Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Half Title
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074465/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title: Robinson Crusoe for children
Physical Description: 80 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McGovern, Mary Harriet, 1881-
Rosenkrans, Elizabeth ( Illustrator )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Whitman Publishing Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: Whitman Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Racine, Wisconsin
Publication Date: 1917
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- Wisconsin -- Racine
United States of America -- Illinois -- Chicago
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
General Note: Cover col. ill. with title: Robinson Crusoe for children.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; illustrated by Elizabeth Rosenkrans ; edited by Rosemary Kingston.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074465
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13769389
alephbibnum - 001758175

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    List of Illustrations
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Half Title
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
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Full Text




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Robinson Crusoe

I WAS BORN in York, England, in the year 1632.
My father was not rich, but he had become
well to do by trading. My elder brother had been
killed in the war with the Spaniards, and the
other had gone away from home and had never
been heard from. Consequently my father and
mother wanted me to stay at home with them.
But, sad to say, I would be satisfied with nothing
but going to sea.
My desire for a sailor's life led me so strongly
against the will of my father, that there seemed
to be something fatal in my obstinacy, tending
directly to the life of misery which was to be-
fall me.
One day, being at Hull, I met one of my
companions who was going by sea to London.
He urged me so strongly to go with him that I
consulted neither father nor mother, and in an
ill hour on the 1st of September, 1651, I weit on
board a ship bound for London.


The ship was no sooner out of the Humber
than the wind began to blow, and the sea to rise
in a most frightful manner. As I had never been
at sea before, I was desperately sick in body,
and terrified in mind.
I thought that every wave would swallow us
up, and that every time the ship fell into the hol-
low or trough of the sea, it would never rise
again. In this agony of mind I made many vows
and resolutions that if I ever set my foot on dry
land again, I would go directly home to my
father, and never venture forth to sea again as
long as I lived.
But next day the wind went down, the sea
grew calmer, and a fine evening followed. My
sea-sickness and my fears disappeared, and with
them, all my thoughts of home and duty. As
the great ship sailed on, I became more and more
fascinated with sea life.
The sixth day we came into Yarmouth Roads.
The wind had been contrary and the weather so
calm ever since the storm that we' had made lit-
tle headway. Here we were obliged to come to
anchor. The wind continued variable and on the
eighth day another storm came up. To make
matters worse, the ship sprung a leak. "

"All hands to the pumps," the captain cried.
Our efforts, however, were useless; the vessel
was doomed to sink. Guns were now fired as
signals of distress, and a boat was put off to us
from a nearby ship that had not been damaged
because she was light. We had great difficulty
in getting into the boat when it reached us, but
we all managed to do so safely, and after several
hours of drifting, in constant fear of being
swamped, we reached the shore, drenched and
At Yarmouth, we were given some money,
and I might easily have gone back to Hull, but
my ill fate pushed me on. With what money I
had, I made my way to London. There I fell in
with the master of a ship bound for the coast of
Guinea on a trading voyage. He took a fancy
to me and at once became my friend. I raised
some forty pounds by corresponding with my re-
lations. This money I invested in trinkets, such
as the captain carried to trade with the natives.
We then set sail and made a most successful
The captain taught me the use of the ship's
instruments, and I became a navigator as well
as a Guinea trader.


My friend died soon after we returned to
England, but I resolved to make the same voyage
again on the same ship. This was a most un-
happy trip, for though I left a good portion of
my money with my friend's widow, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes.
As our ship was making her course towards
the Canary Islands, we were attacked by Moorish
pirates. After a desperate fight, we were
obliged to yield, and were all carried prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
I was sold as a slave and had to grind grain
and dig in the garden. For two years I plot-
ted and planned to escape, but was never
I was about to give up hope of ever being a
free man again, when one day my master decided
to take me on a fishing voyage with him. At last
my chance had come. As we were sailing past
a deserted coast, I crept up behind the Moor and
tossed him overboard into the sea. He rose im-
mediately, for he swam like a cork, and begged
to be taken in.
As he continued to swim after us I fetched
a gun from the cabin, and pointing it at him, said:
"You can swim well enough to reach the shore.

If you try to get into the boat, I will shoot you."
He turned about when he saw I was determined,
and swam toward the shore, which I have no doubt
he reached in safety.
I then steered the boat straight out to sea.
Luckily for me I was picked up by a Portuguese
ship. The captain listened to my story with sym-
pathy, and offered to take me to Brazil, whither
he was bound.
I shall never forget the generous treatment
I received from the captain on that trip. He even
paid me a good sum for the Moor's fishing boat
so that I might have some money on hand when I
I soon learned that the planters of that
country lived well and became rich, so I decided
to stay there. When the Portuguese captain
sailed, I sent by him an order for the money I
had left with the English captain's widow. Later
on I bought a piece of land and raised sugar and
In a few years I was prosperous and happy.
I often talked to the neighboring planters about
my voyage to the coast of Guinea, and told them
how easy it was to trade with the natives for
slaves, which were very dear in Brazil.

One day several of the planters came to me
and said that they would fit out a ship to go to
the coast of Guinea if I would take charge of
the affair. "There is nothing we need so much
as slaves," said they, "to work our plantations."
Obeying the dictates of my fancy rather
than my reason, I accepted and set sail the 1st
of September, 1659-just eight years from the
day I first left home.
We carried a cargo of toys and trinkets
suitable for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, looking-glasses,
knives, scissors and hatchets.
For twelve days we had very good weather,
then a violent tornado overtook us. It blew in
such a terrible manner that for ten days we had
no control of the ship, but went wherever fate
and the fury of the waves directed.
At last we perceived land ahead, but before
we could make out whether it was an island
or the mainland, the ship struck on the sand a
long distance from the shore.
We were now in a dreadful condition and
there was nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as best we could. One of our life-boats
had dashed against the ship's rudder and broken

away. The other we managed to fling over the
ship's side. All eleven of us crowded in, commit-
ting ourselves to God's mercy and the wild sea.
The storm had abated considerably, yet the sea
went dreadfully high upon the shore.
We were working desperately at the oars
and making nearer and nearer to land, when
suddenly a great wave came rolling after us and
upset the boat. We were all swallowed up in a
Nothing can describe what I felt when I sank
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath. I had been carried a vast way
towards the shore when the wave, having spent
itself, went back, and left me upon the land al-
most dry. Seeing myself nearer the mainland
than I expected, I got upon my feet and ran.
Another wave soon overtook me and then an-
other, until I was dashed against a rock with such
force that I was nearly senseless.
I held on, however, until the wave receded,
and the next run I took brought me to the main-
land, exhausted and bruised.
But I was now safe on shore, and began to
thank God that my life was saved. I walked


about, making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe. To think that all my
comrades were drowned; not one soul saved but
myself. For I never saw any of them afterwards,
or any sign of them, except three of their hats
and two shoes that were not mates.
After looking at the barrenness about me I
began to realize that I had had a dreadful deliv-
erance. There seemed to be no prospect before
me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts. I had nothing with me
but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
in a box. The thought of having no other pro-
visions threw me into terrible agonies of mind.
I ran about like a madman.
When I came to some fresh water, about a
furlong from the shore, I calmed down and drank
to my great joy. Then I put a little tobacco in
my mouth to prevent hunger, and began to look
about for a safe place to sleep, for night was com-
ing on.
I decided to get up in a tree, as I did not relish
the idea of falling a prey to ravenous beasts that
might come abroad in the dark. I expected to
stay awake all night, but nevertheless I placed
myself in a forking of the tree so that I would
not fall if I did happen to go to sleep.


I was so fatigued that I fell asleep imme-
diately and did not wake up till it iyas broad day-
light. The weather was clear and the sea calm.
Imagine my surprise when I saw that the
ship had been tossed up on the land about two
miles from me. The swelling of the tide had
lifted her off the sand bar and the wind and sea
had driven her to shore in the night.
I walked along the beach but could not reach
the vessel as there was an inlet of water between
the boat and myself, about half a mile broad.
After waiting till the tide had ebbed so far
out that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship, I swam out to her.
When I reached the vessel I did not know
how to get on board, as she lay high out of the
water; her stern was lifted up on the bank, and
her head low, almost to the water. I swam
around her several times and at last spied a rope
hanging down the fore-chains. With great dif-
ficulty I got hold of it and climbed up into the
forecastle of the ship.
I found that the vessel was bulged, and had
a great deal of water in her hold. My joy was
keen when I discovered that all the ship's pro-
visions were dry and untouched by the water.


I filled my pockets with biscuits and ate them
as I went about other things, for I had no time
to lose.
There were some spare top-masts on board
and these I cut into three lengths and threw into
the water; Then I went down the ship's side
and tied them together at both ends with heavy
rope. My raft was now completed, and ready
to load. First I laid all the planks or boards
upon it that I could get, then empty chests in
which I had packed all kinds of provisions, such
as bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces
of dried goat's flesh, some European corn, and
several cases of bottled liquors. The most im-
portant thing was a carpenter's chest, which I
did not take the time to look into for I knew in
general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and
arms. I found two fowling-pieces and two pis-
tols, some powder horns and two old, rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of pow-
der in the ship and, with much search, I found
them. Two of them were dry and good, and these
I got to my raft, with the arms. I also took
ashore the ship's cat and dog, both of them half
dead from hunger and thirst.

The raft was now pretty well freighted, but
how to get it back to shore was my next prob-
lem as I had neither sail, nor rudder. But for-
tunately the sea was no longer rough and the
tide was setting toward the shore. I found two
or three broken oars and with these I put to
sea and landed at high tide, when the water cov-
ered the bank. When it receded the raft was
high and dry.
I now began to view the country so as to seek
the proper place for my habitation. About a
mile from me there was a tall hill. Armed with
a gun, one of the pistols and a horn of powder I
traveled up to the top of the hill and discovered
with dismay that I was on an island, surrounded
on every side by the sea. There was no other
land to be seen except what appeared to be two
small islands about three leagues to the west.
Coming back to my raft I fell to work bring-
ing my cargo on shore, which took me all the rest
of the day. The fear of wild beasts' devouring
me in the night still haunted me so I barricaded
myself round with the chests and boards that I
had brought on shore and made a kind of hut
for that night's lodging.
Next morning I made another trip to the
ship. I realized that the first storm that blew


would break her all in pieces, and I had best lose
no time in getting other things that I needed.
I got on board the ship as before, and made
a second raft. Then I loaded it with three bags
full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a
dozen or two of hatchets and a grindstone.
Besides these things I took all the men's
clothes that I could find, a spare fore-top sail, a
hammock, some bedding, two or three iron crows,
two barrels of musket bullets and seven muskets.
During my absence from shore I had half
expected that my provisions would be devoured
by wild beasts; but on my return I found no sign
of any such visitors. On one of the chests, how-
ever, sat a creature that resembled a wild cat.
At my approach, she ran away a little distance,
then sat very still and stared at me in rather a
friendly way. I tossed her a bit of biscuit, which
she smelled, then ate. She looked so pleased that
I would have given her more had I not suddenly
realized that my food supply was limited. Finally
she marched off.
As soon as I had carried my second cargo
up on land, I went to work to make a little tent
out of the sail and some poles which I cut for
that purpose. I then carried into the tent every-

thing that I knew would be spoiled either by rain or
sun. The empty chests and casks I piled in a
circle around the outside of the tent to fortify
it from any sudden attempt from man or beast.
I blocked up the door with some boards
within, and spreading some of the bedding upon
the ground, lay down to sleep with my guns be-
side me. I slept very quietly all night and next
morning was ready for another trip to the aban-
doned ship. As long as the vessel stood upright
in that posture, I thought I ought to get every-
thing out of her I could. So every day at low
water, I went on board, and brought away such
things as rigging, rope, twine, and all of the sails,
which, of course, I had to cut in pieces.
There was a pleasant surprise in store for
me when I found a great hogshead of bread, a
box of fine sugar and a barrel of flour.
The last time I went on board I brought
away some pieces of cable and all the iron work
that I could move. If it had remained calm I
believe I would have eventually cut up the whole
ship and taken it ashore. But one night it blew
very hard and next morning the ship was no
longer to be seen.
I now set about building a dwelling on a lit-


tie plain on the side of a rising hill. There was
a hollow place in the rock, like the entrance to
a cave, but there was not really any cave, or way
into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just below this hol-
low place, I resolved to pitch my tent. Before I
set it up, however, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, and in this half-circle I pitched two
rows of strong stakes, driving them into the
ground till they stood very firm, the biggest end
being out of the ground about five feet and a
half, and sharpened on the top.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had
cut in the ship, and laid them in rows, one upon
another, between these two rows of stakes, up
to the top. This made a fence so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it.
The entrance into this place was not by a
door but by a short ladder to go over the top.
The ladder could be lifted in after me so that
I was completely fenced in and fortified from
all the world.
Into this fence or fortress I carried all my
riches-my provisions, ammunition ard stores.
I made my tent double-that is one smaller tent
inside a bigger one, and even covered the upper-

most part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I
had saved along with the sails. I knew the rains
during some part of the year would be more or
less violent and I thought it best to be prepared
in advance.
As time went on I dug a cave in the hillside,
back of the tent. I used the iron crows-brought
from the ship-for a pickaxe, and made a thing
like a hod with which to carry away the dirt that
I dug out of the cave. I had made a shovel out
of a piece of exceedingly hard wood which I had
cut from a tree.
Week after week I worked on the cave, hol-
lowing out a spacious room which was to serve
me as a warehouse, kitchen, dining room and
No matter how hard I worked, each day I
always managed to find time to go out with my
gun to see if I could find anything fit for food.
It was a great satisfaction to me to learn
that there were wild goats on the island. I often
killed one and carried it home with me.
I did not wish to lose my reckoning of time
nor did I wish to forget the Sabbath day. So I
made a great cross out of two posts and set it up
on the shore. Upon the sides of this square post

I cut a notch with my knife every day, and every
seventh notch was as long again as the rest; every
first day of the month was as long again as that
long one. In this manner I kept my calendar.
It was now the rainy season but neverthe-
less I made rounds in the woods for game and
always discovered something to my advantage
in these trips. One day I found a kind of wild
pigeon and its young ones made excellent meat.
In the managing of my household affairs, I
found myself wanting, of course, in many things.
I was at a great loss for candles and was obliged
to go to bed as soon as it was dark-about seven
o'clock. I remedied this to a certain extent for
whenever I killed a goat I saved the tallow. This
I placed in a little dish made of baked clay, and
added a wick of some oakum. It made me a
fairly good lamp.
In the middle of my labors, it happened that
rummaging my things, I found a little bag, that
had evidently been filled at one time with corn
for the feeding of poultry; but seeing nothing
in the bag but husks and dust I shook it out on
one side of my fortification, under the rock, and
proceeded to use the bag for other purposes.
What was my surprise about a month later,

to see a few stalks of something green shoot-
ing out of the ground. After a little longer time
I saw about ten or twelve ears of perfect green
barley. I carefully saved every grain and laid it
away ready to sow again, hoping in time to have
enough to supply me with bread.
It was now the month of April and I had
about finished my wall and ladder when sud-
denly the earth came tumbling down from the
roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill
over my head. Two of the posts I had set up in
the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I ran
forward to my ladder and climbed over the wall.
I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earth-
quake; for the ground I stood on shook three
times. A great piece of the top of the rock about
half a mile from me, fell down with such a noise
that I was terrified. "What if the hill should fall
upon my tent and bury all my household goods
at once?" thought I.
To make my situation worse, the rain began
to come down in torrents, and there was a great
hurricane of wind. The sea was lashed to foam
and trees were torn up by the roots.
The wind abated in about three hours, but
the rain continued all night and all the next day.

I climbed over the wall and went into my
cave to escape the rain, but I was still in great
fear that the rock would fall upon me.
My one desire now was to find a new place
for my home where an earthquake could not
harm me. But my hatchets and axes were dull
and full of notches from cutting and chopping
knotty hard wood. Of course I had a grindstone
but I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
I finally contrived a wheel with a string to turn
with my foot so that I might have both my hands
at liberty. This took me over a week but it was
worth the effort for in a few days more I had my
tools in good shape again.
My thoughts were wholly diverted from
moving my habitation when one morning I looked
out to sea and saw that the earthquake and hurri-
cane had cast the wreck of the old ship so close
to the shore that I could walk quite close to it at
low water.
I worked every day the next month bring-
ing pieces of timber, planks and a great deal of
iron on shore. I had enough to build a good boat
had I but known how.
One day, going down to the sea-side, I found
a large tortoise, or turtle. I cooked it and the

flesh was delicious. It was a pleasant change as I
had had nothing but goat meat and an occasional
fowl since landing in this horrible place.
I must have overworked in my effort to get
everything off the old ship, for one morning I
woke up with chills and fever. I was frightened
almost to death at the thought of being sick with
no one around to help me. I lay abed all day and
neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish
with thirst; but I was so weak I had no strength
to stand up or to get myself any water to drink.
In the night I slept, but had a dreadful dream.
I thought I saw a man descend from a great
black cloud, in a bright flame of fire. His counte-
nance was most dreadful. When he stepped upon
the ground I thought the earth trembled, just as
it had done in the earthquake. Then I heard a
voice say:
"Seeing all these things have not brought
thee to repentance, now thou shalt die;"-at which
words I thought the figure lifted up the spear that
was in his hand to kill me.
I can never describe the horrors of my soul
at this terrible vision, nor the impression that re-
mained upon my mind when I awakened and
found it was only a dream.

During all my eight years of seafaring wick-
edness I had never thought seriously of God, nor
had I been thankful to Him for His great mercies.
But now I began to pray for the first time in many
years, after which I fell into a refreshing sleep.
When I woke again I felt much better and
arose and cooked three turtle eggs in the ashes,
and ate them. I remembered that the people in
Brazil took tobacco for the ague. I had some in
one of the chests I had saved, and I went to get
it. I was directed by heaven, no doubt, for I found
in the chest a cure both for soul and body. Packed
in with the tobacco was a Bible, which I had for-
gotten all about, but which I was now over-
joyed to find. I read from it a long while, and
having taken a dose of tobacco steeped in rum,
I went to bed.
The next day I had the fever again, but not so
bad. In a few days it left me, but I was so weak
that I could do but little. I sat in the mouth of
my cave and tried to weave baskets.
As soon as I was able I began to apply my-
self to making such necessary things as I found I
most wanted, particularly a chair and a table;
for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world. I could not write, or


eat, or do several other things comfortably with-
out a table. I then made shelves about a foot and
a half wide all along one side of the cave, and on
these I arranged all my tools, nails and iron-work.
I also drove pieces into the wall of the
rock, on which to hang guns and all things that
would hang up.
My daily reading of the Bible gave me a
great deal of comfort-the first I had had since
coming to the island ten months before. I began
to give up the idea of ever being rescued and de-
cided to be as happy as I could.
It was about the 15th of July that I began to
take a more particular survey of the island it-
self. I took some provisions with me and started
out. After walking about two miles I camie to a
creek whose banks were covered with grass, and
on the higher parts I found tobacco growing.
There were many other plants that I had never
seen before.
On the next day I went farther the same way,
and to my joy, I found melons and grapes. I
stayed there all that night, sleeping in a tree as
when I first landed.
In the morning I traveled on, some four miles
farther. Here I found a beautiful valley, where

everything appeared so fresh and green that it
looked like a planted garden. There were orange,
lemon, lime and cocoa trees, but few of them bore
fruit. I gathered some green limes and found
their juice very refreshing. I resolved to lay up
a store of them for the wet season.
I picked a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them upon the out branches of the trees, so
that they might cure and dry in the sun; as for
the limes and lemons, I carried a great many back
home with me.
I was so enamored with this beautiful valley
that I began to consider moving my habitation
there. After giving the matter much serious
thought, I came to the conclusion, however, that
I had better stay by the sea-side, where something
might happen to my advantage. The same ill
fate that had brought me to the island, might
bring some other nthappy wretches to the same
place. To hide myself among the hills and woods
in the centre of the island meant giving up all
hope and chance of rescue. So I contented myself
with building a little bower over in the fruitful
valley, where I stayed three or four days at a
time, calling it my country home.
The 3rd of August I found the grapes I had






hung up were perfectly dried and were now ex-
cellent raisins. I had about two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them
down and carried most of them to my cave, than
it began to rain so violently that I could not stir
out of my cave for several days at a time.
I was very careful now about getting wet, as
I was afraid of another attack of fever and ague.
In this confinement, I began to be straightened
for food. Fortunately the rain ceased for a few
hours and I went out and killed a goat and found a
very large tortoise. My meals consisted of raisins
for breakfast, goat's flesh or turtle for dinner and
turtle eggs for supper. I always had to broil my
meat, as I had no vessel in which to boil or stew
anything, and this was a misfortune.
I counted up my notches on my post and
found I had been on shore three hundred and six-
ty-five days, for it was now the 30th day of Sep-
tember-the unhappy anniversary of my landing.
I kept this day as a solemn fast and determined
to keep every seventh day from now on as the
Sabbath day.
After a time I learned how to divide the rainy
season from the dry. The lack of this knowledge
at first had cost me dear, for I had sowed my


grain before the dry season but none had come
up. Fortunately I had not sown it all, and I plant-
ed the few grains left before the next rainy season
and it grew very well, though it was several years
before I had enough to make a crop.
I now took care to have plenty of provisions
on hand for the next season and stayed within
doors as much as possible during these months.
I occupied myself by weaving baskets which
proved of great service later on when I wished
to carry things from the fruitful valley to my
As soon as the rains were over I started on a
trip clear across the island. Taking a hatchet,
gun, and a larger quantity of powder than usual,
and followed by my faithful dog, I started on my
As soon as I came to the opposite sea-shore
I was surprised to see the sand covered with
turtles. On my side of the island they were very
rare. I don't believe I had caught more than three
during an entire year. There were also a great
number 6f fowls of many kinds. Some of them
were very good meat.
This side of the country was much pleasanter
than mine; but I no longer had any inclination to






move. I was getting accustomed to my habita-
tion. All the time I was on this side of the island
it seemed as if I were upon a journey and from
It was a very clear day, and I could see land
in the distance. Whether it was an island or a
continent, I could not tell. Neither did I know
what part of the world this might be, except that
I figured it must be part of America, down near
the Spanish dominions.
On this journey my dog surprised a kid, which
I caught and led by a string. I also saw an abund-
ance of parrots, one of which I knocked down with
a stick and brought back with me to tame. I was
more than delighted when I came to what I called
my home and threw myself in my hammock. I
had been gone a month. Everything seemed so
comfortable here that I resolved never to leave it
for so long a time again, while I remained on the
I now read the Word of God every day and
began to derive great comfort. I no longer re-
belled at Fate for casting me on this uninhabited
island, even though I still was a prisoner, locked
up with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean.
One morning I opened my Bible at these


words: "I will never leave thee, never forsake
From this moment I began to conclude in my
mind that it was possible for me to be happy in
this solitary condition. "If God does not forsake
me," said I, "what matters it if all the world
should forsake me?"
Thus I began my third year. I was seldom
idle, dividing my time according to my daily em-
ployments. First I read the Scriptures, next I
spent three hours hunting for food, and the rest
of the day was passed in curing, preserving and
cooking what I had killed or caught for my sup-
ply. While working about, I talked much to my
parrot. I had taught her to call me Robinson
Crusoe and it pleased me greatly to hear her re-
peat it, as well as a few other things she had
learned after much drilling on my part.
I came near losing my crop of barley and
rice, which at best was not large, for some goats
and wild creatures, which I called hares, started
to eat it up one night. So I had to fence in my
field. This took me over three weeks. In the mean-
time I tied my dog to the gate where he would
stand and bark all night long.
No sooner had I driven these enemies away

than the birds began to eat up the ripe grain. I
finally shot three of them, and hung them up as
scarecrows. This had the desired effect, and in
the latter end of December, I harvested my corn.
I was sadly in need of a scythe or sickle.
However, I was fortunate in having brought on
shore from the ship, one of the broad-swords or
cutlasses. With the aid of this would-be-reaper,
I cut off the ears and carried them way in a great
basket. After rubbing the seed out with my
hands, I found that out of the half-peck of seed
that I had planted, I had nearly two bushels of
rice, and two and a half bushels of barley; that is to
say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that
The household utensil that I was most in need
of was an earthen vessel that would hold liquid
and stand the heat of the fire at the same time.
I spent much time in hunting for the right kind of
clay. After experimenting about two months I
finally managed to burn two earthen jars without
cracking them. This success led me to make all
kinds of earthenware. I must confess that the
shapes were decidedly ugly as I had no way of
making them, save as children make mud pies.
I next started to make a mortar. As the


rocks on the island were all too soft and crumbling
to use, I took a great block of hard wood, and
with much labor I rounded the outside. With the
help of a fire, I made a hollow place in it, as the
Indians in Brazil make their canoes. Then I
made a heavy pestle of iron-wood. With some
muslin taken from the ship, I fitted up some very
good sieves, and in a short time my corn was
ground or pounded into flour.
The next thing to be considered was the bak-
ing. I made some hollow earthen vessels, which
served as hearths. In these I built hot fires. Then,
raking the ashes and embers off clean, I put in my
loaves and covered them with earthen jars.
As I worked away on these things you may be
sure my thoughts ran many times upon the land
which I had seen from the other side of the island.
I could not help feeling that if I were on the oppo-
site shore, I might find some way or other to con-
vey myself farther, and perhaps at last find some
means of escape.
If only I had a boat, thought I, I could ven-
ture out to sea in search of the mainland. I had
been so successful in everything I had made that
I now considered myself skillful enough even to
make a boat. I didn't stop to figure out how


A i


I would launch it after it was built, I just started
right out to make it. For twenty days I hacked
and hewed away at a great cedar-tree that was
five feet ten inches in diameter at the lower part,
and four feet eleven inches in diameter at the end
of twenty-two feet. It took me fourteen more
days getting the branches and limbs and its vast
spreading head cut off. I then worked about four
months trying to shape the bottom and hollow out
the inside.
If anyone ever worked hard with mallet and
chisel, I'm sure it was I. At last I was rewarded
for all my labor, for there stood a handsome boat
big enough to carry about twenty-six men. I
was more than delighted, and now began to think
about getting it into the water. But all my de-
vices failed me. The boat lay about one hundred
yards from the water, but the trouble was it was
up hill towards the creek. But I dug into the
earth and made a declivity. When this was done
I was no better off than before for I could not
move the boat. Then I began to cut a dock or
"If I can't bring the boat down to the water,"
said I, "I will have to bring the water up to the
boat." When I found what a little digging I could

do in a day, I began to calculate, and came to the
conclusion that it would take me about twelve
years to finish the work. There was nothing left
to do but abandon the undertaking. For days I
was very sad and disappointed. But what was the
use of vain regrets? I should have had more
sense in the beginning and not attempted to build
such an enormous boat.
I now had finished my fourth year on the
island. I kept my anniversary by fasting and
reading the Bible as usual.
My clothes were beginning to wear out, even
though I had brought quite a supply from the sea-
men's chests. Luckily for me I had saved all the
skins of the animals I had killed. These I had
cured by stretching them out in the sun with
sticks. Some of them were so hard they were of
no use, but many were soft. The first thing I
made was a cap and a suit. These were just the
thing for the rainy season, as I turned the hair
on the outside to keep off the rain. I must con-
fess that I was not as good a tailor as I was a
After this I spent a great deal of time and
pains to make an umbrella. I was obliged to be
outdoors so much it was a most useful thing to me,

as well for the rains as for the heat. I spoiled two
or three before I could get one that suited. My
greatest difficulty was in making one that would
close. At last I succeeded. I could now walk out
in the hottest weather and keep cool. Besides, as
I put the hair upwards on the umbrella it cast off
the rain like a pent-house.
Thus time passed on and I lived very com-
fortably. My chief labor was planting my barley
and rice and curing my raisins.
I no longer thought of trying to get to main-
land, but I did dream of making a tour around
the island. So I set about making a canoe. I was
much wiser this time, and made one that I could
get down to the sea. I worked nearly two years
building the boat and a canal to it, six feet in
width and four in depth. I fitted up a mast and
made a sail out of some of the little pieces of the
ship's sails which lay in store. I tried the boat and
found she would sail very well. Then I made little
lockers or boxes at each end for provisions, am-
munition, etc. I also made a long hollow place
for my gun, with a flap over it to keep it dry. My
umbrella I fixed at the stern, so that it would
shield me like an awning.
All now being ready I loaded my ship for the


voyage, putting in two dozen loaves of barley
bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice, a little
bottle of rum, and half a goat. I also had plenty
of powder and shot and two large coats, one to lie
upon and one to cover me in the night. Thus I
set sail.
When I came to the east side of the island, I
found a great ledge of rocks lying out about two
leagues into the sea, and beyond that a shoal of
sand. I was afraid to go so far out to sea, for
fear I could not get back again, so I anchored my
boat, and taking my gun, went on shore and
climbed a big hill, to get a view of the other side of
the ledge.
From the hill I perceived a strong and intri-
cate current, which would be very likely to pre-
vent me from being able to get back to the island
again. There was a strong eddy under the shore.
I lay here for two days, not daring to venture
forth. But the third day the sea was calm, so I
set sail. I was just a short distance from the
rocks, when I found myself in a great depth of
water, and a current like the sluice of a mill. It
carried my boat along with it with great violence.
There was no wind stirring to help me, and work
though I did with my paddles, it was of no use.



There was a current on both sides of me and I
knew that in a few leagues' distance they would
join, and I would be carried out to sea where I
would die of hunger. I had found a tortoise on the
shore, which I had tossed in the boat and I still
had a jar of fresh water, but how long would this
food keep me alive if I were driven out into the
When I was shipwrecked on the island I
thought Fate had dealt me her cruellest blow, but
I suddenly realized that there were still worse
conditions in store for me. I now looked back
upon my desolate, solitary island as the most
pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness
my heart could wish for was to be there again.
I stretched out my hands to it with eager wishes.
"0 happy desert!" said I, "I shall never see
thee again. 0 miserable creature, whither am
I going?"
I still worked hard to get my boat out of the
current. About noon, a breeze sprang up from
the south east which cheered my heart a little.
In about a half hour more it blew a gentle gale.
By this time I had been driven a great distance
from my island; if the weather had been the least
cloudy or hazy so that I could not have seen the

island, I do not know how I would ever have got-
ten back to it.
I put up my mast again, and spread my sail,
standing away to the north as much as possible,
to get out of the current.
The wind continued fair and I made such
good headway that I was soon back on land again.
As soon as I touched shore I fell on my knees and
gave thanks to God for my deliverance. I then
drew my boat into a little cove under some trees,
and lay down to sleep.
On awakening the problem was how to get
the boat back to my side of the island. I would
never attempt to go back the way I came, and
not knowing what new dangers I would run into
if I continued around the island, I decided to find a
creek where I could leave it in safety.
After coasting the shore for about three miles
I came to a very good inlet or bay, which nar-
rowed till it came to a very little rivulet which
made a good harbor for the boat. Taking my
gun and umbrella I started back across the island.
How deighted I was when I finally reached my
summer home, as I called it. I found everything
just as I had left it. I climbed over my fence and
threw myself down to rest, for I was very


weary, and soon fell asleep. Imagine my sur-
prise when I was awakened by a voice calling
"Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe! poor Robin Crusoe!
Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where are you?
Where have you been?"
I was so dead asleep at first that I did not
waken thoroughly; dozing between sleeping and
waking I thought I had been dreaming till I
heard the same voice repeating: "Robin Crusoe!
Robin Crusoe!" At last I became wide awake
and started up in great fright. No sooner were
my eyes open than I saw my poll parrot sitting on
the top of the hedge.
Even after I knew it was the parrot that
had spoken to me, it took me some time to get
over my fright. I called to Polly and she came
and sat upon my thumb as she used to do, and
continued talking to me just as if she were over-
joyed to see me again; and so I carried her home
to my cave with me.
I had had enough rambling to sea for some
time and did nothing for several days but sit and
reflect upon the danger I had escaped. I would
have been very glad to have my boat again
on my side of the island; but my heart would
shrink and my blood run cold at the very thought

of venturing to sea again, and battling with un-
known currents.
I began to think now of another way to kill
goats so as to be more sparing of powder. My
supply could not last forever, so I set traps and
caught some young kids, which I tamed, keeping
them in a large enclosure, securely fenced about.
Had anybody met me now he would either have
been greatly frightened or else would have had a
good laugh at my "get-up." I wore a great, high
shapeless cap made of goat's skin with a flap hang-
ing down behind my neck. My jacket was short and
made of the same kind of skin. The breeches were
made of the skin of an old he-goat whose hair
hung down such a length on either side, that it
reached to the middle of my legs. I had no shoes
or stockings, but had contrived a kind of bus-
kins, to flap over my legs and lace on either side.
I had a stiff belt of dried skin and from this hung
a little saw and hatchet. I wore another belt
which hung over my shoulder. At the end of it,
under my left arm, were two pouches, both made
of goat's skin too-one for my powder and the
other for my shot. I had a basket fastened to my
back, carried my gun on my shoulder and over
my head was the great clumsy, ugly goat-skin


umbrella. From this description you can easily
imagine what a funny looking object I was.
As the months rolled by, I finally got up cour-
age enough to go to the other side of the island
to see if my boat was still safe. It was safe and
sound so I decided to leave it there again and go
back and build me another to use on my home side
of the island.
It happened that one day, about noon, while
going towards my boat, I was exceedingly sur-
prised to see the print of a man's naked foot
in the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck. I
listened, I looked around me, but I could hear
nothing, nor see anyone. I quickly climbed to a
near-by hill and looked in every direction. Then
I ran along the shore but could detect no other
foot-print. I came back to the foot mark and
examined it carefully. Yes, it was the foot of a
human being-toes, heel, every part of a naked
foot. I hurried back to my fortification, looking
back at every two or three steps, mistaking every
bush and tree for a man. When I came to my
cave-home, I fled into it like one pursued. Whether
I went over by the ladder, or went in at the hole
in the rock, which I called a door, I cannot re-
member, I was so consumed with fear.


I did not sleep a wink that night but lay
trembling, trying to figure out who it could be that
had visited the island. I fancied all sorts of
things, but finally concluded that some of the
savages of the main land had been there.
I now lived in constant dread of meeting this
enemy. When milking my goats or gathering my
fruit, if I heard the least noise, I would drop
everything and flee to my house.
I regretted having cut a door into the rock,
beyond where my fortification joined it. There-
fore I resolved to make a second fortifi-
cation, in the same manner of a semicircle, at a
distance from my wall where I had planted a
double row of trees about twelve years before.
Between these trees I drove great stakes. I
now had a double wall; my outer wall was thick-
ened with pieces of timber, old cables, and every-
thing I could think of to make it strong. I left
seven little holes, about as big as the thick of my
arm, and in these holes I placed my muskets like
Then I planted the ground without as full of
trees as could well stand and grow, so that in two
years' time, I had a grove so thick that no one
would ever imagine there was any human habita-
tion beyond it.

One day as I wandered toward the west of
the island, I thought I saw a boat far out at sea.
On coming down from the hill, I was amazed to
see the shore spread with skulls and other bones
of human beings. There was a place where a fire
had been made, and a circle dug in the earth,
where I supposed the wretches had sat down to
their inhuman feast.
It did not seem to me that these wretches had
come to this island to search for anything, but
simply to have their feast and go away again.
I had been on the island eighteen years now,
without being harmed and might easily be there
another eighteen years without being discovered
by them. However, the thought of those wretches
and their inhuman customs of eating one another
made me pensive and sad, and kept me close
within my own circle for almost two years after
this. By my own circle I mean my castle or forti-
fied cave, my country seat in the fruitful valley
and an enclosure in the woods where I now kept
my goats.
During this time I never once went to see my
boat on the other side of the island.
I made daily trips to a hill about three miles
from my castle where I could observe any boats


I- -

i'. = I

-- .'


that were on the sea, coming near the island.
After two or three months of this hard duty I
gave up watching for them. I managed to get
up courage enough to go to the other side of the
island and move my boat to the east end where I
hid it securely.
The constant fear in which I now lived put an
end to all inventions on my part. I was afraid to
drive a nail or chop a stick of wood lest some one
would hear the noise. I was uneasy about build-
ing a fire even, for fear that the smoke, which is
visible at a great distance in the day, should be-
tray me.
To my great consolation I had found a natural
cave in the woods. The entrance was a small hole
at the base of a large rock; inside it was roomy
and quite dry, but pitch black. Into this grotto I
carried my magazine of powder, several muskets
and other things.
It was now December of my twenty-third
year on the island. It being the month of harvest-
ing, I had to be abroad in the fields most of the
Going out early one morning, I was surprised
to see a light on the shore, about two miles away
and to my horror, on my side of the island.


I was so surprised that I rushed back to my
castle and pulled the ladder up after me. If the
savages should happen to ramble over this side
of the island and discover my corn field-partly
cut, or see any of my works, they would im-
mediately conclude that there were people in the
place, and would then never rest till they had
found me out.
I loaded my muskets, which were mounted
upon my fortifications, and all my pistols and re-
solved to defend myself to the last gasp. At the
end of two hours I became impatient for news.
I climbed over my high wall and went to the top
of the hill which was my observation tower.
Pulling out my perspective glass, I lay flat down
on the ground and began to look for the place
from which the smoke was rising.
Yes, there was the fire, with nine naked sav-
ages sitting around it. I could also see two canoes
which they had hauled up upon the shore. For
about an hour or more they danced around the
fire. Finally, as soon as the tide made to the west-
ward, I saw them take the boat and paddle away.
As soon as they were out of view, I took my
guns and pistols and went over to the place. My
indignation knew no bounds when I saw the

marks of their dreadful feast, for there were
human bones scattered about on the sand.
I began to ponder how I could destroy them
when they should come again. After that I went
often to the hill to look for them, and if they had
come, I should certainly have attacked them.
But more than a year elapsed and I saw no signs
of them. In the meantime an event happened
which intensely excited me.
There had been a storm of wind all day and
evening, and a great deal of thunder and light-
ning. I was quietly reading my Bible, when sud-
denly I heard the noise of a gun, as I thought,
fired at sea.
I started up in the greatest haste, clapped my
ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled
it after me; mounting it the second time I reached
the top of the hill just as another shot was fired.
I concluded that there must be a ship in distress.
I knew that I could not help them, but I thought
they-might be able to rescue me. So I gathered to-
gether all the dry wood I could find and made a
great fire on the hill-top. I felt that if there
was a ship nearby they would surely see this
roaring blaze. No doubt they did, for as soon as
the fire shot up I heard another gun, and then
several more.


I watched all night but heard nothing more,
and in the morning, to my great sorrow, I saw
the wreck of a ship upon the concealed rocks, far
out from shore. But there was no sign of any
living thing on the wreck. Several days after,
the corpse of a drowned boy was washed ashore.
He had nothing in his pockets but a few pieces of
money and a tobacco pipe. Needless to say, I
was very glad to find the pipe.
The longing to go out to this wreck was so
strong that, at last, I loaded my boat with every-
thing necessary and ventured to sea. It was not
until I had made a careful study of the danger-
ous currents, however.
I reached the vessel safely and went aboard.
I found a dog almost dead with hunger and thirst.
I gave him a piece of my bread, and some fresh
water. He devoured the bread like a ravenous
wolf that had been starving for a week in the
snow. Besides the dog there was nothing left in
the ship that had life. There were two dead bodies
in the forecastle which was full of water.
Most of the cargo had been spoiled by water,
However, I managed to find a few dry things. I
saw several chests, and believing that they had
belonged to the seamen I loaded them in my lit-

tie boat without even examining them. I also
found a little cask full of liquor, a powder-horn, a
fire shovel and tongs, two little brass kettles, a
copper pot in which to make chocolate, and a
gridiron. With this cargo and the dog I came
away, and by evening had reached my island
I was so weary and fatigued that I slept that
night in the boat, and next morning got my
treasures up on shore. When I came to open the
sailor's chests, I found several things of great
use to me. For example, there were several good
shirts, which were very welcome, and a dozen and
a half of white linen handkerchiefs. When I
came to the till of the chest, I found three great
bags of money; in one of them there were six
doubloons of gold, and some bars of gold. Upon
the whole this was not a very profitable voyage,
as the money was of no value to me. I would have
given it all for three or four pairs of English
shoes and stockings. In another of the chests I
also found some more money, but no gold. I
lugged this coin home to my cave and hid it away
with the other that I had brought from our own
shipwrecked vessel, many years before.
From now on my one idea seemed to be to

get away from the island. One night I dreamed
that one of the victims of the cannibals ran away
from them and escaped to me. After this dream
I watched every day for the savages. The dream
had made such an impression on my mind that
I half believed I might capture one of these vic-
tims who might be able to pilot me to the main-
I watched constantly for a year and a half
and was about to give up in disgust when one
morning I saw no less than five canoes on shore
and about thirty savages dancing around a fire.
In a little while two miserable wretches were
dragged up from the boats. One was knocked
down immediately and cut up to cook for the feast,
while the other was left standing by himself till
they would be ready for him.
This unfortunate being, seeing himself a lit-
tle at liberty, and unbound, started away from
them and ran with great speed along the sands,
directly toward me. I was dreadfully frightened,
when I saw him run away. However, my spirits
began to recover when I found there were only
three men following him, and he was by far the
best runner.
Between them and my castle was the creek,

but the escaped victim thought nothing of that.
He plunged in and swam across in about thirty
strokes, landed and ran with exceeding strength
and swiftness. Of the three pursuers, only two
could swim, so the third returned. I ran down
the ladder, fetched my two guns, and getting up
again with the same haste to the top of the hill,
I crossed towards the sea. I rushed in between
the pursuer and the pursued, and knocked down
the first cannibal with the stock of my gun. I
was afraid to fire for fear the noise would attract
the rest of the savages. Upon seeing his com-
panion fall, the other stopped, as if frightened
and I advanced towards him. But as I came nearer
I could see he had a bow and arrow and was
getting ready to take aim, so I was compelled to
shoot at him first, and killed him the first shot.
The poor fellow who was running away was so
startled by the fire and noise of my gun that he
stood stock still. I halloed to him and made signs
for him to come back to me.
He hesitated a while, then came toward me
a little way, and stood trembling like a leaf. I
smiled at him, and beckoned for him to come
closer. At length he came over to me, laid his
head on the ground and put my foot upon it.

This was his way of telling me that he would be
my slave forever.
In the meantime the savage that I had
knocked down began to come to life again. See-
ing this, my new slave motioned for me to give
him my sword, which I did. He thereupon ran
quickly to the savage, and cut off his head at a
single stroke. He then returned the sword to
me, laughing in triumph. What puzzled him
most was to know how I had killed the other In-
dian so far off. He went over to him and turned
him from side to side. He then took up his bow
and arrows and came back to me, making signs
that we should bury the bodies in the sand. This
was a good idea as it would keep the other Indians
from finding the bodies, should they follow us.
After scraping holes in the sand, and covering
over the wretches, I led my slave, not to my castle,
but to my grotto on the farther side of the island.
Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to
eat, and a draught of water, for I found he was
almost parched for drink. He was more than
grateful. When I had thus refreshed him, I made
signs for him to go and lie down and rest. So the
poor creature lay down and was soon fast asleep.
He was a comely, handsome fellow, with

straight, strong limbs, tall and well shaped. He
had a very good countenance, ndo a fierce and
surly aspect, but seemed to have something very
manly in his face. His hair was long and black,
not curled like wool; his forehead very high and
large, and there was a vivaciom twinkle in his
The color of his skin was not quite black, but
very tawny. His face was round and plump; his
nose was not flat like the Negroes'; he had a
shapely mouth, and teeth as white as ivory. Aft-
er he had slept about a half hour he awoke and
came out of the cave to find me. I was milking
my goats. As soon as he saw me he ran toward
me, threw himself on his knees and made many
gestures, trying to show me how grateful he was.
He then put his head flat upon the ground and
placed my foot upon it, as he had done before.
I let him know that I understood him and was
very well pleased. It was a great comfort to have
a human being around, even if we could not un-
derstand each other. I immediately began to teach
him. First I let him know his name was Friday,
which was the day I saved his life. Next I taught
him to say Master, and then let him know that
was to be my name. He soon learned to say "Yes"
and "No" and to know their meaning.


When we had our first meal together I gave
him some milk in an earthen pot, and let him see
me drink mine before him, and sop my bread in
it. I then gave him a cake of bread with which
to do the same. He quickly followed my example,
and made signs that the food was very good.
We stayed at the cave all night. Early next
morning I beckoned him to come with me, and let
let him know that I would give him some clothes.
This seemed to please him, as he was stark naked.
As we went by the place where we had
buried the two savages, he pointed to the place,
making signs that we should dig them up again
and eat them. At this I appeared very angry and
pretended to vomit at the very thought of such a
thing. I beckoned for him to come away, which
he did, in a most submissive manner. I then led
him up to the top of the hill to see if his enemies
were gone. By the aid of my glass I could see
the place where they had been, but there was no
trace of them or their canoes.
We went down to the shore and carefully
buried the remains of the horrible feast. After
many gestures and antics, Friday made me un-
derstand that there had been a great battle and
that four prisoners of which he was one, had been
brought to this island to be eaten.


Now that there was no longer any signs of
savages about, I took my man to my castle and
fitted him out with a pair of linen drawers, a
jacket made of goat's skin and a very good cap
of hare's skin. He was delighted to see himself
dressed as his master.
I then made him a little tent between my two
fortifications. I fixed my doors so that I could
fasten them on the inside, and took all my guns
and weapons into my habitation every night. But
none of these precautions were necessary, I soon
found out, for never did man have a more faith-
ful, loving, sincere servant than Friday was to
One morning I went out in the woods to kill
a goat and took Friday with me. I intended to
go over to my own enclosure and get one of my
own flock, but on the way, I saw a she-goat and
her two kids lying undei the shade of a tree. I
caught hold of Friday and made signs to him not
to stir. Then I aimed and killed one of the kids.
My companion was terrified at the sound of the
shot. He had not noticed that I had killed one
of the kids. He ripped open his jacket to feel
whether he was not wounded, as he thought I was
resolved to kill him. When he found that he was

unharmed he came and knelt down before me,
embraced my knees, and said a great many things
I did not understand. I could easily see that he
was begging me not to kill him.
I took him by the hand, laughed at him, and
pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned
to him to run and fetch it, which he did. By and
by I saw a parrot sitting upon a tree within shot;
so, to let Friday understand a little what I would
do, I pointed first to the parrot, and then to my
gun, and last to the ground under the tree and
bade him watch the bird fall.
Notwithstanding all I had said to him, he
was again terribly frightened. I believe if I
had let him, he would have worshipped me and
the gun. As for the gun itself he would not so
much as touch it for several days.
When Friday tasted the stewed kid he showed
that he liked it very much. The next day I roasted
a piece, and he showed even more pleasure. He
made me understand he would never eat human
flesh any more.
As the days went by, I taught him to beat
and sift corn and to make bread. His devotion
to me was most touching. I dare say he would
have sacrificed his life to save mine upon any

occasion whatsoever. I became more and more
delighted with him, and spared no efforts in
teaching him everything I could that would make
him useful, handy and helpful. Especially did I
endeavor to make him speak and understand me
when I spoke.
After I had taught him English so that he
could understand me fairly well, I asked him how
it was that he had come to be taken prisoner. He
"They more many than my nation, in the
place where me was; they take one, two, three,
and me. My nation over-beat them, where me no
was; there my nation take one, two, great thou-
"But why did not your side recover you from
your enemies?" I asked.
Friday answered: "Because they make me go
in canoe; my nation have no canoe that time."
"What does your nation do with the prison-
ers they capture?" I questioned. "Do they carry
them away and eat them?"
"Yes, my nation eat mans too," said Friday,
looking ashamed. "Sometimes they come here,
often come other else place."
This interested me and I asked him if he had
ever been on my island with them, at other times.


"Yes," he replied, "I been here," pointing to
the northwest side of the island.
Friday then went on to tell me how he had
been on the island once when they had eaten up
twenty men, two women and one child. He could
not tell twenty in English, but laid out stones to
that number.
I asked him a thousand questions about his
country and he told me all he knew. He said his
sort of people were called Caribs; but farther
west there were white bearded men like me, and
that they had killed "much mans." I understood
from that, that he meant the Spaniards whose
cruelties in America had spread over the whole
country, and were remembered from father to
As time passed away, I talked much to Friday
about God and he became a very good Christian.
When he could understand me well, I told
him of the countries of Europe, and how I came
to be on the island. He said that a boat had come
ashore in his country with seventeen white men in
it. I was delighted when he told me that the sev-
enteen white men were living with his people.
One day we were up on the hill at the east
side of the island. Friday, who was looking earn-


estly toward the main land, suddenly cried out:
"Oh, joy! oh! glad! there see my country." That
set me to thinking whether I could not make the
voyage with Friday, or send him alone to see if
the white men were still there.
When I proposed to Friday that he go alone
to see his people, he said he would like to go but
that he would not leave me. I therefore resolved
to make a canoe large enough for both of us, and
venture forth.
We felled a tree near the water, and after
two months of hard labor we had shaped a boat
and gotten her into the sea. I was surprised to see
how quickly my man Friday learned to manage,
turn, and paddle her along. I made a mast and a
sail, and fitted her out with an anchor and cable.
Friday knew very well how to paddle the ca-
noe, but he knew nothing of what belonged to a
sail and rudder and was quite amazed when he
saw me working them. However, I soon made
these things familiar to him and he became an
expert sailor. There was one thing I could not
make him understand and that was the compass.
Before we got started the rainy season was
upon us and we had to postpone our voyage and
stay indoors. When we began to go out again, I


sent Friday down to the shore one day to find a
turtle. In a short time he came flying over my
outer wall in a great fright, crying out to me: "0,
master! O, bad!"
"What's the matter, Friday?" said I.
"Oh! yonder, there," cried he, "one, two, three
canoes, one, two, three!"
The poor creature was so frightened that I
hardly knew what to do with him. He trembled
in every limb, so sure was he that the savages
had come back to look for him.
"Friday," said I, "we must fight them, and
you must help me all you can." He assured me he
would, even saying: "me die when you bid die,
I hurriedly loaded the two fowling-pieces, four
muskets and two pistols. I hung my great sword
by my sfde, and gave Friday my hatchet. When I
had thus prepared, I went up to the hill and
looking through my perspective-glass saw twen-
ty-one savages, three prisoners, and three canoes.
It was easy to be seen that they had come ashore
to have another of those dreadful feasts of human
I was so indignant that I rushed back to Fri-
day, who by this time had gotten over his fright,



and told him that we must go down to the shore
and kill these barbarians.
In this fit of fury I gave Friday one pistol to
stick in his girdle, and three guns to carry on his
shoulders. I took a pistol and the three remain-
ing muskets. Friday carried a large bag with
more powder and bullets, and I placed a bottle of
rum in one of my pockets.
I charged him to keep close behind me, and
not to stir, or shoot, or do anything till I bade him.

We crept stealthily forward, hiding behind trees
and shrubbery. Finally we came within firing
distance, and I was filled with horror to see a
white man-evidently one of the bearded men
that Friday had told me about-lying on the sand,
bound hand and foot.
We had now not a moment to lose, for nine-
teen of the dreadful wretches sat upon the
ground, all closely huddled together. They had
just sent the other two to butcher the poor
Christian, for we could see them stoop down to
untie his hands and feet.
"Now, Friday," said I, "do exactly as you see
me do." So I set down one of the muskets and the
fowling-piece upon the ground, and with the oth-
er musket took aim at the circle around the fire.
Friday aimed so much better than I, that on the
side that he shot he killed two and wounded three
more. On my side, I killed one, and wounded
two. A regular panic ensued. Those of the sav-
ages who were not hurt, jumped to their feet, but
did not know which way to run or which way to
As soon as the first shot was made, I threw
down my gun and took up another. Friday did
the same, and waited for the order to fire. We


only killed two savages this time as our guns were
loaded with small pistol-bullets, but we wounded
so many that they ran about yelling and scream-
ing like mad creatures.
"Now, Friday," said I, laying down the dis-
charged pieces, and taking up the musket which
was yet loaded, "follow me."
We went directly toward the poor victim
who was still lying on the beach. The two butchers
who were beside him when we first fired, had fled
in fright to the sea-side and had jumped into a
canoe, and three more of the rest made away in
the same manner. I told Friday to run down and
fire at them, which he did, killing two and badly
wounding a third.
In the meantime, I cut the flags that bound
the poor victim and gave him a drink from my
bottle, and a piece of bread which he quickly ate.
Seeing that he was somewhat recovered, I gave
him my sword and a pistol and told him that if he
had any strength left, at all, to get up and help
us fight. He was a Spaniard, but understood En-
He took the weapons thankfully, and as if
they gave him new vigor, he flew upon his mur-
derers like a fury. Shortly after I saw him in

deadly combat with a powerful savage who was
wringing my sword out of his hands. I hastened
to his side, but he wisely dropped the sword and
shot his enemy through the body.
We fought desperately and succeeded in kill-
ing them all except the three who escaped in a
canoe of whom one was wounded, if not dead.
But it would never do to let these three carry
the news home to their people, for they would
surely return with two or three hundred canoes
and devour us. So we determined to pursue them
by sea.
We were about to enter one of their aban-
doned canoes when we discovered a prisoner,
lying in the bottom of the boat, tied hand and
foot. Imagine Friday's surprise and joy when
he found that it was no other than his own long
lost father. It would have moved anyone to tears
to see how Friday kissed and hugged his father.
He jumped about, dancing and singing; then
wept and beat his own face and head.
This put an end to our pursuit of the other
savages, who had now almost disappeared from
sight. It was lucky for us that we did not attempt
to follow them for about two hours later a dread-
ful storm arose.

When we reached home neither the Spaniard
nor Friday's father was able to climb the ladder,
their limbs were in such a stiffened condition
from having been bound so long. We made them
a tent outside, and in a few days they were well
and strong again.
I set Friday to inquire of his father if he
thought the savages who had escaped would
come back with reinforcements. He was of the
opinion that even if they had outlived the storm
that night, they would never return, for he had
heard them talking and they thought Friday and
Robinson Crusoe were two heavenly spirits or
furies. It was impossible for them to conceive
that a man could dart fire, speak thunder and
kill at a distance.
In my discourse with the Spaniard he told
me how he and thirteen others had been ship-
wrecked on the savage coast, and that his com-
panions were all alive, but in a state of great
want. I resolved to increase our stock of goats
and grain, sufficient to feed them all and then to
send for them. At the proper season we fell to
work digging, and planted as much grain as we
At last we sent Friday's father and the Span-

- ,,.. 1

1( 7


iard over to the mainland. After they had been
gone about eight days a strange thing happened. I
was looking out to sea one morning when I be-
held a small boat with shoulder-of-mutton sail
heading for our shore. I ran for my perspective
glass and soon discovered a ship lying at anchor
about a league and a half out.
When the small boat, which appeared to be
an English long-boat, reached the shore, eleven
men landed. Three of them were unarmed and
appeared to be prisoners. These three sat down
upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like
men in despair. The others rambled about the
land as if they wanted to see what kind of a
place they were in.
As soon as the other men were out of sight,
Friday and I went up to the three distressed
creatures and asked them who they were. They
were very much startled at our sudden approach,
and frightened at my uncouth appearance.
I calmed their fears and told them I was
ready to help them if they were in trouble.
Then one of them spoke up and said:
"I was commander of that ship out there; my
men mutinied against me and were going to mur-
der me, but were finally persuaded not to do so.


Instead they have set me on shore in this desolate
place, with these two men-one my mate and the
other a passenger, where they intend to leave us
to perish.
I then told him that I would venture to de-
liver him and his companions upon two condi-
tions; first, that while he stayed on the island he
was to have no authority, but was to be governed
by my orders; second, that if the ship should be
recovered, he was to carry my man Friday and
myself back to England, passage free.
The captain willingly agreed to these rea-
sonable demands, and I thereupon gave each of
them a musket and powder. We then went in
search of the villains and came upon them asleep
in a grove. The captain was loth to kill the men,
yet he said that there were two villains amongst
them who had been the authors of the mutiny in
the ship. If they escaped he feared they would
go on board and return with all the ship's com-
pany and destroy us all.
jn the middle of our discourse, two of the
men awoke, and cried out to the rest. But they
were too late, for our party fired, and one of the
two leaders was killed on the spot and the other
badly wounded. The captain then told the others

that he would spare their lives if they would give
up their mutiny and obey his orders. This they
promised to do. We took no chances, however,
but bound all our prisoners. We then went down
to the small boat, took everything out of it and
dragged it up beyond the reach of high tide.
After awhile another boat put off from the
ship with ten men in her, all armed. Eight of
them landed and started inland to find their com-
I immediately sent Friday and the captain's
mate over beyond the little creek to a piece of
rising ground and told them to halloo as loud as
they could. As soon as the seamen answered
they were to call out again and in the meantime
by taking a round-about way and keeping al-
ways out of sight, they were to lead them into the
island as far as possible.
The strategy worked well, and it was dark
before they all got back. In the meantime we
had overcome the two men left in the boat. They
begged for mercy and agreed to help put down
the mutiny if the captain would but spare-their
When the eight men came back to the boat
in the dark, I made one of the two, whom we had
just taken prisoner, call out:


"Tom Smith, for God's sake, throw down your
arms and yield, or you are all dead men this
"Whom must we yield to? Where are they?"
said Smith quickly.
"Here they are," he replied; "here's our cap-
tain and fifty men with him. They've been hunt-
ing you these two hours; if you do not yield at
once you are all lost."
Then the captain called out that if they would
lay down their arms, the governor of the island,
by whom he meant me, would spare all their lives,
except that of Will Atkins. He had been the first
to mutiny and lay hold of the captain.
It was very dark and they could not tell how
many men were really pursuing them, so they
decided to lay down their arms. We then bound
them and took some to the cave, and the others
to my bower.
The captain talked matters over with the
prisoners and after picking out those that he
could trust, he set out for the ship, reaching her
about midnight.
After a short fight, the rebel captain was
killed, and order restored.



The captain and some of his men then came
back to the island and brought me a lot of pro-
visions, and several outfits of clothing. The
clothing was a very kind and agreeable present,
but I must confess that I felt most awkward,
when I first put it on.
After dressing in my new clothes, so as to
look more like a real governor than when in my
goat skins, I had the rebels brought before me. I
told them that their rebel captain had been


killed, and that I was now considering executing
them as pirates. I told them that I had resolved
to quit the island with all my men and take
passage for England.
Upon this they begged that I would let them
stay on the island, to which I gave my consent.
Friday and I did not wait for the return of
his father and the white men but I told the men
the story of the Spaniards that were to be ex-
pected and left a letter for them. They promised
to treat the new-comers well and share things
with them.
When I quit the island I took my great goat-
skin cap and umbrella, one of my parrots and all
the money I had taken off the two shipwrecked
vessels and which up to this time had been per-
fectly useless to me.
We set sail the 19th of December, 1686. I had
lived on the island twenty-eight years, two months
and nineteen days.
After a six months' voyage we reached Eng-
land. I had been gone so long, that I was as much
a stranger as if I had never been known there.
I went down to Yorkshire but found my par-
ents were dead and all the family extinct except

two sisters and two of the children of one of my
In the meantime the captain told the owners
of the vessel how I had saved the ship and they
made up a purse of a thousand dollars for me.
With this money I resolved to go to Lisbon and
see if I could get any news from my plantations
in Brazil. Friday accompanied me and proved to
be a most faithful servant.
At Lisbon I found my old friend, the captain
of the Portuguese vessel that had picked me up
when I was escaping from the Moors. He was a
very old man now and had not been to Brazil
in nine years. However, he assured me, that the
last time he was there, my plantation was in a
flourishing condition.
I prepared the necessary papers and sent
them by a ship sailing to Brazil, and in about
seven months I received a large packet from my
surviving trustees giving a full account of my
plantation. It had kept improving all these years
and I was now the master of a fine estate and
50,000 pounds sterling in money. The trustees
sent me, beside the gold, 1,200 chests of sugar
and 800 rolls of tobacco.
I was so overcome by this news, and the re-

ception of such great riches that I fell sick but
soon recovered and decided to return with Fri-
day to England. I had had so much of the sea
that I resolved to return by land-that is, except
from Calais to Dover.
After several thrilling adventures in the
Pyrennes mountains with wolves and bears, we
finally reached England.
I was glad to get back and made up my
mind to stop roving. I married and lived happi-
ly for many years. We had three children, two
sons and a daughter. I sold my plantation
in Brazil and was now very wealthy, and able to
help the remaining members of my family.
One of my nephews I brought up as a gen-
tleman, and the other I placed with a ship cap-
tain.. He was a bold and sensible young man and
in five years I gave him a good ship and sent
him to sea.
After seven years of peace and happiness
my wife died and to relieve my grief I decided to
go to sea with my nephew, who promised to make
a trip to my island. I took a cargo of useful things
such as wearing apparel, beds, bedding, kitchen
utensils, guns and powder. I persuaded two car-
penters, a smith, a tailor and a very handy, in-

genious fellow to go along with us and make the
island their future home. I offered them a sum
of money which made it worth their while.
When we landed there was great excitement.
Friday spied his father the first thing, and their
meeting was most touching. The Spaniard whose
life I had saved when the savages were preparing
to kill him was now governor of the island.
At first the Spaniards who had come over
from the mainland and the members of the ship's
crew whom I had left there, when I returned to
England, did not get along very well, but now
everything was running along smoothly. The
island was in a most prosperous condition and no
one was at all anxious to leave it.
They were more than grateful to me for the
presents I brought them, and gave a warm wel-
come to the skilled workers who accompanied us.
I then left the island, promising to send
them some cattle, sheep, hogs and cows, as soon
as we touched at Brazil.
About three days after we had sailed, while
we were becalmed, a great fleet of canoes was
seen approaching us. When they came close
enough Friday went out on deck and called to
them in his language. Whether they understood

him or not I never knew for they let fly about
three hundred arrows, and to my inexpressible
grief, killed poor Friday. I was so enraged at the
loss of my old trusty servant and companion that
I ordered the guns to be loaded and gave them
such a broadside that thirteen or fourteen of their
canoes were split and upset, and the men all set
a-swimming. The rest, frightened out of their
wits, rowed away as fast as they could.
Poor honest Friday! We buried him at sea.
I had eleven guns fired in his honor. Thus ended
the life of the most grateful, faithful, honest and
affectionate servant that ever man had.
When we arrived at Brazil, I fitted out a ship
and loaded it with a cargo that I had promised to
send my tenants on the island.
From Brazil we sailed around the Cape of
Good Hope, visited India and China and after
many thrilling adventures I returned at last to
And here, resolving to fatigue myself no
more, I am preparing for a longer journey than
any of these, having lived a life of infinite varie-
ty seventy-two years, and learned sufficiently
to know the value of retirement and the blessing
of ending one's days in peace.

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