Citation
The Life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner, as related by himself

Material Information

Title:
The Life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner, as related by himself
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel,
Finnemore, Joseph, 1860-1939
De Wolfe, Fiske & Company
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publisher:
DeWolfe & Fiske Co.
Language:
English
Physical Description:
328 p., <6> leaves of plates : ill. (6 col.) ; 26 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Cover col. ill. with gilt title: Robinson Crusoe; spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Some black and white illustrations signed: J. Finnemore.
General Note:
Probably a variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 935.
General Note:
Part I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; illustrated.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
SN01272 ( lccn )
13131296 ( oclc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

UF00074462_00001.pdf

UF00074462_00001.txt

vid00001_00172.txt

vid00001_00210.txt

vid00001_00034.txt

vid00001_00051.txt

vid00001_00010.txt

vid00001_00077.txt

vid00001_00154.txt

vid00001_00294.txt

vid00001_00232.txt

vid00001_00342.txt

vid00001_00022.txt

vid00001_00130.txt

vid00001_00198.txt

vid00001_00124.txt

vid00001_00292.txt

vid00001_00223.txt

vid00001_00016.txt

vid00001_00296.txt

vid00001_00260.txt

vid00001_00203.txt

vid00001_00233.txt

vid00001_00275.txt

vid00001_00201.txt

vid00001_00083.txt

vid00001_00048.txt

vid00001_00160.txt

vid00001_00259.txt

vid00001_00018.txt

vid00001_00066.txt

vid00001_00297.txt

vid00001_00253.txt

vid00001_00251.txt

vid00001_00304.txt

vid00001_00246.txt

vid00001_00237.txt

vid00001_00179.txt

vid00001_00344.txt

vid00001_00176.txt

vid00001_00086.txt

vid00001_00007.txt

vid00001_00195.txt

vid00001_00043.txt

vid00001_00127.txt

vid00001_00169.txt

vid00001_00159.txt

vid00001_00265.txt

vid00001_00167.txt

vid00001_00346.txt

vid00001_00042.txt

vid00001_00241.txt

vid00001_00097.txt

vid00001_00104.txt

vid00001_00343.txt

vid00001_00032.txt

vid00001_00216.txt

vid00001_00215.txt

vid00001_00132.txt

vid00001_00072.txt

vid00001_00192.txt

vid00001_00052.txt

vid00001_00153.txt

vid00001_00340.txt

vid00001_00268.txt

vid00001_00247.txt

vid00001_00030.txt

vid00001_00252.txt

vid00001_00319.txt

vid00001_00320.txt

vid00001_00285.txt

vid00001_00033.txt

vid00001_00323.txt

vid00001_00222.txt

vid00001_00269.txt

vid00001_00170.txt

vid00001_00310.txt

vid00001_00063.txt

vid00001_00014.txt

vid00001_00220.txt

vid00001_00120.txt

vid00001_00299.txt

vid00001_00161.txt

vid00001_00225.txt

vid00001_00039.txt

vid00001_00012.txt

vid00001_00329.txt

vid00001_00333.txt

vid00001_00282.txt

vid00001_00249.txt

vid00001_00228.txt

vid00001_00123.txt

vid00001_00116.txt

vid00001_00107.txt

vid00001_00027.txt

vid00001_00270.txt

vid00001_00278.txt

vid00001_00134.txt

vid00001_00218.txt

vid00001_00209.txt

vid00001_00236.txt

vid00001_00321.txt

vid00001_00234.txt

vid00001_00001.txt

vid00001_00174.txt

vid00001_00069.txt

vid00001_00211.txt

vid00001_00021.txt

vid00001_00200.txt

vid00001_00332.txt

vid00001_00274.txt

vid00001_00088.txt

vid00001_00243.txt

vid00001_00145.txt

vid00001_00140.txt

vid00001_00111.txt

vid00001_00091.txt

vid00001_00056.txt

vid00001_00113.txt

vid00001_00327.txt

vid00001_00171.txt

vid00001_00177.txt

vid00001_00011.txt

vid00001_00306.txt

vid00001_00148.txt

vid00001_00204.txt

vid00001_00283.txt

vid00001_00114.txt

vid00001_00206.txt

vid00001_00013.txt

vid00001_00102.txt

vid00001_00112.txt

vid00001_00142.txt

vid00001_00312.txt

vid00001_00076.txt

vid00001_00244.txt

vid00001_00078.txt

vid00001_00185.txt

vid00001_00300.txt

vid00001_00103.txt

vid00001_00240.txt

vid00001_00322.txt

vid00001_00002.txt

vid00001_00288.txt

vid00001_00318.txt

vid00001_00258.txt

vid00001_00035.txt

vid00001_00238.txt

vid00001_00057.txt

vid00001_00059.txt

vid00001_00050.txt

vid00001_00144.txt

vid00001_00301.txt

vid00001_00281.txt

vid00001_00188.txt

vid00001_00239.txt

vid00001_00194.txt

vid00001_00115.txt

vid00001_00094.txt

vid00001_00129.txt

vid00001_00303.txt

vid00001_00295.txt

vid00001_00141.txt

vid00001_00347.txt

vid00001_00224.txt

vid00001_00004.txt

vid00001_00326.txt

vid00001_00131.txt

vid00001_00337.txt

vid00001_00044.txt

vid00001_00085.txt

vid00001_00287.txt

vid00001_00068.txt

vid00001_00147.txt

vid00001_00325.txt

vid00001_00152.txt

vid00001_00009.txt

vid00001_00168.txt

vid00001_00261.txt

vid00001_00207.txt

vid00001_00197.txt

vid00001_00110.txt

vid00001_00163.txt

vid00001_00284.txt

vid00001_00079.txt

vid00001_00019.txt

vid00001_00029.txt

vid00001_00226.txt

vid00001_00118.txt

vid00001_00006.txt

vid00001_00311.txt

UF00074462_00001_pdf.txt

vid00001_00305.txt

vid00001_00098.txt

vid00001_00255.txt

vid00001_00084.txt

vid00001_00273.txt

vid00001_00339.txt

vid00001_00175.txt

vid00001_00199.txt

vid00001_00082.txt

vid00001_00150.txt

vid00001_00128.txt

vid00001_00290.txt

vid00001_00212.txt

vid00001_00028.txt

vid00001_00286.txt

vid00001_00093.txt

vid00001_00026.txt

vid00001_00080.txt

vid00001_00126.txt

vid00001_00015.txt

vid00001_00090.txt

vid00001_00017.txt

vid00001_00156.txt

vid00001_00196.txt

vid00001_00266.txt

vid00001_00316.txt

vid00001_00058.txt

vid00001_00064.txt

vid00001_00031.txt

vid00001_00276.txt

vid00001_00162.txt

vid00001_00191.txt

vid00001_00186.txt

vid00001_00075.txt

vid00001_00122.txt

vid00001_00151.txt

vid00001_00328.txt

vid00001_00067.txt

vid00001_00045.txt

vid00001_00272.txt

vid00001_00293.txt

vid00001_00308.txt

vid00001_00336.txt

vid00001_00060.txt

vid00001_00341.txt

vid00001_00313.txt

vid00001_00193.txt

vid00001_00100.txt

vid00001_00055.txt

vid00001_00008.txt

vid00001_00213.txt

vid00001_00280.txt

vid00001_00155.txt

vid00001_00081.txt

vid00001_00190.txt

vid00001_00073.txt

vid00001_00041.txt

vid00001_00139.txt

vid00001_00025.txt

vid00001_00121.txt

vid00001_00307.txt

vid00001_00108.txt

vid00001_00267.txt

vid00001_00227.txt

vid00001_00324.txt

vid00001_00157.txt

vid00001_00205.txt

vid00001_00184.txt

vid00001_00023.txt

vid00001_00119.txt

vid00001_00219.txt

vid00001_00345.txt

vid00001_00277.txt

vid00001_00020.txt

vid00001_00173.txt

vid00001_00264.txt

vid00001_00070.txt

vid00001_00166.txt

vid00001_00089.txt

vid00001_00046.txt

vid00001_00143.txt

vid00001_00331.txt

vid00001_00074.txt

vid00001_00330.txt

vid00001_00106.txt

vid00001_00208.txt

vid00001_00302.txt

vid00001_00040.txt

vid00001_00231.txt

vid00001_00037.txt

vid00001_00254.txt

vid00001_00146.txt

vid00001_00005.txt

vid00001_00065.txt

vid00001_00003.txt

vid00001_00054.txt

vid00001_00248.txt

vid00001_00136.txt

vid00001_00187.txt

vid00001_00245.txt

vid00001_00217.txt

vid00001_00202.txt

vid00001_00235.txt

vid00001_00178.txt

vid00001_00181.txt

vid00001_00071.txt

vid00001_00257.txt

vid00001_00135.txt

vid00001_00024.txt

vid00001_00061.txt

vid00001_00263.txt

vid00001_00189.txt

vid00001_00314.txt

vid00001_00099.txt

vid00001_00298.txt

vid00001_00183.txt

vid00001_00053.txt

vid00001_00309.txt

vid00001_00049.txt

vid00001_00271.txt

vid00001_00158.txt

vid00001_00315.txt

vid00001_00165.txt

vid00001_00164.txt

vid00001_00109.txt

vid00001_00047.txt

vid00001_00182.txt

vid00001_00250.txt

vid00001_00214.txt

vid00001_00095.txt

vid00001_00338.txt

vid00001_00229.txt

vid00001_00221.txt

vid00001_00334.txt

vid00001_00289.txt

vid00001_00138.txt

vid00001_00317.txt

vid00001_00180.txt

vid00001_00149.txt

vid00001_00125.txt

vid00001_00038.txt

vid00001_00242.txt

vid00001_00062.txt

vid00001_00291.txt

vid00001_00262.txt

vid00001_00335.txt

vid00001_00092.txt

vid00001_00279.txt

vid00001_00096.txt

vid00001_00133.txt

vid00001_00117.txt

vid00001_00101.txt

vid00001_00256.txt

vid00001_00087.txt

vid00001_00036.txt

vid00001_00105.txt

vid00001_00230.txt

vid00001_00137.txt


Full Text




i
ee
SS



The Baldwin Library

University
RMB vik
Florida













ut den









Robinson Crusoe













‘Pulling as well as we could towards the land.’’



The Life and Strange ©

Surprising Adventures of |

Ko binson Crusoe
of York

Mariner

as Related by
Himself



Daniel Defoe

ILLUSTRATED

BOSTON:
DEWOLFE & FISKE COMPANY
PUBLISHERS









RoBINSON CRUSOE.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not of that
country, my father being a foreigner, of Bremen, who settled first at Hull; he gota
good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York;

from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by
the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called,—nay, we call ourselves,
and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English regi-
ment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was
killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother did know what was become
of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head began to be
filled very early with rambling thoughts; my father, who was very ancient, had given
me acompetent share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-school
generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
going to sea; and my inclination to this led me strongly against the will, nay, the com-
mands, of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and
other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension of nature, tend-
ing directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel against
what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his chamber, where
he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject:
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving



8 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleas-
ure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these
things were all either too far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not
exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper
part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of this state by this one
thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to great things, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of two extremes, between the mean and the great;
that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when
he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life were
shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the middle station had the
fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part
of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers, and uneasiness, either
of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury and extravagances on one
hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the other
hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way of liv-
ing; that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of
enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that tem-
perance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable
pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way men
went silently and smoothly through the world,and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed
with the labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread,
nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of
rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for
great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning
by every day’s experience to know it more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner, not to play
the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which nature, and the station of
life I was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under no necessity of.
seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into
the station of life which he had just been recommending to me; and that if I was not
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it;
‘and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warn-
ing me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; ina word, that as he
would do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he directed, so
he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encouragement
ife go away; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the army, where
jhe was killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would ven-
ture to say to me, that if I take this foolish step God would not bless me, and I should
have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.



I LEAVE HOME. 9

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic, though I
suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run
down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed;
and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no
more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this Aleeen tee and, indeed, who could be otherwise?
and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to ‘settle at home according to
my father’s desire. But alas! a few days wore it all off ; and, in short, to prevent any of
my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from
him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted,
but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary,
and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was now
eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve out my time, but I should
‘certainly run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to
recover the time that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she ee it would be to no
purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject ; that he knew too well what was
my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she wondered
how I could think of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my father, and
such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in
short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it; that for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my
father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard afterwards that she
reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern at it,
said to her with a sigh: “That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he
goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no
consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after oe that I broke loose, though, in the mean time, I
continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostu-
lated with my father and mother about their being so positively ‘determined against what
they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I say,
being there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London in his father’s
ship, and prompting me to go with them with the common allurement of a seafaring man,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any
more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God’s blessing or my father’s, without any consideration of circum-
stances or consequences, and in an ill hour God knows, on the Ist of September, 1651, I
went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I
believe, began sooner, or continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner got out
of the Humber, than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise in a most frightful
manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body,
and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what_I had done, and how



10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s
house, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears
and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which
was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to. which it has come since, reproached me
with the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was
enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything of
the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time the
ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more: in this agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please
God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again,
I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived;
that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station of life, how
easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests
at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal,
go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and indeed
some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began
to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little
sea-sick still, but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, anda
charming fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it,
the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,
looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before, and
and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me:
“Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after it?
I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind ?”
“A capful, d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible storm.” ‘A storm, you fool you,”
replies he; “do you call that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good
ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind’as that; but you’re but
a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we’ll forget all that;
d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?” To make short this sad part of my story, we
went the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with it;
and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. Ina word, as the sea was returned
to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by
the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot
the vows and promises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals
of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again some-
times; but I shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those fits—
for so I called them; and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over my
conscience as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire.
But I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it
does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would not take this fora
deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among
us would confess both the danger and the mercy.



A TERRIBLE STORM. II

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having
been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm. Here
we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary,
viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might
wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up the river,
but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard.
However, the Roads being reckoned as good as an harbour, the anchorage good, and
our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least appre-
hensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but
the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to

et



“MY FATHER GAVE ME
SERIOUS AND EXCELLENT COUNSEL" (4. 7).

strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might, ride as
easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle
in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead,
and the cables verred out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror and
amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in
the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could
hear him softly to himself say, several times, “ Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all
lost; we shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid,
lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I



12 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could ill resume the first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard-
ened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had been past; and that this
would be nothing too, like the first; but when the master himself came by me, as I said
just now, and said we should be all lost,I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my
cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes: when I could look about, I could
see nothing but distress round us; two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their
masts by the board, being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which rode
about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors,
were run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of
them drove, and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out before
the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to let them
cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting
to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and when they had cut
away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were
obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but a young
sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But if I can express at
this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of
mind upon account of my former convictions, and the having returned from them to the
resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to
the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe it.
But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she
was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every now and then cried out
she would founder. It was my advantage in one respect that I.did not know what they
meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw, what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the menthat .
had been down to see, cried out we had sprung a leak: another said, there was four feet
water inthe hold. Then all hands were called tothe pump. At that word, my heart,
as I thought, died within me: and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat,
into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, that I, that was able to do
nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to
the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some
light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to
the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who
knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing
happened. Ina word, I was so surprised that I fell down inaswoon. As this wasa
time when everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was
become of me; but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with
his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it wasa great while before I came
to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the ship
would founder ; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into any port; so the master continued firing guns for
help ; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help
us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us



ON DRY LAND AGAIN. 13

to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much
labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could; and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved
upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far
as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we saw her
sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she
was sinking; for from the moment that they rather put me into the boat, than that I
might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright,
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at the oar to bring the
boat near the shore—we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to
see the shore) a great many people running along the strand, to assist us when we should
come near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor were we able to reach
the shore, till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we
got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by
particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home I had
been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed
the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could resist ;
and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more composed
judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it isa secret overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments
of our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending,
which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two such
visible obstructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the master’s son,
was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to several
quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered ; and, looking
very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad: his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone, “ Young man,”
says he, “you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” ‘“ Why, sir,” said I, “ will you go
to sea no more?” “That is another case,’ said he; ‘‘it is my calling, and therefore
my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given



14 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, “what are you; and
on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story; at the
end of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion: ‘ What had I done,” says he,
“that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my foot in
the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.” ‘This indeed was, as I said, an
excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me,
exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin, telling me
I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me. “ And, young man,” said he, “ depend
upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but
disasters and disappointments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no more; which
way he went I know not. As for me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself,
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts ;
and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours,
and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else ;
from whence I have often since observed, how incongruous and irrational the common
temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in
such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed
of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures to
take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going
home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off;
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to return wore off with it, till at
last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

The evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house,—which
hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of raising my fortune; and that
impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice,
and to the entreaties and even the commands of my father ;—I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly called
it, a voyage to Guinea.*

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship myself as a
sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at
the same time I should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast man, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not fora master. But as it was
always my fate to choose for the worst, so I did here; for having money in my pocket
and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London, which does not
always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was; the devil gen-
erally not omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not so with me.
I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea;
and who, having had very good success there, was resolved to go again. This captain
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing

* Guinea. A district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where the land runs nearly due east and west.
\The six countries into which it is divided are known to sailors under the names of Sierra Leone, Grain Coast, Ivory
‘Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin.



MV FIRST TRADING VOYAGE, 15



“WE WORKED ON” (4. 12).

me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I
should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and if I could
carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit;
and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who was
an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very
considerably; for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me
to buy. This £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations
whom I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adventures, and
which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain; under whom also I
got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how
to keep an account of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand
some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to



16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor
and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adven-
ture, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost 4300; and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was continu-
ally sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our
principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north even to
the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfortune, dying
soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the
same vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the com-
mand of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I
did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had
lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfor-
tunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz., our ship making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African shore, was surprised in
the grey of the morning by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or
our masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would cer-
tainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns
and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing
to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stcrn, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small
shot from nearly two hundred men which he had on board. However, we had not a man
touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves. But laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and
rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our decks of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our
story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended ; nor was I carried
up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the
captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and
fit for his business. At this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to
a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father’s
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which
I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse; for now the
hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption; but, alas!
this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of
this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing that
it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugese man-of-
war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away ; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do
the common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came home again from
his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to effect
it, but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing presented to make
the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would embark’



L ENTERTAIN IDEAS OF ESCAPE. 17

with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself; so
that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had
the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the old
thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at
home longer than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was
fair, to take the ship’s pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always took
me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth—the Moresco, as they called him—to
catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing with him in a calm morning, a fog rose so
thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and
rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night;
and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for
the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from the land. However, we got well
in again, though with a great deal of labour and some danger; for the wind began to
blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of himself for
the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English ship which he had
taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English slave, to
build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge,
with a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the mainsheet; and room before
for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder-
of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and
low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with
some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; and
particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was most dexterous to
catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he had appointed to go
out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two o1 three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent
on board the boat over-night a larger store of provisions than usual; and had ordered me
to get ready three fusils* with powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for that
they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning with the boat
washed clean, her ancient} and pendants out, and everything to accommodate his guests;
when by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual,
to go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house: he commanded me too that as soon as I had got some fish I should bring it
home to his house: all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts, for now I
found I was likely to have a little ship at my command; and my master being gone, I
prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer; for anywhere to get out
of that place was my desire.

* Fusil, a French word, meaning a light musket or Srelock.
} Ancient, the old word, derived from the French ensigne, tor a flag, or the man who carries it.
2



18 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get something
for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s
bread. He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of their
kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case of
bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English prize,
and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been
there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat,
which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet,
a saw, anda hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also: his
name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to him :—“ Moely,” said
I, “our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot?
It may be we may kill some alcamies” (a fowl like our curlews) “for ourselves, for
I know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “ Yes,” says he, “I'll bring some;”
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held about a pound and a half
of powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time, I had found some powder of my
master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which
was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with every-
thing needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of
the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile
out of port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew
from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire, for had it blown southerly, I had
been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but
my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate. ‘

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had fish on my
hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the Moor, “ This
will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off.’ He,
thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sail; and, as I had
the helm I ran the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to, as if I would
fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm
under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for
he swan like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, telling me he would
go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he would -have
reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the
cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him and told him I had
done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: “But,” said I, “you
swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to
shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I’ll shoot you through
the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty :” so he turned himself about, and swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have drowned the
boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy,
whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I’ll make
you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me” (that is, swear
by Mahomet and his father’s beard), “I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and swore to
be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.









“HE LAY STRUGGLING FOR LIFE.”

(See p. 22).



20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly to sea
with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me gone towards
the Straits’ * mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been sup-
posed to do): for who would have supposed we were sailing on to the southward, to the
truly barbarian coast; where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes and destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we should be
devoured by savage beasts, or mere merciless savages of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and steered
directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the east that I might keep
in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made
such sail that I believe by the next day at three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first
made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee: quite
beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts,
for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions I
had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an an-
chor; the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then the
wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase
of me, they also would now give over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to
an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, nor where; neither what lati-
tude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any
people ; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the
evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country;
but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring,
and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready
to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. “Well, Xury,” said I,
“then I won’t; but it may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those
lions.” “Then we give them the shoot-gun,” says Xury, laughing, “make them run
wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad
to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to
cheer him up. Afterall, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it: we dropped our little
anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we
saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure
of cooling themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never
indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were both more
frighted when we heard one mighty creature come swimming towards our boat; we
could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous, huge and
furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know; but poor
Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. “ No,” says I, “ Xury, we can slip
our cable, with the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no
sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars’ length,
which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and
taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turned about, and swam
towards the shore again.

But it is impossibie to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries and howlings,
that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures had
never heard before: this convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the

* Stratts, the Straits of Gibraltar.



1 GO ON SHORE WITH XURY. 2X



“IT WAS A PORTUGUESE SHIP” (4%. 25).

night upon that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was another question too;
for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen
into the paws of the lions and tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger
of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for water,
for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was the point. Xury said,
if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water,
and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay
in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, as made me love him ever after.
Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” ‘“ Well, Xury,” said I, “we
will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them—they shall eat neither of us.”
So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we
thought was proper, and waded on shore; carrying nething but our arms, and two jars
for water. ;

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes with
savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it, and by-and-by I saw him come running toward me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward towards
him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs; however, we were very glad of it,and it was very good meat; but the great
joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no
wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a little
higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had
killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature
in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the islands of



22 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as
I had no instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we were in, and did
not exactly know, or at least not remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not where
to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily
have found some of these islands. But my hope was that if I stood along this coast till
I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that country
which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts ; the negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther
south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason
of its barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of
tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors
use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at
a time; and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing
but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roarings of
wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being the high
top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind to venture out, in
hopes of reaching thither; but having failed twice, I was forced in again by contrary
winds, the sea also going too high for my littie vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first
design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this place; and
once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point
of land, which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther
in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me,
and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look, yonder lies
a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where he pointed,
and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of
the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as if it were a little over him.
“ Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said,
“Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more
to the boy, but bade him be still, and took our biggest gun, which was almost musket
bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down;
then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) I
loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first piece to have
shot him in the head, but he laid so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the
slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. _He started up, growling at first,
but finding his leg broke, fell down again; and then got up upon three legs, and gave
the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him
on the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and though he began to
move off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop;
and making but little noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. ‘ Well, go,” said I, so the boy jumped into the water, and
taking the little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to
the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry to loose
three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us.
However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he.



WE ENCOUNTER NAKED SAVAGES. 23

However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him,
and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or other,
be of some value to us; and I resolved to take offhis skin if Icould. So Xury and I went
to work with him ; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how
to do it. Indeed, it took us up both the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him,
and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time, and
it afterwards served me to lie upon. be

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve days, living
very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no oftener
into the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was, to make
the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I
was in hopes to meet with some European ship ; and if I did not, I knew not what course
I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there among thenegroes. I knew that



“THEY CAME TO MAKE A SECRET PROPOSAL TO ME” (4. 29),

all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to
the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of my
fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said, I began to

see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive that they were quite black,
and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them ; but Xury was my
better counsellor, and said to me, “No go,no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the!
shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way:
I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long slender stick,
which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a great way with good aim;
so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly
made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of
them ran up into the country; and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with



24 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country ;
but we neither knew what the one or the other was: however, we were willing to accept
it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture on shore to them,
and they were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends; but
an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully: for while we were
lying on the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuring the other (as we took it)
with great fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing
the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in the
first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and in the second
place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the women. The man that had

‘the lance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures
ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion: at last
one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for
him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition,and bade Xury load both the
others. As soonas he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the
head: immediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and
down, as if he were struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the
shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the noise and
fire of my gun; some of them were ready even to die for fear, and fell down as dead with
the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk into the water, and that
I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water: and by
the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged
him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an ad-
mirable degree; and the negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it
was I killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun, swam to
the shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they came; nor could JI, at
that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the negroes were for eating the flesh of
this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately
they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of
wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we would have done
with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would
give it them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought
me a great deal more of their provision, which, though I did not understand, yet I ac-
cepted. Then I made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning its bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled.
They called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and brought
a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they set down for
me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and leaving
my friendiy negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, without offering to



RESCUED BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP. 25

go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the
distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large
offing to make this point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most
certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from thence,
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best do; for if I should be taken witha fresh gale of wind, I might
neither reach one or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat me down,
Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, “ Master, master, a ship
with a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs
be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough
out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship,
but that it was a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea,
for negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they
were bound some other way, and did not design to go any nearer the shore; upon which
I stretched out to the sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their way,
but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them: but after I had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which they supposed must
belong to some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was
encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to
them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both of which they saw; for they told me
they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they very
kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours’ time I came up
with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French, but I
understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me:
and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee ; they then bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was thus
delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was
in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship. as a return ‘for m
deliverance ; but he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all I
had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he,
“T have saved your life on no other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself;
and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition,
Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then
I only take away that life I have given. No, no,” says he; “Seignor Inglese” (Mr.
Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and these things will help you to buy
your subsistence there, and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to a tittle ;
for he ordered the seamen, that none should offer to touch anything I had: then he took
everything into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that
I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me he would buy
it of me for the ship’s use ; and asked me what I could have for it? I told him, he had
been so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price of the



26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which, he told me he would give me a note of his
hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil ; and when it came there, if any one
offered to give more, he would make it up.’ He offered me also sixty pieces of eight
more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was unwilling to let the
captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me
so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned
it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set
him free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was willing
to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de Todos los
Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was once more
delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember: he
would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin,
and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me,
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees’-wax, for
I had made candles of the rest: in a word I made about two hundred and twenty pieces
of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of a good, honest
man, like himself, who had an zugenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-
house), I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the
manner of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived,
and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I
would turn planter among them; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to
get my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a
kind of letter of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one as might
be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

Thad a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents, whose
name was Wells,and in much such circumstances as I was. I call him neighbour, because
his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was
but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land began to come into order; so that
the third year we planted some tobbaco, and made each of usa large piece of ground
ready for planting canes in the year tocome. But we both wanted help; and now I
found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder. I had no
remedy but to go on: I had got into employment quite remote to my genius, and
directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s house,
and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I was coming into the very middle station,
or upper degree of low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if I
resolved to go on with, I might have as well have stayed at home, and never fatigued
myself in the world, as I have done; and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it
among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never to hear
from any part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret. I had
nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbor ; no work to be done, but,
by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast aNay



MY LIFE IN THE BRAZILS. 27

upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself. But how just has it been—
and how should all men reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience—I say, how just has it been, that the truly
solitary life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had,
in all probability, been exceedingly prosperous and rich.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation, before

rat



“T RESCLVED TO HOLD FAST BY A PIECE OF THE ROCK” (4. 33).

my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back—for the ship
remained there, in providing her lading, and preparing for her voyage, near three months ;
when, telling him what little stock I had left behind mein London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice :—‘ Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “if you will
give me letters and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the person who has
your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct,
and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return ; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters,
I would have you give orders for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half



28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first ; so that, if it come safe, you may order
the rest the same way ; and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse
to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the
gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired. :

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures—my slavery,
escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his beha-
viour, and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions for my supply ;
and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English
merchants there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she not only de-
livered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me. :

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English goods, such as the
captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe
to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was too young in my
business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and
untensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised with the joy
of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend
had sent him fora present for himse!f, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond
for six years’ service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco,
which I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such as cloths,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found means
to sell them at a very great advantage; so that I may say, I had more than four times the
value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour—I mean in
the advancement of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave,
and an European servant also—I mean another besides that which the captain brought
me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our greatest adversity,
so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success in my plantation: I raised
fifty great rolls of tobacco on. my own ground, more than IJ had disposed of for necessaries
among my neighbors; and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred-weight were
well cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon : and now increasing in
business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my
reach; suchas are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued
in the station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me,
for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired !'£:, and which he had so
sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of; but other things attended me,
and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly to increase
my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should
have leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate ad-
hering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in
contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred to
present me with, and to make my duty.

; As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could not be con-
a now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man



THE SLAVE-DEALING SCHEME. 29

in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than
the nature of the thing admitted ; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest
gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life, and
a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my story :—You
may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the language,
but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants at St. Salvadore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of
Guinea; the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c., but negroes, for the
service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourse on these heads, but especially
to that part which related to the buying negroes, which was a trade, at that time, not only
not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the asséento, or permis-
sion, of the Kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few
negroes were brought and those excessively dear.

I happened, being in company one day with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came to me the
next morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
of with them the last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after
enjoining me secresy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straightened for nothing so
much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could
not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so they desired to make but one
voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own plan-
tations; and, ina word, the question was, whether I would go their supercago in their
ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that
I should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one that had
not had a settlement and a plantation cf his own to look after, which was in a fair way of
coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for three
or four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being woith
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me to think of such
a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances could be
guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the offer than I
could restrain my first rambling designs when my father’s good counsel was lost upon
me. Inaword I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to
look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it as I should direct, if I
miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings and covenants to do
so. I made a formal will disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my death, making
the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging
him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will: one-half of the produce being
to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up my
plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my own interest, and



30 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had cer-
tainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views
of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather than my
reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo finished, and all things
done, as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour
again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that | went from my
father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my
own interests.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six guns, and four-
teen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had on board no large cargo of
goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits
of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets,
and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward upon our
own coasts, with design to stretch over for the African coast when they came into about
ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was a manner of their course
in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own
coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; from whence, keeping farther off at
sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle of Fernando de Nor-
onha, holding our course N. E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this course
we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation, in seven
degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took
us quite out of our knowledge. It began from the south-east, came about to the north-
west, and then settled into the north-east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before
it, let it carry us wherever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during these
twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor did any
in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men died of the
calenture, and a man and a boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather -
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and found that he
was in about eleven degrees of north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of
longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon
the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that
of the river Oronoque, commonly called the Great River; and now he began to consult
with me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and
he was for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea coast of America
with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till
we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away
for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of
Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we
could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both
to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N. W. by W., in order to
reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was other-
wise determined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second
storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and
drove us out of the way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to



OUR VESSEL IS DRIVEN ON SHORE. 31



“THE SHIP WAS DRIVEN UP ALMOST AS FAR AS THE ROCK” (#, 34).

the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to
our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early one morning
cried out, “ Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of
seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and ina
moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we
expected we should all have perished immediately, and we were even driven into our
close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to describe or con-
ceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We knew nothing where we
were, or upon what it was we were driven—whether an island or the main, whether
inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was still great, though rather less
than at first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. Ina word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little or
nothing more for us to do in this. That which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship having thus
struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a
dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well
as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first staved
by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the next place, she broke away, and either
sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another boat on
board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was no
room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and with the help of the
rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship’s side; and getting all into her, let go,
and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild sea; for



32 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea ran dreadfully high upon the
shore, and might be well called dex wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly, that the sea went
so high that the boat could not escape, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As
to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything with it; so we
worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to execu-
tion; for we all knew that when the boat came near the shore, she would be dashed ina
thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in
the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards the land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal we knew not.
The only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we
might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance
we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth
water. But there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the
shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as we reckoned it, a
raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the
coup de grace. Ina word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once;
and separating us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to
say, “‘O God!” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sank into the
water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as
breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for
I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I
had no means or strength to contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and
pilot myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern now being, that the
wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not
carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep in
its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward
with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when as I felt myself
rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the
surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep
myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and, finding the water
had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves,
and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath and
till the waters went from me, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength
I had, farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves
and carried forward as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for the sea having hurried
me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that



MY ECSTACIES AT MY ESCAPE. 33

with such force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for
the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body;
and had it returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but I
recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with
the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves were not so high as at first, being
nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not
so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the mainland,
where to my great comfort, I clambered up the
cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the
grass, free from danger and quite out of the reach
of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and
began to look up and thank God that my life was
saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes
before, scaice any room to hope. I believe it is
impossible to express, to the life, what the ecsta-
cies and transports of the soul are, when it is so
saved, as I may say, out of the very grave, and
I do not wonder now at that custom, when a male-
factor, who has the halter about his neck,
is tied up, and just going to be turned off,
and hasa reprieve brought to him—I say, £ Tp
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon . B+"
with it, to let him blood that very moment
they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the
animal spirits from the heart and overwhelm him.



“I GOT IT DOWN
TO MY RAFT”
(4. 36).

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my
deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I
cannot describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but my-
self; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign
of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get
on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my condition, I began to look around me, to see what kind
of a place I was in, and what was next to be done: and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that in a word, I had a dreadful £
deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any-
thing either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see 'Â¥
any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or
being devoured by wild beasts; and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and

3



34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature .
that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife,
a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco ina box. This was all my provisions; and this threw
me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they always come abroad for
their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to get up into a thick
bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all
night, and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water
to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me ashort stick, like a
truncheon, for iny defence, I took up my lodging: and being excessively fatigued, I fell
fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my condition,
and found myself more refreshed with it than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated, so that
the sea did not rage and swell as before. But that which surprised me most was, that
the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had
been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being within about a mile
from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself
on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again, and
the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her
up, upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon
the shore to have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of water between me and the
boat which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present
subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out that
I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing
of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if-we had kept on board, we had been all safe—
that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company as I now was. This forced tears to
my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took
the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how
to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I
espied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hanging down
by the fore-chains so low, that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help
of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was
bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank,
and her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and
all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search,
and to see what was spoiled and what was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s
provisions were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about



I MAKE A RAFT. 35

other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin,
of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to spirit me
for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with
many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and this extremity
roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood,
and a spare top-mast or two in the ship: I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung
as many of them overboard as I could,
manage for their weight, tying every one
with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down
the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I
tied four of them together at both ends, as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and
laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces
being too light. So I went to work, and
with a carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-
mast into three lengths, and added them to
my raft, with a great deal of labour and
pains. But the hope of furnishing myself
with necessaries, encourged me to go be-
yond what I should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to
bear any reasonable weight. Mynext care
was what to load it with, and how to pre-
serve what I had laid upon it from the surf
of the sea: but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards
upon it that I could get, and having con-
sidered well what I most wanted
I first got three of the seamen’s
chests, which I had broken open __
and emptied, and lowered them
down upon my raft; the first of
these I filled with provisions, viz.
bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat's flesh
(which we lived much upon), and PA ESE REC DE DB Ray aie):

a little remainder of European

corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the
fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat together; but, to my great
disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoileditall. As for liquors,
I found several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of arrack. These I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for them, While I
was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifi-
cation to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore, upon the sand, swim




























36 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

away. As for my breeches, they were only linen, and open-knee’d, I swam on board in
them and my stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I
found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things
which my eye was more upon—as, first, tools to work with on shore. And it was after
long searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which was, indeed, a very useful
prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for
I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very good
fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first, with powder-
horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
powder inthe ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but with much
search I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two
I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder ;
and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: first, a smooth, calm sea; secondly, the tide rising, and
setting into the shore; thirdly, what little wind there was blew me towards the land.
And thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools
which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe,and a hammer: with this cargo I put
to sea. Fora mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed before; by which I perceived that there
was some indraught of the water, and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river
there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo. |

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of the land, and
I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to
keep in the middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think
verily, would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted
but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen
into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in
their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir
from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that
manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me a little more
upon a level; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust
her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found
myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current of tide
running up. I looked on both sides fora proper place to get to shore, for I was not
willing too be driven to high up the river: hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which, with great
pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, that, reaching ground with
my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo
into tne sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was
no place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and
the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could
do, was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor,
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water enough—for my raft
drew about a foot of water—I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened





“WITH THIS CARGO I PUT TO SEA.”

(See p. 36)



38 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near
one end, and one on the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed
away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my habitation,
and where to stow my goods to secure them from whatever might happen. Where I
was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or an island; whether inhabited or not
inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile
from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. JI took out one of the fowling-pieces,
and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery
up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the
top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was in an island environed every way
with the sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two
small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason to
believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of which however, I saw none. Yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird which I
saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that
had been fired there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, but from all
parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a
confused screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note, but not one of
them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of
hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than
common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft and fell to work to bring my
cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of the day. What to do with myself at night
I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not
knowing but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was
really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and boards
that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for
food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three crea-
tures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of the ship,
which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other things as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on board
the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything out of
the ship that I could get. Then I called a council—that is to say, in my thoughts—
whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go
as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from
my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of
pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having had
experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I
brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets,
and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together
with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and
two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small



MY MEETING WITH THE WILD CAT. 39



“A LITTLE PLAIN ON THE SIDE «
OF A RISING HILL” (4. 42).

quantity of powder more; a large bag-full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead ;
but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes, that I could find, and a spare
fore-top sail, a hammock and some bedding ; and with this I loaded my second raft and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension during my absence from the land, that at least my
provisions might be devoured on shore; but when I came back, I found no sign of any
visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I
came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very composed:
and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with
me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly
unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great; however, I
spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased)
for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged to open the barrels
of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks—I
went to work to make mea little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with rain
or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify
it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards within,



4o ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night. I was very weary and heavy; for
the night before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch
those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe, for one
man ; but still I was not satisfied, for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought
I ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day, at low water, I went on
board, and brought away something or other; but particulary the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-
twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occa-
sion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails first and
last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could,
for they were no more useful to me for sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was that at last of all, after I had made five
or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with—I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread,
three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of fine sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this
was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread, and wrapped
it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also, though at several times.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the ship of what
was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cable; cutting the great cable into
pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-
work I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every-
thing I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came away.
But my good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen,
that after I entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo
into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to
my cargo it was great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me; however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of
cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip
for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this, I went every
day on board, and brought away what I could get.

I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board the
ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well be sup-
posed capable of bringing; though I verily believe, had the calm weather held, I
should have brought away the whole ship, piece by by piece; but preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise. However, at low water I went on
board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, that nothing
more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I
found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money—
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “Oh, drug!” said I, aloud, “ what art
thou good for? Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking off the ground; one of
those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee; e’en remain where
thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving.” However,
upon second thoughts, I took it away; and, wrapping all in a piece of canvas, I began to



DISAPPEARANCE OF THE SHIP. 41

think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast.
and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blewa fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the
wind off shore; and that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands,
and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about
me, and partly from the roughness of the water ; for the wind rose very hastily, and before
it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth about me
very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I looked out,



3 “INTO THIS FORTRESS
I CARRIED ALL MY RICHES”’ (4. 42).




behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with
this satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get every-
thing out of her that could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her
that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her, except
what. might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did;
but those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself-against either savages,
if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make—whether I should



ee

42 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon
both; the manner and description of which, it may not be improper to give an
account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, particularly because it
was upon a low, moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome,
and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a
more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper for me:
Ist, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned ; 2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun;
3rdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; 4thly, a view to the sea,
that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a rising hill,
whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come
down upon me fromthe top. On the side of the rock there was a hollow place, worn a
little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or
way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved to pitch my tent.
This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a
green before my door ; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down into
the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to the W. and by S. sun or thereabouts,
which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which took in
about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from
its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the ground
till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about five feet
and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches from
one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows,
one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half high,
like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that neither man nor beast could get
into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles
in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder to go
over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; andso I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure in
the night, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards,
there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger
from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all my pro-
visions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above; and I made me
a large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent
there. I made it double—viz., one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it;
and covered the uppermost part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore, but in
a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ‘ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by "the



THE THUNDERSTORM. 43

wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I
had left open, and so passed and re-passed, as I said by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing all
the earth and stones that I dug down ont through my tent, I laid them up within
my fence, in the nature of a terrace,
so that it raised the ground within
about a foot and a half; and thus I
made me a cave, just behind my tent,
which served me like a cellar to my
house.

It cost me much labour and
many days before all these things were
brought to perfection; and therefore I
must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts.
At the same time it occurred, after I
had laid my scheme for the setting up
the tent, and making the cave, that a
storm of rain falling from a thick, dark
cloud, a sudden flash of lighting hap-
pened, and after that, a
great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it.
I was not so much sur-
prised with the lightning,
as I was with a thought
which darted into my mind
as swift as the lightning it-
self—Oh, my powder! My
very heart sank within me
when I thought that, at one
blast, all my powder might be
destroyed; on which, not my
defence only, but the providing
me food, as I thought, entirely
depended. I was nothing near
so anxious about my own dan-
ger; though had the powder
took fire, I had never known
who had hurt me.

Such impression did this
make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all
my work, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself
to make bags and boxes, to
separate my powder, and to
Se SS _ keep it a little and a little in a
' parcel, in hopes that, whatever
might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep


















“A GREAT QUANTITY OF EARTH FELL DOWN” (4. 51).



44 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all was about one hundred
and forty pounds weight, was divided into no less than a hundred parcels. As to the
barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my
new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where
I laid it.
' In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once every day
with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and
as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced. ‘The first time I
went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they
were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might
now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a little,
I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though
they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible fright ; but if they were
feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from
whence I concluded that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed down-
ward that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards I took
this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which jad a little
kid by her which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; for, when the old one
fell, the kid stood stock-still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but
when I carried the old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid folléwed me quite to my
enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried
it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced
to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as I possibly could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide a place
to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place; but I
must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not cast away upon that island
without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our intended
voyage, and a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of
the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven
that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears
wouldrun plentifully down my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would
expostulate with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned, and so entirely
depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and to
reprove me; and particularly one day walking with my gun in my hand by the seaside,
I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when Reason, as it were,
put in expostv ating with me the other way, thus: ‘Well, you are in a desolate con-
dition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you
lost? Why are you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?” And then I



MY MANNER OF RECKONING TIME. 45

pointed to the sea. All evils are to be con-
sidered with the good that is in them, and
with what worse attended them. ~

Then it occurred to me again, how well
I was furnished for my subsistence, and what
would have been my case if it had not hap-
pened (which was a hundred thousand to one)
that the ship floated from the place where
first she struck, and was driven so near to the
shore, that I had time to get all these things
out of her? what would have been my case,
if I had been forced to have lived in the con-
dition in which I at first came on shore, with-
out necessaries of life, or any means to supply
and procure them? “ Particularly,” said I
aloud (though to myself), “what should I
have done without a gun, without ammuni-
tion, without any tools to make anything, or
to work with? without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of coverings?” and that
now I had all these to a sufficient quantity,
and was in a fair way to provide myself in
such a manner as to live without my gun,
when my ammunition was spent: so that I
had a tolerable view of subsisting without any
want as long as I lived; for I considered from
the beginning how I would provide for the
accidents that might happen and for the time
that was to come, even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after
-my health and strength should decay.

I confess I had not then entertained any
notion of my ammunition being destroyed at
one blast—I mean, my powder being blown
up by lightning; and this made the thoughts s
of it surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life, such,
perhaps, as was never heard of it in the world before, I shall take it from its beginning,
and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September when, in the
manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island; when the sun, being to us
in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by obser-
vation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts that I should
lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen, and ink, and should even forget
the Sabbath day from the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon
a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore
where I first landed, viz., “ I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and every
seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.



“GRINDING MY TOOLS” (4%. 57)



46 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I brought
from the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down
before: as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s,
gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical instru-
ments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or no: also I found three very good Bibles, which came to
me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my things; some
Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or three Popish prayer-books, and several
other books; all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the
ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I must have occasion to say something
in its place, for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the
ship himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me,
nor any company that he could make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me,
but that he could not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I hus-
banded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted I kept things very
exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any means
that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all that I had
amassed together; and of these, ink was one: as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want
that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ; and it was near a whole
year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it
into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at iast
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, yet made
driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need I have
been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough
to do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least that I could
foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was
reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them
to any that were to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind; and as my reason began
to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the
good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from worse,
and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comfort I enjoyed against
the miseries I suffered, thus:

EVIL. GOOD.
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive; and not drowned, as
island; void of all hope of recovery. all my ship’s company was.
I am singled out and separated, as But I am singled out, too, from all
it were, from all the world, to be miserable. the ship’s crew, to be spared from death;

and He that miraculously saved me from
death can deliver me from this condition.



REFLECTIONS ON MY CONDITION. 47

EVIL.

I am divided from mankind, a solitary ;
one banished from human society.

GOOD.

But I am not starved, and perish-
ing on a barren place, affording no suste-

nance.

But I am in a hot climate, where if I

I have no clothes to cover me. had clothes, I could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island where I see
no wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa; and what if I had been
shipwrecked there?

I am without any defence, or means to
resist any violence of man or beast.

But God wonderfully sent the ship in
I have no soul to speak to or relieve near enough to the shore, that I have got
me. out so many necessary things as will either
supply my wants or enable me to supply

myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce any condi-
tion in the world so miserable but there was something negative, or something positive,
to be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world—that we may always find in it something to
comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of
the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given over looking
out to sea if I could spy aship—I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself
to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of a rock,
surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall,
for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick, on the outside ; and
after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the
rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get to
keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into the cave
which I had made behind me. ButI must observe, too, that at first this was a confused
heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself: soI set myself to enlarge my cave, and worked farther in the earth;
for it was a loose, sandy rock : which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and
so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right
hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me
a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to
my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found I most
wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do several things, with somuch
pleasure without a table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs observe that as reason is the substance
and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and by
making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master of every
mechanic art, I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, appli-



48 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

cation, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without tools ;
and some with no more tools than an adze anda hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made
that way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had
no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till Ihad brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one board out of a whole
tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had: for the prodigious
deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my time or
labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as another.

However, I made mea table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first place ; and
this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But
when I had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of
a foot anda half, one over another, all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails,
and iron work on; and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places that I
might come easily at them; also I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my
guns and all things that would hang up: so that had my cave been to be seen, it looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand,
that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find
my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a Journal of every day’s employment; for,
indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and not only an hurry as to labour, but in too
much discomposure of mind; and my Journal would have been full of many dull things:
for example, I must have said thus: ‘‘ Sept. the 30th—After I had got to shore, and had
escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first
vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my hands and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone, undone! till, tired and
faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of
being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and had got all I could
out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking
out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy at a vast distance I spied a sail, please
myself with the hopes of it, and then, after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose
it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled my house-
hold stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as
I could, I began I say to keep my Journal: of which I shall here give you the copy
(although in it will be told all these particulars over again), as long as it lasted; for at
last, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during
a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I
called “ The Island of Despair”; all the rest of the ship’s company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circumstances I was
brought to: viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and, in,
despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me: either that I should be devoured

"uv



MY JOURNAL. 49

by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach
of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated with
the high tide, and was driven on shore again, much nearer the island; which, as it was
some comfort, on one hand (for seeing her set upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped,
if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her
for my relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades,
who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least,
that they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been
saved, we might perhaps had built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship to have carried
us to some other part of the world. Ispent great part of this day in perplexing myself

¢ on these things; but at length, seeing the
ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as
near as I could, and then swam on board.
This day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.

from the 1st of October to the 24th—
All these days entirely spent in several voy-
ages to get all I could out
of the ship, which I brought
on shore, every tide of flood,
upon rafts. Much rain also,
in these days, though with
some intervals of fair weath-
er; but it seems this was
the rainy season.













“I KILLED A SHE-GOAT AND WITH MUCH DIFFICULTY GOT IT HOME” (4. 59).

Oct. 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but being in shoal-
water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide
was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; during which
time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before, and was
no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I saved, that the rain might not
spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix my hab-
itation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the night, I fixed upon a

4



50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semi-circle for my encampment, which I
resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined
within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to my new
habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to see for some
food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and the kid followed me home,
which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first night; mak-
ing it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards and the pieces of timber which made my
rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out
for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which were very
good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out with my
gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion: viz.,every morning I walked out with my gun
for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o’clock; then ate what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the
weather being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working .
part of this day and the next were wholly employed in making this table, for I was yet
but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a complete natural
mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do anyone else.

Nov. 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a wild cat;
her skin pretty soft but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off
the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea
fowls, which I did not understand; but was surprised and almost frighted, with two or
three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the
sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and finished
it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, roth, and part
of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to
make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please
me; and even in making I pulled it to pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for them on my
post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13,—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled the earth ;
but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of
powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little square chests, or boxes,
which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the
powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from another as possible. On one
of these three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
‘ Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make room for
my further conveniency.

Vote —Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work: viz.,a pick-axe, a shovel,
land a wheel-barrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to consider how
to supply that want, and make me some tools. As for the pick-axe, 1 made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel,



CONTINUATION OF MY JOURNAL. 51

or spade; this was so absolutely necessary that indeed I could do nothing effectually
without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that wood, or
like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this,
with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, with
difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and
having no other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually
by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours
in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long; however, it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to
put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-barrow. A basket I could not
make by any means, having no such thing as twigs that would bend to make wicker-
ware—at least, none yet found out; and as to the wheel-barrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel; but that I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go about it;
besides, I had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out °
of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar in when they
serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet
this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-barrow, took
me up no less than four days, I mean always excepting my morning’s walk with my gun,
which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having stood still, because of my making these tools,
when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it might
hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious enough
to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a
cellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet sea-
son of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me
afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a sudden
(it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and
one side; so much that in short, it frighted me—and not without reason, too; for if
I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a
great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more
would come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two shores or posts
pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across over each post; this I fin-
ished the next day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the roof secured: and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to
part of my house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up nails on
the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now I began to be in
some order within doors,

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my house,
and set: up some pieces of board like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but board
began to be very scarce with me: also I made me another table.

Dee. 24.—Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.



52 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Dec. 26—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I catched it and led it
home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which
was broke.

N. B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong
as ever; but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my
door, and would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot
were all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no stirring abroad,
except in the evening for food; this time I spent in putting all my things in order
within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my gun, and
lay still in the middle ofthe day. This evening, going farther into the valleys which lay
towards the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceedingly
shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to
hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him upon the
goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his dan-
ger too well, for he would not come near them,

Jan. 3.—I1 began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my being attacked
by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong. :

N. B.—This wall being described before, 1 purposely omit what was said in the
Journal ; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from the 3d of January
to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock
to another place, about eight yards from it,the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days, nay, some-
times weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall
was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground ;
for I made them much bigger than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf wall raised
up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to come on shore there, they
would not perceive anything like a habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as may be:
observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day, when the rain
permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other to my
advantage ; particularly I found akind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons
in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking some young
ones, I endeavored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they
flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to
give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones, which
were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, as to some
of them it was: for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small
runlet or two, as I observed before ; but I could never arrive at the capacity of making one
by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, nor join
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over.



“I GOT ME A PIECE OF GOAT’S FLESH, AND BROILED IT.”
(See p. br.)





54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In the next place, I was ata great loss for candles ; so that as soon as it was dark, which
was gcnerally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of
bees’-wax with which I made candles in my African adventure; but I had none of that
now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and.
with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of
some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my
things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the
feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came
from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn that had been in the bag was all devoured
by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag-but husks and dust; and being willing to have
the bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of
the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my
fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw this stuff away,
taking no notice, of anything, and not so much as remembering that I had thrown any-
thing there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of some-
thing green shooting upon the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not
seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfectly green barley, of the same kind
as our European—nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts on this
occasion; I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very
few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had
befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without .
so much as inquiring intothe end of Providence in these things, or His order in govern -
ing events in the world. But after I saw barley growthere in a climate which I knew was
not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miracuously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for my sustenance in
that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes, and I began to
bless myself that such a prodigy of Nature should happen upon my account; and this
was the more strange to me because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock,
some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because
I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these pure productions of Providence for my support, but not
doubting that there was more in the place, I went all over that part of the island where
I had been before, peering in every corner and under every rock, to see for more of it,
but Icould not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts that I had shaken the bag
of chickens’ meat out in that place ; and the wonder began to cease; and I must confess,
my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate too, upon the discovering
that all this was nothing but what was common: though I ought to have been as thankful
for so strange and unforseen providence, as if it had been miraculous; for it was really
the work of Providence as to me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains
of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had
been dropped from heaven; as also that I should throw it out in to that particular place,
where it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately ; whereas, if I had
thrown it anywhere else at that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season, which was
about the end of June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hop-



THE EARTHQUAKE. 55

ing in time to have some quantity, sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not
till the fourth year that I would allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even
then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the
first season, by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would have done: of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice, which I
preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the same
purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without
baking, though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal :—

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall done; and the
14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over a wall, by a
ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and then pulled
it up after me, and let it down on the inside: this was a complete enclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless it could
first mount my wall.



“JT DID, AFTER MUCH PAINSTAKING, CATCH A YOUNG PARROT” (4, 72.)

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my labour over-
thrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus:—As I was busy in the inside of
it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened with a
most dreadful surprising thing indeed: for, all on a sudden, I found the earth came tum-
bling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and
two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked ina frightful manner. I was heartily
scared; but thought nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that the top of
my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I should be buried in
it, I ran forwards to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my
wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me. I was
no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earth-
quake; for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance,
with three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building that could be
supposed to have stood upon the earth; and a great piece of the top of the rock which
stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I
never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into a violent motion
by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.



56 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, or discoursed with
any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth
made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the
rock awaked me as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled
me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all
my household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a
sécond time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began to take
courage; and yet I had not heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least serious religious thought;
nothing but the common “ Lord, have mercy upon me!” and when it was over, that went
away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grow cloudy, as if it would rain;
soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew
a most dreadful hurricane of wind: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with foam and
froth; the shore was covered with the breach of the water; the trees were torn up by
the roots; and a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours, and then began to
abate; and then in two hours more it was calm, and began to rain very hard. All this
while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it came
into my thoughts that these winds and rain being the consequences of the earthquake,
the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave again. With
this thought, my spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I
went in and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so vioient that my tent was ready to
be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid
and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new
work, viz., to cut a hole through my new fortifications, like a sink, to let the water go
out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my cave some time,
and found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed.
And now to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little
store, and took a small sup of rum; which, however, I did then and always very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued raining all
that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind
being more composed, I began to think of what I had best to do; concluding that if the
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I
must consider of building me some little hut in an open place which I might surround
with a wall, as I had done here, and to make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for
I concluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the place where it now stood,
which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill; and which, if it should, be
shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent: and I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how to remove my habitation. The
fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet the appre-
hensions of lying abroad without any fence were almost equal to it; but still, when
I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed
I was, and how safe from danger, it made me loth to remove. In the meantime, it
occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that
I must be contented to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself,
and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for
a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was finished; but



REAPPEARANCE OF THE WRECK. 57

that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove to. This
was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to put this resolve in
execution ; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and abund-
ance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians) ; but with much
chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and
though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as
much thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a
judge upon the life and death ofa man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a string, to
turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.

NVote.—I had not seen any such things in England, or at least not to take notice how
it was done, though since I have observed it was very common there ; besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week’s work to bring
it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my machine
for turning my grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, I now took a sur-
vey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide being low, I saw
something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I came
to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were
driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it
seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken
water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship,
to look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it strongely removed. The forecastle, which
lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet, and the stern, which was broken
to pieces and parted from the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had left rummag-
ing of her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so
high on that side next her stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before, so
that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could
now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence the ship
was more broken open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea
had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habitation and
I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching whether I could make any way
into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for that all the inside
of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of any-
thing, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that
everything I could get from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which I thought
held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but the tide
coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till 1 was weary
of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me
a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough,
as much as I cared to eat; all of which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.



58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck ; cut another beam asunder, and brought three great
fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore when the
tide of flood came on.

May 6—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and other pieces
of iron-work ; worked very hard, and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of
giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, with an intent not to work, but found the weight
of the wreck had broken itself down, the beams being cut ; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into it; but it
was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the deck, which
lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them
on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of the wreck,
and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt
also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.—Went every day to the wreck; and gota great deal of pieces
of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cuta piece off the roll of lead,
by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a
foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more broken by
the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods to get pigeons for food, that
the tide prevented me from going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance, near
two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found that they were pieces of
the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard labour I
loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first flowing tide several casks
floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing
came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork
in it; but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day
to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed,
during this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten timber, and plank, and iron-work
enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got, at several times,
and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of sheet lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle. This was the
first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or the
scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might have had hun-
dreds of them every day, as I found afterwards, but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17 Ispentin cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs; and her
flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that every I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrible place.

June 18.—Rained allthe day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time, the rain
felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night ; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my sad con-
dition—to be sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull,
but scarce knew what I said or why ; my thoughts being all confused.



AN AFFRIGHTING DREAM. 59

June 22 —A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25 —An ague, very violent; the fit held me seven hours; cold fit, and hot
with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found myself
very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and

broiled some of it, and ate. J would fain have stewed
it, and made some broth, but had no pot. : P
June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay ze \y

a-bed all day and neither ate nor drank. I was ready
to perish for thirst ; but so weak I had no strength to
stand up, or to get
myself any water
to drink. Prayed
to God again, but
was light-headed ;
and when I was
not, I was so igno-
rant that I knew
not what to say;
only I lay and
cried, “Lord, look
upon me! Lord,
pity me! Lord,




















“THERE ROSE UP A LITTLE CLOUD OF FOWLS”’ (4. 76).

have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else
for two or three hours; till the fit wearing off, I fell
asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When
I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak,
and exceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in
my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I had
this terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on
the ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat
when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I
saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground; he was all over as bright as a flame, so
that I could but just bear to look towards him: his countenance was most expressively
dreadful, impossible for words to describe; when he stepped upon the ground with his
feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all
the air looked to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was
no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forwards towards me, with a long spear



60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some dis-
tance, he spoke to me—or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the
terror of it. All that I can say I understood was this :—‘ Seeing all these things have
not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die;’—at which words, I thought he
lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able to describe
the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I
even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the impression
that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good instruction of
my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of sea-faring
wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked
and profane to the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all that time, one
thought that so much as tended even to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards
a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good,
or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the most hard-
ened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can be supposed to be—
not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in dangers, or of thankfulness to God
in deliverances.

In relating of what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily beiieved
when I shall add, that through all the varieties of miseries that had to this day befallen
me, I never had so much as one thought of its being the hand of God, or that it was a
just punishment for my sins—my rebellious behaviour against my father—or my present
sins, which were great—or so much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked
life. When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa. I never
had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish to God to direct
me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded
me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages; but I was merely thoughtless of a
God or a Providence—I acted like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by
the dictates of common sense only, and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered and
taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honourably with,
as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I
was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this island, I was as far from
remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only said to myself often that I was an
unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship’s crew drowned, and
myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which,
had the grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where
it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, with-
out the least reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the Hand which had pre-
served me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or
an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful to me. Even just the same common
sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they have got safe ashore after a shipwreck,
all which they drown in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over,
and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due considera-
tion, made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the
reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon as I
saw a probability of living, and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the
sense of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied myself to the works
proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough from being afflicted at my
condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were
thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.





“It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my Family
sit down to dinner.”







PENITENT REFLECTIONS. 61

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first, some little
influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had
something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed,
all the impression which was raised from it wore off also, as I have noted already. Even
the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately
directing to the invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the
first fright over but the impression it had made went off also. I had no more sense of
God, or His judgments—much less of the present affliction of my circumstances being
from His hand—than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life. But now
when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came to place
itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper,
and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever, conscience, that had slept so
long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my past life, in which I had
so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under
uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictivea manner. These reflections
oppressed me from the second or third day of my distemper ; and in the violence, as well
of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from
me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attended with de-
sires or with hopes: it was rather the voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts
were confused, the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such a
miserable condition raised vapours into my head with the mere apprehensions; and in
these hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express. But it was rather
exclamation, such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creatuream I! If I should be sick, I
shall certainly die for want of help, and what will become ofme?” Then, the tears burst
out of my eyes, and I could say no more fora good while. In this interval, the good
advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction, which I_ mentioned
at the beginning of this story, viz. that if I did take this foolish step, God would not
bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel
when there might be none to assist me in my recovery. “ Now,” said I aloud, “my dear
father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken me, and I have none to
help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me ina
posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy ; but I would neither
see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn
over my folly; and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused
their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into the world, and would have made
everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle with too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried
out, “ Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress.” This was the first prayer, if I might
call it so, that I had made for many years.

But I return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and the fit
being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and
now was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when I should be ill : and
the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table,
in reach of my bed: and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put
about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a
piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked
about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miser-
able condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day. At night, I made my
supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it,



62 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing to, even,
as I could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that I could hardly
carry the gun, for I never went out without that; so I went out but a little way, and sat
down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very
calm and smooth. - As I sat here, some thoughts such as these occurred to me:—What
is the earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced! And
what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are
we? Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed the earth and sea, the
air and sky. And whois that? Then it followed most naturally—“ It is God that has
made it all. Well, but then,” it came on strongly, “if God has made all these things, He
guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them ; for the Being that could
make all things must certainly have power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can
happen, in the great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or appointment.

“And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am here, and
am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His appointment, He has
appointed all this to befall me.” Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any of
these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the greater force, than it must
needs be that God has appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this misera-
able circumstance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me only, but of
everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed—‘‘ Why has God done
this to me? What have I done to be thus used?” My conscience presently checked me
in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice,
“ Wretch, dost shou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent
life, and ask thyself, what thou hast zot done? Ask, why is it tl.at thou wert not long
ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads? killed in the fight
when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war ? devoured by the wild beasts off the
coast of Africa? or drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask,
‘What have I done?’” JI-was struck dumb with these reflections, as one astonished,
and had not a word to say—no, not to answer to myself—but rose up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed;
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat
down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the appre-
hension of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought
that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had
a piece ofa roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some also
that was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure both for soul
and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for, viz., the tobacco; and as
the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned
before, and which to this time I had not found leisure, or so much as inclination to look
into. I say I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, or whether it was
good for it or no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should
heal one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which
indeed, at first, almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and that I
had not been much used to it. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in
some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some
upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear
it, as well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held it almost to suffocation. In the
interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but my head was too



MY RECOVERY FROM SICKNESS. 63

much disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only having
opened the book casually, the words first that occurred to me were these, “ Call upon Me
in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” These words
were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my thoughts at the time of
reading them, though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered,
the word had no sound, as I may say, to me: the thing was so remote, so impossible in
my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as the children of Israel did when they
were promised flesh to eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness ?” so I began to
say, “‘ Can God Himself deliver me from this place?” And as it was not for many years
that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts ; but, however, the
words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It grew
now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to
sleep: so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night,
and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my
life: I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon
Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so
strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarcely get it down; immediately
upon this I went to bed; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently; but
I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near
three o’clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion
that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for otherwise,
I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it
appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and recross-
ing the line, I should have lost more than one day; but in my account it was lost, and
I never knew which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when I awaked I found
myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful; when I got up I was
stronger than I was the day before, and. my stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in
short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the better. This
was the 2gth.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun, but did not
care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and
brought them home; but was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of the
turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had
supposed did me good the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take
so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke;
however, I was not so well the next day, which was the 1st of July, as I hoped I should
have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2—I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed myself with it as at
first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my full strength
for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-
ingly upon this scripture, “I will deliver thee;” and the impossibility of my deliverance
lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it; but as I was discouraging my-
self with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliver-
ance from the main affliction, that I, disregarded the deliverance I had received, and I
was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz., “Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness? from the most distressed condition that
could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done
my part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified Him; that is to say, I had
not owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how could I expect greater



64 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

deliverance?” This touched my heart very much; and immediately I kneeled down, and
gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.

July 4.—In the morning, I took the Bible; and beginning at the New Testament, I
began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning and
every night; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts
should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously to this work, till I found my
heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life.
The impression of my dream revived; and the words, “ All these things have not brought
thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to
give me reperitance, when it happened providentially the very day that, reading the Scrip-
ture, I came to these words: “He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance
and to give remission.” I threw down the book; and with my heart as well as my hands
lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried-out aloud, “ Jesus, thou son of
David! Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!” This was the
first time I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now
I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true scripture view of hope, founded
on the encouragement of the Word of God; and from this time, I may say, I began to
have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “ Call on Me, and I will
deliver thee,’ and in a different sense from what I had ever done before; for then I had
no notion of anything being called deverance but my being delivered from the captivity
I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly a
prison to me, and that in the worse sense inthe world. But now I learned to take it in
another sense; nowI looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins
appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load -
of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did
not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of no considera-
tion, in comparison of this. And I added this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it,
that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance from sin a
much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal :—

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way of living,
yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the
Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great deal of comfort
within, which, till now, I knew nothing of; also, my health and strength returned, I be-
stirred myself to furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking about with my
gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength
after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to what weak-
ness I was reduced. The application which I made use of was perfectly new, and per-
haps what had never cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it to anyone to
practise, by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed
to weaken me; for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time. I
learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in the rainy season was the most
pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in those rains which came attended
wita storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in a dry season was
always most accompanied with such storms, so I found this rain was much more danger-
ous than the rain which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility of deliverance
from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no



I MAKE A SURVEY OF THE ISLAND. 65

human shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured my habitation, as I
thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the
island, and to see what other productions I might find, which yet os
I knew nothing of. “
It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more particu-
lar survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where,
as I hinted, I brought my rafts onshore. I found, after I came
about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and
that it was no more than a
little brook of running water,
and very fresh and good: but
this being the dry season,
there was hardly any water in
some parts of it; at least, not
enough to run in any stream,
so as it could be perceived.
On the banks of this brook,
I found many pleasant savan-
nahs or meadows, plain,
smooth, and covered with
grass; and on the rising parts
of them, next to the higher
grounds, where the water, as
it might be supposed, never
overflowed, I found a great
deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great and very
strong stalk; there were div-
ers other plants, which I had
no notion of or understanding
about, and might, perhaps,
have virtues of their own,
which I could not find out.
I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians in all
that climate make their bread
of, but I could find none. I
saw large plants of aloes, but
did not then understand them.
I saw several sugar-
canes, but wild, and,
for want of cultiva- ,
tion, imperfect. I
contented myself with
these discoveries for
this time, and came
back, musing with myself
what course I might take to f ‘
know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits of plants which I should discover; but
could bring it to no conclusion: for, in short, I had made so little observation while I was
in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants of the field; at least, very little that might
serve me to any purpose now in my distress. 5





































“THE FIRST THING I MADE WAS A GREAT CAP” (4, 86).



66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going something
further than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and savannahs cease, and the
country became more woody than before. In this part I found different fruits, and par-
ticularly I found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees:
the vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in
their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly
glad of them; but I was warned by experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering
that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our English-
men, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. But I found an
excellent use for these grapes ; and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep
them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were,
as wholesome and agreeable to eat when no grapes might be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation; which, by the
way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. Inthe night, I took my
first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning pro-
ceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of
me, At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed to de-
scend to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh, so
green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or flourish of spring, that
it looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on the side of that delicious valley,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with other afflicting thoughts,
to think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this country indeéfea-
sibly, and had a right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheri-
tance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. Isaw here abundance of cocoa-
trees, orange and lemon, and citron-trees ; but all wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least
not then. However, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but
very wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very
wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business enough to gather
and carry home ; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons,
to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order to do
this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and
a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me,
I travelled homeward, and resolved to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I
could make to carry the resthome. Accordingly, having spent three days in this jour-
ney, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I got thither,
the grapes were spoiled, the richness of the fruit, and the weight of the juice, having
broken them and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they
were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small bags to bring
home my harvest; but I was surprised when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were
so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread abroad, trodden to pieces,
and dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this
I concluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what
they were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and
no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be destroyed, and the
other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for I
gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of the
trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I car-
ried as many back as I could well stand under.



THE ERECTION OF MY COUNTRY HOUSE. 67

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure the fruit-
fulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; the security from storm on
that side of the water, and the wood; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to
fix my abode which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began
to consider of removing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally safe as where
now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some time,
the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, I
considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible that something
might happen to my advantage; and that the same ill fate that brought me hither, might
bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce probable
that any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills and woods
in the centre of the island was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not
only improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any means to remove.
However, I was so enamoured with this place that I spent much of my time there for the
whole remaining part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I
resolved as above not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded
it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well
staked, and filled between with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two
or three nights together, always going over it with a ladder as before; so that I fancied
now I had my country house and my.sea-coast house; and this work took me up to the
beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, but the rains
came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I had made mea
tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the
rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and began to
enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, 1 found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly
dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down
from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed would
have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my winter food; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried
most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and from hence, which was the
14th of August, it rained more or less every day till the middle of October, and some-
times so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I had been
concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had
been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her till, to my astonishment, she came home
about the end of August, with three kittens. This was the more strange to me because,
though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite
different kind from our European cats; but the young cats were the same kind of house-
breed as the old one; and both my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But
from these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill
them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not stir, and
was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened
for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which was
the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food was regulated
thus:—I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the
turtle, for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew
anything), and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.



68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or three hours
at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I came to the
outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall;
and so I came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open; for,
as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought,
I lay exposed, and yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear; the
biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I cast up
the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five
days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God,
acknowledging his righteous judgment upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on
me through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours,
even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and
went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed no Sabbath-
day, for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after some time,
omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a longer notch than ordinary for the
Sabbath-day and so did not really know what any of the days were; but now, having
cast up the days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks,
and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of my account
I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this my ink began to fail me, and
so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the most
remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began to now appear regular to me, and
I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly; but I bought all my
experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most discour-
aging experiments that I made at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which I had
so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves; and I believe there were
about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper
time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern position, going from me.
Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and
dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred
to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know when
was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a
handful of each. It was a greater comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not
one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything; for the dry months following, the
earth having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth,
and never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had
been newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined was by
the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground, to make another trial in, and I dug
up another piece of ground near my new bower, and sewed the rest of my seed in Feb-
ruary, a little before the vernal equinox; and this, having the rainy months of March and
April to water it, sprang up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having
part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had got, I had but a small
quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But by
this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly when the proper
season was to sow, and that I might expect twc seed-times and two harvests every year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was of use to me
afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began to settle, which was
about the month of November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where, though



THE NATURAL ADORNMENT OF MY ABODES. 69



“T APPLIED MYSELF TO GET UP MY MAST” (4. 90).

I had not been some months, I found all things just as I left them. The circle or double
hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut off
of some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown with long branches, as
much as a willow tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not
tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very
well pleased, to see the young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up to grow
as much alike as I could; and it is scarcely credible how beautiful a figure they grew into,
in three years; so that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in
diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it was a com-
plete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut
some more stakes, and make mea hedge like this in a semi-circle round my wall (I mean
that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at
about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a
fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence also, as I shall observe
in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not into sum-
mer and winter as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were
generally thus :—

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April—rainy, the sun
being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of August—dry,
the sun being then to the north of the line. ;



7° ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October—rainy, the
sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December, and January, and the
half of February—dry, the sun being then to the south of the line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds happened to blow,
but this was the general observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill
consequence of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as much as
possible during the wet months. In this time I found much employment, and very suit-
able also to the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I had no way to
furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant application; particularly I tried
many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved
so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me now that
when I was a boy I used to take great delight in standing at a basket maker's, in the town
where my father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually
are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the manner how they worked those
things, and sometimes lent a hand, I had by this means so full knowledge of the methods
of it that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came into my mind that the twigs
of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the ©
sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day
I went to my country house, as I called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found
them to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time pre-
pared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was a great
plenty of them. These I set up to dry within my circle of hedges, and when they were
fit for use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the next season, I employed my-
self in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry
or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and though I did not finish them very hand-
somely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I
took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more,
especially strong, deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come
to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I bestirred
myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessel to hold anything
that was liquid except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles
—some of the common size, and others which were case-bottles, square, for the holding
of water, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything in except a great
kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I de-
sired it for—viz.,to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing
I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me to make one;
however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in plant-
ing my second row of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-work, all the summer of dry
season, when another business took me up more time than it could be imagined I
could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and that I
had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and where I
had an opening quite to the sea on the other side of the island. I now resolved to
travel right across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and
my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes
and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When I
had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea
to the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried land—whether an island



FURTHER DISCOVERIES IN MY ISLAND. 71

or a continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
W.S.W., at a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or
twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I knew it
must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near the
Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should have
landed, I had been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I acquiesced in
the dispositions of Providence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered every-
thing for the best; I say I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting myself with
fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that if this land was the
Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass one
way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country and
the Brazils, which were indeed the worst of savages; for they are cannibals, and fail not
to murder and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I found that side of the
island where I now was much pleasanter than mine—the open or savannah fields sweet,
adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I sawabundance of parrots,
and fain would I have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to
speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years before I
could make him speak; however, at last, 1 taught him to call me by my name very
familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very diverting in
its place.

5 was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found on the low grounds hares
(as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from all the other kinds I
had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I had
no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was very good,
too, especially these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added
to my grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than I, in pro-
portion to the company; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great
cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had rather
plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or thereabouts ;
but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I came
weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit down for all night; and then I either
reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the
ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me with-
out waking me.

As soon as I came tothe sea-shore I was surprised to see that I had taken up my
lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, the shore was covered with innumer-
able turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but three in a year and ahalf. Here
was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some of which I had not seen before,
and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those
called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder and
shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed
on; and though there were many goats here, more than on the other side of the island,
yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near them, the country being flat
and even, and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet J had



72 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation it became natural
to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and from
home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea towaids the east, [ suppose about
twelve miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I’
would go home again, and that the next journey I took should be on the other side of
the island east from my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again, of
which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily keep all the
island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my first dwelling by view-
ing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three miles,
I found myself descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those
hills covered with wood, that I could not see which was my way by any direction but
that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun at that
time of the day. It happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved hazy
for three or four days while I was in this valley, and not being able to see the sun, I
wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to find out the sea-side, look
for my post, and come back the same way I went: and then, by easy journeys, I
turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet,
and other things, very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it, and I running
in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog. I hada great mind
to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing whether it might not be pos-
sible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me
when my powder and shot should be spent. I made a collar to this little creature, and
with a string, which I made of some rope yarn, which I always carried about me, I led
him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I enclosed
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch, and lie
down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey, without settled place of abode,
had been so unpleasant to me that my own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect
settlement to me, compared to that; and it rendered everything about me so comfortable,
that I resolved I would never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to
stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long journey ; dur-
ing which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my
Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted with me.
Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had pent in within my little circle, and
resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went, and found it
where I had left it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for want of
food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and
threw them over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so
tame with being hungry that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog;
and as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it
became from that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and IJ kept the 30th of
September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the
island, having now been there for two years, and no more prospect of being delivered
than the first day I came there. I spent the whole day in humble and thankful acknowl-
edgments of the many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was attended with,
and without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble and



MY ANGUISH OF SOUL 73

hearty thanks that God had been pleased to discover to me that it was possible I might
be more happy in this solitary condition than I should have been in a liberty of society,
and in all the pleasures of the world: that He could fully make up to me the deficiencies
of my solitary state, and the want of human society, by His presence, and the communi-
cation of His grace to my soul; supporting, comforting, and encouraging me to depend
upon His providence here, and hope for His eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the life I now led
was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led



“I FELL ON MY KNEES AND GAVE GOD THANKS” (4. 90),

all the past part of my days; and now having changed both my sorrows and my joys, my
very desires altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my delights were perfectly
new from what they were at first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the country, the
anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a sudden, and my very
heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and
how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an unin-
habited wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my



74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

\
mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands, and
weep like a child: sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two together ;
and this was still worse to me, for if Icould burst out into tears, or vent myself by words,
it would go off, and the grief having exhausted itself would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of
God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad,
I opened the Bible upon these words, “I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.” Imme-
diately it occurred that these words were to me; why else should they be directed in such
a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken
of God and man? “ Well, then,” said I, “if God does not forsake me, of what ill conse-
quence can it be, or what matters it, though the world should all forsake me, seeing on
the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the favour and blessing of God,
there would be no comparison in the loss? ”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be
more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should ever have
been in any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give
thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I know not what it was, but something shocked
my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words. “ How canst thou become such
a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be thankful for a condition which, how-
ever thou mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be
delivered from?” So I stopped there: but though I could not say I thanked God for
being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflict-
ing providences, to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness,
and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed God
for directing my friend in England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though I have not
given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my works this year as the first,
yet in general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but having regularly
divided my time according to several daily employments that were before me, such as,
first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some
time for, thrice every day ; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for food, which gen-
erally took up three hours in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the ordering,
curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or caught for my supply: these took
up great part of the day; also, it is to be considered that in the middle of the day, when
the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that about
four hours in the evening was all the time I could be supposed to work in, with this ex-
ception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working, and went to work
in the morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the exceeding labori-
ousness of my work; the many hours which for want of tools, want of help, and want of
skill, everything I didtook up out of my time: for example, I was full two-and-forty days
in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two sawyers,
with their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down, because my
board was to be a broad one. This treeI was three days in cutting down, and two more
cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With inexpressible
hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into chips till it began to be light
enough to move; then I turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board
from end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the other side till I brought the



LHE PROTECTION OF MY CROPS.

~T



“I TIED THEM WITH
STRINGS TOGETHER” (4. 93).

plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may judge the
labour of my handsin such a piece of work ; but labour and patience carried me through
that, and many other things; I only observe this in particular, to show the reason why
so much of my time went away with so little work, viz., that what might be a little to be
done with help and tools, was a vast labour and required a prodigious time to do alone,
and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience and labour, I went through many
things, and indeed everything that my circumstances made necessary to me to do, as
will appear by what follows.

I was now in the months of November and December, expecting my crop of barley
and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up for them was not great; for, as I ob-
served, my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost one
whole crop by sowing in the dry season: but now my crop promised very well, when on
a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which
it was scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild creatures which I
called hares, which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon
as it came up, and ate it so close that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure about it with a hedge: which
I did with a great deal of toil, and the more because it required a great deal of speed ;
the creatures daily spoiling my corn. However, as my arable land was but small, suited
to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about three weeks’ time ; and shooting some of
the creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to astake
at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little time the enemies
forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.



74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so the birds
were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for going along by the place
to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how
many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
fly among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner shot but there
rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would devour all
my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all; and
what to do I could not teil; however, I resolved not te lose my corn, if possible,
though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, 1 went among it, to see
what damage was already done, and found they had spoiled a good deal of it ; but that
as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not so great but the remainder was likely
to be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I staid by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see the thieves
sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till ! was gone away, and the
event proved it to ba so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of
their sight but they dropped down one by one into the corn again. I was so provoked
that I could not have patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that
they ate now was, as it might be said, a peck-load to me in consequence; but coming
up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I wished for; so
I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves, in England, viz., hanged
them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine almost that this
should have had such an effect as it had, for the fowls would not only not come at the
corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird
near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was very glad of, you may
be sure, and about the latter end of December, which was our second harvest of the
year, 1 reaped my corn,

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and all I could do was to
make one, as well as I could, out of one of the, broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved
among the arms out of the’ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had no
great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way, for I cut nothing off but
the ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out
with my hands; and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of
seed I had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels and a half of barley; that is
to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw that, in time, it
would please God to supply me with bread; and yet here I was perplexed again, for I
neither knew how to grind, or make meal of my corn, or, indeed, how to clean it and
part it: nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I
knew not how to bake it. These things being added to my desire of having a good
quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this
crop, but to preserve it all for seed against the next season; and, in the mean time, to
employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of providing
myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. It is a little wonderful,
and what I believe few people have thought much upon, viz., the strange multitude
of little things necessary in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and
finishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my daily discourage-
ment, and was made more and more sensible of it every hour, even after I had got
the first handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed
to a surprise.



MV FARMING LABOURS. "7

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade
or shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a
wooden spade, as I observed before; but this did my work
but in a wooden manner; and though it cost me a great
many days to make it, yet for want of iron, it not only wore
out the sooner, but made my work the harder, and made it be
performed much worse. However, this I bore with too, and
was content to work it out with patience, and bear with the
badness of the performance. When
the corn was sown, I had no harrow,
but was forced to go over it myself,
and drag a great heavy bough of a tree
over it, to scratch it, as it may be
called, rather than rake or harrow it.
When it was growing, or grown, I
have observed already how many
things I wanted to fence it, secure it,
mow or reap it, cure and carry it
home, thrash, part it from the chaff,
and save it. Then I wanted a mill to
grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and
salt to make it into bread, and an
oven to bake it in; and all these
things I did without, as shall be
observed; and yet the corn was an
inestimable comfort and advantage to

me too. But this, as I said, made

“MY COUNTRY SEAT” (4. 90). everything laborious and tedious to

me; but that there was no help for.

Neither was my time so much loss to

me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day appointed to these

works; and as J had resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quan-

tity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention,

to furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the operations necessary for
making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough to sow above an acre
of ground. Before I did this, I had a week’s work at least to make me a spade, which,
when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required double
labour to work with it. However, I went through that, and sowed my seed in two large
flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them
in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood which I had set before,
which I knew would grow; so that, in one year’s time I knew I should have a quick or
living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work was not so little as to take me
up less than three months, because a great part of that time was of the wet season, when
I could not go abroad.” Withindoor—that is, when it rained and I could not go out—I
found employment in the following occupations, always observing, that all the while I was
at work I diverted myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I
quickly learnt him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud—‘ Poll,”
which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own.
This, therefore was not my work, but an assistant to my work ; for,as I said, I had a great
employment upon my hands, as follows—viz., I had long studied, by some means or other,









78 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to make myself some earthen vessels, which,indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not where
to come at them. However, considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I
could find out any clay, I might botch up some such pot as might, being dried by the sun,
be hard enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry,
and required to be kept so; and as this was necessary in preparing corn, meal, &c., which
was the thing I was upon,I resolved to make some aslarge as I could, and fit only to stand
like jars, to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how many awkward
ways I took to raise this paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of
them fell in, and how many fell out—the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own
weight; how many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily ;
and how many fell to pieces with only removing, as well before as after they were dried;
and, ina word, how, after having laboured hard to find the clay—to dig it, to temper it,
bring it home, and work it—I could not make above two large earthen ugly things (I
cannot call them jars) in about two months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them very gently up,
and set them down again in two great wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for
them, that they might not break; and as between the pot and the basket there was a
little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw ; and these two pots being
to stand always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the
corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made several smaller
things with better success; such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and
anything my hand turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to hold what
was liquid, and bear the fire—which none of these could do. It happened after some
time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out after I
had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire,
burnt as hard as a stone, and red as atile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said
to myself, that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn me some pots. I
I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though
I had some lead to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or three pots, in
a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all round it with a great heap of embers
under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw
the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all.
When I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I
found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run; for the-sand which was
mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if
I had gone on; so I slaked my fire gradually till the pots began to abate of the red
colour; and, watching them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the
morning I had three very good (I will not say handsome) pipkins, and two other earthen
pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthenware for my
use ; but I must needs say, as to the shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any
one may suppose, when I had no way of making them but as the children make dirt pies,
or asa woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine, when I found I had
made an earthen pot that would bear the fire, and I had hardly patience to stay till they
‘were cold before I set one on the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me some meat,



MILLING AND BAKING OPERATIONS. 19

which it did admirably well ; and with a piece of a kid I made some very good broth,
though I wanted oatmeal and several other ingredients requisite to make it as good as I
would have had it.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beatsome cornin; foras
to the mill, there was no thought of arriving to that perfection of art with one pair of
hands. To supply this want, I was at a great loss, for, of all the trades in the world, I
was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as for any whatever, neither had I any tools
to go about it with. I spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut
hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in the solid
rock, and which I had noway to dig or cut out; nor, indeed, were the rocks in the island
of hardness sufficient, but were all of a sandy, crumbling stone, which would neither bear
the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break the corn without filling it with sand. So,
after a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I] gave it over, and resolved to
look out for a great block of ha:d wood, which I found, indeed, much easier; and getting
one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it and formed it on the outside with my axe
and hatchet, and then, with the help of fire and infinite labour, made a hollow place in
it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, 1 made a great heavy pestle,
or beater, of the wood called the iron-wood; and this I prepared and laid by against I
had my next crop of corn, which I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn
or meal, to make bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or sierce, to dress my meal, and to part it
from the bran and husk; without which I did not see it possible I could have any bread.
This was a most difficult thing, so much as but to think on; for to besureI had nothing
like the necessary things to make it with--I mean fine canvas or stuff to sierce the meal
through. And here I wasat a full stop for many months, nor did I really know what to
do. Linen I had none left but what was mere rags. I had goats’-hair, but neither knew
I how to weave or spin it; and had I known how, here were no tools to work it with.
All the remedy that I found for this was, that at last I did remember I had, among the sea-
men’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin;
and with some pieces of these I made three small sieves, but proper enough for the work ;
and thus I made shift for some years. How I did afterwards I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should make bread
when I came to have corn; for, first, I had no yeast. As to that part, as there was no
supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much about it. But for an oven I was
indeed in great pain. At length I found out an experiment for that also, which was this:
I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep; that is to say, about two feet in
diameter and not above nine inches deep; these I burned in the fire as I had done the
other, and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I madea great fire upon the hearth,
which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own making and burning also. But I
should not call them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or live coals, I drew them
forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there I let them lie till the hearth
was very hot; then sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf or loaves, and
whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all round the outside of
the pot, to keep in and add to the heat; and thus, as wellas in the best oven in the world, I
baked my barley-loaves, and became in a little time, a good pastrycook into the bargain ;
for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice. Indeed, I made no pies,
neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I had, except the flesh either of fowls
or goats.

: It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most part of the third year
of my abode here; for, it is to be observed that, in the intervals of these things, I hadmy



80 ROBINSON CRUSOL.

new harvest and husbandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its season, and carried it
home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to
rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to build my barns,
bigger. I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the increase of the corn now yielded me so:
much that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more;
insomuch that I now resolved to begin to use it freely, for my bread had been quite gone.
a great while; also I resolved to see what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year,
and to sow but oncea year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were much more
than I could consume in a year; so I.resolved to sow just the same quantity every year
that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with bread, &c.

All the time these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts ran many times
upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the other side of the island; and I was
not without secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying that, seeing the main-land
and an inhabited country, { might find some way or other to convey myself farther, and
perhaps at last find some means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such a condition and how
I might fall into the hands of savages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to think
far worse than the lions and tigers of Africa; that if I once came into their power I should
run a hazard of more than a thousand to one of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten ;
for I had heard that the people of the Carribbean coast were cannibals, or men-eaters, and
I knew by the latitude that I could not be far off from that shore; that, suppose they were
not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many Europeans who had fallen into their hands
had been served, even when they had been ten or twenty together—much more I, that
was but one, and could make little or no defence. All these things, I say, which I ought
to have considered well of, and I did cast up in my thoughts afterwards, yettook up none
of my apprehensions at first, and my head ran mightily upon the thought of getting over
to that shore.

Now, I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the shoulder-of-mutton sail,
with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain.
Then I thought I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was blown
up upon the shore a great way in the storm, when we were first castaway. She lay almost
where she did at first, but not quite; and was turned, by the force of the waves and the
winds, almost bottom upward against a high ridge of beachy, rough sand, but no water
about her as before. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched her
into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and I might have gone back into
the Brazils with her easily enough; but I might have easily foreseen that I could no more
turn her and set her upright upon her bottom than I could remove the island. However,
I went to the wood, and cut levers and rollers, and brought them to the boat; resolved
to try what I could do, suggesting to myself that if I could but turn her down, I might
easily repair the damage she had received and she would bea very good boat, and I might
go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think, three or
four weeks about it. At last, finding it impossible to heave it up with my little strength,
I fell to digging away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall down, setting pieces
of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it-up again, or to get under it, much
less to move it forward towards the water; so I was forced to give it over; and yet,
though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main increased,,

rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible. ;



I COMMENCE TO MAKE A CANOE. 81

This at length put me upon
thinking whether it was not pos-
_ sible to make myself a canoe, or
periagua, such as the natives of
those climates make, even with-
out tools, or as I might say,
without hands—viz., of the trunk
of a great tree. This I not only
thought possible, but easy, and .
pleased myself extremely with
my thoughts of making it, and
with my having much more con-
venience for it than any of the
Negroes or Indians: but not at
all considering the particular in-
conveniences which I lay under
more than the Indians did, viz.,
want of hands to move it into
the water when it was made, a
difficulty much harder for me to
surmount than all the consequen-
ces of want of tools could be to
them. For what was it to me .
that when I had chosen a vast
tree in the woods, I might with
great trouble cut it down, if I might be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside
into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it hollow, so as
to make a boat of it—if, after all this, I must leave it just there were I found it, and was
not able to launch it into the water ?

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection upon my mind
of my circumstances while I was making this boat, but I should have immediately
thought how I should get it into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my
voyage over the sea in it, that I never once considered how I should get it off the land;
and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles of
sea, than about forty-five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did, who had any
of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design, without determining whether I
was ever able to undertake it; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came
often into my head; but I put a stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer, ,
which I gave myself: “ Let me first make it; I warrant I shall find some way or other
to get it along when it is done.” '

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my fancy prevailed,
and to work I went, and felled a cedar-tree. I question much whether Solomon ever
had such a one for the building of the Temple of Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches
diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the
end of twenty-two feet; after which it lessened for a while, and then parted into
branches. It was not without infinite labour that I felled this tree. Iwas twenty days
hacking and hewing, at it at the bottom ; I was fourteen more getting the branches and
limbs and the vast spreading head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through with
axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labour ; after this it cost me a month to shape it and
dub it to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim



“MY GOATS WANTED
TO BE MILKED” (4, ror),





82 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and
work it out so as to make an exact boat of it; thisI did, indeed without fire, by mere
mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I had brought it to be a very hand-
some periagua, and big enough to have carried six-and-twenty-men, and consequently
big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it. The boat
was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that was made of one tree,
in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure—for there remained noth-
ing but to get it into the water; and had I gotten it into the water, I make no question
but I should have begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed,
that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they cost infinite
labour too. It lay about one hundred yards from the water, and not more; but the first
inconvenience was, it was up-hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this discourage-
ment, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity. This I
began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but who grudge pains that have their
deliverance in view ?); but when this was worked though, and this difficulty managed, it
was still much at one, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat.
Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or canal, to bring
the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe down to the water.
Well, I began this work; and when I began to enter into it, and calculate how deep it
was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found that, by the
number of hands I had, being none but my own, it must have been ten or twelve years
before I could have gone through with it; for the shore lay so high, that at the upper
end it must have been at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though with great
reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of beginning
a work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our own strength to
go through with it.

In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this place, and kept my
anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as ever before; for, by a
constant study and serious application of the Word of God, and by the assistance of His
grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had before. I entertained different
notions of things. I looked now upon the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing
to do with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about ; in a word, I had nothing
indeed to do with it, nor was ever likely to have. SoI thought it looked, as we may
perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz., as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it;
and well might I say,as Father Abraham to Dives, “Between me and thee is a great
gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the world here; I had
neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of life. I had nothing to
covet, for I had all I was now capable of enjoying ; I was lord of the whole manor; or,
if I pleased, I might call myself king or emperor over the whole country which I had
possession of. There were no rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty
or command with me. I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use for
it; so I let as little grow as 1 thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoises or tur-
tles enough, but now and then one was as muchas I could put to any use; I had timber
enough to have built a fleet of ships; and I had grapes enough to have made wine, or
to have cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when it had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable; I had enough to eat and
supply my wants, and what was all the rest to me? IfI killed more flesh than I could



VARIOUS REFLECTIONS. 83

eat, the dog must eat it, or the vermin; if I sowed more corn than I could eat, it must
be spoiled ; the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the ground ; I could make no
more use of them than for fuel, and that I had no occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me, upon just reflection,
that all the good things of this world are no further good to us than they are for our
use; and that, whatever we may heap up indeed to give others, we enjoy just as much as
we can use,andno more. The most covetous, griping miser in the world would have
been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had been in my case; for I possessed infin-
itely more than I knew what to do with. I had no room for desire, except it was of
things which I had not, and they were but trifles, though, indeed, of great use to me. I
had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds
sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay! I had no manner of business
for it; and often thought with myself, that I would have given a handful of it for a gross
of tobacco-pipes; or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have given it all
for a sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England, or a handful of peas and
beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least advantage by it or benefit from
it; but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp of the cave in the wet
seasons; and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the same case, they
had been of no manner of value to me, because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than it was at first,
and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body. I frequently sat down to meat with
thankfulness, and admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread my
table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition,
and less upon the dark side, and to consider what I had enjoyed rather than what I
wanted ; and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot express them;
and which I take notice of here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who
cannot enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they see and covet some-
thing that he has not given them. All our discontents about what we want appeared to
me to spring from the want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would be so to anyone
that should fall into such distress as mine was; and this was, to compare my present con-
dition with what I expected it would be; nay, with what it would certainly have been, if the
good providence of God had not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up nearer to the
shore, where I not only could come at her, but could bring what I got out of her to the
shore, for my relief and comfort; without which, I had wanted for tools to work, weapons
for defence, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to myself, in the most
lively colours, how I must have acted if I had got nothing out of the ship. How I
could not have so much as got any food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long
before I found any of them, I must have perished first; that I should have lived, if I had
not perished, like a mere savage; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any contriv-
ance, I had no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels, or
to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Providence to me, and
very thankful for my present condition, with all its hardships and misfortunes; and this
part also I cannot but recommend to the reflection of those who are apt, in their misery,
to say, “Is any affliction like mine?” Let them consider how much worse the cases of
some people are, and their case might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind with hopes;
and this was comparing my present situation with what I had deserved, and had therefore
reason to expect from the hand of Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly des-



84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

titute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had been well instructed by father and
mother ; neither had they been wanting to me, in their early endeavours to infuse a re-
ligious awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and what the nature and end of
my being required of me. But, alas! falling early into the seafaring life, which, of all
lives, is the most destitute of the fear of God, though His terrors are always before them
—I say, falling early into seafaring life,and into the seafaring company, all that little sense
of religion which I had entertained was laughed out of me by my messmates; by a hardened
despising of dangers, and the views of death, which grew habitual to me; by my long
absence from all manner of opportunities to converse with anything but what was like my-
self, or to hear anything that was good or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least sense of what I was, or
was to be; that, in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed—such as my escape from Sallee;
my being taken up by the Portuguese master of the ship; my being planted so well in the
Brazils; my receiving the cargo from England, and the like—I never once had the words,
“Thank God!” so much as on my mind, or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress
had I so much thoughts to pray to him, or so much as to say, ‘‘ Lord, have mercy upon
me!” no, not to mention the name of God, unless it was to swear by and blaspheme it.

Thad terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I have already observed,
on the account of my wicked and hardened life past; and when I looked about me, and
considered what particular providences had attended me since my coming into this place,
and how God had dealt bountifully with me—had not only punished me less than my
iniquity had deserved, but had so plentifully provided for me—this gave me great hopes
that my repentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercies in store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to a resignation to the will
of God in the present disposition of my circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness
for my condition; and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to complain, seeing I
had not the due punishment of my sins. That I enjoyed so many mercies which I
had no reason to have expected in that place; that I ought never more to repine at my
tondition, but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which nothing but
a crowd of wonders could have brought; that I ought to consider I had been fed even bya
miracle, even as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens—nay, by a long series of mir-
acles. And that I could hardly have named a place in the uninhabited part of the world
where I could have been cast more to my advantage; a place where, as I had no society,
which was my affliction on one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or
tigers, to threaten my life ; no venomous creatures, or poisonous, which I might feed on
to my hurt; no savages to murder and devour me. Ina word, as my life was a life of
sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy another; and I wanted nothing to make it a
life of comfort, but to be able to make any sense of God’s goodness to me, and care over
me in this condition, be my daily consolation; and after I made a just improvement of
these things, I went away, and was no more sad. I had now been here so long, that
many things which I brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very much
wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a very little, which I eked
out with water, a little and a little, till it was so pale, it scarce left any appearance of
black upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute down the days
of the month on which any remarkable thing happened to me; and first, by casting up
times past, I remembered that there was a strange concurrence of days in the various
providences which befell me, and which, if I had been superstitiously inclined to observe
days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason to have looked upon with a great
deal of curiosity. i

First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away from my father and my



MY FATAL ANNIVERSARIES. 85



“I WAS PERFECTLY CONFOUNDED AND AMAZED”? (f. 104)

friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken
by the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave; the same day of the year that I escaped out
of the wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day of the year afterwards I made
my escape from Sallee in a boat; the same day of the year I was born on—viz., the 20th
of September—the same day I had my life so miraculously saved twenty-six years after,
when I was cast on shore in this island; so that my wicked life and solitary life began both
on a day. ;

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread—I mean the biscuit
which I brought out of the ship. This I-had husbanded to the last degree, allowing
myself but one cake of bread a day for above a year; and yet I was quite without bread
for a year before I got any corn of my own; and great reason I had to be thankful that I
had any at all, the getting it being, as has been already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily; as to linen, I had had none a good while,
except some chequered shirts which I found in the chests of the other seamen, and which
I carefully preserved; because many times I could bear no other clothes on but a shirt;
and it was a very great help to me that I had, among all the men’s clothes of the ship,



86 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

almost three dozen of shirts. There were also several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s
which were left behind, but they were too hot to wear; and though it is true that the
weather was so violently hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite
naked—no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not; nor could I abide the
thoughts of it, though I was alone. One reason why I could not go naked was, I could
not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked as with some clothes on; nay, the
very heat frequently blistered my skin; whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some
motion, and, whistling under the shirt, was twofold cooler than without it. No more could
I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of
the sun, beating with such violence as it does in that place, would give me the headache
presently, by darting so directly on my head, without a hat or cap on, so that I could not
bear it; whereas, if I put on my hat, it would presently go away.

Upon these views, I began to consider about putting the few rags I had, which I
called clothes, into some order. I had worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my
business was now to try if I could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats which I
had by me, and with such other materials as I had; so I set to work tailoring, or rather,
indeed, botching, for I made most piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make
two or three waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great while; as for breeches
or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed till afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I killed—I mean
four-footed ones—and I had them hung up, stretched out with sticks, in the sun, by which
means some of them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little; but others, it seems,
were very useful. The first thing I made of these was a great cap for my head, with the
hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so well that, after, I made
me a suit of clothes wholly of these skins—that is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open
at the knees, and both loose, for they were rather wanting to keep me cool than to keep
me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly made; for if I was
a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However, they were such as I made very good shift
with, and when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of the waistcoat and cap being
outermost, I was kept very dry. i

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an umbrella. I was indeed
in great want of one, and had a great mind to make one. I had seen them made in the
Brazils, where they are very useful in the great heats which are there, and I felt the heats
every jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox; besides, as I was obliged
to be much abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heat. I
took a world of pains at it, and was a great while before I could make anything likely to
hold; nay, after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before I made one to
my mind. But at last I made one that answered indifferently well; the main difficulty I
found was to make it to let down. I could make it spread, but if it did not let down too,
and draw in, it would not be portable for me any way but just over my head, which would
not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one to answer. I covered it with skins, the
hair upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off the sun so effectually
that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather with greater advantage than I could
before in the coolest, and when I had no need of it, I could close it, and carry it under
my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely composed by resigning
to the will of God, and throwing myself wholly upon the disposal of His providence.
This made my life better than sociable, for when I began to regret the want of conversa-
tion, I would ask myself, whether thus conversing mutually with my own thoughts, and
(as I hope I may say) with even my Maker, by ejaculations and petitions was not better
than the utmost enjoyment of human society in the world ?



MAKE SOME VOYAGES IN MY BOAT. 87

I cannot say that, after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing happened to me,
but I lived on in the same course, in the same posture and place, just as before. The
chief thing I was employed in, besides my yearly labour of planting my barley and rice,
and curing my raisins—of both which I always kept up just enough to have sufficient
stock of the year’s provision beforehand—lI say, besides this yearly labour, and my daily
labour of going out with my gun, I had one labour, to make me a canoe, which at last I
finished ; so that, by digging a canal to it of six feet wide and four deep, I brought it into
the creek, almost half a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big, as I made it
without considering beforehand, as I ought to do, how I should be able to launch it, so,
never being able to bring it into the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let
it lie where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next time. Indeed, the
next time, though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a place where I could
not get the water to it at any less distance than, as I have said, of near half a mile, yet, as
I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it over; and though I was near two years
about it, yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it was not at all
answerable to the design which I had in view when I made the first—I mean of venturing
over to the terra firma, where it was above forty miles broad. Accordingly, the smallness
of my boat assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought no more of it. As I
had a boat, my next design was to make a tour round the island; for as I had been on
the other side in one place, crossing, as I have already described it, over the land, so the
discoveries I made in that little journey made me very eager to see other parts of the coast;
and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose, and that I might do everything with discretion and consideration,
I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail to it out of some of the pieces of the
ship’s sails which lay in store, and of which I had a great store by me. Having fitted
my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found she would sail very well; then I made little
lockers, or boxes, at each end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, ammunition, &c.,
into, to be kept dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a little, long, hollow
place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang
down over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to stand over my head,
and keep the heat of the sun off of me, like an awning. And thus I every now and then
took a little voyage upon the sea; but never went far out, nor far from the little creek,
At last, being eager to view the circumference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my
tour; and accordingly I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves
(cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice (a
food I ate a great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder with shot for
killing more, and two large watch-coats (of those which, as I mentioned before, I had
saved out of the seamen’s chests). These I took, one to lie upon, and the other to cover
me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my captivity, which

you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected ;
for though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east side of it, I
found a great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea—some above water,
some under it; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more, so that I
was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double that point. ;
When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise, and come back
again, not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to sea, and, above all, doubting
how I should get back again, so I came to an anchor; for I had madea kind of an anchor
with a piece of broken grappling which I got out of the ship.



88 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up a hill, which
seemed to overlook that point where I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a strong and, indeed,
a most furious current, which ran to the east, and even came close to the point; and I took
the more notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger, that when I came into
it, I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be able to make the island
again. And, indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I believe it would have been so,
for there was the same current on the other side the island, only that it set off at a farther
distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy under the shore; so I had nothing to do but
to get out of the first current, and I should presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind, blowing pretty fresh at ES.E., and
that being just contrary to the current, made a great breach of the sea upon the point ;
so that it was not safe for me to keep too close to the shore for the breach, nor to go too
far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight, the sea was calm,
and I ventured. But I am a warning-piece to all rash and ignorant pilots, for no sooner
was I come to the point, when I was not even my boat's length from the shore, but I
found myself in a great depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a mill. It carried
my boat along with it with such violence that all I could do could not keep her so much
as on the edge of it; But I found it hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy,
which was on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all that I could
do with my paddles signified nothing. And now I began to give myself over for lost, for
as the current was on both sides of the island, I knew ina few leagues’ distance they must
join again, and then I was irrecoverably gone; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it; so
that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for that was calm enough,
but of starving from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost
as I could lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh water—that is
to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was all this to being driven into the vast ocean,
where, to be sure, there was no shore, no main-land or island, for a thousand leagues at least.

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make the most miserable
condition that mankind could be in worse. Now I looked back upon my desolate, solitary
island as the most pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness my heart could wish
for was to be there again. I stretched out my hands to it with eager wishes. ‘‘O happy
desert,” said I, ‘I shall never see thee more. O miserable creature! whither am I going?”
Then I reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and how I had repined at my soli-
tary condition; and now what would I give to be on shore there again! Thus, we never
see the true state of our condition till it is illustrated to us by its contraries, nor know how
to value what we enjoy, but by the want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine the con-
sternation I was now in, being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me
now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever
recovering it again. However, I worked hard till, indeed, my strength was almost
exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the northward—that is, towards the side of the
current which the eddy lay on—as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun passed
the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face, springing up from S.S.E.
This cheered my heart a little, and especially when, in about half an hour more, it blew a
pretty small, gentle gale. By this time, I had got at a frightful distance from the island ;
and had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone another way,
too; for I had no compass on board, and should never have known how to have steered
towards the island, if I had but once lost sight of it. But the weather continuing clear,
I applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to the north
as much as possible, to get out of the current.







































“J KEPT MY DAILY TOUR TO THE HILL TO LOOK OUT.”
(See ~. 107.)



go ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Just as I had set up my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch away, I saw
even by the clearness of the water some alteration of the water was near; for where
the current was so strong the current was foul; but perceiving the water clear, I found
the current abate ; and presently I found to the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the
sea upon some rocks. These rocks, I found, caused the current to part again, and as the
main stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the northeast, so the other
returned by the repulse of the rock, and made a strong eddy, which ran back again to
the north-west, with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them upon the ladder, or to
be rescued from thieves just going to murder them, or who have been in such extremi-
ties, may guess what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into
the stream of this eddy; and the wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it,
running cheerfully before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again, directly towards the
island, but about two leagues more towards the northward than the current lay which
carried me away at first; so that when I came near the island, I found myself open to
the northern shore of it—that is to say, the other end of the island, opposite to that
which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by help of this current or
eddy, I found it was spent, and saved me no farther. However, I found that being between
two great currents—viz., that on the south side, which had hurried me away, and that
on the north, which lay about two leagues on the other side—I say between these two, in
the wake of the island, I found the water at least still, and running no way; and having
still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the island, though not
making such fresh way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within about a league of the island, I
found the point of rocks which occasioned this disaster stretching out, as is described
before, to the southward, and casting off the current more southerly, had, of course, made
another eddy to the north; and this I found very strong, but not directly setting the
way my course lay, which was due west, but almost full north. However, having a fresh
gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west; and in about an hour came within
about a mile of the shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for my deliverance,
resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by my boat; and refreshing myself
with such things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that I
had spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with the labour
and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat! I had run so much
hazard, and knew too much of the case, to think of attempting it by the way I went out;
and what might be at the other side (I mean the west side) I knew not, nor had I any
mind to run any more ventures. So I resolved on the next morning to make my way
westward along the shore, and to see if there was no creek where I might lay up my
frigate in safety, so as to have her again, if I wanted her. In about three miles or there-
abouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet, or bay, about a mile over, which
narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a very convenient
harbour for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been in a little dock made on pur-
pose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore to
look about me, and see where I was.

I soon found I had but little passed by the place where I had been before, when I
had travelled on foot to that shore ; so, taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and
umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, 1 began my march. The way was comfortable



THE MVSTERIOUS VOICE. gt

enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my old bower in the
evening, where I found everything standing as I left it; for I always kept it in good
order, being as I said before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my limbs, for I was very
weary and fell asleep. But judge you, if you can, that read my story, what a surprise I
must be in when I was awaked out of my sleep by a voice, calling me by my name sev-
eral times: ‘Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe! poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you,
Robin Crusoe? Where are you? Where have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or paddling, as it is called,
the first part of the day, and walking
the latter part, that I did not awake
thoroughly, and dozing between sleep-
ing and waking, thought I dreamed
that somebody spoke to me; but as
the voice continued to repeat, “ Robin
Crusoe! Robin Crusoe!” at last I
began to awake more perfectly, and
was at first dreadfully frightened, and
started up in the utmost consternation.
But no sooner were my eyes open but
I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the
hedge; and immediately knew that it
was he that spoke to me; for just in
such bemoaning language I had used
to talk to him, and teach him; and he
had learned it so perfectly that he
would sit upon my finger, and lay his
bill close to my face, and cry, ‘“‘ Poor
Robin Crusoe! Where are you?
Where have you been? How came
you here?” and such things as I had
taught him.

However, even though I knew it
was the parrot, and that indeed it

could be nobody else, it was a good
while before I could compose myself.
First, I was amazed how the creature
got thither; and then, how he should , ; eve
just keep about the place, and nowhere a SR ae Y
else; but as I was well satisfied it
could be nobody but honest Poll, I
got over it; and holding out my hand,
and calling him by his name, “ Poll,” the sociable creature came to me, and sat upon
my thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me, “ Poor Robin Crusoe! and
how did I come here? and where had I been?” just as if he had been overjoyed to see
me again; and so I carried him home along with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and had enough to do for
many days, to sit still and reflect upon the danger I had been in. I would have been
very glad to have had my boat again on my side of the island; but I knew not how it
was practicable to get it about. As to the east side of the island, which I had gone
round, I knew well enough there was no venturing that way; my very heart would



“J TOOK A FIREBRAND, AND IN I RUSHED AGAIN”? (4, r11),



92 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

shrink, and my very blood run chill, but to think of it; and as to the other side of the
island, I did not know how it might be there. But supposing the current ran with the
same force against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I might run the
same risk of being driven down the stream, and carried by the island,as I had
been before of being carried away from it. So with these thoughts I contented myself
to be without any boat, though it had been the product of so many months’ labour to
make it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper, I remained near a year; and lived a very sedate,
retired life, as you may well suppose; and my thoughts being very much composed, as
to my condition, and fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of Providence,
I thought I lived really very happily in all things, except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises which my necessities put
me upon applying myself to; and I believe I should, upon occasion, have made a very
good carpenter, especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthenware, and contrived
well enough to make them with a wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better, be-
cause I made things round and shaped, which before were filthy things indeed to look
on. But I think I was never more vain of my own performance, or more joyful for any-
thing I found out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe; and though it was
a very ugly, clumsy thing when it was done, and only burned red, like other earthen-
ware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly
comforted with it, for I had been always used to smoke; and there were pipes in the
ship, but I forgot them at first, not thinking that there was tobacco in the island; and
afterwards, when I searched the ship again, I could not come at any pipes.

In my wickerware, also, I improved much, and made abundance of necessary
baskets, as well as my invention showed me; though not very handsome, yet they were
such as were very handy, and convenient for laying things up in, or fetching things home.
For example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up in a tree, flay it, and dress it,
and cut it in pieces, and bring it home in a basket: and the like by a turtle; I could cut
it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh, which was enough for me, and
bring them home in a basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets
were my receivers for my corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and
cured, and kept it in great baskets, instead of a granary.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably: and this was a want which
it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to consider what I must do
when I should have no more powder ; that is to say, how I should do to kill any goats.
I had, as I observed, in the third year of my being here, kept a young kid, and bred her
up tame; I was in hopes of getting a he-kid: but I could not by any means bring it to
pass, till my kid grew an old goat, and as I could never find in my heart to kill her, she
died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have said, my
ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and snare the goats, to
see whether I could not catch some of them alive; and particularly, I wanted a she-goat
great with young. Tothis purpose, I made snares to hamper them; and I do believe they
were more than once taken in them; but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and
always found them broken, and my bait devoured. At length, I resolved to trya pitfall;
so I dug several large pits in the earth, in places were I had observed the goats used to
feed, and over those pits I placed hurdles, of my own making too, with a great weight
upon them; and several times I put ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the
trap; and I could easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for
I could see the marks of their feet. At length, I set three traps in one night, and going



Full Text




i
ee
SS
The Baldwin Library

University
RMB vik
Florida




ut den



Robinson Crusoe




‘Pulling as well as we could towards the land.’’
The Life and Strange ©

Surprising Adventures of |

Ko binson Crusoe
of York

Mariner

as Related by
Himself



Daniel Defoe

ILLUSTRATED

BOSTON:
DEWOLFE & FISKE COMPANY
PUBLISHERS



RoBINSON CRUSOE.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not of that
country, my father being a foreigner, of Bremen, who settled first at Hull; he gota
good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York;

from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by
the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called,—nay, we call ourselves,
and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English regi-
ment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was
killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother did know what was become
of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head began to be
filled very early with rambling thoughts; my father, who was very ancient, had given
me acompetent share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-school
generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
going to sea; and my inclination to this led me strongly against the will, nay, the com-
mands, of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and
other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension of nature, tend-
ing directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel against
what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his chamber, where
he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject:
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving
8 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleas-
ure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these
things were all either too far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not
exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper
part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of this state by this one
thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to great things, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of two extremes, between the mean and the great;
that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when
he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life were
shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the middle station had the
fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part
of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers, and uneasiness, either
of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury and extravagances on one
hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the other
hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way of liv-
ing; that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of
enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that tem-
perance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable
pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way men
went silently and smoothly through the world,and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed
with the labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread,
nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of
rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for
great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning
by every day’s experience to know it more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner, not to play
the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which nature, and the station of
life I was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under no necessity of.
seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into
the station of life which he had just been recommending to me; and that if I was not
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it;
‘and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warn-
ing me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; ina word, that as he
would do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he directed, so
he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encouragement
ife go away; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the army, where
jhe was killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would ven-
ture to say to me, that if I take this foolish step God would not bless me, and I should
have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.
I LEAVE HOME. 9

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic, though I
suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run
down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed;
and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no
more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this Aleeen tee and, indeed, who could be otherwise?
and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to ‘settle at home according to
my father’s desire. But alas! a few days wore it all off ; and, in short, to prevent any of
my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from
him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted,
but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary,
and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was now
eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve out my time, but I should
‘certainly run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to
recover the time that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she ee it would be to no
purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject ; that he knew too well what was
my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she wondered
how I could think of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my father, and
such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in
short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it; that for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my
father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard afterwards that she
reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern at it,
said to her with a sigh: “That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he
goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no
consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after oe that I broke loose, though, in the mean time, I
continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostu-
lated with my father and mother about their being so positively ‘determined against what
they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I say,
being there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London in his father’s
ship, and prompting me to go with them with the common allurement of a seafaring man,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any
more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God’s blessing or my father’s, without any consideration of circum-
stances or consequences, and in an ill hour God knows, on the Ist of September, 1651, I
went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I
believe, began sooner, or continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner got out
of the Humber, than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise in a most frightful
manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body,
and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what_I had done, and how
10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s
house, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears
and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which
was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to. which it has come since, reproached me
with the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was
enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything of
the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time the
ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more: in this agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please
God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again,
I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived;
that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station of life, how
easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests
at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal,
go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and indeed
some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began
to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little
sea-sick still, but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, anda
charming fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it,
the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,
looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before, and
and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me:
“Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after it?
I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind ?”
“A capful, d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible storm.” ‘A storm, you fool you,”
replies he; “do you call that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good
ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind’as that; but you’re but
a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we’ll forget all that;
d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?” To make short this sad part of my story, we
went the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with it;
and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. Ina word, as the sea was returned
to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by
the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot
the vows and promises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals
of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again some-
times; but I shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those fits—
for so I called them; and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over my
conscience as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire.
But I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it
does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would not take this fora
deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among
us would confess both the danger and the mercy.
A TERRIBLE STORM. II

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having
been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm. Here
we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary,
viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might
wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up the river,
but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard.
However, the Roads being reckoned as good as an harbour, the anchorage good, and
our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least appre-
hensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but
the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to

et



“MY FATHER GAVE ME
SERIOUS AND EXCELLENT COUNSEL" (4. 7).

strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might, ride as
easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle
in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead,
and the cables verred out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror and
amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in
the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could
hear him softly to himself say, several times, “ Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all
lost; we shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid,
lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I
12 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could ill resume the first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard-
ened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had been past; and that this
would be nothing too, like the first; but when the master himself came by me, as I said
just now, and said we should be all lost,I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my
cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes: when I could look about, I could
see nothing but distress round us; two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their
masts by the board, being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which rode
about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors,
were run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of
them drove, and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out before
the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to let them
cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting
to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and when they had cut
away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were
obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but a young
sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But if I can express at
this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of
mind upon account of my former convictions, and the having returned from them to the
resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to
the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe it.
But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she
was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every now and then cried out
she would founder. It was my advantage in one respect that I.did not know what they
meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw, what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the menthat .
had been down to see, cried out we had sprung a leak: another said, there was four feet
water inthe hold. Then all hands were called tothe pump. At that word, my heart,
as I thought, died within me: and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat,
into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, that I, that was able to do
nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to
the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some
light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to
the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who
knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing
happened. Ina word, I was so surprised that I fell down inaswoon. As this wasa
time when everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was
become of me; but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with
his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it wasa great while before I came
to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the ship
would founder ; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into any port; so the master continued firing guns for
help ; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help
us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us
ON DRY LAND AGAIN. 13

to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much
labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could; and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved
upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far
as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we saw her
sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she
was sinking; for from the moment that they rather put me into the boat, than that I
might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright,
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at the oar to bring the
boat near the shore—we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to
see the shore) a great many people running along the strand, to assist us when we should
come near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor were we able to reach
the shore, till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we
got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by
particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home I had
been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed
the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could resist ;
and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more composed
judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it isa secret overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments
of our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending,
which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two such
visible obstructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the master’s son,
was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to several
quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered ; and, looking
very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad: his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone, “ Young man,”
says he, “you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” ‘“ Why, sir,” said I, “ will you go
to sea no more?” “That is another case,’ said he; ‘‘it is my calling, and therefore
my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given
14 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, “what are you; and
on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story; at the
end of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion: ‘ What had I done,” says he,
“that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my foot in
the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.” ‘This indeed was, as I said, an
excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me,
exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin, telling me
I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me. “ And, young man,” said he, “ depend
upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but
disasters and disappointments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no more; which
way he went I know not. As for me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself,
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts ;
and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours,
and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else ;
from whence I have often since observed, how incongruous and irrational the common
temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in
such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed
of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures to
take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going
home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off;
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to return wore off with it, till at
last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

The evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house,—which
hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of raising my fortune; and that
impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice,
and to the entreaties and even the commands of my father ;—I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly called
it, a voyage to Guinea.*

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship myself as a
sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at
the same time I should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast man, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not fora master. But as it was
always my fate to choose for the worst, so I did here; for having money in my pocket
and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London, which does not
always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was; the devil gen-
erally not omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not so with me.
I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea;
and who, having had very good success there, was resolved to go again. This captain
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing

* Guinea. A district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where the land runs nearly due east and west.
\The six countries into which it is divided are known to sailors under the names of Sierra Leone, Grain Coast, Ivory
‘Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin.
MV FIRST TRADING VOYAGE, 15



“WE WORKED ON” (4. 12).

me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I
should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and if I could
carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit;
and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who was
an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very
considerably; for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me
to buy. This £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations
whom I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adventures, and
which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain; under whom also I
got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how
to keep an account of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand
some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor
and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adven-
ture, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost 4300; and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was continu-
ally sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our
principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north even to
the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfortune, dying
soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the
same vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the com-
mand of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I
did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had
lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfor-
tunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz., our ship making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African shore, was surprised in
the grey of the morning by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or
our masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would cer-
tainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns
and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing
to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stcrn, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small
shot from nearly two hundred men which he had on board. However, we had not a man
touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves. But laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and
rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our decks of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our
story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended ; nor was I carried
up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the
captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and
fit for his business. At this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to
a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father’s
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which
I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse; for now the
hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption; but, alas!
this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of
this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing that
it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugese man-of-
war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away ; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do
the common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came home again from
his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to effect
it, but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing presented to make
the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would embark’
L ENTERTAIN IDEAS OF ESCAPE. 17

with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself; so
that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had
the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the old
thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at
home longer than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was
fair, to take the ship’s pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always took
me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth—the Moresco, as they called him—to
catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing with him in a calm morning, a fog rose so
thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and
rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night;
and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for
the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from the land. However, we got well
in again, though with a great deal of labour and some danger; for the wind began to
blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of himself for
the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English ship which he had
taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English slave, to
build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge,
with a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the mainsheet; and room before
for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder-
of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and
low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with
some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; and
particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was most dexterous to
catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he had appointed to go
out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two o1 three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent
on board the boat over-night a larger store of provisions than usual; and had ordered me
to get ready three fusils* with powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for that
they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning with the boat
washed clean, her ancient} and pendants out, and everything to accommodate his guests;
when by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual,
to go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house: he commanded me too that as soon as I had got some fish I should bring it
home to his house: all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts, for now I
found I was likely to have a little ship at my command; and my master being gone, I
prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer; for anywhere to get out
of that place was my desire.

* Fusil, a French word, meaning a light musket or Srelock.
} Ancient, the old word, derived from the French ensigne, tor a flag, or the man who carries it.
2
18 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get something
for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s
bread. He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of their
kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case of
bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English prize,
and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been
there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat,
which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet,
a saw, anda hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also: his
name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to him :—“ Moely,” said
I, “our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot?
It may be we may kill some alcamies” (a fowl like our curlews) “for ourselves, for
I know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “ Yes,” says he, “I'll bring some;”
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held about a pound and a half
of powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time, I had found some powder of my
master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which
was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with every-
thing needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of
the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile
out of port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew
from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire, for had it blown southerly, I had
been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but
my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate. ‘

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had fish on my
hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the Moor, “ This
will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off.’ He,
thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sail; and, as I had
the helm I ran the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to, as if I would
fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm
under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for
he swan like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, telling me he would
go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he would -have
reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the
cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him and told him I had
done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: “But,” said I, “you
swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to
shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I’ll shoot you through
the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty :” so he turned himself about, and swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have drowned the
boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy,
whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I’ll make
you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me” (that is, swear
by Mahomet and his father’s beard), “I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and swore to
be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.






“HE LAY STRUGGLING FOR LIFE.”

(See p. 22).
20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly to sea
with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me gone towards
the Straits’ * mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been sup-
posed to do): for who would have supposed we were sailing on to the southward, to the
truly barbarian coast; where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes and destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we should be
devoured by savage beasts, or mere merciless savages of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and steered
directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the east that I might keep
in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made
such sail that I believe by the next day at three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first
made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee: quite
beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts,
for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions I
had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an an-
chor; the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then the
wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase
of me, they also would now give over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to
an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, nor where; neither what lati-
tude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any
people ; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the
evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country;
but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring,
and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready
to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. “Well, Xury,” said I,
“then I won’t; but it may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those
lions.” “Then we give them the shoot-gun,” says Xury, laughing, “make them run
wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad
to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to
cheer him up. Afterall, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it: we dropped our little
anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we
saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure
of cooling themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never
indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were both more
frighted when we heard one mighty creature come swimming towards our boat; we
could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous, huge and
furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know; but poor
Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. “ No,” says I, “ Xury, we can slip
our cable, with the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no
sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars’ length,
which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and
taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turned about, and swam
towards the shore again.

But it is impossibie to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries and howlings,
that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures had
never heard before: this convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the

* Stratts, the Straits of Gibraltar.
1 GO ON SHORE WITH XURY. 2X



“IT WAS A PORTUGUESE SHIP” (4%. 25).

night upon that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was another question too;
for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen
into the paws of the lions and tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger
of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for water,
for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was the point. Xury said,
if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water,
and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay
in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, as made me love him ever after.
Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” ‘“ Well, Xury,” said I, “we
will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them—they shall eat neither of us.”
So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we
thought was proper, and waded on shore; carrying nething but our arms, and two jars
for water. ;

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes with
savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it, and by-and-by I saw him come running toward me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward towards
him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs; however, we were very glad of it,and it was very good meat; but the great
joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no
wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a little
higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had
killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature
in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the islands of
22 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as
I had no instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we were in, and did
not exactly know, or at least not remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not where
to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily
have found some of these islands. But my hope was that if I stood along this coast till
I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that country
which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts ; the negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther
south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason
of its barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of
tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors
use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at
a time; and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing
but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roarings of
wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being the high
top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind to venture out, in
hopes of reaching thither; but having failed twice, I was forced in again by contrary
winds, the sea also going too high for my littie vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first
design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this place; and
once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point
of land, which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther
in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me,
and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look, yonder lies
a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where he pointed,
and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of
the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as if it were a little over him.
“ Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said,
“Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more
to the boy, but bade him be still, and took our biggest gun, which was almost musket
bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down;
then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) I
loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first piece to have
shot him in the head, but he laid so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the
slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. _He started up, growling at first,
but finding his leg broke, fell down again; and then got up upon three legs, and gave
the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him
on the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and though he began to
move off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop;
and making but little noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. ‘ Well, go,” said I, so the boy jumped into the water, and
taking the little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to
the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry to loose
three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us.
However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he.
WE ENCOUNTER NAKED SAVAGES. 23

However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him,
and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or other,
be of some value to us; and I resolved to take offhis skin if Icould. So Xury and I went
to work with him ; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how
to do it. Indeed, it took us up both the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him,
and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time, and
it afterwards served me to lie upon. be

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve days, living
very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no oftener
into the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was, to make
the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I
was in hopes to meet with some European ship ; and if I did not, I knew not what course
I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there among thenegroes. I knew that



“THEY CAME TO MAKE A SECRET PROPOSAL TO ME” (4. 29),

all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to
the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of my
fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said, I began to

see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive that they were quite black,
and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them ; but Xury was my
better counsellor, and said to me, “No go,no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the!
shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way:
I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long slender stick,
which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a great way with good aim;
so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly
made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of
them ran up into the country; and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with
24 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country ;
but we neither knew what the one or the other was: however, we were willing to accept
it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture on shore to them,
and they were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends; but
an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully: for while we were
lying on the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuring the other (as we took it)
with great fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing
the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in the
first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and in the second
place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the women. The man that had

‘the lance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures
ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion: at last
one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for
him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition,and bade Xury load both the
others. As soonas he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the
head: immediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and
down, as if he were struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the
shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the noise and
fire of my gun; some of them were ready even to die for fear, and fell down as dead with
the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk into the water, and that
I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water: and by
the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged
him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an ad-
mirable degree; and the negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it
was I killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun, swam to
the shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they came; nor could JI, at
that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the negroes were for eating the flesh of
this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately
they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of
wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we would have done
with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would
give it them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought
me a great deal more of their provision, which, though I did not understand, yet I ac-
cepted. Then I made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning its bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled.
They called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and brought
a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they set down for
me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and leaving
my friendiy negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, without offering to
RESCUED BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP. 25

go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the
distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large
offing to make this point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most
certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from thence,
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best do; for if I should be taken witha fresh gale of wind, I might
neither reach one or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat me down,
Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, “ Master, master, a ship
with a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs
be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough
out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship,
but that it was a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea,
for negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they
were bound some other way, and did not design to go any nearer the shore; upon which
I stretched out to the sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their way,
but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them: but after I had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which they supposed must
belong to some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was
encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to
them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both of which they saw; for they told me
they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they very
kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours’ time I came up
with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French, but I
understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me:
and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee ; they then bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was thus
delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was
in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship. as a return ‘for m
deliverance ; but he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all I
had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he,
“T have saved your life on no other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself;
and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition,
Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then
I only take away that life I have given. No, no,” says he; “Seignor Inglese” (Mr.
Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and these things will help you to buy
your subsistence there, and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to a tittle ;
for he ordered the seamen, that none should offer to touch anything I had: then he took
everything into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that
I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me he would buy
it of me for the ship’s use ; and asked me what I could have for it? I told him, he had
been so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price of the
26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which, he told me he would give me a note of his
hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil ; and when it came there, if any one
offered to give more, he would make it up.’ He offered me also sixty pieces of eight
more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was unwilling to let the
captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me
so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned
it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set
him free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was willing
to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de Todos los
Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was once more
delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember: he
would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin,
and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me,
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees’-wax, for
I had made candles of the rest: in a word I made about two hundred and twenty pieces
of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of a good, honest
man, like himself, who had an zugenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-
house), I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the
manner of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived,
and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I
would turn planter among them; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to
get my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a
kind of letter of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one as might
be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

Thad a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents, whose
name was Wells,and in much such circumstances as I was. I call him neighbour, because
his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was
but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land began to come into order; so that
the third year we planted some tobbaco, and made each of usa large piece of ground
ready for planting canes in the year tocome. But we both wanted help; and now I
found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder. I had no
remedy but to go on: I had got into employment quite remote to my genius, and
directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s house,
and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I was coming into the very middle station,
or upper degree of low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if I
resolved to go on with, I might have as well have stayed at home, and never fatigued
myself in the world, as I have done; and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it
among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never to hear
from any part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret. I had
nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbor ; no work to be done, but,
by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast aNay
MY LIFE IN THE BRAZILS. 27

upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself. But how just has it been—
and how should all men reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience—I say, how just has it been, that the truly
solitary life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had,
in all probability, been exceedingly prosperous and rich.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation, before

rat



“T RESCLVED TO HOLD FAST BY A PIECE OF THE ROCK” (4. 33).

my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back—for the ship
remained there, in providing her lading, and preparing for her voyage, near three months ;
when, telling him what little stock I had left behind mein London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice :—‘ Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “if you will
give me letters and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the person who has
your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct,
and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return ; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters,
I would have you give orders for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half
28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first ; so that, if it come safe, you may order
the rest the same way ; and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse
to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the
gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired. :

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures—my slavery,
escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his beha-
viour, and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions for my supply ;
and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English
merchants there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she not only de-
livered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me. :

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English goods, such as the
captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe
to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was too young in my
business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and
untensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised with the joy
of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend
had sent him fora present for himse!f, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond
for six years’ service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco,
which I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such as cloths,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found means
to sell them at a very great advantage; so that I may say, I had more than four times the
value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour—I mean in
the advancement of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave,
and an European servant also—I mean another besides that which the captain brought
me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our greatest adversity,
so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success in my plantation: I raised
fifty great rolls of tobacco on. my own ground, more than IJ had disposed of for necessaries
among my neighbors; and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred-weight were
well cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon : and now increasing in
business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my
reach; suchas are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued
in the station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me,
for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired !'£:, and which he had so
sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of; but other things attended me,
and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly to increase
my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should
have leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate ad-
hering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in
contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred to
present me with, and to make my duty.

; As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could not be con-
a now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man
THE SLAVE-DEALING SCHEME. 29

in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than
the nature of the thing admitted ; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest
gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life, and
a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my story :—You
may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the language,
but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants at St. Salvadore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of
Guinea; the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c., but negroes, for the
service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourse on these heads, but especially
to that part which related to the buying negroes, which was a trade, at that time, not only
not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the asséento, or permis-
sion, of the Kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few
negroes were brought and those excessively dear.

I happened, being in company one day with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came to me the
next morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
of with them the last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after
enjoining me secresy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straightened for nothing so
much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could
not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so they desired to make but one
voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own plan-
tations; and, ina word, the question was, whether I would go their supercago in their
ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that
I should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one that had
not had a settlement and a plantation cf his own to look after, which was in a fair way of
coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for three
or four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being woith
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me to think of such
a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances could be
guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the offer than I
could restrain my first rambling designs when my father’s good counsel was lost upon
me. Inaword I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to
look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it as I should direct, if I
miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings and covenants to do
so. I made a formal will disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my death, making
the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging
him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will: one-half of the produce being
to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up my
plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my own interest, and
30 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had cer-
tainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views
of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather than my
reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo finished, and all things
done, as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour
again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that | went from my
father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my
own interests.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six guns, and four-
teen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had on board no large cargo of
goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits
of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets,
and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward upon our
own coasts, with design to stretch over for the African coast when they came into about
ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was a manner of their course
in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own
coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; from whence, keeping farther off at
sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle of Fernando de Nor-
onha, holding our course N. E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this course
we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation, in seven
degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took
us quite out of our knowledge. It began from the south-east, came about to the north-
west, and then settled into the north-east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before
it, let it carry us wherever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during these
twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor did any
in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men died of the
calenture, and a man and a boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather -
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and found that he
was in about eleven degrees of north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of
longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon
the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that
of the river Oronoque, commonly called the Great River; and now he began to consult
with me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and
he was for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea coast of America
with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till
we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away
for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of
Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we
could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both
to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N. W. by W., in order to
reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was other-
wise determined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second
storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and
drove us out of the way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to
OUR VESSEL IS DRIVEN ON SHORE. 31



“THE SHIP WAS DRIVEN UP ALMOST AS FAR AS THE ROCK” (#, 34).

the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to
our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early one morning
cried out, “ Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of
seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and ina
moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we
expected we should all have perished immediately, and we were even driven into our
close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to describe or con-
ceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We knew nothing where we
were, or upon what it was we were driven—whether an island or the main, whether
inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was still great, though rather less
than at first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. Ina word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little or
nothing more for us to do in this. That which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship having thus
struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a
dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well
as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first staved
by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the next place, she broke away, and either
sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another boat on
board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was no
room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and with the help of the
rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship’s side; and getting all into her, let go,
and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild sea; for
32 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea ran dreadfully high upon the
shore, and might be well called dex wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly, that the sea went
so high that the boat could not escape, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As
to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything with it; so we
worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to execu-
tion; for we all knew that when the boat came near the shore, she would be dashed ina
thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in
the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards the land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal we knew not.
The only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we
might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance
we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth
water. But there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the
shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as we reckoned it, a
raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the
coup de grace. Ina word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once;
and separating us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to
say, “‘O God!” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sank into the
water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as
breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for
I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I
had no means or strength to contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and
pilot myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern now being, that the
wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not
carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep in
its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward
with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when as I felt myself
rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the
surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep
myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and, finding the water
had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves,
and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath and
till the waters went from me, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength
I had, farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves
and carried forward as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for the sea having hurried
me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that
MY ECSTACIES AT MY ESCAPE. 33

with such force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for
the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body;
and had it returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but I
recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with
the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves were not so high as at first, being
nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not
so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the mainland,
where to my great comfort, I clambered up the
cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the
grass, free from danger and quite out of the reach
of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and
began to look up and thank God that my life was
saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes
before, scaice any room to hope. I believe it is
impossible to express, to the life, what the ecsta-
cies and transports of the soul are, when it is so
saved, as I may say, out of the very grave, and
I do not wonder now at that custom, when a male-
factor, who has the halter about his neck,
is tied up, and just going to be turned off,
and hasa reprieve brought to him—I say, £ Tp
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon . B+"
with it, to let him blood that very moment
they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the
animal spirits from the heart and overwhelm him.



“I GOT IT DOWN
TO MY RAFT”
(4. 36).

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my
deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I
cannot describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but my-
self; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign
of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get
on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my condition, I began to look around me, to see what kind
of a place I was in, and what was next to be done: and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that in a word, I had a dreadful £
deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any-
thing either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see 'Â¥
any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or
being devoured by wild beasts; and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and

3
34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature .
that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife,
a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco ina box. This was all my provisions; and this threw
me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they always come abroad for
their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to get up into a thick
bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all
night, and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water
to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me ashort stick, like a
truncheon, for iny defence, I took up my lodging: and being excessively fatigued, I fell
fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my condition,
and found myself more refreshed with it than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated, so that
the sea did not rage and swell as before. But that which surprised me most was, that
the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had
been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being within about a mile
from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself
on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again, and
the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her
up, upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon
the shore to have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of water between me and the
boat which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present
subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out that
I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing
of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if-we had kept on board, we had been all safe—
that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company as I now was. This forced tears to
my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took
the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how
to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I
espied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hanging down
by the fore-chains so low, that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help
of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was
bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank,
and her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and
all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search,
and to see what was spoiled and what was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s
provisions were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about
I MAKE A RAFT. 35

other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin,
of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to spirit me
for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with
many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and this extremity
roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood,
and a spare top-mast or two in the ship: I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung
as many of them overboard as I could,
manage for their weight, tying every one
with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down
the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I
tied four of them together at both ends, as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and
laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces
being too light. So I went to work, and
with a carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-
mast into three lengths, and added them to
my raft, with a great deal of labour and
pains. But the hope of furnishing myself
with necessaries, encourged me to go be-
yond what I should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to
bear any reasonable weight. Mynext care
was what to load it with, and how to pre-
serve what I had laid upon it from the surf
of the sea: but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards
upon it that I could get, and having con-
sidered well what I most wanted
I first got three of the seamen’s
chests, which I had broken open __
and emptied, and lowered them
down upon my raft; the first of
these I filled with provisions, viz.
bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat's flesh
(which we lived much upon), and PA ESE REC DE DB Ray aie):

a little remainder of European

corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the
fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat together; but, to my great
disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoileditall. As for liquors,
I found several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of arrack. These I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for them, While I
was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifi-
cation to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore, upon the sand, swim

























36 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

away. As for my breeches, they were only linen, and open-knee’d, I swam on board in
them and my stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I
found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things
which my eye was more upon—as, first, tools to work with on shore. And it was after
long searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which was, indeed, a very useful
prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for
I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very good
fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first, with powder-
horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
powder inthe ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but with much
search I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two
I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder ;
and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: first, a smooth, calm sea; secondly, the tide rising, and
setting into the shore; thirdly, what little wind there was blew me towards the land.
And thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools
which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe,and a hammer: with this cargo I put
to sea. Fora mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed before; by which I perceived that there
was some indraught of the water, and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river
there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo. |

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of the land, and
I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to
keep in the middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think
verily, would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted
but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen
into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in
their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir
from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that
manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me a little more
upon a level; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust
her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found
myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current of tide
running up. I looked on both sides fora proper place to get to shore, for I was not
willing too be driven to high up the river: hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which, with great
pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, that, reaching ground with
my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo
into tne sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was
no place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and
the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could
do, was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor,
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water enough—for my raft
drew about a foot of water—I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened


“WITH THIS CARGO I PUT TO SEA.”

(See p. 36)
38 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near
one end, and one on the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed
away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my habitation,
and where to stow my goods to secure them from whatever might happen. Where I
was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or an island; whether inhabited or not
inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile
from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. JI took out one of the fowling-pieces,
and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery
up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the
top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was in an island environed every way
with the sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two
small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason to
believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of which however, I saw none. Yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird which I
saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that
had been fired there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, but from all
parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a
confused screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note, but not one of
them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of
hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than
common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft and fell to work to bring my
cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of the day. What to do with myself at night
I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not
knowing but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was
really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and boards
that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for
food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three crea-
tures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of the ship,
which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other things as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on board
the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything out of
the ship that I could get. Then I called a council—that is to say, in my thoughts—
whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go
as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from
my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of
pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having had
experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I
brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets,
and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together
with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and
two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
MY MEETING WITH THE WILD CAT. 39



“A LITTLE PLAIN ON THE SIDE «
OF A RISING HILL” (4. 42).

quantity of powder more; a large bag-full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead ;
but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes, that I could find, and a spare
fore-top sail, a hammock and some bedding ; and with this I loaded my second raft and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension during my absence from the land, that at least my
provisions might be devoured on shore; but when I came back, I found no sign of any
visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I
came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very composed:
and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with
me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly
unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great; however, I
spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased)
for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged to open the barrels
of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks—I
went to work to make mea little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with rain
or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify
it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards within,
4o ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night. I was very weary and heavy; for
the night before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch
those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe, for one
man ; but still I was not satisfied, for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought
I ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day, at low water, I went on
board, and brought away something or other; but particulary the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-
twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occa-
sion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails first and
last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could,
for they were no more useful to me for sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was that at last of all, after I had made five
or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with—I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread,
three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of fine sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this
was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread, and wrapped
it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also, though at several times.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the ship of what
was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cable; cutting the great cable into
pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-
work I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every-
thing I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came away.
But my good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen,
that after I entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo
into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to
my cargo it was great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me; however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of
cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip
for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this, I went every
day on board, and brought away what I could get.

I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board the
ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well be sup-
posed capable of bringing; though I verily believe, had the calm weather held, I
should have brought away the whole ship, piece by by piece; but preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise. However, at low water I went on
board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, that nothing
more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I
found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money—
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “Oh, drug!” said I, aloud, “ what art
thou good for? Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking off the ground; one of
those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee; e’en remain where
thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving.” However,
upon second thoughts, I took it away; and, wrapping all in a piece of canvas, I began to
DISAPPEARANCE OF THE SHIP. 41

think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast.
and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blewa fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the
wind off shore; and that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands,
and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about
me, and partly from the roughness of the water ; for the wind rose very hastily, and before
it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth about me
very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I looked out,



3 “INTO THIS FORTRESS
I CARRIED ALL MY RICHES”’ (4. 42).




behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with
this satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get every-
thing out of her that could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her
that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her, except
what. might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did;
but those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself-against either savages,
if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make—whether I should
ee

42 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon
both; the manner and description of which, it may not be improper to give an
account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, particularly because it
was upon a low, moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome,
and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a
more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper for me:
Ist, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned ; 2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun;
3rdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; 4thly, a view to the sea,
that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a rising hill,
whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come
down upon me fromthe top. On the side of the rock there was a hollow place, worn a
little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or
way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved to pitch my tent.
This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a
green before my door ; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down into
the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to the W. and by S. sun or thereabouts,
which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which took in
about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from
its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the ground
till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about five feet
and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches from
one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows,
one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half high,
like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that neither man nor beast could get
into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles
in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder to go
over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; andso I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure in
the night, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards,
there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger
from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all my pro-
visions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above; and I made me
a large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent
there. I made it double—viz., one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it;
and covered the uppermost part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore, but in
a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ‘ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by "the
THE THUNDERSTORM. 43

wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I
had left open, and so passed and re-passed, as I said by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing all
the earth and stones that I dug down ont through my tent, I laid them up within
my fence, in the nature of a terrace,
so that it raised the ground within
about a foot and a half; and thus I
made me a cave, just behind my tent,
which served me like a cellar to my
house.

It cost me much labour and
many days before all these things were
brought to perfection; and therefore I
must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts.
At the same time it occurred, after I
had laid my scheme for the setting up
the tent, and making the cave, that a
storm of rain falling from a thick, dark
cloud, a sudden flash of lighting hap-
pened, and after that, a
great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it.
I was not so much sur-
prised with the lightning,
as I was with a thought
which darted into my mind
as swift as the lightning it-
self—Oh, my powder! My
very heart sank within me
when I thought that, at one
blast, all my powder might be
destroyed; on which, not my
defence only, but the providing
me food, as I thought, entirely
depended. I was nothing near
so anxious about my own dan-
ger; though had the powder
took fire, I had never known
who had hurt me.

Such impression did this
make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all
my work, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself
to make bags and boxes, to
separate my powder, and to
Se SS _ keep it a little and a little in a
' parcel, in hopes that, whatever
might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep


















“A GREAT QUANTITY OF EARTH FELL DOWN” (4. 51).
44 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all was about one hundred
and forty pounds weight, was divided into no less than a hundred parcels. As to the
barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my
new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where
I laid it.
' In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once every day
with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and
as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced. ‘The first time I
went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they
were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might
now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a little,
I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though
they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible fright ; but if they were
feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from
whence I concluded that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed down-
ward that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards I took
this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which jad a little
kid by her which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; for, when the old one
fell, the kid stood stock-still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but
when I carried the old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid folléwed me quite to my
enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried
it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced
to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as I possibly could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide a place
to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place; but I
must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not cast away upon that island
without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our intended
voyage, and a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of
the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven
that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears
wouldrun plentifully down my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would
expostulate with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned, and so entirely
depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and to
reprove me; and particularly one day walking with my gun in my hand by the seaside,
I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when Reason, as it were,
put in expostv ating with me the other way, thus: ‘Well, you are in a desolate con-
dition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you
lost? Why are you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?” And then I
MY MANNER OF RECKONING TIME. 45

pointed to the sea. All evils are to be con-
sidered with the good that is in them, and
with what worse attended them. ~

Then it occurred to me again, how well
I was furnished for my subsistence, and what
would have been my case if it had not hap-
pened (which was a hundred thousand to one)
that the ship floated from the place where
first she struck, and was driven so near to the
shore, that I had time to get all these things
out of her? what would have been my case,
if I had been forced to have lived in the con-
dition in which I at first came on shore, with-
out necessaries of life, or any means to supply
and procure them? “ Particularly,” said I
aloud (though to myself), “what should I
have done without a gun, without ammuni-
tion, without any tools to make anything, or
to work with? without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of coverings?” and that
now I had all these to a sufficient quantity,
and was in a fair way to provide myself in
such a manner as to live without my gun,
when my ammunition was spent: so that I
had a tolerable view of subsisting without any
want as long as I lived; for I considered from
the beginning how I would provide for the
accidents that might happen and for the time
that was to come, even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after
-my health and strength should decay.

I confess I had not then entertained any
notion of my ammunition being destroyed at
one blast—I mean, my powder being blown
up by lightning; and this made the thoughts s
of it surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life, such,
perhaps, as was never heard of it in the world before, I shall take it from its beginning,
and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September when, in the
manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island; when the sun, being to us
in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by obser-
vation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts that I should
lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen, and ink, and should even forget
the Sabbath day from the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon
a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore
where I first landed, viz., “ I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and every
seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.



“GRINDING MY TOOLS” (4%. 57)
46 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I brought
from the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down
before: as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s,
gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical instru-
ments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or no: also I found three very good Bibles, which came to
me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my things; some
Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or three Popish prayer-books, and several
other books; all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the
ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I must have occasion to say something
in its place, for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the
ship himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me,
nor any company that he could make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me,
but that he could not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I hus-
banded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted I kept things very
exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any means
that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all that I had
amassed together; and of these, ink was one: as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want
that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ; and it was near a whole
year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it
into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at iast
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, yet made
driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need I have
been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough
to do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least that I could
foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was
reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them
to any that were to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind; and as my reason began
to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the
good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from worse,
and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comfort I enjoyed against
the miseries I suffered, thus:

EVIL. GOOD.
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive; and not drowned, as
island; void of all hope of recovery. all my ship’s company was.
I am singled out and separated, as But I am singled out, too, from all
it were, from all the world, to be miserable. the ship’s crew, to be spared from death;

and He that miraculously saved me from
death can deliver me from this condition.
REFLECTIONS ON MY CONDITION. 47

EVIL.

I am divided from mankind, a solitary ;
one banished from human society.

GOOD.

But I am not starved, and perish-
ing on a barren place, affording no suste-

nance.

But I am in a hot climate, where if I

I have no clothes to cover me. had clothes, I could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island where I see
no wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa; and what if I had been
shipwrecked there?

I am without any defence, or means to
resist any violence of man or beast.

But God wonderfully sent the ship in
I have no soul to speak to or relieve near enough to the shore, that I have got
me. out so many necessary things as will either
supply my wants or enable me to supply

myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce any condi-
tion in the world so miserable but there was something negative, or something positive,
to be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world—that we may always find in it something to
comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of
the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given over looking
out to sea if I could spy aship—I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself
to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of a rock,
surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall,
for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick, on the outside ; and
after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the
rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get to
keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into the cave
which I had made behind me. ButI must observe, too, that at first this was a confused
heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself: soI set myself to enlarge my cave, and worked farther in the earth;
for it was a loose, sandy rock : which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and
so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right
hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me
a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to
my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found I most
wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do several things, with somuch
pleasure without a table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs observe that as reason is the substance
and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and by
making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master of every
mechanic art, I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, appli-
48 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

cation, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without tools ;
and some with no more tools than an adze anda hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made
that way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had
no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till Ihad brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one board out of a whole
tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had: for the prodigious
deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my time or
labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as another.

However, I made mea table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first place ; and
this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But
when I had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of
a foot anda half, one over another, all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails,
and iron work on; and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places that I
might come easily at them; also I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my
guns and all things that would hang up: so that had my cave been to be seen, it looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand,
that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find
my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a Journal of every day’s employment; for,
indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and not only an hurry as to labour, but in too
much discomposure of mind; and my Journal would have been full of many dull things:
for example, I must have said thus: ‘‘ Sept. the 30th—After I had got to shore, and had
escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first
vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my hands and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone, undone! till, tired and
faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of
being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and had got all I could
out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking
out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy at a vast distance I spied a sail, please
myself with the hopes of it, and then, after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose
it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled my house-
hold stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as
I could, I began I say to keep my Journal: of which I shall here give you the copy
(although in it will be told all these particulars over again), as long as it lasted; for at
last, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during
a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I
called “ The Island of Despair”; all the rest of the ship’s company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circumstances I was
brought to: viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and, in,
despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me: either that I should be devoured

"uv
MY JOURNAL. 49

by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach
of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated with
the high tide, and was driven on shore again, much nearer the island; which, as it was
some comfort, on one hand (for seeing her set upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped,
if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her
for my relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades,
who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least,
that they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been
saved, we might perhaps had built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship to have carried
us to some other part of the world. Ispent great part of this day in perplexing myself

¢ on these things; but at length, seeing the
ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as
near as I could, and then swam on board.
This day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.

from the 1st of October to the 24th—
All these days entirely spent in several voy-
ages to get all I could out
of the ship, which I brought
on shore, every tide of flood,
upon rafts. Much rain also,
in these days, though with
some intervals of fair weath-
er; but it seems this was
the rainy season.













“I KILLED A SHE-GOAT AND WITH MUCH DIFFICULTY GOT IT HOME” (4. 59).

Oct. 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but being in shoal-
water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide
was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; during which
time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before, and was
no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I saved, that the rain might not
spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix my hab-
itation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the night, I fixed upon a

4
50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semi-circle for my encampment, which I
resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined
within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to my new
habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to see for some
food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and the kid followed me home,
which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first night; mak-
ing it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards and the pieces of timber which made my
rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out
for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which were very
good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out with my
gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion: viz.,every morning I walked out with my gun
for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o’clock; then ate what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the
weather being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working .
part of this day and the next were wholly employed in making this table, for I was yet
but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a complete natural
mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do anyone else.

Nov. 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a wild cat;
her skin pretty soft but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off
the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea
fowls, which I did not understand; but was surprised and almost frighted, with two or
three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the
sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and finished
it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, roth, and part
of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to
make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please
me; and even in making I pulled it to pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for them on my
post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13,—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled the earth ;
but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of
powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little square chests, or boxes,
which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the
powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from another as possible. On one
of these three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
‘ Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make room for
my further conveniency.

Vote —Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work: viz.,a pick-axe, a shovel,
land a wheel-barrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to consider how
to supply that want, and make me some tools. As for the pick-axe, 1 made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel,
CONTINUATION OF MY JOURNAL. 51

or spade; this was so absolutely necessary that indeed I could do nothing effectually
without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that wood, or
like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this,
with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, with
difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and
having no other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually
by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours
in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long; however, it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to
put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-barrow. A basket I could not
make by any means, having no such thing as twigs that would bend to make wicker-
ware—at least, none yet found out; and as to the wheel-barrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel; but that I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go about it;
besides, I had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out °
of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar in when they
serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet
this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-barrow, took
me up no less than four days, I mean always excepting my morning’s walk with my gun,
which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having stood still, because of my making these tools,
when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it might
hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious enough
to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a
cellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet sea-
son of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me
afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a sudden
(it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and
one side; so much that in short, it frighted me—and not without reason, too; for if
I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a
great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more
would come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two shores or posts
pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across over each post; this I fin-
ished the next day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the roof secured: and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to
part of my house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up nails on
the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now I began to be in
some order within doors,

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my house,
and set: up some pieces of board like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but board
began to be very scarce with me: also I made me another table.

Dee. 24.—Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.
52 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Dec. 26—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I catched it and led it
home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which
was broke.

N. B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong
as ever; but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my
door, and would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot
were all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no stirring abroad,
except in the evening for food; this time I spent in putting all my things in order
within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my gun, and
lay still in the middle ofthe day. This evening, going farther into the valleys which lay
towards the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceedingly
shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to
hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him upon the
goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his dan-
ger too well, for he would not come near them,

Jan. 3.—I1 began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my being attacked
by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong. :

N. B.—This wall being described before, 1 purposely omit what was said in the
Journal ; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from the 3d of January
to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock
to another place, about eight yards from it,the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days, nay, some-
times weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall
was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground ;
for I made them much bigger than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf wall raised
up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to come on shore there, they
would not perceive anything like a habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as may be:
observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day, when the rain
permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other to my
advantage ; particularly I found akind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons
in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking some young
ones, I endeavored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they
flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to
give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones, which
were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, as to some
of them it was: for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small
runlet or two, as I observed before ; but I could never arrive at the capacity of making one
by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, nor join
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over.
“I GOT ME A PIECE OF GOAT’S FLESH, AND BROILED IT.”
(See p. br.)


54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In the next place, I was ata great loss for candles ; so that as soon as it was dark, which
was gcnerally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of
bees’-wax with which I made candles in my African adventure; but I had none of that
now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and.
with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of
some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my
things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the
feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came
from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn that had been in the bag was all devoured
by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag-but husks and dust; and being willing to have
the bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of
the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my
fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw this stuff away,
taking no notice, of anything, and not so much as remembering that I had thrown any-
thing there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of some-
thing green shooting upon the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not
seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfectly green barley, of the same kind
as our European—nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts on this
occasion; I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very
few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had
befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without .
so much as inquiring intothe end of Providence in these things, or His order in govern -
ing events in the world. But after I saw barley growthere in a climate which I knew was
not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miracuously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for my sustenance in
that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes, and I began to
bless myself that such a prodigy of Nature should happen upon my account; and this
was the more strange to me because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock,
some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because
I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these pure productions of Providence for my support, but not
doubting that there was more in the place, I went all over that part of the island where
I had been before, peering in every corner and under every rock, to see for more of it,
but Icould not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts that I had shaken the bag
of chickens’ meat out in that place ; and the wonder began to cease; and I must confess,
my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate too, upon the discovering
that all this was nothing but what was common: though I ought to have been as thankful
for so strange and unforseen providence, as if it had been miraculous; for it was really
the work of Providence as to me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains
of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had
been dropped from heaven; as also that I should throw it out in to that particular place,
where it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately ; whereas, if I had
thrown it anywhere else at that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season, which was
about the end of June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hop-
THE EARTHQUAKE. 55

ing in time to have some quantity, sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not
till the fourth year that I would allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even
then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the
first season, by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would have done: of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice, which I
preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the same
purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without
baking, though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal :—

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall done; and the
14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over a wall, by a
ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and then pulled
it up after me, and let it down on the inside: this was a complete enclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless it could
first mount my wall.



“JT DID, AFTER MUCH PAINSTAKING, CATCH A YOUNG PARROT” (4, 72.)

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my labour over-
thrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus:—As I was busy in the inside of
it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened with a
most dreadful surprising thing indeed: for, all on a sudden, I found the earth came tum-
bling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and
two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked ina frightful manner. I was heartily
scared; but thought nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that the top of
my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I should be buried in
it, I ran forwards to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my
wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me. I was
no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earth-
quake; for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance,
with three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building that could be
supposed to have stood upon the earth; and a great piece of the top of the rock which
stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I
never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into a violent motion
by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.
56 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, or discoursed with
any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth
made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the
rock awaked me as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled
me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all
my household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a
sécond time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began to take
courage; and yet I had not heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least serious religious thought;
nothing but the common “ Lord, have mercy upon me!” and when it was over, that went
away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grow cloudy, as if it would rain;
soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew
a most dreadful hurricane of wind: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with foam and
froth; the shore was covered with the breach of the water; the trees were torn up by
the roots; and a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours, and then began to
abate; and then in two hours more it was calm, and began to rain very hard. All this
while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it came
into my thoughts that these winds and rain being the consequences of the earthquake,
the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave again. With
this thought, my spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I
went in and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so vioient that my tent was ready to
be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid
and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new
work, viz., to cut a hole through my new fortifications, like a sink, to let the water go
out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my cave some time,
and found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed.
And now to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little
store, and took a small sup of rum; which, however, I did then and always very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued raining all
that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind
being more composed, I began to think of what I had best to do; concluding that if the
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I
must consider of building me some little hut in an open place which I might surround
with a wall, as I had done here, and to make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for
I concluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the place where it now stood,
which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill; and which, if it should, be
shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent: and I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how to remove my habitation. The
fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet the appre-
hensions of lying abroad without any fence were almost equal to it; but still, when
I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed
I was, and how safe from danger, it made me loth to remove. In the meantime, it
occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that
I must be contented to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself,
and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for
a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was finished; but
REAPPEARANCE OF THE WRECK. 57

that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove to. This
was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to put this resolve in
execution ; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and abund-
ance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians) ; but with much
chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and
though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as
much thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a
judge upon the life and death ofa man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a string, to
turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.

NVote.—I had not seen any such things in England, or at least not to take notice how
it was done, though since I have observed it was very common there ; besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week’s work to bring
it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my machine
for turning my grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, I now took a sur-
vey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide being low, I saw
something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I came
to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were
driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it
seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken
water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship,
to look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it strongely removed. The forecastle, which
lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet, and the stern, which was broken
to pieces and parted from the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had left rummag-
ing of her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so
high on that side next her stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before, so
that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could
now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence the ship
was more broken open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea
had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habitation and
I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching whether I could make any way
into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for that all the inside
of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of any-
thing, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that
everything I could get from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which I thought
held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but the tide
coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till 1 was weary
of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me
a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough,
as much as I cared to eat; all of which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck ; cut another beam asunder, and brought three great
fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore when the
tide of flood came on.

May 6—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and other pieces
of iron-work ; worked very hard, and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of
giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, with an intent not to work, but found the weight
of the wreck had broken itself down, the beams being cut ; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into it; but it
was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the deck, which
lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them
on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of the wreck,
and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt
also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.—Went every day to the wreck; and gota great deal of pieces
of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cuta piece off the roll of lead,
by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a
foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more broken by
the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods to get pigeons for food, that
the tide prevented me from going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance, near
two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found that they were pieces of
the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard labour I
loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first flowing tide several casks
floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing
came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork
in it; but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day
to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed,
during this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten timber, and plank, and iron-work
enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got, at several times,
and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of sheet lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle. This was the
first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or the
scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might have had hun-
dreds of them every day, as I found afterwards, but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17 Ispentin cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs; and her
flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that every I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrible place.

June 18.—Rained allthe day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time, the rain
felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night ; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my sad con-
dition—to be sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull,
but scarce knew what I said or why ; my thoughts being all confused.
AN AFFRIGHTING DREAM. 59

June 22 —A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25 —An ague, very violent; the fit held me seven hours; cold fit, and hot
with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found myself
very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and

broiled some of it, and ate. J would fain have stewed
it, and made some broth, but had no pot. : P
June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay ze \y

a-bed all day and neither ate nor drank. I was ready
to perish for thirst ; but so weak I had no strength to
stand up, or to get
myself any water
to drink. Prayed
to God again, but
was light-headed ;
and when I was
not, I was so igno-
rant that I knew
not what to say;
only I lay and
cried, “Lord, look
upon me! Lord,
pity me! Lord,




















“THERE ROSE UP A LITTLE CLOUD OF FOWLS”’ (4. 76).

have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else
for two or three hours; till the fit wearing off, I fell
asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When
I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak,
and exceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in
my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I had
this terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on
the ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat
when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I
saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground; he was all over as bright as a flame, so
that I could but just bear to look towards him: his countenance was most expressively
dreadful, impossible for words to describe; when he stepped upon the ground with his
feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all
the air looked to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was
no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forwards towards me, with a long spear
60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some dis-
tance, he spoke to me—or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the
terror of it. All that I can say I understood was this :—‘ Seeing all these things have
not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die;’—at which words, I thought he
lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able to describe
the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I
even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the impression
that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good instruction of
my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of sea-faring
wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked
and profane to the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all that time, one
thought that so much as tended even to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards
a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good,
or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the most hard-
ened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can be supposed to be—
not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in dangers, or of thankfulness to God
in deliverances.

In relating of what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily beiieved
when I shall add, that through all the varieties of miseries that had to this day befallen
me, I never had so much as one thought of its being the hand of God, or that it was a
just punishment for my sins—my rebellious behaviour against my father—or my present
sins, which were great—or so much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked
life. When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa. I never
had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish to God to direct
me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded
me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages; but I was merely thoughtless of a
God or a Providence—I acted like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by
the dictates of common sense only, and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered and
taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honourably with,
as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I
was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this island, I was as far from
remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only said to myself often that I was an
unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship’s crew drowned, and
myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which,
had the grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where
it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, with-
out the least reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the Hand which had pre-
served me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or
an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful to me. Even just the same common
sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they have got safe ashore after a shipwreck,
all which they drown in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over,
and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due considera-
tion, made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the
reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon as I
saw a probability of living, and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the
sense of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied myself to the works
proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough from being afflicted at my
condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were
thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.


“It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my Family
sit down to dinner.”

PENITENT REFLECTIONS. 61

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first, some little
influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had
something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed,
all the impression which was raised from it wore off also, as I have noted already. Even
the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately
directing to the invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the
first fright over but the impression it had made went off also. I had no more sense of
God, or His judgments—much less of the present affliction of my circumstances being
from His hand—than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life. But now
when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came to place
itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper,
and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever, conscience, that had slept so
long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my past life, in which I had
so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under
uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictivea manner. These reflections
oppressed me from the second or third day of my distemper ; and in the violence, as well
of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from
me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attended with de-
sires or with hopes: it was rather the voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts
were confused, the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such a
miserable condition raised vapours into my head with the mere apprehensions; and in
these hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express. But it was rather
exclamation, such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creatuream I! If I should be sick, I
shall certainly die for want of help, and what will become ofme?” Then, the tears burst
out of my eyes, and I could say no more fora good while. In this interval, the good
advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction, which I_ mentioned
at the beginning of this story, viz. that if I did take this foolish step, God would not
bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel
when there might be none to assist me in my recovery. “ Now,” said I aloud, “my dear
father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken me, and I have none to
help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me ina
posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy ; but I would neither
see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn
over my folly; and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused
their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into the world, and would have made
everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle with too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried
out, “ Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress.” This was the first prayer, if I might
call it so, that I had made for many years.

But I return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and the fit
being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and
now was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when I should be ill : and
the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table,
in reach of my bed: and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put
about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a
piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked
about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miser-
able condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day. At night, I made my
supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it,
62 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing to, even,
as I could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that I could hardly
carry the gun, for I never went out without that; so I went out but a little way, and sat
down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very
calm and smooth. - As I sat here, some thoughts such as these occurred to me:—What
is the earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced! And
what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are
we? Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed the earth and sea, the
air and sky. And whois that? Then it followed most naturally—“ It is God that has
made it all. Well, but then,” it came on strongly, “if God has made all these things, He
guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them ; for the Being that could
make all things must certainly have power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can
happen, in the great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or appointment.

“And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am here, and
am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His appointment, He has
appointed all this to befall me.” Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any of
these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the greater force, than it must
needs be that God has appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this misera-
able circumstance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me only, but of
everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed—‘‘ Why has God done
this to me? What have I done to be thus used?” My conscience presently checked me
in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice,
“ Wretch, dost shou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent
life, and ask thyself, what thou hast zot done? Ask, why is it tl.at thou wert not long
ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads? killed in the fight
when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war ? devoured by the wild beasts off the
coast of Africa? or drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask,
‘What have I done?’” JI-was struck dumb with these reflections, as one astonished,
and had not a word to say—no, not to answer to myself—but rose up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed;
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat
down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the appre-
hension of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought
that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had
a piece ofa roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some also
that was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure both for soul
and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for, viz., the tobacco; and as
the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned
before, and which to this time I had not found leisure, or so much as inclination to look
into. I say I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, or whether it was
good for it or no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should
heal one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which
indeed, at first, almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and that I
had not been much used to it. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in
some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some
upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear
it, as well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held it almost to suffocation. In the
interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but my head was too
MY RECOVERY FROM SICKNESS. 63

much disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only having
opened the book casually, the words first that occurred to me were these, “ Call upon Me
in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” These words
were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my thoughts at the time of
reading them, though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered,
the word had no sound, as I may say, to me: the thing was so remote, so impossible in
my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as the children of Israel did when they
were promised flesh to eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness ?” so I began to
say, “‘ Can God Himself deliver me from this place?” And as it was not for many years
that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts ; but, however, the
words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It grew
now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to
sleep: so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night,
and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my
life: I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon
Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so
strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarcely get it down; immediately
upon this I went to bed; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently; but
I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near
three o’clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion
that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for otherwise,
I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it
appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and recross-
ing the line, I should have lost more than one day; but in my account it was lost, and
I never knew which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when I awaked I found
myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful; when I got up I was
stronger than I was the day before, and. my stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in
short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the better. This
was the 2gth.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun, but did not
care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and
brought them home; but was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of the
turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had
supposed did me good the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take
so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke;
however, I was not so well the next day, which was the 1st of July, as I hoped I should
have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2—I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed myself with it as at
first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my full strength
for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-
ingly upon this scripture, “I will deliver thee;” and the impossibility of my deliverance
lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it; but as I was discouraging my-
self with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliver-
ance from the main affliction, that I, disregarded the deliverance I had received, and I
was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz., “Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness? from the most distressed condition that
could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done
my part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified Him; that is to say, I had
not owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how could I expect greater
64 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

deliverance?” This touched my heart very much; and immediately I kneeled down, and
gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.

July 4.—In the morning, I took the Bible; and beginning at the New Testament, I
began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning and
every night; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts
should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously to this work, till I found my
heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life.
The impression of my dream revived; and the words, “ All these things have not brought
thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to
give me reperitance, when it happened providentially the very day that, reading the Scrip-
ture, I came to these words: “He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance
and to give remission.” I threw down the book; and with my heart as well as my hands
lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried-out aloud, “ Jesus, thou son of
David! Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!” This was the
first time I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now
I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true scripture view of hope, founded
on the encouragement of the Word of God; and from this time, I may say, I began to
have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “ Call on Me, and I will
deliver thee,’ and in a different sense from what I had ever done before; for then I had
no notion of anything being called deverance but my being delivered from the captivity
I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly a
prison to me, and that in the worse sense inthe world. But now I learned to take it in
another sense; nowI looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins
appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load -
of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did
not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of no considera-
tion, in comparison of this. And I added this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it,
that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance from sin a
much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal :—

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way of living,
yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the
Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great deal of comfort
within, which, till now, I knew nothing of; also, my health and strength returned, I be-
stirred myself to furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking about with my
gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength
after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to what weak-
ness I was reduced. The application which I made use of was perfectly new, and per-
haps what had never cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it to anyone to
practise, by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed
to weaken me; for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time. I
learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in the rainy season was the most
pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in those rains which came attended
wita storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in a dry season was
always most accompanied with such storms, so I found this rain was much more danger-
ous than the rain which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility of deliverance
from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no
I MAKE A SURVEY OF THE ISLAND. 65

human shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured my habitation, as I
thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the
island, and to see what other productions I might find, which yet os
I knew nothing of. “
It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more particu-
lar survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where,
as I hinted, I brought my rafts onshore. I found, after I came
about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and
that it was no more than a
little brook of running water,
and very fresh and good: but
this being the dry season,
there was hardly any water in
some parts of it; at least, not
enough to run in any stream,
so as it could be perceived.
On the banks of this brook,
I found many pleasant savan-
nahs or meadows, plain,
smooth, and covered with
grass; and on the rising parts
of them, next to the higher
grounds, where the water, as
it might be supposed, never
overflowed, I found a great
deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great and very
strong stalk; there were div-
ers other plants, which I had
no notion of or understanding
about, and might, perhaps,
have virtues of their own,
which I could not find out.
I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians in all
that climate make their bread
of, but I could find none. I
saw large plants of aloes, but
did not then understand them.
I saw several sugar-
canes, but wild, and,
for want of cultiva- ,
tion, imperfect. I
contented myself with
these discoveries for
this time, and came
back, musing with myself
what course I might take to f ‘
know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits of plants which I should discover; but
could bring it to no conclusion: for, in short, I had made so little observation while I was
in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants of the field; at least, very little that might
serve me to any purpose now in my distress. 5





































“THE FIRST THING I MADE WAS A GREAT CAP” (4, 86).
66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going something
further than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and savannahs cease, and the
country became more woody than before. In this part I found different fruits, and par-
ticularly I found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees:
the vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in
their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly
glad of them; but I was warned by experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering
that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our English-
men, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. But I found an
excellent use for these grapes ; and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep
them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were,
as wholesome and agreeable to eat when no grapes might be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation; which, by the
way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. Inthe night, I took my
first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning pro-
ceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of
me, At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed to de-
scend to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh, so
green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or flourish of spring, that
it looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on the side of that delicious valley,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with other afflicting thoughts,
to think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this country indeéfea-
sibly, and had a right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheri-
tance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. Isaw here abundance of cocoa-
trees, orange and lemon, and citron-trees ; but all wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least
not then. However, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but
very wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very
wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business enough to gather
and carry home ; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons,
to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order to do
this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and
a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me,
I travelled homeward, and resolved to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I
could make to carry the resthome. Accordingly, having spent three days in this jour-
ney, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I got thither,
the grapes were spoiled, the richness of the fruit, and the weight of the juice, having
broken them and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they
were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small bags to bring
home my harvest; but I was surprised when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were
so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread abroad, trodden to pieces,
and dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this
I concluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what
they were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and
no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be destroyed, and the
other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for I
gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of the
trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I car-
ried as many back as I could well stand under.
THE ERECTION OF MY COUNTRY HOUSE. 67

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure the fruit-
fulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; the security from storm on
that side of the water, and the wood; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to
fix my abode which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began
to consider of removing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally safe as where
now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some time,
the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, I
considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible that something
might happen to my advantage; and that the same ill fate that brought me hither, might
bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce probable
that any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills and woods
in the centre of the island was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not
only improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any means to remove.
However, I was so enamoured with this place that I spent much of my time there for the
whole remaining part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I
resolved as above not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded
it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well
staked, and filled between with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two
or three nights together, always going over it with a ladder as before; so that I fancied
now I had my country house and my.sea-coast house; and this work took me up to the
beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, but the rains
came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I had made mea
tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the
rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and began to
enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, 1 found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly
dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down
from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed would
have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my winter food; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried
most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and from hence, which was the
14th of August, it rained more or less every day till the middle of October, and some-
times so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I had been
concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had
been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her till, to my astonishment, she came home
about the end of August, with three kittens. This was the more strange to me because,
though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite
different kind from our European cats; but the young cats were the same kind of house-
breed as the old one; and both my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But
from these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill
them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not stir, and
was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened
for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which was
the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food was regulated
thus:—I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the
turtle, for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew
anything), and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.
68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or three hours
at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I came to the
outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall;
and so I came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open; for,
as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought,
I lay exposed, and yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear; the
biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I cast up
the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five
days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God,
acknowledging his righteous judgment upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on
me through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours,
even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and
went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed no Sabbath-
day, for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after some time,
omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a longer notch than ordinary for the
Sabbath-day and so did not really know what any of the days were; but now, having
cast up the days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks,
and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of my account
I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this my ink began to fail me, and
so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the most
remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began to now appear regular to me, and
I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly; but I bought all my
experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most discour-
aging experiments that I made at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which I had
so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves; and I believe there were
about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper
time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern position, going from me.
Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and
dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred
to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know when
was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a
handful of each. It was a greater comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not
one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything; for the dry months following, the
earth having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth,
and never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had
been newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined was by
the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground, to make another trial in, and I dug
up another piece of ground near my new bower, and sewed the rest of my seed in Feb-
ruary, a little before the vernal equinox; and this, having the rainy months of March and
April to water it, sprang up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having
part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had got, I had but a small
quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But by
this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly when the proper
season was to sow, and that I might expect twc seed-times and two harvests every year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was of use to me
afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began to settle, which was
about the month of November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where, though
THE NATURAL ADORNMENT OF MY ABODES. 69



“T APPLIED MYSELF TO GET UP MY MAST” (4. 90).

I had not been some months, I found all things just as I left them. The circle or double
hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut off
of some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown with long branches, as
much as a willow tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not
tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very
well pleased, to see the young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up to grow
as much alike as I could; and it is scarcely credible how beautiful a figure they grew into,
in three years; so that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in
diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it was a com-
plete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut
some more stakes, and make mea hedge like this in a semi-circle round my wall (I mean
that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at
about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a
fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence also, as I shall observe
in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not into sum-
mer and winter as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were
generally thus :—

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April—rainy, the sun
being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of August—dry,
the sun being then to the north of the line. ;
7° ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October—rainy, the
sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December, and January, and the
half of February—dry, the sun being then to the south of the line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds happened to blow,
but this was the general observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill
consequence of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as much as
possible during the wet months. In this time I found much employment, and very suit-
able also to the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I had no way to
furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant application; particularly I tried
many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved
so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me now that
when I was a boy I used to take great delight in standing at a basket maker's, in the town
where my father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually
are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the manner how they worked those
things, and sometimes lent a hand, I had by this means so full knowledge of the methods
of it that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came into my mind that the twigs
of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the ©
sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day
I went to my country house, as I called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found
them to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time pre-
pared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was a great
plenty of them. These I set up to dry within my circle of hedges, and when they were
fit for use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the next season, I employed my-
self in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry
or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and though I did not finish them very hand-
somely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I
took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more,
especially strong, deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come
to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I bestirred
myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessel to hold anything
that was liquid except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles
—some of the common size, and others which were case-bottles, square, for the holding
of water, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything in except a great
kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I de-
sired it for—viz.,to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing
I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me to make one;
however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in plant-
ing my second row of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-work, all the summer of dry
season, when another business took me up more time than it could be imagined I
could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and that I
had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and where I
had an opening quite to the sea on the other side of the island. I now resolved to
travel right across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and
my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes
and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When I
had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea
to the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried land—whether an island
FURTHER DISCOVERIES IN MY ISLAND. 71

or a continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
W.S.W., at a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or
twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I knew it
must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near the
Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should have
landed, I had been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I acquiesced in
the dispositions of Providence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered every-
thing for the best; I say I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting myself with
fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that if this land was the
Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass one
way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country and
the Brazils, which were indeed the worst of savages; for they are cannibals, and fail not
to murder and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I found that side of the
island where I now was much pleasanter than mine—the open or savannah fields sweet,
adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I sawabundance of parrots,
and fain would I have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to
speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years before I
could make him speak; however, at last, 1 taught him to call me by my name very
familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very diverting in
its place.

5 was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found on the low grounds hares
(as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from all the other kinds I
had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I had
no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was very good,
too, especially these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added
to my grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than I, in pro-
portion to the company; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great
cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had rather
plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or thereabouts ;
but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I came
weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit down for all night; and then I either
reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the
ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me with-
out waking me.

As soon as I came tothe sea-shore I was surprised to see that I had taken up my
lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, the shore was covered with innumer-
able turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but three in a year and ahalf. Here
was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some of which I had not seen before,
and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those
called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder and
shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed
on; and though there were many goats here, more than on the other side of the island,
yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near them, the country being flat
and even, and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet J had
72 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation it became natural
to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and from
home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea towaids the east, [ suppose about
twelve miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I’
would go home again, and that the next journey I took should be on the other side of
the island east from my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again, of
which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily keep all the
island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my first dwelling by view-
ing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three miles,
I found myself descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those
hills covered with wood, that I could not see which was my way by any direction but
that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun at that
time of the day. It happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved hazy
for three or four days while I was in this valley, and not being able to see the sun, I
wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to find out the sea-side, look
for my post, and come back the same way I went: and then, by easy journeys, I
turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet,
and other things, very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it, and I running
in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog. I hada great mind
to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing whether it might not be pos-
sible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me
when my powder and shot should be spent. I made a collar to this little creature, and
with a string, which I made of some rope yarn, which I always carried about me, I led
him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I enclosed
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch, and lie
down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey, without settled place of abode,
had been so unpleasant to me that my own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect
settlement to me, compared to that; and it rendered everything about me so comfortable,
that I resolved I would never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to
stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long journey ; dur-
ing which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my
Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted with me.
Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had pent in within my little circle, and
resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went, and found it
where I had left it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for want of
food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and
threw them over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so
tame with being hungry that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog;
and as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it
became from that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and IJ kept the 30th of
September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the
island, having now been there for two years, and no more prospect of being delivered
than the first day I came there. I spent the whole day in humble and thankful acknowl-
edgments of the many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was attended with,
and without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble and
MY ANGUISH OF SOUL 73

hearty thanks that God had been pleased to discover to me that it was possible I might
be more happy in this solitary condition than I should have been in a liberty of society,
and in all the pleasures of the world: that He could fully make up to me the deficiencies
of my solitary state, and the want of human society, by His presence, and the communi-
cation of His grace to my soul; supporting, comforting, and encouraging me to depend
upon His providence here, and hope for His eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the life I now led
was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led



“I FELL ON MY KNEES AND GAVE GOD THANKS” (4. 90),

all the past part of my days; and now having changed both my sorrows and my joys, my
very desires altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my delights were perfectly
new from what they were at first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the country, the
anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a sudden, and my very
heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and
how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an unin-
habited wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my
74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

\
mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands, and
weep like a child: sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two together ;
and this was still worse to me, for if Icould burst out into tears, or vent myself by words,
it would go off, and the grief having exhausted itself would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of
God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad,
I opened the Bible upon these words, “I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.” Imme-
diately it occurred that these words were to me; why else should they be directed in such
a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken
of God and man? “ Well, then,” said I, “if God does not forsake me, of what ill conse-
quence can it be, or what matters it, though the world should all forsake me, seeing on
the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the favour and blessing of God,
there would be no comparison in the loss? ”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be
more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should ever have
been in any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give
thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I know not what it was, but something shocked
my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words. “ How canst thou become such
a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be thankful for a condition which, how-
ever thou mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be
delivered from?” So I stopped there: but though I could not say I thanked God for
being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflict-
ing providences, to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness,
and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed God
for directing my friend in England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though I have not
given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my works this year as the first,
yet in general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but having regularly
divided my time according to several daily employments that were before me, such as,
first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some
time for, thrice every day ; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for food, which gen-
erally took up three hours in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the ordering,
curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or caught for my supply: these took
up great part of the day; also, it is to be considered that in the middle of the day, when
the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that about
four hours in the evening was all the time I could be supposed to work in, with this ex-
ception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working, and went to work
in the morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the exceeding labori-
ousness of my work; the many hours which for want of tools, want of help, and want of
skill, everything I didtook up out of my time: for example, I was full two-and-forty days
in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two sawyers,
with their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down, because my
board was to be a broad one. This treeI was three days in cutting down, and two more
cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With inexpressible
hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into chips till it began to be light
enough to move; then I turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board
from end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the other side till I brought the
LHE PROTECTION OF MY CROPS.

~T



“I TIED THEM WITH
STRINGS TOGETHER” (4. 93).

plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may judge the
labour of my handsin such a piece of work ; but labour and patience carried me through
that, and many other things; I only observe this in particular, to show the reason why
so much of my time went away with so little work, viz., that what might be a little to be
done with help and tools, was a vast labour and required a prodigious time to do alone,
and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience and labour, I went through many
things, and indeed everything that my circumstances made necessary to me to do, as
will appear by what follows.

I was now in the months of November and December, expecting my crop of barley
and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up for them was not great; for, as I ob-
served, my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost one
whole crop by sowing in the dry season: but now my crop promised very well, when on
a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which
it was scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild creatures which I
called hares, which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon
as it came up, and ate it so close that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure about it with a hedge: which
I did with a great deal of toil, and the more because it required a great deal of speed ;
the creatures daily spoiling my corn. However, as my arable land was but small, suited
to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about three weeks’ time ; and shooting some of
the creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to astake
at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little time the enemies
forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.
74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so the birds
were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for going along by the place
to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how
many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
fly among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner shot but there
rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would devour all
my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all; and
what to do I could not teil; however, I resolved not te lose my corn, if possible,
though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, 1 went among it, to see
what damage was already done, and found they had spoiled a good deal of it ; but that
as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not so great but the remainder was likely
to be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I staid by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see the thieves
sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till ! was gone away, and the
event proved it to ba so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of
their sight but they dropped down one by one into the corn again. I was so provoked
that I could not have patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that
they ate now was, as it might be said, a peck-load to me in consequence; but coming
up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I wished for; so
I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves, in England, viz., hanged
them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine almost that this
should have had such an effect as it had, for the fowls would not only not come at the
corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird
near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was very glad of, you may
be sure, and about the latter end of December, which was our second harvest of the
year, 1 reaped my corn,

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and all I could do was to
make one, as well as I could, out of one of the, broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved
among the arms out of the’ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had no
great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way, for I cut nothing off but
the ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out
with my hands; and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of
seed I had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels and a half of barley; that is
to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw that, in time, it
would please God to supply me with bread; and yet here I was perplexed again, for I
neither knew how to grind, or make meal of my corn, or, indeed, how to clean it and
part it: nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I
knew not how to bake it. These things being added to my desire of having a good
quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this
crop, but to preserve it all for seed against the next season; and, in the mean time, to
employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of providing
myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. It is a little wonderful,
and what I believe few people have thought much upon, viz., the strange multitude
of little things necessary in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and
finishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my daily discourage-
ment, and was made more and more sensible of it every hour, even after I had got
the first handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed
to a surprise.
MV FARMING LABOURS. "7

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade
or shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a
wooden spade, as I observed before; but this did my work
but in a wooden manner; and though it cost me a great
many days to make it, yet for want of iron, it not only wore
out the sooner, but made my work the harder, and made it be
performed much worse. However, this I bore with too, and
was content to work it out with patience, and bear with the
badness of the performance. When
the corn was sown, I had no harrow,
but was forced to go over it myself,
and drag a great heavy bough of a tree
over it, to scratch it, as it may be
called, rather than rake or harrow it.
When it was growing, or grown, I
have observed already how many
things I wanted to fence it, secure it,
mow or reap it, cure and carry it
home, thrash, part it from the chaff,
and save it. Then I wanted a mill to
grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and
salt to make it into bread, and an
oven to bake it in; and all these
things I did without, as shall be
observed; and yet the corn was an
inestimable comfort and advantage to

me too. But this, as I said, made

“MY COUNTRY SEAT” (4. 90). everything laborious and tedious to

me; but that there was no help for.

Neither was my time so much loss to

me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day appointed to these

works; and as J had resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quan-

tity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention,

to furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the operations necessary for
making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough to sow above an acre
of ground. Before I did this, I had a week’s work at least to make me a spade, which,
when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required double
labour to work with it. However, I went through that, and sowed my seed in two large
flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them
in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood which I had set before,
which I knew would grow; so that, in one year’s time I knew I should have a quick or
living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work was not so little as to take me
up less than three months, because a great part of that time was of the wet season, when
I could not go abroad.” Withindoor—that is, when it rained and I could not go out—I
found employment in the following occupations, always observing, that all the while I was
at work I diverted myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I
quickly learnt him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud—‘ Poll,”
which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own.
This, therefore was not my work, but an assistant to my work ; for,as I said, I had a great
employment upon my hands, as follows—viz., I had long studied, by some means or other,






78 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to make myself some earthen vessels, which,indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not where
to come at them. However, considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I
could find out any clay, I might botch up some such pot as might, being dried by the sun,
be hard enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry,
and required to be kept so; and as this was necessary in preparing corn, meal, &c., which
was the thing I was upon,I resolved to make some aslarge as I could, and fit only to stand
like jars, to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how many awkward
ways I took to raise this paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of
them fell in, and how many fell out—the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own
weight; how many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily ;
and how many fell to pieces with only removing, as well before as after they were dried;
and, ina word, how, after having laboured hard to find the clay—to dig it, to temper it,
bring it home, and work it—I could not make above two large earthen ugly things (I
cannot call them jars) in about two months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them very gently up,
and set them down again in two great wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for
them, that they might not break; and as between the pot and the basket there was a
little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw ; and these two pots being
to stand always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the
corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made several smaller
things with better success; such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and
anything my hand turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to hold what
was liquid, and bear the fire—which none of these could do. It happened after some
time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out after I
had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire,
burnt as hard as a stone, and red as atile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said
to myself, that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn me some pots. I
I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though
I had some lead to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or three pots, in
a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all round it with a great heap of embers
under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw
the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all.
When I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I
found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run; for the-sand which was
mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if
I had gone on; so I slaked my fire gradually till the pots began to abate of the red
colour; and, watching them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the
morning I had three very good (I will not say handsome) pipkins, and two other earthen
pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthenware for my
use ; but I must needs say, as to the shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any
one may suppose, when I had no way of making them but as the children make dirt pies,
or asa woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine, when I found I had
made an earthen pot that would bear the fire, and I had hardly patience to stay till they
‘were cold before I set one on the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me some meat,
MILLING AND BAKING OPERATIONS. 19

which it did admirably well ; and with a piece of a kid I made some very good broth,
though I wanted oatmeal and several other ingredients requisite to make it as good as I
would have had it.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beatsome cornin; foras
to the mill, there was no thought of arriving to that perfection of art with one pair of
hands. To supply this want, I was at a great loss, for, of all the trades in the world, I
was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as for any whatever, neither had I any tools
to go about it with. I spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut
hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in the solid
rock, and which I had noway to dig or cut out; nor, indeed, were the rocks in the island
of hardness sufficient, but were all of a sandy, crumbling stone, which would neither bear
the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break the corn without filling it with sand. So,
after a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I] gave it over, and resolved to
look out for a great block of ha:d wood, which I found, indeed, much easier; and getting
one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it and formed it on the outside with my axe
and hatchet, and then, with the help of fire and infinite labour, made a hollow place in
it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, 1 made a great heavy pestle,
or beater, of the wood called the iron-wood; and this I prepared and laid by against I
had my next crop of corn, which I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn
or meal, to make bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or sierce, to dress my meal, and to part it
from the bran and husk; without which I did not see it possible I could have any bread.
This was a most difficult thing, so much as but to think on; for to besureI had nothing
like the necessary things to make it with--I mean fine canvas or stuff to sierce the meal
through. And here I wasat a full stop for many months, nor did I really know what to
do. Linen I had none left but what was mere rags. I had goats’-hair, but neither knew
I how to weave or spin it; and had I known how, here were no tools to work it with.
All the remedy that I found for this was, that at last I did remember I had, among the sea-
men’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin;
and with some pieces of these I made three small sieves, but proper enough for the work ;
and thus I made shift for some years. How I did afterwards I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should make bread
when I came to have corn; for, first, I had no yeast. As to that part, as there was no
supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much about it. But for an oven I was
indeed in great pain. At length I found out an experiment for that also, which was this:
I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep; that is to say, about two feet in
diameter and not above nine inches deep; these I burned in the fire as I had done the
other, and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I madea great fire upon the hearth,
which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own making and burning also. But I
should not call them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or live coals, I drew them
forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there I let them lie till the hearth
was very hot; then sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf or loaves, and
whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all round the outside of
the pot, to keep in and add to the heat; and thus, as wellas in the best oven in the world, I
baked my barley-loaves, and became in a little time, a good pastrycook into the bargain ;
for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice. Indeed, I made no pies,
neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I had, except the flesh either of fowls
or goats.

: It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most part of the third year
of my abode here; for, it is to be observed that, in the intervals of these things, I hadmy
80 ROBINSON CRUSOL.

new harvest and husbandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its season, and carried it
home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to
rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to build my barns,
bigger. I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the increase of the corn now yielded me so:
much that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more;
insomuch that I now resolved to begin to use it freely, for my bread had been quite gone.
a great while; also I resolved to see what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year,
and to sow but oncea year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were much more
than I could consume in a year; so I.resolved to sow just the same quantity every year
that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with bread, &c.

All the time these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts ran many times
upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the other side of the island; and I was
not without secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying that, seeing the main-land
and an inhabited country, { might find some way or other to convey myself farther, and
perhaps at last find some means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such a condition and how
I might fall into the hands of savages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to think
far worse than the lions and tigers of Africa; that if I once came into their power I should
run a hazard of more than a thousand to one of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten ;
for I had heard that the people of the Carribbean coast were cannibals, or men-eaters, and
I knew by the latitude that I could not be far off from that shore; that, suppose they were
not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many Europeans who had fallen into their hands
had been served, even when they had been ten or twenty together—much more I, that
was but one, and could make little or no defence. All these things, I say, which I ought
to have considered well of, and I did cast up in my thoughts afterwards, yettook up none
of my apprehensions at first, and my head ran mightily upon the thought of getting over
to that shore.

Now, I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the shoulder-of-mutton sail,
with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain.
Then I thought I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was blown
up upon the shore a great way in the storm, when we were first castaway. She lay almost
where she did at first, but not quite; and was turned, by the force of the waves and the
winds, almost bottom upward against a high ridge of beachy, rough sand, but no water
about her as before. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched her
into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and I might have gone back into
the Brazils with her easily enough; but I might have easily foreseen that I could no more
turn her and set her upright upon her bottom than I could remove the island. However,
I went to the wood, and cut levers and rollers, and brought them to the boat; resolved
to try what I could do, suggesting to myself that if I could but turn her down, I might
easily repair the damage she had received and she would bea very good boat, and I might
go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think, three or
four weeks about it. At last, finding it impossible to heave it up with my little strength,
I fell to digging away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall down, setting pieces
of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it-up again, or to get under it, much
less to move it forward towards the water; so I was forced to give it over; and yet,
though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main increased,,

rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible. ;
I COMMENCE TO MAKE A CANOE. 81

This at length put me upon
thinking whether it was not pos-
_ sible to make myself a canoe, or
periagua, such as the natives of
those climates make, even with-
out tools, or as I might say,
without hands—viz., of the trunk
of a great tree. This I not only
thought possible, but easy, and .
pleased myself extremely with
my thoughts of making it, and
with my having much more con-
venience for it than any of the
Negroes or Indians: but not at
all considering the particular in-
conveniences which I lay under
more than the Indians did, viz.,
want of hands to move it into
the water when it was made, a
difficulty much harder for me to
surmount than all the consequen-
ces of want of tools could be to
them. For what was it to me .
that when I had chosen a vast
tree in the woods, I might with
great trouble cut it down, if I might be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside
into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it hollow, so as
to make a boat of it—if, after all this, I must leave it just there were I found it, and was
not able to launch it into the water ?

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection upon my mind
of my circumstances while I was making this boat, but I should have immediately
thought how I should get it into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my
voyage over the sea in it, that I never once considered how I should get it off the land;
and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles of
sea, than about forty-five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did, who had any
of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design, without determining whether I
was ever able to undertake it; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came
often into my head; but I put a stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer, ,
which I gave myself: “ Let me first make it; I warrant I shall find some way or other
to get it along when it is done.” '

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my fancy prevailed,
and to work I went, and felled a cedar-tree. I question much whether Solomon ever
had such a one for the building of the Temple of Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches
diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the
end of twenty-two feet; after which it lessened for a while, and then parted into
branches. It was not without infinite labour that I felled this tree. Iwas twenty days
hacking and hewing, at it at the bottom ; I was fourteen more getting the branches and
limbs and the vast spreading head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through with
axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labour ; after this it cost me a month to shape it and
dub it to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim



“MY GOATS WANTED
TO BE MILKED” (4, ror),


82 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and
work it out so as to make an exact boat of it; thisI did, indeed without fire, by mere
mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I had brought it to be a very hand-
some periagua, and big enough to have carried six-and-twenty-men, and consequently
big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it. The boat
was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that was made of one tree,
in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure—for there remained noth-
ing but to get it into the water; and had I gotten it into the water, I make no question
but I should have begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed,
that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they cost infinite
labour too. It lay about one hundred yards from the water, and not more; but the first
inconvenience was, it was up-hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this discourage-
ment, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity. This I
began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but who grudge pains that have their
deliverance in view ?); but when this was worked though, and this difficulty managed, it
was still much at one, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat.
Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or canal, to bring
the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe down to the water.
Well, I began this work; and when I began to enter into it, and calculate how deep it
was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found that, by the
number of hands I had, being none but my own, it must have been ten or twelve years
before I could have gone through with it; for the shore lay so high, that at the upper
end it must have been at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though with great
reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of beginning
a work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our own strength to
go through with it.

In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this place, and kept my
anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as ever before; for, by a
constant study and serious application of the Word of God, and by the assistance of His
grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had before. I entertained different
notions of things. I looked now upon the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing
to do with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about ; in a word, I had nothing
indeed to do with it, nor was ever likely to have. SoI thought it looked, as we may
perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz., as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it;
and well might I say,as Father Abraham to Dives, “Between me and thee is a great
gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the world here; I had
neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of life. I had nothing to
covet, for I had all I was now capable of enjoying ; I was lord of the whole manor; or,
if I pleased, I might call myself king or emperor over the whole country which I had
possession of. There were no rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty
or command with me. I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use for
it; so I let as little grow as 1 thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoises or tur-
tles enough, but now and then one was as muchas I could put to any use; I had timber
enough to have built a fleet of ships; and I had grapes enough to have made wine, or
to have cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when it had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable; I had enough to eat and
supply my wants, and what was all the rest to me? IfI killed more flesh than I could
VARIOUS REFLECTIONS. 83

eat, the dog must eat it, or the vermin; if I sowed more corn than I could eat, it must
be spoiled ; the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the ground ; I could make no
more use of them than for fuel, and that I had no occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me, upon just reflection,
that all the good things of this world are no further good to us than they are for our
use; and that, whatever we may heap up indeed to give others, we enjoy just as much as
we can use,andno more. The most covetous, griping miser in the world would have
been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had been in my case; for I possessed infin-
itely more than I knew what to do with. I had no room for desire, except it was of
things which I had not, and they were but trifles, though, indeed, of great use to me. I
had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds
sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay! I had no manner of business
for it; and often thought with myself, that I would have given a handful of it for a gross
of tobacco-pipes; or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have given it all
for a sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England, or a handful of peas and
beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least advantage by it or benefit from
it; but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp of the cave in the wet
seasons; and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the same case, they
had been of no manner of value to me, because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than it was at first,
and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body. I frequently sat down to meat with
thankfulness, and admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread my
table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition,
and less upon the dark side, and to consider what I had enjoyed rather than what I
wanted ; and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot express them;
and which I take notice of here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who
cannot enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they see and covet some-
thing that he has not given them. All our discontents about what we want appeared to
me to spring from the want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would be so to anyone
that should fall into such distress as mine was; and this was, to compare my present con-
dition with what I expected it would be; nay, with what it would certainly have been, if the
good providence of God had not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up nearer to the
shore, where I not only could come at her, but could bring what I got out of her to the
shore, for my relief and comfort; without which, I had wanted for tools to work, weapons
for defence, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to myself, in the most
lively colours, how I must have acted if I had got nothing out of the ship. How I
could not have so much as got any food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long
before I found any of them, I must have perished first; that I should have lived, if I had
not perished, like a mere savage; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any contriv-
ance, I had no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels, or
to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Providence to me, and
very thankful for my present condition, with all its hardships and misfortunes; and this
part also I cannot but recommend to the reflection of those who are apt, in their misery,
to say, “Is any affliction like mine?” Let them consider how much worse the cases of
some people are, and their case might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind with hopes;
and this was comparing my present situation with what I had deserved, and had therefore
reason to expect from the hand of Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly des-
84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

titute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had been well instructed by father and
mother ; neither had they been wanting to me, in their early endeavours to infuse a re-
ligious awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and what the nature and end of
my being required of me. But, alas! falling early into the seafaring life, which, of all
lives, is the most destitute of the fear of God, though His terrors are always before them
—I say, falling early into seafaring life,and into the seafaring company, all that little sense
of religion which I had entertained was laughed out of me by my messmates; by a hardened
despising of dangers, and the views of death, which grew habitual to me; by my long
absence from all manner of opportunities to converse with anything but what was like my-
self, or to hear anything that was good or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least sense of what I was, or
was to be; that, in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed—such as my escape from Sallee;
my being taken up by the Portuguese master of the ship; my being planted so well in the
Brazils; my receiving the cargo from England, and the like—I never once had the words,
“Thank God!” so much as on my mind, or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress
had I so much thoughts to pray to him, or so much as to say, ‘‘ Lord, have mercy upon
me!” no, not to mention the name of God, unless it was to swear by and blaspheme it.

Thad terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I have already observed,
on the account of my wicked and hardened life past; and when I looked about me, and
considered what particular providences had attended me since my coming into this place,
and how God had dealt bountifully with me—had not only punished me less than my
iniquity had deserved, but had so plentifully provided for me—this gave me great hopes
that my repentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercies in store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to a resignation to the will
of God in the present disposition of my circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness
for my condition; and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to complain, seeing I
had not the due punishment of my sins. That I enjoyed so many mercies which I
had no reason to have expected in that place; that I ought never more to repine at my
tondition, but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which nothing but
a crowd of wonders could have brought; that I ought to consider I had been fed even bya
miracle, even as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens—nay, by a long series of mir-
acles. And that I could hardly have named a place in the uninhabited part of the world
where I could have been cast more to my advantage; a place where, as I had no society,
which was my affliction on one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or
tigers, to threaten my life ; no venomous creatures, or poisonous, which I might feed on
to my hurt; no savages to murder and devour me. Ina word, as my life was a life of
sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy another; and I wanted nothing to make it a
life of comfort, but to be able to make any sense of God’s goodness to me, and care over
me in this condition, be my daily consolation; and after I made a just improvement of
these things, I went away, and was no more sad. I had now been here so long, that
many things which I brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very much
wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a very little, which I eked
out with water, a little and a little, till it was so pale, it scarce left any appearance of
black upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute down the days
of the month on which any remarkable thing happened to me; and first, by casting up
times past, I remembered that there was a strange concurrence of days in the various
providences which befell me, and which, if I had been superstitiously inclined to observe
days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason to have looked upon with a great
deal of curiosity. i

First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away from my father and my
MY FATAL ANNIVERSARIES. 85



“I WAS PERFECTLY CONFOUNDED AND AMAZED”? (f. 104)

friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken
by the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave; the same day of the year that I escaped out
of the wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day of the year afterwards I made
my escape from Sallee in a boat; the same day of the year I was born on—viz., the 20th
of September—the same day I had my life so miraculously saved twenty-six years after,
when I was cast on shore in this island; so that my wicked life and solitary life began both
on a day. ;

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread—I mean the biscuit
which I brought out of the ship. This I-had husbanded to the last degree, allowing
myself but one cake of bread a day for above a year; and yet I was quite without bread
for a year before I got any corn of my own; and great reason I had to be thankful that I
had any at all, the getting it being, as has been already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily; as to linen, I had had none a good while,
except some chequered shirts which I found in the chests of the other seamen, and which
I carefully preserved; because many times I could bear no other clothes on but a shirt;
and it was a very great help to me that I had, among all the men’s clothes of the ship,
86 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

almost three dozen of shirts. There were also several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s
which were left behind, but they were too hot to wear; and though it is true that the
weather was so violently hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite
naked—no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not; nor could I abide the
thoughts of it, though I was alone. One reason why I could not go naked was, I could
not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked as with some clothes on; nay, the
very heat frequently blistered my skin; whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some
motion, and, whistling under the shirt, was twofold cooler than without it. No more could
I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of
the sun, beating with such violence as it does in that place, would give me the headache
presently, by darting so directly on my head, without a hat or cap on, so that I could not
bear it; whereas, if I put on my hat, it would presently go away.

Upon these views, I began to consider about putting the few rags I had, which I
called clothes, into some order. I had worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my
business was now to try if I could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats which I
had by me, and with such other materials as I had; so I set to work tailoring, or rather,
indeed, botching, for I made most piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make
two or three waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great while; as for breeches
or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed till afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I killed—I mean
four-footed ones—and I had them hung up, stretched out with sticks, in the sun, by which
means some of them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little; but others, it seems,
were very useful. The first thing I made of these was a great cap for my head, with the
hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so well that, after, I made
me a suit of clothes wholly of these skins—that is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open
at the knees, and both loose, for they were rather wanting to keep me cool than to keep
me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly made; for if I was
a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However, they were such as I made very good shift
with, and when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of the waistcoat and cap being
outermost, I was kept very dry. i

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an umbrella. I was indeed
in great want of one, and had a great mind to make one. I had seen them made in the
Brazils, where they are very useful in the great heats which are there, and I felt the heats
every jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox; besides, as I was obliged
to be much abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heat. I
took a world of pains at it, and was a great while before I could make anything likely to
hold; nay, after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before I made one to
my mind. But at last I made one that answered indifferently well; the main difficulty I
found was to make it to let down. I could make it spread, but if it did not let down too,
and draw in, it would not be portable for me any way but just over my head, which would
not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one to answer. I covered it with skins, the
hair upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off the sun so effectually
that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather with greater advantage than I could
before in the coolest, and when I had no need of it, I could close it, and carry it under
my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely composed by resigning
to the will of God, and throwing myself wholly upon the disposal of His providence.
This made my life better than sociable, for when I began to regret the want of conversa-
tion, I would ask myself, whether thus conversing mutually with my own thoughts, and
(as I hope I may say) with even my Maker, by ejaculations and petitions was not better
than the utmost enjoyment of human society in the world ?
MAKE SOME VOYAGES IN MY BOAT. 87

I cannot say that, after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing happened to me,
but I lived on in the same course, in the same posture and place, just as before. The
chief thing I was employed in, besides my yearly labour of planting my barley and rice,
and curing my raisins—of both which I always kept up just enough to have sufficient
stock of the year’s provision beforehand—lI say, besides this yearly labour, and my daily
labour of going out with my gun, I had one labour, to make me a canoe, which at last I
finished ; so that, by digging a canal to it of six feet wide and four deep, I brought it into
the creek, almost half a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big, as I made it
without considering beforehand, as I ought to do, how I should be able to launch it, so,
never being able to bring it into the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let
it lie where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next time. Indeed, the
next time, though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a place where I could
not get the water to it at any less distance than, as I have said, of near half a mile, yet, as
I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it over; and though I was near two years
about it, yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it was not at all
answerable to the design which I had in view when I made the first—I mean of venturing
over to the terra firma, where it was above forty miles broad. Accordingly, the smallness
of my boat assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought no more of it. As I
had a boat, my next design was to make a tour round the island; for as I had been on
the other side in one place, crossing, as I have already described it, over the land, so the
discoveries I made in that little journey made me very eager to see other parts of the coast;
and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose, and that I might do everything with discretion and consideration,
I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail to it out of some of the pieces of the
ship’s sails which lay in store, and of which I had a great store by me. Having fitted
my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found she would sail very well; then I made little
lockers, or boxes, at each end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, ammunition, &c.,
into, to be kept dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a little, long, hollow
place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang
down over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to stand over my head,
and keep the heat of the sun off of me, like an awning. And thus I every now and then
took a little voyage upon the sea; but never went far out, nor far from the little creek,
At last, being eager to view the circumference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my
tour; and accordingly I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves
(cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice (a
food I ate a great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder with shot for
killing more, and two large watch-coats (of those which, as I mentioned before, I had
saved out of the seamen’s chests). These I took, one to lie upon, and the other to cover
me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my captivity, which

you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected ;
for though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east side of it, I
found a great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea—some above water,
some under it; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more, so that I
was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double that point. ;
When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise, and come back
again, not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to sea, and, above all, doubting
how I should get back again, so I came to an anchor; for I had madea kind of an anchor
with a piece of broken grappling which I got out of the ship.
88 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up a hill, which
seemed to overlook that point where I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a strong and, indeed,
a most furious current, which ran to the east, and even came close to the point; and I took
the more notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger, that when I came into
it, I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be able to make the island
again. And, indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I believe it would have been so,
for there was the same current on the other side the island, only that it set off at a farther
distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy under the shore; so I had nothing to do but
to get out of the first current, and I should presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind, blowing pretty fresh at ES.E., and
that being just contrary to the current, made a great breach of the sea upon the point ;
so that it was not safe for me to keep too close to the shore for the breach, nor to go too
far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight, the sea was calm,
and I ventured. But I am a warning-piece to all rash and ignorant pilots, for no sooner
was I come to the point, when I was not even my boat's length from the shore, but I
found myself in a great depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a mill. It carried
my boat along with it with such violence that all I could do could not keep her so much
as on the edge of it; But I found it hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy,
which was on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all that I could
do with my paddles signified nothing. And now I began to give myself over for lost, for
as the current was on both sides of the island, I knew ina few leagues’ distance they must
join again, and then I was irrecoverably gone; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it; so
that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for that was calm enough,
but of starving from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost
as I could lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh water—that is
to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was all this to being driven into the vast ocean,
where, to be sure, there was no shore, no main-land or island, for a thousand leagues at least.

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make the most miserable
condition that mankind could be in worse. Now I looked back upon my desolate, solitary
island as the most pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness my heart could wish
for was to be there again. I stretched out my hands to it with eager wishes. ‘‘O happy
desert,” said I, ‘I shall never see thee more. O miserable creature! whither am I going?”
Then I reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and how I had repined at my soli-
tary condition; and now what would I give to be on shore there again! Thus, we never
see the true state of our condition till it is illustrated to us by its contraries, nor know how
to value what we enjoy, but by the want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine the con-
sternation I was now in, being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me
now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever
recovering it again. However, I worked hard till, indeed, my strength was almost
exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the northward—that is, towards the side of the
current which the eddy lay on—as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun passed
the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face, springing up from S.S.E.
This cheered my heart a little, and especially when, in about half an hour more, it blew a
pretty small, gentle gale. By this time, I had got at a frightful distance from the island ;
and had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone another way,
too; for I had no compass on board, and should never have known how to have steered
towards the island, if I had but once lost sight of it. But the weather continuing clear,
I applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to the north
as much as possible, to get out of the current.




































“J KEPT MY DAILY TOUR TO THE HILL TO LOOK OUT.”
(See ~. 107.)
go ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Just as I had set up my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch away, I saw
even by the clearness of the water some alteration of the water was near; for where
the current was so strong the current was foul; but perceiving the water clear, I found
the current abate ; and presently I found to the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the
sea upon some rocks. These rocks, I found, caused the current to part again, and as the
main stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the northeast, so the other
returned by the repulse of the rock, and made a strong eddy, which ran back again to
the north-west, with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them upon the ladder, or to
be rescued from thieves just going to murder them, or who have been in such extremi-
ties, may guess what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into
the stream of this eddy; and the wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it,
running cheerfully before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again, directly towards the
island, but about two leagues more towards the northward than the current lay which
carried me away at first; so that when I came near the island, I found myself open to
the northern shore of it—that is to say, the other end of the island, opposite to that
which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by help of this current or
eddy, I found it was spent, and saved me no farther. However, I found that being between
two great currents—viz., that on the south side, which had hurried me away, and that
on the north, which lay about two leagues on the other side—I say between these two, in
the wake of the island, I found the water at least still, and running no way; and having
still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the island, though not
making such fresh way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within about a league of the island, I
found the point of rocks which occasioned this disaster stretching out, as is described
before, to the southward, and casting off the current more southerly, had, of course, made
another eddy to the north; and this I found very strong, but not directly setting the
way my course lay, which was due west, but almost full north. However, having a fresh
gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west; and in about an hour came within
about a mile of the shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for my deliverance,
resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by my boat; and refreshing myself
with such things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that I
had spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with the labour
and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat! I had run so much
hazard, and knew too much of the case, to think of attempting it by the way I went out;
and what might be at the other side (I mean the west side) I knew not, nor had I any
mind to run any more ventures. So I resolved on the next morning to make my way
westward along the shore, and to see if there was no creek where I might lay up my
frigate in safety, so as to have her again, if I wanted her. In about three miles or there-
abouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet, or bay, about a mile over, which
narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a very convenient
harbour for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been in a little dock made on pur-
pose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore to
look about me, and see where I was.

I soon found I had but little passed by the place where I had been before, when I
had travelled on foot to that shore ; so, taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and
umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, 1 began my march. The way was comfortable
THE MVSTERIOUS VOICE. gt

enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my old bower in the
evening, where I found everything standing as I left it; for I always kept it in good
order, being as I said before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my limbs, for I was very
weary and fell asleep. But judge you, if you can, that read my story, what a surprise I
must be in when I was awaked out of my sleep by a voice, calling me by my name sev-
eral times: ‘Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe! poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you,
Robin Crusoe? Where are you? Where have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or paddling, as it is called,
the first part of the day, and walking
the latter part, that I did not awake
thoroughly, and dozing between sleep-
ing and waking, thought I dreamed
that somebody spoke to me; but as
the voice continued to repeat, “ Robin
Crusoe! Robin Crusoe!” at last I
began to awake more perfectly, and
was at first dreadfully frightened, and
started up in the utmost consternation.
But no sooner were my eyes open but
I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the
hedge; and immediately knew that it
was he that spoke to me; for just in
such bemoaning language I had used
to talk to him, and teach him; and he
had learned it so perfectly that he
would sit upon my finger, and lay his
bill close to my face, and cry, ‘“‘ Poor
Robin Crusoe! Where are you?
Where have you been? How came
you here?” and such things as I had
taught him.

However, even though I knew it
was the parrot, and that indeed it

could be nobody else, it was a good
while before I could compose myself.
First, I was amazed how the creature
got thither; and then, how he should , ; eve
just keep about the place, and nowhere a SR ae Y
else; but as I was well satisfied it
could be nobody but honest Poll, I
got over it; and holding out my hand,
and calling him by his name, “ Poll,” the sociable creature came to me, and sat upon
my thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me, “ Poor Robin Crusoe! and
how did I come here? and where had I been?” just as if he had been overjoyed to see
me again; and so I carried him home along with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and had enough to do for
many days, to sit still and reflect upon the danger I had been in. I would have been
very glad to have had my boat again on my side of the island; but I knew not how it
was practicable to get it about. As to the east side of the island, which I had gone
round, I knew well enough there was no venturing that way; my very heart would



“J TOOK A FIREBRAND, AND IN I RUSHED AGAIN”? (4, r11),
92 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

shrink, and my very blood run chill, but to think of it; and as to the other side of the
island, I did not know how it might be there. But supposing the current ran with the
same force against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I might run the
same risk of being driven down the stream, and carried by the island,as I had
been before of being carried away from it. So with these thoughts I contented myself
to be without any boat, though it had been the product of so many months’ labour to
make it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper, I remained near a year; and lived a very sedate,
retired life, as you may well suppose; and my thoughts being very much composed, as
to my condition, and fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of Providence,
I thought I lived really very happily in all things, except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises which my necessities put
me upon applying myself to; and I believe I should, upon occasion, have made a very
good carpenter, especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthenware, and contrived
well enough to make them with a wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better, be-
cause I made things round and shaped, which before were filthy things indeed to look
on. But I think I was never more vain of my own performance, or more joyful for any-
thing I found out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe; and though it was
a very ugly, clumsy thing when it was done, and only burned red, like other earthen-
ware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly
comforted with it, for I had been always used to smoke; and there were pipes in the
ship, but I forgot them at first, not thinking that there was tobacco in the island; and
afterwards, when I searched the ship again, I could not come at any pipes.

In my wickerware, also, I improved much, and made abundance of necessary
baskets, as well as my invention showed me; though not very handsome, yet they were
such as were very handy, and convenient for laying things up in, or fetching things home.
For example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up in a tree, flay it, and dress it,
and cut it in pieces, and bring it home in a basket: and the like by a turtle; I could cut
it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh, which was enough for me, and
bring them home in a basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets
were my receivers for my corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and
cured, and kept it in great baskets, instead of a granary.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably: and this was a want which
it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to consider what I must do
when I should have no more powder ; that is to say, how I should do to kill any goats.
I had, as I observed, in the third year of my being here, kept a young kid, and bred her
up tame; I was in hopes of getting a he-kid: but I could not by any means bring it to
pass, till my kid grew an old goat, and as I could never find in my heart to kill her, she
died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have said, my
ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and snare the goats, to
see whether I could not catch some of them alive; and particularly, I wanted a she-goat
great with young. Tothis purpose, I made snares to hamper them; and I do believe they
were more than once taken in them; but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and
always found them broken, and my bait devoured. At length, I resolved to trya pitfall;
so I dug several large pits in the earth, in places were I had observed the goats used to
feed, and over those pits I placed hurdles, of my own making too, with a great weight
upon them; and several times I put ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the
trap; and I could easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for
I could see the marks of their feet. At length, I set three traps in one night, and going
ABOUT MY GOATS. 93

the next morning, I found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone: this was
very discouraging. However, I altered my traps; and not to trouble you with particu-
lars, going one morning to see my traps, I found in one of them a large old he-goat ;
and in one of the others, three kids, a male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him: he was so fierce, I durst not go
into the pit to him; that is to say, to go about to bring him away alive, which was what I
wanted. I could have killed him, but that was not my business, nor would it answer my
end; so I even let him out, and he ran away, as if he had been frighted out of his wits.
But I had forgot then what I learned afterwards, that hunger will tame alion. If I had
let him stay there three or four days without food, and then have carried him some water
to drink, and then a little corn, he would have been as tame as one of the kids; for they
are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures, where they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at that time: then I went
to the three kids, and, taking them one by one, I tied them with strings together, and
with some difficulty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing them some sweet corn, it
tempted them, and they began to be tame. And now I found that if I expected to supply
myself with goats’ flesh, when I had nc powder or shot left, breeding some up tame was
my only way; when, perhaps, I might have them about my house like a flock of sheep.
But then, it occurred to me that I must keep the tame from the wild, or else they would
always run wild when they they grew up; and the only way for this was to have some
enclosed piece of ground, well fenced either with hedge or pale, to keep them up so
effectually, that those within might not break out, or those without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet, as I saw there was an ab-
solute necessity for doing it, my first piece of work was to find out a proper piece of
ground, viz., where there was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for them to drink,
and cover to keep them from the sun.

_ Those who-understand such enclosures will think I had very little contrivance, when
I pitched upon a place very proper for all these, being a plain open piece of meadow land,
or savanna (as our people call it in the western colonies), which had two or three little
drills of fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody; I say, they will smile at my
forecast, when I shall tell them I began by enclosing of this piece of ground in such a
manner, that my hedge or pale must have been at least two miles about. Nor was the
madness of it so great as to the compass, for if it was ten miles about, I was like to have
time enough to do it in; but I did not consider that my goats would be as wild in so
much compass as if they had had the whole island, and I should have so much room
to chase them in that I should never catch them.

My hedge wasbegun and carried on, I believe, about fifty yards, when this thought
occurred to me; so I presently stopped short, and, for the first beginning, I resolved to
enclose a piece of about one hundred and fifty yards in length, and one hundred yards in
- breadth, which, as it would maintain as many as I should have in any reasonable time,
so, as my flock increased, I could add more ground to my enclosure,

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with courage. I was about
three months hedging in the first piece ; and, till I had done it, I tethered the three kids
in the best part of it, and used them to feed as near meas posslble, to make them familiar ;
and very often I would go and carry them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and
feed them out of my hand; so that, after my enclosure was finished, and IJ let them loose,
they would follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had a flock of about twelve
goats, kids and all; and in two. years more I had three-and-forty, beside several that I
took and killed for my food; after that, I encloseed five several pieces of ground to
94 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to take them as I wanted, and gates out
of one piece of ground into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had goats’ flesh to feed on when I pleased,
but milk too—a thing which, indeed, in my beginning, I did not so much as think of,
and which, when it came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise; for now I
set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk ina day. And as Nature,
who gives supplies of food to every creature, dictates even naturally how to make use of
it, so I, that never milked a cow, much less a goat, or saw butter or cheese made, very
readily and handily, though after a great many essays and miscarriages, made me both
butter and cheese at last, and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully can our
Creator treat His creatures, even in those conditions in which they seemed to be over-
whelmed in destruction! How can he sweeten the bitterest providences, and give us
cause to praise Him for dungeons and prisons! What a table was here spread for me in
a wilderness, where I saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger !

It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my little family sit down to
dinner. There was my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole island. I had the lives
of all my subjects at absolute command ; I could hang, draw, give life and liberty, and take
it away, and no rébels among all my subjects. Then, to see how like a king I dined too,
all alone, attended by my servants! Poll, as if he had been my favourite was the only
person permitted to talk to me; my dog, who was now grown very old and crazy, and
had found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at my right hand; and two
cats, one on one side the table, and one on the other, expecting now and then a bit from
my hand, as a mark of special favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at first, for they were
both of them dead, and had been interred near my habitation by my own hand; but one
of them having multiplied by I know not what kind of creature, these were two which
I had preserved tame; whereas the rest ran wild in the woods, and became, indeed,
troublesome to me at last, for they would often come into my house, and plunder me,
too, till at last I was obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great many; at length they
left me. With this attendance and in this plentiful manner I lived; neither could I
be said to want anything but society ; and of that, in some time after this, I was likely
to have too much.

I was sometimes impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of my boat, though
very loth to run any more hazard; and, therefore, sometimes I sat contriving ways to
get her about the island, and at other times I sat myself down, contented enough without
her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go down to the point of the island,
where, as I have said, in my last ramble, I went up the hil! to see how the shore lay,
and how the current set, that I might see what I had to do. This inclination increased
upon me every day, and at length I resolved to travel thither by land; and following
the edge of the shore, I did so; but had anyone in England met such a man as I was, it
must either have frighted them, or raised a great deal of laughter: and as I frequently
stood still to look at myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my travelling through
Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in such adress. Be pleased to take a sketch of
my figure, as follows :—

I had a great, high, shapeless cap, made of goat’s skin, with a flap hanging down
behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to shoot the rain off from running into my
neck; nothing being so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon the flesh under
the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down to about the middle of
the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same; the breeches were made of
the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length on either side, that, like
A SKETCH OF MY APPEARANCE, 95

pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my legs.
Stockings and shoes I had none, but had made
me a pair of somethings—I scarce knew what
to call them—like buskins to flap over my legs
and lace on either side like spatter-dashes, but of
a most barbarous shape, as, indeed, were all the
rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried,
which I drew together with two thongs of the
same instead of buckles; and in a kind of a frog
on either side of this, instead of a sword and
dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one on
one side, one on the other. I had another belt,
not so broad, and fastened in the same manner,
which hung over my shoulder, and at the end of
it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, both
made of goat’s skin too, in one of which hung
my powder, in the other my shot. At my back
I carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun,
and over my head a great clumsy, ugly, goat’s- “HE WOULD SIT UPON MY FINGER” (¢, 91).
skin umbrella, but which, after all, was the most
necessary thing I had about me next to my gun. As for my face, the color of it was
really not so mulatto-like as one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and
living within nine or ten degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow
till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both scissors and razors sufficient,
I had cut it pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a
large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee;
for the Moors did not wear such, though the Turks did. Of these moustachios, or
whiskers, I will not say that they were long enough to hang my hat upon them, but they
were of a length and shape monstrous enough, and such as in England would have
passed for frightful.

But all this is by-the-bye; for, as to my figure, I had so few to observe me, that it was
of no manner of consequence, so I say no more to that part. In this kind of dress I went
my new journey, and was out five or six days. I travelled first along the sea-shore, directly
to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor to get up upon the rocks; and
having no boat now to take care of, I went over the land a nearer way to the same height
that I was upon before, when, looking forward to the point of the rock which lay out, and
which I was obliged to double with my boat, as is said above, I was surprised to see the
sea all smooth and quiet—no rippling, no motion, no current, any more there than in any
other places. I was at a strange loss to understand this,and resolved to spend some time
in the observing it, to see if nothing from the sets of the tide had occasioned it; but I was
presently convinced how it was—viz., that the tide of ebb setting from the west, and join-
ing with the current of waters from some great river on the shore, must be the occasion
of this current ; and that, according as the wind blew more forcible from the west or from
the north, this current came near, or went farther from the shore ; for, waiting thereabouts
till evening, I went up to the rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly
saw the current again as before, only that it ran farther off, being near half a league from
the shore, whereas in my case it set close upon the shore, and hurried me and my canoe
along with it, which at another time it would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to observe the ebbing
and the flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring my boat about the island again;


96 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

but when I began to think about putting it in practice, I had such terror upon my spirits
at the remembrance of the danger I had been in, that I could not think of it again with
any patience; but, on the contrary, I took up another resolution, which was more safe,
though more laborious—and this was, that I would build, or rather make me another
periagua, or canoe; and so have one for one side of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it, two plantations in the island ;
one my little fortification or tent, with the wall about it, under the rock, with the cave
behind me, which by this time I had enlarged into several apartments, or caves, one within
another. One of these, which was the driest and largest,and had a door out beyond my
wall of fortification—that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock—was all filled
up with the large earthen pots, of which I have given an account, and with fourteen or fifteen
great baskets, which would hold five or six bushels each, where I laid up my stores or
provisions, especially my corn, some in the ear, cut off short from the straw, and the other
rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those piles grew all like
trees, and were by this time grown so big, and spread so very much, that there was not
the least appearance, to any one’s view, of any habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, buta little farther within the land, and upon lower ground,
lay my two pieces of corn-land, which I kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which duly
yielded me their harvest in its season; and whenever I had occasion for more corn, I had
more land adjoining, as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and [ had now a tolerable plantation there also;
for first, I had my little bower, as I called it, which I kept in repair—that is to say, I kept
the hedge which circled it in, constantly fitted up to its usual height, the ladder always
standing in the inside. I kept the trees, which at first were no more than my stakes, but
were now grown very firm and tall, always so cut that they might spread and grow thick
and wild, and make the more agreeable shade, which they did effectually to my mind. In
the middle of this I had my tent always standing, being a piece of a sail spread over poles
set up for that purpose, and which never wanted any repair or renewing; and under this
I had made me a squab, or couch, with the skins of the creatures i had killed, and with
other soft things, and a blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which
I had saved; and a great watch-coat to cover me; and here, whenever I had occasion to
be absent from my chief seat, I took up my country habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my cattle—that is to say, my goats; and
as I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and enclose this ground, I was so
anxious to see it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that I never left off till,
with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so
near to one another, that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to
put a hand through between them; which afterwards, when those stakes grew, as they all
did in the next rainy season, made the enclosure strong like a wall—indeed, stronger than
any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared no pains to bring to
pass whatever appeared necessary for my comfortable support; for I considered the
keeping up of abreed of tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living magazine of
flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived in the place, if it were to be forty
years; and that keeping them in my reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my
enclosures to such a degree that I might be sure of keeping them together, which, by this
method, indeed, I so effectually secured, that when these little stakes began to grow, I
had planted them so very thick, I was forced to pull some of them up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally depended on for my
winter store of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very carefully, as the best
£ DISCOVER A FOOTPRINT IN THE SAND. 97



“IT BLEW A VERY GREAT STORM OF WIND” (g. 115).

and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and, indeed, they were not agreeable only,
but physical, wholesome, nourishing, and refreshing to the last degree.

As it was also about half-way between my other habitation and the place where I
had laid up my boat, I generally stayed and lay here in my way thither, for I used fre-
quently to visit my boat; and I kept all things about, or belonging to her, in very good
order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert myself, but no more hazardous voyages
would I go, scarcely ever above a stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehen-
sive of being hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or any other
accident. But now I came to a new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly sur-
prised with the print of a man’s naked food on the shore, which was very plain to be seen
on the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition. I listened,
I looked round me, but I could hear nothing or see anything; I went up to a rising
ground, to look farther; I went up the shore, and down the shore, but it was all one; I
could see no other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there were any
more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy; but there was no room for that, for
there was exactly the print of a foot—toes, heel, and every part of a foot. How it came
thither I knew not, nor could in the least imagine. But after innumerable fluttering
thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home to my fortifica-
tion, not feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree, looking
behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every bush and tree, and fancying every
stump at a distance to be a man. Nor is it possible to describe how many various shapes
my affrighted imagination represented things to me in; how many wild ideas were
formed every moment in my fancy, and what strange unaccountable whimseys came into
my thoughts by the way.

7
98 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after this), I fled into it like
one pursued. Whether I went over by the ladder, as first contrived, or went in at the
hole in the rock, which I called a door, I cannot remember; for never frighted hare fled
to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.

I had no sleep that night; the farther I was from the occasion of my fright, the
greater my apprehensions were, which is contrary to the nature of such things, and es-
pecially to the usual practice of all creatures in fear; but I was so embarrassed with my
own frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to my-
self, even though I was not a great way off it. Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil ;
and reason joined in with me upon this supposition: for how should any other thing in
human shape come into the place? Where was the vessel that brought them? What
marks were there of any other footsteps? and how was it possible a man should come
there? But then to think that Satan should take human shape upon him in such a place,
where there could be no manner of occasion for it, but to leave the print of his foot be-
hind him, and that even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should see it—this
wasan amazement the other way. I considered that the devil might have found out abund-
ance of other ways to have terrified me than this of the single print of a foot; that as I
lived quite on the other side of the island, he would never have been so simple as to
leave a mark in a place where it was ten thousand to one whether I should ever see it or
not, and in the sand too, which the first surge of the sea, upon a high wind, would have
defaced entirely. All this seemed inconsistent with the thing itself, and with all the no-
tions we usually entertain of the subtlety of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out of all apprehensions of
its being the devil; and I presently concluded then that it must be some more dangerous
creature, viz., that it must be some of the savages of the mainland over against me,
who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and, either driven by the currents or by
contrary winds, had made the island, and had been on shore, but were gone away again
to sea; being as loth, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I would have been
to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was very thankful in my
thought that I was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that time, or that they did not

. see my boat, by which they would have concluded that some inhabitants had been in the
place, and perhaps have searched farther for me. Then terrible thoughts racked my imag-
ination about their having found my boat, and that there were people here; and that, if so,
I should certainly have them come again in greater numbers, and devour me; that if it
should happen that they should not find me, yet they would find my enclosure, destroy all
my corn, and carry away all my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last for
mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope; all that former confidence in God,
which was founded upon such wonderful experience as I had had of His goodness, now
vanished ; as if He that had fed me by miracle hitherto, could not preserve by His power
the provision which he had made for me by His goodness. I reproached myself with
my laziness, that would not sow any more corn for one year than would just serve me
till the next season, as if no accident could intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop
that was upon the ground; and this I thought so just a reproof, that I resolved for
the future to have two or three years’ corn beforehand, so that, whatever might come,
I might not perish for want of bread.

How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life of man! and by what secret
differing springs are the affections hurried about, as differing circumstances present!
To-day we love what to-morrow we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun;
to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even tremble at the apprehensions of.




















“THEY WERE ALL DANCING ROUND THE FIRE,”
(See p. 124.)
100 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This was exemplified in me at this time in the most lively manner imaginable; for I,
whose only affliction was, that I seemed banished from human society, that I was alone,
circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and condemned to what
I call silent life; that I was as one whom Heaven thought not worthy to be numbered
among the living, or to appear amongst the rest of His creatures; that to have seen one
of my own species would have seemed to mea raising me from death to life, and the
greatest blessing that Heaven itself, next to the supreme blessing of salvation, could
bestow; I say, that I should now tremble at the very apprehensions of seeing a man,
and was ready to sink into the ground at but the shadow or silent appearance of a man
having set his foot on the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded me a great many curious
speculations afterwards, when I had a little recovered my first surprise. I considered
that this was the station of life the infinitely wise and good providence of God had
determined for me; that as I could not forsee what the end of Divine wisdom might be
in all this, so I was not to dispute His sovereignty, who, as I was His creature, nad an
undoubted right by creation to govern and dispose of me absolutely as He thought fit ;
and who, as I was a creature who had offended Him, had likewise a judicial right to
condemn me to what punishmeut he thought fit; andthat it was my part to submit to
bear his indignation, because I had sinned against him. I then reflected that God, who
was not only righteous, but omnipotent, as He had thought fit thus to punish and afflict
me, so He was able to deliver me; that if He did not think fit to do it, it was my un-
questioned duty to resign myself absolutely and entirely to His will ; and, on the other
hand, it was my duty also to hope in Him, pray to Him, and quietly to attend the
dictates and directions of His daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may say weeks and months ;
and one particular effect of my cogitations on this occasion I cannot omit: viz., one
morning early, lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about my danger from the
appearance of savages, I found it discomposed me very much; upon which those words
of the Scripture came into my thoughts: ‘‘ Call upon Me in the day of trouble: I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” Upon this, rising cheerfully out of bed, my
heart was not only comforted, but I was guided and encouraged to pray earnestly to God
for deliverance: when I had done praying, I took up my Bible, and opening it to read,
the first words that presented to me were, “ Wait on the Lord; be of good courage, and
He shall strengthen thy heart: wait, I say, on the Lord.” It is impossible to express
the comfort this gave me, and in return I thankfully laid down the book, and was no
more sad, at least, not on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflections, it came into my
thoughts one day that all this might be a mere chimera of my own, and that this foot
might be the print of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat: this cheered
me up a little, too, and I began to persuade myself it was all a delusion; that it was
nothing else but my own foot; and why might I not come that way from the boat, as
well as I was going that way to the boat? Again I considered also that I could by no
means tell for certain where I had trod, and where I had not; and that if, at last, this ©
was only the print of my own foot, I had played the part of those fools who try to
make stories of spectres and apparitions, and then are themselves frighted at them more
than anybody else.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I had not stirred out
of my castle for three days and nights, so that I began to starve for provision; for
I had little or nothing within doors but some barley-cakes and water. ThenI knew that
my goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my evening diversion; and the
poor creatures were in great pain and inconvenience for want of it; and, indeed, it almost
spoiled some of them, and almost dried up their milk.
FEAR AND CONFUSION OF MIND. Iol

Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this was nothing but the print of one
of my own feet, and so I might be truly said to start at my own shadow, I began to go
abroad again, and went to my country-house to milk my flock; but to see with what fear
I went forward, how often I looked behind me, how I was ready, every now and then, to
lay down my basket, and run for my life, it would have made anyone have thought I was
haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most terribly frighted ; and so,
indeed, I had. However, as I went down thus two or three days, and having seen nothing,
I began to be a little bolder, and to think there was really nothing in it but my own imagi-
nation; but I could not persuade myself fully of this till I should go down to the shore
again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my own, and see if there was any
similitude or fitness, that I might be assured it was my own foot. But when I came to
the place—first, it appeared evidently to me that when I laid up my boat, I could not
possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts: secondly, when I came to measure the mark
with my own foot, I found my foot not so large by a great deal. Both these things filled
my head with new imaginations, and gave me the vapours again to the highest degree, so
that I shook with cold like one in an ague; and I went home again, filled with the belief
that some man or men had been on shore there; or, in short, that the island was inhabited,
and I might be surprised before I was aware; and what course to take for my security I
knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed with fear! It deprives
them of the use of those means which reason offers for their relief. The first thing I
proposed to mysef was, to throw down by enclosures, and turn all my tame cattle wild
into the woods, that the enemy might not find them, and then frequent the island in pros-
pect of the same or the like booty: then the simple thing of digging up my two cornfields
that they might not find such a grain there, and still be prompted to frequent the island;
then to demolish my bower and tent, that they might not see any vestiges of habitation,
and be prompted to look farther, in order to find out the persons inhabiting.

These were the subjects of the first night’s cogitations, after I was come home again,
while the apprehensions which had so overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and my head
was full of vapours as above. Thus, fear of danger is ten thousand times more terrifying
than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes; and we find the burden of anxiety greater,
by much, than the evil which we are anxious about: but, which was worse than all this,
I had not that relief in this trouble, from the resignation I used to practise, that I hoped
to have. I looked, I thought, like Saul, who complained not only that the Philistines
were upon him, but that God had forsaken him; for I did not now take due ways to
compose my mind, by crying to God in my distress, and resting upon his providence, as
I had done before, for my defence and deliverance; which if I had done, I had at least
been more cheerfully supported under this new surprise, and perhaps carried through it
with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking all night; but in the morning I fell
asleep; and having by the amusement of my mind been, as it were, tired, and my spirits
exhausted, I slept very soundly, and awaked much better composed than I had ever been
before. And now I began to think sedately; and, upon the utmost debate with myself,
I concluded that this island (which was so exceeding pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from
the mainland than as I had seen) was not so entirely abandoned as I might imagine; that
although there were no stated inhabitants who lived on the spot, yet that there might some-
times come boats off from the shore, who either with design, or perhaps never but when
they were driven by cross winds, might come to this place; that I had lived here fifteen
years now, and had not met with the least shadow or figure of any people yet; and that,
if at any time they should be driven here, it was probable they went away again as soon as
ever they could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix here upon any occasion to this time ;
102 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

that the most I could suggest any danger from was, from any casual accidental landing of
straggling people from the main, who, as it was likely, if they were driven hither, were
here against their wills: so they made no stay here, but went off again with all possible
speed, seldom staying one night on shore, lest they should not have the help of the tides
and daylight back again; and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some
safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to bring a door
through again, which door, as I said, came out beyond where my fortification joined to
the rock. Upon maturely considering this, therefore, 1 resolved to draw me a second
fortification, in the same manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my wall, just where I
had planted a double row of trees about twelve years before, of which I made mention:
these trees having been planted so thick before, there wanted but few piles to be driven
between them, that they should be thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon
finished. So that I had now a double wall; and my outer wall was thickened with pieces
of timber, old cables, and everything I could think of to make it strong, having in it seven
little holes, about as big as I might put my arm out at. In the inside of this, I thickened
my wall to about ten feet thick, continually bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it
at the foot of the wall, and walking upon it; and through the seven holes I contrived to
plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I got seven on shore out of the ship ; these,
I say, I planted like my cannon, and fitted them into frames, that held them like a carriage,
that so I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’ time. This wall I was many a
weary month in finishing, and yet never thought myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a great way every
way, as full with stakes or sticks of the osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as
they could well stand; insomuch that I believe I might set in near twenty thousand. of
them, leaving a pretty large space between them and my wall, that I might have room to
see an enemy, and they might have no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to
approach my outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove; and in five or six years’ time I had a
wood before my dwelling grown so monstrous thick and strong that it was indeed per-
fectly impassible: and no man, of what kind soever, would ever imagine that there was
anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As for the way which I proposed to myself
to go in and out (for I left no avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a part of the
rock which was low, and then broke in, and left room to place another ladder upon that;
so when the two ladders were taken down, no man living could come down to me without
mischiefing himself; and if they had come down, they were still on the outside of my outer
wall. ;

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest for my own preserva-
tion; and it will be seen, at length, that they were not altogether without just reason;
though I foresaw nothing at that time more than my mere fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my other affairs; for I hada
great concern upon me for my little herd of goats: they were not only a present supply
to me upon every occasion, and began to be sufficient for me, without the expense of
powder and shot, but also abated the fatigue of my hunting after the wild ones; and I
was loth to lose the advantage of them, and to have them all to nurse up over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but two ways to preserve
them: one was to find another convenient place to dig a cave under ground, and to drive
them into it every night; and the other was to enclose two or three little bits of land,
remote from one another, and as much concealed as I could, where I might keep about
half a dozen young goats in each place; so that if any disaster happened to the flock in
general, I might be able to raise them again with little trouble and time: and this, though
A NEW PADDOCK FOR MY GOATS. 103

it would require a good deal of time and labour, I thought was the most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired parts of the island; and
I pitched upon one which was as private indeed as my heart could wish: it was a little
damp piece of ground, in the middle of the hollow and thick woods, where, as is observed,
I almost lost myself once before, endeavouring to come back that way from the eastern
part of the island. Here I founda clear piece of land, near three acres, so surrounded
with woods, that it was almost an enclosure by Nature; at least, it did not want near so
much labour to make it so, as the other pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground; and, in less than a month’s
time, I had so fenced it round that my flock, or herd, call it which you please, which were
not so wild now as at first they might be supposed to be, were well enough secured in it.
So, without any further delay, I removed ten she-goats, and two he-goats, to this piece ;
and, when they were there, I continued to perfect the fence, till I had made it as secure
as the other; which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me up more time by a
great deal.

All this labor I was at the expense of, purely from my apprehension on account of
the print of a man’s foot which I had seen; for, as yet, 1 had never seen any human
creature come near the island; and I had now
lived two years under this uneasiness, which, Wi
indeed, made my life much less comfortable :
than it was before, as may well be imagined
by any who know what it is to live in the
constant snare of the fear of man. And this
I must observe, with grief, too, that the dis-
composure of my mind had too great impres-
sions also upon the religious part of my
thoughts; for the dread and terror
of falling into the hands of savages
and cannibals lay so upon my spir-
its, that I seldom found myself in
a due temper for application to my
Maker; at least, not with the sedate
calmness and resignation of soul
which I was wont to do: I rather
prayed to God as under great
affliction and pressure of mind, sur-
rounded with danger, and in ex-
pectation every night of being




















104 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

murdered and devoured before morning; and I must testify, from my experience,
that a temper of peace, thankfulness, love, and affection, is much the more proper frame
fox prayer than that of terror and discomposure; and that under the dread of mischief
impending, a man is no more fit for a comforting performance of the duty of praying to
God, than he is for repentance on a sick-bed; for these discomposures affect the mind,
as the others do the body; and the discomposure of the mind must necessarily be as
great a disability as that of the body, and much greater; praying to God being properly
an act of the mind, not of the body.

But to go on: after I had thus secured one part of my little living stock, I went
about the whole island, searching for another private place to make such another deposit;
when wandering more to the west point of the island than I had ever done yet, and looking
out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a great distance. I had found a per-
spective glass or two in one of the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our ship, but I
had it not about me; and this was so remote that I could not tell what to make of it,
though I looked at it until my eyes were not able to hold to look any longer: whether
it was a boat or not, I do notknow; but as I descended from the hill I could see no more
of it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to go no more out without a perspective glass in
my pocket. aK

When I was come down the hill to the end of the island, where, indeed, I had never
been before, I was presently convinced that the seeing the print of a man’s foot was not
such a strange thing in the islandas I imagined; and but that it was a special providence
that I was cast upon the side of the island where the savages never came, I should easily
have known that nothing was more frequent than for the canoes from the main, when they
happened to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for har-
bour: likewise, as they often met and fought in their canoes, the victors, having taken
any prisoners, would bring them over to this shore, where, according to their dreadful
customs, being all cannibals, they would kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, asI said above, being the S. W. point
. of the island, I was perfectly confounded and amazed; nor is it possible for me to express
the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other
bones of human bodies; and particularly, I observed a place where there had been a fire
made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches
had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I entertained no notions of
any dan ger to myself from it for a long while; all my apprehensions were buried in the
thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of the degeneracy
of human nature, which, though I had heard of often, yet I never had so near a view of
before; in short, I turned away my face from the horrid spectacle; my stomach grew
sick, and I was just at the point of fainting, when Nature discharged the disorder from
my stomach; and having vomited with uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but
could not bear to stay in the place a moment; so I got up the hill again with all the
speed I could, and walked on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still awhile, as amazed,
and then, recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost affection of my soul, and, with
la flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot in a part of the
world where I was distinguished from such dreadful creatures as these; and that though
I had esteemed my present condition very miserable, had yet given me so many comforts
in that I had still more to give thanks for than to complain of: and this, above all, that I
had, even in this miserable condition, been comforted with the knowledge of Himself, and
the hope of His blessing: which was a felicity more than sufficiently equivalent to all
the misery which I had suffered, or could suffer.
A PERIOD OF SECLUSION. 105

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and began to be much
easier now, as to the safety of my circumstances, than ever I was before; for I observed
that these wretches never came to this island in search of what they could get; per-
haps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting, anything here; and having often, no
doubt, been up in the covered, woody part of it, without finding anything to their pur-
pose. I knew I had been here now almost eighteen years, and never saw the least
footsteps of human creature there before; and I might be eighteen years more as
entirely concealed as I was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which I had no
manner of occasion to do; it being my only business to keep myself entirely concealed
where I was, unless I found a better sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself
known to. Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches that I have
been speaking of, and of the wretched inhuman custom of their devouring and eating one



“I BEGAN TO INSTRUCT HIM” (4. 133).

another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own circle for
almost two years after this: when I say my own circle I mean by it my three plantations,
viz., my castle, my country seat (which I called my bower), and my enclosure in the
woods: nor did I look after this for any other use than as an enclosure for my goats; for
the aversion which Nature gave me to these hellish wretches was such, that I was as fear-
ful of seeing them as of seeing the devil himself, nor did I so much as go to look after
my boat in all this time, but began rather to think of making me another ; for I could not
think of ever making any more attempts to bring the other boat round the island to me,
lest I should meet with some of these creatures at sea; in which case, if I had happened
to have fallen into their hands, I knew what would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no danger of being discovered
by these people, began to wear off my uneasiness about them ; and I began to live in the
106 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

same composed manner as before, only with this difference, that I used more caution, and
kept my eyes more about me than I did before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of
them; and particularly I was more cautious in firing my gun, lest any of them, being on
the island, should happen to hear it; and it was, therefore, a very good providence to me
that I had furnished myself with a tame breed of goats, and that I had no need to hunt
any more about the woods, or shoot at them; and if I did catch any of them after this, it
was by traps and snares, as I had done before: so that for two years after this, I believe
I never fired my gun once off, though I never went out without it; and, which was more,
as I had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out with me, or at least
two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin belt. I likewise furbished up one of the
great cutlasses that I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to put it on also; so that
I was now a most formidable fellow to look at when I went abroad, if you add to the
former description of myself, the particular of two pistols, and a great broad-sword hang-
ing at my side in a belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I seemed, excepting these cau-
tions, to be reduced to my former calm sedate way of living. All these things tended to
show me, more and more, how far my condition was from being miserable, compared to
some others ; nay, to many other particulars of life, which it might have pleased God to
have made my lot. It put me upon reflecting how little repining there would be among
mankind at any condition of life, if people would rather compare their condition with
those that are worse, in order to be thankful, than to be always comparing them w th
those which are better, to assist their murmurings and complainings.

As in my presunt condition there were not really many things which I wanted, so,
indeed, I thought that the frights I had been in about these savage wretches, and the con-
cern I had been in for my own preservation, had taken off the edge of my invention for
my own conveniences; and I had dropped a good design, which I had once bent my
thoughts upon, and that was to try if I could not make some of my barley into malt, and
then try to brew myself some beer. This was really a whimsical thought, and I reproved
myself often for the simplicity of it: for I presently saw there would be the want of
several things necessary to the making my beer, that it would be impossible for me to
supply; as, first, casks, to preserve it in, which was a thing that,as I have observed
already, I could never compass; no, though I spent not many days, but weeks, nay,
months, in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to make
it keep, no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to make it boil; and yet had not all
these things intervened—-I mean, the frights and terrors I was in about the savages—I
had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it to pass, too; for I seldom gave anything over
without accomplishing it, when I once had it in my head enough to begin it. But my in-
vention now ran quite another way; for, night and day, I could think of nothing but how
I might destroy some of these monsters in their cruel, bloody entertainment; and, if pos-
sible, save the victim they should bring hither to destroy. It would take up a larger
volume than this whole work is intended to be, to set down all the contrivances I hatched,
or rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying these creatures, or at least
frightening them so as to prevent their coming hither any more: but all was abortive;
nothing could be possible to take effect, unless I was to be there to do it myself: and
what could one man do among them, when perhaps there might be twenty or thirty of
them together with their darts, or their bows and arrows, with which they could shoot
as true to a mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place where they made their fire,
and putting in five or six pounds of gunpowder, which, when they kindled their fire,
would consequently take fire, and blow up all that was near it: but as, in the first place,
I should be unwilling to waste so much powder upon them, my store being now within
MY DESIGNS AGAINST THE CANNIBALS. 107

the quantity of one barrel, so neither couldI be sure of its going off at any certain time,
when it might surprise them ; and, at best, that it would do little more than just blow the
fire abov't their ears and fright them, but not sufficient to make them forsake the place:
so I laid it aside; and then proposed that I would place myself in ambush in some con-
venient place, with my three guns all double loaded, and in the middle of their bluody
ceremony let fly at them when I should be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or three at
every shot; and then falling in upon them with my three pistols and my sword, I made
no doubt but that, if there were twenty, I should kill them all. This fancy pleased my
thoughts for some weeks, and I was so full of it, that I often dreamed of it,and sometimes,
that I was just going to let fly at them in my sleep. I went so far with it in my imagina-
tion, that I employed myself several days to find out proper proper places to put myself
in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them, and I went frequently to the place itself, which
was now grown more familiar to me, but while my mind was thus filled with thoughts of
revenge and of a bloody putting twenty. or thirty of them to the sword, as I may call it,
the horror I had atthe place, and at the signals of the barbarous wretches devouring one
another, abetted my malice. Well, at length I found a place in the side of the hill, where
I was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any of their boats coming; and might
then, even before they would be ready to come on shore, convey myself unseen into some
thickets of trees, in one of which there was a hollow large enough to conceal me en-
tirely ; and there I might sit and observe all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at
their heads, when they were so close together as that it would be next to impossible that
I should miss my shot, or that I could fail wounding three or four of them at the first
shot. In this place, then, I resolved to fix my design; and accordingly I prepared two
muskets and my ordinary fowling-piece. The two muskets I loaded with a brace of
slugs each, and four or five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol bullets ; and the fowl-
ing-piece I loaded with near a handful of swan-shot of the largest size; I also loaded my
pistols with about four bullets each; and in this posture, well provided with ammunition
for a second and third charge, I prepared myself for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my imagination put it in
practice, I continually made my tour every morning to the top of the hil! which was from
my castle, as I called it, about three miles, or more, to see if I could observe any boats
upon the sea, coming near the island, or standing over towards it; but I began to tire of
this hard duty, after I had for two or three months constantly kept my watch, but came
always back without any discovery ; there having not, in all that time, been the least ap-
pearance, not only on or near the shore, but on the whole ocean, as far as my eyes or glass
could reach every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so long also I kept up the
vigour of my design, and my spirits seemed to beall the while in a suitable frame for so
outrageous an execution as the killing twenty or thirty naked savages, for an offence
which I had not at all entered into a discussion of in my thoughts, any farther than my
passions were at first fired by the horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of the people
of that country; who, it seems, had been suffered by Providence, in His wise disposition
of the world, to have no other guide than that of their own abominable and vitiated pas-
sions; and, consequently, were left, and perhaps had been so for some ages, to act such
horrid things, and receive such dreadful customs, as nothing but nature, entirely aban-
doned by Heaven, and actuated by some hellish degeneracy, could have run them into.
But now, when, as I have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless excursion which I
had made so long and so far every morning in vain,so my opinion of the action itself
began to alter; and I began, with cooler and calmer thoughts, to consider what I was going
to engage in; what authority or call I had to pretend to be judge and executioner upon
these men as criminals, whom Heaven had thought fit, for so many ages, to suffer un-
108 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

punished, to go on, and to be, as it were, the executioners of his judgments, one upon an-
other ; how far these people were offenders against me, and what right I had to engage in
the quarrel of that blood which they shed promiscuously upon one another. I debated
this very often with myself thus :—‘‘ How do I know what God Himself judges in this
particular case? It is certain these people do not commit this asa crime; it is not against
their own consciences reproving, or their light reproaching them ; they do not know it to
be an offence, and then commit it in defiance of Divine justice, as we do in almost all the
sins wecommit. They think it no more a crime to kill a captive taken in war, than we
do to kill an ox; or to eat human flesh, than we do eat mutton.”

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that Iwas certainly in the
wrong in it; that these people were not murderers, in the sense that I had before con-
demned them in my thoughts, any more than those Christians were murderers who often
put to death the prisoners taken in battle; or more frequently, upon many occasions, put
whole troops of men to the sword, without giving quarter, though they threw down their
arms and submitted. Inthe next place, it occurred to me, that albeit the usage they gave
one another was thus brutish and inhuman, yetit was really nothing to me. These people
had done me no injury; that if they attempted me, or I saw it necessary, for my imme-
diate preservation, to fall upon them, something might'be said for it: but that I was yet
out of their power, and they really had no knowledge of me, and consequently no design
upon me; and, therefore, it could not be just for me to fall uponthem. That this would
justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their barbarities practiced in America, where
they destroyed millions of these people ; who, however they were idolaters and barbarians,
and had several bloody and barbarous rites in their customs, such as sacrificing human
bodies to their idols, were yet, as to the Spaniards, very innocent people; and that the
rooting them out of the country is spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and detestation
by even the Spaniards themselves, at this time, and by all other Christian nations in
Europe, as a mere butchery, a bloody and unnatural piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either
to God or man; and such as for which the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned to be
frightful and terrible to all people of humanity or of Christian compassion; as if the
kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for the product of a race of men who were
without principles of tenderness, or the common bowels of pity to the miserable, which
is reckoned to be a mark of a generous temper in the mind.

These conditions really put me toa pause, and to a kind of a full stop; and I began,
by little and little, to be off my design, and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in
my resolution to attack the savages ; and that it was not my business to meddle with them,
unless they first attacked me; and this it was my business, if possible, to prevent: but
that if I were discovered and attacked by them, then I knew my duty. On the other
hand, I argued with myself that this really was the way not to deliver myself, but entirely
to ruin and destroy myself; for, unless I was sure to kill every one that not only
should be on shore at that time, but that should ever come on shore afterwards, if but one
of them escaped to tell their country-people what had happened, they would come over
again by thousands to revenge the death of their fellows, and I should only bring upon
myself a certain destruction, which, at present, I had no manner of occasion for. Uponthe
whole, I concluded that I ought neither in principle nor in policy, one way or other, to
concern myself in this affair; that my business was, by all possible means, to conceal
myself from them, and not to leave the least sign for them to guess by that there were
any living creatures upon the island—I mean of human shape. Religion joined in with
this prudential resolution; and I was convinced now, many ways, that I was perfectly
out of my duty when I was laying all my bloody schemes for the destruction of innocent
creatures—I mean innocent as to me. As to the crimes they were guilty of towards one
another, I had nothing to do with them: these were national punishments, to make
LREPENT OF MY BLOODTHIRSTINESS. 109



“THE RUINS OF OUR BOAT”
(s. 136).

a just retribution for national offences, and to bring public judgment upon those who
offend in a public manner, by such ways as best please God. This appeared so clear
to me now, that nothing was a greater satisfaction to me than that I had not been
suffered to do a thing which I now saw so much reason to believe would have been
no less a sin than that of wilful murder, if I had committed it; and I gave most
humble thanks, on my knees, to God, that he had thus delivered me from blood-
guiltiness; beseeching Him to grant me the protection of His providence, that I might
not fall into the hands of the barbarians, or that I might not lay my hands upon
them, unless I had a more clear call from Heaven to do it, in defence of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this; and so far was I from
desiring an occasion for falling upon these wretches, that in all that time I never once
went up the hill to see whether there were any of them in sight, or to know whether any
of them had been on shore there or not, that I might not be tempted to renew any of
my contrivances against them, or be provoked by any advantage that might present
itself, to fall upon them; only this I did: I went and removed my boat which I had on
the other side of the island, and carried it down to the east end of the whole island,
where I ran it into a little cove, which I found under some high rocks, and where I
knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst not, at least would not, come with
their boats upon any account whatever. With my boat I carried away everything that
I had left there belonging to her, though not necessary for the bare going thither—
viz., a mast and sail which I had made for me, and a thing like an anchor, but
which indeed could not be called either anchor or grapnel; however, it was the best I
could make of its kind: all these I removed, that there might not be the least shadow
for discovery, or any appearance of any boat, or of any habitation upon the island. Be-
sides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than ever, and seldom went from my
cell, except upon my constant employment, viz, to milk my she-goats, and manage my
little flock in the wood, which, as it was quite on the other part of the island, was out of
danger; for certain it is that these savage people who sometimes haunted this island,
never came with any thoughts of finding anything here, and consequently never wandered
off from the coast, and I doubt not but they might have been several times on shore after
my apprehension of them had made me cautious, as well as before. Indeed, I looked
10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

back with some horror upon the thoughts of what my condition would have been, if I
had dropped upon them and been discovered before that; when, naked, and unarmed
except with one gun, and that loaded often only with small shot, I walked everywhere,
peeping and peering about the island to see what I could get; what a surprise should I
have been in if, when I discovered the print of a man’s foot, I had instead of that seen
fifteen or twenty savages, and found them pursuing me, and by the swiftness of their
running, no possibility of my escaping them! The thoughts of this sometimes sank my
very soul within me, and distressed my mind so much that I could not soon recover it,
to think what I should have done, and how I should not only have been unable to resist
them, but even should not have had presence of mind enough to do what I might have
done; much less what now, after so much consideration and preparation, I might be able
to do. Indeed, after serious thinking of these things, I would be very melancholy, and
sometimes it would last a great while: but I resolved it all, at last, into thankfulness to
that Providence which had delivered me from so many unseen dangers, and had kept me
from those mischiefs which I could have no way been the agent in delivering myself
from, because I had not the least notion of any such thing depending, or the least sup-
position of its being possible.

This renewed a contemplation which often had come into my thoughts in former
times, when first I began to see the merciful dispositions of Heaven, in the dangers we
run through in this life; how wonderfully we are delivered when we know nothing of
it; how, when we are in a quandary (as we call it), a doubt or hesitation whether to go
this way or that way, a secret hint shall direct this way, when we intended to go that
way: nay, when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps business, has called us to go
the other way, yet a strange impression upon the mind, from we know not what springs,
and by we know not what power, shall overrule us to go this way; and it shall after-
wards appear that had we gone that way which we should have gone, and even to our
imagination ought to have gone, we should have been ruined and lost. Upon these and
many like reflections, I afterwards made it a certain rule with me, that whenever I found
those secret hints or pressings of mind, to doing or not doing anything that presented,
or going this way or that way, I never failed to obey the secret dictate; though I knew
no other reason for it than that such a pressure, or such a hint, hung upon my mind.
I could give many examples of the success of this conduct in the course of my life, but
more especially in the latter part of my inhabiting this unhappy island; besides many
occasions which it is very likely I might have taken notice of, if I had seen with the same
eyes then that I see with now. But it is never too late to be wise; and I cannot but
advise all considering men, whose lives are attended with such extraordinary incidents
as mine, or even though not so extraordinary, not to slight such secret intimations of
Providence, let them come from what invisible intelligence they will. That I shall not
discuss, and perhaps cannot account for; but certainly they are a proof of the converse
of spirits, and a secret communication between those embodied and those unembodied,
and such a proofas can never be withstood; of which I shall have occasion to give some
very remarkable instances in the remainder of my solitary residence in this dismal
place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I confess that these anxieties,
these constant dangers I lived in, and the concern that was now upon me, put an end to all
invention, and to all the contrivances that I had laid for my future accommodations and
conveniences. I had the care of my safety more now upon my hands than that of my
food. I cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for fear the noise I should
make should be heard; much less would I fire a gun for the same reason: and, above
all, I was intolerable uneasy at making any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a
great distance in the day, should betray me. For this reason, I removed that part of my
MY ADVENTURE IN THE CAVE. III

business which required fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, &c., into my new apart-
ment in the woods; where, after I had been somie time, I found to my unspeakable
consolation, a mere natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and where, I
dare say, no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so hardy as to venture
in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but one who, like me, wanted nothing so much
as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock, where, by mere acci-
dent (I would say, if I did not see abundant reason to ascribe all such things now to
Providence), I was cutting down some thick branches of trees to make charcoal; and
before I go on I must observe the reason for my making this charcoal, which was thus :—
I was afraid of making a smoke about my habitation, as I said before, and yet I could
not live there without baking my bread, cooking my meat, &c.; so I contrived to burn
some wood here, as I had seen done in England, under turf, until it became chark or dry
coal; and then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry home, and perform the
other services for which fire was wanting, without danger of smoke. But this is by-the-
bye. While I was cutting down some wood here, I perceived that, behind a very thick
branch of low brushwood or underwood, there was a kind of hollow place: I was curious
to lookin it; and getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large,
that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright in, and perhaps another with me; but I
must confess to you that I made more haste out than I did in, when, looking farther into
the place, and which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad shining eyes of some creature—
whether devil or man I knew not—which twinkled like two stars; the dim light from the
cave’s mouth shining directly in;and making the reflection. However, after some pause,
I recovered myself, and began to call myself a thousand fools, and to think that he that
was afraid to see the devil was not fit to live twenty years in an island all alone; and that
I might well think there was nothing in this cave that was more frightful than myself.
Upon this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand, and in I rushed again, with the
stick flaming in my hand. I had not gone three steps in before I was almost as much
frightened as before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in some pain, and
it was followed by a broken noise, as of words half expressed, and then a deep sigh again.
I stepped back, and was indeed struck with such a surprise that it put me into a cold
sweat, and if I had had a hat on my head, I will not answer for it that my hair might not
have lifted it off. But still plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and encouraging
myself a little with considering that the power and presence of God was everywhere, and
was able to protect me, I stepped forward again, and by the light of the firebrand, holding
it up a little over my head, I saw lying on the ground a monstrous, frightful old he-goat,
just making his will,as we say,and gasping for life, and dying, indeed, of mere old age.
I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, and he essayed to get up, but was not
able to raise himself; and I thought with myself he might even lie there: for if he had
frightened me, so he would certainly fright any of the savages, if any one of them should
be so hardy as to come in there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look round me, when I found
the cave was but very small, that is to say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in no
manner of shape, neither round nor square, no hands having ever been employed in
making it but those of mere nature. I observed also that there was a place at the farther
side of it that went in farther, but was so low that it required me to creep upon my hands
and knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not; so, having no candle, I gave it
over for that time, but resolved to come again the next day provided with candles and
a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of one of the muskets, with some wildfire in
; the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large candles of my own making
112 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

(for I made very good candles now of goat’s tallow, but was hard set for candle-wick,
using sometimes rags or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of a weed like nettles) ;
and going into this low place I was obliged to creep upon all-fours,as I have said, almost
ten yards—which, by the way, I thought was adventure bold enough, considering that I
knew not how far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I got through the strait,
I found the roof rose higher up—I believe near twenty feet; but never was such a
glorious sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it was to look round the sides and roof
of this vault or cave ; the wall reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from my two
candles. What it was in the rock—whether diamonds, or any other precious stones, or
gold—which I rather supposed it to be—I knew not. The place I was in was a most
delightful cavity, or grotto, though perfectly dark: the floor was dry and level, and had
a sort of a small loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nauseous or venomous creature
to be seen, neither was there any damp or wet on the sides or roof: the only difficulty in
it was the entrance—which, however, as it was a place of security, and such a retreat as I
wanted, I thought was a convenience—so that I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and
resolved, without any delay, to bring some of those things which I was most anxious
about to this place; particularly, I resolved to bring hither my magazine of powder, and
all my spare arms—viz.,two fowling-pieces, for I had three in all; and three muskets, for
of them I had eight in all; so I kept in my castle only five, which stood ready mounted
like pieces of cannon on my outmost defence, and were ready also to take out upon any
expedition. Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition, I happened to open the
barrel of powder which I took up out of the sea, and which had been wet, and I found
that the water had penetrated about three or four inches into the powder on every side,
which, caking and growing hard, had preserved the inside like a kernel in a shell, so that
I had near sixty pounds of very good powder in the centre of the cask ; and this was a
very agreeable discovery to me at that time; so I carried all away thither, never keeping
above two or three pounds of powder with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any
kind. I also carried thither all the lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who were said to live in caves
and holes in the rocks, where none could come at them; for I persuaded myself, while I
was here, that if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could never find me out—or
if they did, they would not venture to attack me here. The old goat whom I found ex-
piring died in the mouth of the cave the next day after I made this discovery; and I
found it much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in and cover him with
earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him there, to prevent offence to my nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of residence in this island, and was so naturalised
to the place and the manner of living that, could I but have enjoyed the certainty that no
savages would come to the place to disturb me, I could have been content to have capitu-
lated for spending the rest of my time there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me
down and died, like the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived to some little diversions
and amusements, which made the time pass more pleasantly with me a great deal than it
did before: first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak; and he did it so
familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain, that it was very pleasant to me, and he
lived with me no less than six-and-twenty years. How long he might have lived after-
wards I know not, though I know they have a notion in the Brazils that they live a hun-
dred years. Perhaps some of my Polls may be alive there still, calling after poor Robinson
Crusoe to this day: I wish no Englishman the ill-luck to come there and hear them; but
if he did he would certainly believe it was the devil. My dog was a pleasant and loving
companion to me for no less than sixteen years of my time, and then died of mere old '
age. As for my cats, they multiplied, as I observed, to that degree, that I was obliged to
shoot several of them at first, to keep them from devouring me and all I had; but, at,
MY DOMESTIC COMPANIONS. 113

“AT THE SAME MOMENT i
I FIRED ALSO” (4. 143).



length, when the old ones I brought with me were gone, and after some time continually
driving them from me, and letting them have no provision with me, they all ran wild into
the woods, except two or three favorites, which I kept tame, and whose young, when they
had any, I always drowned; and these were part of my family. Besides these I always
kept two or three household kids about me, whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and
I had two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all call “ Robin Crusoe,” but
none like my first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any of them that I had done with
him. I had also several tame sea-fowls, whose name I knew not, that I caught upon the
shore and cut their wings; and the little stakes which I had planted before my castle-
wall being now grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived among these low
trees, and bred there, which was very agreeable to me; so that, as I said above, I began
to be very well contented with the life I led, if I could have been secured from the dread
of the savages. But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss for all people who
shall meet with my story to make this just observation from it: viz., how frequently, in the
course of our lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which, when we are
fallen into, is the most dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means or door of our deliv-
erance, by which alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen into. I
could give many examples of this in the course of my unaccountable life, but in nothing
was it more particularly remarkable than in the circumstances of my last years of solitary
residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my twenty-third year; and
this, being the southern solstice (for winter I cannot call it), was the particular time of my
harvest, and required me to be pretty much abroad in the fields, when, going out pretty
early in the morning, even before it was thorough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a
light of some fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of about two miles towards the
114 ROBINSON CRUSOE. °

end of the island where I had observed some savages had been, as before, and not on the
other side, but, to my great affliction, it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short within my grove, not
daring to go out, lest I might be surprised; and yet I had no more peace within, from the
apprehensions I had that if these savages, in rambling over the island, should find my
corn standing or cut, or any of my works and improvements, they would immediately
conclude that there were people in the place, and would then never rest till they had
found me out. In this extremity I went back directly to my castle, and pulled up the
ladder after me, having made all things without look as wild and natural as I could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of defence; I loaded all
my cannon, as I called them—that is to say, my muskets, which were mounted upon my
new fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the last gasp—not
forgetting seriously to commend myself to the Divine protection, and earnestly to pray
to God to deliver me out of the hands of the barbarians. And in this posture I continued
about two hours, and began to be impatient for intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to
send out. After sitting a while longer, and musing what I should do in this case, I was
not able to bear sitting in ignorance any longer; so setting up my ladder to the side of the
hill, where there was a flat place, as I observed before, and then pulling the ladder
after me, I set it up again, and mounted to the top of the hill, and pulling out my per-
spective-glass, which I had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the
ground, and began to look for the place. I presently found there were no less than nine
naked savages sitting round a small fire they had made, not to warm them, for they had
no need of that, the whether being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to dress some of
their barbarous diet of human flesh which they had brought with them, whether alive or
dead I could not know.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up on the shore; and as it
was then ebb of tide, they seemed to me to wait the return of the flood to go away again.
It is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me into, especially seeing them
come on my side of the island, and so near me, too; but when I considered their coming
must be always with the current of the ebb, I began afterwards to be more sedate in
my mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad with safety all the time of the flood of
tide, if they were not on shore before; and having made this observation, I went abroad
about my harvest work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for, as soon as the tide made to the westward, I saw
them all take boat and row (or paddle, as we call it) away. I should have observed, that
for an hour or more before they went off they were dancing and I could easily discern
their postures and gestures by my glass. I could not perceive, by my nicest observation,
but that they were stark naked, and had not the least covering upon them; but whether
they were men or women, I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns upon my shoulders, and
two pistols in my girdle, and my great sword by my side, without a scabbard, and with
all the speed I was able to make went away to the hill where I had discovered the first
fappearance of all; and as soon as I got thither, which was not in less than two hours (for I
could not go apace, being so loaded with arms as I was), I perceived there had been three
canoes more of savages at that place; and, looking out farther, I saw they were all at
sea together, making over for the main. This was a dreadful sight to me, especially when,
going down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror which the dismal work they
had been about had left behind it, viz., the blood, the bones, and part of the flesh of human
bodies eaten and devoured by those wretches with merriment and sport. I was so filled
with indignation at the sight, that I now began to premeditate the destruction of the next
that I saw there, let them be whom or how many soever. It seemed evident to me that
SIGNALS FROM A SHIP IN DISTRESS. II5

the visits which they made thus to this island were not very frequent, for it was a bovefif-
teen months before any more of them came on shore there again—that is to say, I neither
‘saw them nor any footsteps or signals of them in all that time; for as to the rainy seasons,
then they are sure not to come abroad, at least not so far: yet all this while I lived
uncomfortably, by reason of the constant apprehensions of their coming upon me by sur-
prise—from whence I observed that the expectation of evil is more bitter than the suffer-
ing, especially if there is no room to shake off that expectation or those apprehensions.

During all this time I was in the. murdering humor, and spent most of my hours,
which should have been better employed, in contriving how to circumvent,and fall upon
them the very next time I should see them—especially if they should be divided, as they
were the last time, into two parties; nor did I consider at all that if I killed one party—
suppose ten or a dozen—I was still the next day, or week, or month, to kill another,
and so another, even ad znfinitum, till I should be, at length, no less a murderer than
they were in being man-eaters—and perhaps much more so. _ I spent my days now in
great perplexity and anxiety of mind, expecting that I should one day or other fall
into the hands of these merciless creatures; and if I did at any time venture abroad,
it was not without looking around me with the greatest care and caution imaginable.
And now I found, to my great comfort, how happy it was that I had provided a tame
flock or herd of goats; for I durst not upon any account fire my gun, especially near
that side of the.island where they usually came, lest I should alarm the savages;
and if they had fled from me now, I was sure to have them come again with perhaps
two or three hundred canoes with them in a few days, and then I knew what to expect.
However, I wore out a year and three months more before I saw any more of these sav-
ages, and then I found them again, as I shall soon observe. It is true they might have
been there once or twice, but either they made no stay, or at least I did not hear them;
but in the month of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year,
I had a very strange encounter with them; of which in its place.

The perturbation of my mind during this fifteen or sixteen months’ interval was very
great; I slept unquietly, dreamed always frightful dreams, and often started out of my
sleep in the night. In the day, great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in the night,
I dreamed often of killing the savages, and of the reasons why I might justify the doing
of it. But to waive all this for a while. It was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth
day, I think, as well as my poor wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked all upon
the post still—I say, it was on the sixteenth of May that it blew a very great storm of wind
all day, with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it was after it.
I knew not what was the particular occasion of it; but as I was reading in the Bible, and
taken up with very serious thoughts about my present condition, I was surprised with
the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea. This was, to be sure, a surprise of a quite
different nature from any I had met with before; for the notions this put into my thoughts
were quite of another kind. I started up in the greatest haste imaginable; and, in a trice,
clapped my ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled it after me; and, mounting
it the second time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that a flash of fire bade
me listen for a second gun, which, accordingly, in about half a minute, I heard; and by
the sound, knew that it was from that part of the sea where I was driven out with the
current in my boat. I immediately considered that this must be some ship in distress,
and that they had some comrade, or some other ship in company, and fired these for sig-
nals of distress, and to obtain help. I had the presence of mind, at that minute, to think
that though I could not help them, it might be they might help me; so I brought
together all the dry wood I could get at hand, and, making a good handsome pile, I set
it on fire upon the hill. The wood was dry, and blazed freely; and though the wind blew
very hard, yet it burned fairly out, so that I was certain, if there was any such
116 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

thing‘’as a ship, they must needs see it, and no doubt they did; for as soon as ever
my fire blazed up, I heard another gun, and after that several others, all from the
same quarter. I plied my fire all night long, till daybreak; and when it was broad day.
and the air cleared up, I saw something at a great distance at sea, full east of the island,
whether a sail or a hull I could not distinguish—no, not with my glass; the distance was
so great, and the weather still something hazy also—at least, it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that it did not move; so I
presently concluded that it was a ship at anchor; and being eager, you may be sure, to
be satisfied, I took my gun in my hand, and ran towards the south side of the island, to
the rocks where I had formerly been carried away with the current; and getting up there,
the weather by this time being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the
wreck of a ship, cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks which I found when
I was out in my boat; and which rocks, as they checked the violence of the stream, and
made a kind of counter-stream, or eddy, were the occasion of my recovering from the
most desperate, hopeless condition that ever I had been in, in all my life. Thus, what is
one man’s safety is another man’s destruction; for it seems these men, whoever they were,
being out of their knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water, had been driven
upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at E. and E.N.E. Had they seen
the island, as I must necessarily suppose they did not, they must, as I thought, have
endeavored to have saved themselves on shore by the help of their boat; but their
firing off their guns for help, especially when they saw, as I imagined, my fire, filled
me with many thoughts. First, I imagined that upon seeing my light they might have
put themselves into their boat, and endeavored to make the shore; but that the sea run-
ning very high, they might have been cast away. Other times, I] imagined that: they
might have lost their boat before, as might be the case many ways; as particularly by
the breaking of the sea upon their ship, which many times obliged men to stave, or take
in pieces, their boat, and sometimes to throw it overboard with their own hands. Other
times, I imagined they had some other ship or ships in company, who, upon the signals
of distress they made, had taken them up, and carried them off. Other times, I fancied
they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and being hurried away by the current that I
had been formerly in, were carried out into the great ocean, where there was nothing but
misery and perishing ; and that, perhaps, they might by this time think of starving, and
of being in a condition to eat one another.

_ As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition I was in, I could dono
more than look on, upon the misery of the poor men, and pity them; which had still
this good effect upon my side, that it gave me more and more cause to give thanks to
God, who had so happily and comfortably provided for me in my desolate condition; and
that of two ships’ companies who were now cast away upon this part of the world, not
one life should be spared but mine. I learned here again to observe that it is very rare
that the providence of God casts us into any condition of life so low, or any misery so
great, but we may see something or other to be thankful for, and may see others in worse
circumstances than our own. Such certainly was the case of these men, of whom I could
not so much as see room to suppose any of them were saved; nothing could make it
rational so much as to wish or expect that they did not all perish there, except the possibility
only of their being taken up by another ship in company; and this was mere possibility
indeed, for I saw not the least signal, or appearance of any such thing. I cannot explain,
by any possible energy of words, what a strange longing I felt in my soul upon this sight,
breaking out sometimes thus :—‘ Oh, that there had been but one or two, nay, or but
one soul, saved out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that I might but have had one
companion, one fellow creature, to have spoken to me and to have conversed with!”
In all the time of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest, so strong a desire after the
society of my fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret at the want of it.
MY GRIEF AT THE LOSS OF THE CREW. 117

There are some secret moving springs in the affections, which, when they are set
a-going by some object in view, or, though not in view, yet rendered present to the
mind by the power of imagination, that motion carries out the soul, by its impetuosity,
to such violent, eager embracings of the object, that the absence of it is insupportable.
Such were these earnest wishings that but one man had been saved. I believe I repeated
the words, “ Oh, that it had been but one!” a thousand times; and my desires were so
moved by it, that when I spoke the words my hands would clench together, and my
fingers would press the palms of my hands, so that if I had had any soft thing in my
hand, I would have crushed it involuntarily; and my teeth in my head would strike
together, and set against
one another so strong,
that for some time I
could not part them
again. Let the natural-
ist explain these things
and the reason and man-
ner of them. All I can
say of them is, to de-
scribe the fact, which was
even surprising to me,
when I found it, though
I knew not from what it
should proceed; it was,
doubtless, the effect of
ardent wishes, and of
strong ideas formed in
my mind, realising the
comfort which the con-
versation of one of my
fellow-Christians wouid
have been to me. But it
was not to be; either
their fate, or mine, or
both, forbade it, for till
the last year of my being
on this island, I never
knew whether any were
saved out of that ship
or no; and had only
the affliction, some days = « ;o0s1NcG HIS
after, to see the corpse HANDS AND FEET,
of a drowned boy come I LIFTED HIM UP” (4. 144).
on shore at the end of
the island which was next the shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a seaman’s
waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt; but nothing to
direct me so much as to guess what nation he was of. He had nothing in his pockets
but two pieces of eight and a tobacco pipe—the last was to me of ten times more value
than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my boat to this wreck,
not doubting but I might find something on board that might be useful to me. But that
did not altogether press me so much as the possibility that there might be yet some




118 ROBINSON CRUSOEL.

living creature on board, whose life I might not only save, but might, by saving that life,
comfort my own to the last degree; and this thought clung so to my heart that I could
not be quiet night or day, but I must venture out in my boat on board this wreck; and
committing the rest to God’s providence, I thought the impression was so strong upon
my mind that it could not be resisted, that it must come from some invisible direction,
and that I should be wanting to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle, prepared every-
thing for my voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great pot for fresh water, a compass to
‘steer by, a bottle of rum (for I had still a great deal of that left), and a basket of raisins;
and thus loading myself with everything necessary, I went down to my boat, got the
water out of her, got her afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home again
for more. My second cargo was a great bag full of rice, the umbrella to set over my
head for a shade, another large pot full of fresh water, and about two dozen of small
loaves or barley cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat’s-milk, and a cheese: all
which with great labour and sweat I brought to my boat; and praying God to direct my
voyage, I put out, and rowing or paddling the canoe along the shore, came at last to the
utmost point of the island on the north-east side. And now I was to launch out into the
ocean, and either to venture or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents which
ran constantly on both sides of the island at a distance,and which were very terrible to
me, from the remembrance of the hazard I had been in before, and my heart began
to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those currents, I should be
carried a great way out to sea, and perhaps. out of my reach or sight of the island again;
and that then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale of wind should rise, I should
be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind that I began to give over my enterprise; and
having hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore, I stepped out, and sat down upon
a rising bit of ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear and desire, about my voy-
age; when, as I was musing, I could perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood
came on; upon which, my going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon this, pre-
sently, it occurred to me that I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could find,
and observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide or currents lay, when the flood came in,
that I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out, I might not expect to be driven
another way home, with the same rapidity of the currents. This thought was no sooner
in my head than I cast my eye upon a little hill, which sufficiently overlooked the sea
both ways, and from whence I had a clear view of the currents, or sets of the tide, and
which way I was to guide myself in my return. Here I found that as the current of ebb
set out close by the south point of the island, so the current of the flood set in close by
the shore of the north side; and that I had nothing to do but to keep to.the north of
the island in my return, and I should do well enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next morning, to set out with the
first of the tide; and reposing myself for the night in my canoe, under the great watch-
coat I mentioned, I launched out. I first made a little out to sea, full north, till I began
to feel the benefit of the current, which set eastward, and which carried me at a great
rate, and yet did not so hurry me as the current on the south side had done before, so as
to take from me all government of the boat; but having a strong steerage with my pad-
dle, I went, at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less than two hours I came up
to it. It was a dismal sight to look at: the ship, which by its building was Spanish,
stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks ; all the stern and quarter of her were beaten to
pieces by the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck in the rocks, had run on with great
violence, her mainmast and foremast were brought by the board, that is to say, broken
short off; but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared firm. When I
A VISIT TO THE SPANISH WRECK. 11g

came close to her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried;
and, as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea to come to me: I took him into the
boat, but found him almost dead with hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake of my
bread, and he devoured it like a ravenous wolf that had been starving a fortnight in the
snow; I then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I would have let
him, he would have burst himself. After this I went on board; but the first sight I met
with was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle of the ship, with their arms
fast about one another. I concluded, as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck,
it being in a storm, the sea broke so high, and so continually over her, that the men
were not able to bear it, and were strangled with the constant rushing in of the water, as
much as if they had been under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left in the
ship that had life; nor any goods, that I could see, but what were spoiled by the water.
There were some casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy I knew not, which lay lower
in the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I could see; but they were too big
to meddle with. I saw several chests, which I believe belonged to some of the seamen ;
and I got two of them into the boat, without examining what was inthem. Had the
stern of the ship been fixed, and the fore-part broken off, 1am persuaded I might have
made a good voyage; for, by what I found in these two chests, I had room to suppose
the ship had a great deal of wealth on board; and, if I may guess from the course she
steered, she must have been bound from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the
south part of America, beyond the Brazils, to the Havannah, in the Gulf of Mexico, and
so perhaps to Spain. She had, no doubt, a great treasure in her, but of no use, at that
time, to anybody ; but what became of the crew I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of about twenty gallons,
which I got into my boat with much difficulty. There were several muskets in the cabin,
and a great powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in it. As for the muskets, I
had no occasion for them, so I left them, but took the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel
and tongs, which I wanted extremely, as also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make
chocolate, and a gridiron; and with this cargo, and the dog, I came away, the tide be-
ginning to make home again; and the same evening, about an hour within night, I
reached the island again, weary and fatigued to the last degree. I reposed that night in
the boat ; and in the morning I resolved to harbour what I had got in my new cave, and
not carry it home tomy castle. After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo on shore, and
began to examine the particulars. The cask of liquor I found to be a kind of rum, but
not such as we had at the Brazils; and, in a word, not at all good; but when I came to
open the chests, I found several things of great use to me: for example, I found in one a
fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and filled with cordial waters, fine and very
good. The bottles held about three pints each, and were tipped with silver. I found two
pots of very good succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the top that the salt water
had not hurt them; and two more of the same, which the water had spoiled. I found
some very good shirts, which were very welcome to me; and about a dozen and a half
of white linen handkerchiefs and coloured neckcloths; the former were also very wel-
come, being exceedingly refreshing to wipe my face ina hot day. Besides this, when I
came to the till in the chest, I found there three great bags of pieces of eight, which held
about eleven hundred pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six
doubloons of gold, and some small bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they might all
weigh near a pound. In the other chest were some clothes, but of little value; but, by
the circumstances, it must have belonged to the gunner’s mate; though there was no
powder in it, except two pounds of fine glazed powder, in three small flasks, kept, I sup-
pose, for charging their fowling-pieces on occasion. Upon the whole, I got very little by
this voyage that was of any use to me; for asto the money, I had no manner of occasion
120 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

for it; it was to me as the dirt under my feet, and I would have given it all for three or
four pair of English shoes, and stockings, which were things I greatly wanted, but had
none on my feet for many years. I had, indeed, gottwo pair of shoes now, which I took
off the feet of the two drowned men whom I saw in the wreck, and I found two pair
more in one of the chests, which were very welcome to me; but they were not like our
English shoes, either for ease or service, being rather what we call pumps than shoes. I
found in this seaman’s chest about fifty pieces of eight, in rials, but no gold: I suppose
this belonged to a poorer man than the other, which seemed to belong to some officer.
Well, however, I lugged this money home to my cave, and laid it up, as I had done that
before which I had brought from our own ship; but it was a great pity, as I said, that
the other part of this ship had not come to my share; for I am satisfied I might have
loaded my canoe several times over with money; which, if I had ever escaped to Eng-
land, would have lain here safe enough till I might have come again and fetched it.
Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured them, I went back to my
boat, and rowed or paddled her along the shore to her old harbour, where I laid her up,
and made the best of my way to my old habitation, where I found everything safe and
quiet. I began now to repose myself, live after my old fashion, and take care of my
family affairs; and for a while I lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant than I
used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if, at any time, I did
stir with any freedom, it was always to the east part of the island, where I was pretty well
satisfied the savages never came, and where I could go without so many precautions, and
such a load of arms and ammunition as I always carried with me if I went the other way.
I lived in this condition near two years more; but my unlucky head, that was always to
let me know it was born to make my body miserable, was all these two years filled with
projects and designs, how, if it were possible, I might get away from this island: for
sometimes I was for making another voyage to the wreck, though my reason told me that
there was nothing left there worth the hazard of my voyage; sometimes for a ramble one
way, sometimes another ; and I believe verily, if I had had the boat that I went from Sallee
in, I should have ventured to sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither. I have been, in
all my circumstances, a memento to those who are touched with the general plague of
mankind, whence, for aught I know, one-half of their miseries flow; I mean that of not
being satisfied with the station wherein God and Nature hath placed them: for, not to
look back upon my primitive condition, and the excellent advice of my father, the oppo-
sition to which was,as I may call it, my original sin, my subsequent mistakes of the same
kind had been the means of my coming into this miserable condition; for had that Provi-
dence, which so happily seated me at the Brazils as a planter, blessed me with confined
desires, and I could have been contented to have gone on gradually, I might have been
by this time, I mean in the time of my being in this island, one of the most considerable
planters in the Brazils: nay, Iam persuaded that by the improvements I had made in
that little time I lived there, and the increase I should probably have made if I had re-
mained, I might have been worth a hundred thousand moidores: and what business had
I to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation, improving and increasing, to turn
supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when patience and time would have so increased
our stock at home, that we could have bought them at our own door from those whose
business it was to fetch them? and though it had cost us something more, yet the differ-
ence of that price was by no means worth saving at so great a hazard. But as this is
ordinarily the fate of young heads, so reflection upon the folly of it is as commonly the
exercise of more years, or of the dear-bought experience of time: so it was with me
now; and yet so deep had the mistake taken root in my temper, that I could not satisfy
myself in my station, but was continually poring upon the means and possibility of my
escape from this place: and that I may, with the greater pleasure to the reader, bring on













FURTHER REFLECTIONS ON MY CONDITION. 121

the remaining part of my story, it may not be improper to give some account of my first
conceptions on the subject of this foolish scheme for my escape, and how, and upon what
foundation, I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle, after my late voyage to the wreck, my
frigate laid up and secured under water, as usual, and my condition restored to what it was
before: I had more wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was not at all the richer; for I
had no more use for it than the Indians of Peru had before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four-and-twentieth year
of my first setting foot in this island of solitude. I was lying in my bed or hammock,
awake, very well in health, had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of body, nor any
uneasiness of mind more than ordinary, but could by no means close my eyes, that is, so
as to sleep; no, not a wink all night long, otherwise than as follows :—It is impossible
and needless to set down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled through that
great thoroughfare of the brain—the memory—in this night’s time: I ran over the whole
history of my life in miniature, or by abridgement, as I may call it to my coming to this
island, and also of that part of my life since Icame to this island. In my reflections upon
the state of my case since I came on shore on this island, I was comparing the happy
posture of my affairs in the first years of my habitation here, with the life of anxiety,
fear, and care, which I had lived in ever since I had seen the print of a foot in the sand ;
not that I did not believe the savages had frequented the island even all the while, and
might have been several hundreds of them at times on shore there; but I had never
known it, and was incapable of any apprehensions about it; my satisfaction was perfect,
though my danger was the same, and I was as happy in not knowing my danger as if I
had never really been exposed to it. This furnished my thoughts with many very profit-
able reflections, and particularly this one: How infinitely good that Providence is, which
has provided, in its government of mankind,such narrow bounds to his sight and knowl-
edge of things; and though he walks in the midst of so many thousand dangers, the
sight of which, if discovered to him, would distract his mind and sink his spirits, he is
kept serene and calm, by having the events of things hid from his eyes, and knowing
nothing of the dangers which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I came to reflect seriously
upon the real danger I had been in for so many years in this very island, and how I had
walked about in the greatest security, and with all possible tranquillity, even when per-
haps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great tree, or the casual approach of night, had
been between me and the worst kind of destruction, viz., that of falling into the
hands of cannibals and savages, who would have seized on me with the same view as I
would on a goat or a turtle; and have thought it no more crime to kill and devour me
than I did of a pigeon or acurlew. I would unjustly slander myself, if I should say I
was not sincerely thankful to my great Preserver, to whose singular protection I acknowl-
edged, with great humility, all these unknown deliverances were due, and without which
I must inevitably have fallen into their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time taken up in considering
the nature of these wretched creatures, I mean the savages, and how it came to pass in
the world that the wise Governor of all things should give up any of His creatures to
such inhumanity, nay, to something so much below even brutality itself, as to devour its
own kind: but as this ended in some (at that time) fruitless speculations, it occurred to
me to inquire what part of the world these wretches lived in ? how far off the coast was
from whence they came? what they ventured over so far from home for? what kind of
boats they had? and why I might not order myself and my business so that I might be
as able to go over thither as they were to come tome?

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should do with myself when
122 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I went thither ; what would become of me if I fell into the hands of these savages; or
how I should escape them if they attacked me; no, nor so much as how it was possible
for me to reach the coast, and not be attacked by some or other of them, without any
possibility of delivering myself: and if I should not fall into their hands, what I should
do for provision, or whither I should bend my course: none of these thoughts, I say, so
much as came in my way; but my mind was wholly bent upon the notion of my passing
over in my boat to the main-land. I looked upon my present condition as the most mis-
erable that could possibly be; that I was not able to throw myself into anything, but
death, that could be called worse; and if I reached the shore of the main, I might per-
haps meet with relief; or I might coast along, as I did on the African shore, till I came to
some inhabited country, and where I might find some relief; and, after all, perhaps I
might fall in with some Christian ship that might take me in; and if the worst came to
the worst, I could but die, which would put an end to all these miseries at once. Pray
note, all this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impatient temper, made, as it were,
desperate by the long continuance of my troubles, and the disappointments I had met
with in the wreck I had been on board of, and where I had been so near the obtaining
what I so earnestly longed for, namely, somebody to speak to, and to learn some knowl-
edge of the place where I was, and the probable means of my deliverance. I say I was
agitated wholly by these thoughts ; all my calm of mind, in my resignation to Providence,
and waiting the issue of the dispositions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended; and I had,
as it were, no power to turn my thoughts to anything but the project of a voyage to the
main, which came upon me with such force, and such an impetuosity of desire, that it was
not to be resisted. eo)

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with such violence
that it set my very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as if I had been in a fever,

_merely with the extraordinary fervour of my mind about it, Nature, as if I had been
fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts of it, threw me into a sound sleep. One
would have thought I should have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating
to it: but I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning as usual, from my castle, I
saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages, coming to land, and that they brought
with them another savage, whom they were going to kill, in order to eat him; when, on
a sudden, the savage that they were going to kill jumped away, and ran for his life ;
then I thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my little thick grove before my
fortification, to hide himself; and that I, seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the
others sought him that way, showed myself to him, and smiling upon him, encouraged
him: that he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray me to assist him; upon which I
showed him my ladder, made him go up it, and carried him into my cave, and he be-
came my servant; and that as soon as I had got this man, I said to myself, “ Now I may
certainly venture to the main-land, for this fellow will serve me as a pilot, and will tell
me what to do, and whither to go for provisions, and whither not to go for fear of being
devoured; what places to venture into, and what to escape.” I waked with this thought;
and was under such inexpressible impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my
dreams, that the disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself, and finding that it
was no more than a dream, were equally extravagant the other way, and threw me into
a good dejection of spirits.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion: that my only way to go about an at-
tempt for an escape was, if possible, to get a savage into my possession ; and, if possible,
it should be one of their prisoners, whom they had condemned to be eaten, and should
bring hither to kill. But these thoughts still were attended with this difficulty, that it
was impossible to effect this without attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing them
all; and this was not only a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry, but, on the
A VISIT FROM THE CANNIBALS. 123

other hand, I had greatly scrupled the lawfulness of it to me; and my heart trembled
at the thoughts of shedding so much blood, though it was for my deliverance. I need
not repeat the arguments which occurred to me against this, they being the same men-
tioned before; but though I had other reasons to offer now—viz., that those men were
enemies to my life, and would devour me if they could; that it was self-preservation, in
the highest degree, to deliver myself from this death of a life, and was acting in my own
defence as much as if they were actually assaulting me, and the like; I say, though these
things argued for it, yet the thoughts of shedding human blood for my deliverance
were very terrible to me, and such as I could by no means reconcile myself
to for a great while. However, at last, after many secret disputes with myself, and after
great perplexities about it (for all these arguments, one way and another, struggled in my
head a long time), the eager prevailing desire of deliverance at length mastered all the
rest: and I resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages into my hands, cost what it
would. My next thing was to contrive how to do it, and this indeed was very difficult
to resolve on; but as I could pitch upon no probable means for it,so I resolved to put
myself upon the watch, to see them when they came on shore, and leave the rest to the
event; taking such measures as the opportunity should present, let be what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the scout as often as pos-
sible, and indeed so often that I was heartily tired of it; for it was above a year and a
half that I waited ; and for great part of that time went out to the west end and to the
south-west corner of the island almost every day, to look for canoes, but none appeared.
This was very discouraging, and began to trouble me much, though I cannot say that it
did in this case (as it had done some time before) wear off the edge of my desire to the
thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was for it: in a word I
was not at first so careful to shun the sight of these savages, and avoid being seen by
them, as I was now eager to be upon them. Besides, I fancied myself able to manage
one, nay, two or three savages, if I had them, so as to make them entirely slaves to me,
to do whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their being able at any time to do me
any hurt. It was a great while that I pleased myself with this affair; but nothing still
presented ; all my fancies and schemes came to nothing, for no savages came near me for
a great while.

About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and by long musing had,
as it were, resolved them all into nothing, for want of an occasion to put them in execu-
tion), I was surprised one morning early by seeing no less than five canoes all on shore
together on my side the island, and the people who belonged to them all landed and out
of my sight. The number of them broke all my measures; for seeing so many and
knowing that they always came four or six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could not
tell what to think of it, or how to take my measures, to attack twenty or thirty men
single-handed; so lay still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted. _ However, I put
myself into all the same postures for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was
just ready for action, if anything had presented. Having waited a good while, listening
to hear if they made any noise, at length, being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot
of my ladder, and clamored up to the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual; stand-
ing so, however, that my head did not appear above the hill, so that they could not per-
ceive me by any means. Here I observed by the help of my perspective-glass, that they
were no less than thirty in number; that they had a fire kindled, and that they had meat
dressed. How they had cooked it, I knew not, or what it was; but they were all danc-
ing, in I know not how many barbarous gestures and figures, their own way, round the
fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my perspective, two miserable
wretches dragged from the boats, where, it seems, they were laid by, and were now
124 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

brought out for the slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fall; being knocked
down, I suppose, with a club, or wooden sword, for that was their way ; and two or three
others were at work immediately, cutting him open for their cookery, while the other
victim was left standing by himself, till they should be ready for him. In that very
moment, this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at liberty, and unbound, Nature in-
spired him with hopes of life, and he started away from them, and ran with incredible
swiftness along the sands, directly towards me; I mean, towards that part of the coast
where my habitation was. I was dreadfully frightened, that I must acknowledge, when
I perceived him run my way; and especially when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by
the whole body; and now I expected that part of my dream was coming to pass, and that
he would certainly take shelter in my grove: but I could not depend, by any means, upon
my dream, that the other savages would not pursue him thither, and find him there.
However, I kept my station, and my spirits began to recover when I found that there was
not above three men that followed him; and still more was I encouraged when I found
that he outstripped them exceedingly in running, and gained ground on them; so that,
if he could but hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he would fairly get away from
them all.

There was between them and my castle, the creek, which I mentioned often in the
first part of my story, where I landed my cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw plainly
he must necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken there; but when the
savage escaping came thither, he made nothing of it, though the tide was then up; but ©
plunging in, swam through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran with
exceeding strength and swiftness. When the three persons came to the creek, I found
that two of them could swim, but the third could not, and that, standing on the other
side, he looked at the others, but went no farther, and soon after went softly back again ;
which, as it happened, was very well for him in the end. I observed that the two who
swam were yet more than twice as long swimming over the creek than the fellow was
that fled from them. It came very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly,
that now was the time to get me a servant, and perhaps a companion or assistant ; and
that I was plainly called by Providence to save this poor creature’s life. I immediately
ran down the ladder with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns, for they were
both at the foot of the ladder, as I observed before, and getting up again with the same
haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards the sea; and having a very short cut, and
all down hill, clapped myself in the way between the pursuers and the pursued, hallooing
aloud to him that fled, who, looking back, was at first perhaps as much frightened at me
as at them; but I beckoned with my hand at him to come back; and, in the mean time,
I slowly advanced towards the two that followed; then rushing at once upon the fore-
most, I knocked him down with the stock of my piece. Iwas loth to fire, because I
would not have the rest hear; though, at that distance, it would not have been easily
heard, and being out of sight of the smoke, too, they would not have known what to
make of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped, as
if he had been frightened, and I advanced towards him; but as I came nearer, I per-
ceived presently he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me; so I
was then obliged to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot.
The poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his enemies fallen
and killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened with the fire and noise of my piece that
he stood stock-still, and neither came forward nor went backward, though he seemed
rather inclined still to fly than to come on. I hallooed again to him, and made signs to
come forward, which he easily understood, and came a little way ; then stopped again, and
then a little farther, and stopped again; and I could then perceive that he stood tremb-
ling, as if he had been taken prisoner, and had just been t» be killed, as his two enemies

|


“JT SAT DOWN AND ATE MY OWN DINNER ALSO WITH THEM.”
(See p. 190.)
126 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

were. I beckoned to him again to come to me, and gave him all the signs of encourage-
ment that I could think of; and he creme nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or
twelve steps, in token of acknowledgement for saving his life. I smiled at him, and
looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer; at length, he came close to
me; and then he kneeled down again, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the
ground, and, taking me by the foot, set my foot upon his head; this, it seems, was in
token of swearing to be my slave for ever. I took him up, and made much of him, and
encouraged him all I could. But there was more work to do yet; for I perceived the
savage whom I knocked down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and began to
come to himself; so I pointed to him, and showed him the savage, that he was not dead ;
upon this he spoke some words to me, and though I could not understand them, yet I
thought they were pleasant to hear; for they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I
had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five years. But there was no time for
such reflections now; the savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far as to
sit up on the ground, and I perceived my savage began to be afraid ; but when I saw that,
I presented my other piece at the man, as if I would shoot him; upon this my savage,
for so I called him now, made a motion to me to lend him my sword, which hung naked
in a belt by my side, which I did. He no sooner had it than he runs to his enemy, and
at one blow cut off his head as cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done it
sooner or better; which I thought very strange for one who, I had reason to believe,
never saw a sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords: however, it seems,
as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood
is so hard, that they will even cut off heads with them, ay, and arms, and that at one
blow too. When he had done this, he comes laughing to me in sign of triumph, and
brought me the sword again, and with abundance of gestures which I did not understand,
laid it down, with the head of the savage that he had killed, just before me. But that
which astonished him most was to know how I had killed the other Indian so far off; so
pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to him; and I bade him go, as well
as I could. When he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at him, turning
him first on one side, then on the other; looked at the wound the bullet had made, which
it seems was just in his breast, where it had made a hole, and no great quantity of blood
had followed; but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and
arrows, and came back; so I turned to goaway, and beckoned him to follow me, making
signs to him that more might come after them.

Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them with sand, that they might
not be seen by the rest, if they followed; and so I made signs to him again to do so. He
fell to work; and in an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big
enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and covered him; and did so
by the other also; I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of an hour. Then
calling him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the
farther part of the island; so I did not let my dream come to pass in that part, that he
came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat,
and a draught of water, which I found he was indeed in great distress for from his run-
ning; and having refreshed him, I made signs for him to goand lie down to sleep, show-
ing him a place where I had laid some rice-straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to
sleep upon myself sometimes; so the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight, strong limbs,
not too large, tall and well shaped; and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He
had a very good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have some-
thing very manly in his face; and yet he had all the sweetness and softness of a European
in his countenance, too, especially when he smiled. His hair was long and black, not
MY MAN FRIDAY. 127

curled like wool; his forehead very high and large; and a great vivacity and sparkling
sharpness in his eyes. The colour of his skin was not quite black, but very tawny; and
yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other
natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive-colour, that had in it some-
thing very agreeable, though not very easy to describe. His face was round and plump;
his nose small, not flat like the Negroes’; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine
teeth well set, and as white as ivory.

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half an hour, he awoke again, and
came out of the cave to me; for I had been milking my goats, which I had in the
enclosure just by: when he espied me, he came running to me, laying himself down again
upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an humble, thankful disposition, making a
great many antic gestures toshowit. At last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close
to my foot, and sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before; and after this,
made all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission imaginable, to let me
know how he would serve me so long as he lived. I understood him in many things,
and let him know I was very well pleased with him. In a little time I began to speak to
him, and teach him to speak to me; and first, I let him know his name should be Fripay,
which was the day I saved his life: I called him so for the memory of the time. I like-
wise taught him to say Master, and then let him know that was to be my name; [ like-
wise taught him to say Yes and No, and know the meaning of them. I gave him some
milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread in it;
and gave him a cake of bread to do the li: e, which he quickly complied with, and made
signs that it was very good for him. I kept there with him all that night; but, as soon as
it was day, I beckoned him to come with me, and let him know I would give him some
clothes; at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark naked. As we went by the place
where he had buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the
marks that he had made to find them again, making signs to me that we should dig them up
again and eat them. At this I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made
as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand to him to come away,
which he did immediately, with great submission. I then led him up to the top of the
hiil, to see if his enemies were gone, and, pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw plainly
the place where they had been, but no appearance of them or their canoes; so that it was
plain they were gone, and had left their two comrades behind them, without any search
after them.

But I was not content with this discovery; but having now more courage, and con-
sequently more curiosity, I took my man Friday with me, giving him the sword in his
hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I found he could use very dexterously,
making him carry one gun for me, and I two for myself; and away we marched to the
place where these creatures had been—for I had a mind now to get some fuller intelli-
gence of them. When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill in my veins, and my
heart sank within me, at the horror of the spectacle; indeed, it was a dreadful sight—at
least, it was so to me, though Friday made nothing of it. The place was covered with
human bones, the ground dyed with the blood, and great pieces of flesh left here and
there, half eaten, mangled, and scorched; and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant
feast they had been making there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw three skulls,
five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and abundance of other parts of
the bodies; and Friday, by his signs, made me understand that they brought over four
prisoners to feast upon; that three of them were eaten up, and that he, pointing to him-
self, was the fourth; that there had been a great battle between them and their next king,
of whose subjects, it seems, he had been one, and that they had taken a great number of
prisoners; all which were carried to several places by those who had taken them in the
128 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

fight, in order to feast upon them, as was done by these wretches upon those they
brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh,and whatever remained, and lay
them together on a heap, and make a great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I
found Friday had still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh, and was still a can-
nibal in his nature; but I discovered so much abhorrence at the very thoughts of it, and
at the least appearance of it, that he durst not discover it—for I had, by some means, let
him know that I would kill him if he offered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our castle, and there I fell to work for my
man Friday ; and, first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the
poor gunner’s chest I mentioned, which: I found in the wreck, and which, with a little
alteration, fitted him very well; and then I made him a jerkin of goat’s skin, as well as
my skill would allow (for I was now grown a tolerably good tailor); and I gave him a
cap which I made of hare’s skin, very convenient, and fashionable enough; and thus he
was clothed, for the present, tolerably well, and was mighty well pleased to see himself
almost as well clothed as his master. It is true, he went awkwardly in these clothes at
first; wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat
galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms—but a little easing them where he com-
plained they hurt him, and using himself to them, at length he took to them very well.

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I began to consider where
I should lodge him; and, that I might do well for him, and yet be perfectly easy myself,
I made a little tent for him in the vacant place between my two fortifications, in the inside
of the last, and in the outside of the first. As there was a door or entrance there into my
cave, I made a formal framed doorcase, and a door to it of boards, and set it up in the
passage, a little within the entrance; and, causing the door to open in the inside, I barred
it up in the night, taking in my ladders, too: so that Friday could no way come at me in
the inside of my innermost wall, without making so much noise in getting over that it
must needs awaken me; for my first wall had now a complete roof over it of long poles,
covering all my tent, and leaning up to the side of the hill; which was again laid across
with smaller sticks, instead of laths, and then thatched over a great thickness with the rice-
straw, which was strong, like reeds; and at the hole or place which was left to go in or
out by the ladder, I had placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on
the outside, would not have opened at all, but would have fallen down and made a great
noise: as to weapons, I took them all into my side every night. But I needed none of
all this precaution ; for never man had a more faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday
was to me; without passions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and engaged; his
very affections were tied to me, like those of a child to a father; and I dare say he would
have sacrificed his life for the saving mine, upon any occasion whatsoever: the many tes-
timonies he gave me of this put it out of doubt, and soon convinced me that I needed no
precautions for my safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with wonder, that however
it had pleased God in His providence, and in the government of the works of His hands,
to take from so great a part of the world of His creatures the best uses to which their
faculties and the powers of their souls are adapted, yet that he has bestowed upon them
the same powers, the same reason, the same affections; the same sentiments of kindness
and obligation; the same passions and resentments of wrongs; the same sense of grati-
tude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of doing good and receiving good, that He
has given to us; and that when he pleases to offer them occasions of exerting these, they
are as ready, nay, more ready, to apply them to the right uses for which they were be-
stowed than we are. This made me very melancholy sometimes, in reflecting, as the
several occasions presented, how mean a use we make of all these, even though we have
TRAINING MY NEW COMPANION. 129

these powers enlightened by the great, lamp of instruction, the Spirit of God, and by the
knowledge of His word added to our understandings; and why it has pleased God to
hide the like saving knowledge from so many millions of souls, who, if I might judge by
this poor savage, would make a much better use of it than we did. From hence, I some-
times was led too far, to invade the sovereignty of Providence, and, as it were, arraign
the justice of so arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that sight from some,
and reveal it to others, and yet expect a like duty from both; but I shut it up, and
checked my thoughts with this conclusion: first, That we did not know by what light
and law these should be condemned; but that as God was necessarily, and by the nature
of His being, infinitely holy and just, so it could not be but if these creatures were all
sentenced to absence from Himself, it was on account of sinning against that light which,
as the Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and by such rules as their consciences
would acknowledge to be just, though the foundation was not discovered to us; and,
secondly, That still, as we are all the clay in the hand of the Potter, no vessel could say
to Him, “ Why hast Thou formed me thus ?”’

But to return to my new companion: I was greatly delighted with him, and made it
my business to teach him everything that was proper to make him useful, handy, and
helpful; but especially to make him speak, and understand me when I spoke; and he
was the aptest scholar that ever was; and particularly was so merry, so constantly dili-
gent, and so pleased when he could but understand me, or make me understand him,
that it was very pleasant to me to talk to him. And now my life began to be so easy
that I began to say to myself, that could I but have been safe from more savages, I cared
not if I was never to remove from the place while I lived.

After I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I thought that, in order
to bring Friday off from his horrid way of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s
stomach, I ought to let him taste other flesh; so I took him out with me one morning
to the woods. I went, indeed, intending to kill a kid out of my own flock, and bring it
home and dress it; but as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and
two young kids sitting by her. I catched hold of Friday: “ Hold,” said I, “stand still” ;
and made signs to him not to stir; immediately I presented my piece, shot, and killed
one of the kids. The poor creature, who had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill the
savage, his enemy, but did not know or could imagine how it was done, was sen-
sibly surprised; trembled, and shook, and looked so amazed that I thought he would
have sunk down. He did not see the kid I shot at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped
up his waistcoat, to feel whether he was not wounded; and, as I found presently, thought
I was resolved to kill him: for he came and kneeled down to me, and embracing my
knees, said a great many things I did not understand; but I could easily see the meaning
was to pray me not to kill him. ;

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no harm; and taking him
up by the hand, laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned to
him to run and fetch it, which he did; and while he was wondering, and looking to see
how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun again. By-and-by I saw a great fowl, like
a hawk, sitting upon a tree within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little what I would
do, I called him to me again, pointed at the fowl, which was indeed a parrot, though I
thought it had been a hawk; I say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to the
ground under the parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, I made him understand that
I would shoot and kill that bird; accordingly, I fired, and bade him look, and immedi-
ately he saw the parrot fall. He stood like one frightened again, notwithstanding all I
had said to him; and I found he was the more amazed because he did not see me put
anything into the gun, but thought there must be some wonderful fund of death and
destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything near or far off; and

9
130 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the astonishment this created
in him was such as could not
wear off for a long time; and,
I believe, if I would have let
him, he would have worship-
ped me and my gun. As for
the gun itself, he would not
so much as touch it for several
days after; but he would
speak to it and talk to it, as if
it had answered him, when he
was by himself; which, as I
afterwards learned of him, was
to desire it not to kill him.
Well, after his astonishment
was a little over at this, I
pointed to him to run and
fetch the bird I had shot, which he did, but
stayed some time; for the parrot, not being
quite dead, had fluttered away a good dis-
tance from the place where she fell; however,
he found her, took her up and brought her to
me; and as I had perceived his ignorance
about the gun before, I took this advantage
to charge the gun again, and to let him see
NG me do it, that I might be ready for any other
ne mark that might present; but nothing more

offered at that time: so I brought home the

“IT APPEARED PLAINLY kid, and the same evening I took the skin off,

TO BE AN ENGLISH SHIP” (4. 150) and cut it out as well as I could; and having
a pot fit for that purpose, I boiled or stewed
some of the flesh, and made some very good broth. After I had begun to eat some,
I gave some to my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very well; but that
which was strangest to him was to see me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me that
the salt was not good to eat; and, putting a little into his own mouth, he seemed to
nauseate it, and would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water after
it: on the other hand, I took some meat into my mouth without salt; and I pretended
to spit and sputter for want of salt, as fast as he had done at the salt; but it would
not do; he would never care for salt with his meat, or in his broth; at least, not fora
great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved to feast him the
next day with roasting a piece of the kid: this I did by hanging it before the fire on
a string, as I had seen many people do in England, setting two poles up, one on each side
of the fire, and one across on the top, and tying the string to the cross-stick, letting the
meat turn continually. This Friday admired very much; but when he come to taste the
flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not but under-
stand him: and at last he told me, as well as he could, he would never eat man’s flesh any
more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out, and sifting it in the man-
ner I used to do, as I observed before; and he soon understood how to do it as well as
I, especially after he had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was to make bread




‘
A CONVERSATION WITH FRIDAY. 131

of; for after that I let him see me make my bread, and bake it, too; and in a little time
Friday was able to do all the work for me, as well as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider that, having two mouths to feed instead of one, I must pro-
vide more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do;
so I marked out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the same manner as before,
in which Friday worked not only very willingly and very hard, but did it very cheer-
fully: and I told him what it was for; that it was for corn to make more bread, because
he was now with me, and that I might have enough for him and myself too. He ap-
peared very sensible of that part, and let me know that he thought I had much more
labour upon me on his account than I had for myself; and that he would work the harder
for me, if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in thisplace. Friday began to talk
pretty well, and understand the names of almost everything I had occasion to call for,
and of every place I had to send him to, and talk a great deal to me; so that, in short,
I began now to have some use for my tongue again, which, indeed, I had very little occa-
sion for before; that is to say, about speech. Besides the pleasure of talking to him, I
had a singular satisfaction in the fellow himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared
to me more and more every day, and I began really to love the creature; and on
his side I believe he loved me more than it was possible for him ever to love anything
before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering inclination to his own country
again; and having taught him English so well that he could answer me almost any ques-
tion, I asked him whether the-nation that he belonged to never conquered in battle. At
which he smiled, and said, “ Yes, yes, we always fight the better”; that is, he meant,
always get the better in fight; and so we began the following discourse :—

Master.—You always fight the better; how came you to be taken prisoner then,
Friday ?

Friday.—My nation beat much, for all that.

Master —How beat? If your nation beat them, how came you to be taken?

Friday.—They more many than my nation, in the place where me was ; they take one,
two, three, and me: my nation overbeat them in the yonder place, where me no was;
here my nation take one, two, great thousand.

Master.—But why did not your side recover you from the hands of your enemies,
then?

Friday.—They run, one, two, three, and me, and make me go in the canoe; my nation
have no canoe that time.

Master —Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the men they take? Do
they carry them away and eat them, as these did?

Friday.—Yes, my nation eat mans too: eat all up.

Master.—Where do they carry them ?

Friday.—Go to other place, where they think.

Master —Do they come hither ?

Friday.—Yes, yes, they come hither; come other else place.

Master —Have you been here with them ?

Friday.—Yes, I been here (points to the N.W. side of the island, which, it seems,
was their side).

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been among the savages who
uised to come on shore on the farther part of the island, on the said man-eating occasions
that he was now brought for: and, some time after, when I took the courage to carry him
to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned, he presently knew the place, and told me
he was there once, when they ate up twenty men, two women, and one child: he could
132 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them, by laying so many stones in a row,
and pointing to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage because it introduces what follows; that after this discourse
I had with him, I asked him how far it was from our island to the shore, and whether the
canoes were not often lost. He told me there was no danger; no canoes ever lost; but
that after a little way out to sea, there was a current and wind, always one way in the
morning, the other in the afternoon. This I understood to be no more than the sets of
the tide, as going out or coming in; but I afterwards understood it was occasioned by
the great draft and reflux of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth of which river,
as I thought afterwards, our island lay; and thatthis land which I perceived to the W.
and N.W. was the great island Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth of the river.
I asked Friday a thousand questions about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast,
and what nations were near: he told me all he knew, with the greatest openness imagi-
nable. I asked him the names of the several nations of his sort of people, but could get
no other name than Caribs: from whence I easily understood that these were the Carib-
bees, which our maps place on the part of America which reaches from the mouth of the
river Oroonoko to Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha. He told me that up a great way
beyond the moon (that was, beyond the setting of the moon, which must. be west from
their country) there dwelt white bearded men, like me, and pointed to my great whiskers,
which I mentioned before; and that they had killed much mans—that was his word: by
all which I understood he meant the Spaniards, whose cruelties in America had been
spread over the whole country, and were remembered by all the nations, from father
to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from this island, and get among
those white men: he told me, “ Yes, yes, I might go in two canoe.” I could not under-
stand what he meant by “ two canoe,” till at last, with great difficulty, I found he meant
it must be in a large, great boat, as big as two canoes. This part of Friday’s discourse
began to relish with me very well; and from this time I entertained some hopes that, one
time or other, I might find an opportunity to make my escape from this place, and that
this poor savage might be a means to help me to do it.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and that he began to speak
to me, and understand me, I was not wanting to laya foundation of religious knowledge
in his mind; particularly I asked him one time who made him. The poor creature did
not understand me at all, but thought I had asked him who was his father: but I took
it by another handle, and asked him who made the sea, the ground we walked on, and
the hills and woods. He told me, “It was one Benamuckee, that lived beyond all”; he
could describe nothing of this great person, but that he was very old, “much older,” he
said, ‘than the sea, or the land, than the moon or the stars.” I asked him then, if this
old person had made all things, why did not all things worship him? He looked very
grave, and, with a perfect look of innocence, said, “ All things said ‘O!’ to him.” I asked
him if the people who die in his country went away anywhere. He said, “‘ Yes; they all
went to Benamuckee.” Then I asked him whether those they ate up went thither too.
He said, “ Yes.”

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowledge of the true God: I told
him that the great Maker of all things lived there, pointing up toward heaven; that He
governed the world by the same power and providence by which He made it; that
He was omnipotent, and could do everything for us, give everything to us, take every-
thing from us; and thus, by degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened with great atten-
tion, and received with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us, and
and of the manner of making our prayers to God, and His being able to hear us, even
into heaven. He told me one day, that if our God could hear us, up beyond the sun,
RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION OF FRIDAY. . 133

He must needs be a greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived but a little way off,
and yet could not hear till they went up to the great mountain where he dwelt to speak
to him. J asked him if ever he went thither to speak to him. He said, “No; they
never went that were young men; none went thither but the old men,’ whom he called
their Oowokakee; that is, as I made him explain it to me, their religious, or clergy; and
that they went to say ‘O!’ (so he called saying prayers) and then came back and told
them what Benamuckee said. By this I observed, that there is priestcraft even among
the most blinded, ignorant pagans in the world; and the policy of making a secret of
religion, in order to preserve the veneration of the people to the clergy, is not only to be
found in the Roman, but perhaps among all religions in the world, even among the most
brutish and barbarous savages.

I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man Friday, and told him that the pretence
of their old men going up to the mountains to say “O!” to their god Benamuckee was
a cheat; and their bringing word from thence what he said was much more so; that if
they met with any answer, or spoke with anyone there, it must be with an evil spirit
and then I entered into a long discourse with him about the devil, the original of him, his
rebellion against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting himself up in the
dark parts of the world to be worshipped instead of God, and as God, and the many
stratagems he made use of to delude mankind to their ruin; how he had a secret access
to our passions and to our affections, and to adapt his snares to our inclinations, so as to
cause us even to be our own tempters, and run upon our own destruction by our
own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind about the devil as it
was about the being of a God: Nature assisted all my arguments to evidence to him
even the the necessity of a great First Cause—an overruling, governing Power—a secret
directing Providence ; and of the equity and justice of paying homage to Him that made
us, and the like: but there appeared nothing of this kind in the notion of an evil spirit ;
of his original, his being, his nature; and, above all, of his inclination to do evil, and to
draw us in to do so too: and the poor creature puzzled me once in such a manner, by a
question merely natural and innocent, that I scarce knew what to say to him. I had
been talking a great deal to him of the power of God, His omnipotence, His aversion to
sin, His being a consuming fire to the workers of iniquity ; how, as He had made us all,
He could destroy us and all the world in a moment; and he listened with great serious-
ness to me all the while. After this, I had been telling him how the devil was God’s
enemy in the hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill to defeat the good designs
of Providence, and to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world, and the like. ‘“ Well,”
says Friday, “ but you say God is to strong, so great; is He not much strong, much
might as the devil?” “Yes, yes,” says I, “Friday, God is stronger than the devil: God
is above the devil, and therefore we pray to God to tread him down under our feet, and
to enable us to resist his temptations and quench his fiery darts.” “ But,” says he again,
“if God much strong, much might as the devil, why God no kill the devil, so make him
no more do wicked?” I was strangely surprised at this question ; and after all, though
I was now an old man, yet I was but a young doctor, and ill qualified for a casuist, or a
solver of difficulties ; and at first I could not tell what to say; so I pretended not to hear
him, and asked him what he said; but he was too earnest for an answer to forget his
question, so that he repeated it in the very same broken words as above. By this time I
had recovered myself a little, and 1 said, “God will at last punish him severely ; he is
reserved for the judgment, and he is to be cast into the bottomless pit, to dwell with
everlasting fire.” This did not satisfy Friday ; but he returns upon me, repeating my own
words, “‘ Reserve at last/’ me no understand: but why not kill the devil now; not kill
great ago?” “You may as well ask me,” says I, “why God does not kill you or
134 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

me, when we do wicked things here that offend him: we are preserved to repent
and be pardoned,” He muses a while on this: ‘Well, well,” says he, mightily
affectionately, “that well: so you, I, devil, all wicked, all preserve, repent, God pardon
all.” Here I was run down by him to the last degree: and it was a testimony to
me, how the mere notions of Nature, though they will guide reasonable creatures to
the knowledge of a God, and of a worship or homage due to the supreme being of God,
as the consequence of our nature, yet nothing but Divine revelation can form the
knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of redemption purchased for us; of a Mediator of the
new covenant, and of an Intercessor at the footstool of God's throne; I say, nothing but
a revelation from heaven can form these in the soul; and that, therefore, the gospel of
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of God, and the Spirit of God,
promised for the guide and sanctifier of His people, are the absolutely necessary
instructors of the souls of men in the saving knowledge of God, and the means of
salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and my man, rising up
hastily as upon some sudden occasion of going out; then sending him for something a
good way off, I seriously prayed to God that He would enable me to instruct savingly
this poor savage; assisting by His Spirit the heart of the poor ignorant creature to
receive the light of the knowledge of God in Christ, reconciling him to Himself, and
would guide me to speak so to him from the Word of God, that his conscience might be
convinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved. When he came again to me, I entered
into a long discourse with him upon the subject of the redemption of man by the Saviour
of the world, and of the doctrine of the gospel preached from heaven—viz., of repentance
towards God, and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus. I then explained to him as well as I
could why our blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature of angels, but the seed
of Abraham; and how, for that reason, the fallen angels had no share in the redemption;
that He came only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the methods I took for this
poor creature’s instruction, and must acknowledge, what I believe all that act upon the
same principle will find, that, in laying things open to him, I really informed and
instructed myself in many things that I either did not know, or had not fully considered
before, but which occurred naturally to my mind upon searching into them, for the
information of this poor savage; and I had more affection in my inquiry after things
upon this occasion than ever I felt before: so that, whether this poor wild wretch was the
better for me or no, I had reason to be thankful that ever he came to me; my grief sat
lighter upon me; my habitation grew comfortable to me beyond measure: and when I
reflected that in this solitary life which I had been confined to, I had not only been
moved to look up to heaven myself, and to seek the Hand that had brought me here, but
was now to be made an instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and, for aught I
know, the soul of a poor savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of religion, and
of the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, to know Whom is life
eternal ; I say, when I reflected upon all these thines, a secret joy ran through every
part of my soul, and I frequently rejoiced that ever I was brought to this place, which
I had so often thought the most dreadful of all afflictions that could possibly have

. befallen me.

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of my time; and the conversa-
tion which employed the hours between Friday and me was such as made the three years
which we lived there together perfectly and completely happy, if any such thing as com-
plete happiness can be found ina sublunary state. This savage was now a good Christian,
a much better than I; though I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we were
equally penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. We had here the Word of God to
A PERIOD OF HAPPINESS. 135

read, and no farther off from His Spirit to instruct than if we had been in England. I
always applied myself, in reading the Scriptures, to let him know, as well as I could, the
meaning of what I read; and he again, by his serious inquiries and questionings, made
me, as I said before, a much better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than I should ever
have been by my own mere private reading. Another thing I cannot refrain from ob-
serving here also, from experience in this retired part of my life—viz., how infinite
and inexpressible a blessing it is that the knowledge of God, and of the doctrine of sal-
vation by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid down in the Word of God, so easy to be received
and understood, that, as the bare reading the Scripture made me capable of understanding
enough of my duty to carry me directly on to the great work of sincere repentance for
my sins, and of laying hold of a Saviour for life and salvation, to a stated reformation in
practice, and obedience to all God’s commands, and this without any teacher or instructor,
I mean human; so the same plain instruction sufficiently served to the enlightening this

savage creature, and bringing him to be such a Chris-
tian as I have known few equal to him in my life.

As to the disputes, wrangling, strife, and con-
tention which have happened in the world about relig-
ion, whether niceties in doctrines or schemes of church
government, they were all perfectly useless to us, and,
for aught I can yet see, they have been to the rest of
the world. We had the sure guide to heaven, viz., the
Word of God; ‘and we had, blessed be God, comfort-
able views of the Spirit of God teaching and instruct-
ing us by His Word, leading us into all truth, and
making us both willing and obedient to the instruc-
tion of His Word. And I cannot see the least use
that the greatest knowledge of the disputed points of
religion, which have made such confusions in the
world, would have been to us, if we could have
obtained it; but I must go on with the historical part
of things, and take every part in its order.

After Friday and I became more intimately
acquainted, and that he could understand almost all I
said to him, and speak fluently, though in broken
English, to me, I acquainted him with my own story,
or at least so much of it as related to my coming into
this place; how I had lived there, and how long: I
let him into the mystery, for such it was to him, of
gunpowder and bullets, and taught him how to shoot.
IT gave him a knife with which he was wonderfully
delighted ; and I made him a belt, with a frog hang-
ing to it, such as in England we wear hangers in; and
in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet,
which is not only as good a weapon in some cases,
but much more useful upon many occasions.

I described to him the countries of Europe, par-
ticularly England, which I came from; how we lived,
how we worshipped God, how we behaved to one

a s another, and how we traded in ships to all parts of the
“MY FIGURE INDEED WAS VERY FIERCE” world. I gave him an account of the wreck which I
(4. 153). had been on board of, and showed him, as near as I


136 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could, the place where she lay: but she was all beaten in pieces long before, and quite
gone. I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when we escaped, and which
I could not stir with my whole strength then, but was now fallen almost to pieces.
Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great while, and said nothing. I asked
him what it was he studied upon. At last, says he, ‘‘ Me see such boat like come to
place at my nation.” I did not understand him a good while; but at last, when I had
examined further into it, I understood by him that a boat, such as that had been, came
on shore upon the country where he lived; that is, as he explained it, was driven thither
by stress of weather. I presently imagined that some European ship must have been
cast away upon their coast, and the boat might get loose and drive ashore; but was so
dull that I never once thought of men making their escape from a wreck thither, much
less whence they might come: so I only inquired after the description of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought me better to understand
him when he added with some warmth, “ We save the white mans from drown.” Then
I presently asked if there were any white mans, as he called them, in the boat. ‘ Yes,”
he said; “the boat full of white mans.” I asked him how many. He told me upon his
fingers seventeen. I asked him then what became of them. He told me, “They live,
they dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently imagined that these might be
the men belonging to the ship that was cast away in the sight of my island, as I now
called it; and who, after the ship was struck on the rock and they saw her inevitably
lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and were landed upon that wild shore among the
savages. Upon this I inquired of him more critically what had become of them. He
' assured me they lived still there; that they had been there about four years; that the
savages left them alone, and gave them victualsto live. I asked him how it came to pass
that they did not kill them and eat them. Hesaid, “ No, they make brother with them”’;
that is, as I understand him, a truce; and then he added, ‘“‘ They no eat mans but when
make the war-fight”’; that is to say, they never eat any men but such as come to fight
with them, and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the top of the hill, at the
east side of the island, from whence, as I have said, I had, in a clear day, discovered the
main or continent of America, Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very earnestly
towards the main-land, and in a kind of surprise, falls a-jumping and dancing, and calls
out to me, for I was at some distance from him. I asked him what was the matter. “Oh,
joy,” says he; ‘‘oh, glad! there see my country, there my nation!” I observed an ex-
traordinary sense of pleasure appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his counte-
nance discovered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his own country again.
This observation of mine put a great many thoughts into me, which made me, at first.
not so easy about my new man Friday as I was before; and I made no doubt but that,
if Friday could get back to his own nation again, he would not only forget all his religion,
but all his obligation to me, and would be forward enough to give his countrymen an
account of me, and come back, perhaps, with a hundred or two of them, and make a feast
‘upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be with those of his enemies, when
they were taken in war. But I wronged the poor, honest creature very much, for ‘which
I was very sorrow afterwards. However, as my jealousy increased, and held me some
weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar and kind to him as before; in
which I was certainly in the wrong too; the honest grateful creature having no thought
about it but what consisted with the best principles both as a religious Christian and as a
grateful friend; as appeared afterwards to my full satisfaction.

While my - jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was every day pumping him,
to see if he would discover any of the new thoughts which I suspected were in him; but
RENEWED HOPES OF ESCAPE. 137

I found everything he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could find nothing to
nourish my suspicion; and, in spite of all my uneasiness, he made me at last entirely his
own again; nor did he in the least perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could not
suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy at sea, so that we
could not see the continent; I called to him, and said, “ Friday, do not you wish yourself
in your own country, your own nation?” “ Yes,” he said, “I be much O glad to be at
my own nation.” “What would you do there?” said I: “would you turn wild again,
eat men’s flesh again, and be a savage, as you were before?” He looked full of concern,
and shaking his head, said, “No, no; Friday tell them to live good; tell them to pray
God; tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk ; no eat man again.” ‘Why, then,”
said I to him, “they will kill you.” He looked grave at that, and then said, “ No, no;
they no kill me, they willing love learn.” He meant by this, they would be willing to
learn. He added, they learned much of the “bearded mans” that came in the boat.
Then I asked him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that, and told me he
could not swim so far. I told him I would make a canoe for him. He told me he would
go, if I would go with him. “I go!” says 1; “why, they will eat me if I come there.”
“No, no,” says he, “me make them no eat you; me make them much love you.” He
meant, he would tell them how I had killed his enemies, and saved his life, and so he
would make them love me. Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were
to seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who came on shore in
distress.

From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over, and see if I could possibly
join with those bearded men, who, I made no doubt, were Spaniards or Portuguese; not
doubting but, if I could, we might find some method to escape from thence, being upon
the continent, and a good company together, better than I could from an island forty
miles off the shore, alone, and without help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work
again, by way of discourse, and told him-I would give him a boat to go back to his own
nation; and I, accordingly, carried him to my frigate, which lay on the other side of the
island, and having cleared it of water (for I aways kept it sunk in the water), I brought
it out, showed it him, and we both went into it. I found he was a most dexterous fellow
at managing it, and would make it go almost as swift and fast again as I could. So
when he was in, I said to him, “ Well, now, Friday, shall we go to your nation?” He
looked very dull at my saying so; which it seems was because he thought the boat too
small to go so far. I then told him I had a bigger; so the next day I went to the place
where the first boat lay which I had made, but which I could not get into the water. He
said that was big enough; but then, as I had taken no care of it, and it had lain two or
three and twenty years there, the sun had split and dried it, that it was rotten. Friday
told me that such a boat would do very well, and would carry “much enough vittle,
drink, bread; ”»—that was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design of going over with him
to the continent, that I told him we would go and make one as big as that, and he should
go home in it. He answered not one word, but looked very grave and sad. I asked him
what was the matter with him. He asked me again, ‘“‘ Why you angry mad with Friday ?
—what me done?” I asked him what he meant. I told him I was not angry with him
at all. “No angry!” says he, repeating the words several times; “why send Friday
home away to my nation?” “Why,” says I, “ Friday, did not you say you wished you
were there?” “Yes, yes,” says he, “ wish we both there; no wish Friday there, no master
there.” Ina word, he would not think of going there without me. “I go there, Fri-
day ?” says I, “ what shall Ido there?” He turned very quick upon me at this. “You
do great deal much good,” says he; “ you teach wild mans good, sober, tame mans; you
138 # ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tell them know God, pray God, and live new life.” ‘“ Alas, Friday!” says I, ‘thou
knowest not what thou sayest; I am but an ignorant man myself.” “ Yes, yes,” says he,
‘you teachee me good, you teachee them good.” “No, no, Friday,” says I, ‘you shall
go without me; leave me here to live by myself, as I did before.” He looked confused
again at that word; and running to one of the hatchets which he used to wear, he takes
it up hastily, and gives it to me. “ What must I do with this?” saysI to him. “You
take kill Friday,” says he. ‘‘ What must I kill you for?” said I again. He returns very
quick—“ What you send Friday away for? Take kill Friday, no send Friday away.”
This he spoke so earnestly that I saw tears stand in his eyes. In aword,I so plainly
discovered the utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in him, that I told him
then, and often after, that I would never send him away from me, if he was willing to
stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled affection to me, and that
nothing could part him from me, so I found all the foundation of his desire to go to his
own country was laid in his ardent affection to the people, and his hopes of my doing them
good: a thing which, as I had no notion of myself, so I had not the least thought, or in-
tention, or desire of undertaking it. But still I found a strong inclination to my attempt-
ing an escape, founded on the supposition gathered from the former discourse, that
there were seventeen bearded men there; and therefore, without any more delay, I went
to work with Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a large periagua, or
canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in the island to have built a
little fleet, not of periaguas or canoes, but even of good large vessels; but the main thing
I looked at was, to get one so near the water that we might launch it when it was made,
to avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last, Friday pitched upon a tree; for I
found he knew much better than I what kind of wood was fittest for it; nor can I tell to
this day, what wood to call the tree we cut down, except that it was very like the tree we
call fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much of the same colour
and smell, Friday was for burning the hollow or cavity of this tree out, to make it into
a boat, but I showed him how rather to cut it with tools; which, after I had showed him
how to use, he did very handily; and in about a month’s hard labour, we finished it and
made it very handsome; especially when, with our axes, which I showed him how to
handle, we cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat. After this, however,
it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along, as it were, inch by inch, upon great
rollers, into the water; but when she was in, she would have carried twenty men with
great ease,

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it amazed me to see with what
dexterity and how swift my man Friday could manage her, turn her, and paddle her along.
So I asked him if he would, and if we might venture over in her. “Yes,” he said, “ we
venture over in her very well, though great blow wind.” However, I had a farther design
that he knew nothing of, and that was to make a mast and a sail, and to fit her with an
anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so I pitched upon a great
young cedar-tree, which I found near the place, and which there was great plenty of in
the island, and I set Friday to work to cut it down, and gave him directions how to shape
and order it. But as to the sail, that was my particular care. I knew I had old sails, or
rather pieces of old sails, enough; but as I had them now six-and-twenty years by me,
and had not been very careful to preserve them, not imagining that I should ever have
this kind of use for them, I did not doubt but they were all rotten; and, indeed, most of
them were so. However, I found two pieces which appeared pretty good, and with these
I went to work ; and with a great deal of pains, and awkward, tedious stitching, you may
be sure, for want of needles, I at length made a three-cornered ugly thing, like what we
call in England a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at bottom, and a little short
MY NEW BOAT. 139

sprit at the top, such as usually our ships’ long-boats sail with, and such as I best knew
how to manage, because it was such a one as I used in the boat in which I made my es-
cape from Barbary, as related in the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work—viz., rigging and fitting my mast
and sails; for I finished them very complete, making a small stay, and a sail or foresail
to it, to assist if we should turn to windward; and, which was more than all, I fixed a
rudder to the stern of her to
steer with. And though I was
but a bungling shipwright, yet
as I knew the usefulness, and
even the necessity of such a
thing, I applied myself with so
much pains to do it, that at
last I brought it to pass;
though, considering the many
dull contrivances I had for it
that failed, I think it cost me
almost as much labour as
making the boat.

After all this was done, I
had my man Friday to teach
as to what belonged to the
navigation of my boat; for,
though he knew very well

















flow to paddle the canoe, he knew
nothing of what belonged to a sail
and a rudder; and was the most
amazed when he saw me work the
boat to and again in the sea by the
rudder, and how the sail jibbed, and
filled this way or that way, as the
course we sailed changed; I say,
when he saw this, he stood like one
astonished and amazed. However,
with a little use, I made all these
things familiar to him, and he be-
Hie) eee eee came an expert sailor, except that
Se Ree MN GUISH MEN /(2-.559), as to the compass I could make
him understand very little of that.
On the other hand, as there was very little cloudy weather, and seldom or never any fogs
in those parts, there was less occasion for the compass, seeing the stars were always to
be seen by night, and the shore by day, except in the rainy seasons, and then nobody
cared to stir abroad either by land or sea.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my captivity in this place;
though the three last years that I had this creature with me ought rather to be left out of
the account, my habitation being quite of another kind than in all the rest of my time. I
kept the anniversary of my landing here with the same thankfulness to God for His mer-
cies as at first; and if I had such cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much more so
now, having such additional testimonies of the care of Providence over me, and the great
hopes I had of being effectually and speedily delivered; for I had an invincible impres-
140 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sion upon my thoughts that my deliverance was at hand, and that I should not be another
year in this place. However, I went on with my husbandry; digging, planting, and
fencing, as usual. I gathered and cured my grapes, and did every necessary thing as
before.

The rainy season was in the meantime upon me, when I kept more within doors than
at other times. I had stowed our new vessel as secure as we could, bringing her up into
the creek, where, as I said in the beginning, I landed my rafts from the ship; and hauling
her up to the shore at high-water mark, I made my man Friday dig a little dock, just big
enough to hold her, and just deep enough to give her water enough to float in; and then,
when the tide was out, we made a strong dam across the end of it, to keep the water out,
and so she lay dry as to the tide from the sea; and to keep the rain off, we laid a great
many boughs of trees, so thick that she was as well thatched as a house; and thus we
waited for the months of November and December, in which I designed to make my
adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought of my design returned
with the fair weather, I was preparing daily for the voyage. And the first thing I did
was to lay by a certain quantity of provisions, being the stores for our voyage; and
intended, in a week or a fortnight’s time, to open the dock, and launch out our boat. I
was busy one morning upon something of this kind, when I called to Friday, and bid him
go to the sea-shore, and see if he could find a turtle or tortoise, a thing which we generally
got once a week, for the sake of the eggs, as well as the flesh. Friday had not been gone
long when he came running back, and flew over my outer wall, or fence, like-one that felt
not the ground, or the steps he set his feet on; and before I had time to speak to him, he
cries out to me, “O master! O master! O sorrow! O bad!” ‘“ What’s the matter, Friday?”
said I, “Oh! yonder, there,” says he; “one, two, three canoes; one, two, three!” By
this way of speaking, I concluded there were six; but on inquiry I found there were but
three. ‘Well, Friday,” says I, ‘‘do not be frightened.” SoI heartened him up as well
as I could. However, I saw the poor fellow was most terribly scared, for nothing ran in
his head but that they were come back to look for him, and would cut him in pieces and
eat him; and the poor fellow trembled so that I scarcely knew what to do with him. I
comforted him as well as I could, and told him I was in as much danger as he, and that
they would eat me as well ashim. ‘“ But,” said I, “ Friday, we must resolve to fight them.
Can you fight, Friday?” “Me shoot,” says he; “but there come many great number.”
“No matter for that,’ said I, again; “our guns will fright them that we do not kill.”
So I asked him whether, if I resolved to defend him, he would defend me, and stand by
me, and do just as I bid him. He said, “Me die, when you bid die, master.”’ So I went
and fetched a good dram of rum and gave him; for I had been so good a husband of my
‘rum, that I had a great deal left. When he had drunk it, I made him take the two fowl-
ing-pieces, which we always carried, and load them with large swan-shot, as big as small
pistol-bullets. Then I took four muskets, and loaded them with two slugs and five small
bullets each ; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets each. I hung my great
sword, as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet. When I had thus pre-
pared myself, I took my perspective-glass, and went up to the side of the hill, to see what
I could discover; and I found quickly by my glass that there were one-and-twenty
savages, three prisoners, and three canoes; and that their whole business seemed to be
the triumphant banquet upon these three human bodies: a barbarous feast indeed, but
nothing more than, as I had observed, was usual with them. I observed also that they
landed, not where they had done when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek,
where the shore was low, and where a thick wood came close almost down to the sea.
This, with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches came about, filled me
with such indignation that I came down again to Friday, and told him I was resolved to
ANOTHER VISIT FROM THE SAVAGES. 141

go down to them, and kill them all; and asked him if he would stand by me. He had
now got over his fright, and his spirits being a little raised with the dram I had given
him, he was very cheerful, and told me, as before, he would die when I bid die.

In this fit of fury I took first and divided the arms which I had charged, as before,
between us; I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle, and three guns upon his
shoulder, and I took one pistol and the other three myself; and in this posture we
marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my pocket, and gave Friday a large bag
with more powder and bullets; and as to orders, I charged him to keep close behind
me, and not to stir, or shoot, or do anything till I bid him, and in the meantime not

_to speak a word. In this posture I fetched a compass to my right hand of near a
mile, as well to get over the creek as to get into the wood, so that I might come within
shot of them before I should be discovered, which I had seen by my glass it was
easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts returning, I began to abate
my resolution—I do not mean that I entertained any fear of their number, for, as they
were naked, unarmed wretches, it is certain I was superior to them—nay, though I had
been alone. But it occurred to my thoughts, what call, what occasion, much less what
necessity, I was in to go and dip my hands in blood, to attack people who had neither
done nor intended me any wrong ?—who, as to me, were innocent, and whose barbarous
customs were their own disaster, being in them a token, indeed, of God’s having left them,
with the other nations of that part of the world, to such stupidity, and to such inhuman
courses, but did not call me to take upon me to be a judge of their actions, much less
an executioner of His justice—that whenever He thought fit He would take the cause
into His own hands, and by national vengeance punish them for national crimes;
but that, in the meantime, it was none of my business—that it was true Friday might
justify it, because he was a declared enemy, and ina state of war with those very par-
ticular people, and it was lawful for him to attack them; but I could not say the same
with regard to myself. These things were so warmly pressed upon my thoughts all the
way as I went, that I resolved I would only go and place myself near them that I might
observe their barbarous feast, and that I would act then as God should direct; and that
unless something offered that was more a call to me than yet I knew of, I would not
meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and, with all possible wariness and silence,
Friday following close at my heels, I marched till I came to the skirt of the wood on
the side which was next to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between me and
them. Here I called softly to Friday, and showing him a great tree which was just at
the corner of the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and bring me word if he could see
there plainly what they were doing. He did so, and came immediately back to me, and
told me they might be plainly viewed there—that they were all about their fire eating the
flesh of one of their prisoners, and that another lay bound upon the sand a little from
them, whom he said they would kill next; and this fired the very soul within me. He
told me it was not one of their nation, but one of the bearded men whom he had told me
of, that came to their country in the boat. I was filled with horror at the very naming
of the white bearded man; and going to the tree, I saw plainly by my glass a white
man who lay upon the beach of the sea with his hands and his feet tied with flags, or
things like rushes, and that he was a European, and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it, about fifty yards nearer to
the place where I was, which, by going a little way about, I saw I might come at undis-
covered, and that then I should be within half a shot of them; so I withheld my passion,
though I was indeed enraged to the highest degree; and going back about twenty
paces, I got behind some bushes, which held all the way till I came to the other tree,
142 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and then came to a little rising ground, which gave me a full view of them at the distance
of about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful wretches sat on the
ground, all close huddled together, and had just sent the other two to butcher the poor
Christian, and bring him, perhaps limb by limb, to their fire, and they were stooping
down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to Friday: ‘Now, Friday,” said I, “do
as I bid thee.” Friday said he would. “Then, Friday,” said I, ‘do exactly as you see
me do; fail in nothing.” So I set down one of the muskets and the fowling-piece upon
the ground, and Friday did the like by his, and with the other musket I took my aim at
the savages, bidding him do thelike; then asking him if he was ready, he said, “ Yes.”
“Then fire at them,” said 1; and at the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side he shot he killed two
of them, and wounded three more; and on my sideI killed one, and wounded two.
They were, you may be sure, in a dreadful consternation; and all of them that were not
hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not immediately know which way to run, or which
way to look, for they knew not from whence their destruction came. Friday kept his
eyes close upon me, that, as I had bid him, he might observe what I did; so, as soon
as the first shot was made, I threw down the piece, and took up the fowling-piece, and
Friday did the like; he saw me cock and present; he did the same again. “Are you
ready, Friday?” said I. “ Yes,” says he. “ Let fly, then,” said I, “in the name of God!”
and with that I fired again among the amazed wretches, and so did Friday; and as our
pieces were now loaded with what I call swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we found only
two drop; but so many were wounded, that they ran about yelling and screaming like
mad creatures, all bloody, and most of them miserably wounded; whereof three more
fell quickly after, though not quite dead.

“ Now, Friday,” said I, laying down the discharged pieces, and taking up the mus-
ket that was yet loaded, “ follow me,’ which he did with a great deal of courage ; upon
which I rushed out of the wood and showed myself, and Friday close at my foot. As
soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud as I could, and bade Friday do so
too, and running as fast as I could, which by the way was not very fast, being loaded
with arms as I was, I made directly towards the poor victim, who, was, as I said, lying
upon the beach or shore, between the place where they sat and the sea. The two butch-
ers, who were just going to work with him, had left him at the surprise of our first fire,
and fled in a terrible fright to the sea-side, and had jumped into a canoe, and three more
of the rest made the same way. I turned to Friday, and bade him step forwards and fire
at them; he understood me immediately, and running about forty yards nearer them,
he shot at them; and I thought he killed them all, for I saw them all fall of a heap into
the boat, though I saw two of them up again quickly; however, he killed two of them,
and wounded the third so that he lay down in the bottom of the boat as if he had
been dead,

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife and cut the flags that
bound the poor victim ; and loosing his hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him,
in the Portuguese tongue, what he was. He answered, in Latin, Christianus; but was so
weak and faint that he could scarce stand or speak. I took my bottle out of my pocket,
and gave it him, making signs that he should drink, which he did; and I gave hima
piece of bread, which he ate. Then I asked him what countryman he was, and he said
Espagnole ; and being a little recovered, let me know, by all the signs he could possibly
make, how much he was in my debt for his deliverance. ‘“Seignior,” said I, with as
much Spanish as I could made up, “we will talk afterwards, but we must fight now; if
you have any strength left, take this pistol and sword, and lay about you.’ He took
er very thankfully ; and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but, as if they had
THE SPANIARDS ENCOUNTER WITH THE SAVAGE. 143

put new vigour into him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had cut two of
them in pieces in aninstant; for the truth is, as the whole was a surprise to them, so the
poor creatures were so much frightened with the noise of our pieces that they fell down
for mere amazement and fear, and had no more power to attempt their own escape, than
their flesh had to resist our shot: and that was the case of those five that Friday shot
at in the boat ; for as three of them fell with the hurt they received, so the other two fell
with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being willing to keep my charge
ready, because I had given the Spaniard my pistol and sword; soI called to Friday, and
bade him run up to the tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the arms which lay
there that had been discharged, which he did with great swiftness; and then giving him
my musket, I sat down myself to load all the rest again, and bade them come to me
when they wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there happened a fierce engage-
ment between the Spaniard and one of the savages, who made at him with one of their
great wooden swords, the same weapon that was to have killed him before, if I had not
prevented it. The Spaniard, who was as bold and brave as could be imagined, though
weak, had fought this Indian a good while and had cut two great wounds on his head;
but the savage being
a stout, lusty fellow,

closing in with him, NE tod ““THE TEARS RAN DOWN HIS FACE
had thrown himdown, AND HE COULD NOT SPEAK
being faint, and was é , A WORD MORE”

wringing my sword Me Ray (4. 155).
out of his hand; when f :
the Spaniard, though
undermost, wisely
quitted the sword,
drew the pistol from
his girdle, shot the
savage through the
body, and killed him
upon the spot, before
I, who was running to
help him, could come
near him.

Friday, being
now left to his lib-
erty, pursued the fly-
ing wretches, with no
weapon in his hand
but his hatchet; and
with that he despatch-
ed those three who,
as I said before, were
wounded at first, and
fallen, and all the rest
he could come up
with: and the Span-
iard coming to me
for a gun, I gave him
one of the fowling-


144 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

pieces, with which he pursued two of the savages, and wounded them both; but, as he
was not able to run, they both got from him into the wood, where Friday pursued them,
and killed one of them, but the other was too nimble for him; and though he was
wounded, yet had plunged him into the sea, and swam with all his might off to those
two who were left in the canoe; which three in the canoe, with one wounded, that we
knew not whether he died or no, were all that escaped our hands, of one-and-twenty.
The account of the whole is as follows:—Three killed at our first shot from the tree ;
two killed at the next shot; two killed by Friday in the boat; two killed by Friday, of
those at first wounded ; one killed by Friday in the wood; three killed by the Span-
iard ; four killed, being dropped here and there, of the wounds, or killed by Friday in
his chase of them; four escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded, if not dead—
twenty-one in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gunshot, and though Friday
made two or three shots at them, I did not find that he hit any of them. Friday would
fain have had me take one of their canoes, and pursue them; and, indeed, I was very
anxious about their escape, lest, carrying the news home to their people, they should come
back perhaps with two or three hundred of the canoes, and devour us by mere multi-
tude; so I consented to pursue them by sea, and running to one of their canoes, I jumped
in, and bade Friday follow me; but when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find
another poor creature lie there, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the
slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not knowing what was the matter; for he had not
been able to look up over the side of the boat, he was tied so hard neck and heels, and
had been tied so long, that he had really little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they had bound him with, and
would have heiped him up, but he could not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously,
believing, it seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be killed. When Friday
came to him, I bade him speak to him, and tell him of his deliverance; and pulling out
my bottle, made him give the poor wretch a dram; which, with the news of his being
delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But when Friday came to hear him
speak, and look in his face, it would have moved any one to tears to have seen how Friday
kissed him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about, danced,
sung ; then cried again, wrung his hands, beat his own face and head; and then sung
and jumped about again like a distracted creature. It was a good while before I could
make him speak to me, or tell me what was the matter; but when he came a little to
himself, he told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what ecstasy and filial affec-
tion had worked in this poor savage at the sight of his father, and of his being delivered
from death ; nor, indeed, can I describe half the extravagances of his affection after this;
for he went into the boat, and out of the boat, a great many times: when he went into
him, he would sit down by him, open his breast, and hold his father’s head close to his
bosom half an hour together, to nourish it; then he took his arms and ankles, which
were numbed and stiff with the binding, and chafed and rubbed them with his hands;
and I, perceiving what the case was, gave him some rum out of my bottle to rub them
with, which did them a great deal of good.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the other savages, who
were now gotten almost out of sight; and it was happy for us that we did not, for it blew
so hard within two hours after, and before they could be got a quarter of their way, and
continued blowing so hard all night, and that from the north-west, which was against
them, that I could not suppose their boat could live, or that they ever reached their
Own Coast.

But to return to Friday : he was so busy about his father, that I could not find in my
FRIDAY AND HIS FATHER. 145

heart to take him off for some time; but after I thought he could leave him a little I called
him to me, and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased to the highest extreme; then
I asked him if he had given his father any bread. He shook his head, and said, “ None;
ugly dog eat all up self.” I then gave him a cake of bread, out of a little pouch I carried
on purpose; I also gave him a dram for himself; but he would not taste it, but carried it
to his father. I had in my pocket also two or three bunches of raisins, so I gave hima
handful of them for his father. He had no sooner given his father these raisins, but I saw
him come out of the boat, and run away as if he had been bewitched, for he was the swiftest
fellow on his feet that ever I saw; I say, he ran at such a rate that he was out of sight, as
it were, in an instant; and though I called, and hallooed out, too, after him, it was all one
—away he went; and ina quarter of an hour I saw him come back again, though not so
fast as he went; and, as he came nearer, I found his pace slacker, because he had some-
thing in his hand. When he came up to me, I found he had been quite home for an
earthen jug or pot, to bring his father some fresh water, and that he had got two more
cakes or loaves of bread: the bread he gave me, but the water he carried to his father;
however, as I was very thirsty too, I took a little sup of it. This water revived his father
more than all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he was just fainting with thirst.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there was any water left; he
said, “ Yes”; and I bade him give to the poor Spaniard, who was in as much want of it
as his father; and I sent one of the cakes, that Friday brought, to the Spaniard too, who
was indeed very weak, and was reposing himself upon a green place under the shade of a
tree ; and whose limbs were also very stiff, and very much swelled with the rude bandage
he had been tied with. When I saw that upon Friday’s coming to him with the water,
he sat up and drank, and took the bread and began to eat, I went to him and gave him a
handful of raisins: he looked up in my face with all the tokens of gratitude and thankful-
ness that could appear in any countenance; but was so weak, notwithstanding he had so
exerted himself in the fight, that he could not stand up on his feet: he tried to do it two
or three times, but was really not able, his ankles were so swelled and so painful to him;
so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday to i ub his angles, and bathe them with rum, as
he had done his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes, or perhaps less, all the
while he was here, turned his head about, to see if his father was in the same place and
posture as he left him sitting; and at last he found he was not to be seen; at which he
started up, and, without speaking a word, flew with that swiftness to him, that one could
scarce perceive his feet to touch the ground as he went; but when he came, he only
found he laid himself down to ease his limbs, so Friday came back to me presently; and
I then spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday help him up, if he could, and lead him to the
boat, and then he should carry him to our dwelling, where I would take care of him.’
But Friday, a lusty young fellow, took the Spaniard quite up on his back, and carried
him away to the boat, and set him down softly upon the side or gunnel of the canoe, with his
feet in the inside of it; and then lifted him quite in, and set him close to his father; and
presently stepping out again, launched the boat off, and paddled it along the shore
faster than I could walk, though the wind blew pretty hard too; so he brought them
both safe into our creek, and leaving them in the boat, runs away to fetch the other
canoe. As he passed me I spoke to him, and asked him whither he went. He told me,
“Go fetch more boat’’; so away he went like the wind, for sure never man or horse ran
like him; and he had the other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I got to it by land;
so he wafted me over, and then went to help our new guests out of the boat, which he
did; but they were neither of them able to walk; so that poor Friday knew not what
to do.

To remedy this, I went to work in my thought, and calling to Friday to bid them sit

10
146 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

down on the bank while he came to me, I soon made a kind of handbarrow to lay them
on, and Friday and I carried them up both together upon it between us.

But when we got them to the outside of our wall, or fortification, we were at a worse
loss than before, for it was impossible to get them over, and I was resolved not to break it
down; so I set to work again and Friday and I, in about two hours’ time, made a very
handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above that with boughs of trees, being in the
space without our outward fence, and between that and the grove of young wood, which
I had planted; and here we made them two beds of such things as I had, viz., of good
rice-straw, with blankets laid upon it, to lie on, and another to cover them, on each bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich in subjects; and it was
a merry reflection, which I frequently made, how like a king I looked. First of all, the
whole country was my own mere property, so that I had an undoubted right of dominion.
Secondly, my people were perfectly subjected: I was absolutely lord and lawgiver: they
all owed their lives to me, and were ready to lay down their lives, if there had been
occasion for it, forme. It was remarkable, too, I had but three subjects, and they were of
three different religions: my man Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Pagan anda
cannibal, and the Spaniard was a Papist. However, I allowed liberty of conscience
throughout my dominions—but this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued prisoners, and given them shelter,
and a place to rest them upon, I began to think of making some provision for them;
and the first thing I did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid anda
goat, out of my particular flock, to be killed; when I cut off the hinder quarter, and
chopping it into small pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made
them a very good dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth, having put some barley and rice
also into the broth; and as I cooked it without doors, for I made no fire within my inner
wall, so I carried it all into the new tent, and having set a table there for them, I sat down,
and ate my own dinner also with them, and, as well as I could, cheered them and encour-
aged them. Friday was my interpreter, especially to his father, and, indeed, to the
Spaniard too; for the Spaniard spoke the language of the savages pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to take one of the canoes
and go and fetch our muskets and other fire-arms, which, for want of time, we had left
upon the place of battle; and, the next day, 1 ordered him to go and bury the dead
bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and would presently be offensive. I
also ordered him to bury the horrid remains of their barbarous feast, which I could not
think of doing myself; nay, I could not bear to see them, if I went that way; all which
he punctually performed, and defaced the very appearance of the savages being there;
so that when I went again, I could scarce know where it was, otherwise than by the
corner of the wood pointing to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my two new subjects: and, first,
I set Friday to inquire of his father what he thought of the escape of the savages in that
canoe, and whether we might expect a return of them, with a power too great for us to
resist. His first opinion was that the savages in the boat never could live out the storm
which blew that night they went off, but must, of necessity, be drowned, or driven south
to those other shores, where they were as sure to be devoured as they were to be drowned
if they were cast away; but, as to what they would do if they came safe on shore,
he said he knew not; but it was his opinion that they were so dreadfully frightened with
the manner of their being attacked, the noise, and fire, that he believed they would tell
the people they were all killed by thunder and lightning, not by the hand of man; and
that the two which appeared, viz., Friday and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies, come
down to destroy them, and not men with weapons. This he said he knew, because he
heard them all cry out so, in their language, one to another; for it was impossible for
A SERIOUS DISCOURSE WITH THE SPANIARD. 147
them to conceive that a man could dart fire,and speak thunder, and kill at a distance
without lifting up the hand, as was done now. And this old savage was in the right:
for, as I understood since, by other hands, the savages never attempted to go over to the
island afterwards; they were so terrified with the accounts given by those four men (for
it seems they did escape the sea), that they believed whoever went to that enchanted
island would be destroyed with fire from the gods. This, however, I knew not; and
therefore was under continual apprehensions for a good while, and kept always upon my
guard, I and all my army: for, as we were now four of us, I would have ventured upon
a hundred of them, fairly in the open field, at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear of their coming wore
off; and I began to take my former thoughts of a voyage to the main into consideration;
being likewise assured, by Friday's father, that I might depend upon good usage from
their nation, on his account, if I would go. But my thoughts were a little suspended
when I had a serious discourse with the Spaniard, and when I understood that there were
sixteen more of his countrymen and Portuguese, who having been cast away and made
their escape to that side, lived there at peace, indeed, with the savages, but were verysore
put to it for necessaries, and indeed, for life. JI asked him all the particulars of
their voyage, and found they were a Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de la Plata to the
Havanna, being directed to leave their loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver,
and to bring back what European goods they could meet with there; that they had five
Portuguese seamen on board, whom they took out of another wreck ; that five of their
own men were drowned, when first the ship was lost,and that these escaped through
infinite danger and hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal coast, where they
expected to have been devoured every moment. He told me they had some arms with
them, but they were perfectly useless, for that they had neither powder nor ball, the
washing of the sea having spoiled all their powder, but a little, which they used at their
first landing, to provide themselves some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of them there, and if they had formed
no design of making any escape. He said they had many consultations about it; but
having neither vessel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any kind, their councils
always ended in tears and despair. I asked him how he thought they would receive a
proposal from me, which might tend towards an escape: and whether, if they were all
here, it might not be done. I told him with freedom, I feared mostly their treachery and
ill-usage of me, if I put my life in their hands; for that gratitude was no inherent virtue
in the nature of man, nor did men always square their dealings by the obligations they
had received, so much as they did by the advantages they expected. I told him it would be
very hard that I should be the instrument of their deliverance, and that they should after-
wards make me their prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman was certain to be made
a sacrifice, what necessity or what accident soever brought him thither; and that I had
rather be delivered up to the savages, and be devoured alive, than fall into the merciless
claws of the priests, and be carried into the Inquisition. I added that, otherwise, I was
persuaded, if they were all here, we might, with so many hands, build a barque large
enough to carry us all away, either to the Brazils southward, or to the islands or Spanish
coast northward; but that if, in requital, they should, when I had put weapons into their
hands, carry me by force among their own people, I might be ill-used for my kindness to
them, and make my case worse than it was before.

He answered me with a great deal of candour and ingenuousness, that their condi-
tion was so miserable, and that they were so sensible of it, that he believed they would
abhor the thought of using any man unkindly that should contribute to their deliver-
ance; and that, if I pleased, he would go to them, with the old man, and discourse with
them about it and return again, and bring me their answer; that he would make condi-
148 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tions with them upon their solemn oath, that they should be absolutely under my direc-
tion, as their commander and captain ; and they should swear upon the Holy Sacrament
and Gospel to be true to me, and go to such Christian country as I should agree to, and
no other; and to be directed wholly and absolutely by my orders, till they were landed
safely in such country as I intended; and that he would bring a contract from them,
under their hands, for that purpose. Then he told me he would first swear to me him-
self, that he would never stir from me as long as he lived, till I gave him orders; and
that he would take my side to the last drop of his blood, if there should happen the least
breach of faith among his countrymen. He told me they were all of them very civil,
honest men, and they were under the greatest distress imaginable, having neither weapons
nor clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy and discretion of the savages; out of all
hopes of ever returning to their own country; and that he was sure, if I would under-
take their relief, they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them, if possible, and to
send the old savage and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But when we had got all
things in readiness to go, the Spaniard himself started an objection which had so much
prudence in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on the other hand, that I could not
but be very well satisfied with it; and, by his advice put off the deliverance of his com-
rades for at least half a year. The case was thus: he had been with us now about a
month, during which time I had let him see in what manner I had provided, with the
assistance of Providence, for my support; and he saw evidently what stock of corn and
rice I had laid up; which, though it was more than sufficient for myself, yet it was not
sufficient, without good husbandry, for my family, now it was increased to four; but
much less would it be sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he said, fourteen, still
alive, should come over; and least of all would it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if we
should build one, for a voyage to any of the Christian colonies of America; so he told
me he thought it would be more advisable to let him and the other two dig and cultivate
some more land, as much as I could spare seed to sow, and that we should wait another
harvest, that we might have a supply of corn for his countrymen, when they should
come ; for want might be a temptation to them to disagree, or not to think themselves
delivered, otherwise than out of one difficulty into another. ‘ You know,” says he, “ the
children of Israel, though they rejoiced at first for their being delivered out of Egypt, yet
rebelled even against God Himself, that delivered them, when they came to want bread
in the wilderness.”

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that I could not but be very
well pleased with his proposal, as well as I was satisfied with his fidelity; so we fell to
digging, all four of us, as well as the wooden tools we were furnished with permitted ;
and in about a month’s time, by the end of which it was seed-time, we had got as much
land cured and trimmed up as we sowed two-and-twenty bushels of barley on, and six-
teen jars of rice, which was, in short, all the seed we had to spare; indeed, we left our-
selves barely sufficient for our own food for the six months that we had to expect our
crop; that is to say, reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for sowing ; for it is
not to be supposed it is six months in the ground in that country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient to put us out of fear
of the savages, if they had come, unless their number had been very great, we went freely
all over the island, whenever we found occasion; and as we had our escape or deliver-
ance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at least for me, to have the means of it out of
mine. For this purpose, I marked out several trees, which I thought fit for our work,
and I set Friday and his father to cut them down; and then I caused the Spaniard, to
whom I imparted my thoughts on that affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed
them with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single planks, and I
DEPARTURE OF MY ENVOYS. 149

caused them to do the like, till they had made about a dozen large planks of good oak,
near two feet broad, thirty-five feet long, and from two inches to four inches thick : what
prodigious labour it took up, any one may imagine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little stock of tame goats as much as
I could; and for this purpose I made Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and my-
self with Friday the next day (for we took our turns), and by this means we got about
twenty young kids to breed up with the rest; for whenever we shot the dam, we saved
the kids, and added them to our flock. But, above all, the season for curing the grapes
coming on, I caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that I believe,
had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun are cured, we could have filled sixty
or eighty barrels; and these, with our bread, formed a great part of our food—very good
living too, I assure you, for they are exceeding nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order; it was not the most plentiful in-
crease I had seen in the island, but, however, it was enough to answer our end; for, from
twenty-two bushels of barley, we brought in and thrashed out above two hundred and
twenty bushels; and the like in proportion of the rice; which was store enough for
our food to the next harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore
with me; or, if we had been ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully have vic-
tualled our ship to have carried us to any part of the world, that is to say, of
America. When we had thus housed and secured our magazine of corn, we fell to
work to make more wicker-work, viz., great baskets, in which we kept it; and the
Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at this part, and often blamed me that
I did not make some things for defence of this kind of work; but I saw no need
of it.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests expected, I gave the Spaniard
leave to go over the main, to see what he could do with those he had left behind him
there. I gave him a strict charge not to bring any man with him who would not first
swear, in the presence of himself and the old savage, that he would no way injure, fight
with, or attack the person he should find in the island who was so kind as to send for
them in order to their deliverance; but that they would stand by him and defend him
against all such attempts, and wherever they went, would be entirely under and subjected
to his command; and that this should be put in writing, and signed with their hands.
How they were to have done this, when I knew they had neither pen nor ink—that, in-
deed, was a question which we never asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard and
the old savage, the father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes which they might
be said to have come in, or rather were brought in, when they came as prisoners to be
devoured by the savages. I gave each of them a musket, with a fire-lock on it, and
about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to be very good husbands of
both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent occasion.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me, in view of my deliv-_
erance, for now twenty-seven years and some days. I gave them provisions of bread,
and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for many days, and sufficient for all the
Spaniards for about eight days’ time; and wishing them a good voyage, I saw them go,
agreeing with them about a signal they should hang out at their return, by which I
should know them again, when they came back, at a distance, before they came on shore.
They went away, with a fair gale, on the day the moon was at full, by my account in the
month of October; but as for an exact reckoning of days, after I had once lost it, I
could never recover it again; nor had I kept even the number of years so punctually as
to be sure I was right; though, as it proved, when I afterwards examined my account, I
found J had kept a true reckoning of years,

It I50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

accident intervened, of which the like has not, perhaps, been heard of in history. I was
fast asleep in my hutch one morning, when my man Friday came running in to me, and
called aloud, “ Master, master, they are come, they are come!” I jumped up, and, re-
gardless of danger, I went out as soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little
grove, which, by the way, was by this time grown to be a very thick wood; I say, re-
gardless of danger, I went without my arms, which was not my custom to do; but I was
surprised when, turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat at about a league and
a half distance, standing in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it,
and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in; also I observed, presently, that they
did not come from that side which the shore lay on, but from the southernmost end of
the island. Upon this I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these were not the
people we looked for, and that we might not know yet whether they were friends or ene-
mies. In the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective glass, to see what I could
make of them; and, having taken the ladder out, I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I
used to do, when I was apprehensive of anything, and to take my view plainer, without
being discovered. I had scarce set my foot upon the hill, when my eye plainly discov-
ered a ship lying at an anchor, at about two leagues and a half distance from me, S.S. E.,
but not above a league and a half fromthe shore. By my observation, it appeared
plainly to be an English ship, and the boat appeared to be an English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of seeing a ship, and one
that I had. reason to believe was manned by my own countrymen, and consequently
friends, was such as I cannot describe; but yet I had some secret doubts hung about
me—I cannot tell from whence they came—bidding me keep upon my guard. In the
first place, it occurred to me to consider what business an English ship could have in
that part of the world, since it was not the way to or from any part of the world
where the English had any traffic; and I knew there had been no storms to drive
them in there, in distress; and that if they were really English, it was most probable that
they were here upon no good design; and that I had better continue as I was than
fall into the hands of thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger which sometimes are
given him when he may think there is no possibility of its being real. That such hints
and notices are given us, I believe few that have made my observations of things can
deny; that they are certain discoveries of an invisible world, and of a converse of spirits,
we cannot doubt; and if the tendency of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why
should we not suppose they are from some friendly agent (whether supreme, or inferior
and subordinate, is not the question), and that they are given for our. good?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice of this reasoning; for
had I not been made cautious by this secret admonition, come it from whence it will, I
had been undone inevitably, and in a far worse condition than before, as you will see
presently. I had not kept myself long in this posture till I saw the boat draw near the
shore, as if they looked for a creek to thrust in at, for the convenience of landing; how-
ever, as they did not come quite far enough, they did not see the little inlet where I
formerly landed my rafts, but ran their boat on shore upon the beach, at about half a
mile from me; which was very happy for me; for otherwise they would have landed just
at my door, as I may say, and would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps
have plundered me of all I had. When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied they
were Englishmen, at least most of them; one or two I thought were Dutch, but it did
not prove so; there were in all eleven men, whereof three of them I found were unarmed,
and, as I thought, bound; and when the first four or five of them were jumped on shore,
they took those three out of the boat, as prisoners: one of the three I could perceive
using the most passionate gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair even to a kind of
“SHOT THE NEW CAPTAIN THROUGH THE HEAD.”
(See fp. 162.)


152 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

extravagance; the other two, I could perceive, lifted up their hand sometimes, and ap-
peared concerned, indeed, but not to such a degree as the first. I was perfectly con-
founded at the sight, and knew not what the meaning of it should be. Friday called out
to me in English, as well as he could, “O master! you see English mans eat prisoner as
well as savage mans.” “Why, Friday,” says I, “do you think they are going to eat
them, then ?”—“ Yes,” says Friday, “they will eat them.’”—‘“ No, no,” says I, ‘“ Friday;
I am afraid they will murder them, indeed; but you may be sure they will not eat
them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was, but stood trembling
with the horror of the sight, expecting every moment when the three prisoners should
be killed; nay, once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm with a great cutlass, as the
seamen call it, or sword, to strike one of the poor men; and I expected to see him fall
every moment; at which all the blood in my body seemed to run chill in my veins. I
wished heartily now for my Spaniard, and the savage that was gone with him, or that
I had any way to have come undiscovered within shot of them, that I might have
secured the three men, for I saw no fire-arms they had among them; but it fell out to
my mind another way. After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three men by
the insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run scattering about the land, as if they
wanted to see the country. I observed also that the three other men had liberty to go
where they pleased; but they sat down all three upon the ground, very pensive, and
looked like men in despair. This put me in mind of the first time when I came on shore,
and began to look about me; how I gave myself over for lost; how wildly I looked
round me; what dreadful apprehensions I had; and how I lodged in the tree all night,
for fear of being devoured by wild beasts. As I knew nothing, that night, of the supply
I was to receive by the providential driving of the ship nearer the land by the storms
and tide, by which I have since been so long nourished and supported; so these three
poor desolate men knew nothing how certain of deliverance and supply they were, how
near it was to them, and how effectually and really they were in a condition of safety, at
the same time they thought themselves lost, and their case desperate. So little do we
see before us in the world, and so much reason have we to depend cheerfully upon the
great Maker of the world, that He does not leave His creatures so absolutely destitute,
but that, in the worst circumstances, they have always something to be thankful for, and
sometimes are nearer their deliverance than they imagine; nay, are even brought to
their deliverance by the means by which they seem to be brought to their destruction.

It was just at the top of high water when these people came on shore; and while
they rambled about to see what kind of a place they were in, they had carelessly stayed
till the tide was spent, and the water was ebbed considerably away, leaving their boat
aground. They had left two men in the boat, who, as I found afterwards, having drunk
a little too much brandy, fell asleep; however, one of them waking a little sooner than
the other, and finding the boat too fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed out for the
rest, who were straggling about; upon which they all soon came to the boat; but it was
past all their strength to launch her, the boat being very heavy, and the shore on that
side being a soft oozy sand, almost like a quicksand. In this condition, like true sea-
men, who are, perhaps, the least of all mankind given to forethought, they gave it over,
and away they strolled about the country again; and I heard one of them say aloud to
another, calling them off from the boat, ‘“ Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t you? she'll
float next tide”; by which I was fully confirmed in the main inquiry of what country-
men they were. All this while I kept myself close, not once daring to stir out of my
castle, any farther than to my place of observation, near the top of the hill; and very
‘glad I was to think how well it was fortified. I knew it was no less than ten hours be-
fore the boat could float again, and by that it would be dark, and I might be at more
I APPEAR TO THE ENGLISH CAPTAIN. 153

liberty to see their motions, and to hear their discourse, if they had any. In the mean-
time, I fitted myself up for a battle, as before, though with more caution, knowing that I
had to do with another kind of enemy than I had at first. I ordered Friday also, whom
I had made an excellent marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms. I took my-
self two fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets. My figure, indeed, was very
fierce; I had my formidable goat-skin coat on, with the great cap I have mentioned, a
naked sword, two pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any attempt till it was dark;
but about two o’clock, being the heat of the day, I found, in short, they were all gone
straggling into the woods, and, as I thought, were all laid down to sleep. The three poor
distressed men, too anxious for their condition to get any sleep, had, however, sat down
under the shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I thought,
out of sight of any of the rest. Upon this I resolved to discover myself to them, and
learn something of their condition ; immediately I marched as above, my man Friday at
a good distance behind me as formidable for his arms as I, but not making quite so star-
ins a spectre-like figure as I did. I came as near them undiscovered as I could, and then,
before any of them saw me, I called aloudto them in Spanish, ‘‘ What are ye, gentlemen ?”
They started up at the noise, but were ten times more confounded when they saw me,
and the uncouth figure that I made. They made no answer at all, but I thought I per-
ceived them just going to fly from me, when I spoke tothem in English: ‘“ Gentlemen,”
said I, “ do not be surprised at me: perhaps you may have a friend near, when you did
not expect it.” ‘ He must be sent directly from heaven, then,” said one of them very
gravely to me, and pulling off his hat at the same time; “ for our condition is past the
help of man.” “ All help is from heaven, sir,” said I: ‘“‘but can you put a stranger in the
way to help you? for you seem to be in some great distress. I saw you when you landed;
and when you seemed to make application to the brutes that came with you, I saw one of
them lift up his sword to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trembling, looked like one as-
tonished, and returned, ‘‘ Am I talking to God, or man? Is it a real manor an angel ?”
“ Be inno fear about that, sir,’ said 1; “If God had sentan angel to relieve you, he would
have come better clothed, and armed after another manner than you see me in; pray lay
aside your fears; Iam aman, an Englishman, and disposed to assist you; you see I
have one servant only; we have arms and ammunition ; tell us freely can we serve you ?
What is your case?” “ Our case, sir,” said he, “is too long to tell you, while our mur-
derers are so nearus; but, in short, sir, I was commander of that ship; my men have
mutinied against me; they have been hardly prevailed on not to murder me, and, at last,
have set me on shore in this desolate place, with these two men with me—one my mate,
the other a passenger—where we expected to perish, believing the place to be uninhabited,
and know not yet what to think of it.” ‘“ Where are those brutes, your enemies?” “ There
they lie, sir,” said he, pointing to a thicket of trees ; “ my heart trembles for fear they have
seen us, and heard you speak; if they have, they will certainly murder us all.” “Have
they any fire-arms?” said J. He answered, “They had only two pieces, one of which
they left in the boat.” ‘‘ Well, then,” said I, leave the rest to me; I see they are all
asleep; it is an easy thing to kill them all; but shall we rather take them prisoners?”
He told me there were two desperate villains among them that it was scarce safe
to show any mercy to; but if they were secured, he believed all the rest would
return to their duty. I asked him which they were. He told me he could not at
that distance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in anything I would direct.
“ Well,” says I, “let us retreat out of their view, lest they awake, and we will re-
solve further.” So they willingly went back with me, till the woods covered us from
them.
154 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

“Look you, sir,” said 1; “if I venture upon your deliverance, are you willing to make
two conditions with me?” He anticipated my proposals by telling me that both he and
the ship, if recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded by me in everything;
and if the ship was not recovered, he would live and die with me in what part of the
world soever I would send him; and the two other men said the same. ‘ Well,” said I,
“my conditions are but two: first,—that while you stay on this island with me, you will
not pretend to any authority here; and if I put arms in your hands, you will, upon all
occasions, give them up to me, and do no prejudice to me or mine upon this island, and
in the meantime be governed by my orders; secondly,—that if the ship is or may be re-
covered, you will carry me and my man to England passage free.

He gave me all the assurance that the invention and faith of a man could devise that
he would comply with these most reasonable demands, and besides would owe his life to
me, and acknowledge it upon all occasions as long as he lived. ‘“ Well, then,” said I,
“here are three muskets for you, with powder and ball; tell me next what you think is
proper to be done.” He showed all the testimony of his gratitude that he was able, but
offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it was hard venturing any-
thing; but the best method I could think of was to fire on them at once as they lay,and
if any were not killed at the first volley, and offered to submit, we might save them, and
so put it wholly upon God’s providence to direct the shot. He said, very modestly, that
he was loth to kill them, if he could help it; but that those two were incorrigible villains,
and had been the authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they escaped, we should
be undone still, for they would go on board and bring the whole ship’s company, and
destroy us all. ‘‘ Well, then,” says I, “ necessity legitimates my advice, for it is the only
way to save our lives.” However, seeing him still cautious of shedding blood, I told him
they should go themselves, and manage as they found convenient.

In the middle of this. discourse we heard some of them awake, and soon after we
saw two of them on their feet. I asked him if either of them were the men who he had
said were the heads of the munity. He said, “no.” ‘ Well, then,” said I, “you may let
them escape; and Providence seems to have awakened them on purpose to save them-
selves. Now,’ says I, “if the rest escape you, it is your fault.” Animated with this, he
took the musket I had given him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two com-
rades with him, with each man a piece in his hand; the two men who were with him
going first made some noise, at which one of the seaman, who was awake, turned about,
and seeing them coming, cried out to the rest; but it was too late then, for the moment
he cried out they fired—I mean the two men, the captain wisely reserving his own piece.
They had so well aimed their shot at the men they knew, that one of them was killed on
the spot, and the other very much wounded; but not being dead, hé started up on his
feet, and called eagerly for help to the other ; but the captain, stepping to him, told him
it was too late to cry for help, he should call upon God to forgive his villainy, and with
that word knocked him down with the stock of his musket, so that he never spoke more:
there were three more in the company, and one of them was slightly wounded. By this
time I was come; and when they saw their danger, and that it was in vain to resist, they
begged for mercy. The captain told them he would spare their lives if they would give
him an assurance of their abhorrence of the treachery they had been guilty of, and would
swear to be faithful to him in recovering the ship, and afterwards in carrying her back
to Jamaica, from whence they came. They gave him all the protestations of their sin-
cerity that could be desired; and he was willing to believe them, and spare their lives,
which I was not against, only I obliged him to keep them bound hand and foot while
they were upon the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate to the boat, with orders
to secure her, and bring away the oars and sails, which they did; and by-and-by three,
PREPARING OUR PLANS. 155

straggling men, that were (happily for them) parted from the rest, came back upon hear-
ing the guns fired; and seeing the captain, who before was their prisoner, now their
conqueror, they submitted to be bound also; and so our victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into one another’s circumstances.
Ibegan first, and told him my whole history, which he heard with an attention even to amaze-
ment—and particularly at the wonderful manner of my being furnished with provisions
and ammunition; and, indeed, as my story is a whole collection of wonders, it affected
him deeply. But when he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I seemed to have
been preserved there on purpose to save his life, the tears ran down his face, and he could
not speak a word more. After this communication was at an end, I carried him and _ his
two men into my apartments, leading them in just where I came out, viz., at the top of the
‘house, where I refreshed him with such provision as I had, and showed them all the con-
trivances I had made during my long, long inhabiting that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing; but above all, the
captain admired my fortification, and how perfectly I concealed my retreat with a grove of
trees, which, having been now planted near twenty years, and the trees growing much faster
than in England, was become a little wood, so thick that it was impassable in any part of
it but at that one side where I had reserved my little winding passage into it. I told him
this was my castle and my residence, but that I had a seat in the country, as most princes
have, whither I could retreat upon occasion, and that I would show him that too another
time; but at present our business was to consider how to recover the ship. He agreed
with me as to that, but told me he was perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for that
there were still six-and-twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a cursed con-
spiracy, by which they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would be hardened in it now
by desperation, and would carry it on, knowing that if they were subdued they should be
brought to the gallows as soon as they came to England, or to any of the English
colonies, and that, therefore, there would be no attacking them with so small a number
as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it was a very rational con-
clusion, and that therefore something was to be resolved on very speedily, as well to draw
the men on board into some snare for their surprise, as to prevent their landing upon us,
and destroying us. Upon this it presently occurred to me that in a little while the ship’s
crew, wondering what was become of their comrades and of the boat, would certainly
come on shore in their other boat to look for them, and that, then, perhaps, they might
come armed, and be too strong for us: this he allowed to be rational. Upon this, I told
him the first thing we had to do was to stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that
they might not carry her off, and taking everything out of her, leave her so far useless as
not to be fit to swim. Accordingly we went on board, took the arms which were left on
board out of her, and whatever else we found there—which was a bottle of brandy, and
another of rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of sugar in a piece
of canvas (the sugar was five or six pounds); all which was very welcome to me, especially
the brandy and sugar, of which I had had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars, mast, sail and rudder of the
boat were carried away before), we knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if they had
come strong enough to master us, yet they could not carry off the boat. Indeed, it was
not much in my thoughts that we could be able to recover the ship ; but my view was, that
if they went away without the boat, I did not much question to make her again fit to carry
us to the Leeward Islands, and call upon our friends the Spaniards in my way, for I had
them still in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and first, by main strength, heaved the
boat upon the beach, so high that the tide would not float her off at high-water mark, and
156 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

besides, had broken a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly stopped, and were sat down
musing what we should do, we heard the ship fire a gun, and make a waft with her ensign
as a signal for the boat to come on board: but no boat stirred; and they fired several
times, making other signals for the boat. At last, when all their signals and firing proved
fruitless, and they found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help of my glasses,
hoist another boat out, and row towards the shore; and we found, as they approached,
that there were no less than ten men in her, and that they had fire-arms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a full view of them as
they came, and a plain sight even of their faces; because the tide having set them a little
to the east of the other boat, they rowed up under shore, to come to the same place where
the other had landed, and where the boat lay; by this means, I say, we had a full view of
of them, and the captain knew the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of
whom, he said, there were three very honest fellows, who, he was sure, were led into this
conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and frightened; but that as for the boatswain,
who it seems was the chief officer among them, and all the rest, they were as outrageous
as any of the ship’s crew, and were no doubt made desperate in their new enterprise ; and
terribly apprehensive he was that they would be too powerful for us. I smiled at him,
and told him that men in our circumstances were past the operation of fear; that seeing
almost every condition that could be was better than that which we were supposed to be
in, we ought to expect that the consequence, whether death or life, would be sure to be
a deliverance. Iasked him what he thought of the circumstances of my life, and whether
a deliverance were not worth venturing for. “And where, sir,” said I, “is your belief of
my being preserved here on purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little while
ago? For my part,” said I, “there seems to be but one thing amiss in all the prospect
of it.” “What is that?” says he. “Why,” said I, “it is, that as you say there are three
or four honest fellows among them, which should be spared, had they been all of the
wicked part of the crew, I should have thought God’s providence had singled them out to
deliver them into your hands; for depend upon it, every man that comes ashore is our
own, and shall die or live as they behave to us. As I spoke this with a raised voice and
cheerful countenance, I found it greatly encouraged him; so we set vigorously to our
business.

We had, upon the first appearance of the boats coming from the ship, considered of
separating our prisoners; and had, indeed, secured them effectually. Two of them, of
whom the captain was less assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday and one of the
three delivered men to my cave, where they were remote enough, and out of danger of
being heard or discovered, or of finding their way out of the woods, if they could have
delivered themselves; here they left them bound, but gave them provisions; and prom-
ised them, if they continued there quietly, to give them their liberty in a day or two; but
that if they attempted their escape, they should be put to death without mercy. They
promised faithfully to bear their confinement with patience, and were very thankful that
they had such good usage as to have provisions and a light left them: for Friday gave
them candles (such as we made ourselves) for their comfort; and they did not know but
that he stood sentinel over them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were kept pinioned, indeed,
because the captain was not free to trust them; but the other two were taken into my
service, upon the captain’s recommendation, and upon their solemnly engaging to live
and die with us; so with them and the three honest men we were seven men, well
armed; and I made no doubt we should be able to deal well enough with the ten that
were coming, considering that the captain had said there were three or four honest men
among them also. As soon as they got to the place where their other boat lay, they ran
their boat into the beach and came all on shore, hauling the boat up after them, which I
WATCHING THE MUTINEERS. 157

was glad to see, for I was afraid they would rather have left the boat at an anchor some
distance from the shore, with some hands in her, to guard her, and so we should not be
able to seize the boat. Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran all to their other
boat; and it was easy to see they were under a great surprise to find her stripped, as above,
of all that was in her, anda great hole in her bottom. After they had mused awhile upon
this, they set up two or three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if they
could make their companions hear; but all was to no purpose: then they came all close
in a ring, and fired a volley of their small arms, which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes
made the woods ring; but it was all one; those in the cave, we were sure, could not hear;
and those in our keeping, though they heard it well enough, yet durst give no answer to
them. They were so astonished at the surprise of this, that, as they told us afterwads,
they resolved to go all on board again to their ship, and let them know that the men
were all murdered, and the long-boat staved; accordingly, they immediately launched
their boat again, and got all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at this, believing they would
go on board the ship again, and set sail, giving their comrades over for lost, and so
he should still lose the ship, which he was in hopes we should have recovered ; but
he was quickly as much frightened the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, when we perceived them all
coming on shore again; but with this new measure in their conduct, which it seems
they consulted together upon, viz., to leave three men in the boat, and the rest to
go on shore, and go up into the country to look for their fellows. This was a great
disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss what to do, as our seizing those seven
men on shore would be no advantage to us if we let the boat escape; because they
would row away to the ship, and then the rest of them would be sure to weigh and set
sail, and so our recovering the ship would be lost. However, we had no remedy but to
wait and see what the issue of things might present. The seven men came on shore, and
the three who remained in the boat put her off to a good distance from the shore, and
came to an anchor to wait for them ; so that it was impossible for us to come at them in the
boat. Those that came on shore kept close together, marching towards the top of the
little hill under which my habitation lay: and we could see them plainly, though they
could not perceive us. We should have been very glad if they would have come nearer
to us, so that we might have fired at them, or that they would have gone farther off, that
we might come abroad. But when they were come to the brow of the hill where they
could see a great way into the valleys and woods, which lay towards the north-east
part, and where.the island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they were weary:
and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the shore, nor far from one another, they
sat down together, under a tree, to consider of it. Had they thought fit to have gone to
sleep there, as the other party of them had done, they had done the job for us; but they
were too full of apprehensions of danger to venture to go to sleep, though they could not
tell what the danger was they had to fear.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this consultation of theirs, viz.,
that perhaps they would all fire a volley again, to endeavor to make their fellows hear,
and that we should all sally upon them just at the juncture when their pieces were all
discharged, and they would certainly yield, and we should have them without bloodshed.
I liked this proposal, provided it was done while we were near enough to come up to
them before they could load their pieces again. But this event did not happen; and we
lay still a long time, very irresolute what course to take. At length, I told them there
would be nothing done, in my opinion, till night; and then if they did not return to
the boat, perhaps we might find a way to get between them and the shore, and so might
use some stratagem with them in the boat to get them on shore. We waited a great
158 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

while, though very impatient for their removing; and were very uneasy, when, after
long consultation, we saw them all start up, and march down towards the sea; it seems
they had such dreadful apprehensions of the danger of the place, that they resolved to
go on board the ship again, give their companions over for lost, and so go on with their
intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I imagined it to be as it really
was, that they had given over their search, and were for going back again; and the cap-
tain, as soon as I told him my thought, was ready to sink at the apprehensions of it:
but I presently thought ofa stratagem to fetch them back again, and which answered
my end to a tittle. I ordered Friday and the captain’s mate to go over the little creek
westward, towards the place where the savages came on shore when Friday was rescued,
and so soon as they came to a little rising ground, at about half a mile distance, I bade
them halloo out, as loud as they could, and wait till they found the seamen heard them;
that as soon as ever they heard the seamen answer them, they should return it again;
and, then keeping out of sight, take a round, always answering when the others hallooed,
to draw them as far into the island, and among the woods, as possible, and then wheel
about again to me by such ways as I directed.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate hallooed; and they
presently heard them, and, answering, ran along the shore westward, towards the voice
they heard, when they were presently stopped by the creek, where, the water being up,
they could not get over, and called for the boat to come up and set them over; as,
indeed, I expected. When they had set themselves over, I observed that the boat being
gone up a good way into the creek, and, as it were, ina harbour within the land, they
took one of the three men out of her, to go along with them, and left only two in the
boat, having fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the shore. This was what I
wished for; and immediately leaving Friday and the captain’s mate to their business,
I took the rest with me, and crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised the two
men before they were aware ; one of them lying on the shore, and the other being in
the boat. The fellow on shore was between sleeping and waking, and going to start
up; the captain, who was foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him down; and then
called out to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead man. There needed very few
arguments to persuade a single man to yield, when he saw five men upon him, and his
comrade knocked down: besides, this was, it seems, one of the three who were not so
hearty in the munity as the rest of the crew; and, therefore, was easily persuaded not
only to yield, but afterwards to join very sincerely with us. In the meantime, Friday
and the captain’s mate so well managed their business with the rest that they drew them
by hallooing and answering, from one hill to another, and from one wood to another, till
they not only heartily tired them, but left them where they could not reach back to the
boat before it was dark; and, indeed, they were heartily tired themselves also, by the
time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark, and to fall upon
them, so as to make sure work with them. It was several hours after Friday came back
to me before they came back to their boat; and we could hear the foremost of them,
long before they came quite up, calling to those behind to come along; and could also
hear them answer, and complain how lame and tired they were, and not able to come
any faster; which was very welcome news to us. At length they came up to the boat;
but it is impossible to express their confusion when they found their boat fast aground
in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two men gone. We could hear them call to
one another in a most lamentable manner, telling one another they were got into an en-
chanted island; that either there were inhabitants in it, and they should all be murdered,
or else there were devils and spirits in it, and they should be all carried away and de-
THE RINGLEADER SHOT DEAD. 159

voured. They hallooed again, and called their two comrades by their names a great
many times; but no answer. After some time, we could see them, by the little light
there was, running about, ringing their hands like men in despair, and sometimes they
would go and sit down in the boat to rest themselves; then come ashore again, and
walk about again, and so the same thing over again. My men would fain have had me
give them leave to fall upon them at once in the dark; but I was willing to take them
at some advantage, so as to spare them, and kill as few of them as I could; and
especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing of any of our men, knowing the others
were very well armed. I resolved to wait, to see if they did not separate; and therefore
to make sure of them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered Friday and the cap-
tain to creep upon their hands and feet, as close to the ground as they could, that they
might not be discovered, and get as near them as they could possibly, before they
offered to fire.



“OUT RUSHED THREE MONSTROUS WOLVES” (4. 172),

They had not been long in that posture, when the boatswain, who was the principal
ringleader of the mutiny, and had now shown himself the most dejected and dispirited of
of all the rest, came walking towards them, with two more of the crew; the captain was
so eager at having the principal rogue so much in his power, that he could hardly have
patience to let him come so near as to be sure of him, for they only heard his tongue be-
fore; but when they came nearer, the captain and Friday, starting up on their feet, let fly
at them. The boatswain was killed upon the spot: the next man was shot in the body,
and fell just by him, though he did not die till an hour or two after; and the third ran for
it. Atthe noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with my whole army, which was
now eight men: viz., myself, generalissimo; Friday, my lieutenant-general; the captain
and his two men, and the three prisoners of war whom we had trusted with arms. We came
160 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that they could not see our number; and I made the
man they had left in the boat, and who was now one of us, call them by name, to try if
I could bring them to a parley, and so perhaps reduce them to terms; which fell out just
as we desired ; for, indeed, it was easy to think, as their condition then was, they would be
very willing to capitulate. So he cails out as loud as he could to one of them, “ Tom Smith!
Tom Smith!” Tom Smith answered immediately, ‘‘ Who’s that? Robinson?” for it seems
he knew the voice. The other answered, “ Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom Smith, throw
down your arms and yield, or you are all dead men this moment.’—‘‘ Who must we
yield to? Where are they?” says Smith again. ‘Here they are,” says he; “here’s
our captain and fitty men with him, have been hunting you these two hours; the boat-
_ swain is killed, Will Frye is wounded, and I am a prisoner; and if you do not yield, you
are all lost.” —‘‘ Will they give us quarter then?” says Tom Smith, “and we will yield.”
—T'll go and ask, if you promise to yield,” said Robinson: so he asked the captain;
and the captain himself then calls out, “ You, Smith, you know my voice; if you lay
down your arms immediately, and submit, you shall have your lives, all but Will
Atkins,”

Upon this, Will Atkins cried out, “For God’s sake, captain, give me quarter; what

have I done? They have been all as bad as I;” which, by the way, was not true; for, it
seems, this Will Atkins was the first man that laid hold of the captain, when they first
mutinied, and used him barbarously, in tying his hands and giving him injurious lan-
guage. However, the captain told him he must lay down his arms at discretion, and trust
to the governor’s mercy; by which he meant me, for they all called me governor. In a
word, they all laid down their arms, and begged their lives; and I sent the man that
had parleyed with them, and two more, who bound them all; and then my great army of
fifty men, which, with those three, were in all but eight, came up and seized upon them,
and upon their boat; only that I kept myself and one more out of sight, for reasons
of state. ;
Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing the ship; and as for the
captain, now he had leisure to parley with them, he expostulated with them upon the
villany of their practices with him, and upon the further wickedness of their design, and
how certainly it must bring them to misery and distress in the end, and perhaps to the
gallows. They all appeared very penitent, and begged hard for their lives. As for that,
he told him they were none of his prisoners, but the commander’s of the island; that
they thought they had set him on shore in a barren, uninhabited island; but it had
pleased God so to direct them, that it was inhabited, and that the governor was an En-
glishman; that he might hang them all there, if he pleased; but as he had given them
all quarter, he supposed he would send them to England, to be dealt with there as jus-
tice required, except Atkins, whom he was commanded by the governor to advise to pre-
pare for death, for that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was all a fiction of his own, yet it had its desired effect; Atkins fell
upon his knees, to beg the captain to intercede with the governor for his life; and all the
rest begged of him, for God’s sake, that they might not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me the time of our deliverance was come, and that it would be a
most easy thing to bring these fellows in to be hearty in getting possession of the ship;
so I retired in the dark from them, that they might not see what kind of a governor they
had, and called the captain to me; when I called, as at a good distance, one of the men
was ordered to speak again, and say to the captain, “ Captain, the commander calls for
you;” and presently the captain replied, “ Tell his Excellency, I am just coming.” This
more perfectly amazed them, and they all believed that the commander was just by, with
his fifty men. Upon the captain coming to me, I told him my project for seizing the
ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved to put it in execution next morning.
NIGHT ATTACK ON THE VESSEL. 161

But, in order to execute it with more art, and to be sure of success, I told him we must
divide the prisoners, and‘that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the worst
of them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the others lay. This was committed
to Friday and the two men who came on shore with the captain. They conveyed them
to the cave as to a prison: and it was, indeed, a dismal place, especially to men in their!
condition. The others I ordered to my bower, as I called it, of which I have given a
full description: and as it was fenced in, and they pinioned, the place was secure enough
considering they were upon their behaviour.

To these in the morning, I sent the captain, who was to enter into a parley with
them; in a word, to try them, and tell me whether he thought they might be trusted or
not to go on board and surprise the ship. He talked to them of the injury done him, of
the condition they were brought to, and that though the governor had given them
quarter for their lives as to the present action, yet that if they were sent to England, they
would all be hanged in chains; but that if they would join in such an attempt as to re-
cover the ship, he would have the governor’s engagement for their pardon.

Anyone may guess how readily such a proposal would be accepted by men in their
position; they fell down on their knees to the captain, and promised, with the deepest
imprecations, that they would be faithful to him to the last drop, and that they should
owe their lives to him, and would go with him all over the world; that they would own
him for a father to them as long as they lived. “Well,” says the captain, “I must go
and tell the governor what you say, and see what I can do to bring him to consent to it.”
So he brought me an account of the temper he found them in, and that he verily believed
they would be faithful. However, that we might be very secure, I told him he should go
back again and choose out five of them, and tell them that they might see that he did
not want men, that he would take out those five to be his assistants,and that the gov-
ernor would keep the other two and the three that were sent prisoners to the castle (my
cave), as hostages for the fidelity of those five; and that if they proved unfaithful in
the execution, the five hostages should be hanged in chains alive on the shore. This
looked severe, and convinced them that the governor was in earnest; however, they had
no way left them but to accept it; and it was now the business of the prisoners, as much
as of the captain, to persuade the other five to do their duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition: first, the captain, his mate, and
passenger; second, then the two prisoners of the first gang, to whom, having their char-
acter from the captain, I had given their liberty and trusted them with arms; third, the
other two whom I had kept till now in my bower pinioned, but, upon the captain’s mo-
tion, had now released ; fourth, these five released at last; so that they were twelve in
all, besides five we kept prisoners in the cave for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these hands on board the ship;
for as for mé and my man Friday, I did not think it was proper for us to stir, having
seven men left behind; and it was employment enough for us to keep them asunder,
and supply them with victuals. As to the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them
fast, but Friday went in twice a day to them, to supply them with necessaries; and I
made the other two carry provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the captain, who told them I
was the person the governor had ordered to look after them ; and that it was the governor’s
pleasure that they should not stir anywhere but by my. direction; that if they did,
they would be fetched into the castle, and be laid in irons: so that as we never suffered
them to see me as governor, I now appeared as another person, and spoke of the gov-
ernor, the garrison, the castle, and the like, upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish his two boats, stop the
breach of one, and man them. He made his passenger captain of one, with four other

II
162 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

men; and himself, his mate, and five more, went in the other; and they contrived their
business very well, for they came up to the ship about midnight. As soon as they came
within call of the ship, he made Robinson hail them, and tell them that they had brought
off the men and the boat, but that it was a long time before they had found them, and
the like; holding them in a chat till they came to the ship’s side: when the captain and
the mate entering first with their arms, immediately knocked down the second mate and
carpenter with the butt-end of their muskets, being faithfully seconded by their men; they
secured all the rest that were upon the main- and quarter-decks, and began to fasten the
hatches, to keep them down that were below; when the other boat and their men, enter-
ing at the fore-chains, secured the forecastle of the ship, and the scuttle which went
down into the cook-room, making three men they found there prisoners. When this
was done, and all safe upon deck, the captain ordered the mate, with three men, to break
into the round-house, where the new rebel captain lay, who, having taken the alarm, had
got up, and with two men and a boy had got fire-arms in’ their hands; and when the
mate, with a crow, split open the door, the new captain and his men fired boldly among
them, and wounded the mate with a musket-ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two
more of the men, but killed nobody. The mate, calling for help, rushed, however, into
the round-house, wounded as he was, and, with his pistol, shot the new captain through
the head, the bullet entering at his mouth, coming out again behind one of his ears, so
that he never spoke a word more: upon which the rest yielded, and the ship was taken
effectually, without any more lives lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered seven guns to be fired,
which was the signal agreed upon with me to give me notice of his success, which, you may
be sure, I was very glad to hear, having sat watching upon the shore for it till near two
o’clock in the morning. Having thus heard the signal plainly, I laid me down; and it
having been a day of great fatigue to me, I slept very sound, till I was something sur-
prised with the noise of a gun; and presently starting up, I heard a man calling me by
the name of ‘Governor! Governor!” and presently I knew the captain’s voice; when
climbing up to the top of the hill, there he stood, and, pointing to the ship, he embraced
me in his arms. “ My dear friend and deliverer,” says he, ‘“‘there’s your ship; for she is
all yours, and so are we, and all that belongs to her.” I cast my eyes to the ship, and
there she rode, within little more than half a mile of the shore; for they had weighed
her anchor as soon as they were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had brought
her to an anchor just against the mouth of the little creek; and, the tide being up, the
captain had brought the pinnace in near the place where I first landed my rafts, so landed
just at my door. I was at first ready to sink down with surprise; for I saw my deliver-
ance, indeed, visibly put into my hands, all things easy, and a large ship just ready to
carry me away whither I pleasedto go. At first, for some time, I was not able toanswer
one word; but as he had taken me in his arms, I held fast by him, or I should have
fallen to the ground. He perceived the surprise, and immediately pulled a bottle out of
his pocket, and gave me a dram of cordial, which he had brought on purpose for me.
After I had drunk it, I sat down upon the ground; and though it brought me to myself,
yet it was a good while before I could speak a word to him. All this while the poor
man was in as great an ecstasy as I, only not under any surprise as I was; and he said a
thousand kind and tender things to me, to compose and bring me to myself: but such
was the flood of joy in my breast, that it put all of my spirits into confusion: at last it
broke into tears; and, in a little while after, I recovered my speech; then I took my
turn, and embraced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced together. I told him I looked
upon him asa man sent from Heaven to deliver me, and that the whole transaction seemed
to be a chain of wonders; that such things as these were the testimonies we had of a
secret hand of Providence governing the world, and an evidence that the eye of an In-
MY JUDGMENT ON THE MUTINEERS. 163

finite Power could search into the remotest corner of the world, and send help to the
miserable whenever He pleased. I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to
Heaven; and what heart could forbear to bless Him, Who had not only in a miraculous
manner provided for one in such a wilderness, and in such a desolate condition, but from
Whom every deliverance must always be acknowledged to proceed.

When we had talked awhile, the captain told me he had brought me some little re-
freshments, such as the ship afforded, and such as the wretches that had been so long his
masters had not plundered him of. Upon this, he called aloud to the boat,and bade his men
bring the things ashore that were for the governor; and, indeed, it was a present as if I
had been one that was not to be carried away along with them, but as if I had been to
dwell upon the island still, and they were to go without me. First, he had brought me
a case of bottles full of excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira wine (the
bottles held two quarts each), two pounds of excellent good tobacco, twelve good pieces
of the ship’s beef, and six pieces of pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hundred-weight
of biscuit; he also brought mea box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag full of lemons, and
two bottles of lime-juice, and abundance of other things. But besides these, and what
was a thousand times more useful, he brought me six new clean shirts, six very good neck-
cloths, two pairs of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of stockings, and a very
good suit of clothes of his own, which had been worn but very little: in a word he
clothed me from head to foot. It was avery kind and agreeable present, as any one
may imagine, to one in my circumstances ; but never was anything in the world of that
kind so unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy as it was to me to wear such clothes at their
first putting on.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things were brought into my
little apartment, we began to consult what was to be done with the prisoners we had; for
it was worth considering whether we might venture to take them away with us or no,
especially two of them, whom he knew to beincorrigible and refractory to the last degree;
and the captain said he knew they were such rouges that there was no obliging them,
and if he did carry them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be delivered over to
justice at the first English colony he could come at; and I found that the captain him-
self was very anxious about it. Upon this, I told him that, if he desired it, I would un-
dertake to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own request that he should
leave them upon the island. ‘I should be very glad of that,” says the captain, “ with all
my heart.” ‘ Well,” says I, “I will send for them up, and talk with them for you.” So
I caused Friday and the two hostages, for they were now discharged, their comrades
having performed their promise ; I say I caused them to go to the cave, and bring up the
five men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and keep them there till I came. After
some time, I came thither dressed in my new habit; and now I was called governor
again. Being all met, and the captain with me, I caused the men to be brought before
me, and I told them I had got a full account of their villanous behaviour to the captain,
and how they had run away with the ship, and were preparing to commit further rob-
beries, but that Providence had ensnared them in their own ways, and they were fallen
into the pit which they had dug for others. I let them know that by my direction the
ship had been seized ; that she lay now in the road; and they might see by-and-by that
their new captain had received the reward of his villany, for that they might see him
hanging at the yard-arm; that, as to them, I wanted to know what they had to say why
I should not execute them as pirates, taken in the fact, as by my commission they could
not doubt but I had authority to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had nothing to say but
this, that when they were taken, the captain promised them their lives, and they humbly
implored my mercy. But I told them I knew not what mercy to show them; for as for
164 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

myself I had resolved to quit the island with all my men, and had taken passage with

the captain to go to England; and as for the captain, he could not carry them to England|
other than as prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny, and running away with the ship; '
the consequence of which, they must needs know, would be the gallows; so that I could

not tell what was the best for them, unless they had a mind to take their fate in the island.

If they desired that, I did not care; as I had liberty to leave it, I had some inclination to

give them their lives, if they thought they could shift on shore. They seemed very

tha