Front Cover
 Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe
 Back Cover

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074467/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 190 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel,
Leitch, R. P ( Richard Pettigrew )
Macquoid, Thomas Robert, 1820-1912
Marriott, R. S
Thomas, William Luson, 1835-1900
Wentworth, Frederick
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
McLoughlin Bros., inc
Publisher: McLoughlin Bros.
Place of Publication: Springfield, Mass
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1927   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Springfield
General Note: Cover col. ill. with title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date from inscription.
General Note: Some illustrations signed R.P. Leitch or MacQuoid. Engravers include R.S. Marriott, W.L. Thomas, and Wentworth.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Pt. II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: "2353"--Cover.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074467
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: lccn - SN01273
oclc - 26812736

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Frontispiece 1
        Frontispiece 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Robinson Crusoe
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I` CeTl 49



By Daniel Defoe



ann. e. a,



I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not
of that country, my father being a foreigner, of Bremen, who settled first
at Hull: he got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived
afterwards at York; from whence he had married my mother, whose relations
were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from whom I
was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in Eng-
land, we are now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe;
and so my companions always called me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head began
to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father had given me a com-
petent share of learning, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied
with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly
against the will, nay, the commands, of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be some-
thing fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to the life of misery
which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me excellent counsel against what
he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his chamber, where
he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination,
I had for leaving my father's house and my native country, where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by application and


industry, 2ith a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate
fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to make themselves famous in undertakings of a
nature out of the common road; that these things were all either too far above
me or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called
the upper station of low life, which he had found by long experience was the
best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the
misery and' hardships, the labor and sufferings of the mechanic part of man-
kind, and not embarrassed with pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper
part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of this state by
this one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other people envied;
that kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two ex-
tremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony
to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to-have neither
poverty nor riches.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner, not
to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which Nature,
and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I
was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and
endeavor to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had just been re-
commending to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it
must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be other-
wise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off;
and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further importunties, in a few weeks
after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act quite so

hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a
time when I thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never
settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father
had better give me his consent than force me to go without it. This pyt my
mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would be to no purpose
to speak to my father upon any such subjects; that for her part, she would not
have so much hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my
mother was willing when my father was not.
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose. Being one day at
Hull, and one of my companions being going by sea to London in his father's
ship, and prompting me to go with them, I consulted neither father or mother
any more, nor so much as sent them word ofjt; but leaving them to hear of it
as they might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows,
on the 1st of September, 1651, 1 went on board a ship bound for London.
Never any young adventurer's misfortunes began sooner or continued longer
than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than the wind began
to blow, and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never been
at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. In
this agony I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to
spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again,
I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while
I lived.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and
indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea
calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it. A charming evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I
thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.


I had slept well in the night, and was no more sea-sick; but very cheerful
looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before,
and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest
my good resolutions should continue, my companion who had enticed me away
comes to me.
"Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, "how do you do after
it? I warrant you were frighted, weren't you, last night, when it blew but a
capful of wind?"
"A capful d'you call it?" said I; "'twas a terrible storm."
"A storm, yop fool, you!" replies he; "do you call that a storm ? why, it was
nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of
such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come,
let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye see what charming
weather 'tis now ?"
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the
punch was made, and I was made half drunk with it; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolu-
tions for the future.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads. Here we
were obliged to come to anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary,
viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days. The eighth day, in the morning,
the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped
several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two anchors
ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror
and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. Towards evening
the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to let them cut away the


foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to
him that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and when they had
cut away the foremast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so
much, they were obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.
And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but a
young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. In the
middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that
had been down to see, cried out we had sprung aleak; another said there was
four feet of water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the
ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was
not possible she could swim till we might run into any port, so the master fired
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a
boat out to help us. Our men cast a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they, after much labor and hazard,
took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think
of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her
in towards shore as much as we could.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we saw
her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a ship
foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when
the seame .told me she was sinking. While we were in this condition, the men
yet laboring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see a great
many people running along the strand, to assist us when we should come near;
but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the
shore till being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the west-
ward, towards Crome. Here we got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards
on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, were were used with great


Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home, I
had been happy. But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist. Having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself what
course of life I should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London, which
does not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then
was. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast
of Guinea; and who having had very good success there, was resolved to go
again; this captain taking a fancy to my conversation, told me if I would go the
voyage with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his
companion; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the ad-
vantage of it that the trade would admit.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain,
who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried
about 40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This 40
I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I cor-
responded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adventures,
and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain; for I
brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which
yielded me in London, atmy return, almost 300; and this filled me with those
aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfortune,
dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again. I em-
barked in the same vessel with one who was his mahA in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth,
so that I had 200 left which I had lodged with my friend's widow, who was very


Just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was
this, viz., our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, was surprised-'
in the gray of the morning by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us
with all the sail he could make. About three in the afternoon he came up with


us, and to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield,
and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended; nor was
I carried up the country to the Emperor's court, as the rest of our men were,
but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,
being young and nimble, and fit for his business. When he went to sea, he left
me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of


slaves about his house; and when he came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to
effect it; but found no way that had the least probability in it. After about two
years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the thought of making
some attempt for my liberty, again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual without fitting out his ship,-he used constantly to take the ship's
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me and a
young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I
proved very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he would send
me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time that, going a-fishing with him in a calm morning, a fog
rose so thick, that though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we labored all day
and all the next night; and when the morning came, we found we had pulled
out to sea instead of pulling in for the shore. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labor, and some danger.
But our patron resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a com-
pass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship to build a little
state-room or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, which had in it room for
him to lie with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some lockers to put
in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; and particularly his
bread, rice, and coffee.
It happened that he appointed to go out in this boat, with two or three Moors
of some distinction in that place, and he had provided a larger store of provi-
sions than usual; and had ordered me to get ready three fusils with powder
and shot, which were on board his ship, for that they designed some sport of
fowling as well as fishing. I got all things ready as he had directed; and waited
the next morning with the boat, when by-and-by my patron came on board



alone, and told me his guests had put off going, and ordered me, with the man
as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish.
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command; and my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a
voyage. My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to the Moor,
to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not pre-
sume to eat of our patron's bread. He said, that was true; so he brought a
large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water,
into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, and I conveyed
them into the boat while the Moor was on shore. I conveyed also a great lump


of beeswax into the boat, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, t saw, and
a hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax
to make candles. Thus furnished with everything needful we sailed out of
the port to fish.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had fish on
my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the
Moor, "This will not do; we must stand farther off." He, thinking no harm,
agreed, and I ran the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to
as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped to where the Moor
was, and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by sur-
prise with my arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
v He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me; begged to be
taken in, telling me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong
after the boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowl-
ing-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if
he would be quiet I would do him none; "But," said I, "you swim well enough
to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and
I will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through the
head, for I am resloved to have my liberty." So he turned himself about,
and swam for shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he
was an excellent swimmer.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called "Xury," and said,
"Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man; but if you will
not stroke your face to be true to me" (that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father's beard), "I must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my
face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and he swore to be
faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in the view of the Moor thatwas swimming, I stood directly out
to sea, that they might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth. But as


soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, that I might keep in
with the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea,
I made such sail that I believed by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon,
when I first made land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles
beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions.


Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, that I would not stop till
I had sailed in that manner five days; and then, the wind shifting to the south-
ward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
would now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor
in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what nor where. I neither saw nor
desired to see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We
came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it


was dark, and discover the country. But as soon as it was quite dark, we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of
we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't,
but it may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
"Then we give them the shoot-gun," says Xury, laughing, "make them run
way.". Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However,
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and as his advice was good, I took it. We
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night. I say still, for we slept none;
for in two or three hours we saw vast, great creatures (we knew not what to call
them), of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water,
wallowing and washing themselves and they made such hideous howlings and
yelling that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were both
more frighted when we heard one mighty creature come swimming towards our
boat. Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. "No," says I,
"Xury, we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot
follow us far." I had no sooner said so but I perceived the creature, within two
oars' length. I immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun,
fired at him; upon which he turned about and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous cries and howl-
ings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the
country, upon the noise or report of the gun. This convinced me that there
was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast; and how to venture
on shore in the day was another question too; for to have fallen into the hands
of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions
and tigers.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for
water. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would
find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would


go ? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat ? The boy answered with so
much affection, that made me love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans
come, they eat you, and go wey." Well, Xury," said I, we will both go, and
if the wild men come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us." So we
hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on
shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, but the boy, seeing a low place
about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by and by I saw him come run-
ning towards me. I thought he was pursued, and I ran forward towards him
to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in
color, and longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good
meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found
good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a
little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, so we filled our jars, and prepared to go on our way.
I knew very well that the Islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But I knew not where to look for
them. My hope was that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their usual
design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being
the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries and had a great mind to
venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having failed twice, I was forced
in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I
resolved to pursue my first design; and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, and once in particular,
being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land,
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther


in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls
softly to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; "for," says
he, "look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep."
I looked where he pointed, and saw a terrible great lion that lay on the side of
the shore. Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked
frighted, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;" one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and took our biggest
gun, and aimed as well as I could with the first piece to have shot him in the
head, but the slug hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started
up growling at first, but finding his leg broke, gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure
to see him drop.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry to lose
the charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us.
I bethought myself, however, perhaps the skin of him might be of some value
to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work
with him. It took us up both the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of
him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve
days. My design in this was to make the River Gambia or Senegal; that is to
say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with
some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take,
but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the negroes. When I had
pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said, I began to see
that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black, and
stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but Xury said
to me, C'No, go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore, and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way: they had no weapons in their hands,


except one, who had a long stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked
with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly made signs for something
to eat: they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
meat. Upon this, I lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in
less than half an hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry
flesh and some corn, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would
not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us, but they took
a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went
and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends;
but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully: for
while we were lying on the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other from the mountains towards the sea. The man that had the lance or dart
did not fly from them, but the rest did. The two creatures ran directly into the
water, and swam about; at last one of them began to come nearer our boat than
at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all
possible expedition. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and
shot him directly in the head: he immediately made to the shore; but between
the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the
noise and fire of my gun. But when they saw the creature dead, and that I
made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart, and came to the
shore, and began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water; and by the help of a rope, they dragged him on shore, and found that
it was a most curious leopard.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun,
swam to the shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they came.


I found quickly the negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I made signs to
them that they might take it, they were very thankful for. Then I made signs
to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning its bottom
upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose in the sun; this
they set down for me, as before, and Isent Xury on shore with my jars and filled
them all three.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and leav-
ing my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, till I came
in sight of the Cape de Verd Islands. On a sudden, Xury cried out, "Master,
master, a ship with a sail!" and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us. I
immediately saw that it was a Portuguese ship; upon which I stretched out to
the sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their
way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them;
they, it seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses, so they shortened
sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's
ensign on board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired
a gun. Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me;
and in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French,
but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch sailor, who was on board,
called to me; and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then bade me
come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was thus
delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost helpless condition


as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told me, he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to a
tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none should offer to touch anything I had:
then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an exact
inventory of them, that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and-told me, he would
buy it of me for the ship's use. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight for my
boy Xury, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted
me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give
the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de Todos
los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-two days after. The generous
treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember: he would take
nothing of me for my passage, and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me:
in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my
cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of a good,
honest planter, I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, I would turn
planter among them; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get
my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, I
purchased as much land as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon. but born of English parents, whose


name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. My stock was
but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything else, for
about two years. However, we began to increase, so that the third year we
planted tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting
canes in the year to come.
I was in some measure settled before the captain departed from the Brazils.
One day I went to him and told him what stock I had in London, desiring his
help in getting it remitted; to which he readily consented, but would only have
me send for half of my money lest it should miscarry.
His kindness to me was great, for he not only procured the money I had
drawn for, but sent me over a servant, with a cargo of salable goods, together
with tools, iron work, and utensils necessary for my plantation. I found means
to sell the goods at a very great advantage, so that I was now infinitely beyond
my poor neighbor, and the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and a
European servant also: I mean another besides that the captain sent me.
I went on with great success in my plantation, and had I continued in the
station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to have yet befallen
me, for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life. But
I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in
my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster
than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into
the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into.
Having lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, and, in my discourse among them, I
had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
upon the coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits
of glass, and the like--not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.



It happened, being in company one day with some merchants and planters
of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me the next morning, and told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship
to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened
for.nothing so much as servants; that they could not publicly sell the negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own plantations; and
the question was, whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage
the trading part; and they offered me that I should have my equal share of the


negroes, without providing any part of the stock. I could not resist the offer,
and told them I would go if they would look after my plantation in my ab-
sence, and would dispose of it as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they
all engaged to do.
The ship being fitted out, I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st of
September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from my father
and mother at Hull. The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coasts, with design to stretch over for the
African coast. We had very good weather, all the way upon our own coast till
we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off
at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fer-
nando de Noronha. In this course we passed the line in about twelve days'
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of
our knowledge. For twelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and
during these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swallow-
ed up; nor did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an ob-
servation as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degress of
north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longtitude difference west
from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guiana, and now he began to consult with me what course he should take, for
the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was for going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-coast of
America with, him, we resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which we might
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both
to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we exchanged our course, in order to reach some of our


English islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined; for a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us out of the way of all human commerce.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early one
morning cried out, "Land!" and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look
out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck
upon a sand, and in a moment, the sea broke over her in such a manner that we
expected we should all have perished immediately.
We knew nothing where we were, and we could not so much as hope to have
the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a
kind of miracle, should turn immediately about.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the ship's boat, and with
the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the side: and getting all
into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's
mercy and the wild seas.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, a raging
wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and took us with such a fury
that it overset the boat at once. Though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver
myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with water I
took in. Seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my
feet, and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was im-
possible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty feet
deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore a very great way. I was covered with water a good
while, but not so long but I held it out, and felt ground again with my feet. I
stood still a few moments to recover breath, and then took to my heels, and ran


with what strength I had, farther towards the shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and
twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me; for the sea dashed
me against a piece of a rock, but I recovered a little, and resolved to hold fast by
the rock, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at
first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the waves abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore that the next run I took I got
to the mainland; where I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, quite out of reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God
that imy life was saved, in a case wherein there was some minutes before scarce
any room to hope. I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance;
reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not
be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards,
or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were
not fellows.
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I
began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was next
to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, for I was wet, had no clothes
to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see
any prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured
by wild beasts. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-
pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. Night coming upon me, I began, with a
heavy-heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts
in that country. All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was
to get up into a thick, bushy tree, which grew near me, and where I resolved to
sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw


no prospect of life. Being excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as
comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my condition.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night
from'the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up
almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by the wave dashing me against it.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again,
and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay about two miles off on
my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her;
but found a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat; so I came
back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped
to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out,
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. I pulled off my clothes,
for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water. When I came to
the ship, I espied a small piece of rope, hanging down, and by the help of that
rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. I found that all the ship's provisions
were dry, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and
filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things I fore-
saw would be very necessary to me.
We had several spare yards, and a spare topmast or two in the ship; and I
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage, tying every one with a
rope, that they might not drive away. When this was done I went down the
ship's side, and tied four of them together at both ends, as in the form of a raft,
and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them, crossways, I found I
could walk upon it very well,'but that it was not able to bear any great weight.
So I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw, I cut a spare top-mast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a greal deal of labor and pains.


My next care was what to load it with, but I was not long considering this.
I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get, and three of the
seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied. The first of these I
filled with bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh,
and a little remainder of European corn. I found several cases of bottles
belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about
five or six gallons of arrack. These I stowed by themselves. While I was
doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left onshore
upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which were only linen, and
open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stockings. However, this put
me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more
than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was more
upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore, and it was after long searching that
I found out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very
good fowling pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first,
with some powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two old, rusty swords. I
knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our
gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found them.
Having found two or three broken oars, belonging to the boat, and besides
the tools which were in the chest, two saws, an axe, and a hammer, with this
cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that
I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had lauded before.
Then there appeared before me a little opening of the land. I found a strong
current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in
the middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, for, knowing nothing
of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped

26 .



off towards the end that was afloat, but holding up the chests with all my might,
I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water still rising,



my raft floated again, and I thrust her off, and then driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river. I looked on both sides for a
proper place to get to shore, and at length I spied a little cove on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, near a
fiat piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did.
As soon as I found water enough, I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground,
and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two oars into the ground-
one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side, near the other end-
and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe
on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my habita-
tion. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep and
high. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill,
where I saw that I was in an island environed every way with the sea; no land
to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands,
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and uninhabited, except by
wild beasts. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither,
when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side
of a great wood. I had no sooner fired but from all parts of the wood there
arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a confused
screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note, but not one of them
of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of
hawk. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing. I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of the
day. What to do with myself at night I knew not. However, as well as I
could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's lodging.


I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of the
ship which would be useful to me, and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and brought
away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores I found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. Besides
these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-top-
sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft,
and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension during my absence from the land, that at
least my provisions might be devoured on shore; but when I came back I found
no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and stood
still. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was
perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed
her a bit of biscuit, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as
pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she marched
Having got my second cargo on shore, I went to work to make me a little
tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into this
tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and
I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify
it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of the
beds upon the ground, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
Small night. I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little,
and had labored very hard all day.
While the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything


Dut of her that I could; so every day, I went on board, and brought away some-
thing or other. After I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with
-I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of
rum, or spirits, a box of fine sugar, and a barrel of fine flour. I got all this
safe on shore also, though at several times.
The next day I made another voyage, and got two cables and a hawser on
shore, with all the iron-work I could get: and having cut down the spritsail
yard, and the mizzen yard, and everything I could to make a large rift, I loaded
it with all those heavy goods and came away. But my good luck began to leave
me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was entered
the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water. However, when the tide was out, I got
most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite
labor. After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what I could
Preparing the twelfth time to go on 0oara, I found the wind began to rise.
However, at low water I went on board, and though I thought I had rummaged
the cabin so effectually that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a
locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one
pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in
another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money. I smiled to myself
at the sight of this money. "Oh, drug!" said I aloud, "what art thou good
for? Thou art not worth to me-no, not the taking off the ground; one of
those knives is worth all this heap. However, upon second thoughts, I took it
away; and wrapping all in a piece of canvas, I began to think of making another
raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with
the wind off shore. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swam


across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with
'difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and
partly from the roughness of the water.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay with all my wealth about
me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I
looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either
savages, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of
the method how to do this, and whether I should make me a cave in the earth,
or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both.
I found a little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front"towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from
the top. On the side of the rock there was a hollow space, worn a little way in,
like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way
into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved to pitch my
tent. Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty
yards in its diameter from its beginning ard ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the
ground till they stood very firm like piles. Then I'took the pieces of cable
which I cut in the ship, and laid them in rows between these two rows of stakes,
,p to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder
to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so
I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all my riches, all my
provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above;

- ---




and I made me a large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part
of the year are very violent there.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil
by the wet; and having thus inclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, and
so passed and re-passed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing all
the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up within
my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a
foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served
me like a cellar to my house.
While this was doing, I went out at least once every day with my gun, to see
if I could kill anything fit for food; and I presently discovered that there were
goats in the island. The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a
she-goat, which had a little kid by her. When the old one fell, the kid stood
stock-still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but when I
carried the old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my inclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms,
and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not
eat; so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These two supplied me with
flesh a great while.
It came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books, and pen, and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath-day from the
working-days; but to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post,
in capital letters; and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where
I first landed, viz., "I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every-day a notch with my knife, and
every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the
month as long again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I
brought from the ship in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I


naade to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper;
several parcels in the captain's, mate's gunner's, and carpenter's keeping;
three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, charts, and books of
navigation, three Bibles, and several other books; all which I carefully secured.
And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose
history I must have occasion to say something in its place, for I carried both
the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was
a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor
any company that he could make up to me.
The want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near a
whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habita-
tion. But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I
had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employ-
ment, except the ranging the island to seek for food. I have already described
this habitation, which was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a
strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it by a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick, on the outside:
.and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such
things as I could get to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the
year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into
the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at first
this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took
up all my place; I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my
cave, and worked farther into the earth; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty
safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the rock,


Sand then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to
come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found
I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table. I had never handled a tool
in my life; and yet, in time, by labor, application, and contrivance, I found,
at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had had
tools. However, I made abundance of things even without tools; and some
with no more tools than an adze and hatchet, which; perhaps, were never made
that way before, and that with infnite labor. For example, if I wanted a board,
I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew
it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plapk
and then dub it smooth with my adze.
I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first place; and this
I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship.
But when I had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of
the breadth of a foot and an half, one over another, all along one side'of my
cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in a word, to separate
Everything at large into their places, that I might come easily at them: also I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns and all things that
would hang up: so that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand,
that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and especial-.
ly to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day's employment;
for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only a hurry as to labor,
but in too much discomposure of mind; and my journal would have been full
of many dull things: for example, I must have said thus: "Sept. the 30th.--
SAfter I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful
to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the great quantity of salt
water which was gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran



about the shore wringing my hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and crying out I was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, I was
forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not slgep, for fear of being
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and had got all
I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little moun-
tain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy at a vast
distance I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then, after looking
steadily, till I was almost blind, loseit quite, and sit down and weep like a child,
and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled my
household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a -chair, and all as hand-
some about me as I could, Ibegan I say to keep my journal, as long as it lasted;
for at last, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.
During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day, when the
rain permitted me, aind made frequent discoveries in these walks of something
or other to my advantage; particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, which
build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes
of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavored to breed -hte up tame,
and did so; but whenthey grew older they flew all away, which perhaps was at
first for want of feeding them,-for I had nothing to give them. However, I fre-
quently found their nests and got their young ones, which were very good meat.
It happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag which had
been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, I saw nothing in the bag
but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use, I
shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of ty fortification, under the rock.
I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and not so much as
remembering that I had thrown anything there, when, about a month after,
or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something green shooting upon the
- ..ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was sur-
.' praised and perfectly astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten
or twelve ears come out which were perfectly green barley, of the same kind as
our European-nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts
on this occasion, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused this
grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance in that wild, miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes, and I began
to bless myself that such a prodigy of Nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the more strange to me because I saw near it still, all along by the



side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice,
and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa when I was ashore there.
Not doubting but that there was more in the place, I went all over that part of
the island, peering in every corner and under every rock, to see for more of it,
but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts that I had shaken
the bag of chickens' meat out in that place; and the wonder began to cease.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season, which
was about the end of June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them
all again, hoping in time to have some quantity, sufficient to supply me with
bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I would allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,


which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind,
or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways
to cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some time.
Not long after the wall of my castle was finished, I had almost had all my
labor overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus:-As I was
busy just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened with a most
dreadful surprising thing indeed: for, all on a sudden, I found the earth came
tumbling down from the roof of my cave, and two of the posts I had set up in
the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I ran forwards to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there either, I got over my wall. I was no sooner stepped
down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake;
for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance,
with three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building that
could be supposed to have stood upon the earth. I was like one dead or stupi-
fled; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick like one that was tossed
at sea.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began to
take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to get over my wall again, but
still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what
to do. While I sat thus, it grew cloudy, as if it would rain; soon after that,
the wind arose so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurri-
cane of wind. This held about three hours, and then began to abate; and then
in two hours more it was calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I
sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it
came into my thought that these winds and rain being the consequences of the
earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture
into my cave again. I went in and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so
violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to
go into my cave, though very much afraid it should fall on my head. It con-
tinued raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could not


stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to think of what I had
best to do; concluding that I must consider of building me some little hut in an
open place which I might surround with a wall. In the meantime it occurred
to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must
be contented to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself,
and had secured it so as to remove it.
The next morning I began to consider of means to put this resolve in execu-
tion; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and
abundance of hatchets, but with much chopping and cutting knotty, hard wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too. At length I contrived a wheel with a string
to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
On the morning of the first of May, I found a barrel of gunpowder and some
pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurri-
cane; and looking towards the wreck, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of
the water than it used to. I went out on the sands as near as I could to the
wreck, and found that the forecastle had parted from the stern, and that where-
as before I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. As the
ship was more broken open than formerly, many things came daily on shore.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of moving my habitation,
and I busied myself in searching whether I could make any way into the ship;
but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside of it was
choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything,
I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that
everything I could get from her would be of some use or other to me.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary
to get food; and by this time I had gotten timber, and plank, and iron-work
enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and I also got, at several
times, and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of sheet lead.


One day during this time I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught
a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but had no
hooks; yet frequently I caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which
I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
Going down to the sea-side on the 16th of June, I found a large tortoise or
turtle. This was the first I had seen. Found in her three score eggs; and
her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savory and pleasant that ever I tasted
in my life.
The rain fell for some days, and I felt ill and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold. I had no rest all night; had violent pains in my head, and feverish.
The next day I was very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions
of my sad condition-to be sick and no help: prayed to God, for the first time
since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said or why; my thoughts being
all confused.
The next day I was a little better, but on the next day after that I was very
bad again, and so it went, turn about, for several days. One day that I felt
somewhat better, having no victuals to eat, I took my gun, but found myself
very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty, got it home,
and boiled some of it, and ate it.
On June 27th, I had the ague again so violent that I lay abed all day and
neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak I had no
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again,
but was light-headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not
what to say; only I lay and cried, "Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord,
have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours:
till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not awake till far in the night.
When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty;
however, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morn-
ing, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I had this terrible dream:


I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where I
sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground.
He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards
him: his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to

describe; when he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth
trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked,
to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was no
sooner landed upon the earth but he moved forward towards me, with a long
spear or weapon in his hand to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground,
at some distance, he spoke to me-or I heard a voice so terrible that it is im-
possible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I understood was this:-


"Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt
die;" at which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to
kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able to
describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. Nor is it any more
possible to describe the impression thatremained upon my mind when I awaked,
and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good instruc-
tion of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight years,
of sea-faring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but such as
were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remember
that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as tended either to loo1
ing upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflection upon my own wa '
but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience of evil,
had entirely overwhelmed me.
"Now," said I aloud, "my dear father's words are come to pass; God's justice
has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice
of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture or station of life where-
in I might have been happy and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor
learn to know the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over
my folly; and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused
their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into the world, and would
have made everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle with
too great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no com-
fort, no advice." Then I cried out, "Lord, be my help, for I am in great dis-
tress." This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had made for
many years.
Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I nad had, and the fit being
entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again the next day,


and now was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when I
should be ill: and the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with
water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or
aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it,
and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh and
broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little, I walked about, but was very
weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable con-
dition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that I could
hardly carry the gun, for I never went out without that; so I went out but a
little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was
just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat there, some thoughts such
as these occurred to me:-" What is the earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much ? Whence is it produced ? And what am I, and all the other creatures,
wild and tame, human and brutal ? Whence are we ? Sure we are all made
by some secret Power, who formed the earth and sea, and air and sky. And
who is that?" Then it followed most naturally-" It is God that has made it
all. Well, but then," it came on strongly, "if God has made all these things,
He guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for the Being
that could make all things must certainly have power to guide and direct them.
If so, nothing can happen, in the great circuit of his works, either without His
knowledge or appointment.
"And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am here,
and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His appoint-
ment, He has appointed all this to befall me." Immediately it followed-
"Why has God done this to me? What have I done to be thus used?" My
conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and
methought it spoke to me like a voice, "Wretch, dost thou ask what thou hast
done ? Look back upon a dreadful mispent life, and ask thyself, what thou
hast not done ? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed ? Why


wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads ? killed in the fight, when the ship
was taken by the Sallee man-of-war ? devoured by the wild beasts off the coast
of Africa? or drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost
thou ask, 'What have I done ?'" I was struck dumb with these reflections, as
one astonished, and had not a word to say, but rose up pensive and sad, walked
back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed;
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep;
so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now,
as the apprehensions of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it
occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for
almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure both
for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for, viz., the
tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one, of the
Bibles which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had not found leisure,
or so much as inclination, to look into. Having opened the book casually, the
first words that occurred to me were these, Call, upon Me in the day of trouble,
and I will deliver thee, and. thou shalt glorify Me." These words were very
apt to my case, and made some impression upon my thought at the time of
reading them, though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for being
delivered, the thing was so remote that I began to say, as the children of Israel
did when they were promised flesh to eat, "Can God spread a table in the
wilderness ?" so I began to say, Can God Himself deliver me from this place ? "
However, the words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them
very often.
It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that
I inclined to sleep: so I went to bed. But before I lay down, I kneeled and
prayed to God to fulfill the promise to me, that if I called upon Him in the day
of trouble, He would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was
over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco; immediately upon


_ I __


this I went to bed; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I
fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily
be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour I am partly
of opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day
after; for otherwise I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning
in the days of the week, as it appeared some years after I had done. When I
awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheer-
ful; when I got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued
much altered for the better.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility of
deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I
firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place. Hav-
ing now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great
desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other
productions I might find, which yet I knew nothing of.
It was the 15th of July that I began a more particular survey of the island
itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on
shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any
higher; and that it was no more than a little brook of running water, and very
fresh and good. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant savannahs
or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the rising parts of
them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as it might be supposed,
never overflowed, I.found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a great
and very strong stalk; there were divers other plants, which I had no notion
of or understanding about, and might, perhaps, have virtues of their own,
which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians
in all that climate made their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw several sugar-canes,
but wild and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these
discoveries for this time, and came back.


The next day, I went up the same way again; and after going something
further than I had gone the day before, I found the country became more woody
than before. In this part I found different fruits, and particularly I found
melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees: the
vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now
in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I found
an excellent use for these grapes: and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun,
and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be,
as indeed they were, as wholesome and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes
might be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, but took
my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next
morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly four miles, as I might
judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north. At the end of this
march I came to an opening, where the country seemed to descend to the west;
and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me,
ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh, so green,
so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or flourish of spring,
that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on the side of that
delicious valley, and I saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange and lemon,
and citron-trees; but all wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least, not then.
However, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very
wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very
wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business enough
to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as
limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was ap-
I contemplated with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the
pleasantness of the situation; the security from storm on that side of the water,
and the wood; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode


which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to
consider of removing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally safe as
where now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran along in my head, but when I came to a nearer view of it,
I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible that
some thing might happen to my advantage; and that the same ill fate that
brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same
place; and to inclose myself among the hills and woods in the center of the
island was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not only
improbable but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any means to
remove. However, I was so enamored with this place that I spent much of
my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of July; and though,
upon second thoughts, I resolved as above not to remove, yet I built me a
little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence; and
here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labor, but the
rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I
had made me a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well,
yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me
to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.
On September 30th I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been
on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast,
setting it apart for religious exercise, confessing my sins to God, and praying
to Him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and not having tasted the
least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then
ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day
as I began it.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which I
had so surprisingly found spring up, and now I thought it a proper time to sow
it, after the rains. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could,



and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually
occurred to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed.
It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain of that
I sowed this time came to anything; for the dry months following, it had no
moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season had
come again, and then it grew as if it had been newly sown. Finding my first
seed did .not grow, which I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a
moister piece of ground, to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of
ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox; and this, having the rainy months of March and
April to water it, sprang up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but
having part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had got, I had
but a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck
of each kind. But by this experiment I was made-master of my business, and
knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two
seed-times and two harvests every year. While this corn was growing I made
a little discovery, which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were
over, I made a visit up the country to my bower. The fence or double hedge
that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut
off of some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown with long
branches. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young trees
grow; and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I could;
and it is scarcely credible how beautiful a figure they grew into, in three years;
so that it was complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season. This
made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this in a
semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did; and
placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight yards distance from
my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habita-
tion, and afterwards served for a defense also, as I shall observe in its order.


I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not into
summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons.
After I had found, by experience, the ill consequence of being abroad in the
rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not
be obliged to go out, and I sat within dobrs as much as possible during the wet
months. In this time I found much employment, and very suitable also to
the time. I found great occasion of many things which I had no way to furnish
myself with but by hard labor and constant application; particularly, I tried
many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the pur-
pose proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent ad-
vantage to me now that when I was a boy I used to take great delight in


standing at a basket-maker's, in the town where my father lived, to see them
make their wicker-ware; and, I had by this means so full knowledge of the
methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came into my
mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew might
possibly be as tough as the osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accord-
ingly, the next day I went to my country house, and cutting some of the
smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I could desire, where-
upon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity,
which I soon found. These I set up to dry, and when they were fit for use, I
carried them to my cave; and here, during the next season, I employed myself
in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, and though I did not
finish them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for
my purpose.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and that
I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower. I now
resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my gun,
a hatchet, and my dog, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where
my bower stood, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very
clear day, I fairly described land-whether an island or a continent I could not
tell; but it lay very high, at a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be
less than fifteen' or twenty leagues off.
I saw abundance of parrots on that side of the island where I now was, and
fain would I have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught
it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I
knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but
it was some years before I could make him speak; however, at last, I taught him
to call me by name very familiarly.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low ground
hares and foxes; but they differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with,
nor could I satisfy myself to eat them. But I had no need to be venturous, for

54 *


I had no want of food and of that which was very good, too, especially these
three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added" to my
grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than I in
proportion to the company. As soon as I came to the sea-shore I was surprised
to see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed,
the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other side I
had found but three in a year and a half. Here waS also an infinite number
of fowls of many kinds, some of which I had not seen before, and many of them
very good meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those called pen-
Although I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine;
yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation,
it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it were
upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the
sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up a great
pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I wouldgo home again, and that the
next journey I took should be on the other side of the island east from my
dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it, and I run-
ning in to take hold of it, caught, and saved it alive from the dog. I had a great
mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing whether it might
not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which
might supply me when my powder and shot should be spent. I made a collar
for this little creature, and with a string, which I made of some rope-yar, which
I always carried about me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till
X came to my bower, and there I inclosed him and left him, for I was very im-
patient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch,
and lie down in my hammock-bed. I reposed myself here a week, to rest
and regale myself after my long journey; during which, most of the time was'



taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll. Then I began to
think of the poor kid which I had pent in within my little circle, and resolved to
go and fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went and found it was
almost starved fir want of food. Having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead
it away; but it was so tame with being hungry that I had no need to have tied
it, for it followed me like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the creature became
so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time one of my
domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.


My third crop of barley and rice was promising very well, when on a sudden
I found I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which
it was scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats and hares, which,
tasting the sweetness of the blade, ate it so close that it could get no time to shoot
up into stalk. This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it
with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil; and shooting some of the
creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to
a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little
time the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well,
and began to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined before, while my corn was in the blade, so the birds
were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for going along by the
place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know
not how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I
immediately let fly among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no
sooner shot but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen atall,
from among the corn itself.
I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I was no sooner out of
their sight but the thieves dropped down one by one into the corn again. I fired
again, and killed three of them. This was what I wished for; so I took them
up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz., hanged
them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine almost that
this should have had such an effect as it had, for the fowls would not only not
come at the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island. This I
was very glad of, and about the latter end of December, I reaped my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or a sickle to cut it down, and all I could do
was to make one out of one of the broad-swords which I saved among the arms
out of the ship. However, I reaped it in my way, for I cut nothing off but the
ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed it
out with my hands; and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my


half-peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a
half of barley.
It is a little wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought much
upon, viz., the strange multitude of little things necessary in providing the one
article of bread. I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to
my daily discouragement.
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or shovel to dig it. Well,
this I conquered by making me a wooden spade, but this did my work but in a
wooden manner. When the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced
to drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it. When it was growing, or grown,
I wanted many things to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it
home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind
it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it
in; and all these things I did without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn
was an inestimable comfort and advantage to me too. I had now seed enough
to sow above an acre of ground. I sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of
ground, and fenced them in with a good hedge. This work was not so little as
to take me up less than three months, because a great part of that time was of
the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within-door-that is, when it
rained and I could not go out-I had a great employment upon my hands, as
follows-viz., I had long studied, by some means or other, to make myself
some earthern vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely. However, considering
the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find out any clay, I might
botch up some such pot as might, being dried by the sun, be strong enough to
bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry and required to be kept so.
The clay I found, but it would make the reader laugh at me to see what odd,
misshapen, ugly things I made; how many cracked by the heat of the sun, and
fell in pieces when they were removed, so that with about two months' labor I
could not make above two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars).
Although I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made several



small things with better success, such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers,
and pipkins, the sun baking them very hard. Getting a hint by finding a
broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a
stone, I afterwards managed to bake several pots so hard that I could boil
meat and make broth in them.
All the while I was at work, I diverted myself with talking to my parrot,
and teaching him to speak; and I quickly learnt him to know his own name,
and at last to speak it out pretty loud, "Poll," which was the first word I
ever keard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own.


My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to beat some corn in, a mill
to grind it being out of the question. But all the stones of the island being of a
sandy, crumbling nature, I resolved to look out a great block of hard wood,
which having found I formed it with my axe and hatchet, and then with the
help of fire made a hollow in it. After this I made a heavy pestle of iron-wood,
and then laid them by in readiness for my next crop of corn.
The next thing to be made was a sieve, to sift my meal. Linen I had none
left but what was mere rags. I had goat's hair, but I could not weave or spin
it. At last I remembered that I had some neck-cloths of calico or muslin of
the sailors, which I had saved from the ship, and with these I made three sieves,
small, but proper enough for the work.
The want of an oven I supplied by making some earthen vessels very broad,
but not deep. When I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon the hearth,
and when the wood was burned into live coals, I drew them forward upon the
hearth so as to cover it all over till it became very hot; then, sweeping them
away, I set down my loaves, and turning down an earthen pot upon them, drew
the coals all around the outside of the pot to keep in and add to the heat, and in
this way I baked my barley loaves as well as if I had been a complete pastry-
These things took me up the most part of a year, and what intervals I had
were given to managing my new harvest; for I reaped my corn in season, and
carried it home, and laid it up in the ear in my large baskets, till I had time to
rub it out.
All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts ran many
times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the other side of the
island; and I was not without secret wishes that I was on shore there, fancying
that, seeing the mainland and an inhabited country, I might find some way or
other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find some means of escape.
Then I thought I would go and look at our ship's boat, which lay on the high
ridge of beachy rough sand, where it had been thrust by the storm, when we were

eUsuEa MKias A oAT


first cast away. But it lay bottom upward, so I had to dig the sand from undei
it and turn it over with the help of wooden levers. When I had done this, I
found it was all in vain, for I had not the strength to get it to the water to launch
This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not possible for me to
make a canoe, such as the Indians make of the trunk of a tree. I found one
that was just fit for it which grew not far from the shore. Twenty days was I
hacking and hewing this tree at the bottom to fell it; I was fourteen more get-
ting the branches off, and a whole month shaping it like the bottom of a boat.
As for the inside I was three weeks with a mallet and chisel clearing it.
Nothing remained but to get it to the water, but all my devices to get it into
the water failed me. I first dug the ground to make a smooth declivity from
the boat to the sea, so as to let it slide down; but I could then no more stir this
boat than the other. Then I resolved to dig a canal to bring the water up to
the boat. I began the work, but on calculating how deep and broad it would
have to be, I found it would take me ten or twelve years to dig it, so I gave it'over,
seeing too late the folly of beginning a work before we count the cost.
In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this place, and kept
my anniversary with even greater devotion than ever before, for now I had so
little hope of ever leaving the island, that I looked upon the world as a thing
with which I had nothing to do. But I was separated from its wickedness, too;
I had nothing to covet; I might call myself king or emperor of the whole country
of which I had possession. I had timber enough to have built a fleet of ships;
and I had grapes enough to have made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to
have loaded that fleet when it had been built.
But all that I could make use of was all that was valuable; I had enough to
eat and to supply my wants, and what was all the rest to me. The money I
had lay by me as sorry, useless stuff, which I would have freely given for a hand-
ful of peas or beans.
My clothes began to decay mightily, and of linen I had had none for a good


while except some shirts which I found in the seamen's chests. There were
-also several thick watch coats of the seamen's, but they were too hot to wear
till I make jackets out of them. I had saved all the skins of the four-footed
creatures that I killed, and out of these, I made, first, a great cap for my head,
with the hair on the outside to shoot off the rain, and afterwards I made me a
suit of clothes wholly of these skins-that it to say, a waistcoat, and breeches

open at the knees, and both loose; for they were rather wanting to keep me cool
than to keep me warm. After this I spent a great deal of time and pains to
make an umbrella, covering it with skins; which was a most useful thing to me,
as well for the heat of the sun as for the rain.
I cannot say that after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing happened
to me, but I lived on in the same course as before, My chief employment,
besides my yearly labor of planting my barley and rice and curing my raisins,


was to make me a canoe, this time of such a size that by digging a canal to it ok
six feet wide and four feet deep, I brought it into the creek.
The design I had in view whek I made the first boat was to venture over to
the other shore, but the size of this was not at all suitable to that purpose, so
my next design was to make a tour round the island. I put up a little mast in
my boat, and made a sail for it out of some of the ship's sails which I had in
store. Then I made lockers to hold food and keep it dry, and a rest for my
gun with a flap to hang down over it to keep it dry.
It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my captivity,
that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected; for
though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east side of it,
I found a great ridge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea; and beyond
that a shoal of sand lying dry half a league more, so that I was obliged to go a
great way out to sea to double that point.
I am a warning to all rash and ignorant pilots, for I was no sooner come to
that point but I found myself in a great depth of water, running like the sluice
of a mill. It hurried me farther and farther out, there was no wind stirring to
help me, and all I could do with my paddles signified nothing. I began to give
myself over for lost, and looked upon my solitary island as the most pleasant
place in the world, to be in which was all the happiness my heart could wish for.
However, I worked as hard as I could, and, to my joy, about noon, a breeze
sprang up. I spread my sail and stood away to the north as much as I could,
and in a few hours came within a mile of the shore, where soon after I got to
land. When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for my
deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by boat.
I found a convenient harbor for my boat, and taking nothing but my gun
and umbrella, I began my march homeward. On my way I lay down to rest,
being quite spent with fatigue, and fell into a deep sleep. But judge, if you
can, what a surprise I must have been in when a voice woke me out of my sleep,
and called my name several times, "Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe! poor Robin


Crusoe!" At first I was dreadfully frightened, but as soon as I awoke tho-
roughly, I saw my Poll sitting at the top of the hedge, and I knew that it was he
that spoke, and did but say the words I had taught him. Calling him by name,
the sociable creature came to me, and sat on my thumb as he used to do, and
kept on talking to me as if he were overjoyed to see me; and so I carried him
home with me.
I had now had enough of rambling to sea, and for near a year I led a very


sedate, retired life, feeling resigned to the decrees of Providence, and wanting
nothing but society.
My powder beginning to fail, I set myself to study some art to trap and snare
the goats alive, for I saw that if I expected to supply myself with goat's flesh,
when I had no powder or shot left, breeding some up tame was my only way;
when, perhaps, I might have them about my house like a flock of sheep. At
last I had my desire, for making pitfalls and traps, baited with barley and rice,
I found one morning, in one of them, an old he-goat, and in another, three kids,
one male and two females. The old goat was much too fierce for me, so I let
him go; then I took the kids home. It was a good while before they would
feed; but throwing them some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to
be tame.
I saw that I must keep the tame from the wild, or else they would always run
wild when they grew up, and that the only way for this was to have some in-
closed piece of ground well fenced. I began with the idea of inclosing such a
space that my fence must have been at least two miles about, but it struck me
that in so great a space, the kids would soon be as wild as if they had the whole
island to run in, so I inclosed a piece of ground about one hundred and fifty
yards in length, and one hundred in breadth, which would maintain as many
as I should have in any reasonable time.
It took me three months to hedge in this piece. In about a year and a half
I had a flock of twelve goats, and in two years more I had three-and-forty, and
after that I inclosed five pieces of ground to feed them in, with gates and pens
to take them as I wanted them.
I had now not only goat's flesh to feed on, but milk too, for now I set up my
dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a, day. What a table was
here spread for me in a wilderness where I saw nothing at first but to perish
for hunger! How like a king I dined, too, attended by my servants! Poll, as
if he had been my favorite, was the only person permitted to talk to me; my dog,
old, but faithful, sat always at my right hand, while my two cats sat at each





side of the table, expecting a bit from my hand now and then as a mark of
special favor. With this attendance and in this plentiful manner I lived;
neither could I be said to want anything but society; and of that, in a short
time after this, I was likely to have too much.
I had now two plantations in the island, one my little fortification, under the
rock, with the cave behind it, and the wall about it. The piles with which I
had made the wall were grown so large that there was not the least appearance
of any habitation behind them. Besides this I had my country seat, or little
bower, as I called it, where my grapes flourished, and where I had my enclosures
for my goats.
As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and the place
where I had laid up my boat, I generally stayed and lay here in my way thither,
for I used frequently to visit my boat. Sometimes I went out in her to divert
myself, but no more hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a stone's
cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out of my
knowledge again by the currents or winds, or any other accident. But now I
came to a new scene of my life.
It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly
surprised with the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, which was very
plain to be seen on the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had
seen an apparition. I listened, I looked round me, but I could hear nothing
nor see anything; I went up to a rising ground, to look farther; I went up the
shore, and down the shore, but it was all one: I could see no other impression
but that one. I went to it again to see if there were any more, and to observe
if it might not be my fancy; but there was no room for that, for there was ex-
actly the print of a foot-toes, heel, and every part of a foot. How it came there I
knew not, nor could in the least imagine. But after innumerable fluttering
thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out of myself, I came to my forti-
fication, terrified to the last degree.
When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after this), I fled into






it like one pursued. I had no sleep that night; and I formed nothing but dismal
imaginations to myself. Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil; and reason
joined in with me upon this supposition: for how should any other thing in
human shape come into the place P But then to think that Satan should take
human shape upon him in such a place, where there could be no manner of
occasion for it, but to leave the print of his foot behind him, and that even for no
purpose too, for he could not be sure I should see it-this was an amazement
the other way. I easily argued myself out of all fear of its being the devil; and
I presently concluded then that it must be some more dangerous creature, viz.,
that it must be some of the savages of the mainland over against me, vw o had
wandered out to sea in their canoes, and either driven by the currents or by con-
trary winds, had made the island, and had been on shore, but were gone away
again to sea; being as loath, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I
would have been to have had them.
While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was very thankful in
my thought that I was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that time, or that
they did not see my boat, by which they would have concluded that some in-
habitants had been in the place, and perhaps have searched farther for me.
Then terrible thoughts racked my imagination about their having found my
boat, and that there were people here; and that, if so, I should certainly have
them come again in greater numbers, and devour me; that if it should happen
that they should not find me, yet they would find my inclosure, destroy all my
corn, and carry away all my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last
for mere want.
Thus my fear banished all my religious hope; all that former confidence in
God, which was founded upon such wonderful experience as I had had of His
goodness, now vanished; as if He that had fed me by miracle hitherto, could not
preserve by His power the provision which he had made for me by His goodness.
How strange a checker-work of Providence is the life of man! and by what
secret, differing springs are the affections hurried about, as differing circum-


stances present! To-day we love what to-morrow we hate: to-day we seek
what to-morrow we shun; to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even
tremble at the apprehensions of. This was exemplified in me at this time in
the most lively manner imaginable; for I, whose only affliction was, that I
seemed banished from human society, was now ready to sink into the ground
at but the shadow or silent appearance of a man having set his foot on the
One morning early, lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about my
danger from the appearance of savages, I found it discomposed me very much;
upon which those words of the Scripture came into my thoughts: "Call upon
Me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me." Upon
this, rising cheerfully out of bed, my heart was not only comforted, but I was
guided and encouraged to pray earnestly to God for deliverance: when I had
done praying, I took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words that
presented to me were, "Wait on the Lord: be of good courage, and He shall
strengthen thy heart: wait, I say, on the Lord." It is impossible to express
the comfort this gave me, and in return, I thankfully laid down the book, and
was no more sad, at least, not on that occasion.
In the middle of these reflections, it came into my thoughts one day that this
foot might be the print of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat.
I considered that I could by no means tell for certain where I had trod, and
where I had not; and that if, at last, this was only the print of my own foot, I
had played the part of those fools who try to make stories of specters and
apparitions, and then are themselves frighted at them more than anybody else.
Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I had not stirred
out of my castle for three days and nights, so that I began to starve for provision;
for I had little or nothing within doors but some barley-cakes and water. Then
I knew that my goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my evening
diversion; and the poor creatures were in great pain and inconvenience for
want of it.


Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this was nothing but the
print of-one of my own feet, I began to go abroad again, and went to my country-
house to milk my flock; and having seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder,
and to think there was really nothing in it but my own imagination; but I could
not persuade myself fully of this till I should go down to the shore again, and
see this print of a foot, and measure it by my own. But when I came to the
place-first, it appeared evidently to me that when I laid up my boat, I could
not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts; secondly, .when I came to
measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so large by a great
deal. Both these things filled my head with new imaginations, and I went
home again, filled with the belief that some man or men had been on shore
there; or, in short, that the island was inhabited, and I might be surprised be-
fore I was aware.
Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to bring a
door through again, which door, as I said, came out beyond where my fortifica-
tion joined to the rock. Upon maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved
to draw me a second fortification, in the same manner of a semicircle, at a
distance from my wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees about
twelve years before, these trees having been planted so thick before, there
wanted but few piles to be driven between them, that they should be thicker
and stronger, and my wall would be soon finished. Through seven holes in
this wall I contrived to plant muskets, of which I had got seven on shore out of
the ship; these, I say, I planted like cannon, so that I could fire all the seven
guns in two minutes' time.
When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a great way,
full with sticks of the osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, leaving a
pretty large space between them and my wall, that I might have room to see
an enemy, and they miglit have no shelter from the young trees, if they at-
tempted to approach my outer wall.
Thus, in two year's time, I had a thick grove; and in five or six years' time



I had a wood before my dwelling grown so monstrous thick and strong that it
was indeed perfectly impassable: and no man, of what kind soever, would ever
imagine that there anything beyond it, much less a habitation.
Another measure of prudence that I took was to seek out some retired spots
on the island, where I might inclose a few of my goats, half a dozen in each
place, so that if any disaster happened to the flock in general, I might be able
to raise them again. I completed one such inclosure, and went about the
whole island, searching for another place to make such another deposit, when,


wandering more to the west point of the island than I had ever done yet, and
looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a great distance.
I had found a perspective glass or two in one of the seamen's chests, which I
saved out of our ship, but I had it not about me; and this was so remote that I
could not tell what to make of it, though I looked at it till eyes were not able
to hold to look any longer. I was presently convinced that the seeing the print
of a man's foot was not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined; and but
that it was a special providence that I was cast upon the side of the island where
the savages never came, I should easily have known that nothing was more
frequent than for the canoes from the main, when they happened to be a little
too far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for harbor: likewise,
as they often met and fought in their canoes, the victors, having taken their
prisoners, would bring them over to this shore, where, according to their dread-
ful customs, being all cannibals, they would kill and eat them; of which here-
When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above, being the S. W.
point of the island, I was perfectly confounded and amazed; nor is it possible
for me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore spread with skulls,
hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies; and particularly, I observed a
place where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth, where I
supposed the savage wretches had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon the
bodies of their fellow-creatures. I could not bear to stay in the place a moment;
so I got up the hill again with all the speed I could, and walked on towards
my own habitation.
I continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own circle for almost
two years after this: when I say my own circle, I mean by it my three planta-
tions, viz., my castle, my county-seat (which I called my bower), and my in-
closure in the woods. Time, however began to wear off my uneasiness, and I
began to live just in the same composed manner as before, only with this dif-
ference, that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did


before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of these people; and particularly
I was more cautious in firing my gun, lest any of them, being on the island,
should happen to hear it; though I never went out without it, and carried in
addition two pistols and a broadsword.


The terror I had been in about the savages diverted my invention from my
own conveniences, and now my thoughts were all of how I might destroy some
of these cannibals when they were at their bloody entertainments, and if possible
save the victims they should bring hither to destroy. To put my design into
execution, I sought a place where unseen I might behold every action of the
savages. I found such a place in the side of a hill, and here I bestowed two
muskets, each of which was loaded with a brace of slugs and four or five small
bullets; a fowling-piece, charged with a handful of the largest shot; and my
pistols, with about four bullets in each. Every morning I made a tour to the
top of the hill, which was about three miles from my castle, to see if I could
observe any boats on the sea. But after having watched in vain for two or
three months, I not only grew tired of this hard duty, but began to doubt that
I had a right to meditate the killing of the savages, and to fear that in attempting
it I might only bring upon myself certain destruction. Religion joined in with
this prudent consideration, and I concluded that I would be going quite beyond
my duty in destroying creatures who were innocent as to me, however guilty
they might be towards one another. This appeared so clear to me now, that
nothing was a greater satisfaction to me than that I had not been suffered to
do a thing which I now saw so much reason to believe would have been sinful
murder, and I gave most humble thanks to God that He had thus delivered
me from blood-guiltiness.
In this state of mind I continued for near a year after this. I removed my
boat which was on the other side of the island to a little cave under some high
rocks on the east end of the island, that there might not be near the place where
the savages landed any shadow of human presence. Besides this I kept my-
self more retired than ever, and seldom left my cell except when I went out to
milk my goats, and manage my little flock in the wood, which was quite out of
danger on the other side of the island.
I now cared not to drive a nail, chop a stick, fire a gun, or make a fire, lest
either the noise be heard, or the smoke betray me. For this reason I did all



the work requiring fire at my new apartment in the woods, when, after a while,

I found by accident a natural cave in the earth, which proved to be a great

convenience to me.

It was while I was cutting some wood to make charcoal that I discovered

this cave; and before I go on I must observe the reason for my making th





charcoal, which was that I could use it to bake and cook without making a
smoke. While I was cutting wood one day, I perceived, behind a very thick
branch of brushwood, a kind of hollow place. I looked into the mouth of it,
and found it was so large that I could stand upright in it. But I made more
haste out than I did in, for I saw two shining eyes of some creature which
twinkled like stars. When I recovered a little from my surprise, I plucked up
courage, and taking a flaming firebrand, I rushed in again, and found there
was no cause for fear, for the eyes were those of an old goat, which was dying,
indeed, of old age. I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, but he
was not able to raise himself, so I let him lie there.
I found the cave to be about twelve feet wide, but there was a place at the
farther side of it that went in still farther, but so low that I had to creep on my
hands and feet to go in, I gave up my search for that time, but came the next
day provided with candles, and when I got to the end of the low passage, I
found the roof rose to the height of near twenty feet.
As the light of my two candles shone on the sides and roofs of this cave, it
made a most glorious sight, for the walls reflected a hundred thousand lights
to me, as if they had been made of diamonds and other precious stones. What
was in the- rock to cause this, I knew not. The place was a most delightful
grotto, and I resolved to bring here some of the things I was most anxious about,
particularly my magazine of powder, and my spare arms. The old goat died
in the mouth of the cave the next day after I discovered it, and I found it easier
to bury him on the spot where he expired than to drag him out.
I was now in the twenty-third year of residence in this island, and was so
naturalized to the place and the manner of living that, could I but have enjoyed
the certainty that no savages would come to the place to disturb me, I could have
been content to spend the rest of my time there. I had some little amusements,
which made the time pass more pleasantly with me a great deal than it did
before: first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak; and he did it so
familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain, that is was very pleasant to me.


My dog was a pleasant and loving companion to me for no less than sixteen years
of my time, and then died of mere old age. As for my cats, they multiplied to
that degree, that I was obliged to shoot or drive them into the woods, except
two or three favorites. Besides these I always kept two or three household kids
about me, whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and I had two more parrots,
which talked pretty well, and would all call "Robin Crusoe," but none like
my first. I had also several tame sea-fowls, that I caught upon the shore,
and cut their wings; and the little stakes which I had planted before my castle-
wall being now grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived among
these low trees, and bred there, which was very agreeable to me.
It may not be amiss for all people who shall meet with my story to make this
just observation from it: viz., how frequently, in the course of our lives, the
evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which, when we are fallen into,
is the most dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means or door of our deliver-
ance, by which alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen
into. I could give many examples of this in the course of my unacountable
life, but in nothing was it more particularly remarkable than in the circum-
stances of my last years of solitary residence in this island.
It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my twenty-third year;
and this, being the southern solstice, was the particular time of my harvest,
and required me to be pretty much abroad in the fields, when, going out pretty
early in the morning, even before it was thorough daylight, I was surprised with
seeing a light of some fire upon the shore at a distance from me about two miles
towards the end of the island where I had observed some savages had been,
as before, and not on the other side, but, to my great affliction, it was on my
side of the island.
I was indeed terribly surprised with the sight, and filled with my usual ap-
prehension that the savages would find my works and improvements. In this
extremity I returned directly to my castle and pulled the ladder after me, mak-
ing all things look as wild and natural as I possibly could. Then I prepared
myself within for defense, loaded my muskets and pistols, and commended


myself to the Divine protection, resolved to defend myself to the last gasp.
Two hours after, impatient for intelligence, I mounted to the top of the hill,
where, laying myself down, with my perspective glass I perceived no less than
nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire, eating, as I supposed, human
flesh,. with their two canoes hauled on shore, waiting for the flood of the tide
to carry them off again.
It is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me into, but when I
considered that their coming must always be with the current of the ebb, I
became more easy, being fully satisfied that I might go abroad with safety all
the time of the flood, if they were not before landed. Before they went off, I
could see by their postures and gestures that they were dancing, and they kept
this up for an hour or more.
When I saw them gone, I took two guns upon my shoulders, and placing a
couple of pistols in my belt, with my great sword hanging by my side, I went
to the hill where I had discovered the first appearance of all, and then saw that
there had been three canoes more of the savages on shore at that place, which
with the rest were now making over to the mainland.
Going down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror which the dismal
work they had been about had left behind it;and so filled was I with indignation,
that I began again to premeditate taking revenge on the first that came there,
let them be as many soever. It then appeared to me that the visits they made
to this island are not very frequent, it being fifteen months before they came
again; yet all this while I was very uneasy, lest they should come upon me by
It was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor
wooden calendar would reckon, that it blew a very great storm of wind all day,
with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it was after it.
As I was reading in the Bible, and taken up with serious thoughts about my
present condition, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at
sea. I started up in the greatest haste imaginable; and, mounting my ladder,



got to the top of the hill the very moment that a flash of fire bade me listen for a
second gun, which, accordingly, in about a half a minute, I heard; and by the
sound knew that it was from that part of the sea where I was driven out with
the current in my boat.- I immediately considered that this must be some
ship in distress. I had the presence of mind, at that minute, to think that
though I could not help them, it might help me; so I brought together all the
dry wood I could get at hand, and set it on fire upon the hill. As soon as
ever my fire blazed up, I heard another gun, and after that several others. I
piled my fire all night long, till daybreak; and, when the air cleared up, I saw
something at a great distance at sea, full east of the island, whether a sail or a
hull I could not distinguish.
I looked frequently at it all that day, and presently concluded that it was a
ship at anchor; and being eager to be satisfied, I ran towards the south side of
the island, to the rocks where I had formerly been carried away with the current;
and getting up there, I could plainly see the wreck of a ship cast away in the
night upon those concealed rocks which I found when I was out in my boat.
It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my boat to this
wreck, not doubting but I might find something on board that might be useful
to me. But that did not altogether press me so much as the possibility that
there might be yet some living creature on board, whose life I might not only
save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to the last degree; and this
thought clung so to my heart that I could not be quiet night or day, but I must
venture out in my boat on board this wreck; and committing the rest to God's
providence, I thought the impression was so strong upon my mind that it could
not be resisted.
Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle, and load-
ing myself with everything necessary, went down to my boat, got the water out
of her, got her afloat, and loaded all my cargo in her. Praying to God to direct
my voyage, I put out, and rowing or paddling the canoe along the shore, came
at last to the utmost point of the island on the north-east side. And now I was


to launch out into the ocean, and either to venture or not to venture. I looked
on the rapid currents which ran constantly on both sides of the island at a
distance, and my heart began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into
either of those currents, I should be carried perhaps out of reach or sight of
the island again.
These thoughts so oppressed my mind that I began to give over my enterprise;
and having hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore, I stepped out, and
sat down upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive and anxious. As I was
musing, I could perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood came on; upon
which, my going was impracticable for many hours. Upon this, presently it
occurred to me that I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could find,
and observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide or currents lay. I cast my eye
upon a little hill from whence I had a clear view of the currents, or sets of the
tide, and which way I was to guide myself in my return. Here I found that as
the current.of ebb set out close by the south point of the island, so the current
of the flood set in close by the shore of the north side; and that I had nothing to
do but to keep to the north of the island in my return, and I should do well
Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next morning, to set out
with the first of the tide. I first made a little out to sea, full north, till I began
to feel the benefit of the current, which set eastward, and having a strong steer-
age with my paddle, I went, at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less
than two hours I came up to it. The ship, which was Spanish, stuck fast,
jammed in between two rocks: all the stern and quarter of her were beaten to
pieces by the sea; and her mainmast and foremast were broken short off; but
her head and bow appeared firm. When I came close to her, a dog appeared
upon her, who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried; and, as soon as I called him,
jumped into the sea to come to me; I took him into the boat, but found him
almost dead with hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake of my. bread, and he
devoured it like a ravenous wolf that had starved a fortnight in the snow; I


then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I would have let
him, he would have burst himself. After this I went on board; but the first
sight I met with was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle of the
ship, with their arms fast about one another. I concluded, that when the ship
struck, the sea broke so continually over her, that the men were strangled with
the constant rushing in of the water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left
in the ship that had life. I saw several chests, which I believed belonged to
some of the seamen; and I got two of them into the boat, without examining
what was in them. Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the fore-part
broken off, I am persuaded I might have made a good voyage; for, by what I
found in these two chests, I had room to suppose the ship had a great deal of
wealth on board.
I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, which I got into my
boat with much difficulty. There were several muskets in the cabin, and a
great powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in it. As for the muskets,
I had no occasion for them, so I left them, but took the powder-horn. I took
a fire-shovel and tongs, which I wanted extremely, as also two little brass kettles,
a copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron; and with this cargo, and the
dog, I came away, the tide beginning to make home again; and the same even-
ing, about an hour within night, I reached the island again, weary and fatigued
to the last degree. I reposed that night in the boat; and in the morning I re-
solved to harbor what I had got in my new cave, and not carry it home to my
castle. After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo on shore, and began to
examine the particulars.
When I came to open the chests, I found several things of great use to me:
for example, I found in one a fine case of bottles, filled with cordial waters. I
found some very good shirts, and about a dozen and a half of white linen hand-
kerchiefs and colored neck-cloths. Besides this, when, I came to the till in
the chest, I found there three great bags of pieces of eight, which held about
eleven hundred pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper six



doubloons of gold, and some small bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they might
all weigh near a pound. In the other chest were some clothes, but of little
value; but, by the circumstances, it must have belonged to the gunner's mate;


though there was no powder in it, except two pounds of fine glazed powder,
in three small flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling-piece on oc-
casion. Upon the whole, I got very little by this voyage that was of any use
to me; for as to the money, I had no manner of occasion for it; it was to me as
the dirt under my feet; however, I lugged this money home to my cave, and laid
it up, as I had done that before which I had brought from our own ship.
Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured them, I went back
to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along the shore to her old harbor, where
I laid her up, and made the best of my way to my old habitation, where I found
everything safe and quiet. I never knew whether any were saved out of that
ship or no; and had only the affliction, some days after, to see the corpse of a
drowned boy come on shore at the end of the island which was next to the
shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a seaman's waistcoat, a pair of open-
kneed linen drawers, and a'blue linen shirt; but nothing to direct me so much
as to guess what nation he was of.
I began now to repose myself, live after my old fashion, and take care of my
family affairs; and for a while I lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant
than I used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if,
at any tiine, I did stir with any freedom, it was always to the east part of the
island, where I was pretty well satisfied the savages never came, and where I
could go without so many precautions, and such a load of arms and ammunition
as I always carried with me if I went the other way. I lived in this condition
near two years more; but my unlucky head, that was always to let me know it
was born to make my body miserable, was all these two years filled with projects
and designs, how, if it were possible, I might get away from this island.
On one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four-and-twentieth
year of my first setting foot in this island of solitude, I was lying in my bed or
hammock, awake, very well in health, but could by no means close my eyes, that
is, so as to sleep. It is impossible and needless to set down the innumerable
crowd of thoughts that whirled through that great thoroughfare of the brain-


the memory-in this night's time: I ran over the whole history of my life in
miniature, to my coming to this island, and also of that part of my life since I
came to this island. In my reflections upon the state of my case since I came
on shore on this island, I was comparing the happy posture of my affairs in the
first years of my habitation here, with the life of anxiety, fear, and care, which
I had lived in ever since I had seen the print of a foot in the sand. Then I came
to reflect seriously upon the real danger I had been in for so many years, and
how I had walked about in the greatest security, and with all possible tran-
quillity, even when perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great tree, or the
casual approach of night, had been between me and the worst kind of des-
truction, viz., that of falling into the hands of cannibals and savages, who would
have seized on me with the same view as I would on a goat or a turtle.
When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time taken up in
considering the nature of these savages; and it occurred to me to inquire what
part of the world these wretches lived in ? how far off the coast was from whence
they came ? and why I might not order myself and my business so that I might
be as able to go over thither as they were to come to me? I never so much as
troubled myself to consider what I should do with myself when I went thither;
but my mind was wholly bent upon the notion of my passing over in my boat
to the mainland. I looked upon my present condition as the most miserable
that could possibly be; that I was not able to throw myself into anything, but
death, that could be called worse; and if I reached the shore of the main, I
might perhaps meet with relief; or I might coast along, as I did on the African
shore, till I came to some inhabited country, and where I might find some relief;
and, after all, perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship that might take
me in; and if the worst came to the worst, I could but die, which would put an
end to all these miseries at once. I was agitated greatly by these thoughts;
all my calm of mind seemed to be suspended; and I had, as it were, no power to
turn my thoughts to anything but the project of a voyage to the main.
When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with such violence


that it set my very blood into a ferment, Nature, as if I had been fatigued and
exhausted with the very thoughts of it, threw me into a sound sleep. One
would have thought I should have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything
relating to it: but I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning as usual,
from my castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages, coming to
land, and that they brought with them another savage, whom they were going
to kill, in order to eat him; when, on a sudden, the savage that they were
going to kill jumped away, and ran for his life; then I thought, in my sleep,
that he came running into my little grove before my fortification, to hide him-
self; and that I, seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the others sought him
that way, showed myself to him, and smiling upon him encouraged him: that
he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray me to assist him; upon which I showed
him my ladder, made him go up it, and carried him into my cave, and he be-
came my servant; and that as soon as I had got this man, I said to myself,
"Now I may certainly venture to the mainland, for this fellow will serve me as
a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither to go for provisions, and whither
not to go for fear of being devoured; what places to venture into, and what to
escape. I waked with this thought: and was under such inexpressible im-
pressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my dream, that the disappoint-
ments which I felt upon coming to myself, and finding that it was no more than
a dream, were equally extravagant the other way, and threw me into a deep
dejection of spirits.
Upon this, however, I made this conclusion: that my only way,to go about
an attempt for an escape was, if possible, to get a savage into my possession;
and, if possible, it should be one of their prisoners, whom they had condemned
to be eaten, and should bring hither to kill. I resolved, if possible, to get one of
these savages into my hands, cost what it would. My next thing was to con-
trive how to do it, and this indeed was very difficult to resolve on; but as I could
pitch upon no probable means for it, so I resolved to put myself upon the watch,
to see them when they came on shore, and leave the rest to the event; taking
such measures as the opportunity should present.


About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and by long musing
had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing, for want of an occasion to put
them in execution), I was surprised one morning early by seeing no less than
five canoes all on shore together on my side of the island, and the people who
belonged to them all landed and out of my sight. Seeing so many, and know-
ing that they always came four or six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could
not tell how to take my measures, to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed;
so lay still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted. However, I put myself
into all the same postures for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was
just ready for action, if anything had presented. Having waited a good while,
at length, being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and
clambered up to the top of he hill; standing so, however, that my head did not
appear above the hill, so that they could not perceive me. Here I observed,
by the help of my perspective glass, that they were no less than thirty in number;
that they had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed. How they had
cooked it, I knew not, or what it was; but they were all dancing round the fire.
While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my perspective, two miser-
able wretches dragged from the boats. I perceived one of them immediately
fall; being knocked down, I suppose, with a club, or wooden sword, for that
was their way; and two or three others were at work immediately, preparing
him for their cookery, while the other victim was left standing by himself,
till they should be ready for him. In that very moment, this poor wretch, see-
ing himself a little at liberty, started away from them, and ran with incredible
swiftness along the sands, directly towards me. I was dreadfully frightened,
that I must acknowledge, when I perceived him run my way; and especially
when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole body. However, I kept
my station, and my spirits began to recover when I found that not above three
men followed him; and still more was I encouraged when I found that he out-
stripped them exceedingly in running, and gained ground on them.
There was between them and my castle, the creek, which I mentioned often



in the first part of my story, where I landed my cargoes out of the ship; and this
I saw plainly he must necessarily swim over; but when the savage escaping
came thither, he made nothing of it; but, plunging in, swam through in about
thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran with exceeding strength and
swiftness. When the three persons came to the creek, I found that two of them
could swim, but the third could not, and that, standing on the other side, he
looked at the others, but went no farther, and soon after went softly back again.
I observed that the two who swam were yet more than twice as long swimming
over the creek than the fellow was that fled from them. It came very warmly
upon my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now was the time to get me a
servant, and perhaps a companion or assistant; and that I was plainly called
by Providence to save this poor creature's life. I immediately ran down the
ladder with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns, and getting up again,
I crossed towards the sea; and having a very short cut, and all down hill, clapped
myself in the way between the pursuers and the pursued, hollooing aloud to
him that fled, who, looking back, was at first perhaps as much frightened at
me as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come back; and, in the
meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two that followed; then rushing at
once upon the foremost, I knocked him down with the stock of my piece. I
was loath to fire, because I wouldn't have the rest hear; though, at that distance,
it would not have been easily heard. Having knocked this fellow down, the
other who pursued him stopped, as if he had been frightened, and I advanced
towards him; but as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow and
arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me; so I was then obliged to shoot at him
first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot. The poor savage who fled
was so frightened with the fire and noise of my piece that he stood stock still.
I made signs to come forward, which he easily understood, and came a little
way; then stopped again, and then a little farther, and stopped again; and I
could then perceive that he stood trembling. I smiled at him,, and looked
pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer; at length, he came close


to me; and then he kneeled down, laid his head upon the ground, and, taking
me by the foot, set my foot upon his head; this, it seems, was in token of swear-
ing to be my slave forever. I took him up, and made much of him, and en-
couraged him all I could. But there was more work to do yet; for I perceived
the savage whom I had knocked down was not killed, but stunned with the
blow, and began to come to himself; so I pointed to him, and showed him the
savage, that he was not dead; upon this he spoke some words to me and though
I could not understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear; for they
were the first sound of a man's voice that I had heard, my own excepted, for
above twenty-five years. But there was no time for such reflections now; the
savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit up on the
ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid. He made a motion
to me to lend him my sword, which I did. He no sooner had it but he runs to
his enemy, and at one blow cut off his head as cleverly, no executioner in Ger-
many could have done it sooner or better; which I thought very strange for one
who, I had reason to believe, never saw a sword in his life before, except their
own wooden swords: however, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their
wooden swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will even
cut off heads with them. When he had done this, he comes laughing to me in
sign of triumph, and brought me the sword again, and laid it down, with the
head of the savage that he had killed, just before me. But that which as-
tonished him most was to know how I killed the other Indian so far off; so
pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to him; and I bade him go,
as well as I could. When he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at
him, turning him first on one side, then on the other. He took up his bow
and arrows, and came back; so I turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow
me, making signs to him that more might come after them.
Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them with sand, that they
might not be seen by the rest, if they followed; and so I made signs to him again
to do so. He fell to work; and in an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand


with his hands, big enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it,
and covered him; and did so by the other also. I believe he had buried them
both in a quarter of an hour.
I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the farther
part of the island; so I did not let my dream come to pass in that part, that he
came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins
to eat, and a draught of water, which I found he was indeed in great distress
for from his running; and having refreshed him, I made signs for him to go and
lie down to sleep.
He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight, strong
limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped; and, as I reckon, about twenty-six
years of age. He had a very good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect,
but seemed to have something very manly in his face; and yet he had all the
sweetness and softness of a European in his countenance, too, especially when
he smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled like wool; his forehead
very high and large; and a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes.
The color of his skin was not quite black, but very tawny.
After he had slumbered about half an hour, he awoke and came out of the
cave to me; for I had been milking my goats, which I had in the inclosure just
by: when he espied me, he came running to me, laying himself down upon the
ground, with all the possible signs of an humble, thankful disposition, making
a great many gestures to show it. I understood him in many things, and let
him know I was very well pleased with him. In a little time I began to speak
to him, and teach him to speak to me; and, first, I let him know his name should
be FRIDAY, which was the day I saved his life: I called him so for the memory
of the time. I likewise taught him to say Master, and then let him know that
was to be my name; I likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know the
meaning of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let him see
me drink it before him, and sop my bread in it; and gave him a cake of bread
to do the like, which he quickly complied with, and made signs that it was very



good for him. I kept there with him all that night; but, as soon as it was day,
I beckoned to him to come with me, and let him know I would give him some
clothes; at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark naked. I then led him
up to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies were gone, and, pulling out my
glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place where they had been, but no appear-
ance of them or their canoes; so that it was plain they were gone, and had left
their two comrades behind them, without any search after them.
We came back to our castle, and there I fell to work for my man Friday; and,
first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the poor
gunner's chest I mentioned, which I found in the wreck, and which, with a little
alteration, fitted him very well; and then I made him a jerkin of goat's skin,
as well as my skill would allow (for I was now grown a tolerably good tailor);
and I gave him a cap which I made of hare's skin, very convenient, and fashion-
able enough; and thus he was clothed, for the present, tolerably well.


The next day, I began to consider where I should lodge him; and, that I
might do well for him, and yet be perfectly easy myself, I made a little tent for
him in the vacant place between my two fortifications. As there was a door
or entrance there into my cave, I made a formal framed door-case, and a door
to open in the inside, which I barred up in the night, taking in my ladders, too;
so that Friday could no way come at me in the inside of my innermost wall,
without making so much noise in getting over that it must needs awaken me.
But I needed none of all this precaution; for never man had a more faithful,
loving, sincere servant than Friday was to me; without passion, sullenness, or
design, his affections were tied to me, like those of a child to a father.
I was greatly delighted with my new companion, and made it my business
to teach him everything that was proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful;
but especially to make him speak, and understand me when I spoke; and he
was the aptest scholar that ever was; and particularly was so merry, so con-
stantly diligent, andso pleased when he could but understand me, or make me
understand him, that it was very pleasant to me to talk to him. And now my
life began to be so easy that I began to say to myself, that could I but have been
safe from more savages, I cared not if I was never to remove from the place
while I lived.
One morning I took him out with me to the woods. I went, indeed, intend-
ing to kill a kid out of my own flock, and bring it home and dress it; but as I
was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young kids sitting
by her. I caught hold of Friday: "Hold," said I, "stand still;" and made
signs to him not to stir: immediately I presented my piece, shot, and killed one
of the kids. The poor creature was sensibly surprised; trembled and, shook,
and looked so amazed that I thought he would have sunk down. He did not
see the kid I shot at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat, to
feel whether he was not wounded; and, as I found, presently, thought I was
resolved to kill him; for he came 'and kneeled down to me, and embracing my
knees, said a great many things I did not understand; but I could easily see
the meaning was to pray me not to kill him.



I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no harm; and tak-
ing him up by the hand, laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which I had
killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which he did.
He would not so much as touch the gun for several days after; but he would
speak to it and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he was by himself;
which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not to kill him. I brought
home the kid, and the same evening I took the skin off, and stewed some of
the flesh, and made some very good broth. After I had begun to eat some, I
gave some to my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very well. Hav-
ing thus fed him with broiled meat and broth, I was resolved to feast him the
next day with roasting a piece of the kid: this I did by hanging it before the fire
on a string, setting two poles up, one on each side of the fire, and one across
on the top, and tying the string to the cross-stick, letting the meat turn con-
tinually. This Friday admired very much; but when he came to taste the
flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not but
understand him.
The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out, and sifting it in
the manner I used to do, as I observed before; and he soon understood how to
do it as well as I. After that I let him see me make my bread, and bake it, too;
and in a little time Friday was able to do all the work for me, as well as I could
do it myself.
I began now to consider that, having two mouths to feed instead of one I
must plant a largernquantity of corn than I used to do; so I marked out a larger
piece of land, and began the fence in the same manner as before, in which Friday
worked very willingly and very hard; and I told him that it was for corn to make
more bread, because he was now with me, and that I might have enough for
him and myself too. He let me know that he thought I had much more labor
upon me on his account than I had for myself; and that he would work the
harder for me, if I would tell him what to do.
This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place. Friday began

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