, or had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God; without so much as inquiring into the
end of Providence in these things, or His order in governing
events in the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew
not how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to
suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes; and I began to bless myself, that such a prodigy of Nature
should happen on my account; and this was the more strange to
me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock,
some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice,
and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I
was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting but that there was more in the
place, I went all over that part of the island where I had been
before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see for
more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts that I had shook a bag of chickens’ meat out in that
place, and then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my
religious thankfulness to Gods’ providence began to abate too,
54 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what was
common; though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange
and unforeseen providence, as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence as to me, that should order or ap-
point, that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unsoiled
(when the rats had destroyed all the rest), as if it had been dropped
from heaven; as also that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang out
immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their
season, which was about the end of June; and laying up every
corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to have
some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not
till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least grain of
this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say after-
wards in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season, by
not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry
season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would
have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there was, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was
of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread,
or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without baking,
though I did that also after some time. But to return to my
journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my
wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go
into it, not by a door, but over the wall by a ladder, that there
might be no sign in the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder, so I went up with the ladder to
the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down on the
inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless
it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 55

had all my labor overthrown at once, and myself killed. The
case was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a
most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I
found the earth come
crumbling down from
the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of
the hill over my head,
and two of the posts I
had set up in the cave
cracked in a frightful
manner. I was heartily
scared, but thought
nothing of what was
really the cause, only
thinking that the top

ieaens\

of my cave was falling Hy

es
an

in, as some of it had : aM ¢ i, N
done before; and for ¥ HH Yy Ih sees :
fear I should be buried HURL To \
in it, I ran forward to
my ladder; and not
thinking myself safe :
there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill
which I expected might roll down upon me. I was no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes distance, with three such shocks, as would have
overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock, which
stood about half a mile from me next the sea, fell down with
such a terrible noise, as I never heard in all my life. I perceived
also the very sea was put in violent motion by it; and I believe
the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like,


56 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or
stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick,
like one that was tossed at sea. But the noise of the falling of the
rock awakened me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied
condition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing
then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods,
and burying all at once; and thus sunk my very soul within me a
second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to
go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing
what to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious
thought, nothing but the common, “Lord, have mercy upon me!”
and when it was over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as
if it would rain. Soon after that the wind rose by little and little,
so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurri-
cane. The sea was all on a sudden covered with foam and froth;
the shore was covered with the breach of the water; the trees
were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was: and this
held about three hours, and then began to abate; and in two
hours more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.

All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and
dejected; when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these
winds and rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive; and
the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in
my tent. But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to
be beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on
my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out,
which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 57

cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I began to be more composed. And now to support my
spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little
store, and took a small stimulant, which, however, I did then,
and always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when
that was gone.

It continued raining all that night and great part of the next
day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do, concluding
that if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would
be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place, which I might surround with
a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men; but concluded, if I stayed where I was, I should
certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would cer-
tainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the next two days, being the
igth and the 20th of April, in contriving where and how to re-
move my habitation.

The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never
slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without
any fence was almost equal to it. But still, when I looked about
and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly con-
cealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loth to
remove.

In the meantime it occurred to me that it would require a vast
deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to run
the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and
had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I
composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a
circle as before, and set my tent up in it when it was finished, but
that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
58 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

April 22—The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about my
tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we
carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with much
chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of
notches and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not turn
it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a
statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or
a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I contrived
a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have
both my hands at liberty. Note, I had never seen any such thing
in England, or at least not to take notice how it was done, though
since I have observed it is very common there; besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full
week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29—These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very
well.

April 30—Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1—In the morning, looking towards the seaside the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask. When I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven
on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as stone.
However, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went
on upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of the ship to
look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six feet; and the stern, which was broken to pieces, and
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 59

parted from the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had left
rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side,
and the sand thrown so high on that side next her stern, that
whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I could
not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swim-
ming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out.
I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must be
done by the earthquake. And as by this violence the ship was
more broken open than formerly, so many things came daily on
shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and
water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching whether I could make any way into the ship. But I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for that all the
inside of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had
learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to
pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could
get from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck
together; and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand
as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but the tide
coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off,
I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some
rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough,
as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and eat
them dry.

May 5—Worked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder, and
brought three great fir-planks off from the decks, which I tied
together, and made swim on shore, when the tide of flood came on.

May 6—Worked on the wreck, got several iron bolts out of
her, and other pieces of ironwork; worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
60 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, but with an intent not to
work, but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down,
the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to
lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay, so open, that I could see
into it, but almost full of water and sand.

May 8—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water and
sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore
also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for the next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into
the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them
with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also the roll
of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14—Went every day to the wreck, and got
a great deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or
three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets to try if I could not cut a piece
off of the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and
driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in
the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blowed hard in the night, and the wreck ap-
peared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so
long in the woods to get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented
me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a
great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day to this day I worked on the wreck, and
with hard labor I loosened some things so much with the crow,
that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen’s chests. But the wind blowing from the shore, nothing
came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which
had some Brazil pork in it, but the salt water and the sand had
spoiled it.

I continued this work every day to the 15th of June, except the
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 61

time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during this
part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might
be ready when it was ebbed out. And by this time I had gotten
timber and plank, and ironwork enough to have builded a good
boat, if I had known how; and also, I got at several times, and in
several pieces, near one hundredweight of the sheet lead.

June 16.—Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise,
or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which it seems was only my
misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for had I
happened to be on the other side of the island, I might have had
hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards.

June 17 1 spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore
eggs; and her flesh was to me most savoury.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at
this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I
knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
cold.

June 20—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
feverish.

June 21—Very ill, frightened almost to death with the appre-
hensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help. Prayed to
God for the first time since the storm off of Hull, but scarce knew
what I said, or why; my thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of
sickness.

June 23—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24——Much better.

June 25——An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and
with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and eat.
I would fain have stewed it and made some broth, but had no pot.

June 27—The ague again so violent that I lay abed all day,
62 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so
weak, I had no strength to stand up, or to get myself any water
to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed; and when I
was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what so say; only I lay
and cried: “Lord, look upon me! Lord pity me! Lord have mercy
upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours,
till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in
the night. When I waked, I found myself much refreshed, but
weak and exceeding thirsty. However, as I had no water in my
whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to
sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible dream.

I thought that I was sitting on the ground and saw a man come
down from a great black cloud in a flame of light. When he stood
on the earth, it shook as it had done a few days since; and all the
world to me was full of fire. He came up and said: “As I see that
all these things have not brought thee to pray, now thou shalt die.”
Then I woke and found it was a dream. Weak and faint, I was in
dread all day lest my fit should come on.

Too ill to get out with my gun, I sat on the shore to think, and
thus ran my thoughts: “What is this sea which is all round me?
And whence is it? There can be no doubt that the hand that made
it made the air, the earth, the sky. And who is that? It is God,
who hath made all things. Well, then, if God hath made all
things, it must be He who guides them; and if so, no one thing in
the whole range of His works can take place and He not know it.
Then God must know how sick and sad I am, and He wills me to
be here. Oh, why hath God done this to me?”

Then some voice would seem to say: “Dost thou ask why God
hath done this to thee? Ask why thou wert not shot by the Moors,
who came on board the ship, and took the lives of thy mates. Ask
why thou wert not torn by the beasts of prey on the coasts. Ask
why thou didst not go down in the deep sea with the rest of the
crew, but didst come to this isle and art safe.”

A sound sleep then fell on me, and when I woke it must have
been three o’clock the next day, by the rays of the sun; nay, it
may have been more than that; for I think that this must have
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 63

been the day that I did not mark on my post, as I have since
found that there was one notch too few.

I now took from my store the Book of God’s Word, which I
had brought from the wreck, not one page of which I had as yet
read. My eyes fell on five words, that would seem to have been
put there for my good at this time; so well did they cheer my faint
hopes and touch the true source of my fears. They were these:
“T will not leave thee.” And they have dwelt in my heart to this
day. I laid down the book, to pray. My cry was, “O Lord! help me
to love and learn Thy ways.” This was the first time in all my
life that I had felt a sense that God was near and heard me. As
for my dull life here, it was not worth a thought; for now a new
strength had come to me; and there was a change in my griefs,
as well as in my joys.

I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months; all
possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be en-
tirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no human shape
had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured my habita-
tion, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make
a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other
productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular
survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about
two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher, and that it
was no more than a little brook of running water, and very fresh
and good; but this being the dry season, there was hardly any
water in some parts of it, at least, not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived.

On the bank of this brook I found many pleasant savannas
or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water,
as might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of
tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk.
There were divers other plants, which I had no notion of, or
understanding about.
64 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw several
sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came
back, musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover; but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field, at least very little that might serve
me to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and
after going something farther than I had done the day before, I
found the brook and the savannas began to cease, and the country
became more woody than before. In this part I found different
fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground in great
abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had spread in-
deed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in
their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery,
and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned by my ex-
perience to eat sparingly of them, remembering that when I was
ashore in Barbary the eating of grapes killed several of our
Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes
and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes
or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they
were, as wholesome as agreeable to eat, when no grapes might
be to be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habita-
tion; which; by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had
lain from home. In the night, I took my first contrivance, and
got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning pro-
ceeded upon my discovery, traveling near four miles, as I might
judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north, with a
ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 65

country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh
water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the other
way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh, so green,
so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure or flourish
of spring, that it looked like a planted garden.

I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying
it with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with my other
afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that I was
king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of
possession; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance
as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here
abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and citron trees;
but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not then.
However, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant
to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards
with water, which made it very wholesome, and also very cool
and refreshing.

I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home;
and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and
lemons to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was
approaching.

In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place,
and a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and
lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I
travelled homeward; and resolved to come again, and bring a
bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home.

Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I
got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruits and
the weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised them,
they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they were
good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me
two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised,
when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and
fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread about, trod
66 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and abun-
dance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were some
wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they
were, I knew not.

However, as I found that there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way
they would be destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for I
gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them up upon
the out-branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in
the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back
as I could stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness
of the situation; the security from storms on that side the water
and the wood; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to
fix my abode, which was by far the worst part of the country.
Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation,
and to look out for a place equally safe as where I now was
situate, if possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, and to consider that T
was now by the seaside, where it was at least possible that some-
thing might happen to my advantage, and, by the same ill fate
that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy
wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce probable
that any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose” myself
among the hills and woods in the centre of the island, was to
anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not only
improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by
any means to remove.

However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent much
of my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of
July; and, though, upon second thoughts, I resolved, as above,
not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and sur-
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 67

rounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge
as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with
brushwood. And here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three
nights together, always going over it with a ladder, as before;
so that I fancied now I had my country house and my seacoast
house; and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my
labor, but the rains came on, and made me stick close to my
first habitation; for though I had made me a tent like the other,
with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me
to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found
the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and indeed were
excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down
from the trees. And it was very happy that I did so, for the rains
which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the
best part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and
carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and
from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained more or
less, every day till the middle of October, and sometimes
so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several
days.

In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my
family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
run away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard
no more tale or tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she came
home about the end of August with three kittens.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I
could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In
this confinement, I began to be straightened for food; but ven-
turing out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day, which
was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to
me, and my food was regulated thus: I eat a bunch of raisins
68 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

for my breakfast, a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for
my dinner, broiled; for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to
boil or stew anything; and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for
my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door, or way out, which came beyond my fence
or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not per-
fectly easy at lying so open; for as I had managed myself before,
I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay ex-
posed, and open for anything to come in upon me; and yet
I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear,
the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a
goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my
landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been
on the shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day
as a solemn fast, setting it apart to religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, con-
fessing my sins to God, acknowledging His righteous judgments
upon me, and praying to Him to have mercy on me through
Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for
twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then eat a
biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing
the day as I had began it.

I had all this time observed no Sabbath day, for as at first I
had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after some time,
omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than
ordinary for the Sabbath day, and so did not really know what
any of the days were. But now, having cast up the days as above,
I found I had been there a year, so I divided it into weeks, and
set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the
end of my account, I had lost a day or two in my reckoning.

A little after this my ink began to fail me, and so I contented
myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the most
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 69

remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily memo-
randum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly; but I bought all my experience before I had
it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most discouraging
experiments that I made at all. I have mentioned that I had
saved the few ears of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly
found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and believe there
were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and
now I thought it a proper time to sow it after the rains, the sun
being in its southern position, going from me.

Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could
with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed
my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my
thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-
thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.

It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not
one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything, for the dry
months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed was
sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came
up at all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as
if it had been but newly sown.

Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to
make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my
new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox. And this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and
yielded a very good crop; but having part of the seed left only,
and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at
last, my whole crop not amounting to above a half a peck of each
kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business,
and knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that
I might expect two seed-times and two harvests every year.
70 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which
was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and
the weather began to settle, which was about the month of
November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found all things just
as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I had made was
not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out, and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the
first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call
it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very
well pleased to see the young trees grow, and I pruned them, and
led them up to grow as much alike as I could. And it is scarce
credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three years; so
that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards
in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon
covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under
all the dry season.

This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me
a hedge like this, in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of
my first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in
a double row, at about eight yards distance from my first fence,
they grew presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habita-
tion, and afterward served for a defence also, as I shall observe in
its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be
divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the
rainy seasons and the dry seasons; which were generally thus:
Half February

March Rainy, the sun being then on, or near the
Half April equinox.
Half April
May
June Dry, the sun being then to the north of the
July line.

Half August
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 71

Half August
September

Half October

Half October
November
December ) Dry, the sun being then to the south of the
January line.

Half February

The rainy season sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds
happened to blow, but this was the general observation I made.
After I had found by experience the ill consequence of being
abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out; and I sat
within doors as much as possible during the wet months.

In this time I found much employment, and very suitable also
to the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I
had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labor and constant
application; particularly, I tried many ways to make myself a
basket; but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so
brittle, that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advan-
tage to me now, that when I was a boy I used to take a great
delight in standing at a basket-maker’s in the town where my
father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being, as
boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer of
the manner how they worked those things, and sometimes lend-
ing a hand, I had by this means full knowledge of the methods of
it, that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came into
my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes
that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows, and willows,
and osiers in England, and I resolved to try.

Accordingly, the next day, I went to my country house, as I
called it; and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to
my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the
next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which
I soon found, for there was plenty of them. These I set up to dry
within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use, I

Rainy, the sun being then come back.
72 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

carried them to my cave; and here during the next season I em-
ployed myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets,
both to carry earth, or to lay up anything as I had occasion. And
though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose. And thus, afterwards,
I took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially I made strong deep baskets to
place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have
any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time
about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two
wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except
two runlets, which were almost full, and some glass bottles, some
of the common size, and others which were case-bottles square,
for the holding of waters, spirits, etc. I had not so much as a pot
to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out of the
ship, and which was too big for such use as I desired it, viz., to
make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I
would fain have had was a tobacco-pipe; but it was impossible
for me to make one. However, I found a contrivance for that,
too, at last.

I employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes or
piles and in this wicker-working all the summer or dry season,
when another business took me up more time. than it could be
imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole
island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I
built my bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on
the other side of the island. I now resolved to travel quite across
to the seashore:on that side; so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my
dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with
two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my
store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to the west;
and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried land, whether an
island or a continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, ex-
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 73

tending from the west to the W. S. W. at a very great distance;
by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues
off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I know it must be part of America, and, as I concluded,
by all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions, and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should have
landed, I had been in a worse condition than I was now; and
therefore I acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence, which I
began now to own and to believe ordered everything for the best.
I quieted my mind and left afflicting myself with fruitless wishes.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that if
this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or
other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if not,
then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country and
Brazils, which are indeed the worst of savages; for they are can-
nibals or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all the
human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I
found that side of the island, where I now was, much pleasanter
than mine, the open or savanna fields sweet, adorned with flowers
and full of very fine woods.

I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one,
if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to
me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I
knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought
it home; but it was some years before I could make him speak.
However, at last I taught him to call me by my name very
familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle,
will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the
low grounds hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes; but they
differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor
could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I
had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and of
that which was very good too; especially these three sorts, viz.,
74 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise; which, added to my grapes,
Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than
I, in proportion to the company. And though my case was de-
plorable enough, yet I had great cause for thankfulness, and that
I was not driven to any extremities for food, but rather plenty,
even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a
day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns, to see
what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the
place where I resolved to sit down for all night; and then I either
reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of
stakes, set upright in the ground, either from one tree to another,
or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the seashore, I was surprised to see that
I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here
indeed the shore was covered with innumerable turtles; whereas,
on the other side, I had found but three in a year and a half. Here
also was an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some which
I had seen, and some which I had not seen before, and many of
them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names of except
those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a
she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on; and though
there were many goats here, more than on my side the island, yet
it was with much more difficulty that I could come near them, the
country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than
when I was on the hill.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I
was fixed in my habitation, it became natural to me, and I seemed
all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and from
home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea towards
the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up a
great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go
home again; and that the next journey I took should be on the
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 75

other side of the island, east from my dwelling, and so round till
I came to my post again; of which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I
could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could
not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country. But
I found myself mistaken; for being come about two or three
miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley, but so
surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that
I could not see which was my way by any direction but that of
the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of
the sun at that time of the day.

It happened to my farther misfortune, that the weather proved
hazy for three or four days while I was in this valley; and not
being able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably,
and at last was obliged to find out the seaside, look for my post,
and come back the same way I went; and then by easy journeys I
turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my
gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon
it, and I running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive
from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for
I had often been musing whether it might not be possible to get
a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might
supply me when my powder and shot should be all spent.

I made a collar to this little creature, and with a string, which
I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led
him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower,
and there I enclosed him and left him, for I was very impa-
tient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above a
month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into
my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little
wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had been so
unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself, was
a perfect settlement to be compared to that; and it rendered
everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would
76 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to
stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey; during which most of the time was taken up
in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began
now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted
with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had
penned in within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it
home, or give it some food. Accordingly, I went, and found it
where I left it, for indeed it could not get out, but almost starved
for want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of
such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having fed it,
I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with
being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed
me like a dog. And as I continually fed it, the creature became
so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time
one of my domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and
I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as
before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island, having
now been there two years, and no more prospect of being de-
livered than the first day I came there. I spent the whole day in
humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful
mercies which my solitary condition was attended with, and
without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I
gave humble and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to
discover to me even that it was possible I might be more happy in
this solitary condition, than I should have been in a liberty of
society, and in all the pleasures of the world; that He could fully
make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want
of human society,, by His presence, and the communications of
His grace to my soul, supporting, comforting, and encouraging
me to depend upon His providence here and hope for His eternal
presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy
this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe a7,

the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of my
days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my
very desires altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my
delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first
coming.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing
the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break
out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die within
me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in,
and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and
bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemp-
tion. In the midst of the great composures of my mind, this
would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my
hands and weep like a child. Sometimes it would take me in the
middle of my work, and I would immediately sit down and sigh,
and look upon the ground for an hour or two together; and this
was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or vent
myself by words, it would go off, and the grief, having exhausted
itself, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily
read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my
present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible
upon these words, “I will never, never leave thee, nor forsake
thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words were to me;
why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one for-
saken of God and man? “Well then,” said I, “if God does not
forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it,
though the world should all forsake me, seeing on the other hand,
if I had all the world, and should lose the favour and blessing of
God, there would be no comparison in the loss?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken solitary
condition, than it was probable I should ever have been in any
other particular state in the world, and with this thought I was
going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
78 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at
that thought, and I durst not speak the words. “How canst thou
be such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be
thankful for a condition which, however thou mayest endeavour
to be contented with, thou wouldest rather pray heartily to be
delivered from?” So I stopped there; but though I could not say
I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to
God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences,
to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for my
wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but
my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in
England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck
of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year;
and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so partic-
ular account of my works this year as the first, yet in general it
may be observed, that I was very seldom idle, but having reg-
ularly divided my time, according to the several daily employ-
ments that were before me, such as, first, my duty to God, and
the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some time
for, thrice every day; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for
food, which generally took me up three hours in every morning,
when it did not rain; thirdly, the ordering, curing, preserving,
and cooking what I had killed or catched for my supply; these
took up great part of the day; also, it is to be considered, that the
middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the violence
of the heat was too great to stir out; so that about four hours in
the evening was all the time I could be supposed to work in,
with this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunt-
ing and working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad
with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labor, I desire, may be added the
exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many hours which, for
want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I did
took up out of my time. For example, I was full two and forty
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 79

days making me a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my
cave; whereas two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would
have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: It was to be a large tree which was to be cut
down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was
three days a-cutting down, and two more cutting off the boughs,
and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With inexpressible
hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into chips till
it begun to be light enough to move; then I turned it, and made
one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end to end; then
turning that side downward, cut the other side, till I brought the
plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expect-
ing my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured or
dug up for them was not great; for as I observed, my seed of
each was not above the quantity of half a peck; for I had lost one
whole crop by sowing in the dry season. But my crop promised
very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it
all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarce possible
to keep from it; as, first the goats and wild creatures which I
called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it
night and day, as soon as it came up, and eat it so close, that it
could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure about
it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil, and the
more, because it required speed. However, as my arable land was
but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about
three weeks’ time and shooting some of the creatures in the day-
time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a
stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long;
so in a little time the enemies forsook the place, and the corn
grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before while my corn was in the
blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now when it was in
the ear; for going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw
my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many
80 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I im-
mediately let fy among them, for I always had my gun with me.
I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of fowls,
which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days
they would devour all my hopes, that I should be starved, and
never able to raise a crop at all, and what to do I could not tell.
However, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I
should watch it night and day. In the first place, 1 went among it
to see what damage was already done, and found they had
spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for them,
the loss was not so great but that the remainder was like to be a
good crop if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they
only waited till I was gone away. And the event proved it to be
so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of
their sight but they dropped down, one by one, into the corn
again. I was so provoked that I could not have the patience to
stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they eat
now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the conse-
quence; but coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed
three of them. This was what I wished for; so I took them up,
and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz.,
hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to
imagine almost that this should have such an effect as it had, for
the fowls would not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they
forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird
near the place as long as my scare-crows hung there.

This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and about the latter
end of December, which was our second harvest of the year, I
reaped my crop.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or a sickle to cut it down, and
all I could do was to make one as well as I could out of one of the
broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of
the ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had no great
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 81

difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped in my way, for I
cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket
which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands; and at
the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half peck of
seed I had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels and a
half of barley, that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at
that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread. And
yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind
or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and part it;
nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it, and if how to
make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These things being added
to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to secure a
constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to
preserve it all for seed against the next season, and in the mean-
time to employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish
this great work of providing myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. ’Tis a
little wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought
much upon, viz., the strange multitude of little things necessary
in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and fin-
ishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my
daily discouragement, and was made more and more sensible of
it every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed to a
surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth, no spade or shovel
to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making a wooden spade, as I
observed before, but this did my work in but a wooden manner;
and though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet, for want
of iron, it not only wore out the sooner, but made my work the
harder, and made it be performed much worse.

However, this I bore with, and was content to work it out with
patience, and bear with the badness of the performance. When
82 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

the corn was sowed, I had no harrow, but was forced to go over
it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch
it, as it may be called, rather than rake or harrow it.

When it was growing and grown, I have observed already how
many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure
and carry it. home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it. Then
I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make
it into bread, and an oven to bake it, and yet all these things I
did without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn was an
estimable. comfort and advantage to me too. All this, as I said,
made everything laborious and tedious to me, but that there was
no help for; neither was my time so much loss to me, because, as
I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day appointed to
these works, and as I resolved to use none of the corn for bread
till I had a greater quantity by me, I had the next six months to
apply myself wholly, by labor and invention, to furnish myself
with utensils proper for the performing all the operations
necessary for the making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had
a week’s work at least to make me a spade which, when it was
done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required
double labor to work with it. However, I went through that,
and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as near
my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them in
with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood
which I had set before, and knew it would grow; so that in one
year’s time I knew I should have a quick or living hedge, that
would want but little repair. This work was not so little as to
take me up less than three months, because great part of that time
was of the wet season, when I could not go abroad.

Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not go out,
I found employment on the following occasions; always observ-
ing, that all the while I was at work, I diverted myself with talk-
ing to my parrot, and teaching him to speak, and I quickly
learned him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 83

pretty loud, “Poll,” which was the first word I ever heard spoken
in the island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not
my work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had
a great employment upon my hands, as follows, viz., I had long
studied, by some means or other, to make myself some earthen
vessels, which indeed I wanted sorely, but knew not where to
come at them. However, considering the heat of the climate, I
did not doubt but if I could find out any such clay, I might botch
up some such pot as might, being dried in the sun, be hard
enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold any-
thing that was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was
necessary in the preparing corn, meal, etc., which was the thing
I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit
only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to
tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what odd,
misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of them fell in, and
how many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own
weight; how many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun,
being set out too hastily; and how many fell to pieces with only
removing, as well before as after they were dried; and, in a word,
how, after having labored hard to find the clay, to dig it, to
temper it, to bring it home, and work it, I could not make above
two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about
two months’ labor.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I
lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two great
wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for them, that they
might not break; and as between the pot and the basket there was
a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw,
and these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought would
hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn was
bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet
I made several smaller things with better success; such as little
round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any things my
84 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

hand turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them strangely
hard. But all this would not answer my end, which was to get
an earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire, which
none of these could do. It happened after some time, making a
pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out
after I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my
earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red
as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself, that
certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they would burn
broken.

This set me to studying how to order my fire, so as to make it
burn me some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters
burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had some lead to
do it with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or three
pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all
around it, with a great heap of embers under them. I plied the
fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the top, till I saw
the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that
they did not crack at all. When I saw them clear red, I let them
stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I found one of them,
though it did not crack, did melt or run, for the sand which was
mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would
have run into glass, if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire grad-
ually till the pots began to abate of the red color; and watching
them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the
morning I had three very good, I will not say handsome, pipkins,
and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and
one of them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of
earthenware for my use; but I must needs say, as to the shapes
of them, they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose,
when I had no way of making them but as the children make dirt
pies, or as a woman would make pies that never learned to raise
paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine,
when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 85

fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before
I set one upon the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me
some meat, which it did admirably well; and with a piece of a
kid I made some very good broth, though I wanted oatmeal and
several other ingredients requisite to make it so good as I would
have had it been.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or
beat some corn in; for, as to the mill, there was no thought at
arriving to that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To sup-
ply this want I was at a great loss; for, of all the trades in the
world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as for any
whatever; neither had I any tools to go about it with. I spent
many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow,
and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what
was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut out;
nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hardness sufficient, but
were all of a sandy crumbling stone, which neither would bear
the weight of a heavy pestle, or would break the corn without
filling it with sand. So, after a great deal of time lost in searching
for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look out for a great
block of hard wood, which I found indeed much easier; and get-
ting one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed
it in the outside with my axe and hatchet, and then, with the help
of fire and infinite labor, made a hollow place in it, as the Indians
in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great heavy
pestle, or beater, of the wood called the iron-wood; and this I
prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, when I
proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn into meal,
to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or search, to dress my
meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk, without which
I did not see it possible I could have any bread. This was a most
difficult thing, so much as but to think on, for to be sure I had
‘nothing like the necessary thing to make it; I mean fine thin
canvas or stuff, to search the meal through. And here I was at a
full stop for many months, nor did I really know what to do;
86 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

linen I had none left, but what was mere rags; I had goats’ hair,
but neither knew I how to weave it or spin it; and had I known
how, here were no tools to work it with. All the remedy that I
found for this was, that at last I did remember I had, among the
seaman’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neck-
cloths of calico or muslin; and with some pieces of these I made
three small sieves, but proper enough for the work; and thus I
made shift for some years. How I did afterwards, I shall show in
its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how
I should make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, I had
no yeast. As to that part, as there was no supplying the want, so I
did not concern myself much about it; but for an oven I was
indeed in great pain. At length I found out an experiment for that
also, which was this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but
not deep, that is to say, about two feet diameter, and not above
nine inches deep; these I burned in the fire, as I had done the
other, and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I made a
great fire upon my hearth, which I had paved with some square
tiles, of my own making and burning also; but I should not call
them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or
live coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it
all over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then
sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf, or loaves, and
whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers
all round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat.
And thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my
barley-loaves, and became, in a little time, a mere pastry cook into
the bargain; for I made myself several cakes of the rice, and pud-
dings; indeed I made no pies, neither had I anything to put into
them, supposing I had, except the flesh either of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me up most
part of the third year of my abode here; for it is to be observed,
that in the intervals of these things I had my new harvest and
husbandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its season, and
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 87

carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my
large baskets, till I had time to rub it out, for I had no floor to
thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted
to build my barns bigger. I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the
increase of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the
barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more,
insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use it freely; for my
bread had been quite gone a great while; also, I resolved to see
what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to
sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and
tice was much more than I could consume in a year; so I re-
solved to sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed the
last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with
bread, etc.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts run many times upon the prospect of land which I had
seen from the other side of the island, and I was not without
secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying the seeing the
mainland, and in an inhabited country, I might find some way or
other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find some
means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such
a condition, and how I might fall into the hands of savages, and
perhaps such as I might have reason to think far worse than the
lions and tigers of Africa; that if I once came into their power, I
should run a hazard more than a thousand to one of being killed,
and perhaps of being eaten; for I had heard that the people of the
Carribean coasts were cannibals, or man-eaters, and I knew by the
latitude that I could not be far off from that shore. That suppose
they were not cannibals, yet that they might kill me, as many
Europeans who had fallen into their hands had been served, even
when they had been ten or twenty together, much more I, that
was but one, and could make little or no defence; all these things,
I say, which I ought to have considered well of, and did cast up
88 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

in my thoughts afterwards, yet took up none of my apprehen-
sions at first, but my head ran mightily upon the thought of get-
ting over to the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand
miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain. Then I thought
I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was
blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we
were first cast away. She lay almost where she did at first, but
not quite; and was turned, by the force of the waves and the
winds, almost bottom upward, against a high ridge of beachy
rough sand, but no water about her, as before.

If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched
her into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and I
might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily enough;
but I might have foreseen that I could no more turn her and set
her upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the island.
However, I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers, and
brought them to the boat, resolved to try what I could do; sug-
gesting to myself that if I could but turn her down, I might easily
repair the damage she had received, and she would be a very
good boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and
spent, I think, three or four weeks about it. At last finding it im-
possible to heave it up with my little strength, I fell to digging
away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall down, set-
ting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall. But
when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or to get
under it, much less to move it forward towards the water; so I
was forced to give it over. And yet, though I gave over the hopes
of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main increased,
rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible.

This at length put me upon thinking whether it was not pos-
sible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of
those climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say, with-
out hands, viz., of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 89

thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with the
thoughts of making it, and with my having much more con-
venience for it than any of the negroes or Indians; but not at all
considering the particular inconveniences which I lay under more
than the Indians did, viz., want of hands to move it, when it was
made, into the water, a difficulty much harder for me to sur-
mount than all the consequences of want of tools could be to
them. For what was it to me, that when I had chosen a vast tree
in the woods, I might with much trouble cut it down, if, after I
might be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into the
proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it
hollow, so as to make a boat of it; if, after all this, I must leave it
just there where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the
water?

One would have thought I could not have had the least re-
flection upon my mind of my circumstance while I was making
this boat, but I should have immediately thought how I should
get into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage
over the sea in it, that I never once considered how I should get
it off of the land; and it was really, in its own nature, more easy
for me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea, than about forty-five
fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever
man did who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with
the design, without determining whether I was ever able to
undertake it. Not but that the difficulty of launching my boat
came often into my head; but I put a stop to my own inquiries
into it, by this foolish answer which I gave myself, “Let’s first
make it; Pll warrant I'll find some way or other to get it along
when ’tis done.”

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my
fancy prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar tree: I ques-
tion much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building
of the Temple at Jerusalem. It was five feet ten inches diameter
at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches
diameter at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it lessened for
90 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

awhile, and then parted into branches. It was not without infinite
labor that I felled this tree. I was twenty days hacking and hew-
ing at it at the bottom; I was fourteen more getting the branches
and limbs, and the vast spreading head of it cut off, which I
hacked and hewed through with axe and hatchet, and inex-
pressible labor. After this, it cost me a month to shape it and dub
it to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that
it might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three
months more to clear the inside, and work it so as to make an
exact boat of it. This I did, indeed, without fire, by mere mallet
and chisel, and by the dint of hard labor, till I had brought it to
be a very handsome periagua and big enough to have carried six
and twenty men, and consequently big enough to have carried
me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted
with it. The boat was really much bigger than I ever saw a canoe
or periagua, that was made of one tree in my life. Many a weary
stroke it had cost, you may be sure; and there remained nothing
but to get it into the water; and had I gotten it into the water, I
make no question but I should have begun the maddest voyage,
and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me, though
they cost me infinite labor too. It lay about one hundred yards
from the water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was,
it was uphill towards the creek. Well, to take away this discour-
agement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so
make a declivity. This I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal
of pains; but who grudges pains, that have their deliverance in
view? But when this was worked through, and this difficulty
managed, it was still much at one, for I could no more stir the
canoe than I could the other boat.

Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a
dock or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could
not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work;
and when I began to enter into it, and calculate how deep it was
to be dug, how broad, how the stuff to. be thrown out, I found
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 91

that by the number of hands I had, being none but my own, it
must have been ten or twelve years before I should have gone
through with it; for the shore lay high, so that at the upper end
it must have been at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though
with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the
folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before
we judge rightly of our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this
place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and
with as much comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study and
serious application of the Word of God, and by the assistance of
His grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had be-
fore. I entertained different notions of things. I looked now upon
the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do with, no
expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about. In a word, I had
nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever like to have; so I
thought it looked, as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz.,
as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it; and well might
I say, as Father Abraham to Dives, “Between me and thee is a
great gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the
world here. I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye,
or the pride of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all that I was
now capable of enjoying. I was lord of the whole manor; or, if I
pleased, I might call myself king or emporer over the whole
country which I had possession of. There were no rivals: I had
no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or command with me.
I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use for it;
so I let as little grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had
tortoise or turtles enough, but now and then one was as much as
I could put to any use. I had timber enough to have built a fleet
of ships. I had grapes enough to have made wine, or to have cured
into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when they had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable. I had
enough to eat, and to supply my wants, and what was all the rest
92 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

to me? If I killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog must eat it,
or the vermin. If I sowed more corn than I could eat, it must be
spoiled. The trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the ground;
I could make no more use of them than for fuel, and that I had
no occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me,
upon just reflection, that all the good things of this world are no
farther good to us than they are for our use; and that whatever we
may heap up indeed to give others, we enjoy just as much as we
can use, and no more. The most covetous, griping miser in the
world would have been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had
been in my case; for I possessed infinitely more than I knew what
to do with. I had no room for desire, except it was of things which
I had not, and they were but trifles, though indeed of great use to
me. I had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as
silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty,
sorry, usless stuff lay; I had no manner of business for it; and I
often thought with myself, that I would have given a handful of it
for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind my corn;
nay, I would have given it all for six-pennyworth of turnip and
carrot seed out of England, or for a handful of peas and beans,
and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least advantage by it,
or benefit from it; but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy
with the damp of the cave in the wet season; and if I had had the
drawer full of diamonds, it had been the same case, and they had
been of no manner of value to me because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself
than it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my
body. I frequently sat down’ to my meat with thankfulness, and
admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread my
table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side
of my condition, and less upon the dark side, and to consider what
I enjoyed, rather than what I wanted; and this gave me sometimes
such secret comforts, that I cannot express them; and which I take
notice of here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who
cannot enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 93

see and covet something that He has not given them. All our
discontents about what we want, appeared to me to spring from
the want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would
be so to any one that should fall into such distress as mine was; and
this was, to compare my present condition with what I at first
expected it should be; nay, with what it would certainly have
been, if the good providence of God had not wonderfully ordered
the ship to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I not only could
come at her, but could bring what I got out of her to the shore,
for my relief and comfort; without which I had wanted for tools
to work, weapons for defence, or gunpowder and shot for getting
my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to
myself, in the most lively colors, how I must have acted if I had
got nothing out of the ship. How I could not have so much as got
any food, except fish and turtles; and that as it was long before I
found any of them, I must have perished first; that I should have
lived, if I had not perished, like a mere savage; that if I had killed
a goat or a fowl, by any contrivance, I had no way to flay or open
them, or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to cut it up;
but must gnaw it with my teeth; and pull it with my claws, like
a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of
Providence to me, and very thankful for my present condition, with
all its hardships and misfortunes; and this part also I cannot but
recommend to the reflection of those who are apt, in their misery,
to say, Is any affliction like mine? Let them consider how much
worse the cases of some people are, and their case might have been,
if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my
mind with hopes; and this was, comparing my present condition
with what I had deserved, and had therefore, reason to expect from
the hand of Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly
destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had been well
instructed by father and mother; neither had they been wanting
94 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

to me in their early endeavors to infuse a religious awe of God
into my mind, a sense of my duty, and of what the nature and
end of my being required of me. But, alas! falling early into the
seafaring life, which, of all the lives, is the most destitute of the
fear of God, though His terrors are always before them; I say,
falling early into the seafaring life, and into seafaring company,
all that little sense of religion which I had entertained was laughed
out of me by my messmates; by a hardened despising of dangers,
and the views of death, which grew habitual to me; by my long
absence from all manner of opportunities to converse with any-
thing but what was like myself, or to hear anything that was
good, or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least sense
of what I was, or was to be, that in the greatest deliverances I
enjoyed, such as my escape from Sallee; my being taken up by the
Portuguese master of the ship; my being planted so well in the
Brazils; my receiving the cargo from England, and the like; I
never had once the words, “Thank God,” as much as on my mind,
or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress had I so much as a
thought to pray to Him, or so much as to say, “Lord, have mercy
upan me!” no, nor to mention the name of God, unless it was
to swear by and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I
have already observed, on the account of my wicked and hardened
life past; and when I looked about me, and considered what
particular providences had attended me since my coming into this
place, and how God had dealt bountifully with me, had not only
punished me less than my iniquity had deserved, but had so plenti-
fully provided for me; this gave me great hopes that my repentance
was accepted, and that God had yet mercy in store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to
resignation to the will of God in the present disposition of my
circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my condition;
and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to complain, see-
ing I had not the due punishment of my sins; that I enjoyed so
many mercies, which I had no reason to have expected in that
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 95

place; that I ought never more to repine at my condition, but to
rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which nothing
but a crowd of wonders could have brought; that I ought to con-
sider I had been fed even by miracle, even as great as that of
feeding Elijah by ravens; nay, by a long series of miracles; and
that I could hardly have named a place in the unhabitable part of
the world where I could have been cast more to my advantage; a
place where, as I had no society, which was my affliction on one
hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or tigers,
to threaten my life; no venomous creatures or poisonous, which
I might feed on to my hurt; no savages to murder and devour me.

In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way, so it was a
life of mercy another; and I wanted nothing to make it a life of
comfort, but to be able to make my sense of God’s goodness to me,
and care over me in this condition, be my daily consolation; and
after I did make a just improvement of these things, I went away,
and was no more sad.

I had now been here so long, that many things which I brought
on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very much wasted,
and near spent. My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some
time, all but a very little, which I eked out with water, a little and
a little, till it was so pale it scarce left any appearance of black
upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute
down the days of the month on which any remarkable thing
happened to me. And, first, by casting up times past, I remember
that there was a strange concurrence of days in the various pro-
vidences which befell me, and which, if I had been superstitiously
inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had
reason to have looked upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I broke away
from my father and my friends, and run away to Hull, in order to
go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-
of-war, and made a slave.

The same day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of
that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day-year afterwards I
made my escape from Sallee in the boat.
96 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

The same day of the year I was born on, viz., the 30th of
September, that same day I had my life so miraculously saved
twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore in this island;
so that my wicked life and my solitary life began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink’s being wasted, was that of my bread;
I mean the biscuit, which I brought out of the ship. This I had
husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread
a day for above a year; and yet I was quite without bread for near
a year before I got any corn of my own; and great reason I had to
be thankful that I had any at all, the getting it being, as has been
already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes began to decay, too, mightily. As to linen, I had
none a good while, except some chequered shirts which I found in
the chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully preserved,
because many times I could bear no other clothes on but a shirt;
and it was a very great help to me that I had, among all the men’s
clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There was also
several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s which were left indeed,
but they were too hot to wear; and though it is true that the
weather was so violent hot that there was no need of clothes, yet
I could not go quite naked, no, though I had been inclined to it,
which I was not, nor could abide the thoughts of it, though I was
all alone.

The reason why I could not go quite naked was, I could not
bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked as with some
clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered my skin;
whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and
whistling under that shirt, was twofold cooler than without it. No
more could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun
without a cap or hat. The heat of the sun beating with such
violence, as it does in that place, would give me the headache
presently, by darting so directly on my head, without a cap or
hat on, so that I could not bear it; whereas, if I put on my hat, it
would presently go away.

Upon those views, I began to consider about putting the few
rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order. I had worn
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 97

out all the waistcoats I had, and my business was now to try if I
could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats which I had by
me, and with such other materials as I had; so I set to work
a-tailoring, or rather, indeed, a-botching, for I made most piteous
work of it. However, I made shift to make me two or three new
waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great while. As for
breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed till
afterward.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that
I killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had hung them up stretched
out with sticks in the sun, by which means some of them were so
dry and hard that they were fit for little, but others it seems were
very useful. The first thing I made of these was a great cap for
my head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain; and
this I performed so well, that after this I made me a suit of clothes
wholly of these skins, that is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open
at knees, and both loose, for they were rather wanting to keep me
cool than to keep me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that
they were wretchedly made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a
worse tailor. However, they were such as I made very good shift
with; and when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of my
waistcoat and cap being outermost, I had no trouble keeping dry.

After this I spent a great deal of time and pains to make me
an umbrella. I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great
mind to make one. I had seen them made in the Brazils, where
they are very useful in the great heats which are there; and I felt
the heats every jot as great here, and greater, too, being nearer the
equinox. Besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a
most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats. I took a
world of pains at it, and was a great while before I could make
anything likely to hold; nay, after I thought I had hit the way, I
spoiled two or three before I made one to my mind; but at last I
made one that answered indifferently well. The main difficulty I
found was to make it to let down. I could make it to spread; but
if it did not let down too, and draw in, it was not portable for me
any way but just over my head, which would not do. However,
98 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

at last, as I said, I made one to answer, and covered it with skins,
the hair upwards, so that it cast off the rains like a pent-house and
kept off the sun so effectually, that I could walk out in the hottest
of the weather with greater advantage than I could before in the
coolest; and when I had no need of it, could close it, and carry
it under my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely com-
posed by resigning to the will of God, and throwing myself wholly
upon the disposal of His providence. This made my life better
than sociable; for when I began to regret the want of conversa-
tion, I would ask myself whether thus conversing mutually with
my own thoughts and, as I hope I may say, with even God Him-
self, by ejaculations, was not better than the utmost enjoyment of
human society in the world?

I cannot say that after this, for five years, any extraordinary
thing happened to me; but I lived on in the same course, in the
same posture and place, just as before. The chief things I was em-
ployed in, besides my yearly labor of planting my barley and rice,
and curing my raisins, of both which I always kept up just enough
to have sufficient stock of one year’s provisions beforehand—I say,
besides this yearly labor, and my daily labor of going out with
my gun, I had one labor, to make me a canoe, which at last I
finished; so that by digging a canal to it of six feet wide, and four
feet deep, I brought it into the creek, almost half a mile. As for the
first, which was so vastly big, as I made it without considering
beforehand, as I ought to do, how I could be able to launch it; so,
never being able to bring it to the water, or to bring the water to
it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was, as a memorandum to
teach me to be wiser next time. Indeed, the next time, though I
could not ‘get a tree proper for it, and in a place where I could not
get the water to it at any less distance than, as I have said, near
half a mile, yet as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it
over; and though I was near two years about it, yet I never grudged
my labor, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size
of it was not at all answerable to the design which I had in view
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 99

when I made the first; I mean, of venturing over to the terra firma,
where it was about forty miles broad. Accordingly, the smallness
of my boat assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought
no more of it. But as I had a boat, my next design was to make a
tour round the island; for as I had been on the other side in one
place, crossing, as I have already described it, over the land, so the
discoveries I made in that little journey made me very eager to
see the other parts of the coast; and now I had a boat, I thought of
nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion
and consideration, I fitted up a little mast to my boat, and made a
sail to it out of some of the pieces of the ship’s sail, which lay in
store, and of which I had a great stock by me.

Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found she
would sail very well. Then I made little lockers, or boxes, at
either end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, and ammuni-
tion, etc., into, to be kept dry, either from rain or the spray of the
sea; and a little long hollow place I cut in the inside of the boat,
where I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang down over it to
keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to
stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off of me, like an
awning; and thus I every now and then took a little voyage upon
the sea, but never went far out, nor far from the little creek. But
at last, being eager to view the circumference of my little kingdom,
I resolved upon my tour; and accordingly I victualled my ship for
the voyage, putting in two dozen of my loaves (cakes I should
rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched
rice, a food I eat a great deal of, a little bottle of rum, half a goat,
and powder and shot for killing more, and two large watch-
coats, of those which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of
the seamen’s chests; these I took, one to lie upon, and the other to
cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or
my captivity, which you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I
found it much longer than I expected; for though the island itself
100 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

was not very large, yet when I came to the east side of it I found
a great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea, some
above water, some under it, and beyond that a shoal of sand,
lying dry half a league more; so that I was obliged to go a great
way out to sea to double the point.

When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my
enterprise, and come back again, not knowing how far it might
oblige me to go out to sea, and, above all, doubting how I should
get back again, so I came to an anchor; for I had made me a kind
of an anchor with a piece of a broken grappling which I got out
of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore,
climbing up upon a hill, which seemed to overlook that point,
where I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill, where I stood, I perceived
a strong, and indeed a most furious current, which run to the east,
and even came close to the point; and I took the more notice of it,
because I saw there might be some danger that when I came into
it I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be
able to make the island again. And, indeed, had I not gotten first
up upon this hill, I believe it would have been so; for there was
the same current on the other side of the island, only that it set
off at a farther distance; and I saw there was a strong eddy under
the shore; so I had nothing to do but to get in out of the first
current, and I should presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days; because the wind, blowing
pretty fresh at E. S. E., and that being just contrary to the said
current, made a great breach of the sea upon the point; so that it
was not safe for me to keep too close to the shore for the breach,
nor to go too far off because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated over-
night, the sea was calm, and I ventured. But I am a warning-piece
again to all rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to
the point, when even I was not my boat’s length from the shore,
but I found myself in a great depth of water, and a current like
the sluice of a mill. It carried my boat along with it with such
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe IOI

violence, that all I could do could not keep her so much as on the
edge of it, but I found it hurried me farther and farther out from
the eddy, which was on my left hand. There was no wind stirring
to help me, and all I could do with my paddlers signified nothing.
And now I began to give myself over for lost; for, as the current
was on both sides of the island, I knew in a few leagues’ distance
they must join again, and then I was irrevocably gone. Nor did I
see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had no prospect before
me but of perishing; not by the sea, for that was calm enough, but
of starving for hunger. I had indeed found a tortoise on the shore,
as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I
had a great jar of fresh water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots;
but what was all this to being driven into the vast ocean, where,
to be sure, there was no shore, for a thousand leagues at least.
And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to
make the most miserable condition mankind could be in worse.
Now I looked back upon my desolate solitary island as the most
pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness my heart could
wish for was to be but there again. I stretched out my hands to it,
with eager wishes. “O happy desert!” said I, “I shall never see thee
more. O miserable creature,” said I, “whither am I going?” Then
I reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and how I had
repined at my solitary condition; and now what would I give to
be on shore there again. Thus we never see the true state of our
condition till it is illustrated to us by its contraries; nor know how
to value what we enjoy, but by want of it. It is scarce possible to
imagine the consternation I was now in, being driven from my
beloved island (for so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide
ocean, almost two leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever recov-
ering it again. However, I worked hard, till indeed my strength
was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the north-
ward, that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy lay
on, as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun passed the
meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face, spring-
ing up from the S. S. E. This cheered my heart a little, and
especially when, in about half an hour more, it blew a pretty small
102 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

gentle gale. By this time I was gotten at a frightful distance from
the island; and had the least cloud or hazy weather intervened, I
had been undone another way too; for I had no compass on board,
and should never have known how to have steered towards the
island if I had but once lost sight of it. But the weather continuing
clear, I applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my
sail, standing away to the north as much as possible, to get out of
the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch
away, I saw even by the clearness of the water some alteration of
the current was near; for where the current was too strong the
water was foul. But perceiving the water clear, I found the cur-
rent abate, and presently I found to the east, at about half a mile,
a breach of the sea upon some rocks. These rocks I found caused
the current to part again; and as the main stress of it ran away
more southernly, leaving the rocks to the northeast, so the other
returned by the repulse of the rocks, and made a strong eddy,
which ran back again to the northwest with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them
upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to murder
them, or who have been in such like extremities, may guess what
my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into
the stream of this eddy; and the wind also freshening, how gladly
I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before the wind, and
with a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again,
directly towards the island, but about two leagues more to the
northward than the current which carried me away at first; so
that when I came near the island, I found myself open to the
northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the island,
opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by the
help of this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no
farther. However, I found that being between the two great cur-
rents, viz., that on the south side, which had hurried me away,
and that on the north, which lay about a league on the other side;
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 103

I say, between these two, in the wake of the island, I found the
water at least still, and running no way; and having still a breeze
of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the island,
though not making such fresh way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within about a
league of the island, I found the point of the rocks which oc-
casioned this disaster stretching out, as is described before, to the
southward, and casting off the current more southwardly, had,
of course, made another eddy to the north, and this I found very
strong, but not directly setting the way my course lay, which was
due west, but almost full north. However, having a fresli gale, I
stretched across this eddy, slanting northwest; and in about an
hour came within about a mile of the shore, where, it being smooth
water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks
for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my de-
liverance by my boat; and refreshing myself with such things as
I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that I
had spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep, being
quite spent with the labor and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat.
T had run so much hazard, and knew too much the case, to think
of attempting it by the way I went out; and what might be at the
other side (I mean the west side) I knew not, nor had I any mind
to run any more ventures. So I only resolved in the morning to
make my way westward along the shore, and to see if there was
no creek where I might lay up my frigate in safety, so as to have
her again if I wanted her. In about three miles, or thereabouts,
coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet or bay, about a mile
over, which narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet or brook,
where I found a very convenient harbor for my boat, and where
she lay as if she had been in a little dock made on purpose for
her. Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I went
on shore to look about me, and see where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I had
been before, when I traveled on foot to that shore; so taking
104 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

nothing out of my boat but my gun and my umbrella, for it was
exceedingly hot, I began my march. The way was comfortable
enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my
old bower in the evening, where I found everything standing as
I left it; for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said before,
my country house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my
limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep. But judge you, if you
can that read my story, what a surprise I must have been in when
I was awakened out of my sleep by a voice, calling me by my
name several times: “Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe! poor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where are you? Where
have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing or
paddling, as it is called, the first part of the day, and walking
the latter part, that I did not awake thoroughly; and dozing be-
tween sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat, “Robin Crusoe!
Robin Crusoe!” at last I began to awake more perfectly, and was
at first dreadfully frightened, and started up in the utmost con-
sternation. But no sooner were my eyes open, but I saw my Poll
sitting on the top of the hedge, and immediately knew that it
was he that spoke to me; for just in such a bemoaning language
I had used to talk to him; and he had learned it so perfectly that
he would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and
cry, “Poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you been?
How came you here?” And such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that in-
deed it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I could
compose myself. First I was amazed how the creature got thither;
and then, how he should just keep about the place, and nowhere
else; but as I was well satisfied it could be nobody but honest Poll,
I got over it; and holding out my hand, and calling him by his
name, “Poll,” the sociable creature came to me, and sat upon my
thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me, “Poor Robin
Crusoe? and how did I come here? and where had I been?” just as
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 105

if he had been overjoyed to see me again; and so I carried him
home along with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and
had enough to do for many days to sit still and reflect upon the
danger I had been in. I would have been very glad to have had my
boat again on my side of the island; but I knew not how it was
practicable to get it about. As to the east side of the island, which
I had gone round, I knew well enough there was no venturing
that way; my very heart would shrink, and my very blood run
chill, but to think of it; and as to the other side of the island, I
did not know how it might be there. But supposing the current
ran with the same force against the shore at the east as it passed
by it on the other, I might run the same risk of being driven down
the stream, and carried by the island, as I had been before of being
carried away from it. So with these thoughts I contented myself
to be without any boat, though it had been the product of so many
months’ labor to make it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper, I remained near a year;
lived a very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and my
thoughts being very much composed as to my condition, and fully
comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of Providence,
I thought I lived really very happily in all things, except that of
society.

I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises
which my necessities put me upon applying myself to; and I be-
lieve I should, upon occasion, have made a very good carpenter,
especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthen-
ware, and contrived well enough to make them with a wheel,
which I found infinitely easier and better; because I made things
round and shaped, which before were filthy things indeed to look
on. But I think I was never more vain of my own performance,
or more joyful for anything I found out, than for my being able
to make a tobacco pipe; and though it was a very ugly, clumsy
thing when it was done, and only burnt red, like other earthen-
ware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would draw the smoke, I
106 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

was exceedingly comforted with it, for I had been always used
to smoke; and there were pipes in the ship, but I forgot them at
first, not thinking that there was tobacco in the island; and after-
wards, when I searched the ship again, I could not come at any
pipes.

In my wickerware also I improved much, and made abundance
of necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed me. Though
not very handsome, yet they were such as were very handy and
convenient for laying things up in, or fetching things home. For
example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up in a tree,
flay it, and dress it, and cut it in pieces, and bring it home in a
basket: and the like by a turtle; I could cut it up, take out the eggs
and a piece or two of the flesh, which was enough for me, and
bring them home in a basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also,
large deep baskets were my receivers for my corn, which I al-
ways rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and cured; and kept it in
great baskets, instead of a granary.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably; and
this was a want which it was impossible for me to supply, and
I began seriously to consider what I must do when I should have
no more powder; that is to say. how I should do to kill any goats.

I had, as I observed in the third day of my being here, kept a
young kid, and bred her up tame. I was in hopes of getting a he-
kid: but I could not by any means bring it to pass, till my kid
grew to be an old goat; and as I could never find in my heart to
kill her, she died at last of mere age.

Being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have
said, my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some
art to trap and snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch
some of them alive; and particularly, I wanted a she-goat great
with young. To this purpose I made snares to hamper them; and
I believe they were more than once taken in them; but my tackle
was not good, for I had no wire, and always found them broken,
and my bait devoured. At length I resolve to try a pitfall: so I dug
several large pits in the earth, in places where I had observed the
goats used to feed, and over these pits I placed hurdles, of my
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 107

own making too, with a great weight upon them; and several
times I put ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the trap;
and I could easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten
up the corn, for I could see the marks of their feet. At length I
set three traps in one night, and going the next morning I found
them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone. This was
very discouraging. However I altered my traps; and, not to trouble
you with particulars, going one morning to see my traps I found
in one of them a large old he-goat; and in one of the others three
kids, a male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him. He was
so fierce I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to go
about to bring him away alive, which was what I wanted. I could
have killed him, but that was not my business, nor would it answer
my end; so I even let him out, and he ran away as if he had been
frightened out of his wits. But I had forgot then what I learned
afterwards, that hunger will tame a lion. If I had let him stay
there three or four days without food, and then have carried him
some water to drink, and then a little corn, he would have been
as tame as one of the kids; for they are mighty sagacious, tractable
creatures, where they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at
the time. Then I went to the three kids, and taking them one by
one, I tied them with strings together, and with some difficulty
brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing them
some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame.
And now I found that if I expected to supply myself with goat’s
flesh, when I had no powder or shots left, breeding some up tame
was my only way; when, perhaps, I might have them about my
house like a flock of sheep. But, then, it occurred to me that I
must keep the tame from the wild, or else they would always run
wild when they grew up; and the only way for this was to have
some inclosed piece of ground, well fenced either with hedge or
pale, to keep them up so effectually that those within might not
break out or those without break in.
108 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet as I
saw there was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first piece of
work was to find out a proper piece of ground; viz., where there
was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for them to drink,
and cover to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such inclosures will think I had very
little contrivance, when I pitched upon a place very proper for
all these, being a plain, open piece of meadow land, or savanna (as
our people call it in the western colonies), which had two or three
little drills of fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody; I
say, they will smile at my forecast, when I shall tell them I began
by inclosing of this piece of ground in such a manner that my
hedge or pale must have been at least two miles about. Nor was
the madness of it so great as to the compass, for if it was ten miles
about I was like to have time enough to do it in. But I did not
consider that my goats would be as wild in so much compass as
if they had had the whole island, and I should have so much room
to chase them in that I should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty
yards, when this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped
short, and, for the first beginning, I resolved to inclose a piece of
about one hundred and fifty yards in length, and one hundred
yards in breadth, which as it would maintain as many as I should
have in any reasonable time, so, as my flock increased, I could add
more ground to my inclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with
courage. I was about three months hedging in the first piece; and
till I had done it, I tethered the three kids in the best part of it,
and used them to feed as near me as possible, to make them
familiar; and very often I would go and carry them some ears of
barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand; so
that, after my inclosure was finished, and I let them loose, they
would follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful
of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had
a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years more
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 109
I had three-and-forty, besides several that I took and killed for my

food; and after that, I inclosed five several pieces of ground to
feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to take them as
I wanted them, and gates out of one piece of ground into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had goat’s flesh to feed
on when I pleased, but milk too—a thing which indeed in my
beginning I did not so much as think of, and which, when it
came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise; for now
I set. up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk in
a day. And as Nature, who gives supplies of food to every crea-
ture, dictates even naturally how to make use of it, so I, that never
milked a cow, much less a goat, or saw butter or cheese made,
very readily and handily, though after a great many essays and
miscarriages, made me both butter and cheese at last, and never
wanted it afterwards. How mercifully can our Creator treat His
creatures, even in those conditions in which they seemed to be
overwhelmed in destruction! How can He sweeten the bitterest
providences, and give us cause to praise Him for dungeons and
prisons! What a table was here spread for me in a wilderness,
where I saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger.

It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my little
family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince and
lord of the whole island; I had the lives of all my subjects at
absolute command; I could hang, draw, give life and liberty and
take it away, and no rebels among all my subjects. Then to see
how like a king I dined too, all alone, attended by my servants!
Poll, as if he had been my favorite, was the only person permitted
to talk to me; my dog, who was now grown very old and crazy,
and had found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at
my right hand; and two cats, one on one side the table, and one on
the other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark
of special favor.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at
first, for they were both of them dead, and had been interred near
my habitation by my own hand; but one of them having multi-
plied by I know not what kind of creature, these were two which
110 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I preserved tame; whereas the rest ran wild in the woods, and
became indeed troublesome to me at last; for they would often
come into my house, and plunder me too, till at-last I was obliged
to shoot them, and did kill a great many; at length they left me.
With this attendance and in this plentiful manner I lived; neither
could I be said to want anything but society; and of that, in some
time after this, I was likely to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use
of my boat, though very loath to run any more hazard; and
therefore sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her about the
island, and at other times I sat myself down contented enough
without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go
down to the point of the island where, as I have said, in my last
ramble I went up the hill to see how the shore lay, and how the
current set, that I might see what I had to do. This inclination
increased upon me every day, and at length I resolved to travel
thither by land; and following the edge of the shore, I did so; but
had any one in England met such a man as I was it must either
have frighted them, or raised a great deal of laughter: and as I
frequently stood still to look at myself, I could not but smile at
the notion of my traveling through Yorkshire with such an
equipage, and in such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my
figure, as follows:

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of goat’s skin, with a
flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me
as to shoot the rain off from running into my neck; nothing
being so hurtful in these climates as the heavy beating of rain
upon the flesh under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down to
about the middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches
of the same; the breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat,
whose hair hung down such a length on either side, that, like panta-
loons, it reached to the middle of my legs. Stockings and shoes I had
none, but made me a pair of somethings, I scarce knew what to call
them, like buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace on either side like
spatterdashes, but of a most barbarous shape, as indeed were all the
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 111

rest of my clothes. I had a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I
drew together with two thongs of the same, instead of buckles; and
in a kind of a frog on either side of this, instead of a sword and
dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one on one side, one on the
other. I had another belt not so broad, and fastened in the same
manner, which hung over my shoulder; and at the end of it, under
my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s skin too, in one
of which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I
carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun, and over my head a
great clumsy, ugly, goatskin umbrella, but which, after all, was the
most necessary thing I had about me next to my gun. As for my
face, the color of it was really not so mulattolike as one might expect
from a man not at all careful of it, and living within nine or ten
degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow till
it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both scissors and
razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty short, except what grew on my
upper lip, which I had trimmed in to a large pair of Mahometan
whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee, for the
Moors did not wear such, though the Turks did; of these mous-
tachios, or whiskers, I will not say they were long enough to hang
my hat upon them, but they were of a length and shape monstrous
enough, and such as in England would have passed for frightful.
But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure, I had so few to
observe me that it was of no manner of consequence, so I say no
more to that part. In this kind of dress I went. my new journey,
and was out five or six days. I traveled first along the seashore, di-
rectly to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor to
get up upon the rocks; and having no boat now to take care of, I
went over the land a nearer way to the same height that I was
upon before, when, looking forward to the point of the rock which
lay out, and which I was obliged to double with my boat, as I said
above, I was surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet—no rip-
pling, no motion, no current, any more there than in other places.
I was at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved to spend
some time in the observing it, to see if nothing from the sets of the
tide had occasioned it; but I was presently convinced how it was,
112 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

viz., that the tide of ebb setting from the west, and joining with
the current of waters from some great river on the shore, must be
the occasion of this current; and that according as the wind blew
more forcibly from the west or from the north, this current came
near, or went farther from the shore; for, waiting thereabouts till
evening, I went up to the rock again, and then the tide of ebb
being made, I plainly saw the current again as before, only that it
ran farther off, being near half a league from the shore, whereas
in my case it set close upon the shore, and hurried me in my canoe
along with it, which at another time it would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to
observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might very
easily bring my boat about the island again; but when I began to
think about putting it in practice, I had such terror upon my spirits
at the remembrance of the danger I had been in, that I could not
think of it again with any patience; but on the contrary, I took up
another resolution, which was more safe, though more laborious—
and this was, thatI would build, or rather make me another
periagua or canoe; and so have one for one side of the island and
one for the other.

You are to understand that now I had, as I may call it, two
plantations in the island; one my little fortification or tent, with
the wall about it, under the rock, with the cave behind me, which
by this time I had enlarged into several apartments, or caves, one
within another. One of these, which was the driest and largest
and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification, that is to say,
beyond where my wall joined to the rock, was all filled up with
large earthen pots, of which I have given an account, and with
fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would hold five or six
bushels each, where I laid up my stores of provision, especially
my corn, some in the ear, cut off short from the straw, and the
other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those
piles grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so big, and
spread so very much, that there was not the least appearance, to
any one’s view, of any habitation behind them.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 113

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land,
and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land, which I
kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which duly yielded me their
harvest in its season; and whenever I had occasion for more corn,
I had more land adjoining, as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country-seat, and I had now a tolerable
plantation there also; for first, I had my little bower, as I called
it, which I kept in repair—that is to say, I kept the hedge, which
circled it in, constantly fitted up to its usual height, the ladder
standing always in the inside; I kept the trees, which at first were
no more than my stakes, but were now grown very firm and tall,
always so cut that they might spread and grow thick and wild,
and make the more agreeable shade, which they did effectually to
my mind. In the middle of this I had my tent always standing,
being a piece of a sail spread over poles set up for that purpose,
and which never wanted any repair or renewing; and under
this I had made me a squab or couch, with the skins of the
creatures I had killed, and with other soft things, and a blanket
laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had
saved; and a great watchcoat to cover me; and here, whenever I
had occasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my coun-
try habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my cattle, that is to
say, my goats; and as IJ had taken an inconceivable deal of pains
to fence and inclose this ground, I was so anxious to see it kept
entire, lest the goats should break through, that I never left off
till, with infinite labor, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so
full of small stakes, and so near to one another, that it was rather
a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put a hand
through between them; which afterwards, when those stakes
grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, made the inclosure
strong like a wall—indeed stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared
no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my
comfortable support; for I considered the keeping up a breed of
tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living magazine of
114 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived in this
place, if it were to be forty years; and that keeping them in my
reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my inclosures to
such a degree that I might be sure of keeping them together;
which, by this method, indeed, I so effectually secured, that when
these little stakes began to grow, I had planted them so very
thick I was forced to pull some of them up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally
depended on for my winter store of raisins, and which I never
failed to preserve very carefully, as the best and most agreeable
dainty of my whole diet; and, indeed, they were not agreeable
only, but physical, wholesome nourishing, and refreshing to the
last degree.

As this was only halfway between my other habitation and the
place where I had laid up my boat, I generally stayed and lay
here on my way thither, for I used frequently to visit my boat;
and I kept all things about, or belonging to her, in very good
order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert myself, but no more
hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a stone’s cast
or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out
of my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or any other
accident. But now I come to a new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I
was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man’s naked foot
on the shore, which was very plain to be seen on the sand. I stood
like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition. I lis-
tened, I looked round me, but I could hear nothing, nor see any-
thing; I went up to a rising ground, to look farther; I went up
the shore, and down the shore, but it was all one: I could see no
other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there
were any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy; but
there was no room for that, for there was exactly the print of a
foot—toes, heel, and every part of a foot. How it came thither I
knew not, nor could in the least imagine. But after innumerable
fluttering thoughts like a man perfectly confused and out of
himself, I came home to my fortification, not feeling, as we say,
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 115

the ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree, looking
behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every bush and
tree, and fancying every stump at a distance to be a man. Nor is
it possible to describe how many various shapes my affrighted
imagination presented things to me in; how many wild ideas
were formed every moment in my fancy, and what strange,
unaccountable whimseys came into my thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after
this), I fled into it like one pursued. Whether I went over by the
ladder, as first contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock, which
I called a door, I cannot remember; for never frighted hare fled
to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than I to this
retreat.

I had no sleep that night; the farther I was from the occasion
of my fright, the greater my apprehensions were, which is some-
thing contrary to the nature of such things, and especially to the
usual practice of all creatures in fear; but I was so embarrassed
with my own frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing
but dismal imaginations to myself, even though I was now a great
way off it. Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil; and reason
joined in with me upon this supposition. For how should any
other thing in human shape come into the place? Where was the
vessel that brought them? What marks were there of any other
footsteps? And how was it possible a man should come there?
But then to think that Satan should take human shape upon him
in such a place, there could be no manner of occasion for it, but
to leave the print of his foot behind him, and that even for no
purpose too, for he could not be sure I should see it—this was
an amazement the other way. I considered that the devil might
have found out abundance of other ways to have terrified me
than this of the simple print of a foot; that as I lived quite on the
other side of the island he would never have been so simple as to
leave a mark in a place where it was ten thousand to one whether
I should ever see it or not, and in the sand too, which the first
surge of the sea, upon a high wind, would have defaced entirely.
All this seemed inconsistent with the thing itself.
116 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out of
all apprehensions of its being the devil; and I presently concluded
then, that it must be some more dangerous creature; viz., that it
must be some of the savages of the mainland over against me,
who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and either driven
by the currents or by contrary winds, had made the island, and
had been on shore, but were gone away again to sea; being as
loathe, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I would
have been to have them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was very
thankful in my thought that I was so happy as not to be there-
abouts at that time, or that they did not see my boat, by which
they would have concluded that some inhabitants had been in the
place, and perhaps have searched farther for me. Then terrible
thoughts racked my imagination about their having found my
boat, and that there were people here; and that, if so, I should
certainly have them come again in greater numbers, and devour
me; that if it should happen that they should not find me, yet
they would find my inclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry
away all my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last for
mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope; all that former
confidence in God, which was founded upon such wonderful ex-
perience as I had had of his goodness, now vanished; as if he that
had fed me by miracle hitherto, could not preserve by his power
the provision which He had made for me by His goodness. I re-
proached myself with my laziness, that would not sow any more
corn one year than would just serve me till the next season, as if
no accident could intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop that
was upon the ground; and this I thought so just a reproof that I
resolved for the future to have two or three years’ corn before-
hand, so that, whatever might come, I might not perish for want
of bread.

How strange a checkerwork of Providence is the life of man!
And by what secret differing springs are the affections hurried
about, as differing circumstances present! To-day we love what
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 117

to-morrow we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun; to-
day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even tremble at the
apprehensions of. This was exemplified in me at this time in the
most lively manner imaginable; for I, whose only affliction was
that I seemed banished from human society, that I was alone, cir-
cumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and
condemned to what I call silent life; that I was as one whom
Heaven thought not worthy to be numbered among the living,
or to appear amongst the rest of his creatures; that to have seen
one of my own species would have seemed to me a raising me
from death to life, and the greatest blessing that Heaven itself,
next to the supreme blessing of salvation, could bestow; I say,
that I should now tremble at the every apprehensions of seeing a
man, and was ready to sink into the ground at but the shadow
or silent appearance of a man having set his foot on the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it affords me a
great many curious speculations afterwards, when I had a little
recovered my first surprise. I considered that this was the station
of life the infinitely wise and good providence of God had de-
termined for me; that as I could not foresee what the end of
Divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was not to dispute his
Sovereignty, who, as I was his creature, had an undoubted right
by creation to govern and dispose of me absolutely as he thought
fit; and who, as I was a creature who had offended him, had like-
wise a judicial right to condemn me to what punishment he
thought fit; and that it was my part to submit to bear his indigna-
tion, because I had sinned against him. I then reflected that God,
who was not only righteous but omnipotent, as he had thought
fit thus to punish and afflict me, so he was able to deliver me; that
if he did not think fit to do it, it was my unquestioned duty to
resign myself absolutely and entirely to his will; and, on the other
hand, it was my duty also to hope in him, pray to him, and
quietly to attend the dictates and directions of his daily provi-
dence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may say
weeks and months; and one particular effect of my cogitations
118 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

on this occasion I cannot omit; viz., one morning early, lying in
my bed, and filled with thoughts about my danger from the ap-
pearance of savages, I found it discomposed me very much; upon
which those words of the Scripture came into my thoughts:
“Call upon me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou
shalt glorify me.” Upon this, rising cheerfully out of bed, my
heart was not only comforted but I was guided and encouraged
to pray earnestly to God for deliverance. When I had done pray-
ing, I took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words
that presented to me were, “Wait on the Lord; be of good cour-
age, and he shall strengthen thy heart: wait, I say, on the Lord.”
It is impossible to express the comfort this gave me, and in return
I thankfully laid down the book, and was no more sad; at least,
not on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflec-
tions, it came into my thoughts one day that all this might be a
mere chimera of my own, and that this foot might be the print
of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat; this cheered
me up a little, too, and I began to persuade myself it was all a
delusion; that it was nothing else but my own foot; and why
might I not come that way from the boat, as well as I was going
that way to the boat? Again I considered also, that I could by no
means tell for certain where I had trod, and where I had not;
and that if, at last, this was only the print of my own foot, I had
played the part of those fools who try to make stories of specters
and apparitions, and then are themselves frighted at them more
than anybody else.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for
I had not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights, so that
I began to starve for provision; for I had little or nothing within
doors but some barley cakes and water. Then I knew that my
goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my evening
diversion; and the poor creatures were in great pain and incon-
venience for want of it; and, indeed, it almost spoiled some of
them, and almost dried up their milk.

Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this was
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 119

nothing but the print of one of my own feet, and so I might be
truly said to start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad again,
and went to my country house to milk my flock; but to see with
what fear I went forward, how often I looked behind me, how I
was ready, every now and then, to lay down my basket and run
for my life, it would have made anyone have thought I was
haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most
terribly frighted; and so, indeed, I had. However, as I went
down thus two or three days, and having seen nothing, I began
to be a little bolder, and to think there was really nothing in it
but my own imagination but I could not persuade myself fully
of this till I should go down to the shore again, and see this print
of a foot, and measure it by my own, and see if there was any
similitude or fitness, that I might be assured it was my own foot.
But when I came to the place—first, it appeared evident to me,
that when I laid up my boat, I could not possibly be on shore
anywhere thereabouts; secondly, when I came to measure the
mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so large by a great
deal. Both these things filled my head with new imaginations,
and gave me the vapors again to the highest degree, so that I
shook with cold like one in an ague. And I went home again,
filled with the belief that some man or men had been on shore
there; or, in short, that the island was inhabited, and I might be
surprised before I was aware, and what course to take for my
security I knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed with
fear! It deprives them of the use of those means which reason
offers for their relief. The first thing I proposed to myself was to
throw down my inclosures, and turn all my tame cattle wild
into the woods, that the enemy might not find them and then
frequent the island in prospect of the same or the like booty; then
the simple thing of digging up my two cornfields, that they
might not find such a grain there, and still be prompted to fre-
quent the island; then to demolish my bower and tent, that they
might not see any vestiges of habitation, and be prompted to
look farther, in order to find out the persons inhabiting.
120 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

These were the subjects of my first night’s cogitations, after I
was come home again, while the apprehensions which had so
overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and my head was full of
vapors as above. Thus, fear of danger is ten thousand times more
terrifying than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes; and we
find the burden of anxiety greater, by much, than the evil which
we are anxious about; but, which was worse than all this, I had
not that relief in this trouble, from the resignation I used to
practice, that I hoped to have. I looked, I thought, like Saul, who
complained not only that the Philistines were upon him, but that
God had forsaken him; for I did not now take due ways to com-
pose my mind, by crying to God in my distress, and resting upon
His providence, as I had done before, for my defense and de-
liverance; which if I had done, I had at least been more cheerfully
supported under this new surprise, and perhaps carried through
it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking all night; but
in the morning I fell asleep; and having by the amusement of
my mind been, as it were, tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept
very soundly, and awaked much better composed than I had
ever been before. And now I began to think sedately; and, upon
the utmost debate with myself, I concluded that this island
(which was so exceeding pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from
the mainland than as I had seen) was not so entirely abandoned
as I might imagine; that although there were no stated in-
habitants who lived on the spot, yet there might sometimes come
boats from off the shore, which either with design, or perhaps
never but when they were driven by cross winds, might come to
this place; that I had lived here fifteen years now, and had not
met with the least shadow or figure of any people yet; and that,
if at any time they should be driven here, it was probable they
went away again as soon as ever they could, seeing they had
never thought fit to fix here upon any occasion to this time; that
the most I could suggest any danger from was, from any casual
accidental landing of straggling people from the main, who, as it
was likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 121

wills; so they made no stay here, but went off again, with all
possible speed, seldom staying one night on shore, lest they should
not have the help of the tides and daylight back again; and that,
therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some safe retreat,
in case I should see any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large
as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came out
beyond where my fortification joined to the rock. Upon maturely
considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a second
fortification, in the same manner of a semicircle, at a distance
from my wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees
about twelve years before, of which I made mention; these trees
having been planted so thick before, there wanted but few piles
to be driven between them, that they should be thicker and
stronger, and my wall would be soon finished. So that I had now
a double wall; and my outer wall was thickened with pieces of
timber, old cables, and everything I could think of to make it
strong, having in it seven little holes, about as big as I might
put my arm out at. In the inside of this I thickened my wall to
about ten feet thick, continually bringing earth out of my cave,
and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon it; and
through the seven holes I contrived to plant the muskets, of
which I took notice that I got seven on shore out of the ship;
these, I say, I planted like my cannon, and fitted them into
frames, that held them like a carriage, that so I could fire all the
seven guns in two minutes’ time. This wall I was many a weary
month in finishing, and yet never thought myself safe till it was
done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall,
for a great way every day, as full with stakes or sticks of the
osier-like wood, which I had found so apt to grow, as they could
well stand; inasmuch that I believe I might set in near twenty
thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space between them
and my wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and they
might have no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to
approach my outer wall.
122 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove; and in five or
six years’ time I had a wood before my dwelling grown so
monstrous thick and strong that it was indeed perfectly impass-
able; and no man, of what kind soever, would ever imagine that
there was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As for the
way which I proposed to myself to go in or out (for I left no
avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a part of the rock
which was low, and then broke in, and left room to place another
ladder upon that; so when the two ladders were taken down, no
man living could come down to me without mischiefing himself;
and if they had come down, they were still on the outside of my
outer wall.

I now had a great concern upon me for my goats. Accord-
ingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired part of the
island; and I pitched upon one which was as private indeed as
my heart could wish.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground; and, in
less than a month’s time, I had so fenced it round that my flock
or, herd, call it which you please, which were not so wild now as
at first they might be supposed to be, were well enough secured
in it. So, without any further delay, I removed ten she-goats and
two he-goats to this piece; and, when they were there, I con-
tinued to perfect the fence, till I had made it as secure as the other;
which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me up more
time by a great deal.

All this labor I was at the expense of, purely from my appre-
hensions on the account of the print of a man’s foot which I had
seen: for, as yet, I had never seen any human creature come near
the island; and I had now lived two years under this uneasiness,
which, indeed, made my life much less comfortable than it was
before, as may well be imagined by any who know what it is to
live in the constant snare of the fear of man. And this I must
observe, with grief, too, that the discomposure of my mind had
too great impressions also upon the religious part of my
thoughts; for the dread and terror of falling into the hands of
savages and cannibals lay so upon my spirits that I seldom found
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 123

myself in a due temper for application to my Maker; at least,
not with the sedate calmness and resignation of soul which I
was wont to do. I rather prayed to God as under great affliction
and pressure of mind, surrounded with danger, and in expecta-
tion every night of being murdered and devoured before morn-
ing; and I must testify, from my experience, that a temper of
peace, thankfulness, love and affection, is much the more proper
frame for prayer than that of terror and discomposure; and that
under the dread of mischief impending, a man is no more fit for
a comforting performance of the duty of praying to God than he
is for repentance on a sick bed; for these discomposures affect
the mind as the others do the body; and the discomposure of the
mind must necessarily be as great a disability as that of the body,
and much greater, praying to God being properly an act of the
mind, not of the body.

But to go on: after I had thus secured one part of my little
living stock, I went about the whole island, searching for another
private place to make such another deposit; when, wandering
more to the west point of the island than I had ever done yet,
and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a
great distance. I had found a perspective glass or two in one of
the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our ship, but I had it not
about me; and this was so remote that I could not tell what to
make of it, though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to
hold to look any longer: whether it was a boat or not, I do not
know; but as I descended from the hill I could see no more of it,
so I gave it over; only I resolved to go no more out without a
perspective glass in my pocket.

When I was come down the hill to the end of the island, where,
indeed, I had never been before, I was presently convinced that
the seeing the print of a man’s foot was not such a strange thing
in the island as I imagined; and, but that it was a special provi-
dence that I was cast upon the side of the island where the savages
never came, I should easily have known that nothing was more
frequent than for the canoes from the main, when they happened
to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the
124 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

island for harbor; likewise, as they often met and fought in their
canoes, the victors, having taken any prisoners, would bring them
over to this shore, where, according to their dreadful customs,
being all cannibals, they would kill and eat them; of which here-
after.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above,
being the S. W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded
and amazed; nor is it possible for me to express the horror of my
mind, at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and
other bones of human bodies; and particularly, I observed a place
where there had been a fire made, a circle dug in the earth, like a
cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches had sat down to
their inhuman, feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things that I enter-
tained no notions of any danger to myself from it for a long while.
All my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch
of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of the degeneracy of
human nature, which, though I had heard of often, yet I never
had so near a view of before. In short, I turned away my face
from the horrid spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and I was just
at the point of fainting, when nature discharged the disorder
from my stomach; and having vomited with uncommon vio-
lence, I was a little relieved, but could not bear to stay in the place
a moment. So I got up the hill again with all the speed I could,
and walked on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still
awhile, as amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked up
with the utmost affection of my soul, and, with a flood of tears
in my eyes, gave God thanks that had cast my first lot in a part
of the world where I was distinguished from such dreadful crea-
tures as these; and that, though I had esteemed my present con-
dition very miserable, had yet given me so many comforts in it
that I had still more to give thanks for than to complain of: and
this, above all, that I had, even in this miserable condition, been
comforted with the knowledge of Himself, and the hope of His
blessing.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 125

In this frame of thankfulness I went home to my castle, and
began to be much easier now as to the safety of my circumstances
than ever I was before. For I observed that these wretches never
came to this island in search of what they could get; perhaps not
seeking, not wanting, or not expecting, anything here; and hav-
ing often, no doubt, been up in the. covered woody part of it,
without finding anything to their purpose. I knew I had been here
almost eighteen years, and never saw the least footsteps of human
creature there before; and I might be eighteen years more as
entirely concealed as I was now, if I did not discover myself to
them, which I had no manner of occasion to do; it being my only
business to keep myself entirely concealed where I was, unless I
found a better sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself
known to. Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage
wretches that I have been speaking of, and of the wretched in-
human custom of their devouring and eating one another up,
that I continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own
circle for almost two years after this. When I say my own circle,
I mean by it my three plantations, viz., my castle, my country-seat
(which I called my bower), and my inclosure in the woods: nor
did I look after this for any other use than as an inclosure for my
goats; for the aversion which Nature gave me to these hellish
wretches was such that I was as fearful of seeing them as of seeing
the devil himself, nor did I so much as go to look after my boat
in all this time, but began rather to think of making me another;
for I could not think of ever making any more attempts to bring
the other boat round the island to me, lest I should meet with
some of those creatures at sea; in which case, if I had happened to
have fallen into their hands, I knew what would have been my
lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no
danger of being discovered by these people, began to wear off my
uneasiness about them; and I began to live just in the same com-
posed manner as before, only with this difference, that I used
more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did before,
lest I should happen to be seen by any of them; and particularly, I
126 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

was more.cautious in firing my gun, lest any of them, being on
the island, should happen to hear it; and it was, therefore, a very
good providence to me that I had furnished myself with a tame
breed of goats, and that I had no need to hunt any more about
the woods, or shoot at them; and if I did catch any of them after
this, it was by traps and snares, as I had done before. So that for
two years after this I believe I never fired my gun off once, though
I never went out without it: and which was more, as I had saved
three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out with me,
or at least two of them, sticking them in my goatskin belt. I like-
wise furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had out of the
ship, and made me a belt to put it on also; so that I was now a
most formidable fellow to look at when I went abroad, if you add
to the former description of myself the particular of two pistols
and a great broadsword hanging at my side in a belt, but without
a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time I seemed
excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my former calm,
sedate way of living. All these things tended to show me, more
and more, how far my condition was from being miserable,
compared to some others; nay, to many other particulars of life,
which it might have pleased God to have made my lot. It put me
upon reflecting how little repining there would be among man-
kind at any condition of life if people would rather compare their
condition with those that are worse, in order to be thankful, than
be always comparing them with those which are better, to assist
their murmurings and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not really many things
which I wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights I had been
in about these savage wretches, and the concern I had been in
for my own preservation, had taken off the edge of my invention
for my own conveniences. My invention now ran quite another
way; for, night and day, I could think of nothing but how I might
destroy some of these monsters in their cruel, bloody entertain-
ment; and, if possible, save the victim they should bring hither
to destroy. It would take up a larger volume than this whole work
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 127

is intended to be, to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or
rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying these
creatures, or at least frightening them so as to prevent their com-
ing hither any more. But all was abortive; nothing could be pos-
sible to take effect, unless I was to be there to do it myself; and
what could one man do among them, when perhaps there might
be twenty or thirty of them together with their darts, or their
bows and arrows, with which they could shoot as true to a mark
as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place where
they made their fire, and putting in five or six pounds of gun-
powder, which, when they kindled their fire, would consequently
take fire, and blow up all that was near it: but as, in the first
place, I should be unwilling to waste so much powder upon
them, my store being now within the quantity of one barrel, so
neither could I be sure of its going off at any certain time, when
it might surprise them and, at best, that it would do little more
than just blow the fire about their ears and fright them, but not
sufficient to make them forsake the place. So I laid it aside; and
then proposed that I would place myself in ambush in some con-
venient place with my three guns all double loaded, and in the
middle of their bloody ceremony, let fly at them when I should
be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or three at every shot; and
then falling in upon them with my three pistols and my sword,
I made no doubt but that, if there were twenty, I should kill them
all. This fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks, and I was
so full of it that I often dreamed of it, and sometimes, that I was
just going to let fly at them in my sleep. I went so far with it in
my imagination that I employed myself several days to find out
proper places to put myself in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for
them, and I went frequently to the place itself, which was now
grown more familiar to me; but while my mind was thus filled
with thoughts of revenge and of a bloody putting twenty or thirty
of them to the sword, as I may call it, the horror I had at the
place, and at the signs of the barbarous wretches devouring one
another, abetted my malice. Well, at length I found a place in
128 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

the side of the hill where I was satisfied I might securely wait
till I saw any of their boats coming; and might then, even before
they would be ready to come on shore, convey myself unseen into
some thickets of trees, in one of which there was a hollow large
enough to conceal me entirely; and there I might sit and observe
all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at their heads when
they were so close together as that it would be next to impossible
that I should miss my shot, or that I could fail wounding three
or four of them at the first shot. In this place, then, I resolved to
fix my design; and accordingly, I prepared two muskets with my
ordinary fowling piece. The two muskets I loaded with a brace
of slugs each, and four or five smaller bullets, about the size of
pistol bullets; and the fowling piece I loaded with near a handful
of swan shot of the largest size. I also loaded my pistols with
about four bullets each; and in this posture, well provided with
ammunition for a second and third charge, I prepared myself
for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my
imagination put it in practice, I continually made my tour every
morning to the top of the hill, which was from my castle, as I
called it, about three miles or more, to see if I could observe any
boats upon the sea, coming near the island, or standing over
towards it; but I began to tire of this hard duty after I had for
two or three months constantly kept my watch but came always
back without any discovery; there having not, in all that time,
been the least appearance, not only on or near the shore, but on
the whole ocean, as far as my eyes or glass could reach every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so long
as I kept up the vigor of my design, and my spirits seemed to be
all the while in a suitable frame for so outrageous an execution
as the killing twenty or thirty naked savages for an offense which
I had not at all entered into a discussion of in my thoughts, any
farther than my passions were at first fired by the horror I con-
ceived at the unnatural custom of the people of that country;
who, it seems, had been suffered by Providence, in His wise
disposition of the world, to have no other guide than that of their
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 129

own abominable and vitiated passions; and, consequently were
left, and perhaps had been so for some ages, to act such horrid
things, and receive such dreadful customs, as nothing but Nature,
entirely abandoned by Heaven, and actuated by some hellish
degeneracy, could have run them into. But now, when, as I have
said, I began to be weary of the fruitless excursion which I had
made so long and so far every morning in vain, so my opinion of
the action itself began to alter; and I began, with cooler and
calmer thoughts, to consider what I was going to engage in; what
authority or call I had to pretend to be judge and executioner
upon these men as criminals, whom Heaven had thought fit, for
so many ages, to suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to be, as it
were, the executioners of His judgments, one upon another; how
far these people were offenders against me, and what right I had
to engage in the quarrel of that blood which they shed pro-
miscuously upon one another. I debated this very often with my-
self thus: “How do I know what God Himself judges in this
particular case? It is certain these people do not commit this as
a crime; it is not against their own conscience reproving, or their
light reproaching them; they do not know it to be an offense,
and then commit it in defiance of Divine justice, as we do in
almost all the sins we commit. They think it no more a crime to
kill a captive taken in war than we do to kill an ox; or to eat
human flesh than we do to eat mutton.”

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that I
was certainly in the wrong in it; that these people were not mur-
derers, in the sense that I had before condemned them in my
thoughts, any more than those Christians were murderers who
often put to death the prisoners taken in battle; or more fre-
quently, upon many occasions, put whole troops of men to the
sword, without giving quarter, though they threw down their
arms and submitted. In the next place, it occurred to me that
albeit the usage they gave one another was thus brutish and in-
human, yet it was really nothing to me. These people had done
me no injury; that if they attempted me, or I saw it necessary, for
my immediate preservation, to fall upon them, something might
130 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

be said for it: but that I was yet out of their power, and they really
had no knowledge of me, and consequently no design upon me;
and therefore it could not be just for me to fall upon them. That
this would justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their bar-
barities practiced in America, where they destroyed millions of
these people; who, however they were idolators and barbarians,
and had several bloody and barbarous rites in their customs, such
as sacrificing human bodies to their idols, were yet, as to the
Spaniards, very innocent people; and that the rooting them out
of the country is spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and de-
testation by even the Spaniards themselves, at this time, and by
all other Christian nations in Europe, as a mere butchery, a
bloody and unnatural piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either to God
or man; and such as for which the very name of a Spaniard is
reckoned to be frightful and terrible to all people of humanity
or of Christian compassion, as if the kingdom of Spain were
particularly eminent for the product of a race of men who were
without principles of tenderness, or the common bowels of pity
to the miserable, which is reckoned to be a mark of a generous
temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and to a kind
of a full stop. And I began, by little and little, to be off my design,
and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in my resolution to
attack the savages; and that it was not my business to meddle
with them, unless they first attacked me. And this it was my
business, if possible, to prevent; but that, if I were discovered and
attacked by them, then I knew my duty. On the other hand, I
argued with myself that this really was the way not to deliver
myself, but entirely to ruin and destroy myself. For unless I was
sure to kill every one that not only should be on shore at that
time but that should ever come on shore afterwards, if but one
of them escaped to tell their country people what had happened
they would come over again by thousands to revenge the death
of their fellows, and I should only bring upon myself a certain
destruction, which at present I had no manner of occasion for.

Upon the whole, I concluded that I ought, neither in principle
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 131

nor in policy, one way or other, to concern myself in this affair;
that my business was, by all possible means, to conceal myself
from them, and not to leave the least sign for them to guess by
that there were any living creatures upon the island—I mean of
human shape. Religion joined in with this prudential resolution;
and I was convinced now, many ways that I was perfectly out of
my duty when I was laying all my bloody schemes for the de-
struction of innocent creatures—I mean innocent as to me. As
to the crimes they were guilty of towards one another, I had
nothing to do with them; these were national punishments, to
make a just retribution for national offenses, and to bring public
judgment upon those who offend in a public manner, by such
ways as best please God. This appeared so clear to me now that
nothing was a greater satisfaction to me than that I had not been
suffered to do a thing which I now saw so much reason to believe
would have been no less a sin than that of willful murder, if I
had committed it. And I gave most humble thanks, on my knees,
to God, that He had thus delivered me from blood-guiltiness,
beseeching Him to grant me the protection of His providence,
that I might not fall into the hands of the barbarians, or that I
might not lay my hands upon them, unless I had a more clear
call from Heaven to do it, in defense of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this; and
so far was I from desiring an occasion for falling upon these
wretches, that in all that time I never once went up the hill to see
whether there were any of them in sight, or to know whether
any of them had been on shore there or not, that I might not be
tempted to renew any of my contrivances against them, or be
provoked by any advantage that might present itself, to fall upon
them. Only this I did; I went and removed my boat, which I had
on the other side of the island, and carried it down to the east
end of the whole island, where I ran it into a little cove, which I
found under some high rocks, and where I knew, by reason of
the currents, the savages durst not, at least would not, come with
their boats upon any account whatever. With my boat I carried
away everything that I had left there belonging to her, though
132 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

not necessary for the bare going thither, viz., a mast and sail
which I had made for her, and a thing like an anchor, but which
indeed could not be called either anchor or grapnel. However, it
was the best I could make of its kind. All these I removed, that
there might not be the least shadow for discovery, or any appear-
ance of any boat, or of any habitation upon the island. Besides
this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than ever, and seldom
went from my cell, except upon my constant employment, viz.,
to milk my she-goats and manage my little flock in the wood,
which, as it was quite on the other part of the island, was out of
danger; for certain it is that these savage people, who sometimes
haunted this island, never came with any thoughts of finding
anything here, and consequently never wandered off from the
coast, and I doubt not but they might have been several times on
shore after my apprehensions of them had made me cautious, as
well as before. Indeed, I looked back with some horror upon the
thoughts of what my condition would have been if I had chopped
upon them and been discovered before that; when, naked, and
unarmed, except with one gun, and that loaded only with small
shot, I walked everywhere, peeping and peering about the island
to see what I could get. What a surprise should I have been in,
if, when I discovered the print of a man’s foot, I had instead of
that seen fifteen or twenty savages, and found them pursuing me,
and by the swiftness of their running, no possibility of my escap-
ing them! The thoughts of this sometimes sunk my very soul
within me, and distressed my mind so much that I could not soon
recover it, to think what I should have done, and how I should
not only have been unable to resist them, but even should not
have had presence of mind enough to do what I might have
done; much less what now, after so much consideration and
preparation, I might be able to do. Indeed, after serious thinking
of these things I would be very melancholy, and sometimes it
would last a great while. But I resolved it all, at last, into thank-
fulness to that Providence which had delivered me from so many
unseen dangers, and had kept me from those mischiefs which
I could have no way been the agent in delivering myself from
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 133

because I had not the least notion of any such thing depending,
or the least supposition of its being possible.

This renewed a contemplation which often had come into my
thoughts in former times, when first I began to see the merciful
dispositions of Heaven in the dangers we run through in this
life; how wonderfully we are delivered when we know nothing
of it; how, when we are in a quandary (as we call it), a doubt
or hesitation whether to go this way or that way, a secret hint
shall direct us this way when we intended to go that way: nay,
when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps business, has called
us to go the other way, yet a strange impression upon the mind,
from we know not what springs, and by we know not what
power, shall overrule us to go this way; and it shall afterwards ap-
pear that had we gone that way which we should have gone, and
even to our imagination ought to have gone, we should have been
ruined and lost. Upon these, and many like reflections, I after-
wards made it a certain rule with me, that whenever I found
those secret hints or pressings of mind, to doing or not doing
anything that presented, or going this way or that way, I never
failed to obey the secret dictate; though I knew no other reason
for it than that such a pressure, or such a hint, hung upon my
mind. I could give many examples of the success of this conduct
in the course of my life, but more especially in the latter part of
my inhabiting this unhappy island; besides many occasions
which it is very likely I might have taken notice of if I had seen
with the same eyes then that I see with now. But it is never too
late to be wise; and I cannot but advise all considering men,
whose lives are attended with such extraordinary incidents as
mine, or even though not so extraordinary, not to slight such
secret intimations of Providence, let them come from what in-
visible intelligence they will. That I shall not discuss, and perhaps
cannot account for; but certainly they are a proof of the converse
of spirits, and a secret communication between those embodied
and those unembodied, and such a proof as can never be with-
stood; of which I shall have occasion to give some remarkable
instances in the remainder of my soliltary residence.
134 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I confess
that these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in, and the
concern that was now upon me, put an end to all invention, and
to all the contrivances that I had laid for my future accommoda-
tions and conveniences. I had the care of my safety more now on
hand than that of my food. I cared not to drive a nail, or chop a
stick of wood now, for fear the noise I should make should be
heard; much less would I fire a gun for the same reason; and,
above all, I was tolerably uneasy at making any fire, lest the
smoke, which is visible at a great distance in the day, should
betray:‘me. For this reason, I removed that part of my business
which required fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, etc., into
my new apartment in the woods, where, after I had been some
time, I found, to my unspeakable consolation, a mere natural
cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and where, I dare
say, no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so hardy
as to venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but one who,
like me, wanted nothing so much as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock,
where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant
reason to ascribe all such things now to Providence), I was cut-
ting down some thick branches of trees to make charcoal; and
before I go on I must observe the reason for my making this char-
coal, which was thus: I was afraid of making a smoke about my
habitation, as I said before; and yet I could not live there without
baking my bread, cooking my meat, etc.; so I contrived to burn
some wood here, as I had seen done in England, under turf, till
it became chark, or dry coal; and then putting the fire out, I
preserved the coal to carry home and perform the other services
for which fire was wanting, without danger of smoke. But this
is by the bye. While I was cutting down some wood here, I per-
ceived that, behind a very thick branch of low brushwood or
underwood, there was kind of a hollow place: I was curious to
look in it; and getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found
it was pretty large, that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright
in it, and perhaps another with me: but I must confess to you
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 135

that I made more haste out than I did in, when, looking farther
into the place, and which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad
shining eyes of some creature—whether devil or man I knew not
—which twinkled like two stars; the dim light from the cave’s
mouth shining directly in, and making the reflection. However,
after some pause I recovered myself, and began to call myself a
thousand fools and to think that he that was afraid to see the
devil was not fit to live twenty years in an island all alone; and
that I might well think there was nothing in this cave that was
more frightful than myself. Upon this, plucking up my courage
I took up a firebrand and in I rushed again, with the stick flam-
ing in my hand. I had not gone three steps in, before I was almost
as much frightened as before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like
that of a man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken noise,
as of words half expressed and then a deep sigh again. I stepped
back and was indeed struck with such a surprise that it put me
into a cold sweat, and if I had had a hat on my head I will not
answer for it that my hair might not have lifted it off. But still
plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and encouraging myself
a little with considering that the power and presence of God was
everywhere, and was able to protect me, I stepped forward again,
and by the dim light of the firebrand, holding it up a little over
my head, I saw lying on the ground a monstrous, frightful old
he-goat, just making his will, as we say, and gasping for life, and
dying indeed of mere old age. I stirred him a little to see if I
could get him out, and he essayed to get up, but was not able to
raise himself; and I thought with myself he might even lie there;
for if he had frightened me, so he would certainly fright any of
the savages, if any one of them should be so hardy as to come in
there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look
round me, when I found the cave was but very small—that is to
say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in no manner of
shape, neither round nor square, no hand having ever been em-
ployed in making it but those of mere Nature. I observed also
that there was a place at the farther side of it that went in farther,
136 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

but was so low that it required me to creep upon my hands and
knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not; so, having
no candle, I gave it over for that time, but resolved to come again
the next day provided with candles and a tinder-box, which I had
made of the lock of one of the muskets, with some wildfire in
the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large candles
of my own making (for I made very good candles now of goats’
tallow, but was hard set for candlewick, using sometimes rags or
rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of a weed like nettles) ;
and going into this low place I was obliged to creep upon all-
fours, as I have said, almost ten yards—which, by the way, I
thought was a venture bold enough, considering that I knew not
how far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I had got
through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I believe near
twenty feet; but never was such a glorious sight seen in the
island, I dare say, as it was to look round the sides and roof of
this vault or cave; the wall reflected a hundred thousand lights
to me from my two candles. What it was in the rock—whether
diamonds, or any other precious stones, or gold—which I rather
supposed it to be—I knew not. The place I was in was a most
delightful cavity, or grotto, though perfectly dark; the floor was
dry and level, and had a sort of a small loose gravel upon it, so
that there was no nauseous or venomous creature to be seen,
neither was there any damp or wet on the sides or roof; the
only difficulty in it was the entrance—which, however, as it was
a place of security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought was
a convenience—so that I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and
resolved, without any delay, to bring some of those things which
I was most anxious about to this place! Particularly, I resolved to
bring hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare arms; viz.,
two fowling pieces—for I had three in all—and three muskets—
for of them I had eight in all; so I kept in my castle only five,
which stood ready mounted like pieces of cannon on my outmost
defense, and were ready also to take out upon any expedition.
Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition, I happened to
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 137

open the barrel of powder which I took up out to sea, and which
had been wet, and I found that the water had penetrated about
three or four inches into the powder on every side, which caking
and growing hard, had preserved the inside like a kernel in the
shell, so that I had near sixty pounds of very good powder in the
center of the cask; and this was a very agreeable discovery to me
at that time. So I carried all away thither, never keeping above two
or three pounds of powder with me in my castle, for fear of a
surprise of any kind; I also carried thither all the lead I had left
for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who were
said to live in caves and holes in the rocks, where none could
come at them; for I persuaded myself, while I was here, that if
five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could never find me
out—or if they did, they would not venture to attack me here.
The old goat whom I found expiring died in the mouth of the
cave the next day after I made this discovery; and I found it
much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in and
cover him with earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him
there, to prevent offense to my nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of residence in this island,
and was so naturalized to the place and the manner of living, that,
could I but have enjoyed the certainty that no savages would
come to the place to disturb me, I could have been content to have
capitulated for spending the rest of my time there, even to the
last moment, till I had laid me down and died, like the old goat
in the cave. I also had arrived to some little diversions and amuse-
ments, which made the time pass more pleasantly with me a
great deal than it did before; first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted
before, to speak; and he did it so familiarly, and talked so
articulately and plain, that it was very pleasant to me, and he
lived with me no less than six and twenty years. How long he
might have lived afterwards I know not, though I know they
have a notion in the Brazils that they lived a hundred years.
Perhaps some of my Polls may be alive there still, calling after
poor Robinson Crusoe to this day; I wish no Englishman the
138 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

ill-luck to come there and hear them; but if he did he would
certainly believe it was the devil. My dog was a pleasant and
loving companion to me for no less than sixteen years of my
time, and then died of mere old age. As for my cats, they multi-
plied, as I have observed, to that degree that I was obliged to shoot
several of them at first, to keep them from devouring me and
all I had; but, at length, when the old ones I brought with me
were gone, and after some time continually driving them from
me, and letting them have no provision with me, they all ran
wild into the woods, except two or three favorites, which I kept
tame, and whose young, when they had any, I always drowned;
and these were part of my family. Besides these I always kept
two or three household kids about me whom I taught to feed out
of my hand; and I had two or more parrots, which talked pretty
well, and would all call “Robin Crusoe,” but none like my first;
nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any of them that I had done
with him, I had also several tame sea-fowls, whose names I knew
not, that I caught upon the shore, and cut their wings; and the
little stakes which I had planted before my castle wall being now
grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived among these
low trees, and bred there, which was very agreeable to me; so
that, as I said above, I began to be very well contented with the
life I led, if I could have been secured from the dread of the
savages. But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss
for all people who shall meet with my story to make this just
observation from it; viz., how frequently, in the course of our
lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which,
when we are fallen into, is the most dreadful to us, is oftentimes
the very means or door of our deliverance, by which alone we can
be raised again from the affliction we are fallen into. I could give
many examples of this in the course of my unaccountable life,
but in nothing was it more particularly remarkable than in the
circumstances of my last years of solitary residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my
twenty-third year; and this, being the southern solstice (for
winter I cannot call it), was the particular time of my harvest,
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 139

and required me to be pretty much abroad in the fields, when,
going out pretty early in the morning, even before it was thor-
ough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some fire
upon the shore, at a distance from me of about two miles towards
the end of the island where I had observed some savages had
been, as before, and not on the other side, but, to my great afflic-
tion, it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short
within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be surprised;
and yet I had no more peace within, from the apprehensions I
had that if these savages, in rambling over the island, should
find my corn standing or cut, or any of my works and improve-
ments, they would immediately conclude that there were people
in the place, and would then never rest till they had found me
out. In this extremity I went back directly to my castle, pulled up
the ladder after me, having made all things without look as
wild and natural as I could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of
defense; I loaded all my cannon, as I called them—that is to say,
my muskets, which were mounted upon my new fortification,
and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the last gasp
—not forgetting seriously to commend myself to the Divine pro-
tection, and earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the
hands of the barbarians. And in this posture I continued about
two hours, and began to be impatient for intelligence abroad, for
I had no spies to send out. After sitting a while longer and musing
what I should do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in
ignorance any longer; so setting up my ladder to the side of the
hill, where there was a flat place, as I observed before, and then
pulling the ladder after me, I set it up again, and mounted to the
top of the hill, and pulling out my perspective-glass, which I had
taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the ground,
and began to look for the place. I presently found there was no
less than nine naked savages sitting round a small fire they had
made, not to warm them, for they had no need of that, the
weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to dress some
140 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

of their barbarous diet of human flesh which they had brought
with them, whether alive or dead I could not know.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up
upon the shore; and as it was then ebb of tide, they seemed to
me to wait the return of the flood to go away again. It is not easy
to imagine what confusion this sight put me into, especially
seeing them come on my side of the island, and so near me, too;
but when I considered their coming must be always with the
current of the ebb, I began afterwards to be more sedate in my
mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad with safety all the
time of the flood of tide, if they were not on shore before; and
having made this observation, I went abroad about my harvest
work with more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for, as soon as the tide made to
the westward I saw them all take boat and row (or paddle, as we
call it) away. I should have observed that for an hour or more
before they went off they were dancing, and I could easily discern
their postures and gestures by my glass. I could not perceive, by
my nicest observation, but that they were stark naked, and had
not the least covering upon them; but whether they were men
or women I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns upon
my shoulders, and two pistols in my girdle, and my great sword
by my side, without a scabbard, and with all the speed I was
able to make went away to the hill where I had discovered the
first appearance of all; and as soon as I got thither, which was
not less than two hours (for I could not go apace, being so loaded
with arms as I was), I perceived there had been three canoes
more of savages at that place; and, looking out farther I saw they
were all at sea together, making over for the main. This was a
dreadful sight to me, especially when, going down to the shore,
I could see the marks of horror which the dismal work they had
been about had left behind it, viz., the blood, the bones, and part
of the flesh of human bodies eaten and devoured by those
wretches with merriment and sport. I was so filled with indigna-
tion at the sight that I now began to premeditate the destruction
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 141

of the next that I saw there, let them be whom or how many
soever. It seemed evident to me that the visits which they made
thus to this island were not very frequent, for it was above fifteen
months before any more of them came on shore there again—
that is to say, I neither saw them nor any footsteps or signs of
them in all that time; for as to the rainy seasons, then they are
sure not to come abroad, at least not so far. Yet all this while I
lived uncomfortably, by reason of constant apprehension of their
coming upon me by surprise—from whence I observe that the
expectation of evil is more bitter than the suffering, especially if
there is no room to shake off that expectation or those apprehen-
sions.

During all this time I was in the murdering humor, and spent
most of my hours, which should have been better employed, in
contriving how to circumvent and fall upon them the very next
time I should see them—especially if they should be divided, as
they were the last time, into two parties; nor did I consider at all
that if I killed one party—suppose ten or a dozen—I was still the
next day, or week, or month, to kill another, and so another,
even ad infinitum, till I should be, at length, no less a murderer
than they were in being maneaters—and perhaps much more so.
I spent my days now in great perplexity and anxiety of mind,
expecting that I should one day or other fall into the hands of
these merciless creatures; and if I did at any time venture abroad
it was not without looking around me with the greatest care and
caution imaginable. And now I found, to my great comfort, how
happy it was that I had provided a tame flock, or herd, of goats;
for I durst not upon any account fire my gun, especially near that
side of the island where they usually came, lest I should alarm the
savages; and if they had fled from me now, I was sure to have
them come again with perhaps two or three hundred canoes with
them in a few days, and then I knew what to expect. However,
I wore out a year and three months more before I ever saw any
more of the savages, and then I found them again, as I shall soon
observe. It is true they might have been there once or twice, but
either they made no stay, or at least I did not hear them; but, in
142 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

the month of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my four-
and-twentieth year, I had a very strange encounter with them; of
which in its place.

The perturbation of my mind during this fifteen or sixteen
months’ interval, was very great. I slept unquietly, dreamed
always frightful dreams, and often started out of my sleep in the
night. In the day great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in
the night I dreamed often of killing the savages, and of the
reasons why I might justify the doing of it. But to waive all this
for a while. It was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I
think, as well as my poor wooden calendar would reckon, for I
marked all upon the post still; I say, it was on the sixteenth of
May that it blew a very great storm of wind all day, with a great
deal of lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it was after
it. I knew not what was the particular occasion of it; but as I
was reading the Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts
about my present condition, I was surprised with the noise of a
gun, as I thought, fired at sea. This was, to be sure, a surprise of
a quite different nature from any I had met with before; for the
notions this put into my thoughts were quite of another kind. I
started up in the greatest haste imaginable; and, in a trice,
clapped my ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled it
after me; and, mounting it the second time, got to the top of the
hill the very moment that a flash of fire bade me listen for a
second gun, which, accordingly, in about half a minute, I heard;
and by the sound, knew that it was from that part of the sea where
I was driven out with the current in my boat. I immediately con-
sidered that this must be some ship in distress, and that they had
some comrade, or some other ship in company, and fired these
for signals of distress, and to obtain help. I had the presence of
mind, at that minute, to think that though I could not help
them it might be they might help me. So I brought together all
the dry wood I could get at hand, and, making a good handsome
pile, I set it on fire upon the hill. The wood was dry and blazed
freely; and though the wind blew very hard, yet it burned fairly
out, so that I was certain, if there was any such thing as a ship,
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 143

they must need see it, and no doubt they did; for as soon as ever
my fire blazed up, I heard another gun, and after that several
others, all from the same quarter. I plied my fire all night long,
till daybreak; and when it was broad day, and the air cleared up,
I saw something at a great distance at sea, full east of the island,
whether a sail or a hull I could not distinguish—no, not with my
glass; the distance was so great, and the weather still something
hazy also—at least, it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that
it did not move; so I presently concluded that it was a ship at
anchor; and being eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took
my gun in my hand, and ran towards the south side of the island,
to the rocks where I had formerly been carried away with the
current; and getting up there, the weather by this time being per-
fectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck of
a ship, cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks which
I found when I was out in my boat; and which rocks, as they
checked the violence of the stream, and made a kind of counter-
stream, or eddy, were the occasion of my recovering from the
most desperate, hopeless condition that ever I had been in all my
life. Thus, what is one man’s safety is another man’s destruction;
for it seems these men, whoever they were, being out of their
knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water, had been
driven up on them in the night, the wind blowing hard at E. and
E. N. E. Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily suppose
they did not, they must, as I thought, have endeavored to have
saved themselves on shore by the help of their boat; but their
firing off their guns for help, especially when they saw, as I
imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts. First, I
imagined that upon seeing my light they might have put them-
selves into their boat, and endeavored to make the shore; but that
the sea running very high, they might have been cast away. Other
times, I imagined that they might have lost their boat before, as
might be the case many ways; as particularly, by the breaking of
the sea upon their ship, which many times obliged men to stave,
or take in pieces, their boat, and sometimes to throw it overboard
144 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

with their own hands. Other times, I imagined they had some
other ship or ships in company, who, upon the signals of distress
they made, had taken them up and carried them off. Other times,
I fancied they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and being
carried away by the current that I had been formerly in, were
carried out into the great ocean, where there was nothing but
misery and perishing; and that, perhaps, they might by this time
think of starving, and being in a condition to eat one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition I
was in, I could do no more than look on upon the misery of the
poor men, and pity them; which had still this good effect upon
my side, that it gave me more and more cause to give thanks to
God, Who had so happily and comfortably provided for me in
my desolate condition; and that of two ships’ companies, who
were now cast away upon this part of the world, not one life
should be spared but mine. I learned here again to observe, that
it is very rare that the providence of God casts us in any con-
dition of life so low, or any misery so great, but we may see
something or other to be thankful for, and may see others in
worse circumstances than our own. Such certainly was the case
of these men, of whom I could not so much as see room to sup-
pose any of them were saved. Nothing could make it rational so
much as to wish or expect that they did not all perish there, ex-
cept the possibility only of their being taken up by another ship
in company; and this was but mere possibility indeed, for I saw
not the least sign or appearance of any such thing. I cannot
explain, by any possible energy of words, what a strange longing
I felt in my soul upon this sight, breaking out sometimes thus:
“Oh, that there had been but one or two, nay, or but one soul,
saved out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that I might but
have one companion, one fellow-creature, to have spoken to me
and to have conversed with!” In all the time of my solitary life,
I never felt so earnest, so strong a desire after the society of my
fellow creatures, or so deep a regret at the want of it.

There are some secret moving springs in the affections, which,
when they are set a-going by some object in view, or, though not
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 145

in view, yet rendered present to the mind by the power of imagina-
tion, that motion carries out the soul, by its impetuosity, to such
violent, eager embracing of the object, that the absence of it is
insupportable. Such were these earnest wishings that but one man
had been saved. I believe I repeated the words, “Oh, that it had
been but one!” a thousand times; and my desires were so moved by
it that when I spoke the words my hands would clinch together,
and my fingers would press the palms of my hands, so that if I
had had any soft thing in my hand I would have crushed it in-
voluntarily; and my teeth in my head would strike together, and
set against one another so strong, that for some time I could not
part them again. Let the naturalists explain these things, and the
reason and manner of them. All I can say of them is to describe
the fact, which was even surprising to me, when I found it, though
I knew not from what it should proceed; it was, doubtless, the
effect of ardent wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my mind,
realizing the comfort which the conversation of one of my fellow-
Christians would have been to me. But it was not to be; either their
fate, or mine, or both, forbade it, for till the last year of my being
on this island, I never knew whether any were saved out of that
ship or no; and had only the affliction, some days after, to see the
corpse of a drowned boy come on shore at the end of the island
which was next the shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a sea-
man’s waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue
linen shirt; nothing to direct me so much as to guess what na-
tion he was of. He had nothing in his pockets but two pieces of
eight and a tobacco-pipe—the last was to me oftentimes more
value than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my
boat to this wreck, not doubting but I might find something on
board that might be useful to me. But that did not altogether press
me so much as the possibility that there might be yet some living
creature on board, whose life I might not only save, but might, by
saving that life, comfort my own to the last degree; and this
thought clung so to my heart that I could not be quiet night or
day, but I must venture out in my boat on board this wreck; and
146 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

committing the rest to God’s providence, I thought the impression
was so strong upon my mind that it could not be resisted, that it
must come from some invisible direction, and that I should be
wanting to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my
castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a quantity of
bread, a great pot for fresh water, a compass to steer by, and a
basket of raisins; and thus loading myself with everything neces-
sary, I went down to my boat, got the water out of her, got her
afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home again for
more. My second cargo was a great bag full of rice, the umbrella
to set up over my head for a shade, another large pot full of fresh
water, and about two dozen of small loaves, or barley cakes, more
than before, with a bottle of goat’s milk, and a cheese; all which,
with great labor and sweat, I brought to my boat; and praying to
God to direct my voyage, I put out, and, rowing or paddling the
canoe along the shore, came at last to the utmost point of the
island on the northeast side. And now I was to launch out into
the ocean, and either to venture or not to venture. I looked on the
rapid currents which ran constantly on both sides of the island
at a distance, and which were very terrible to me, from the re-
membrance of the hazard I had been in before, and my heart
began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of
those currents I should be carried a great way out to sea, and per-
haps out of my reach, or sight of the island again; and that then,
as my boat was but small, if any little gale of wind should rise, I
should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so impressed my mind, that I began to give
over my enterprise; and having hauled my boat into a little creek
on the shore, I stepped out, and sat down on a rising bit of ground,
very pensive and anxious, between fear and desire about my voy-
age; when, as I was musing, I could perceive that the tide was
turned, and the flood came on; upon which, my going was imprac-
ticable for so many hours. Upon this, presently it occurred to me
that I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could find, and
observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide, or currents lay, when
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 147

the flood came in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven one
way out, I might not expect to be driven another way home, with
the same rapidity of the currents. This thought was no sooner in
my head than I cast my eye upon a little hill, which sufficiently
overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence I had a clear
view of the currents, or sets of the tide, and which way I was to
guide myself in my return. Here I found that as the current of
ebb set out close by the south point of the island, so the current
of the flood set in close by the shore of the north side; and that I
had nothing to do but to keep to the north of the island in my re-
turn, and I should do well enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next morn-
ing, to set out with the first of the tide; and, reposing myself for
the night in my canoe, under the great watch-coat I mentioned, I
launched out. I first made a little out to sea, full north, till I be-
gan to feel the benefit of the current, which set eastward, and
which carried me at a great rate; and yet did not so hurry me as
the current on the south side had done before, so as to take from
me all government of the boat; but having a strong steerage with
my paddle, I went, at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in
less than two hours I came up to it. It was a dismal sight to look
at: the ship, which, by its building was Spanish, stuck fast, jam-
med in between two rocks; all the stern and quarter of her were
beaten to pieces by the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck in
the rocks, had run on with great violence, her mainmast and fore-
mast were brought by the board—that is to say, broken short off;
but her bow-sprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared
firm. When I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her, who,
seeing me coming, yelped and cried; and, as soon as I called him,
jumped into the sea to come to me. I took him into the boat, but
found him almost dead from hunger and thirst. I gave him a
cake of my bread, and he devoured it like a ravenous wolf that
had been starving a fortnight in the snow; I then gave the poor
creature some fresh water, with which, if I would have let him,
he would have burst himself. After this I went on board; but
the first sight I met with was two men drowned in the cook
148 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

room, or forecastle, of the ship, with their arms fast about one
another. I concluded, as is indeed probable, that when the ship
struck, it being in a storm, the sea broke so high and so con-
tinually over her that the men were not able to bear it, and were
strangled with the constant rushing in of the water, as much as
if they had been under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing
left in the ship that had life; nor any goods, that I could see, but
that were spoiled by the water. I saw several chests, which I be-
lieved belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two of them into
the boat, without examining what was in them. Had the stern of
the ship been fixed, and the forepart broken off, I am persuaded I
might have made a good voyage; for, by what I found in these
two chests, I had room to suppose the ship had a great deal of
wealth on board; and, if I may guess from the course she steered,
she must have been bound from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la
Plata, in the south part of America, beyond the Brazils to the
Havannah, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. She
had, no doubt, a great treasure in her, but of no use, at that time,
to anybody; but what became of the crew I then knew not.

I found besides these chests several muskets in the cabin, and
a great powder horn, with about four pounds of powder in it; as
for the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left them, but
took the powder horn. I took a fire shovel and tongs, which I
wanted extremely; as also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to
make chocolate, and a gridiron; and with this cargo, and the dog,
I came away, the tide beginning to make home again; and the
same evening, about an hour within night, I reached the island
again, weary and fatigued to the last degree. I reposed that night
in the boat; and in the morning I resolved to harbor what I had
got in my new cave, and not carry it home to my castle. After
refreshing myself, I got all my cargo on shore, and began to
examine the particulars. I found two pots of very good succades,
or sweet-meats, so fastened also on the top that the salt water
had not hurt them; and two more of the same which the water
had spoiled. I found some very good shirts, which were very
welcome to me; and about a dozen and a half of white linen
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 149

handkerchiefs and colored neckcloths; the former were also very
welcome, being exceedingly refreshing to wipe my face in a hot
day. Besides this, when I came to the till in the chest, I found
there three great bags of pieces of eight, which held about eleven
hundred pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper,
six doubloons of gold, and some small bars or wedges of gold; I
suppose they might all weigh near a pound. In the other chest
were some clothes, but of little value; but, by the circumstances, it
must have belonged to the gunner’s mate; though there was no
powder in it, except two pounds of fine glazed powder, in three
small flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling pieces on
occasion. Upon the whole, I got very little by this voyage that
was of any use to me; for as to the money, I had no manner of
occasion for it: it was to me as the dirt under my feet, and I would
have given it all for three or four pair of English shoes and stock-
ings, which were things I greatly wanted, but had none on my
feet for many years. I had indeed, got two pairs of shoes now,
which I took off the feet of the two drowned men whom I saw
in the wreck, and I found two pair more in one of the chests,
which were very welcome to me; but they were not like our
English shoes, either for ease or service, being rather what we
call pumps than shoes. I found in this seaman’s chest about fifty
pieces of eight, in rials, but no gold. I suppose this belonged to a
poorer man than the other, which seemed to belong to some
officer. Well, however, I lugged this money home to my cave, and
laid it up, as I had done that before which I had brought from
our own ship; but it was a great pity, as I said, that the other
part of this ship had not come to my share; for I am satisfied I
might have loaded my canoe several times over with money;
which, if I had ever escaped to England, would have lain here
safe enough till I might have come again and fetched it.
Having now brought all my things on shore and secured them,
I went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along the
shore to her old harbor, where I laid her up, and made the best
of my way to my old habitation, where I found everything safe
and quiet. I began now to repose myself, live after my old fashion,
150 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

and take care of my family affairs; and for a while I lived easy
enough, only that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked
out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if, at any time, I
did stir with any freedom, it was always to the east part of the
island, where I was pretty well satisfied the savages never came,
and where I could go without so many precautions, and such a
load of arms and ammunition as I always carried with me if I
went the other way. I lived in this condition near two years more;
but my unlucky head, that was always to let me know it was born
to make my body miserable, was all these two years filled with
projects and designs, how, if it were possible, I might get away
from this island; for some time I was for making another voyage
to the wreck, though my reason told me that there was nothing
left there worth the hazard of my voyage; sometimes for a ramble
one way, sometimes another; and I believe verily, if I had had
the boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have ventured to
sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither. I have been in all my
circumstances an example to those who are touched with the
general plague of mankind, whence, for aught I know, one-half
of their miseries flow; I mean that of not being satisfied with the
station wherein God and Nature hath placed them. For, not to
look back upon my primitive condition, and the excellent advice
of my father, the opposition to which was, as I may call it, my
original sin, my subsequent mistakes of the same kind had been
the means of my coming into this miserable condition; for had
that Providence, which so happily seated me at the Brazils as a
planter, blessed me with confined desires, and I could have been
contented to have gone on gradually, I might have been by this
time, I mean in the time of my being in this island, one of the
most considerable planters in the Brazils. Nay, I am persuaded
that by the improvements I had made in that little time I lived
there, and the increase I should probably have made if I had
remained, I might have been worth a hundred thousand moi-
dores: and what business had I to leave a settled fortune, a well-
stocked plantation, improving and increasing, to turn super-
cargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when patience and time would
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 151

have so increased our stock at home that we could have bought
them at our own door from those whose business it was to fetch
them? And though it had cost us something more, yet the dif-
ference of that price was by no means worth saving at so great
a hazard. But as this is ordinarily the fate of young heads, so
reflection upon the folly of it is as commonly the exercise of more
years, or of the dear-bought experience of time; so it was with me
now; and yet so deep had the mistake taken root in my temper,
that I could not satisfy myself in my station, but was continually
poring upon the means and possibility of my escape from this
place; and that I may, with the greater pleasure to the reader,
bring on the remaining part of my story, it may not be improper
to give some account of my first conceptions on the subject of
this foolish scheme for my escape, and how, and upon what
foundation, I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle, after my late
voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under water,
as usual, and my condition restored to what it was before. I had
more wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was not at all the
richer; for I had no more use for it than the Indians of Peru had
before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four-
and-twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island of soli-
tude. I was lying in my bed or hammock, awake, very well in
health, had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of body nor any
uneasiness of mind more than ordinary, but could by no means
close my eyes, that is so as to sleep; no, not a wink all night long,
otherwise than as follows. It is impossible and needless to set
down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled through
that great thoroughfare of the brain—the memory—in this night’s
time. I ran over the whole history of my life in miniature, or by
abridgment, as I may call it, to my coming to this island. In my
reflections upon the state of my case since I came on shore on
this island, I was comparing the happy posture of my affairs in
the first years of my habitation here, with the life of anxiety, fear,
and care which I had lived in ever since I had seen the print of
152 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

a foot in the sand; not that I did not believe that the savages had
frequented the island even all the while, and might have been
several hundreds of them at times on shore there, but I had never
known it, and was incapable of any apprehensions about it. My
satisfaction was perfect, though my danger was the same, and I
was as happy in not knowing my danger as if I had never really
been exposed to it. This furnished my thoughts with many very
profitable reflections, and particularly this one: How infinitely
good that Providence is which has provided, in its government
of mankind, such narrow bounds to his sight and knowledge of
things; and though he walks in the midst of so many thousand
dangers, the sight of which, if discovered to him, would distract
his mind and sink his spirits, he is kept serene and calm by having
the events of things hid from his eyes, and knowing nothing of
the dangers which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I came
to reflect seriously upon the real danger I had been in for so
many years in this very island, and how I had walked about in
the greatest security, and with all possible tranquillity, even when
perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great tree, or the casual
approach of night, had been between me and the worst kind of
destruction, viz., that of falling into the hands of cannibals and
savages, who would have seized on me with the same view as I
would on a goat or a turtle; and have thought it no more crime to
kill and devour me than I did of a pigeon or a curlew. I would
unjustly slander myself if I should say I was not sincerely thank-
ful to my great Preserver, to Whose singular protection I
acknowledged, with great humility, all these unknown deliver-
ances were due, and without which I must inevitably have fallen
into their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time
taken up in considering the nature of these wretched creatures, I
mean the savages, and how it came to pass, in the world, that
the wise Governor of all things should give up any of His
creatures to such inhumanity, nay, to something so much below
even brutality itself, as to devour its own kind; but as this ended
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 153

in some (at that time) fruitless speculations, it occurred to me to
inquire, what part of the world these wretches lived in? how
far off the coast was from whence they came? what they ventured
over so far from home for? what kinds of boats they had? and
why I might not order myself and my business so that I might
be as able to go over thither, as they were to come to me.

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should
do with myself when I went thither; what would become of me if
I fell into the hands of these savages; or how I should escape them
if they attacked me; no, nor so much as how it was possible for
me to reach the coast, and not be attacked by some or other of
them, without any possibility of delivering myself: and if I should
not fall into their hands, what I should do for provision, or whither
I should bend my course. None of these thoughts, I say, so much
as came in my way; but my mind was wholly bent upon the
notion of my passing over in my boat to the mainland. I looked
upon my present condition as the most miserable that could pos-
sibly be; that I was not able to throw myself into anything but
death, that could be called worse; and if I reached the shore of
the main, I might perhaps meet with relief, or I might coast
along, as I did on the African shore, till I came to some inhabited
country, and where I might find some relief; and, after all, per-
haps I might fall in with some Christian ship that might take
me in; and if the worst came to the worst, I could but die, which
would put an end to all these miseries at once. Pray note, all this
was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impatient temper, made, as
it were, desperate by the long continuance of my troubles, and
the disappointments I had met with in the wreck I had been on
board of, and where I had been so near the obtaining what I so
earnestly longed for, namely, somebody to speak to, and to gain
some knowledge of the place where I was, and of the probable
means of my deliverance. I say I was agitated wholly by these
thoughts; all my calm of mind, in my resignation to Providence,
and waiting the issue of the dispositions of Heaven, seemed to
be suspended; and I had, as it were, no power to turn my thoughts
to anything but the project of a voyage to the main, which came
154 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

upon me with such force, and such an impetuosity of desire, that
it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more,
with such violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and my
pulse beat as if I had been in a fever, merely with the extraordinary
fervor of my mind about it, Nature, as if I had been fatigued and
exhausted with the very thoughts of it, threw me into a sound
sleep. One would have thought I should have dreamed of it, but
I did not, nor of anything relating to it. But I dreamed that as I
was going out in the morning, as usual, from my castle, I saw
upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages, coming to land,
and that they brought with them another savage, whom they were
going to kill, in order to eat him; when, on a sudden, the savage
that they were going to kill jumped away, and ran for his life;
then I thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my little
thick grove before my fortification, to hide himself; and that I,
seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the others sought him
that way, showed myself to him, and, smiling upon him, encour-
aged him; that he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray me to
assist him; upon which I showed him my ladder, made him go
up it, and carried him into my cave, and he became my servant;
and that as soon as I had this man, I said to myself, “Now I may
certainly venture to the mainland, for this fellow will serve me as
a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither to go for pro-
visions, and whither not to go for fear of being devoured; what
places to venture into and what to escape.” I waked with this
thought; and was under such inexpressible impressions of joy
at the prospect of my escape in my dream, that the disappoint-
ments which I felt upon coming to myself, and finding that it was
no more than a dream, were equally extravagant the other way,
and threw me into a good dejection of spirits.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion; that my only way
to go about an attempt for an escape was, if possible, to get a
savage into my possession; and, if possible, it should be one of
their prisoners, whom they had condemned to be eaten, and
should bring hither to kill. But these thoughts still were attended
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 155

with this difficulty, that it was impossible to effect this without
attacking the whole caravan of them, and killing them all; and
this was not only a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry,
but, on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the lawfulness of
it to me; and my heart trembled at the thoughts of shedding so
much blood, though it was for my deliverance. I need not repeat
the arguments which occurred to me against this, they being the
same mentioned before; but though I had other reasons to offer
now—viz., that those men were enemies to my life, and would
devour me if they could; that it was self-preservation, in the high-
est degree, to deliver myself from this death of a life, and was
acting in my own defense as much as if they were actually as-
saulting me, and the like; I say, though these things argued for
it, yet the thoughts of shedding human blood for my deliverance
were very terrible to me, and such as I could by no means reconcile
myself to for a great while. However, at last, after many secret
disputes with myself, and after great perplexities about it (for
all these arguments, one way and another, struggled in my head
a long time), the eager prevailing desire of deliverance at length
mastered all the rest; and I resolved, if possible, to get one of
these savages into my hands, cost what it would. My next thing
was to contrive how to do it, and this indeed was very difficult
to resolve on; but as I could pitch upon no probable means for it,
so I resolved to put myself upon the watch, to see them when they
came on shore, and leave the rest to the event; taking such
measures as the opportunity should present, let be what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the
scout as often as possible, and indeed so often that I was heartily
tired of it; for it was above a year and a half that I waited; and for
a great part of that time went out to the west end, and to the
southwest corner of the island almost every day, to look for
canoes, but none appeared. This was very discouraging, and be-
gan to trouble me much, though I cannot say that it did in this
case (as it had done some time before) wear off the edge of my
desire to the thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed, the
more eager I was for it. In a word, I was not at first so careful to
156 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

shun the sight of these savages, and avoid being seen by them, as
I was now eager to be upon them. Besides, I fancied myself able
to manage one, nay, two or three savages, if I had them, so as to
make them entirely slaves to me, to do whatever I should direct
them, and to prevent their being able at any time to do me any
hurt. It was a great while that I pleased myself with this affair;
but nothing still presented; all my fancies and schemes came to
nothing, for no savages came near me for a great while.

About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and
by long musing had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing,
for want of an occasion to put them in execution), I was surprised
one morning early by seeing no less than five canoes all on shore
together on my side the island, and the people who belonged to
them all landed and out of my sight. The number of them broke
all my measures for, seeing so many, and knowing that they al-
ways came four or six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could not
tell what to think of it, or how to take my measures to attack
twenty or thirty men single-handed; so lay still in my castle, per-
plexed and discomforted. However, I put myself into all the same
postures for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was just
ready for action, if anything had presented. Having waited a
good while, listening to hear if they made any noise, at length,
being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and
clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual;
standing so, however, that my head did not appear above the hill,
so that they could not perceive me by any means. Here I ob-
served, by the help of my perspective glass, that they were no less
than thirty in number; that they had a fire kindled, and that they
had meat dressed. How they had cooked it, I knew not, or what
it was; but they were all dancing, in I know not how many
barbarous gestures and figures, their own way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my per-
spective, two miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where,
it seems, they were laid by, and were now brought out for the
slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fall; being
knocked down, I suppose, with a club or wooden sword, for that
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 157

was their way, and two or three others were at work immediately,
cutting him up for their cookery, while the other victim was left
standing by himself, till they should be ready for him. In that very
moment this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at liberty, and un-
bound, Nature inspired him with hopes of life and he started
away from them, and ran with increditable swiftness along the
sands, directly towards me; I mean towards that part of the coast
where my habitation was. I was dreadfully frightened, that I must
acknowledge, when I perceived him run my way; and especially
when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole body; and
now I expected that part of my dream was coming to pass, and
that he would certainly take shelter in my grove; but I could
not depend, by any means, upon my dream, that the other savages
would not pursue him thither, and find him there. However, I
kept my station, and my spirits began to recover when I found
that there was not above three men that followed him; and still
more was encouraged when I found that he outstripped them
exceedingly in running and gained ground on them so that, if
he could but hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he could fairly
get away from them all.

There was, between them and my castle, the creek, which I
mentioned often in the first part of my story, where I landed
my cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw plainly he must
necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken there;
but when the savage escaping came thither, he made nothing of
it, though the tide was then up; but plunging in, swam through
in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran with ex-
ceeding strength and swiftness. When the three persons came
to the creek I found that two of them could swim, but the third
could not, and that, standing on the other side, he looked at the
others, but went no farther, and soon after went softly back
again; which, as it happened, was very well for him in the end. I
observed that the two who swam were yet more than twice as
long swimming over the creek than the fellow who had fled from
them. It came very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed irresist-
ibly, that now was the time to get me a servant, and perhaps a
158 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

companion or assistant; and that I was plainly called by Provi-
dence to save this poor creature’s life. I immediately ran down
the ladder with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns,
for they were both at the foot of the ladder, as I observed before,
and getting up again with the same haste to the top of the hill,
I crossed towards the sea; and having a very short cut, and all
down hill, clapped myself in the way between the pursuers and
the pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back,
was at first perhaps as much frightened at me as at them. But
I beckoned with my hand to him to come back; and, in the mean-
time, I slowly advanced towards the two that followed. Then
rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked him down with
the stock of my piece. I was loth to fire, because I would not
have the rest hear; though at that distance it would not have
been easily heard, and being out of sight of the smoke, too, they
would not have known what to make of it. Having knocked this
fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped, as if he had
been frightened, and I advanced towards him. But as I came
nearer I perceived presently he had a bow and arrow, and was
fitting it to shoot at me; so I was then obliged to shoot at him
first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot. The poor
savage who fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his enemies
fallen and killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened with the
fire and noise of my piece that he stood stock still, and neither
came forward nor went backward, though he seemed rather in-
clined still to fly than to come on. I hallooed again to him, and
made signs to come forward, which he easily understood, and
came a little way then stopped again; and then a little farther, and
stopped again; and I could then perceive that he stood trembling,
as if he had been taken prisoner, and was just about to be killed,
as his two enemies were. I beckoned to him again to come to me,
and gave all signs of encouragement that I could think of. And
he came nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve
steps, in token of acknowledgment for saving his life. I smiled
at him, and looked pleasant, and beckoned to him to come still
nearer. At length he came close to me and then he kneeled down
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 159

again, kissed the ground, and, taking me by the foot, set my foot
upon his head; this, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my
slave forever. I took him up, and made much of him, and en-
couraged him all I could. But there was more work to do yet; for
I perceived the savage whom I had knocked down was not killed,
but stunned by the blow, and began to come to himself. So I
pointed to him, and showed him the savage, that he was not dead.
Upon this he spoke some words to me, and though I could not
understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear, for
they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard, my
own excepted, for about twenty-five years. But there was no time
for such reflections now. The savage who was knocked down
recovered himself so far as to sit up upon the ground, and I per-
ceived that my savage began to be afraid; but when I saw that, I
presented my other piece at the man, as if I would shoot him.
Upon this my savage, for so I call him now, made a motion to
me to lend him my sword, which hung naked in a belt by my
side, which I did. He no sooner had it, but he runs to his enemy,
and at one blow cut off his head so cleverly, no executioner in
Germany could have done it sooner or better; which I thought
very strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never saw a
sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords. How-
ever, it seems, as-I learned afterwards, they made their wooden
swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they
will even cut off heads with them, ay, and arms, and at one blow
too. When he had done this, he comes laughing to me in sign
of triumph, and brought me the sword again, and with abundance
of gestures which I did not understand, laid it down, with the
head of the savage that he’ had killed just before me. But what
astonished him most was to know how I killed the other Indian
so far off. So pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to
him; and I bade him go, as well as I could. When he came to him
he stood like one amazed, looking at him, turning him first one
one side, then on the other; looked at the wound the bullet had
made, which it seems was just in his breast, where it had made
a hole, and no great quantity of blood had followed; but he had
160 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

bled inwardly, for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and
arrows, and came back; so I turned to go away, and beckoned him
to follow me, making signs to him that more might come after
them.

Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them with
sand, that they might not be seen by the rest, if they followed;
and so I made signs to him again to do so. He fell to work; and in
an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big
enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and
covered him; and did so by the other also; I believe he had buried
them both in a quarter of an hour. Then calling him away, I
carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the
farther part of the island; so I did not let my dream come to pass
in that part, that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave
him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water,
which I found he was indeed in great distress for from his run-
ning; and having refreshed him, I made signs for him to go and
lie down to sleep, showing him a place where I had laid some
rice straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon my-
self sometimes; so the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with
straight, strong limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped; and, as
I reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He had a very good coun-
tenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have some-
thing very manly in his face; and yet he had all the sweetness and
softness of a European in his countenance, too, especially when
he smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled like wool; his
forehead very high and large; and a great vivacity and sparkling
sharpness in his eyes. The color of his skin was not quite black,
but very tawny; and yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as
the Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of America are,
but of a bright kind of a dun olive color, that had in it something
very agreeable, though not very easy to describe. His face was
round and plump; his nose small, not flat like the negroes; a
very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well set, and as
white as ivory.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 161

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half an hour,
he awoke again, and came out of the cave to me, for I had been
milking my goats, which I had in the inclosure just by. When he
espied me he came running to me, laying himself down again
upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an humble, thank-
ful disposition, making a great many antic gestures to show it. At
last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and
sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before; and
after this, made all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and
submission imaginable, to let me know how he would serve me
so long as he lived. I understood him in many things, and let
him know I was very well pleased with him. In a little time I
began to speak to him, and teach him to speak to me; and, first, I
let him know his name should be Friday, which was the day I
saved his life; I called him so for the memory of the time. I like-
wise taught him to say Master, and then let him know that was
to be my name; I likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and
to know the meaning of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen
pot, and let him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread
in it; and gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly
complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him. I
kept there with him all that night. But as soon as it was day I
beckoned to him to come with me, and let him know I would
give him some clothes; at which he seemed very glad, for he was
stark naked. As we went by the place where he had buried the
two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the
marks that he had made to find them again, making signs to me
that we should dig them up again and eat them. At this I ap-
peared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I
would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand
to him to come away, which he did immediately, with great sub-
mission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his
enemies were gone, and pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw
plainly the place where they had been, but no appearance of
them or their canoes; so that it was plain they were gone, and left
their two comrades behind them, without any search after them.
162 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

But I was not content with this discovery; but, having now
more courage, and consequently more curiosity, I took my man
Friday with me, giving him the sword in his hand, with the bow
and arrows at his back, which I found he could use very dex-
terously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two for my-
self; and away we marched to the place where these creatures
had been—for I had a mind now to get some fuller intelligence
of them. When I came to the place my very blood ran chill in
my veins, and my heart sunk within me at the horror of the
spectacle indeed, it was a dreadful sight: at least it was so to me,
though Friday thought nothing of it. The place was covered with
human bones, the ground dyed with the blood, and great pieces
of flesh left here and there, half-eaten, mangled and scorched;
and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant feast they had
been making there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw three
skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet,
and abundance of other parts of the bodies; and Friday, by his
signs, made me understand that they brought over four prisoners
to feast upon; that three of them were eaten up and that he, point-
ing to himself, was the fourth; that there had been a great battle
between them and their next king, of whose subjects, it seems,
he had been one, and that they had taken a great number of
prisoners; all of which were carried to several places by those who
had taken them in the fight, in order to feast upon them, as was
done here by these wretches upon those they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and what-
ever remained, and lay them together on a heap, and make a great
fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday had still
a hankering stomach after some of the flesh, and was still a
cannibal in his nature; but I discovered so much abhorrence at
the very thoughts of it, and at the least appearance of it, that he
durst not discover it—for I had, by some means, let him know
that I would kill him if he offered it.

When we had done this we came back to our castle, and there
I fell to work for my man Friday; and, first of all, I gave him a
pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the poor gunner’s chest
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 163

I mentioned, which I found in the wreck, and which, with a little
alteration, fitted him very well; and then I made him a jerkin of
goat’s skin, as well as my skill would allow (for I was now grown
a tolerably good tailor); and I gave him a cap which I made of
hare’s skin, very convenient, and fashionable enough, and thus he
was clothed, for the present, tolerably well, and was mighty well
pleased to see himself almost as well clothed as his master. It is
true he went awkwardly in these clothes at first; wearing the
drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waist-
coat galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms—but a little
easing them where he complained they hurt him, and using him-
self to them, at length he took to them very well.

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I
began to consider where I should lodge him; and, that I might
do well for him, and yet be perfectly easy myself, I made a little
tent for him in the vacant place between my two fortifications,
in the inside of the last, and in the outside of the first. As there
was a door or entrance there into my cave, I made a formal
framed doorcase, and a door to it of boards, and set it up in the
passage, a little within the entrance; and, causing the door to
open in the inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my lad-
ders, too; so that Friday could no way come at me in the inside
of my innermost wall, without making so much noise in getting
over that it must needs awaken me; for my first wall had now a
complete roof over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and
leaning up to the side of the hill; which was again laid across
with smaller sticks, instead of laths, and then thatched over a
great thickness with the rice-straw, which was strong, like reeds;
and at the hole or place which was left to go in or out by the
ladder, I had placed a kind of trap door, which, if it had been
attempted on the outside, would not have opened at all, but
would have fallen down and made a great noise; as to weapons,
I took them all into my side every night. But I needed none of
all this precaution; for never man had a more faithful, loving,
sincere servant than Friday was to me; without passions, sullen-
ness, or designs, perfectly obliging and industrious; his affections
164 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

were tied to me like those of a child to a father; and I dare say
he would have sacrificed his life for saving mine upon any oc-
casion whatsoever. The many testimonies he gave me of this put
it out of doubt, and soon convinced me that I needed no precau-
tions for my safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with
wonder, that however it had pleased God in his providence, and
in the government of the works of his hands, to take from so
great a part of the world of his creatures the best uses to which
their faculties and the powers of their souls are adapted, yet that
he has bestowed upon them the same powers, the same reason,
the same affections; the same sentiments of kindness and obliga-
tion; the same passions and resentments of wrongs; the same sense
of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of doing good
and receiving good, that he has given to us; and that when he
pleases to offer them occasions of exerting these, they are as ready,
nay, more ready, to apply them to the right uses for which they
were bestowed than we are. This made me very melancholy
sometimes, in reflecting, as the several occasions presented, how
mean a use we make of all these, even though we have these
powers enlightened by the great lamp of instruction, the spirit
of God, and by tke knowledge of his word added to our under-
standing; and why it has pleased God to hide the like saving
knowledge from so many millions of souls, who, if I might judge
by this poor savage, would make a much better use of it than we
did. From hence, I sometimes was led too far, to invade the
sovereignty of Providence, and, as it were, arraign the justice of
so arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that sight
from some, and reveal it to others, and yet expect a little duty
from both; but I shut it up, and checked my thoughts with this
conclusion: first, That we did not know by what light and law
these should be condemned; but that as God was necessarily, and
by the nature of his being, infinitely holy and just, so it could
not be; but if these creatures were all sentenced to absence from
himself, it was on account of sinning against that light, which,
‘as the Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and by such rules
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 165

as their conscience would acknowledge to be just, though the
foundation was not discovered to us; and, secondly, That still,
as we are all the clay in the hand of the Potter, no vessel could
say to him, “Why hast thou formed me thus?”

But to return to my new companion. I was greatly delighted
with him, and made it my business to teach him everything that
was proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful; but especially
to make him speak, and understand me when I spoke; and he
was the aptest scholar that ever was; and particularly was so
merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased when he could but
understand me, or make me understand him, that it was very
pleasant to me to talk to him. And now my life began to be so
easy that I began to say to myself that could I but have been safe
from more savages, I cared not if I was never to remove from
the place while I lived.

After I had been two or three days returned to my castle,
I thought that, in order to bring Friday off from his horrid way
of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought
to let him taste other flesh; so I took him out with me one morn-
ing to the woods. I went, indeed, intending to kill a kid out of
my own flock, and bring it home and dress it; but as I was going,
I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young kids
sitting by her. I caught hold of Friday. “Hold,” said I, “stand
still”; and made signs to him not to stir. Immediately I presented
my piece, shot and killed one of the kids. The poor creature,
who had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill the savage, his enemy,
but did, not know, nor could imagine, how it was done, was
sensibly surprised; trembled, and shook, and looked so amazed
that I thought he would have sunk down. He did not see the kid
I shot at, or preceive I had killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat
to feel whether he was not wounded: and, as I found presently,
thought I was resolved to kill him: for he came and kneeled down
to me, and embracing my knees, said a great many-things I did
not understand. But I could easily see the meaning was to pray
me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no
166 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

harm; and taking him up by the hand, laughed at him, and point-
ing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned to him to run and
fetch it, which he did. And while he was wondering, and look-
ing to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun again.
By and by I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sitting upon a tree
within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little what I would
do, I called him to me again, pointed at the fowl, which was in-
deed a parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I say, point-
ing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to the ground under the
parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, I made him under-
stand that I would shoot and kill that bird; accordingly, I fired,
and bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot fall. He
stood like one frightened again, notwithstanding all I had said
to him. And I found he was the more amazed because he did
not see me put anything into the gun, but thought that there
must be some wonderful fund of death and destruction in that
thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything near or far off;
and the astonishment this created in him was such as could not
wear off for a long time; and I believe, if I would have let him,
he would have worshiped me and my gun. As for the gun itself,
he would not so much as touch it for several days after; but he
would speak to it and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when
he was by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was
to desire it not to kill him. Well, after his astonishment was a
little over at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I
had shot, which he did, but stayed some time; for the parrot, not
being quite dead, had fluttered away a good distance from the
place where she fell: however, he found her, took her up, and
brought her to me; and as I had perceived his ignorance about
the gun before, I took this advantage to charge the gun again,
and to let him see me do it, that I might be ready for any other
mark that might present; but nothing more offered at that time:
so I brought home the kid, and the same evening I took the skin
off, and cut it out as well as I could; and having a pot fit for
that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and made some
very good broth. After I had begun to eat some, I gave some
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 167

to my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very well;
but that which was strangest to him was to see me eat salt with
it. He made a sign to me that the salt was not good to eat; and
putting a little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it and
would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water
after it; on the other hand, I took some meat into my mouth
without salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter for want of
salt, as fast as he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he
would never care for salt with his meat, or in his broth; at least,
not for a great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was re-
solved to feast him the next day with roasting a piece of the kid;
this I did by hanging it before the fire on a string, as I had seen
many people do in England, setting two poles up, one on each
side of the fire, and one across on the top, and tying the string to
the cross stick, letting the meat turn continually. This Friday ad-
mired very much; but when he came to taste the flesh, he took
so many ways to tell me how well he liked it that I could not but
understand him; and at last he told me, as well as he could, he
would never eat man’s flesh any more, which I was very glad
to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out,
and sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I observed before;
and he soon understood how to do it as well as I, especially after
he had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was to make
bread of; for after that, I let him see me make my bread, and
bake it, too: and in a little time Friday was able to do all the work
for me, as well as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider that having two mouths to feed in-
stead of one, I must provide more ground for my harvest, and
plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do; so I marked
out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the same
manner as before, in which Friday worked not only very will-
ingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully; and I told him
what it was for; that it was for corn to make more bread, be-
cause he was now with me, arid that I might have enough for
168 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

him and myself too. He appeared very sensible of that part, and
let me know that he thought I had much more labor upon me
on his account, than I had for myself; and that he would work
the harder for me, if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place.
Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the names of
almost everything I had occasion to call for, and every place I had
to send him to, and talked a great deal to me; so that, in short,
I began now to have some use for my tongue again, which, indeed,
I had very little occasion for before; that is to say, about speech.
Besides the pleasure of talking to him, I had a singular satis-
faction in the fellow himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty ap-
peared to me more and more every day, and I began really to
love the creature; and on his side I believe he loved me more than
it was possible for him ever to love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering inclination
to his own country again; and having taught him English so
well that he could answer me almost any question, I asked him
whether the nation that he belonged to never conquered in battle.
At which he smiled, and said, “Yes, yes, we always fight the bet-
ter”; that is, he meant, always get the better in fight; and so we
began the following discourse:

Master. You always fight the better; how came you to be taken
prisoner then, Friday?

Friday. My nation beat much, for all that.

Master. How beat? If your nation beat them, how came you
to be taken?

Friday. They more many than my nation, in the place where
me was; they take one, two, three, and me; my nation overbeat
them in the yonder place, where me no was; there my nation
take one, two, great thousand.

Master. But why did not your side recover you from the hands
of your enemies then?

Friday. They run, one, two, three, and me, and make me go
in the canoe; my nation have no canoe that time.

Master. Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 169

men they take? Do they carry them away and eat them, as these
did?

Friday. Yes, my nation eats mans too; eat all up.

Master. Where do they carry them?

Friday. Go to other place, where they think.

Master. Do they come hither?

Friday. Yes, yes, they come hither; come other else place.

Master. Have you been here with them?

Friday. Yes, I been here (points to the N. W. side of the island,
which, it seems, was their side).

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been
among the savages who used to come on shore on the farther part
of the island, on the said man-eating occasions that he was now
brought for; and, some time after, when I took the courage to
carry him to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned, he
presently knew the place, and told me he was there once, when
they ate up twenty men, two women, and one child; he could
not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them by laying so
many stones in a row, and then pointing to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage, because it introduces what follows:
that after this discourse I had with him, I asked him how far it
was from our island to the shore, and whether the canoes were not
often lost. He told me there was no danger, no canoes ever lost;
but that after a little way out to sea, there was a current and
wind, always one way in the morning, the other in the afternoon.
This I understood to be no more than the sets of the tide, as
going out or coming in; but I afterwards understood it was oc-
casioned by the great draft and reflux of the mighty river Oroon-
oko, in the mouth of which river, as I thought afterwards, our
island lay; and that this land which I perceived to the W. and
N. W. was the great island Trinidad, on the north point of the
mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions about the
country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what nations were
near. He told me all he knew, with the greatest openness imagi-
nable. I asked him the names of the several nations of his sort of
people, but could get no other name than Caribs; from which I
170 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

easily understood that these were the Caribbees, which our maps
place on the part of America which reaches from the mouth of the
river Oroonoko to Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha. He told
me, that up a great way beyond the moon (that was, beyond the
setting of the moon, which must be west from their country),
there dwelt white-bearded men like me, and pointed to my great
whiskers, which I mentioned before; and that they had killed
much mans, that was his word; by all which I understood he
meant the Spaniards, whose cruelties in America had been spread
over the whole country and were remembered by all the nations.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from this
island, and get among those white men. He told me, “Yes, yes,
I might go in two canoe.” I could not understand what he meant
by two canoe, till at last, with great difficulty, I found he meant
it must be in a large, great boat, as big as two canoes. This part
of Friday’s discourse began to relish with me very well; and from
this time I entertained some hopes that, one time or other, I
might find an opportunity to make my escape from this place,
and that this poor savage might be a means to help me to do it.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and
that he began to speak to me, and understand me, I was not slow
to lay a foundation of religious knowledge in his mind; particu-
larly I asked him one time who made him. The poor creature
did not understand me at all, but thought I had asked him who
was his father: but I took it by another handle, and asked him
who made the sea, the ground we walked on, and the hills and
woods. He told me, “It was one Benamuckee, that lived beyond
all.” He could describe nothing of this great person, but that he
was very old, “much older,” he said, “than the sea or the land,
than the moon or the stars.” I asked him, then, if this old person
had made all things, why did not all things worship him? He
looked very grave, and, with a perfect look of innocence, said,
“All things said O! to him.” I asked him if the people who die
in his country went away anywhere. He said, “Yes; they all
went to Benamuckee.” Then I asked him whether those they eat
up went thither too. He said, “Yes.”
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 171

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowledge
of the true God. I told him that the great Maker of all things
lived there, pointing up towards heaven; that he governed the
world by the same power and providence by which he made it;
that he was omnipotent, and could do everything for us, give
everything to us, take everything from us; and thus, by degrees, I
opened his eyes. He listened with great attention, and received
with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us,
and of the manner of making our prayers to God, and his being
able to hear us, even into heaven. He told me one day that if
our God could hear us, up beyond the sun, he must needs be a
greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived but a little way
off, and yet could not hear till they went up to the great moun-
tains where he dwelt to speak to him. I asked him if ever he went
thither to speak to him. He said, “No; they never went that were
young men; none went thither but the old men,” whom he called
their Oowokakee that is, as I made him explain it to me, their
religious, or clergy and that they went to say O! (so he called
saying prayers) and then came back and told them what Bena-
muckee said. By this I observed, that there is priestcraft even
among the most blinded, ignorant pagans in the world; and the
policy of making a secret religion, in order to preserve the ven-
eration of the people to the clergy, is not only to be found in the
Roman, but, perhaps, among all religions in the world, even
among the most brutish and barbarous savages.

I endeavored to clear up this fraud to my man Friday, and
told him that the pretense of their old men going up to the moun-
tains to say O! to their God Benamuckee was a cheat; and their
bringing word from thence what he said was much more so; that
if they met with any answer, or spoke with any one there, it must
be with an evil spirit. And then I entered into a long discourse
with him about the devil, the original of him, his rebellion against
God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting himself up in
the dark parts of the world to be worshiped instead of God, and as
God, and the many stratagems he made use of to delude mankind
to their ruin; how he had a secret access to our passions and to
172 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

our affections, and to adapt his snares to our inclinations, so as to
cause us even to be our own tempters, and run upon our own
destruction by our own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind
about the devil as it was about the being of a God: nature as-
sisted all my arguments to evidence to him even the necessity
of a great First Cause—an overruling, governing Power—a secret
directing Providence; and of the equity and justice of paying
homage to him that made us, and the like. But there appeared
nothing of this kind in the notion of an evil spirit; of his origin,
his being, his nature; and, above all, of his inclination to do evil,
and to draw us to do so too. And the poor creature puzzled me
once in such a manner, by a question merely natural and innocent,
that I scarce knew what to say to him. I had been talking a great
deal to him of the power of God, his omnipotence, his aversion
to sin, his being a consuming fire to the workers of iniquity;
how, as he had made us all, he could destroy us and all the world
in a moment; and he listened with great seriousness to me all the
while. After this, I had been telling him how the devil was God’s
enemy in the hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill to
defeat the good designs of Providence, and to ruin the kingdom
of Christ in the world, and the like. “Well,” says Friday; “but
you say God is so strong, so great; is he not much strong, much
might as the devil?” “Yes, yes,” says I, “Friday; God is stronger
than the devil. God is above the devil, and therefore we pray to
God to tread him down under our feet, and to enable us to resist
his temptations and quench his fiery darts.” “But,” says he again,
“if God much strong, much might as the devil, why God no kill
the devil, so make him no more do wicked?” I was strangely
surprised at this question; and after all, though I was now an old
man, yet I was but a young doctor, and ill qualified for a casuist,
or solver of difficulties; and at first I could not tell what to say;
so I pretended not to hear him, and asked him what he said; but
he was too earnest for an answer to forget his question, so that
he repeated it in the very same broken words as above. By this
time I had recovered myself a little, and I said, “God will at last
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 173

punish him severely; he is reserved for the judgment, and he is
to be cast into the bottomless pit, to dwell with everlasting fire.”
This did not satisfy Friday; but he returns upon me, repeating
my own words, “ ‘Reserve at last!’ me no understand; but why
not kill the devil now; not kill great ago?” “You may as well ask
me,” said I, “why God does not kill you or me, when we do
wicked things here that offend him. We are preserved to repent
and be pardoned.” He muses awhile on this: “Well, well,” says
he, mightily affectionately, “that well: so you, I, devil, all wicked,
all preserve, repent, God pardon all.” Here I was run down by
him to the last degree. And it was a testimony to me, how the
mere notions of nature, though they will guide reasonable crea-
tures to the knowledge of a God, and of a worship or homage due
to the supreme being of God, as the consequence of our nature,
yet nothing but Divine revelation can form the knowledge of
Jesus Christ, and of redemption purchased for us; of a Medita-
tor of the new covenant, and of an Intercessor at the footstool
of God’s throne; I say, nothing but a revelation from heaven can
form these in the soul; and that, therefore, the gospel of our
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of God, and
the Spirit of God, promised for the guide and sanctifier of his
people, are the absolutely necessary instructors of the souls of
men in the saving knowledge of God and the means of salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and my
man, rising up hastily as upon some sudden occasion of going
out; then sending him for something a good way off, I seriously
prayed to God that he would enable me to instruct savingly this
poor savage, assisting by his Spirit the heart of the poor ignorant
creature to receive the light of the knowledge of God in Christ,
reconciling him to himself, and would guide me to speak so to
him from the Word of God that his conscience might be con-
vinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved. When he came again
to me I entered into a long discourse with him upon the subject
of the redemption of man by the Saviour of the world, and of
the doctrine of the gospel preached from heaven—viz., of repent-
ance towards God, and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus. I then
174 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

explained to him as well as I could why our blessed Redeemer
took not on him the nature of angels, but the seed of Abraham;
and how, for that reason, the fallen angels had no share in the
redemption; that he came only to the lost sheep of the house of
Israel, and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the
methods I took for this poor creature’s instruction, and must ac-
knowledge, what I believe all that act upon the same principle
will find, that, in laying things open to him, I really informed and
instructed myself in many things that I either did not know or
had not fully considered before, but which occurred naturally to
my mind upon searching into them for the information of this
poor savage and I had more affection in my inquiry after things
upon this occasion than ever I felt before so that, whether this
poor wild wretch was the better for me or no, I had reason to be
thankful that ever he came to me. My grief sat lighter upon me;
my habitation grew comfortable to me beyond measure; and when
I reflected that in this solitary life which I had been confined to,
I had not only been moved to look up to heaven myself, and to
seek the hand that had brought me here, but was now to be made
an instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and, for aught
I know, the soul of a poor savage, and bring him to the true knowl-
edge of religion, and of the Christian doctrine, that he might know
Christ Jesus, to know whom is life eternal. I say, when I reflected
upon all these things, a secret joy ran through every part of my
soul, and I frequently rejoiced that ever I was brought to this
place, which I had so often thought the most dreadful of all
afflictions that could possibly have befallen me.

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of my
time and the conversations which employed the hours between
Friday and me were such as made the three years which we lived
there together perfectly and completely happy, if any such thing
as complete happiness can be found in a sublunary state. This
savage was now a good Christian, a much better than I; though
I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we were equally
penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. We had here the
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 175

word of God to read, and no farther off from His Spirit to instruct,
than if we had been in England. I always applied myself, in read-
ing the Scriptures, to let him know, as well as I could, the meaning
of what I read and he again, by his serious inquiries and question-
ings, made me, as I said before, a much better scholar in the Scrip-
ture knowledge than I should ever have been by my own mere
private reading. Another thing I cannot refrain from observing
here also, from experience in this retired part of my life—viz.,
how infinite and inexpressible a blessing it is that the knowledge
of God, and of the doctrine of salvation by Christ Jesus, is so
plainly laid down in the Word of God, so easy to be received and
understood, that, as the bare reading the Scripture made me
capable of understanding enough of my duty to carry me directly
on to the great work of sincere repentance for my sins, and of
laying hold of a Saviour for life and salvation, to a stated refor-
mation in practice, and obedience to all God’s commands, and
this without any teacher or instructor, I mean human; so the same
plain instruction sufficiently served to the enlightening of this
savage creature, and bringing him to be such a Christian as I
have known few equals to him in my life.

As to the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contention which
have happened in the world about religion, whether niceties in
doctrines or schemes of church government, they were all perfectly
useless to us, and, for aught I can yet see, they have been to the
rest of the world. We had the sure guide to heaven, viz., the Word
of God; and we had, blessed be God, comfortable views of the
Spirit of God teaching and instructing us by his word, leading
us into all truth, and making us both willing and obedient to the
instruction of his word. And I cannot see the least use that the
greatest knowledge of the disputed points of religion, which have
made such confusions in the world, would have been to us, if
we could have obtained it; but I must go on with the historical
part of things, and take every part in its order.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and
that he could understand almost all I said to him, and speak
fluently, though in broken English, to me, I acquainted him with
176 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

my own story, or at least so much of it as related to my coming
into this place; how I lived there, and how long. I let him into
the mystery, for such it was to him, of gunpowder and bullets,
and taught him how to shoot. I gave him a knife, with which
he was wonderfully delighted; and I made him a belt, with a
frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers in; and
in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which
was not only as good a weapon in some cases, but much more
useful upon many occasions.

I described to him the countries of Europe, particularly Eng-
land, which I came from; how we lived, how we worshipped
God, how we behaved to one another, and how we traded in
ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an account of the
wreck which I had been on board of; and showed him, as near
as I could, the place where she lay. But she was all beaten in
pieces long before, and quite gone. I showed him the ruins of
our boat, which we lost when we escaped, and which I could
not stir with my whole strength then; but was now fallen almost
all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great
while, and said nothing. I asked him what it was he studied
upon. At last, says he, “Me see such boat like come to place at
my nation.” I did not understand him a good while; but at last,
when I had examined further into it, I understood by him that
a boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon the country
where he lived; that is, as he explained it, was driven thither by
stress of weather. I presently imagined that some European ship
must have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat might
get loose and drive ashore; but was so dull that I never once
thought of men making their escape from a wreck thither, much
less whence they might come: so I only inquired after the de-
scription of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought me
better to understand him when he added with some warmth, “We
save the white mans from drown.” Then I presently asked if
there were any white mans, as he called them, in the boat. “Yes,”
he said; “the boat full of white mans.” I asked him how many.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 177

He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him then what be-
came of them. He told me, “They live, they dwell at my nation.”

‘This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently imagined
that these might be the men belonging to the ship that was cast
away in the sight of my island, as I now called it; and who, after
the ship was struck on the rock and they saw her inevitably lost,
had saved themselves in their boat, and were landed upon that
wild shore among the savages. Upon this I inquired of him more
critically what was become of them. He assured me they lived
still there; that they had been there about four years; that the
savages left them alone, and gave them victuals to live. I asked
him how it came to pass that they did not kill them and eat
them. He said, “No, they make brother with them”; that is, as
I understood him, a truce; and then he added, “They no eat
mans but when make the war fight.” That is to say, they never
eat any men but such as come to fight with them, and are taken
in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that, being upon the
top of the hill, at the east side of the island, from whence, as I
have said, I had, in a clear day, discovered the main or continent
of America, Friday, the weather being very serene looks very
earnestly towards the mainland, and, in a kind of surprise, falls
a-jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at some
distance from him. I asked him what was the matter. “Oh, joy!”
says he. “Oh, glad! There see my country, there my nation!” I
observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared in his face,
and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance discovered a strange
eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his own country again.
This observation of mine put a great many thoughts into me,
which made me at first not so easy about my new man Friday
as I was before and I made no doubt but that, if Friday could
get back to his own nation again, he would not only forget all
his religion, but all his obligation to me, and would be forward
enough to give his countrymen an account of me, and come back,
perhaps, with a hundred or two of them, and make a feast upon
me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be with those
178 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

of his enemies, when they were taken in war. But I wronged the
poor honest creature very much, for which I was very sorry after-
wards. However, as my jealousy increased, and held me some
weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar and
kind to him as before: in which I was certainly in the wrong too,
the honest, grateful creature having no thought about it but what
consisted with the best principles both as a religious Christian,
and as a grateful friend; as appeared afterwards to my full satis-
faction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was every
day pumping him, to see if he would discover any of the new
thoughts which I suspected were in him. But I found everything
he said was so honest and so innocent that I could find nothing
to nourish my suspicion; and, in spite of all my uneasiness, he
made me at last entirely his own again; nor did he in the least
perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could not suspect him
of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy
at sea, so that we could not see the continent, I called to him, and
said, “Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own country,
your own nation?” “Yes,” he said, “I be much O glad to be at my
own nation.” “What would you do there?” said I. “Would you
turn wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and be a savage, as you
were before?” He looked full of concern, and shaking his head,
said, “No, no; Friday tell them to live good; tell them to pray
God: tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk; no eat man
again.” “Why, then,” said I to him, “they will kill you.” He
looked grave at that, and then said, “No, no; they no kill me,
they willing love learn.” He meant by this, they would be willing
to learn, He added, they learned much of the bearded mans that
came in the boat. Then I asked him if he would go back to them.
He smiled at that, and told me he could not swim so far. I told
him I would make a canoe for him. He told me he would go if I
would go with him. “I go!” says I. “Why, they will eat me if I
come there.” “No, no,” says he, “me make them no eat you; me
make them much love you.” He meant, he would tell them how
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 179

I had killed his enemies, and saved his life, and so he would make
them love me. Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind
they were to seventeen white men, or bearded men as he called
them, who came on shore in distress.

From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over, and
see if I could possibly join with those bearded men, who, I made
no doubt, were Spaniards or Portuguese; not doubting but, if I
could, we might find some method to escape from thence, being
upon the continent, and a good company together, better than I
could from an island forty miles off the shore, alone, and without
help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work again, by way
of discourse, and told him I would give him a boat to go back
to his own nation; and, accordingly, I carried him to my frigate,
which lay on the other side of the island, and having cleared it
of water (for I always kept it sunk in the water), I brought it
out, showed it him, and we both went into it. I found he was a
most dexterous fellow at managing it and would make it go
almost as swift and fast again as I could. So when he was in, I
said to him, “Well, now, Friday, shall we go to your nation?”
He looked very dull at my saying so which it seems was because
he thought the boat too small to go so far. I then told him I
had a bigger; so the next day I went to the place where the first
boat lay which I had made, but which I could not get into the
water. He said that was big enough; but then, as I had taken no
care of it, and it had lain two or three and twenty years there,
the sun had split and dried it, so that it was rotten. Friday told me
that such a boat would do very well, and would carry “much
enough vittle, drink, bread”;—that was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design
of going over with him to the continent that I told him we would
go and make one as big as that, and he should go home in it. He
answered not one word, but looked very grave and sad. I asked
him what was the matter with him. He asked me again, “Why
you angry mad with Friday? What me done?” I asked him what
he meant. I told him I was not angry with him at all. “No angry?”
says he, repeating the words several times. “Why send Friday
180 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

home away to my nation?” “Why,” says I, “Friday, did not you
say you wished you were there?” “Yes, yes,” says he, “wish we
both there; no wish Friday there, no master there.” In a word, he
would not think of going there without me. “I go there, Friday?”
says I. “What shall I do there?” He turned very quickly upon
me at this. “You do great deal much good,” says he; “you teach
wild mans be good, sober, tame mans; you tell them know God,
pray God, and live new life.” “Alas, Friday!” says I, “thou
knowest not what thou sayest; I am but an ignorant man myself.”
“Yes, yes,” says he, “you teachee me good, you teachee them good.”
“No, no, Friday,” says I, “you shall go without me; leave me here
to live by myself, as I did before.” He looked confused again at
that word; and running to one of his hatchets which he used to
wear, he takes it up hastily, and gives it to me. “What- must
I do with this?” says I to him. “You take kill Friday,” says he.
“What must I kill you for?” said I again. He returns very quick:
“What you send Friday away for? Take kill Friday; no send
Friday away.” This he spoke so earnestly that I saw tears stand in
his eyes. In a word, I so plainly discovered the utmost affection in
him to me, and a firm resolution in him, that I told him then,
and often after, that I would never send him away from me, if
he was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled affec-
tion to me, and that nothing could part him from me, so I found
all the foundation of his desire to go to his own tountry was laid
in his ardent affection to the people, and his hopes of my doing
them good; a thing which, as I had no notion of myself, so I had
not the least thought, or intention, or desire of undertaking it.
But still I found a strong inclination to my attempting an escape,
founded on the supposition gathered from the former discourse,
that there were seventeen bearded men there, and therefore, with-
out any more delay, I went to work with Friday to find out a
great tree proper to fell, and make a large periagua, or canoe, to
undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in the island to
have built a little fleet, not of periaguas or canoes, but even of good
large vessels; but the main thing I looked at was, to get one so
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 181

near the water that we
might launch it when
it was made, to avoid
the mistake I com-
mitted at first. At last,
Friday pitched upon a
tree; for I found he
knew much better than
I what kind of wood
was fittest for it; nor
can I tell, to this day,
what wood to call the
tree we cut down, ex-
cept that it was very
like the tree we call
fustic, or between that
and the Nicaragua
wood, for it was much
of the same color and smell. Friday was for burning the hollow
or cavity of this tree out, to make it into a boat, but I showed
him how rather to cut it with tools; which, after I had showed
him how to use, he did very handily; and in about a month’s
hard labor we finished it and made it very handsome; especially,
when, with our axes, which J showed him how to handle, we
cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat. After
this, however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along,
as it were, inch by inch, upon great rollers into the water; but
when she was in, she would have carried twenty men with great
ease.

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it amazed
me to see with what dexterity and how swift my man Friday
could manage her, turn her, and paddle her along. So I asked
him if he would, and if we might venture over in her. “Yes,” he
said, “we venture over in her very well, though great blow wind.”
However, I had a farther design that he knew nothing of, and
that was to make a mast and a sail, and to fit her with an anchor


182 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so I pitched
upon a straight young cedar tree, which I found near the place,
and which there was a great plenty of in the island, and I set
Friday to work to cut it down, and gave him directions how to
shape and order it. But as to the sail, that was my particular care.
I knew I had old sails, or rather pieces of old sails, enough; but
as I had had them now six-and-twenty years by me, and had not
been very careful to preserve them, not imagining that I should
ever have this kind of use for them, I did not doubt but they were
all rotten; and, indeed, most of them were so. However, I found
two pieces, which appeared pretty good, and with these I went
to work; and with a great deal of pains, and awkward, tedious
stitching, you may be sure, for want of needles, I at length made
a three-cornered ugly thing, like what we call in England a
shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at the bottom, and a
little short sprit at the top, such as usually our ships’ longboats
sail with, and such as I best knew how to manage, because it was
such a one as I used in the boat in which I made my escape from
Barbary, as related in the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work—viz., rigging
and fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them very complete,
making a small stay, and a sail or foresail to it, to assist if we
should turn to windward; and, which was more than all, I fixed
a rudder to the stern of her to steer with. And though I was but
a bungling shipwright, yet as I knew the usefulness, and even the
necessity of such a thing, I applied myself with so much pains to
do it that at last I brought it to pass; though, considering the
many dull contrivances I had for it that failed, I think it cost me
almost as much labor as making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as to
what belonged to the navigation of my boat; for, though he knew
very well how to paddle the canoe, he knew nothing of what be-
longed to a sail and a rudder; and was the most amazed when he
saw me work the boat to and again in the sea by the rudder, and
how the sail gibbed, and filled this way or that way, as the course
we sailed changed; I say, when he saw this, he stood like one
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 183

astonished and amazed. However, with a little use I made all
these things familiar to him, and he became an expert sailor,
except that as to the compass I could make him understand very
little of that. On the other hand, as there was very little cloudy
weather, and seldom or never any fogs in those parts, there was
the less occasion for the compass, seeing the stars were always to
be seen by night, and the shore by day, except in the rainy seasons,
and then nobody cared to stir abroad either by land or sea.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my cap-
tivity in this place; though the three last years that I had this
creature with me ought rather to be left out of the account, my
habitation being quite of another kind than in all the rest of my
time. I kept the anniversary of my landing here with the same
thankfulness to God for His mercies as at first: and if I had such
cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much more so now, hav-
ing such additional testimonies of the care of Providence over
me, and the great hopes I had of being effectually and speedily
delivered; for I had an invincible impression upon my thoughts
that my deliverance was at hand, and that I should not be another
year in this place. However, I went on with my husbandry, dig-
ging, planting, and fencing as usual.

The rainy season was in the meantime upon me, when I kept
more within doors than at other times. We had stowed our new
vessel as secure as we could, bringing her up into the creek,
where, as I said in the beginning, I landed my rafts from the
ship; and hauling her up to the shore at high-water mark, I made
my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to hold her, and
just deep enough to give her water enough to float in; and then,
when the tide was out, we made a strong dam across the end of
it, to keep the water out; and so she lay dry as to the tide from
the sea: and to keep the rain off we laid a great many boughs of
trees, so thick that she was as well thatched as a house; and thus
we waited for the months of November and December, in which
I designed to make my adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought of
my design returned with the fair weather, I was preparing daily
184 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

for the voyage. And the first thing I did was to lay by a certain
quantity of provisions, being the stores for our voyage; and in-
tended, in a week or a fortnight’s time, to open the dock and
launch out our boat. I was busy one morning upon something
of this kind when I called to Friday, and bid him go to the sea-
shore and see if he could find a turtle or tortoise, a thing which
we generally got once a week, for the sake of the eggs as well as
the flesh. Friday had not been gone long when he came running
back, and flew over my outer wall, or fence, like one that felt not
the ground, or the steps he set his feet on; and before I had time
to speak to him, he cries out to me, “O master! O master! O sor-
row! O bad!” “What’s the matter, Friday?” said I. “Oh! yonder,
there,” says he; “one, two, three canoes; one, two, three!” By
this way of speaking, I concluded there were six; but on inquiry
I found there were but three. “Well, Friday,” says I, “do not be
frightened.” So I heartened him up as well as I could. However,
I saw the poor fellow was most terribly scared, for nothing ran in
his head but that they were come back to look for him, and
would cut him in pieces and eat him; and the poor fellow trem-
bled so that I scarcely knew what to do with him. I comforted
him as well as I could, and told him I was in as much danger as
he, and that they would eat me as well as him. “But,” said I, “Fri-
day, we must resolve to fight them. Can you fight, Friday?” “Me
shoot,” says he; “but there come many great number.” “No
matter for that,” said I, again; “our guns will fright them that
we do not kill.”* So I asked him whether, if I resolved to defend
him, he would defend me, and stand by me, and do just as I
bid him. He said, “Me die when you bid die, master.” I was
touched with the poor fellow’s devotion and cheering him as
well as I might, we prepared for what was to come. So, when all
was in readiness, I made him take the two fowling pieces, which
we always carried, and load them with large swanshot, as big
as small pistol bullets. Then I took four muskets, and loaded
them with two slugs and five small bullets each; and my two
pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets each. I hung my great
sword, as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 185

When I had thus prepared myself, I took my perspective glass
and went up to the side of the hill, to see what I could discover;
and I found quickly by my glass that there were one-and-twenty
savages, three prisoners, and three canoes; and that their whole
business seemed to be the triumphant banquet upon these three
human bodies—a barbarous feast indeed, but nothing more than,_
as I had observed, was usual with them. I observed also that they
landed, not where they had done when Friday made his escape,
but nearer to my creek, where the shore was low, and where a
thick wood came close almost down to the sea. This, with the
abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches came about,
filled me with such indignation that I came down again to
Friday, and told him I was resolved to go down to them, and kill
them all; and asked him if he would stand by me. He had now
got over his fright and his spirits being a little raised, told me, as
before, he would die when I bade him die.

In this fit of fury I took first and divided between us the arms
which I had charged, as before; I gave Friday one pistol to stick
in his girdle, and three guns upon his shoulders, and I took one
pistol and the other three myself; and in this posture we marched
out. I took a small bottle of rum in my pocket, and gave Friday a
large bag with more powder and bullets; and as to orders, I
charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir, or shoot, or
do anything till I bid him, and in the meantime not to speak a
word. In this posture I fetched a compass to my right hand of
near a mile, as well to get over the creek as to get into the wood,
so that I might come within shot of them before I should be
discovered, which I had seen by my glass it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts return-
ing, I began to abate my resolution—I do not mean that I enter-
tained any fear of their number, for, as they were naked, un-
armed wretches, it is certain I was superior to them—nay, though
I had been alone. But it occurred to my thoughts, what call, what
occasion, much less what necessity, I was in to go and dip my
hands in blood, to attack people who had neither done nor in-
tended me any wrong?—who, as to me, were innocent and whose
186 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

barbarous customs were their own disaster, being in them a
token, indeed, of God’s having left them, with the other nations
of that part of the world, to such stupidity, and to such inhuman
courses, but did not call me to take upon me to be a judge of
their actions, much less an executioner of His justice—that when-
ever He thought fit He would take the cause into His own hands,
and by national vengeance punish them for national crimes; but
that in the meantime, it was none of my business—that it was true
Friday might justify it, because he was a declared enemy, and in
a state of war with those very particular people, and that it was
lawful for him to attack them; but I could not say the same with
regard to myself. These things were so warmly pressed upon my
thoughts all the way as I went that I resolved I would only go
and place myself near them that I might observe their barbarous
feast and that I would act then as God should direct; and that
unless something offered that was more a call to me than yet I
knew of, I would not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and with all possible
wariness and silence, Friday following close at my heels, I
marched till I came to the skirt of the wood on the side which was
next to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between me
and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and showing him a great
tree, which was just at the corner of the wood, I bade him go to
the tree, and bring me word if he could see there plainly what
they were doing. He did so, and came immediately back to me
and told me they might be plainly viewed there—that they were
all about their fire, eating the flesh of one of their prisoners, and
that another lay bound upon the sand a little from them, whom
he said they would kill next; and this fired the very soul within
me. He told me it was not one of their nation, but one of the
bearded men whom he had told me of that came to their country
in a boat. I was filled with horror at the very naming of the white,
bearded man, and going to the tree, I saw plainly by my glass a
white man, who lay upon the beach of the sea with his hands and
feet tied with flags, or things like rushes, and that he was a Euro-
pean and had clothes on.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 187

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it, about
fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I was, which by
going a little way about I saw I might come at undiscovered, and
that then I should be within half a shot of them; so I withheld my
passion, though I was indeed enraged to the highest degree. And
going back about twenty paces, I got behind some bushes, which
held all the way till I came to the other tree, and then came to a
little rising ground, which gave me a full view of them at the dis-
tance of about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful
wretches sat upon the ground, all close huddled together, and had
just sent the other two to butcher the poor Christian, and bring
him perhaps limb by limb to their fire, and they were stooping
down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to Friday. “Now,
Friday,” said I, “do as I bid thee.” Friday said he would. “Then,
Friday,” said I, “do exactly as you see me do; fail in nothing.” So
I set down one of the muskets and the fowling piece upon the
ground, and Friday did the like by his, and with the other
musket I took my aim at the savages, bidding him do the like;
then asking him if he was ready, he said, “Yes.” “Then fire at
them,” said I; and at the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I that on the side that
he shot he killed two of them, and wounded three more; and
on my side I killed one, and wounded two. They were, you may
be sure, in a dreadful consternation; and all of them that were
not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not immediately know
which way to run, or which way to look, for they knew not from
whence their destruction came. Friday kept his eye close upon
me, that, as I had bid him, he might observe what I did; so, as
soon as the first shot was made, I threw down the piece, and took
up the fowling piece, and Friday did the like; he saw me cock and
present; he did the same again. “Are you ready, Friday?” said
I. “Yes,” says he. “Let fly, then,” said I, “in the name of God!”
and with that I fired again among the amazed wretches, and so
did Friday; and as our pieces were now loaded with what I call
swanshot, or small pistol-bullets, we found only two drop; but
188 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

so many were wounded that they ran about yelling and scream-
ing like mad creatures, all bloody, and most of them miserably
wounded; whereof three more fell quickly after, though not quite
dead.

“Now, Friday,” said I, laying down the discharged pieces, and
taking up the musket which was yet loaded, “follow me,” which
he did with a great deal of courage; upon which I rushed out of
the wood and showed myself, and Friday close at my foot. As
soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud as I could, and
bade Friday do so too, and running as fast as I could, which by the
way was not very fast, being loaded with arms as I was, I made
directly toward the poor victim, who was, as I said, lying upon
the beach or shore, between the place where they sat and the sea.
The two butchers who were just going to work with him had left
him at the surprise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible fright to
the seaside, and had jumped into a canoe, and three more of the
rest made the same way. I turned to Friday, and bade him step
forward and fire at them; he understood me immediately, and
running about forty yards to be nearer them, he shot at them;
and I thought he killed them all, for I saw them all fall of a heap
into the boat, though I saw two of them up again quickly; how-
ever, he killed two of them, and wounded the third so that he
lay down in the bottom of the boat as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them I pulled out my knife and
cut the flags that bound the poor victim; and loosing his hands
and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him, in the Portuguese
tongue, what he was. He answered in Latin, Christianus, but
was so weak and faint that he could scarce stand or speak. I gave
him a piece of bread, which he ate. Then I asked him what
countryman he was, and he said Espagnole; and being a little
recovered, let me know, by all the signs he could possibly make,
how much he was in my debt for his deliverance. “Seignior,” said
I, with as much Spanish as I could make up, “we will talk after-
wards, but we must fight now; if you have any strength left, take
this pistol and sword, and lay about you.” He took them very
thankfully; and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but as
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 189

if they had put new vigor into him, he flew upon his murderers
like a fury, and had cut two of them in pieces in an instant; for
the truth is, as the whole was a surprise to them, so the poor
creatures were so much frightened with the noise of our pieces
that they fell down for mere amazement and fear, and had no
more power to attempt their own escape than their flesh had to
resist our shot. And that was the case of those five that Friday shot
at in the boat; for as three of them fell with the hurt they received,
so the other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand, still without firing, being willing
to keep my charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard my
pistol and sword; so I called to Friday, and bade him run up to
the tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the arms which lay
there that had been discharged, which he did with great swiftness;
and then giving him my musket, I sat down myself to load all the
rest again, and bade them come to me when they wanted. While
I was loading these pieces, there happened a fierce engagement
between the Spaniard and one of the savages, who made at him
with one of their great wooden swords, the same weapon that
was to have killed him before if I had not prevented it. The
Spaniard, who was as bold and brave as could be imagined,
though weak, had fought this Indian a good while, and had cut
two great wounds on his head; but the savage being a stout lusty
fellow, closing in with him, had thrown him dowa, being faint,
and was wringing my sword out of his hand, when the Spaniard,
though undermost, wisely quitted the sword, drew the pistol
from his girdle, shot the savage through the body, and killed him
upon the spot, before I, who was running to help him, could
come near him.

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying
wretches, with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet; and with
that he dispatched those three who, as I said before, were
wounded at first, and fallen, and all the rest he could come up
with: and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him one
of the fowling pieces, with which he pursued two of the savages,
and wounded them both but, as he was not able to run, they
190 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

both got from him into the wood, where Friday pursued them,
and killed one of them, but the other was too nimble for him;
and though he was wounded, yet had plunged himself into the
sea, and swam with all his might off to those two who were left
in the canoe; which three in the canoe, with one wounded, that
we knew not whether he died or no, were all that escaped our
hands, of one-and-twenty. The account of the whole is as follows:
Three killed at our first shot from the tree; two killed at the
next shot; two killed by Friday in the boat; two killed by Friday,
of those at first wounded; one killed by Friday in the wood; three
killed by the Spaniard; four killed, being found dropped here and
there, of the wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them;
four escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded if not dead—
twenty-one, in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gun-
shot, and though Friday made two or three shots at them, I did
not find that he hit any of them. Friday would fain have had me
take one of their canoes, and pursue them; and, indeed, I was
very anxious about their escape, lest, carrying the news home to
their people, they should come back perhaps with two or three
hundred of the canoes, and devour us by mere multitude; so I
consented to pursue them by sea, and running to one of their
canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me; but when I was
in the canoe, I was surprised to find another poor creature lying
there, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the
slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not knowing what was
the matter; for he had not been able to look up over the side of
the boat.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which’ they had
bound him with, and would have helped him up, but he could
not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously, believing, it
seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be killed.
When Friday came to him I bade him speak to him, and tell him
of his deliverance, which news of his being delivered, revived
him, and he sat up in the boat. But when Friday came to hear
him speak, and look in his face, it would have moved any one
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 191

to tears to have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced him,
hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about, danced,
sung; then cried again, wrung his hands, beat his own face and
head; and then sung and jumped about again like a distracted
creature. It was a good while before I could make him speak to
me, or tell me what was the matter; but when he came a little
to himself, he told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what
ecstacy and filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the
sight of his father, and of his being delivered from death; nor in-
deed, can I describe half the extravagances of his affection after
this; for he went into the boat, and out of the boat, a great many
times. When he went in to him he would sit down by him, open
his breast, and hold his father’s head close to his bosom half an
hour together, to nourish it; then he took his arms and ankles,
which were numb and stiff with the binding, and chafed and
rubbed them with his hands.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the
other savages, who were now gotten almost out of sight; and it
was happy for us that we did not, for it blew so hard within two
hours after, and before they could be got a quarter of their way,
and continued blowing so hard all night, and that from the
northwest, which was against them, that I could not suppose their
boat could live, or that they ever reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday. He was so busy about his father that
I could not find in’ my heart to take him off for some time; but
after I thought he could leave him a little I called him to me,
and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased to the highest
extreme. Then I asked him if he had given his father any bread.
He shook his head, and said, “None; ugly dog eat all up self.”
I then gave him a cake of bread, out of a little pouch I carried on
purpose. I had in my pocket also two or three bunches of raisins,
so I gave him a handful of them for his father. He had no sooner
given his father these raisins but I saw him come out of the boat,
and run away as if he had been bewitched, for he was the swiftest
fellow on his feet that ever I saw. I say, he ran at such a rate that
192 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

he was out of sight, as it were, in an instant; and though I called,
and hallooed out, too, after him, it was all one—away he went;
and in a quarter of an hour I saw him come back again, though
not so fast as he went; and, as he came nearer, I found his pace
slacker, because he had something in his hand. When he came up
to me, I found he had been quite home for an earthen jug or
pot, to bring his father some fresh water, and that he had got
two more cakes or loaves of bread: the bread he gave me, but
the water he carried to his father; however, as I was very thirsty
too, I took a sip of it. This water revived his father, for he was
just fainting with thirst.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there
was any water left; he said, “Yes;” and I bade him give it to the
poor Spaniard, who was in as much want of it as his father. And
I sent one of the cakes, that Friday brought, to the Spaniard too,
who was indeed very weak, and was reposing himself upon a
green place under the shade of a tree; and whose limbs were also
very stiff, and very much swelled with the rude bandage he had
been tied with. When I saw that upon Friday’s coming to him
with the water he sat up and drank, and took the bread and be-
gan to eat, I went to him and gave him a handful of raisins. He
looked up in my face with all the tokens of gratitude and thank-
fulness that could appear in any countenance; but was so weak,
notwithstanding he had so exerted himself in the fight, that he
could not stand up upon his feet. He tried to do it two or three
times, but was really not able, his ankles were so swelled and so
painful to him. So I bade him sit still, and caused Friday to rub
his ankles, and bathe them, as he had done his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature every two minutes, or
perhaps less, all the while he was here, turned his head about to
see if his father was in the same place and posture as he left him
sitting; and at last he found he was not to be seen; at which he
started up, and, without speaking a word, flew with that swiftness
to him that one could scarce perceive his feet to touch the ground
as he went: but when he came, he only found he had laid himself
down to ease his limbs, so Friday came back to me presently. And
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 193

I then spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday help him up, if he
could, and lead him to the boat, and then he should carry him to
our dwelling, where I would take care of him. But Friday, a lusty
young fellow, took the Spaniard quite up upon his back, and
carried him away to the boat, and set him down softly upon the
side or gunwale of the canoe, with his feet in the inside of it; and
then lifted him quite in, and set him close to his father; and
presently stepping out again, launched the boat off, and paddled
it along the shore faster than I could walk, though the wind blew
pretty hard too. So he brought them both safe into our creek, and,
leaving them in the boat, runs away to fetch the other canoe. As
he passed me I spoke to him, and asked him whither he went. He
told me, “Go fetch more boat;” so away he went like the wind,
for sure never man or horse ran like him and he had the other
canoe in the creek almost as soon as I got to it by land. So he
wafted me over, and then went to help our new guests out of the
boat, which he did; but they were neither of them able to walk;
so that poor Friday knew not what to do.

To remedy this I went to work in my thought, and calling to
Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while he came to me, I
soon made a kind of hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday
and I between us carried them up both together upon it.

But when we got them into the outside of our wall, or fortifica-
tion, we were at a worse loss than before, for it was impossible to
get them over, and I was resolved not to break it down; so I set
to work again, and Friday and I, in about two hours’ time, made
a very handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above that with
boughs of trees, being in the space without our outward fence,
and between that and the grove of young wood which I had
planted; and here we made them two beds of such things as I
had, viz., of good rice straw, with blankets laid upon it, to lie
on, and another to cover them, on each bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich in
subjects; and it was a merry reflection, which I frequently made,
how like a king I looked. First of all, the whole country was my
own mere property, so that I had an undoubted right of domin-
194 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

ion. Secondly, my people were perfectly subjected; I was ab-
solutely lord and lawgiver. They all owed their lives to me, and
were ready to lay down their lives, if there had been occasion for
it, for me. It was remarkable, too, I had but three subjects, and
they were of three different religions: my man Friday was a
Protestant, his father was a Pagan and a cannibal, and the Span-
iard was a Papist. However, I allowed liberty of conscience
throughout my dominion. But this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak, rescued prisoners, and
given them shelter and a place to rest them upon, I began to
think of making some provisions for them. And the first thing I
did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and
a goat, out of my particular flock to be killed; when I cut off the
hinder quarter, and chopping it into small pieces, I set Friday to
work to boiling and stewing, and made them a very good dish,
I assure you, of flesh and broth, having put some barley and rice
also into the broth; and as I cooked it without doors, for I made
no fire within my inner wall, so I carried it all into the new tent,
and having set a table there for them, I sat down, and ate my
own dinner also with them, and, as well as I could, cheered them
and encouraged them. Friday was my interpreter, especially to
his father, and, indeed, to the Spaniard too; for the Spaniard
spoke the language of the savages pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to take
one of the canoes and go and fetch our muskets and other fire-
arms, which, for want of time, we had left upon the place of
battle; and, the next day, I ordered him to go and bury the dead
bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and would
presently be offensive. I also ordered him to bury the horrid
remains of their barbarous feast, which I could not think of doing
myself; nay, I could not bear to see them, if I went that way; all
which he punctually performed, and effaced the very appearance
of the savages being there; so that when I went again I could
scarce know where it was, otherwise than by the corner of the
wood pointing to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my two
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 195

new subjects; and, first, I set Friday to inquire of his father what
he thought of the escape of the savages in that canoe, and whether
we might expect a return of them, with a power too great for us
to resist. His first opinion was that the savages in the boat could
never live out the storm which blew that night they went off, but
must, of necessity, be drowned, or driven south to those other
shores, where they were as sure to be devoured as they were to
be drowned if they were cast away. But as to what they would do
if they came safe on shore, he said he knew not; but it was his
opinion that they were so dreadfully frightened with the manner
of their being attacked, the noise and the fire, that he believed they
would tell the people they were all killed by thunder and light-
ning, not by the hand of men; and that the two which appeared,
viz., Friday and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies, come
down to destroy them, and not men with weapons. This he said
he knew because he heard them all cry out so, in their language,
one to another. For it was impossible for them to conceive that a
man could dart fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a distance
without lifting up the hand, as was done now. And this old
savage was in the right; for, as I understood since, by other hands,
the savages never attempted to go over to the island afterwards.
They were so terrified with the accounts given by those four men
(for it seems they did escape the sea), that they believed whoever
went to that enchanted island would be destroyed with fire from
the gods. This, however, I knew not, and therefore was under
continual apprehension for a good while, and kept always upon
my guard, I and all my army; for, as we were now four of us, I
would have ventured upon a hundred of them, fairly in the open
field, at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear
of their coming wore off; and I began to take my former thoughts
of a voyage to the main into consideration; being likewise as-
sured by Friday’s father that I might depend upon good usage
from their nation, on his account, if I would go. But my thoughts
were a little suspended when I had a serious discourse with the
Spaniard, and when I understood that there were sixteen more
196 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

of his countrymen and Portuguese, who, having been cast away
and made their escape to that side, lived there at peace, indeed,
with the savages, but were very sore put to it for necessaries, and
indeed, for life. I asked him all the particulars of their voyage, and
found they were from a Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de la
Plata to the Havanna, being directed to leave their loading there,
which was chiefly hides and silver, and to bring back what Euro-
pean goods they could meet with there; that they had five
Portuguese seamen on board, whom they took out of another
wreck; that five of their own men were drowned when first the
ship was lost, and that these escaped through infinite danger and
hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal coast, where
they expected to have been devoured every moment. He told me
that they had some arms with them, but they were perfectly use-
less, for they had neither powder nor ball, the washing of the
sea having spoiled all their powder but a little, which they used,
at their first landing, to provide themselves some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of them there,
and if they had formed no design of making any escape. He said
they had many consultations about it; but that having neither
vessel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any kind, their
councils always ended in tears and despair. I asked him how he
thought they would receive a proposal from me, which might
tend towards an escape; and whether, if they were all here, it
might not be done. I told him with freedom I feared mostly their
treachery and ill-usage of me, if I put my life in their hands; for
that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature of man, nor
did men always square their dealings by the obligations they had
received so much as they did by the advantages they expected. I
told him it would be very hard that I should be the instrument
of their deliverance, and that they should afterwards make me
their prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman was certain
to be made a sacrifice, what necessity or what accident soever
brought him thither; and that I had rather be delivered up to
the savages and be devoured alive, than fall into the merciless
claws of the priests, and be carried into the Inquisition. I added
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 197

that, otherwise, I was persuaded, if they were all here, we might,
with so many hands, build a bark large enough to carry us all
away, either to the Brazils southward, or to the islands or Spanish
coast northward; but that if, in requital, they should, when I had
put weapons into their hands, carry me by force among their own
people I might be ill used for my kindness to them, and make my
case worse than it was before.

He answered with a great deal of candor and ingenuousness,
that their condition was so miserable, and that they were so
sensible of it, that he believed they would abhor the thought of
using any man unkindly that should contribute to their deliver-
ance; and that if I pleased, he would go to them, with the old
man, and discourse with them about it and return again, and
bring me their answer: that he would make conditions with them,
upon their solemn oath, that they should be absolutely under my
direction as their commander and captain; and they should
swear upon the Holy Sacrament and Gospel to be true to me, and
go to such Christian country as I should agree to, and no other;
and to be directed wholly and absolutely by my orders till they
were landed safely in such country as I intended; and that he
would bring a contract from them, under their hands, for that
purpose. Then he told me he would first swear to me himself
that he would never stir from me as long as he lived till I gave
him orders; and that he would take my side to the last drop
of his blood if there should happen the least breach of faith
among his countrymen. He told me they were all of them very
civil, honest men, and they were under the greatest distress
imaginable, having neither weapons nor clothes, nor any food,
but at the mercy and discretion of the savages, out of all hopes
of ever returning to their own country; and that he was sure, if
I would undertake their relief, they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances I resolved to venture to relieve them,
if possible, and to send the old savage and this Spaniard over to
them to treat. But when we had got all things in readiness to go,
the Spaniard himself started an objection, which had so much
prudence in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on the other
198 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

hand, that I could not but be very well satisfied in it; and, by his
advice, put off the deliverance of his comrades for at least half a
year. The case was thus: he had been with us now about a month,
during which time I had let him see in what manner I had pro-
vided, with the assistance of Providence, for my support; and he
saw evidently what stock of corn and rice I had laid up; which,
though it was more than sufficient for myself, yet it was not suf-
ficient, without good husbandry, for my family, now it was in-
creased to four; but much less would it be sufficient if his
countrymen, who were, as he said, fourteen, still alive, should
come over; and, least of all would it be sufficient to victual our
vessel, if we should build one, for a voyage to any of the Christian
colonies of America. So he told me he thought it would be more
advisable to let him and the other two dig and cultivate some
more land, as much as I could spare seed to sow, and that we
should wait another harvest, that we might have a supply of corn
for his countrymen when they should come. For want might be
a temptation to them to disagree, or not to think themselves de-
livered otherwise than out of one difficulty into another. “You
know,” says he, “the children of Israel, though they rejoiced at
first for their being delivered out of Egypt, yet rebelled even
against God himself, that delivered them, when they came to
want bread in the wilderness.”

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that I
could not be but very well pleased with his proposal, as well as I
was satisfied with his fidelity. So we fell to digging, all four of us,
as well as the wooden tools we were furnished with permitted;
and in about a month’s time, by the end of which it was seed
time, we had got as much land cured and trimmed up as we
sowed two and twenty bushels of barley on, and sixteen jars of
rice, which was, in short, all the seed we had to spare; indeed we
left ourselves barely sufficient for our own food for the six
months that we had to expect our crop; that is to say, reckoning
from the time we set our seed aside for sowing; for it is not to be
supposed it is six months in the ground in that country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 199

to put us out of fear of the savages if they had come, unless their
number had been very great, we went freely all over the island,
whenever we found occasion. And as we had our escape or de-
liverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at least for me, to
have the means of it out of mine. For this purpose, I marked out
several trees which I thought fit for our work, and I set Friday
and his father to cut them down; and then I caused the Spaniard,
to whom I imparted my thoughts on that affair, to oversee and
direct their work. I showed them with what indefatigable pains
I had hewed a large tree into single planks, and I caused them
to do the like, till they had made about a dozen large planks of
good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five feet long, and from
two inches to four inches thick; what prodigious labor it took up,
any one may well imagine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little stock of
tame goats as much as I could; and for this purpose I made
Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and myself with Friday
the next day (for we took our turns), and by this means we got
about twenty young kids to breed up with the rest; for whenever
we shot the dam we saved the kids and added them to our flock.
But, above all, the season for curing the grapes coming on, I
caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that,
I believe, had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun
are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty barrels; and these,
with our bread, formed a great part of our food—very good
living, too, I assure you, for they are exceedingly nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order. It was not the
most plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but, however,
it was enough to answer our end; for, from twenty-two bushels
of barley we brought in and thrashed out above two hundred and
twenty bushels; and the like in proportion of the rice; which was
store enough for our food to the next harvest, though all the six-
teen Spaniards had been on shore with me. Or, if we had been
ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully have victualed our
ship to have carried us to any part of the world, that is to say, of
200 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

America. When we had thus housed and secured our magazine
of corn we fell to work to make more wickerwork, viz., great
baskets, in which we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy
and dexterous at this part, and often blamed me that I did not
make some things for defense of this kind of work; but I saw no
need of it.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests ex-
pected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over the main, to see what
he could do with those he had left behind him there. I gave him
a strict charge not to bring any man with him who would not
first swear, in the presence of himself and the old savage, that he
would no way injure, fight with, or attack the person he should
find in the island, who was so kind as to send for them in order
to their deliverance; but that they would stand by him and de-
fend him against all such attempts, and wherever they went
would be entirely under and subjected to his command; and that
this should be put in writing, and signed with their hands. How
they were to have done this, when I knew they had neither pen
nor ink—that, indeed, was a question which we never asked.
Under these instructions the Spaniard and the old savage, the
father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes which they
might be said to have come in, or rather were brought in, when
they came as prisoners to be devoured by the savages. I gave each
of them a musket with a firelock on it, and about eight charges
of powder and ball, charging them to be very good husbands of
both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent occasion.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me,
in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven years and some
days. I gave them provisions of bread, and of dried grapes,
sufficient for themselves for many days, and sufficient for all the
Spaniards for about eight days’ time; and wishing them a good
voyage, I saw them go, agreeing with them about a signal they
should hang out at their return, by which I should know them
again, when they came back, at a distance, before they came on
shore. They went away, with a fair gale, on the day the moon
was at full, by my account in the month of October; but as for
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 201

an exact reckoning of days, after I had once lost it I could never
recover it again; nor had I kept even the number of years so
punctually as to be sure I was right, though, as it proved, when
I afterwards examined my account, I found I had kept a true
reckoning of years.

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when a
strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has
not, perhaps, been heard of in history. I was fast asleep in my
hutch one morning when my man Friday came running in to
me, and called aloud, “Master, master, they are come, they are
come!” I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went out as
soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little grove, which,
by the way, was by this time grown to be a very thick wood. I say,
regardless of danger, I went without my arms, which was not my
custom to do; but I was surprised, when, turning my eyes to
sea, I presently saw a boat at about a league and a half distance,
standing in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they
call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in: also I
observed, presently, that they did not come from that side which
the shore lay on, but from the southernmost end of the island.
Upon this I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these
were not the people we looked for, and that we might not know
yet whether they were friends or enemies. In the next place, I
went in to fetch my perspective glass, to see what I could make of
them; and, having taken the ladder out, I climbed up to the top
of the hill, as I used to do when I was apprehensive of anything,
and to take my view plainer, without being discovered. I had
scarce set my foot upon the hill when my eye plainly discovered
a ship lying at an anchor, at about two leagues and a half distance
from me, S. S. E., but not above a league and a half from the
shore. By my observation, it appeared plainly to be an English
ship, and the boat appeared to be an English longboat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of
seeing a ship, and one that I had reason to believe was manned by
my own countrymen, and consequently friends, was such as I
cannot describe; but yet I had some secret doubts hung about me
202 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

—I cannot tell from whence they came—bidding me keep upon
my guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to consider what
business an English ship could have in that part of the world,
since it was not the way to or from any part of the world where
the English had any traffic; and I knew there had been no storms
to drive them in there, in distress; and that if they were really
English, it was probable that they were here upon no good de-
signs, and that I had better continue as I was than fall into the
hands of thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger
which sometimes are given him when he may think there is no
possibility of its being real. That such hints and notices are given
us, I believe few that have made any observations of things can
deny. That they are certain discoveries of an invisible world, and
a converse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if the tendency of
them seems to be to warn us of danger, why should we not sup-
pose they are from some friendly agent (whether supreme, or in-
ferior and subordinate, is not the question), and that they are
given for our good?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice of
this reasoning. For had I not been made cautious by this secret
admonition, come it from whence it will, I had been undone in-
evitably, and in a far worse condition than before, as you will see
presently. I had not kept myself long in this posture till I saw the
boat draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek to thrust it
in at, for convenience of landing; however, as they did not come
quite far enough, they did not see the little inlet where I formerly
landed my rafts, but ran their boat on shore upon the beach, at
about half a mile from me; which was very happy for me, for
otherwise they would have landed just at my door, as I may say,
and would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps
have plundered me of all I had. When they were on shore, I was
fully satisfied they were Englishmen, at least most of them. One
or two I thought were Dutch, but it did not prove so. There were
in all eleven men, whereof three of them I found were unarmed,
and, as I thought, bound; and when the first four or five of them
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe —_ 203

were jumped on shore, they took those three out of the boat as
prisoners; one of the three I could perceive using the most pas-
sionate gestures of entreaty, affliction and despair, even to a kind
of extravagance. The other two, I could perceive, lifted up their
hands sometimes, and appeared concerned, indeed, but not to
such a degree as the first. I was perfectly confounded at the sight,
and knew not what the meaning of it should be. Friday called out
to me in English as well as he could, “O master! You see English
mans eat prisoner as well as savage mans.” “Why, Friday,” says
I, “do you think they are going to eat them, then?” “Yes,” says
Friday, “they will eat them.” “No, no,” says I, “Friday; I am
afraid they will murder them, indeed; but you may be sure they
will not eat them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was,
but stood trembling with horror of the sight, expecting every
moment that the three prisoners would be killed. Nay, once I
saw one of the villains lift up his arm with a great cutlass, as the
seamen call it, or sword, to strike one of the poor men. And I
expected to see him fall every moment, at which all the blood in
my body seemed to run chill in my veins. I wished heartily now
for my Spaniard, and the savage that was gone with him, or that
I had any way to have come undiscovered within shot of them,
that I might have secured the three men, for I saw no firearms
they had among them; but it fell out of my mind another way.
After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three men by
the insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run scattering about
the land, as if they wanted to see the country. I observed also that
the three other men had liberty to go where they pleased; but
they sat down all three upon the ground, very pensive, and
looked like men in despair. This put me in mind of the first time
when I came on shore, and began to look about me; how I gave
myself over for lost; how wildly I looked round me; what dread-
ful apprehensions I had; and how I lodged in the tree all night,
for fear of being devoured by wild beasts. As I knew nothing that
night, of the supply I was to receive by the providential driving
of the ship nearer the land by the storms and tide, by which I
204 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

have since been so long nourished and supported, so these three
poor desolate men knew nothing how certain of deliverance and
supply they were, how near it was to them, and how effectually
and really they were in a condition of safety, at the same time they
thought themselves lost and their case desperate. So little do we
see before us in the world, and so much reason have we to depend
cheerfully upon the great Maker of the world, that He does not
leave his creatures so absolutely destitute but that, in the worst
circumstances, they have always something to be thankful for,
and sometimes are nearer their deliverance than they imagine.
Nay, are even brought to their deliverance by the means by which
they seem to be brought to their destruction.

It was just at the top of high water when these people came on
shore; and while they rambled about to see what kind of a place
they were in, they had carelessly stayed till the tide was spent, and
the. water was ebbed considerably away, leaving their boat
aground. They had left two men in the boat, who fell asleep.
However, one of them waking a little sooner than the other, and
finding the boat too fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed out
for the rest, who were straggling about; upon which they all soon
came to the boat. But it was past all their strength to launch her,
the boat being very heavy and the shore on that side being a soft
oozy sand, almost like a quicksand. In this condition, like true
seamen, who are, perhaps, the least of all mankind given to fore-
thought, they gave it over, and away they strolled about the
country again. And I heard one of them say aloud to another,
calling them off from the boat, “Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t
you? She'll float next tide;” by which I was fully confirmed in
the main inquiry of what countrymen they were. All this while
I kept myself close, not once daring to stir out of my castle, any
farther than to my place of observation near the top of the hill;
and very glad I was to think how well it was fortified. I knew it
was no less than ten hours before the boat could float again, and
by that time it would be dark, and I might be at more liberty to
see their motions, and to hear their discourse, if they had any.
In the meantime I fitted myself up for a battle, as before, though
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 205

with more caution, knowing I had to do with another kind of
enemy than I had at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had
made an excellent marksman with his gun, to load himself with
arms. I took myself two fowling pieces, and I gave him three
muskets. My figure, indeed, was very fierce; I had my formidable
goat-skin coat on, with the great cap I have mentioned, a naked
sword, two pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any at-
tempt till it was dark; but about two o’clock, being the heat of
the day, I found, in short, they were all gone straggling into the
woods, and, as I thought, were all laid down to sleep. The three
poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition to get any
sleep had, however, sat down under the shelter of a great tree, at
about a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I thought, out of sight
of any of the rest. Upon this I resolved to discover myself to
them, and learn something of their condition; immediately I
marched as above, my man Friday at a good distance behind me,
as formidable for his arms as I, but not making quite so staring
a specter-like figure as I did. I came as near them undiscovered
as I could, and then, before any of them saw me, I called aloud
to them in Spanish, “What are ye, gentlemen?” They started up
at the noise, but were ten times more confounded when they saw
me and the uncouth figure that I made. They made no answer at
all, but I thought I perceived them just going to fly from me,
when I spoke to them in English: “Gentlemen,” said I, “do not
be surprised at me. Perhaps you may have a friend near, when
you did not expect it.” “He must be sent directly from heaven,
then,” said one of them very gravely to me, and pulling off his
hat at the same time; “for our condition is past the help of man.”
“All help is from heaven, sir,” said I. “But can you put a stranger
in the way to help you? For you seem to be in some great distress.
I saw you when you landed; and when you seemed to make
application to the brutes that came with you, I saw one of them
lift up his sword to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trem-

bling, looked like one astonished, returned, “Am I talking to
206 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

God or man? Is it a real man, or an angel?” “Be in no fear about
that, sir,” said I; “if God had sent an angel to relieve you, he
would have come better clothed, and armed after another man-
ner than you see me in. Pray lay aside your fears. Iam a man, an
Englishman, and disposed to assist you. You see I have one
servant only. We have arms and ammunition; tell us freely, can
we serve you? What is your case?” “Our case, sir,” said he, “is
too long to tell you while our murderers are so near us; but, in
short, sir, I was commander of that ship; my men have mutinied
against me; they have been hardly prevailed on not to murder
me, and, at last, have set me on shore in this desolate place, with
these two men with me—one my mate, the other a passenger,
where we expected to perish, believing the place to be uninhab-
ited, and know not yet what to think of it.” “Where are these
brutes, your enemies?” said I. “Do you know where they are
gone?” “There they lie, sir,” said he, pointing to a thicket of
trees. “My heart trembles for fear they have seen us, and heard
you speak. If they have, they certainly will murder us all.” “Have
they any firearms?” said I. He answered, “They had only two
pieces, one of which they left in the boat.” “Well, then,” said I,
“leave the rest to me. I see they are all asleep; it is an easy thing
to kill them all. But shall we rather take them prisoners?” He
told me there were two desperate villians among them that it was
scarce safe to show any mercy to; but if they were secured, he
believed all the rest would return to their duty. I asked him
which they were. He told me he could not at that distance dis-
tinguish them, but he would obey my orders in anything I would
direct. “Well,” says I, “let us retreat out of their view or hearing,
lest they awake, and we will resolve further.” So they willingly
went back with me, till the woods covered us from them.

“Look you, sir,” said I, “if I venture upon your deliverance
are you willing to make two conditions with me?” He antici-
pated my proposals by telling me that both he and the ship, if
recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded by me in
everything; and if the ship was not recovered, he would live and
die with me in what part of the world soever I would send him;
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 207

and the other two men said the same. “Well,” said I, “my con-
ditions are but two; first,—that while you stay on this island with
me you will not pretend to any authority here; and if I put arms
in your hands you will, upon all occasions, give them up to me,
and do no prejudice to me or mine, upon this island, and in the
meantime be governed by my orders; secondly,—that if the ship
is or may be recovered, you will carry me and my man to Eng-
land, passage free.”

He gave me all the assurance that the invention and faith of a
man could devise that he would comply with these most reason-
able demands, and besides would owe his life to me, and acknowl-
edge it upon all occasions as long as he lived. “Well, then,” said I,
“here are three muskets for you, with powder and ball. Tell me
next what you think is proper to be done.” He showed all the
testimony of his gratitude that he was able, but offered to be
wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it was hard venturing
anything; but the best method I could think of was to fire on
them at once as they lay, and if any were not killed at the first
volley, and offered to submit, we might save them, and so put
it wholly upon God’s providence to direct the shot. He said, very
modestly, that he was loath to kill them, if he could help it; but
that those two were incorrigible villains, and had been the
authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they escaped, we
should be undone still, for they would go on board and bring the
whole ship’s company, and destroy us all. “Well, then,” says I,
“necessity legitimates my advice, for it is the only way to save
our lives.” However, seeing him still cautious of shedding blood,
I told him they should go themselves, and manage as they found
convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them awake,
and soon after we saw two of them on their feet. I asked him if
either of them were the men who he had said were the heads of
the mutiny. He said, “No.” “Well, then,” said I, “you may let
them escape; and Providence seems to have awakened them on
purpose to save themselves. Now,” says I, “if the rest escape you,
it is your fault.” Animated with this, he took the musket I had
208 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

given him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two com-
rades with him, with each man a piece in his hand. The two men
who were with him, going first, made some noise, at which one
of the seamen, who was awake, turned about, and seeing them
coming, cried out to the rest. But it was too late then, for the
moment he cried out they fired—I mean the two men, the captain
wisely reserving his own piece. They had so well aimed their
shot at the men they knew that one of them was killed on the
spot, and the other very much wounded; but not being dead, he
started up on his feet, and called eagerly for help to the other. But
the captain, stepping to him, told him it was too late to cry for
help; he should call upon God to forgive his villainy, and with
that word knocked him down with the stock of his musket, so
that he never spoke more. There were three more in the com-
pany, and one of them was slightly wounded. By this time I was
come; and when they saw their danger, and that it was in vain
to resist, they begged for mercy. The captain told them he would
spare their lives if they would give him an assurance of their
abhorrence of the treachery they had been guilty of, and would
swear to be faithful to him in recovering the ship, and afterwards
in carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence they came. They
gave him all the protestations of their sincerity that could be
desired; and he was willing to believe them and spare their lives,
which I was not against, only I obliged him to keep them bound
hand and feet while they were upon the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate
to the boat, with orders to secure her and bring away the oars
and sails, which they did. And by and by, three straggling men,
that were (happily for them) parted from the rest, came back
upon hearing the guns fired; and seeing the captain, who before
was their prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted to be
bound also; and so our victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into
one another’s circumstances. I began first, and told him my whole
history, which he heard with an attention even to amazement
—and particularly at the wonderful manner of my being fur-
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 209

nished with provisions and ammunition; and, indeed, as my story
is a whole collection of wonders, it affected him deeply.

But when he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I
seemed to have been preserved there on purpose to save his life,
the tears ran down his face, and he could not speak a word more.
After this communication was at an end, I carried him and his
two men into my apartments, leading them in just where I came
out, viz., at the top of the house, where I refreshed him with such
provision as I had, and showed them all the contrivances I had
made during my long, long inhabiting that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing;
above all, the captain admired my fortification, and how per-
fectly I had concealed my retreat, with a grove of trees, which
having been now planted near twenty years, and the trees grow-
ing much faster than in England, was become a little wood, so
thick that it was impassable in any part of it but at that one side
where I had reserved my little winding passage into it. I told
him this was my castle and my residence, but that I had a seat
in the country, as most princes have, whither I could retreat upon
occasion, and I would show him that too another time, but at
present our business was to consider how to recover the ship.
He agreed with me as to that, but told me he was perfectly at a
loss what measures to take, for that there were still six-and-twenty
hands on board, who, having entered into a cursed conspiracy, by
which they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would be
hardened in it now by desperation, and would carry it on, know-
ing that if they were subdued they should be brought to the
gallows as soon as they came to England, or to any of the English
colonies, and that, therefore, there would be no attacking them
with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it
was a very rational conclusion, and that therefore something was
to be resolved on very speedily, as well to draw the men on board
into some snare for their surprise, as to prevent their landing upon
us, and destroying us. Upon this, it presently occurred to me that
in a little while the ship’s crew, wondering what was become of
210 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

their comrades and of the boat, would certainly come on shore in
their other boat to look for them, and that then, perhaps, they
might come armed, and be too strong for us. This he allowed to
be rational. Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to do
was to stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they
might not carry her off, and taking everything out of her, leave
her so far useless as not to be fit to swim. Accordingly we went
on board, took the arms which were left on board out of her, and
whatever else we found there—a few biscuit cakes, a horn of
powder, and a great lump of sugar in a piece of canvas (the sugar
was five or six pounds); all which was very welcome to me,
especially the sugar, of which I had had none left for many
years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars, mast,
sail, and rudder of the boat were carried away before), we
knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if they had come strong
enough to master us, yet they could not carry off the boat. In-
deed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could be able to
recover the ship; but my view was, that if they went away with-
out the boat, I did not much question to make her again fit to
carry us to the Leeward Islands, and call upon our friends the
Spaniards in my way, for I had them still in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by
main strength, heaved the boat upon the beach so high that the
tide would not float her off at high-water mark, and besides had
broken a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly stopped, and
were sat down musing what we should do, we heard the ship
fire a gun, and make a waft with her ensign as a signal for the
boat to come on board. But no boat stirred; and they fired several
times, making other signals for the boat. At last, when all their
signals and firing proved fruitless, and they found the boat did
not stir, we saw them, by the help of my glasses, hoist another
boat out, and row towards the shore. And we found as they
approached that there were no less than ten men in her, and that
they had firearms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore we had a
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 211

full view of them as they came, and a plain sight even of their
faces; because the tide having set them a little to the east of the
other boat, they rowed up under shore, to come to the same place
where the other had landed, and where the boat lay. By this
means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the captain knew
the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of whom, he
said, there were three very honest fellows, who, he was sure, were
led into this conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and
frightened, but as for the boatswain, who it seems was the chief
officer among them, and all the rest, they were as outrageous as
any of the ship’s crew, and were no doubt made desperate in
their new enterprise; and terribly apprehensive was he that they
would be too powerful for us. I smiled at him, and told him that
men in our circumstances were past the operation of fear; that
seeing almost every condition that could be was better than that
which we were supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the
consequence, whether death or life, would be sure to be a deliv-
erance. I asked what he thought of the circumstances of my life,
and whether a deliverance were not worth venturing for. “And
where, sir,” said I, “is your belief of my being preserved here on
purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little while ago?
For my part,” said I, “there seems to be but one thing amiss in
all the prospect of it.” “What is that?” says he. “Why,” said I, “it
is, that as you say there are three or four honest fellows among
them which should be spared. Had they been all of the wicked
part of the crew, I should have thought God’s providence had
singled them out to deliver them into your hands; for depend
upon it, every man that comes ashore is our own, and shall die or
live as they behave to us.” As I spoke this with a raised voice and
cheerful countenance, I found it greatly encouraged him; so we
set vigorously to our business.

We had, upon the first appearance of the boat coming from
the ship, considered of separating our prisoners; and had, indeed,
secured them effectually. Two of them, of whom the captain was
less assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday and one of the three
delivered men to my cave, where they were remote enough, and
212 Adventures of Robinson Crusve

out of danger of being heard or discovered, or of finding their
way out of the woods, if they could have delivered themselves;
here they left them bound, but gave them provisions; and prom-
ised them, if they continued there quietly, to give them their
liberty in a day or two; but that if they attempted their escape,
they should be put to death without mercy. They promised faith-
fully to bear their confinement with patience, and were very
thankful that they had such good usage as to have provisions
and a light left them. For Friday gave them candles (such as we
made ourselves) for their comfort; and they did not know but
that we stood sentinel over them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were kept
pinioned indeed, because the captain was not free to trust them;
but the other two were taken into my service, upon the captain’s
recommendation, and upon their solemnly engaging to live and
die with us. So with them and the three honest men we were
seven men, well armed; and I made no doubt we should be able
to deal well enough with the ten that were coming, considering
that the captain had said there were three or four honest men
among them also. As soon as they got to the place where their
other boat lay, they ran their boat into the beach and came all on
shore, hauling the boat up after them, which I was glad to see,
for I was afraid they would rather have left the boat at anchor
some distance from the shore, with some hands in her, to guard
her, and so we should not be able to seize the boat. Being on
shore, the first thing they did they ran all to their other boat; and
it was easy to see they were under a great surprise to find her
stripped, as above, of all that was in her, and a great hole in her
bottom. After they had mused awhile upon this, they set up two
or three great shouts, hallooing with all their might to try if
they could make their companions hear; but all was to no pur-
pose; then they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their
smallarms, which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes made the
woods ring. But it was all one; those in the cave, we were sure,
could not hear; and those in our keeping, though they heard it
well enough, yet durst give no answer to them. They were so
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 213

astonished at the surprise of this, that, as they told us afterwards,
they resolved to go all on board again to their ship, and let them
know that the men were all murdered, and the longboat staved.
Accordingly, they immediately launched their boat again, and
got all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at
this, believing they would go on board the ship again, and set
sail, giving their comrades over for lost, and so he should still
lose the ship, which he was in hopes we should have recovered.
But he was quickly as much frightened the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, when we per-
ceived them all coming on shore again; but with this new meas-
ure in their conduct, which it seems they consulted together upon,
viz., to leave three men in the boat, and the rest to go on shore,
and go up into the country to look for their fellows. This was a
great disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss what to do,
as our seizing these seven men on shore would be no advantage
to us if we let the boat escape; because they would row away to
the ship, and then the rest of them would be sure to weigh and
set sail, and so our recovering the ship would be lost. However,
we had no remedy but to wait and see what the issue of things
might present. The seven men came on shore, and the three who
remained in the boat put her off to a good distance from the
shore, and came to an anchor to wait for them; so that it was im-
possible for us to come at them in the boat.. Those that came on
shore kept close together, marching towards the top of the little
hill under which my habitation lay, and we could see them
plainly, though they could not perceive us. We should have been
very glad if they would have come nearer us, so that we might
have fired at them, or that they would have gone farther off,
that we might come abroad. But when they were come to the
brow of the hill where they could see a great way into the valleys
and woods, which lay towards the northeast part, and where the
island lay the lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they were
weary: and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the shore,
nor far from one another, they sat down together, under a tree,
214 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

to consider of it. Had they thought fit to have gone to sleep there
as the other party of them had done, they had done the job for
us; but they were too full of apprehensions of danger to venture
to go to sleep, though they could not tell what the danger was
they had to fear.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this con-
sultation of theirs, viz., that perhaps they would all fire a volley
again, to endeavor to make their fellows hear, and that we
should all sally upon them just at the juncture when their pieces
were all discharged, and they would certainly yield, and we
should have them without bloodshed. I liked this proposal, pro-
vided it was done while we were near enough to come up to
them before they could load their pieces again. But this event
did not happen; and we lay still a long time, very irresolute what
course to take. At length, I told him there would be nothing done,
in my opinion, till night; and then if they did not return to the
boat, perhaps we might find a way to get between them and the
shore, and so might use some stratagem with them in the boat
to get them on shore. We waited a great while, though very im-
patient for their removing; and were very uneasy, when, after
long consultation, we saw them all start up, and march down
towards the sea; it seems they had such dreadful apprehensions
of the danger of the place that they resolved to go on board the
ship again, give their companions over for lost, and so go on
with their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore I imagined it
to be as it really was, that they had given over their search, and
were for going back again; and the captain, as soon as I told him
my thoughts, was ready to sink at the apprehensions of it. But I
presently thought of a stratagem to fetch them back again, and
which answered my end to a tittle. I ordered Friday and the cap-
tain’s mate to go over the little creek westward, towards the place
where the savages came on shore when Friday was rescued, and
so soon as they came to a little rising ground, at about half a mile
distance, I bade them halloo out, as loud as they could, and wait
till they found the seamen heard them; that as soon as ever they
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe = 215

heard the seamen answer them, they should return it again; and
then keeping out of sight, take a round, always answering when
among the woods, as possible, and then wheel about again to
me.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate
hallooed; and they presently heard them, and, answering, ran
along the shore westward, towards the voice they heard, when
they were presently stopped by the creek, where, the water being
up, they could not get over, and called for the boat to come up
and set them over; as, indeed, I expected.

When they had set themselves over, I observed that the boat
being gone up a good way into the creek, and, as it were, in a
harbor within the land, they took one of the three men out of her,
to go along with them, and left only two in the boat, having
fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the shore. This was
what I wished for; and immediately leaving Friday and the
captain’s mate to their business, I took the rest with me, and
crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised the two men
before they were aware; one of them lying on the shore, and the
other being in the boat. The fellow on shore was between sleep-
ing and waking, and going to start up. The captain, who was
foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him down; and then
called out to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead man. There
needed very few arguments to persuade a single man to yield
when he saw five men upon him and his comrade knocked
down; besides, this was, it seems, one of the three who were not
so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew; and, therefore,
was easily persuaded not only to yield, but afterwards to join very
sincerely with us. In the meantime, Friday and the captain’s
mate so well managed their business with the rest, that they
drew them, by hallooing and answering, from one hill to another,
and from one wood to another, till they not only heartily tired
them, but left them where they could not reach back to the boat
before it was dark; and indeed, they were heartily tired them-
selves, also, by the time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark,
216 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work with them. It
was several hours after Friday came back to me before they came
back to their boat; and we could hear the foremost of them, long
before they came quite up, calling to those behind to come along;
and could also hear them answer, and complain how lame and
tired they were, and not able to come any faster: which was very
welcome news to us. At length they came up to the boat: but it
is impossible to express their confusion when they found the boat
fast aground in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two men
gone. We could hear them call to one another in a most lamen-
table manner, telling one another they were got into an enchanted
island; that either there were inhabitants in it, and they should
all be murdered, or else there were devils and spirits in it, and
they should be all carried away and devoured. They hallooed
again, and called their two comrades by their names a great many
times; but no answer. After some time we could see them, by the
little light there was, run about, wringing their hands like men
in despair, and sometimes they would go and sit down in the
boat to rest themselves: then come ashore again, and walk about
again, and so the same thing over again. My men would fain
have had me give them leave to fall upon them at once in the
dark; but I was willing to take them at some advantage, so as
to spare them, and kill as few of them as I could; and especially
I was unwilling to hazard the killing any of our men, knowing
the others were very well armed. I resolved to wait, to see if
they did not separate; and therefore, to make sure of them, I
drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered Friday and the captain
to creep upon their hands and feet as close to the ground as they
could, that they might not be discovered, and get as near them
as they could possibly, before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when the boatswain,
who was the principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now
shown himself the most dejected and dispirited of all the rest,
came walking towards them, with two more of the crew. The
captain was so eager at having the principal rogue so much in
his power, that he could hardly have patience to let him come so
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 217

near as to be sure of him, for they only heard his tongue before;
but when they came nearer, the captain and Friday, starting up
on their feet, let fly at them. The boatswain was killed upon the
spot. The next man was shot in the body, and fell just by him,
though he did not die till an hour or two after; and the third ran
for it. At the noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with my
whole army, which was now eight men, viz., myself, generalis-
simo; Friday, my lieutenant-general; the captain and his two
men, and the three prisoners of war, whom he had trusted with
arms. We came upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that they
could not see our number; and I made the man they had left in
the boat, who was now one of us, call them by name, to try if
I could bring them to a parley, and so perhaps reduce them to
terms; which fell out just as we desired; for, indeed, it was easy
to think, as their condition then was, they would be very willing
to capitulate. So he calls out as loud as he could to one of them,
“Tom Smith! Tom Smith!” Tom Smith answered immediately,
“Who’s that? Robinson?” for it seems he knew the voice. The
other answered, “Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom Smith, throw
down your arms and yield, or you are all dead men this moment.”
“Who must we yield to? Where are they?” says Smith again.
“Here they are,” says he; “here’s our captain and fifty men with
him, have been hunting you these two hours. The boatswain is
killed, Will Frye is wounded, and I am a prisoner. And if you
do not yield, you are all lost.” “Will they give us quarter then?”
says Tom Smith, “and we will yield.” “I'll go and ask, if you
promise to yield,” said Robinson; so he asked the captain; and
the captain himself then calls out, “You Smith, you know my
voice. If you lay down your arms immediately, and submit, you
shall have your lives, all but Will Atkins.”

Upon this, Will Atkins cried out, “For God’s sake, captain,
give me quarter. What have I done? They have been all as bad as
I:” which, by the way, was not true, for it seems this Will Atkins
was the first man that laid hold of the captain when they first
mutinied, and used him barbarously, in tying his hands and giving
him injurious language. However, the captain told him that he
218 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

must lay down his arms at discretion, and trust to the governor’s
mercy: by which he meant me, for they all called me governor.
In a word, they all laid down their arms, and begged for their
lives; and I sent the man that had parleyed with them, and two
more, who bound them all; and then my great army of fifty men,
which with those three, were in all but eight, came up and seized
upon them, and upon their boat. Only that I kept myself and
one more out of sight, for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing the
ship. And as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley with
them, he expostulated with them upon the villainy of their prac-
tices with him, and upon the further wickedness of their design,
and how certainly it must bring them to misery and distress in
the end, and perhaps to the gallows. They all appeared very
penitent and begged hard for their lives. As for that, he told them
they were none of his prisoners, but the commander’s of the
island; that they thought they had set him on shore in a barren,
uninhabited island, but it had pleased God so to direct them that
it was inhabited, and that the governor was an Englishman; that
he might hang them all there, if he pleased; but as he had given
them all quarter, he supposed he would send them to England,
to be dealt with there as justice required, except Atkins, whom he
was commanded by the governor to advise to prepare for death,—
that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was all a fiction of his own, yet it had its desired
effect. Atkins fell upon his knees to beg the captain to intercede
with the governor for his life; and all the rest begged of him, for
God’s sake, that they might not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance was
come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring these fel-
lows in to be hearty in getting possession of the ship. So I retired
in the dark from them, that they might not see what kind of a
governor they had, and called the captain to me. When I called,
as at a good distance, one of the men was ordered to speak again,
and say to the captain, “Captain, the commander calls for you;”
and presently the captain replied, “Tell his Excellency I am just
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 219

coming.” This more perfectly amazed them, and they all believed
that the commander was just by with his fifty men. Upon the
captain coming to me, I told him my project for seizing the ship,
which he liked wonderfully well and resolved to put it in execu-
tion next morning. But in order to execute it with more art, and
to be secure of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners,
and that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the
worst of them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the
others lay. This was committed to Friday and the two men who
came on shore with the captain. They conveyed them to the cave
as to a prison: and it was, indeed, a dismal place, especially to
men in their condition. The others I ordered to my bower, as I
called it, of which I have given a full description. And as it was
fenced in, and they pinioned, the place was secure enough, con-
sidering they were upon their good behavior.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter
into a parley with them; in a word, to try them, and tell me
whether he thought they might be trusted or not to go on board
and surprise the ship. He talked to them of the injury done him,
of the condition they were brought to, and that though the
governor had given them quarter for their lives as to the present
action, yet that if they were sent to England they would be all
hanged in chains; but that if they would join in such an attempt
as to recover the ship he would have the eoyernon s engagement
for their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be ac-
cepted by men in their condition; they fell down on their knees
to the captain, and promised, with the deepest imprecations, that
they would be faithful to him to the last drop, and that they
should owe their lives to him, and would go with him all over
the world; that they would own him for a father to them as long
as they lived. “Well,” says the captain, “I must go and tell the
governor what you say, and see what I can do to bring him to
consent to it.” So he brought me an account of the temper he
found them in, and that he verily believed they would be faithful.
However, that we might be very secure, I told him he should go
220 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

back again and choose out five of them, and tell them that they
might see that he did not want men, that he would take out
those five to be his assistants, and that the governor would keep
the other two and the three that were sent prisoners to the
castle (my cave), as hostages for the fidelity of those five, and
that if they proved unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages
should be hanged in chains alive on the shore. This looked
severe, and convinced them that the governor was in earnest.
However, they had no way left but to accept it; and it was now
the business of the prisoners, as much as of the captain, to per-
suade the other five to do their duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition: first,
the captain, his mate, and passenger; second, then the two
prisoners of the first gang, to whom, having their character from
the captain, I had given their liberty, and trusted them with
arms; third, the other two whom I had kept till now in my
bower pinioned, but, upon the captain’s motion, had now released;
fourth, these five released at last; so that they were twelve in all,
besides five we kept prisoners in the cave for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these
hands on board the ship; for as for me, and my man Friday, I did
not think it was proper for us to stir, having seven men left be-
hind; and it was employment enough for us to keep them asunder,
and supply them with victuals. As to the five in the cave, I re-
solved to keep them fast, but Friday went in twice a day to
them, to supply them with necessaries; and I made the other two
carry provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages it was with the
captain, who told them I was the person the governor had ordered
to look after them; and that it was the governor’s pleasure they
should not stir anywhere but by my direction; that if they did,
they would be fetched into my castle, and be laid in irons: so that
as we never suffered them to see me as governor, I now appeared
as another person, and spoke of the governor, the garrison, the
castle, and the like upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him but to furnish
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 221

his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made
his passenger captain of one, with four other men; and himself,
his mate, and five more, went in the other; and they contrived
their business very well, for they came up to the ship about mid-
night. As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made
Robinson hail them, and tell them they had brought off the men
and the boat, but that it was a long time before they had found
them, and the like; holding them in a chat till they came to the
ship’s side; when the captain and the mate entering first with
their arms, immediately knocked down the second mate and
carpenter with the butt-end of their muskets, being very faithfully
seconded by their men. They secured all the rest that were upon
the main and quarter decks, and began to fasten the hatches, to
keep them down that were below; when the other boat and their
men, entering at the fore-chains, secured the forecastle of the
ship, and the scuttle which went down into the cook room,
making three men they found there prisoners. When this was
done, and all safe upon deck, the captain ordered the mate, with
three men, to break into the round-house, where the new rebel
captain lay, who, having taken the alarm, had got up and with
two men and a boy had got firearms in their hands. And the
mate, with a crow, split open the door. The new captain and his
men fired boldly among them, and wounded the mate with a
musket ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two more of
the men, but killed nobody. The mate, calling for help, rushed,
however, into the round-house, wounded as he was, and with
his pistol shot the new captain through the head, the bullet
entering at his mouth, coming out again behind one of his ears,
so that he never spoke a word more: upon which the rest yielded,
and the ship was taken effectually, without any more lives lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered seven
guns to be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with me to
give me notice of his success, which, you may be sure, I was very
glad to hear, having sat watching upon the shore for it till near
two o'clock in the morning. Having thus heard the signal plainly,
I laid me down; and it having been a day of great fatigue to me,
222 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I slept very sound till I was something surprised with the noise of
a gun; and presently, starting up, I heard a man calling me by the
name of “Governor! Governor!” and presently I knew the cap-
tain’s voice; when climbing up to the top of the hill, there he
stood, and, pointing to the ship, he embraced me in his arms.
“My dear friend and deliverer,” says he, “there’s your ship; for she
is all yours, and so are we, and all that belongs to her.” I cast my
eyes to the ship, and there she rode, within little more than half a
mile of the shore; for they had weighed her anchor as soon as
they were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had brought
her to an anchor just against the mouth of the little creek; and,
the tide being up, the captain had brought the pinnace in near
the place where I first landed my rafts, so landed just at my door.
I was at first ready to sink down with surprise. For I saw my
deliverance, indeed, visibly put into my hands, all things easy,
and a large ship just ready to carry me away whither I pleased to
go. At first, for some time, I was not able to answer one word.
But as he had taken me in his arms I held fast by him, or I
should have fallen to the ground. I sat down upon the ground,
and it was a good while before I could speak a word to him. All
this while the poor man was in as great an ecstasy as I, only not
under any surprise as I was; and he said a thousand kind and
tender things to me, to compose and bring me to myself. But
such was the flood of joy in my breast that it put all my spirits
into confusion. At last it broke into tears, and, in a little while
after, I recovered my speech; then I took my turn and embraced
him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced together.

I told him I looked upon him as a man sent from heaven to
deliver me, and that the whole transaction seemed to be a chain of
wonders; that such things as these were the testimonies we had of
a secret hand of Providence governing the world, and an evidence
that the eye of an Infinite Power could search into the remotest
corner of the world, and send help to the miserable whenever He
pleased. I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to
Heaven; and what heart could forbear to bless Him, Who had
not only in a miraculous manner provided for one in such a
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe = 223

wilderness, and in such a desolate condition, but from Whom
every deliverance must always be acknowledged to proceed?

When we had talked a while, the captain told me he had
brought me some little refreshments, such as the ship afforded,
and such as the wretches that had been so long his masters had
not plundered him of. Upon this, he called aloud to the boat,
and bade his men bring the things ashore that were for the
governor; and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been one that
was not to be carried away along with them, but as if I had been
to dwell upon the island still, and they were to go without me.
First, he had brought me, two pounds of excellent good tobacco,
twelve good pieces of the ship’s beef, and six pieces of pork, with
a bag of peas, and about a hundredweight of biscuit. He also
brought me a box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag full of lemons,
and two bottles of lime juice, and abundance of other things.
But besides these, and what was a thousand times more useful,
he brought me six new clean shirts, six very good neckcloths, two
pair of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of stockings,
and a very good suit of clothes of his own, which had been worn
but very little. In a word, he clothed me from head to foot. It was
a very kind and agreeable present, as any one may imagine, to
one in my circumstances. But never was anything in the world of
that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy as it 'was to me to
wear such clothes at their first putting on.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things
were brought into my little apartment, we began to consult what
was to be done with the prisoners we had; for it was worth
considering whether we might venture to take them away with
us or no, especially two of them, whom he knew to be incorrigible
and refractory to the last degree; and the captain said he knew
they were such rogues that there was no obliging them, and if he
did carry them away it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be
delivered over to justice at the first English colony he could come
at: and I found that the captain himself was very anxious about
it. Upon this, I told him that, if he desired it, I would undertake
to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own request
224 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

that he should leave them upon the island. “I should be very
glad of that,” says the captain, “with all my heart.” “Well,” says
I, “I will send for them up, and talk with them for you.” So I
caused Friday and the two hostages, for they were now dis-
charged, their comrades having performed their promise; I say,
I caused them to go to the cave, and bring up the five men,
pinioned as they were, to the bower, and keep them there till I
came. After some time, I came thither dressed in my new habit;
and now I was called governor again. Being all met, and the
captain with me, I caused the men to be brought before me, and
I told them I had got a full account of their villainous behavior
to the captain, and how they had run away with the ship, and
were preparing to commit further robberies, but that Providence
had ensnared them in their own ways, and that they were fallen
into the pit which they had dug for others. I let them know that
by my direction the ship had been seized; that she lay now in
the road; and they might see by and by that their new captain
had received the reward of his villainy, for that they might see
him hanging at the yard-arm; that, as to them, I wanted to know
what they had to say why I should not execute them as pirates,
taken in the act, as by my commission they could not doubt but
I had authority to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest that they had
nothing to say but this, that when they were taken the captain
promised them their lives, and they humbly implored my mercy.
But I told them I knew not what mercy to show them; for as
for myself I had resolved to quit the island with all my men, and
had taken passage with the captain to go to England; and as for
the captain, he could not carry them to England other than as
prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny, and running away with
the ship; the consequences of which, they must needs know,
would be the gallows; so that I could not tell what was the best
for them, unless they had a mind to take their fate in the island.
If they desired that, I did not care. As I had liberty to leave it, I
had some inclination to give them their lives, if they thought
they could shift on shore. They seemed very thankful for it, and
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 225

said they would much rather venture to stay there than be
carried to England to be hanged. So I left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as
if he durst not leave them there. Upon this I seemed a little angry
with the captain, and told him that they were my prisoners, not
his; and, that seeing I had offered them so much favor, I would
be as good as my word; and that if he did not think fit to consent
to it, I would set them at liberty, as I found them; and if he did
not like it, he might take them again if he could catch them.
Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I accordingly set
them at liberty and bade them retire into the woods, to the place
whence they came, and I would leave them some firearms, some
ammunition, and some directions how they should live very well,
if they thought fit. Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship;
but told the captain I would stay that night to prepare my things,
and desired him to go on board in the meantime, and keep all
right in the ship, and send the boat on shore next day for me;
ordering him, in the meantime, to cause the new captain, who
was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that these men might
see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to me in
my apartment, and entered seriously into discourse with them of
their circumstances. I told them I thought they had made a right
choice; but if the captain had carried them away they would
certainly be hanged. I showed them the new captain hanging at
the yard-arm of the ship, and told them they had nothing less to
expect.

When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I told
them I would let them into the story of my living there, and put
them into the way of making it easy to them. Accordingly, I
gave them the whole history of the place, and of my coming to it;
showed them my fortifications, the way I made my bread, planted
my corn, cured my grapes, and, in a word, all that was necessary
to make them easy. I told them the story also of the sixteen Span-
iards, that were to be expected, for whom I left a letter, and
made them promise to treat them in common with themselves.
226 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I left them my firearms, viz., five muskets, three fowling pieces,
and three swords. I had above a barrel and a half of powder left;
for after the first year or two I used but little, and wasted none.
I gave them a description of the way I managed the goats, and
directions to milk and fatten them, and to make both butter and
cheese. In a word, I gave them every part of my story, and told
them I should prevail with the captain to leave them two barrels
of gunpowder more, and some garden seeds, which I told them
I would have been very glad of. Also, I gave them the bag of
peas which the captain had brought me to eat, and bade them be
sure to sow and increase them.

Having done all this, I left the next day, and went on board
the ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but did not weigh that
night. The next morning early, two of the five men came swim-
ming to the ship’s side, and made the most lamentable complaint
of the other three, begged to be taken into the ship for God’s
sake, for they should be murdered, and begged the captain to
take them on board, though he hanged them immediately. Upon
this, the captain pretended to have no power without me; but
after some difficulty, and after their solemn promises of amend-
ment, they were taken on board, and were, some time after,
soundly whipped and pickled; after which they proved very
honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, I went with the boat on shore, the tide
being up, with the things promised to the men; to which the cap-
tain, at my intercession, caused their chests and clothes to be
added, which they took, and were very thankful for. I also en-
couraged them, by telling them that if it lay in my way to send
any vessel to take them in I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island I carried on board for relics,
the great goatskin cap I had made, my umbrella, and one of my
parrots; also I forgot not to take the money I formerly men-
tioned, which had lain by me so long useless that it was grown
rusty or tarnished, and could hardly pass for silver till it had been
a little rubbed and handled, and also the money I found in the
wreck of the Spanish ship. And thus I left the island, the 19th of
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 227

December, as I found by the ship’s account, in the year 1686,
after I had been upon it eight-and-twenty years, two months,
and nineteen days; being delivered from this second captivity
the same day of the month that I first made my escape in the
longboat from among the Moors of Sallee. In this vessel, after a
long voyage, I arrived in England the 11th of June, in the year
1687, having been thirty-five years absent.

When I came to England I was a perfect stranger to all the
world, as if I had never been known there. My benefactor and
faithful steward, whom I had left my money in trust with, was
alive, but had had great misfortunes in the world; was become a
widow the second time and very low in the world. I made her
easy as to what she owed me, assuring her I would give her
no trouble; but, on the contrary, in gratitude for her former care
and faithfulness to me, I relieved her as my little stock would
afford; which at that time would, indeed, allow me to do but
little for her: but I assured her I would never forget her former
kindness to me; nor did I forget her when I had sufficient to
help her, as shall be observed in its place. I went down after-
wards into Yorkshire; but my father was dead, and my mother
and all the family extinct, except that I found two sisters and
two of the children of one of my brothers; and as I had been long
ago given over for dead, there had been no provision made for
me; so that, in a word, I found nothing to relieve or assist me.
And that little money I had would not do much for me as to
settling in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed, which I did not ex-
pect; and this was, that the master of the ship, whom I had so
happily delivered, and by the same means saved the ship and
cargo, having given a very handsome account to the owners of
the manner how I had saved the lives of the men and the ship,
they invited me to meet them and some other merchants con-
cerned, and all together made me a very handsome compliment
upon the subject, and a present of almost £200 sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the circumstances of
my life, and how little way this would go towards settling me in
228 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

the world, I resolved to go to Lisbon, and see if I might not come
by some information of the state of my plantation in the Brazils,
and of what was become of my partner, who, I had reason to
suppose, had some years now given me over for dead. With this
view I took shipping for Lisbon, where I arrived in April fol-
lowing, my man Friday accompanying me very honestly in all
these ramblings, and proving a most faithful servant upon all
occasions. When I came to Lisbon, I found out, by inquiry, and
to my particular satisfaction, my old friend, the captain of the
ship who first took me up at sea off the shore of Africa. He was
now grown old, and had left the sea, having put his son, who was
far from a young man, into his ship, and who still used the
Brazil trade. The old man did not know me; and, indeed, I
hardly knew him. But I soon brought myself to his remembrance,
when I told him who I was.

After some passionate expressions of the old acquaintance be-
tween us I inquired, you may be sure, after my plantation and my
partner. The old man told me he had not been in the Brazils for
about nine years; but that he could assure me that when he came
away my partner was living; but the trustees, whom I had joined
with him to take cognizance of my part, were both dead; that,
however, he believed that I would have a very good account of the
improvement of the plantation; for that, upon the general belief
of my being cast away and drowned, my trustees had given in
the account of the produce of my part of the plantation to the
procurator-fiscal, who had appropriated it, in case I never came
to claim it, one third to the king and two thirds to the monastery
of St. Augustine, to be expended for the benefit of the poor and
for the conversion of the Indians to the Catholic faith. But that
if I appeared, or any one for me, to claim the inheritance, it would
be restored; only that the improvement, or annual production,
being distributed to charitable uses, could not be restored. But he
assured me that the steward of the king’s revenue from lands,
and the providore, or steward of the monastery, had taken great
care all along that the incumbent, that is to say, my partner, gave
every year a faithful account of the produce, of which they had
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 229

received duly my moiety. I asked him if he knew to what height
of improvement he had brought the plantation, and whether he
thought it might be worth looking after; or whether, on my go-
ing thither, I should meet with any obstruction to my possessing
my just right in the moiety. He told me he could not tell exactly
to what degree the plantation was improved; but this he knew,
my partner was grown exceeding rich upon the enjoying but
one-half of it; and that, to the best of his remembrance, he had
learned that the king’s third of my part, which was, it seems,
granted away to some other monastery or religious house,
amounted to above two hundred moidores a year: that as to my
being restored to a quiet possession of it, there was no question
to be made of that, my partner being alive to witness my title,
and my name being also enrolled in the register of the country.
Also he told me that the survivors of my two trustees were very
fair, honest people, and very wealthy; and he believed I would
not only have their assistance for putting me in possession, but
would find a very considerable sum of money in their hands for
my account, being the produce of the farm while their fathers
held the trust, and before it was given up, as above; which, as he
remembered, was for about twelve years.

I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this account,
and inquired of the old captain how it came to pass that the
trustees should thus dispose of my effects, when he knew that I
had made my will, and had made him, the Portuguese captain,
my universal heir, etc.

He told me that was true; but that as there was no proof of
my being dead he could not act as executor, until some certain
account should come of my death; and that besides, he was not
willing to intermeddle with a thing so remote; that it was true
he had registered my will, and put in his claim; and could he
have given any account of my being dead or alive he would
have acted by procuration, and taken possession of the ingenio
(so they call the sugar house), and have given his son, who was
now at the Brazils, orders to do it. “But,” says the old man, “I
have one piece of news to tell you which perhaps may not be so
230 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

acceptable to you as the rest; and that is, believing you were lost,
and all the world believing so also, your partner and trustees did
offer to account with me, in your name, for the first six or eight
years’ profits, which I received. There being at that time great
disbursements for increasing the works, building an ingenio, and
buying slaves, it did not amount to near so much as afterwards
it produced; however,” says the old man, “I shall give you a
true account of what I have received in all, and how I have dis-
posed of it.”

After a few days’ further conference with this ancient friend,
he brought me an account of the first six years’ income of my
plantation, signed by my partner and the merchant-trustees, being
always delivered in goods, viz., tobacco in roll, and sugar in
chests, molasses, etc., which is the consequence of a sugar work;
and I found by this account that every year the income ton-
siderably increased; but as above, the disbursements being large,
the sum at first was small; however, the old man let me see that
he was debtor to me four hundred and seventy moidores of gold,
besides sixty chests of sugar, and’fifteen double rolls of tobacco,
which were lost in his ship, he having been shipwrecked coming
home to Lisbon, about eleven years after my leaving the place.
The good man then began to complain of his misfortunes, and
how he had been obliged to make use of my money to recover his
losses, and buy him a share in: new ship. “However, my old
friend,” says he, “you shall not want a supply in your necessity,
and as soon as my son returns you shall be fully satisfied.” Upon
this he pulls out an old pouch, and gives me one hundred and
sixty Portugal moidores in gold; and giving me the writings of
his title to the ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of
which he was quarter-part owner, and his son another, he puts
them both in my hands for security of the rest.

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of the
poor man to be able to bear this; and remembering what he had
done for me, how he had taken me up at sea, and how generously
he had used me on all occasions, and particularly how sincere a
friend he was now to me, I could hardly refrain weeping at what
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 231

he had said to me. Therefore, first, I asked him if his circum-
stances admitted him to spare so much money at that time, and
if it would not straiten him? He told me he could not say but it
might straiten him a little; but, however, it was my money, and
I might want it more than he.

Everything the good man said was full of affection, and I
could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke: in short, I took one
hundred of the moidores, and called for a pen and ink to give
him a receipt for them; then I returned him the rest, and told him
if ever I had possession of the plantation I would return the
other to him also (as, indeed, I afterwards did); and that as to
the bill of sale of his part in his son’s ship, I would not take it
by any means; but that if I wanted the money, I found he was
honest enough to pay me; and if I did not, but came to receive
what he gave me reason to expect, I would never have a penny
more from him.

When this was past, the old man began to ask me if he should
put me into a method to make my claim to my plantation. I told
him I thought to go over to it myself. He said I might do so if I
pleased; but that, if I did not, there were ways enough to secure
my right, and immediately to appropriate the profits to my use:
and as there were ships in the river of Lisbon just ready to go
away to Brazil, he made me enter my name in a public register,
with his affidavit, affirming, upon oath, that I was alive, and that
I was the same person who took up the land for the planting
the said plantation at first. This being regularly attested by a
notary, and a procuration affixed, he directed me to send it, with
a letter of his writing, to a merchant of his acquaintance at the
place; and then proposed my staying with him till an account
came of the return.

Never was anything more honorable than the proceedings upon
this procuration; for in less than seven months I received a large
package from the survivors of my trustees, the merchants, for
whose account I went to sea, in which were the following par-
ticular letters and papers inclosed.

First, there was the account-current of the produce of my farm
232 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

or plantation, from the year when their fathers had balanced
with my old Portugal captain, being for six years; the balance
appeared to be one thousand one hundred and seventy-four
moidores in my favor.

Secondly, there was the account of four years more, while they
kept the effects in their hands, before the government claimed
the administration, as being the effects of a person not to be
found, which they called civil death; and the balance of this, the
value of the plantation increasing, amounted to nineteen thousand
four hundred and forty-six crusadoes, being about three thousand
two hundred and forty moidores.

Thirdly, there was the Prior of the Augustines’ account, who
had received the profits for above fourteen years; but not being
to account for what was disposed of by the hospital, very honestly
declared he had eight hundred and seventy-two moidores not
distributed, which he acknowledged to my account; as to the
king’s part, that refunded nothing.

There was also a letter of my partner’s, congratulating me very
affectionately upon my being alive, giving me an account how
the estate was improved, and what it produced a year; with the
particulars of the number of squares or acres that it contained, how
planted, how many slaves there were upon it: and making two-
and-twenty crosses for blessings, told me he had said so many
Ave Marias to thank the Blessed Virgin that I was alive; inviting
me very passionately to come over and take possession of my
own; and, in the meantime, to give him orders to whom he should
deliver my effects, if I did not come myself; concluding with a
hearty tender of his friendship, and that of his family; and sent
me, as a present, seven fine leopards’ skins, which he had, it
seems, received from Africa, by some other ship that he had sent
thither, and which, it seems, had made a better voyage than I. He
sent me also five chests of excellent sweetmeats, and a hundred
pieces of gold uncoined, not quite so large as moidores. By the
same fleet, my two merchants-trustees shipped me one thousand
two hundred chests of sugar, eight hundred rolls of tobacco, and
the rest of the whole account in gold.
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 233

I might well say now, indeed, that the latter end of Job was
better than the beginning. It is impossible to express the flutterings
of my very heart when I looked over these letters, and especially
when I found all my wealth about me; for, as the Brazil ships come
all in fleets, the same ships which brought my letters brought my
goods: and the effects were safe in the river before the letters
came to my hand. In.a word I turned pale, and grew sick; and,
had not the old man run and fetched me a cordial, I believe the
sudden surprise of joy had overset nature, and I had died upon
the spot: nay, after that, I continued very ill, and was so some
hours, till a physician being sent for, and something of the real
cause of my illness being known, he ordered me to let blood;
after which I had relief, and grew well: but I verily believe, if I
had not been eased by the vent given in that manner to the
spirits, I should have died.

I was now master, all on a sudden, of above fifty thousand
pounds sterling in money, and had an estate, as I might well call
it, in the Brazils, of above a thousand pounds a year, as sure as an
estate of lands in England; and, in a word, I was in a condition
which I scarce knew how to understand, or how to compose my-
self for the enjoyment of. The first thing I did was to recompense
my original benefactor, my good old captain, who had been first
charitable to me in my distress, kind to me in the beginning, and
honest to me at the end. I showed him all that was sent to me;
I told him that, next to the providence of Heaven, which disposes
all things, it was owing to him; and that it now lay on me to
reward him, which I would do a hundred-fold; so I first returned
to him the hundred moidores I had received of him, then I sent
for a notary and caused him to draw up a general release or dis-
charge from the four hundred and seventy moidores which he had
acknowledged he owed me, in fullest and firmest manner possible.
After which, I caused a procuration to be drawn, empowering him
to be the receiver of the annual profits of my plantation; and
appointing my partner to account him, and make the returns, by
the usual fleets, to him in my name; and by a clause in the end,
made a grant of one hundred moidores a year to him during his
234 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

life, out of the effects, and fifty moidores a year to his son after
him, for his life; and thus I requited my old man.

I had now to consider which way to steer my course next, and
what to do with the estate that Providence had thus put into my
hands; and indeed, I had more care upon my head now than I had
in my silent state of life in the island, where I wanted nothing but
what I had, and had nothing but what I wanted; whereas I had
now a great charge upon me, and my business was how to secure
it. I had not a cave now to hide my money in, or a place where it
might lie without lock or key, till it grew moldy and tarnished
before anybody would meddle with it; on the contrary, I knew
not where to put it. My old patron, the captain, indeed, was
honest, and that was the only refuge I had. In the next place, my
interest in the Brazils seemed to summon me thither; but now
I could not tell how to think of going thither till I had settled my
affairs, and left my effects in some safe hands behind me. At
first I thought of my old friend the widow, who I knew was
honest, and would be just to me; but then she was up in years,
and but poor, and, for aught I knew, might be in debt; so that,
in a word, I had no way but to go back to England myself, and
take my effects with me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved upon this; and
therefore, as I had rewarded the old captain fully, and to his satis-
faction, who had been my former benefactor, so I began to think
of my poor widow, whose husband had been my first benefactor,
and she, while it was in her power, my faithful steward and in-
structor. So, the first thing I did, I got a merchant in Lisbon to
write to his correspondent in London not only to pay a bill, but
to go find her out, and carry her in money a hundred pounds
from me, and to talk with her, and comfort her in her poverty,
by telling her she should, if I lived, have a further supply: at the
same time, I sent my two sisters in the country a hundred pounds
each, they being, though not in want, yet not in very good circum-
stances; one having been married and left a widow; and the
other having a husband not so kind to her as he should be. But,
among all my relations or acquaintances, I could not yet pitch
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 235

upon one to whom I durst commit the gross of my stock, that I
might go away to the Brazils and leave things safe behind me;
and this greatly perplexed me.

I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazils, and have
settled myself there, for I was, as it were, naturalized to the
place; but I had some little scruple in my mind about religion,
which insensibly drew me back, of which I shall say more
presently. However, it was not religion that kept me from going
there for the present; and as I had made no scruple of being
openly of the religion of the country all the while I was among
them, so neither did I yet; only that, now and then, having of
late thought more of it than formerly, when I began to think of
living and dying among them, I began to regret my having pro-
fessed myself a Papist, and thought it might not be the best
religion to die with.

But, as I have said, this was not the main thing that kept me
from going to the Brazils, but that really I did not know with
whom to leave my effects behind me; so I resolved at last to go
to England with them, where, if I arrived, I concluded I should
make some acquaintance, or find some relations, that would be
faithful to me; and, accordingly, I prepared to go to England
with all my wealth.

In order to prepare things for any going home, I first (the
Brazil fleet being just going away) resolved to give answers suit-
able to the just and faithful account of things I had from thence;
and, first, to the Prior of St. Augustine, I wrote a letter full of
thanks for his just dealings, and the offer of the eight hundred
and seventy-two moidores which were undisposed of, which I
desired might be given, five hundred to the monastery, and three
hundred and seventy-two to the poor, as the prior should direct;
desiring the good padre’s prayers for me, and the like. I wrote
next a letter of thanks to my two trustees, with all the acknowledg-
ment that so much justice and honesty called for: as for sending
them any present, they were far above having any occasion of it.
Lastly, I wrote to my partner, acknowledging his industry in the
improving the plantation, and his integrity in increasing the
236 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

stock of works, giving him instructions for his future government
of my part, according to the powers I had left with my old patron;
to whom I desired him to send whatever became due to me, till
he should hear from me more particularly; assuring him that it
was my intention not only to come to him, but to settle myself
there for the remainder of my life. To this I added a very hand-
some present of some Italian silks for his wife and two daughters,
for such the captain’s son informed me he had: with two pieces
of fine English broadcloth, the best I could get in Lisbon, five
pieces of black baize, and some Flanders lace of a good value.

Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned all
my effects into good bills of exchange, my next difficulty was
which way to go to England. I had been accustomed enough to
the sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to go to England by sea
at that time; and though I could give no reason for it, yet the
difficulty increased upon me so much that though I had once
shipped my baggage in order to go, yet I altered my mind, and
that not once, but two or three times.

It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and that might
be one of the reasons; but let no man slight the strong impulses
of his own thoughts in cases of such moment; two of the ships
which I had singled out to go in—I mean, more particularly
singled out than any other—having put my things on board one
of them, and in the other having agreed with the captain, I say
two of these ships miscarried; viz., one was taken by the Algerines,
and the other was cast away on the Start, near Torbay, and all
the people drowned, except three; so that in either of those vessels
I had been made miserable, in which most, it was hard to say.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old pilot, to
whom I communicated everything, pressed me earnestly not to
go by sea, but either to go by land to the Groyne, and cross over
the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, from whence it was but an easy and
safe journey by land to Paris, and so to Calais and Dover; or to
go up to Madrid, and so all the way by land through France. In
a word, I was so prepossessed against my going by sea at all,
except from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to travel all the way
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 237

by land; which, as I was not in haste, and did not value the
charge, was by much the pleasanter way. And to make it more
so, my old captain brought an English gentleman, the son of a
merchant in Lisbon, who was willing to travel with me; after
which we picked up two more English merchants also, and two
young Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to Paris only; so
that in all there were six of us, and five servants; the two mer-
chants and the two Portuguese contenting themselves with one
servant between two, to save the charge; and as for me, I got an
English sailor to travel with me as a servant, besides my man
Friday, who was too much of a stranger to be capable of supply-
ing the place of a servant upon the road.

In this manner I set out from Lisbon; and our company being
very well mounted and armed, we made a little troop, whereof
they did me the honor to call me captain, as well because I was
the oldest man, as because I had two servants, and, indeed, was
the origin of the whole journey.

As I have troubled you with none of my sea journeys, so I shall
trouble you with none of my land journeys; but some adventures
that happened to us in this tedious and difficult journey I must
not omit.

When we came to Madrid, we, being all of us strangers to
Spain, were willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain,
and what was worth observing; but, it being the latter part of the
summer, we hastened away, and set out from Madrid about the
middle of October; but when we came to the edge of Navarre, we
were alarmed, at several towns on the way, with an account that
so much snow was fallen on the French side of the mountains
that several travelers were obliged to come back to Pampeluna,
after having attempted at an extreme hazard to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so indeed;
and to me, that had been always used to a hot climate, and to
countries where I could scarce bear any clothes on, the cold was
insufferable; nor, indeed, was it more painful than it was sur-
prising, to come but ten days before out of Old Castile, where
the weather was not only warm but very hot, and immediately
238 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

to feel a wind from the Pyrenean Mountains so very keen, so
severely cold, as to be intolerable, and to endanger benumbing
and perishing of our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frightened when he saw the mountains
all covered with snow, and felt cold weather, which he had never
seen or felt before in his life. To mend the matter, after we came
to Pampeluna it continued snowing with so much violence, and
so long, that the people said winter was come before its time; and
the roads, which were difficult before, were now quite impassable.
In a word, the snow lay in some places too thick for us to travel,
and being not hard frozen, as is the case in the northern countries,
there was no going without being in danger of being buried
alive every step. We stayed no less than twenty days at Pam-
peluna; when (seeing the winter coming on, and no likelihood
of its being better, for it was the severest winter all over Europe
that had been known in many years), I proposed that we should
go away to Fontarabia, and there take shipping for Bordeaux,
which was a very little voyage. But, while I was considering this,
there came in four French gentlemen, who, having been stopped
on the French side of the passes, as we were on the Spanish, had
found out a guide, who, traversing the country near the head of
Languedoc, had brought them over the mountains by such ways
that were not much incommoded with the snow, for where they
met with snow in any quantity they said it was frozen hard
enough to bear them and their horses. We sent for this guide,
who told us he would undertake to carry us the same way, with
no hazard from the snow, provided we were armed sufficiently
to protect ourselves from wild beasts; for, he said, in these great
snows it was frequent for some wolves to show themselves at the
foot of the mountains, being made ravenous for want of food,
the ground being covered with snow. We told him we were well
enough prepared for such creatures as they were, if he would
insure us from a kind of two-legged wolves, which, we were told,
we were in most danger from, especially on the French side of
the mountains. He satisfied us that there was no danger of that
kind in the way that we were to go; so we readily agreed to follow
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 239

him, as did also twelve other gentlemen, with their servants, some
French, some Spanish, who, as I said, had attempted to go, and
were obliged to come back again.

Accordingly, we set out from Pampeluna with our guide on
the 15th of November; and, indeed, I was surprised, when, instead
of going forward, he came directly back with us on the same road
that we came from Madrid, about twenty miles; when, having
passed two rivers, and come into the plain country, we found
ourselves in a warm climate again, where the country was
pleasant, and no snow to be seen; but, on a sudden turning to his
left, he approached the mountains another way; and though it
is true the hills and precipices looked dreadful, yet he made so
many tours, such meanders, and led us by such winding ways,
that we insensibly passed the height of the mountains without
being much encumbered with the snow; and, all of a sudden, he
showed us the pleasant and fruitful provinces of Languedoc and
Gascony, all green and flourishing, though, indeed, they were at
a great distance, and we had some rough way to pass still.

We were a little uneasy, however, when we found it snowed
one whole day and a night so fast that we could not travel; but he
bid us be easy; we should soon be past it all. We found, indeed,
that we began to descend every day, and to come more north than
before; and so, depending upon our guide, we went on.

It was about two hours before night, when, our guide being
something before us, and not just in sight, out rushed three
monstrous wolves, and after them a bear, from a hollow way
adjoining to a thick wood; two of the wolves flew upon the guide,
and, had he been far before us he would have been devoured
before we could have helped him; one of them fastened upon his
horse, and the other attacked the man with such violence that he
had not time or presence of mind enough to draw his pistol, but
hallooed and cried out to us most lustily. My man Friday being
next me, I bade him ride up and see what was the matter. As
soon as Friday came in sight of the man, he hallooed out as loud
as the other, “Oh, master! Oh, master!” but, like a bold fellow,
rode directly up to the man, and with his pistol shot one wolf.
240 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

It was happy for the poor man that it was my man Friday;
for, having been used to such creatures in his country, he had no
fear upon him, but went close up to him and shot him; whereas,
any other of us would have fired at a farther distance, and have
perhaps either missed the wolf, or endangered shooting the man.

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than I; and,
indeed, it alarmed all our company, when, with the noise of
Friday’s pistol, we heard on both sides the most dismal howling
of wolves; and the noise, redoubled by the echo of the mountains,
that it was to us as if there had been a prodigious number of
them; and perhaps there were not such a few as that we had no
cause of apprehension; however, as Friday had killed this wolf,
the other, that has fastened upon the horse, left him immediately,
and fled, without doing him any damage, having happily fastened
upon his head, where the bosses of the bridle had stuck in his
teeth. But the man was most hurt; for the raging creature had
bit him twice, once in the arm, and the other time a little above
the knee; he was just, as it were, tumbling down by the disorder
of his horse, when Friday came up and shot the wolf.

It is easy to suppose that at the noise of Friday’s pistol we all
mended our pace, and rode up as fast as the way, which was very
difficult, would give us leave, to see what was the matter. As soon
as we came clear of the trees, which blinded us before, we saw
plainly what had been the case, and how Friday had disengaged
the poor guide, though we did not presently discern what kind of
creature it was he had killed.

But never was a fight managed so hardily, and in such a sur-
prising manner, as that which followed between Friday and the
bear, which gave us all, though at first we were surprised and
afraid for him, the greatest diversion imaginable. As the bear is
a heavy, clumsy creature, and does not gallop as the wolf does,
which is swift and light, so he has two particular qualities, which
generally are the rule of his actions; first, as to men, who are not
his proper prey (he does not usually attempt them, except they
first attack him, unless he be excessively hungry, which it is
probable might now be the case, the ground being covered with
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 241

snow); if you do not meddle with him, he will not meddle with
you. But then you must take care to be very civil to him, and give
him the road, for he is a very nice gentleman. He will not go a
step out of his way for a prince; nay, if you are really afraid, your
best way is to look another way and keep going on. For some-
times, if you stop and stand still, and look steadfastly at him, he
takes it for an affront, but if you throw or toss anything at him,
and it hits him, though it were but a bit of stick as big as your
finger, he takes it for an affront, and sets all other business aside
to pursue his revenge, and will have satisfaction in point of honor
—that is his first quality; the next is, that if he be once affronted
he will never leave you, night or day, till he has had his revenge,
but follow at a good round rate till he overtakes you.

My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we came
up to him he was helping him off from his horse, for the man was
both hurt and frightened, and indeed the last more than the first,
when on a sudden we espied the bear come out of the wood, and
a vast, monstrous one it was, the biggest by far that ever I saw. We
were all a little surprised when we saw him; but when Friday
saw him it was easy to see joy and courage in the fellow’s coun-
tenance. “Oh, oh, oh,” says Friday, three times, pointing to him;
“oh, master! you give me te leave, me shakee te hand with him;
me make you good laugh.”

I was surprised to see the fellow so pleased. “You fool,” said I,
“he will eat you up.” “Eatee me up! eatee me up!” says Friday,
twice over again; “me eatee him up; me makee you good laugh.
You all stay here, me show you good laugh.” So down he sits, and
gets his boot off in a moment, and puts on a pair of pumps (as we
call the flat shoes they wear, and which he had in his pocket),
gives my other servant his horse, and with his gun away he flew,
swift like the wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle with
nobody, till Friday coming pretty near, calls to him, as if the bear
could understand him, “Hark ye, hark ye,” says Friday, “me
speakee with you.” We followed at a distance, for now, being
come down to the Gascony side of the mountains, we were entered
242 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

a vast, great forest, where the country was plain and pretty open,
though it had many trees in it scattered here and there. Friday,
who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came up with him
quickly and took up a great stone, and threw it at him, and hit
him just on the head, but did him no more harm than if he had
thrown it against a wall; but it answered Friday’s end, for the
rogue was so void of fear that he did it purely to make the bear
follow him, and show us some laugh as he called it. As soon as
the bear felt the stone, and saw him, he turned about, and came
after him, taking very long strides, and shuffling on at a strange
rate, so as would have put a horse to a middling gallop; away
runs Friday, and takes his course as if he ran towards us for
help; so we all resolved to fire at once upon the bear, and deliver
my man; though I was angry at him heartily for bringing the
bear back upon us, when he was going about his own business
another way. And especially I was angry that he had turned the
bear upon us, and then run away. And I called out, “You dog!”
said I, “is this your making us laugh! Come away, and take your
horse, that we may shoot the creature.” He heard me, and cried
out, “No shoot, no shoot. Stand still, you get much laugh;” and
as the nimble creature ran two feet for the beast’s one, he turned
on a sudden on one side of us, and seeing a great oak tree fit for
his purpose, he beckoned us to follow; and doubling his pace he
got nimbly up the tree, laying his gun down upon the ground at
about five or six yards from the bottom of the tree. The bear soon
came to the tree, and we followed at a distance; the first thing
he did he stopped at the gun, smelled at it, but let it lie, and
up he scrambles into the tree, climbing like a cat, though so
monstrous heavy. I was amazed at the folly, as I thought it, of
my man, and could not for my life see anything to laugh at yet,
till, seeing the bear get up the tree, we all rode near to him.
When we came to the tree there was Friday got out to the
small end of a large limb of the tree, and the bear got about half-
way to him. As soon as the bear got out to that part where the
limb of the tree was weaker—‘“Ha!” says he to us, “now you see
me teachee the bear dance;” so he began jumping and shaking
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 243

the bough, at which the bear began to totter, but stood still, and
began to look behind him, to see how he could get back; then,
indeed, we did laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with
him by a great deal; when seeing him stand still, he called out
to him again, as if he had supposed the bear could speak English,
“What, you no come farther? Pray you, come farther;” so he
left jumping and shaking the bough; and the bear, just as if he
had understood what he said, did come a little farther. Then he
began jumping again, and the bear stopped again. We thought
now was a good time to knock him on the head, and called to
Friday to stand still, and we would shoot the bear. But he cried
out earnestly, “Oh, pray! Oh, pray! No shoot, me shoot by and
then;” he would have said by and by. However, to shorten the
story, Friday danced so much, and the bear stood so ticklish, that
we had laughing enough indeed, but still could not imagine
what the fellow would do; for first we thought he depended upon
shaking the bear off; and we found the bear was too cunning for
that, too, for he would not go out far enough to be thrown down,
but clung fast with great broad claws and feet, so that we could
not imagine what would be the end of it, and what the jest would
be at last. But Friday put us out of doubt quickly: for seeing the
bear cling fast to the bough, and that he would not be persuaded
to come any farther, “Well, well,” says Friday, “you no come
farther, me go; you no come to me, me come to you;”
and upon this he went out to the smaller end of the
bough, where it would bend with his weight, and gently let
himself down by it, sliding down the bough till he came
near enough to jump down on his feet, and away he ran to
his gun, took it up, and stood still. “Well,” said I to him, “Friday,
what will you do now! Why don’t you shoot him!” “No shoot,”
says Friday, “no yet. Me shoot now, me no kill; me stay, give you
one more laugh;” and, indeed, so he did, as you will see presently.
For when the bear saw his enemy gone, he came back from the
bough where he stood, but did it very cautiously, looking behind
him every step, and coming backward till he got into the body of
the tree; then, with the same hinder end foremost, he came down
244 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

the tree, grasping it with his claws, and moving one foot at a
time, very leisurely. At this juncture, and just before he could
set his hind feet upon the ground, Friday stepped up close to
him, clapped the muzzle of his piece into his ear, and shot him
dead as a stone. Then the rogue turned about to see if we did
not laugh. And when he saw we were pleased, by our looks, he
began to laugh very loud. “So we killed bear in my country,”
says Friday. “So you kill them?” says I; “why, you have no guns.”
“No,” says he, “no gun, but shoot great much long arrow.” This
was a good diversion to us; but we were still in a wild place, and
our guide very much hurt, and what to do we hardly knew. The
howling of wolves ran much in my head; and indeed, except the
noise I once heard on the shore of Africa, of which I have said
something already, I never heard anything that filled me with so
much horror.

These things, and the approach of night, called us off, or else,
as Friday would have had us, we should certainly have taken the
skin of this monstrous creature off, which was worth saving; but we
had near three leagues to go, and our guide hastened us; so we
left him, and went forward on our journey.

The ground was still covered with snow, though not so deep
and dangerous as on the mountains; and the ravenous creatures,
as we heard afterwards, were come down into the forest and plain
country, pressed by hunger, to seek for food, and had done a
great deal of mischief in the villages, where they surprised the
country people, killing a great many of their sheep and horses,
and some people too. We had one dangerous place to pass, and our
guide told us if there were more wolves in the country we should
find them there; and this was a small plain surrounded with
woods on every side, and a long narrow defile, or lane, which we
were to pass to get through the wood, and then we should come
to the village where we were to lodge. It was within half an hour
of sunset when we entered the wood, and a little after sunset when
we came into the plain; we met nothing in the first wood, except
that in a little plain within the wood, which was not above two
furlongs over, we saw five great wolves cross the road, full speed,
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 245

one after another, as if they had been in chase of some prey, and
had it in view; they took no notice of us, and were gone out of
sight in a few moments. Upon this, our guide, who, by the way,
was a faint-hearted fellow, bid us keep in a ready posture, for he
believed there were more wolves a-coming. We kept our arms
ready and our eyes about us; but we saw no more wolves until.
we came through that wood, which was near a half a league, and
entered the plain. As soon as we came into the plain, we had oc-
casion enough to look about us. The first object we met with was
a dead horse; that is to say a poor horse which the wolves had
killed, and at least a dozen of them at work, we could not say
eating him, but picking his bones rather; for they had eaten up
all the flesh before. We did not think fit to disturb them at their
feast, neither did they take much notice of us. Friday would have
let fly at them, but I would not suffer him by any means; for I
found we were like to have more business on our hands than we
were aware of. We had not gone half over the plain when we
began to hear the wolves howl in the wood on our left in a fright-
ful manner, and presently after we saw about a hundred coming
on directly towards us, all in a body, and most of them in a line
as regularly as an army drawn up by experienced officers. I scarce
knew in what manner to receive them, but found to draw our-
selves in a close line was the only way; so we formed in a moment;
but that we might not have too much interval, I ordered that
only every other man should fire, and that the others, who had
not fired, should stand ready to give them a second volley imme-
diately, if they continued to advance upon us; and then that those
who had fired at first should not pretend to load their fusees again,
but stand ready, every one with a pistol, for we were all armed
with a fusee and a pair of pistols each man. So we were, by this
method, able to fire six volleys, half of us at a time. However, at
present, we had no necessity; for upon firing the first volley the
enemy made a full stop, being terrified as well with the noise as
with the fire. Four of them being shot in the head, dropped; sev-
eral others were wounded and went bleeding off, as we could see
by the snow. I found they stopped, but did not immediately re-
246 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

treat. Whereupon, remembering that I had been told that the
fiercest creatures were terrified at the voice of a man, I caused all
the company to halloo as loud as we could; and I found the notion
not altogether mistaken, for upon our shout they began to retire
and turn about. I then ordered a second volley to be fired in their
rear, which put them to the gallop, and away they went to the
woods. This gave us leisure to charge our pieces again; and that
we might lose no time, we kept going. But we had but little more
than loaded our fusees, and put ourselves in readiness, when we
heard a terrible noise in the same wood on our left, only that it
was farther onward, the same way we were to go.

The night was coming on, and the light began to be dusky,
which made it the worse on our side. But the noise increasing, we
could easily perceive that it was the howling and yelling of those
hellish creatures, and, on a sudden, we perceived two or three
troops of wolves, one on our left, one behind us, and one in our
front, so that we seemed to be surrounded with them. However,
as they did not fall upon us we kept our way forward, as fast as
we could make our horses go, which, the way being very rough,
was only a good hard trot. In this manner we came in view of the
entrance of a wood, through which we were to pass, at the farther
side of the plain; but we were greatly surprised when, coming
near the lane or pass, we saw a confused number of wolves stand-
ing just at the entrance. On a sudden, at another opening of the
wood, we heard the noise of a gun, and looking that way, out
rushed a horse, with a saddle and bridle on him, flying like the
wind, and sixteen or seventeen wolves after him full speed. In-
deed, the horse had the advantage of them; but as we supposed
that he could not hold it at that rate, we doubted not but they
would get up with him at last: and no question but they did.

But here we had a most horrible sight; for, riding up to the
entrance where the horse came out, we found the carcasses of an-
other horse, and of two men, devoured by the ravenous creatures;
and one of the men was no doubt the same whom we heard fire
the gun, for there lay a gun just by him fired off; but as to the
man, his head and the upper part of his body were eaten up. This
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 247

filled us with horror, and we knew not what course to take; but
the creatures resolved us soon, for they gathered about us presently,
in hopes of prey; and I verily believe there were three hundred of
them. It happened, very much to our advantage, that at the en-
trance into the wood, but a little way from it, there lay some large
timber trees, which had been cut down the summer before, and
I suppose lay there for carriage. I drew my little troop in among
those trees, and placing ourselves in a line behind one long tree, I
advised them all to alight, and keeping that tree before us for a
breastwork, to stand in a triangle, or three fronts, inclosing our
horses in the center. We did so, and it was well we did; for never
was a more furious charge than the creatures made upon us in
this place. They came on us with a growling Kind of a noise, and
mounted the piece of timber, which, as I said, was our breastwork,
as if they were only rushing upon their prey; and this fury of
theirs, it seems, was principally occasioned by their seeing our
horses behind us, which was the prey they aimed at. I ordered our
men to fire as before, every other man; and they took their aim
so sure that indeed they killed several of the wolves at the first
volley. But there was a necessity to keep a continual firing, for
they came on like devils, those behind pushing on those before.
When we had fired a second volley of our fusees we thought
they stopped a little, and I hoped they would have gone off, but
it was but a moment, for others came forward again. So we fired
two volleys of our pistols, and I believe in these four firings we
had killed seventeen or eighteen of them, and lamed twice as
many, yet they came on again. I was loath to spend our last shot
too hastily; so I called my servant—not my man Friday, for he
was better employed, for, with the greatest dexterity imaginable,
he had charged my fusee and his own while we were engaged—
but, as I said, I called my other man, and giving him a horn of
powder, I bade him lay a train all along the piece of timber and
let it be a large train. He did so, and had but just time to get
away, when the wolves came up to it, and some got upon it, when
I, snapping an uncharged pistol close to the powder, set it on
fire; those that were upon the timber were scorched with it, and
248 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

six or seven of them fell, or rather jumped in among us with the
force and fright of the fire: we dispatched these in an instant, and
the rest were so frightened with the light, which the night—for
it was now very dark—made more terrible, that they drew back
a little; upon which I ordered our last pistols to be fired off in
one volley, and after that we gave a shout, upon this the wolves
turned tail, and we sallied immediately upon near twenty lame
ones that we found struggling on the ground, and fell to cutting
them with our swords, which answered our expectation, for the
crying and howling they made was better understood by their
fellows; so that they all fled and left us.

We had first and last, killed about threescore of them, and had
it been daylight we had killed many more. The field of battle
being thus cleared, we made forward again, for we had still near
a league to go. We heard the ravenous creatures howl and yell in
the woods as we went, several times, and sometimes we fancied
we saw some of them; but the snow dazzling our eyes, we were
not certain. So in about an hour more we came to the town
where we were to lodge, which we found in a terrible fright, and
all in arms; for it seems that the night before the wolves and
some bears had broke into the village and put them in such terror
that they were obliged to keep guard night and day, but especially
in the night, to preserve their cattle, and indeed their people.

The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs swelled
so much with the rankling of his two wounds, that he could go
no farther; so we were obliged to take a new guide here, and
go to Toulouse, where we found a warm climate, a fruitful, pleas-
ant country, and no snow, no wolves, nor anything like them; but
when we told our story at Toulouse they told us it was nothing
but what was ordinary in the great forest at the foot of the moun-
tains, especially when the snow lay on the ground. But they
inquired much what kind of a guide we had got, who would
venture to bring us that way in such a severe season, and told us
it was surprising we were not all devoured. When we told
them how we placed ourselves and the horses in the middle,
they blamed us exceedingly, and told us it was fifty to one we
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 249

had been all destroyed, for it was the sight of the horses which
made the wolves so furious, seeing their prey, and that at
other times they are really afraid of a gun; but being excessively
hungry, and raging on that account, the eagerness to come at
the horses had made them senseless of danger; and that if we had
not, by the continued fire, and at last by the stratagem of the
train of powder, mastered them, it had been great odds but that
we had been torn to pieces. Whereas, had we been content to
have sat still on horseback, and fired as horsemen, they would
not have taken the horses so much for their own, when men
were on their backs, as otherwise. And, withal, they told us that
at last, if we had stood all together, and left our horses, they
would have been so eager to have devoured them, that we might
have come off safe, especially having our firearms in our hands,
and being so many in number. For my part, I was never so
sensible of danger in my life; for, seeing above three hundred
devils come roaring and open-mouthed to devour us, and having
nothing to shelter us or retreat to, I gave myself over for lost; and,
as it was, I believe I shall never care to cross those mountains
again. I think I would much rather go a thousand leagues by sea,
though I was sure to meet with a storm once a week.

I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in my passage
through France—nothing but what other travelers have given
an account of with much more advantage than I can. I traveled
from Toulouse to Paris, and without any considerable stay came
to Calais, and landed safe at Dover, the 14th of January, after
having a severe cold season to travel in.

I was now come to the center of my travels, and had in a little
time all my new discovered estate safe about me, the bills of
exchange which I brought with me having been very currently
paid.

My principal guide and privy counselor was my good ancient
widow, who, in gratitude for the money I had sent her, thought
no pains too much, nor care too great, to employ for me; and I
trusted her so entirely with everything, that I was perfectly easy
as to the security of my effects; and, indeed, I was very happy
250 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

from the beginning, and now to the end, in the unspotted in-
tegrity of this good gentlewoman.

And now, having resolved to dispose of my plantation in the
Brazils, I wrote to my old friend at Lisbon, who, having offered
it to the two merchants, the survivors of my trustees, who lived in
the Brazils, they accepted the offer, and remitted thirty-three
thousand pieces of eight to a correspondent of theirs at Lisbon to
pay for it.

In return, I signed the instrument of sale in the form which
they sent from Lisbon, and sent it to my old man, who sent me
the bills of exchange for thirty-two thousand eight hundred pieces
of eight for the estate, reserving the payment of one hundred
moidores a year to him (the old man), during his life, and fifty
moidores afterwards to his son for his life, which I had promised
them, and which the plantation was to make good as a rent-
charge. And thus I have given the first part of a life of fortune
and adventure—a life of Providence’s checker work, and of a
variety which the world will seldom be able to show the like
of—beginning foolishly, but closing much more happily than
any part of it ever gave me leave so much as to hope for.

Any one would think that in this state of complicated good
fortune I was past running any more hazards: and so, indeed, I
had been, if other circumstances had concurred. But I was inured
to a wandering life, had no family, nor many relations; nor, how-
ever rich, had I contracted much acquaintance; and though I
had sold my estate in the Brazils, yet I could not keep that country
out of my head, and had a great mind to be upon the wing again;
especially I could not resist the strong inclination I had to see my
island, and to know if the poor Spaniards were in being there.
My true friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded me from it, and
so far prevailed with me that for almost seven years she prevented
my running abroad, during which time I took my two nephews,
the children of one of my brothers, into my care; the eldest, hav-
ing something of his own, I bred up as a gentleman, and gave
him a settlement of some addition to his estate after my decease.
The other I placed with the captain of a ship; and, after five
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe 251

years, finding him a sensible, bold, enterprising young fellow, I
put him into a good ship, and sent him to sea; and this young fel-
low afterwards drew me in, as old as I was, to farther adventures
myself.

In the meantime I in part settled myself here; for, first of all,
I married, and that not either to my disadvantage or dissatisfac-
tion, and had three children, two sons and one daughter; but my
wife dying, and my nephew coming home with good success
from a voyage to Spain, my inclination to go abroad, and his
importunity, prevailed, and engaged me to go in his ship as a
private trader to the East Indies. This was in the year 1694.

In this voyage I visited my new colony in the island; saw my
successors, the Spaniards; had the whole story of their lives, and
of the villains I left there; how at first they insulted the poor
Spaniards; how they afterwards agreed, disagreed, united, sep-
arated, and how at last the Spaniards were obliged to use violence
with them; how they were subjected to the Spaniards; how
honestly the Spaniards used them—a history, if it were entered
into, as full of variety and wonderful accidents as my own part;
particularly, also, as to their battles with the Caribbeans, who
landed several times upon the island, and as to the improvement
they made upon the island itself—and how five of them made
an attempt upon the mainland, and brought away eleven men
and five women prisoners, by which, at my coming, I found
about twenty young children on the island.

Here I stayed about twenty days—left them supplies of all
necessary things, and particularly of arms, powder, shot, clothes,
tools, and two workmen, which I brought from England with me
—viz., a carpenter and a smith.

Besides this, I shared the lands into parts with them, reserved
to myself the property of the whole, but gave them such parts
respectively as they agreed on; and having settled all things with
them, and engaged them not to leave the place, I left them there.

From thence I touched at the Brazils, from whence I sent a
bark, which I bought there, with more people to the island; and
in it, besides other supplies, I sent seven women, being such as
252 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

I found proper for service, or for wives to such as would take
them. As to the Englishmen, I promised them to send them some
women from England, with a good cargo of necessaries, if they
would apply themselves to planting—which I afterwards could
not perform. The fellows proved very honest and diligent after
they were mastered, and had their properties set apart for them.
I sent them, also, from the Brazils, five cows, three of them being
big with calf, some sheep, some hogs, which when I came again
were considerably increased.






















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