Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter XV
 Chapter XVI
 Chapter XVII
 Chapter XVIII
 Back Matter

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074461/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 318 p. : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Symington, James Ayton ( Illustrator )
Daily Sketch Publications ( Publisher )
Hazell, Watson & Viney ( Printer )
Publisher: Daily Sketch Publications
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Hazell, Watson and Viney
Publication Date: 1910
Copyright Date: 1910
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1905   ( rbgenr )
Genre: fiction   ( marcgt )
Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Aylesbury
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; illustrated by J. Ayton Symington.
Citation/Reference: Smith, R.D.H. Crusoe 250,
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074461
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28315611
alephbibnum - 001830313

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    List of Illustrations
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Chapter I
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Chapter II
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Chapter III
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Chapter IV
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Chapter V
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Chapter VI
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Chapter VII
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Chapter VIII
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Chapter IX
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Chapter X
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Chapter XI
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Chapter XII
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Chapter XIII
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
    Chapter XIV
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
    Chapter XV
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
    Chapter XVI
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
    Chapter XVII
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
    Chapter XVIII
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
    Back Matter
        Page 319
        Page 320
Full Text







mIustrated by


111 -----'--11-------- '-I



SET pge 25







I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Brem'en, who settled
first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise,
and leaving off his trade, lived afterward at York,
from whence he had married my mother, whose
relations were named Robinson, a very good family
in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but by the usual corruption of words in
England we are now called, nay, we call ourselves,
and write our name, Crusoe, and so my companions
always called me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early with
rambling thoughts. My father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far
as house-education and a country free school generally
goes, and designed me for the law; but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands, of my father, and against all
the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in

that propension of nature tending directly to the life
of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent council against what he foresaw was my
design. He called me one morning into his chamber,
where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject.
He pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate
myself into miseries which Nature and the station of
life I was born in seemed to have provided against;
that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread;
that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter
me fairly into the middle station of life which he had
been just recommending to me; and that if I was not
very easy and happy in the world it must be my mere
fate or fault that must hinder it, and that he should
have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew
would be to my hurt; in a word, that as he would do
very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at
home as he directed, so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encourage-
ment to go away. And to close all, he told me I had
my elder brother for an example, to whom he had
used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from
going into the Low Country wars, but could not
prevail, his young desires prompting him to run
into the army, where he was killed; and though he
said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would
venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have

leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
counsel when there might be none to assist in my
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed
who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think
of going abroad anymore, but to settle at home accord-
ing to my father's desire. But alas a few days wore
it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's
farther importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved
to run quite away from him. However, I did not
act so hastily neither as my first heat of resolution
prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when
I thought her a little pleasanter thap ordinary, and
told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon
seeing the world, that I should never settle to any-
thing with resolution enough to go through with it,
and my father had better give me his consent than
force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a
trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I
did, I should never serve out my time, and I should
certainly run away from my master before my time
was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my
father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if I came
home again and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise by a double diligence to recover
that time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She told
me, she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to
my father upon any such subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest to give his consent to any-
thing so much for my hurt, and that she wondered

how I could think of any such thing after such a
discourse as I had had with my father, and such kind
and tender expressions as she knew my father had
used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself
there was no help for me; that I might depend I
should never have their consent to it; that for her
part, she would not have so much hand in my destruc-
tion, and I should never have it to say, that my
mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet, as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the
discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a
great concern at it, said to her with a sigh, That boy
might be happy if he would stay at home, but if he
goes abroad he will be the miserablest wretch that was
ever born: I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though in the meantime I continued obstinately
deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and fre-
quently expostulating with my father and mother
about their being so positively determined against
what they knew my inclinations prompted me to.
But being one day at Hull, where I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement
that time; but I say, being there, and one of my
companions being going by sea to London, in his father's
ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the
common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that it
should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted
neither father or mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as
they might, without asking God's blessing, or my

father's, without any consideration of circumstances or
consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the
first of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer's mis-
fortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer
than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of
the Humber, but the wind began to blow, and the
waves to rise in a most frightful manner; and as I had
never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly
sick in body, and terrified in my mind. I began now
seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justily I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for
my wicked leaving my father's house, and abandoning
my duty.'
All this while the storm increased, and the sea,
which I had never been upon before, went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times
since; no, nor like what I saw a few days after. But
it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young
sailor, and had never known anything of the matter.
I expected every wave would have swallowed us up,
and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought,
in the trough, or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more; and in this* agony of mind I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God here
to spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got once
my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly
home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations
about the middle station of life, how easy, how com-

fortably he had lived all his days, and never had been
exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and
I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal,
go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm continued, and indeed some time
after; but the next day the wind was abated and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it.
However, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a
charming fine evening followed; the sun went down
perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more
sea-sick but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon
the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before,
and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little time
after. And now lest my good resolutions should con-
tinue, my companion, who had indeed enticed me
away, comes to me: "Well, Bob," says he, clapping
me on the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I
warrant you were frighted, wa'n't you, last night,
when it blew but a capful of wind ? "A capful
d'you call it ? said I; 'twas a terrible storm."
"A storm, you fool you," replies he; do you call
that a storm ? Why, it was nothing at all; give us
but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing
of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-
water sailor, Bob. Come. let us make a bowl of

punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye see what charm-
ing weather 'tis now ? To make short this sad part
of my story, we went the old way of all sailors; the
punch was made, and I was made drunk with it, and
in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my
repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
and all my resolutions for my future. I found indeed
some intervals of reflection, and the serious thoughts
did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes;
but I shook them off, and roused myself from them as
it were from a distemper, and applying myself to
drink and company, soon mastered the return of those
fits, for so I called them, and I had in five or six days
got as complete a victory over conscience as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could
desire. But I was to have another trial for it still;
and Providence, as in such cases generally it does,
resolved to leave me entirely without excuse. For
if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next
was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into
Yarmouth roads; the wind having been contrary and
the weather calm, we had made but little way since
the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an
anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary,
viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days, during
which times a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbour where the
ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but should

have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too
fresh; and after we had lain four or five days, blew
very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as
good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our
ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned,
and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea; but the eighth day in the morning the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike
our topmasts, and make everything snug and close,
that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By
noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought
once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which
our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we
rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered
out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and now
I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even
of the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant
to the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went
in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly
to himself say several times, Lord be merciful to us,
we shall be all lost, we shall be all undone "; and the
like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying
still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and
cannot describe my temper; I could ill reassume the
first penitence, which I had so apparently trampled
upon, and hardened myself against; I thought the
bitterness of death had been past, and that this would
be nothing too, like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we

should be all lost, Iwas dreadfully frighted; I got up
out of my cabin, and looked out. But such a dismal
sight I never saw; the sea went mountains high, and
broke upon us every three or four minutes; when
I could look about, I could see nothing but distress
round us. Two ships that rid near us we found had
cut their masts by the board, being deep loaden; and
our men cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile
ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships being
driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads
to sea at all adventures, and that with not a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so
much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away with only
their sprit-sail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast,
which he was very unwilling to. But the boatswain,
protesting to him that if he did not the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut away
the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and shook
the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away
also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in
at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But if
I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about
me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind
upon account of my former convictions, and the having
returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a

condition, that I can by no words describe it. But
the worst was not come yet; the storm continued
with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknow-
ledged they had never known a worse. We had a
good ship, but she was deep loaden, and wallowed in
the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried
out she would founder. It was my advantage in one
respect, that I did not know what they meant by.
founder till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master,
the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the
rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment
when the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle
of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men that had been down on purpose to see
cried out we had sprung a leak; another said there
was four foot water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as
I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon
the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin. How-
ever, the men roused me, and told me, that I, that
was able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another; at which I stirred up and went to
the pump and worked very heartily. While this was
doing, the master seeing some light colliers, who, not
able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run
away to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire
a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, was so surprised that I thought the
ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had happened.
In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his

own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was
become of me; but another man stepped up to the
pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie,
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while
before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold,
it was apparent that the ship would founder, and
though the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was
not possible she could swim till we might run into a
port, so the master continued firing guns for help;
and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our
men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it,
and then veered it out a great length, which they after
great labour and hazard took hold of, and we hauled
them close under our stem, and got all into their boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us after we were in
the boat to think of reaching to their own ship, so all
agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could, and our master promised
them that if the boat was staved upon shore he would
make it good to their master; so partly rowing and
partly driving, our boat went away to the norward,
sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winterton
While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see, when, our boat mounting the waves,

we were able to see the shore, a great many people
running along the shore to assist us when we should
come near. But we made but slow way towards the
shore, nor were we able to reach the shore, till being
past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off
to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land
broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got
in, and though not without much difficulty got all safe
on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth,
where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity as well by the magistrates of the town,
who assigned us good quarters, as by particular mer-
chants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London or back to
Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull,
and have gone home, I had been happy, and my
father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable,
had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the
ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth road,
it was a great while before he had any assurance that
I was not drowned. '
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason and my more composed
judgment to go home, yet I had no power to do it.
I know not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is
a secret overruling decree that hurries us on to be the
instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes
open. Certainly nothing but some such decreed
unavoidable misery attending, and which it was

impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm seasonings and persuasions of
my most retired thoughts, and against two such visible
instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quarters
-I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone
was altered, and looking very melancholy and shaking
his head, asked me how I did, and telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a
trial in order to go farther abroad, his father turning
to me with a very grave and concerned tone, Young
man," says he, you ought never to go to sea any
more, you ought to take this for a plain and visible
token, that you are not to be a seafaring man. And,
young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not
go back, wherever you go you will meet with nothing
but disasters and disappointments, till your father's
words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer,
and I saw him no more; which way he went, I know
not. As for me, having some money in my pocket,
I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as
on the road, had many struggles with myself what
course of life I should take, and whether I should go
home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately
occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the

neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my
father and mother only, but even everybody else;
from whence I have since often observed how incon-
gruous and irrational the common temper of mankind
is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not
ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be
esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning,
which only can make them be esteemed wise men.


IT was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always happen
to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then
was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare
for them very early; but it was not so with me. I first
fell acquainted with the master of a ship who had
been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again; and who,
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at
all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a
mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage
with him I should be at no expense; I should be his
messmate and his companion; and if I could carry
anything with me, I should have all the advantage of
it that trade would admit, and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and, entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest and
plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the dis-
interested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased
very considerably, for I carried about 40 in such toys
and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This
40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who,
I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was suc-
cessful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the
integrity and honesty of my friend the captain ; under
whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathe-
matics and the rules of navigation, learned how to
keep an account of the ship's course, take an observa-
tion, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor. For, as he
took delight to introduce me, I took delight to learn ;
and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and
a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine
ounces of gold dust for my adventure, which yielded
me in London at my return almost 300, and this filled
me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too;
particularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown
into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the
climate; our principal trading being upon the coast,
from the latitude of 15 degrees north even to the line
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend,
to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I
resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked
in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the
former voyage, and had now got the command of the
ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man
made; for though I did not carry quite Ioo of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, and which
I lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just
to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage ;
and the first was this, viz., our ship making her course


towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey
of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvas as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry, to have got cear; but
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight,
our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen.
About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and
bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a
broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again,
after returning our fire and pouring in also his small-
shot from near 200oo men which he had on board. How-
ever, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next
time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon
our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking
the decks and rigging. We plied them with small-shot,
half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared
our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this
melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first
I apprehended, nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize,

and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit
for his business.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home
to his house, so I was in hopes that he would take me
with him when he went to sea again, believing that it
would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a
Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that then I
should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was
soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me
on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when
he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to
lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way
that had the least probability in it. Nothing presented
to make the supposition of it rational; for I had
nobody to communicate it to that would embark with
me; so that for two years, though I often pleased
myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some
attempt for my liberty again in my head. My patron
lying at home longer than usual without fitting out
his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he
used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and as
he always took me and a young Maresco with him to
row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved
very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch, that some

times he would send me with a Moor, one of his kins-
men, and the youth the Maresco, as they called him,
to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a stark
calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we
were not half a league from the shore we lost sight
of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way,
we laboured all day, and all the next night, and when
the morning came we found we had pulled off to sea
instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were
at least two leagues from the shore. However, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labour, and
some danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh
in the morning; but particularly we were all very
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having
lying by him the long-boat of our English ship which
he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing
any more without a compass and some provision; so
he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an
English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in
the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with
a place to stand behind it to steer and haul Jhome the
mainsheet, and room before for a hand or two to stand
and work the sails.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he
never went without me. It happened that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure
or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction
in that place, and for whom he had provided extra- *

ordinarily; and had therefore sent on board the boat
overnight a larger store of provisions than ordinary;
and had ordered me to get ready three fuzees with
powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for
that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat, washed clean, her
ancient and pendants out, and everything to accom-
modate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came
on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered
me with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the
boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house; and commanded that as
soon as I had got some fish I should bring it home to
his house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command; and my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for a
fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew not,
neither did I so much as consider, whither I should
steer; for anywhere, to get out of that place, was
my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak
to this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on
board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of
our patron's bread. He said that was true; so he
brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind,
and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew
where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was

evident by the make were taken out of some English
prize; and I conveyed them into the boat while the
Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before
for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-
wax into the boat, which weighed about half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a
saw, and a hammer, all which were great use to us
afterwards, especially the wax to make candles. Thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the
port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of
the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us;
and we were not above a mile out of the port before
we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The
wind blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to
my desire; for had it blown southerly I had been sure
to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached
to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow
which way it would, I would be gone from the horrid
place where I was, and leave the rest to Fate.
After we had fished some time and watched nothing,
for, when I had fish on my hook I would not pull
them up that he might not see them, I said to the
Moor, This will not do; our master will not be thus
served; we must stand farther off." He, thinking no
harm. agreed, and being in the head of the boat set
the sails; and as I had the helm I run the boat out
near a league farther, and then brought her to as if
I would fish; when giving the boy the helm, I stepped
forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by
surprise with my arm under his twist, and tossed him
clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately,

for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to
be taken in, told me he would go all the world over
with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling pieces, I presented it at
him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he
would be quiet I would do him none. But," said I,
" you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the
sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and
I will do you no harm ; but if you come near the boat
I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to
have my liberty." So he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached
it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no
venturing to trust him. When he was gone I turned
to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him,
" Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll make you a
great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard, I must throw you into the sea too." The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I
could not mistrust him, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming,
I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the straits' mouth.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east,

bending my course a little toward the east, that I
might keep in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh
gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail
that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the
afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be
less than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any
other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or
come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had
sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any
of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast,
and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river,
I knew not what, or where ; neither what latitude, what
country, what nations, or what river. I neither saw,
or desired to see, any people; the principal thing I
wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in
the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as
it was quite dark we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of
we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready
to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore
till day.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was
I too; but we were both more frighted when we heard
one of these mighty creatures come swimming towards
our boat; we could not see him, but, we might hear

him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious
beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so
for aught I know ; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away. No," says I, Xury;
we can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go off
to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner
said so but I perceived the creature (whatever it was)
within two oars' length, which something surprised
me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin door,
and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which he
immediately turned about and swam towards the
shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises,
and hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as
well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the
country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thing
I have some reason to believe those creatures had never
heard before. This convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night upon that coast;
and how to venture on shore in the day was another
question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any
of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into
the hands of lions and tigers; at least we were equally
apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
.somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint
left in the boat; when or where to get to it, was the
point. Xury said if I would let him go on shore with
one of the jars, he would find if there was any water
and bring some to me. I asked him why he would
go ? why I should not go and he stay in the boat ?
The boy answered with so much affection, that made


me love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans
come, they eat me, you go away." "Well, Xury,"
said I, we will both go; and if the wild mans come,
we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us." So
I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles which I mentioned
before; and we hauled in the boat as near the shore
as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore,
carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing
the coming of canoes with savages down the river;
but the boy seeing a low place about a mile up the
country, rambled to it and by-and-by I saw him come
running towards me. I thought he was pursued by
some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I
ran forward towards him to help him; but when
I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over
his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot,
like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs.
However, we were very glad of it, and it was very good
meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with
was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no
wild mans.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verde Islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation to know what latitude we were in, and did
not exactly know, or at least remember, what latitude
they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or
when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise
I might now easily have found some of these islands.


But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till
I came to that part where the English traded, I should
find some of their vessels upon their usual design of
trade, that would relieve and take us in.
Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the
Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain
Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had a great mind to
venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds,
the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I
resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water
after we had left this place ; and once in particular,
being early in the morning, we came to an anchor
under a little point of land which was pretty high;
and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther
in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it
seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that
we had best go farther off the shore; For," says he,
look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock fast asleep." I looked where he pointed,
and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the
shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were a little
over him. Xury," says I, you shall go on shore
and kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said, Me
kill he eat me at one mouth"; one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie
still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I

loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for
we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first piece to have
shot him into the head, but he lay so with his leg
raised a little above his nose that the slugs hit his
leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started
up growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell
down again, and then got up upon three legs and
gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was
a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head.
However, I took up the second piece immediately, and,
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot
him into the head, and had the pleasure to see him
drop, and make but little noise, but lay struggling for
life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let
him go on shore. "Well, go," said I; so the boy
jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one
hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to
his ear, and shot him into the head again, which
despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to loose three charges of powder
and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of
him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give him
the hatchet. For what, Xury ? said I. Me cut
off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut
off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with
him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin
of him might one way or other be of some value to us

and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So
Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was
much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill
how to do it. Indeed, it took us up both the whole
day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it
in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to
lie upon.


AFTER this stop we made on to the southward
continually for ten or twelve days, living very
sparing on our provisions, which began to abate
very much, and going no oftener into the shore than
we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this
was to make the river Gambia or Senegal-that is to
say, anywhere about the Cape de Verde-where I was
in hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did
not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek
out for the islands, or perish there among the negroes.
I knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed
either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this cape, or those islands; and in
a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship, or
must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by,
we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we
could also perceive they were quite black, and stark
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to
me, No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the
shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran
along the shore by me a good way. I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had

a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance,
and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with
them by signs as well as I could, and particularly
made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me
to stop my boat, and that they would fetch me some
meat. Upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country and
in less than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as
is the produce of their country; but we neither knew
what the one or the other was. However, we were
willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them,
and they were as much afraid of us; but they took a
safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore
and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off
till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us
I was now furmshed with roots and corn, such as it
was, and water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I
made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this point.
At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to
seaward; then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde, and those the
islands, called from thence Cape de Verde Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could

not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be
taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one
or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into
the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm;
when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master,
a ship with a sail I and the foolish boy was frighted
out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his
master's ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were
gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of
the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship,
but what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship,
and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea,
for negroes. But when I observed the course she
steered, I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any
nearer to shore; upon which I stretched out to sea,
as much as I could, resolving to speak with them, if
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not
be able to come in their way, but that they would be
gone by before I could make any signal to them; but
after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to
despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost, so they shortened sail to let me
come up. I was encouraged with this; and as I had
my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to
them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both
which they saw ; for they told me they saw the smoke,
though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals

they were kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and
in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of
them; but at last a Scots sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was
an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors, at Sallee. Then they bade
me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and
all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one will
believe that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it,
from such a miserable, and almost hopeless, condition
as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to
the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance.
But he generously told me he would take nothing from
me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me
when I came to the Brazils. For," says he, I have
saved your life on no other terms than I would be
glad to be saved myself, and it may, one time or other,
be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides," says he, when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should
take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then I only take away that life I have given. No,
no, Seignior Inglese," says he, Mr. Englishman, I
will carry you thither in charity, and those things will
help you to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again."
As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just
in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the sea-
men that none should offer to touch anything I had;

then he took everything into his own possession, and
gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them, even so much as my three earthen
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he
saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's
use, and asked me what I would have for it ? I told
him he had been so generous to me in everything, that
I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but
left it entirely to him; upon which he told me he would
give me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of
eight for it at Brazil, and when it came there, if any
one offered to give more, he would make it up. He
offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy
Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was not
willing to let the captain have him, but I was very
loth to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted
me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when
I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the boy
an obligation to set him free in ten years if he turned
Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing
to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints'
Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was
once more delivered from the most miserable of all
conditions of life; and what to do next with myself
I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave, I can
never enough remember. He would take nothing of
me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the

leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I
had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered me; and what I was
willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax-
for I had made candles of the rest; in a word, I made
about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo, and with
this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended
to the house of a good honest man like himself, who
had an ingeino as they call it, that is, a plantation and
a sugar-house, I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself by that means with the manner of
their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they grew rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get licence to settle there,
I would turn planter among them, resolving in the
meantime to find out some way to get my money
which I had left in London remitted to me. To this
purpose, getting a kind of a letter of naturalisation, I
purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to
the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born
of English parents, whose name was Wells, and in
much such circumstances as I was. I call him my
neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine,
and we went on very sociably together. My stock
was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for
food than anything else, for about two years. How-

ever, we began to increase; and our land began to
come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of
ground ready for planting canes in the year to come.
But we both wanted help; and now I found more than
before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
I was in some degree settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation before my kind friend, the
captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back;
for the ship remained there in providing his loading,
and preparing for his voyage, near three months;
when telling him what little stock I had left behind
me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice: Seignior Inglese," says he, for so he always
called me, if you will give me letters, and a procura-
tion herein form to me, with orders to the person who
has your money in London to send your effects to
Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you
the produce of them, God willing, at my return. But
since human affairs are all subject to changes and
disasters, I would have you give orders but for one
hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that
if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way;
and if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have
recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course
I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the
gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a
procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I
had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the humanity
of his behaviour, and in what condition I was now in,
with all other necessary directions for my supply.
And when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants there,
to send over not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented
it effectually to her; whereupon, she not only delivered
the money, but out of her own pocket sent the Portugal
captain a very handsome present for his humanity and
charity to me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds
in English goods, such as the captain had writ for,
sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought
them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which,
without my direction (for I was too young in my bl-i-
ness to think of them), he had taken care to have all
sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with joy of it; and my good
steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him for a present for himself,
to purchase and bring me over a servant under bond
for six years' service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would
have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things
particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I

found means to sell them to a very great advantage;
so that I may say I had more than four times the value
of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a
negro slave, and an European servant also; I mean
another besides that which the captain brought me
from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great success in my
plantation. I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my
own ground, more than I had disposed of for neces-
saries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls,
being each of above a hundredweight, were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon,
And now, increasing in business and in wealth, my
head began to be full of projects and undertakings
beyond my reach, such as are, indeed, often the ruin
of the best heads in business.
You may suppose, that having now lived almost four
years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only
learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance
and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants of St. Salvador, which was our
port, and that in my discourses among them I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages
to the Coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the
negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon
the coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives,
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not

only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying negroes; which was a
trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the assiento, or
permission, of the Kings of Spain and Portugal, so
that few negroes were bought, and those excessive
It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the
next morning, and told me they had been musing very
much upon what I had discoursed with them of, the
last night, and they came to make a secret proposal
to me. And after enjoining me secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea ;
that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it
was a trade that could not be carried on because they
could not publicly sell the negroes when they came
home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to
bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word, the
question was, whether I would go their supercargo in
the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast
of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my
equal share of the negroes without providing any part
of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had

it been made to any one that had not had a settlement
and plantation of his own to look after, which was in a
fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with
a good stock upon it. But for me, that was thus
entered and established, and had nothing to do but go
on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England;
and who, in that time, and with that little addition,
could scarce have failed of being worth three or four
thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too-for
me to think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous
thing that ever man, in such circumstances, could be
guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could
no more resist the offer than I could restrain my first
rambling designs, when my father's good counsel was
lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with
all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to
such as I should direct if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants
to do so; and I made a formal will, disposing of my
plantation and effects, in case of my death; making
the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as
before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose
of my effects as I had directed in my will; one half
of the produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and keep up my plantation. Had I used half
as much prudence to have looked into my own interest,
and have made a judgment of what I ought to have

done and not to have done, I had certainly never gone
away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the
probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone
upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect
particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy rather than my reason. And
accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement by my
partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil
hour, the Ist of September 1659, being the same day
eight years that I went from my father and mother
at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority,
and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burthen, carried six
guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the
negroes--such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd
trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors,
and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design
to stretch over for the African coast, when they came
about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which,
it seems, was the manner of their course in those days.
We passed the line in about twelve days' time, and
were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-
two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado,
or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It
began from the south-east, came about to the north-

west, and then settled into the north-east, from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days
together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding
away before it, let it carry us wherever fate and the
fury of the winds directed; and during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect
to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and one
man and the boy washed overboard. About the twelfth
day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation as well as he could, and found that he was
gotten upon the coast of Guinea, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward that of the
river Orinoco, commonly called the Great River, and
began to consult with me what course we should take,
for the ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he
was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the
charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we con-
cluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to till we came within the circle of the Caribbee
Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for the
Barbadoes, which by keeping off at sea, to avoid the
indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily
perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance, both to our
ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered
away N.W. by W. in order to reach some of our English

islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was
otherwise determined; for a second storm came upon
us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity
westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all
human commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our own
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men early in the morning cried out, Land "
and we had no sooner ran out of the cabin to look
out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we
were, but the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her
in such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the
like condition, to describe or conceive the consternation
of men in such circumstances. We knew nothing
where we were, or upon what land it was we were
driven, whether an island or the main, whether
inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the
wind was still great, though rather less than at first,
we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold
many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. In a word, we sat looking one upon another,
and expecting death every moment, and every man
acting accordingly, as preparing for another world;
for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this.




That which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation,
the ship did not break yet, and that the master said
the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand,
and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off,
we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing
to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we
could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship's rudder, and in the next place, she broke away,
and either sunk, or was driven off to sea, so there was
no hope from her; we had another boat on board,
but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful
thing. However, there was no room to debate, for
we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute,
and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of
the boat, and with the help of the rest of the men
they got her slung over the ship's side ; and getting all
into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven
in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea; for
though the storm was abated considerably, yet the
sea went dreadful high upon the shore.
And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we
all saw plainly that the sea went so high, that the boat
could not live, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. However, we committed our souls to God
in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us
towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our
own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not ; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was,
if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where by great chance we might
have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land,
and perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than
the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-
like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us
expect the coup de grdce. In a word, it took us with
such a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and
separating us, as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, O God "
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which
I felt when I sunk into the water; for though I swam
very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the
waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having
driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards
the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and
left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind,
as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the
mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet, and
endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as
I could, before another wave should return and take
me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a

great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no
means or strength to contend with. My business was
to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water,
if I could; and so by swimming, to preserve my breath-
ing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible;
my greatest concern now being that the sea, as it
would carry me a great way towards the shore when it
came on, might not carry me back again with it when
it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at
once 20 or 30 feet deep in its own body, and I could
feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness
towards the shore a very great way; but I held my
breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with
all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my
breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot
out above the surface of the water; and though it
was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself
so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good while,
but not so long but I held it out; and finding the water
had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again
with my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover
breath, and till the water went from me, and then
took to my heels and ran with what strength I had
farther towards the shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came
pouring in after me again, and twice more I was
lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before,
the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well near been fatal
to me; for the sea, having hurried me along as before,
landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a
rock, and that with such force, as it left me senseless,
and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance ; for the
blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath as it
were quite out of my body; and had it returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the water.
But I recovered a little before the return of the waves,
and seeing I should be covered again with the water,
I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to
hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back.
Now as the waves were not so high as at first, being
near land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run, which brought me so near
the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away,
and the next run I took I got to the mainland, where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from
danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to
look up and thank God that my life was saved in a
case wherein there was some minutes before scarce
any room to hope.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance, making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe, reflecting
upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that
there should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as
for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign

of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two
shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly
see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord how was
it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me to see
what kind of place I was in, and what was next to be
done, and I soon found my comforts abate, and that,
in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance; for I was wet,
had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat
or drink to comfort me, neither did I see any prospect
before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts; and that which was par-
ticularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon
either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance,
or to defend myself against any other creature that
might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had
nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a
little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision;
and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that
for a while I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot if there were any ravenous
beasts in that country, seeing at night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
time was, to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir,
but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved
to sit all night, and consider the next day what death
I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life.

I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I
could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to
my great joy; and having drank, and put a little
tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so, as that if I should sleep I might not fall;
and having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for
my defence, I took up my lodging, and having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as
comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition, and found myself the most refreshed with
it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.

WHEN I waked it was broad day, the weather
cear, and the storm abated, so that the sea
did not rage and swell as before. But that
which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the
swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far
as the rock which I first mentioned, where I had been
so bruised by the dashing me against it. This being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and
the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that, at least, I might have some
necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree
I looked about me again, and the first thing I found
was the boat which lay as the wind and the sea had
tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my
right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore
to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of water
between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find
something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a
quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh
renewing of my grief, for I saw evidently, that if we
had kept on board we had been all safe, that is to say,
we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so

miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was. This forced tears from
my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that,
I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled
off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity,
and took the water. But when I came to the ship,
my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on
board; for as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay
hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time
I spied a small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did
not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low,
as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by
the help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the
ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had
a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay
so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her
head low almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was
dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search
and to see what was spoiled and what was free. And
first I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and
untouched by the water; and being very well disposed
to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets
with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things,
for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in
the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and
which I had indeed need enough of to spirit me for
what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
boat, to furnish myself with many things which I
foresaw would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not
to be had, and this extremity roused my application.
We had several spare yards, and two or threetlarge
spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the
ship. I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung
as many of them overboard as I could manage for
their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they
might not drive away. When this was done I went
down the ship's side, and, pulling them to me, I tied
four of them fast together at both ends as well as I
could, in the form of a raft; and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found
I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too
light. So I went to work, and with the carpenter's
saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and
pains; but hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been
able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reason-
able weight. My next care was what to load it with,
and how to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf
of the sea; but I was not long considering this. I first
laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get,
and having considered well what I most wanted, I first
got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open, and emptied,,and lowered them down upon my
raft. The first of these I filled with provisions, viz.,
bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat's flesh, which we lived much upon, and a little
remainder of European corn, which had been laid by

for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley
and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment,
I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled
it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles
belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters, and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to
put them into the chest, nor no room for them. While
I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though
very calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat,
shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon
the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were
only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them,
and my stockings. However, this put me upon rum-
maging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took
no more than I wanted for present use; for I had
other things which my eye was more upon, as first
tools to work with on shore; and it was after long
searching that I found out the carpenter's chest,
which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a shiploading of gold would have
been at that time. I got it down to my raft, even
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it,
for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms;
there were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with some
powder-horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old
rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them; but with much search I found

them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken
water; those two I got to my raft with the arms.
And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them,
having neither sail, oar or rudder; and the least
capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements. I. A smooth calm sea.
2. The tide rising and setting in to the shore. 3. What
little wind there was blew me towards the land. And
thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging
to the boat, and besides the tools which were in the
chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, and
with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile or thereabouts
my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distance from the place where I had landed before,
by which I perceived that there was some indraft of
the water, and consequently I hoped to find some creek
or river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before me
a little opening of the land, and I found a strong
current of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as
well as I could to keep in the middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second ship-
wreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have broke
my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft
ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not
being aground at the other end, it wanted but a little
that all my cargo had slipped off towards that end that
was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my
utmost by setting my back against the chests to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft

with all my strength, neither durst I stir from the
posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all
my might, stood in that manner near half-an-hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level; and a little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with
the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up
higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a
little river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current or tide running up. I looked on both sides
for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing
to be driven too high up the river, hoping in time to
see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of
the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I
guided my raft, and at last got so near, as that, reach-
ing ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in ;
but here I had like to have dipped all my cargo in the
sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is
to say, sloping, there was no place to land but where
one end of my float, if it run on shore, would lie so
high and the other sink lower, as before, that it would
endanger my cargo again. All that I could do was to
wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft
with my oar like an anchor to hold the side of it fast
to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I
expected the water would flow over; and so it did.
As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that flat
piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her
by sticking my two broken oars into the ground; one

on one side near one end, and one on the other side
near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed
away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow my
goods to secure them from whatever might happen.
Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the con-
tinent, or on an island; whether inhabited or not
inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts, or not.
There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose
up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop
some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, north-
ward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces and one
of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed,
I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill,
where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got
to the top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz.,
that I was in an island environed every way with the
sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks which lay
a great way off, and two small islands less than this,
which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none;
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I tell what
was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back,
I shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree
on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first
gun that had been fired there since the creation of
the world. I had no sooner fired, but from all the parts
of the wood there arose an innumerable number of

fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming,
and crying everyone according to his usual note; but
not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its
colour and beak resembling it, but had no talons or
claws more than common; its flesh was carrion, and
fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest of that day; and what to
do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
Stores -oI-was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears. However, as well as I could I
barricaded myself round with the chests and boards
that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of a
hut for that night's lodging; as for food, I yet saw
not which way to supply myself, except that I had
seen two or three creatures like hares run out of the
wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful
to me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails,
and such other things as might come to land; and I
resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel,
if possible. And as I knew that the first storm that
blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved
to set all other things apart till I got everything out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council,
that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take
back the raft, but this appeared impracticable; so I

resolved to go as before, when the tide was down; and
I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my
hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt and a
pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
second raft, and having had experience of the first, I
neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard;
but yet I brought away several things very useful to
me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores I found two or
three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack,
a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured,
together with several things belonging to the gunner,
particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels
of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-
piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a
large bag full of small-shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it
up to get it over the ship's side. Besides these things,
I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a
spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought
them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension during my absence
from the land, that at least my provisions might be
devoured on shore; but when I came back, I found no
sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a
wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when I came
towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood
still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be

acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her;
but as she did not understand it, she was perfectly
unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the
way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great. However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she
went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as
pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare
no more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder and bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks, I
went to work to make me a little tent with the sail
and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and
into this tent I brought everything that I knew would
spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to
fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man
or beast.
When I had done this I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set
up on end without; and spreading one of the beds
upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my
head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for
the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I
was very weary and heavy; for the night before I
had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,
as well to fetch all those things from the ship, as to
get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was
not satisfied still, for while the ship sat upright in that

posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of
her that I could. So every day at low water I went on
board, and brought away something or other; but,
particularly, the third time I went I brought away as
much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare
canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion,
the barrel of wet gunpowder; in a word, I brought
away all the sails first and last, only that I was fain
to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as
I could; for they were no more useful to be sails, but
as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still was, that
at last of all, after I had made five or six such voyages
As these, and thought I had nothing more to expect
from the ship that was worth my meddling with; I
say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread,
and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising
to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoilt by the water. I
soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped
it up parcel by parcel in pieces of the sails, which I
cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
The next day I made another voyage. And now,
having plundered the ship of what was portable and
fit to hand out, I began with the cables; and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I
got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
iron-work I could get; and having cut down the sprit-
sailyard, and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could

to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy
goods, and came away. But my good luck began now
to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so
overladen, that after I was entered the little cove
where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset,
and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As
for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost,
especially the iron, which I expected would have been
of great use to me. However, when the tide was out
I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of
the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain
to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me
very much. After this I went every day on board,
and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship; in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well be
supposed capable to bring, though I believe verily,
had the calm weather held, I should have brought
away the whole ship piece by piece. But preparing
the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
begin to rise. However, at low water I went on board,
and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so
effectually as that nothing more could be found, I yet
discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which
I found two or three razors, and one pair of large
scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and
forks; in another, I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money, some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. O
drug said I aloud, what art thou good for ? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off of the
ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap. I
have no manner of use for thee; even remain where
thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature whose
life is not worth saving." However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all this in a
piece of canvas, I began to think of making another
raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky
overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter
of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It
presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pre-
tend to make a raft with the wind off shore, and that
it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood
began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore
at all. Accordingly I let myself down into the water,
and swam across the channel, which lay between the
ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of the things I had
about me, and partly the roughness of the water; for
the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I
lay with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew
very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I
looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen. I
was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had lost no time,
nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of her
that could be useful to me, and that indeed there was
little left in her that I was able to bring away if

I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or
of anything out of her, except what might drive on
shore from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her
afterwards did; but those things were of small use
to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about
securing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and
I had many thoughts of the method how to do this,
and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth;
and, in short, I resolved upon both, the manner and
description of which it may not be improper to give
arf account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a low
moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would not
be wholesome; and more particularly because there
was no fresh water near it. So I resolved to find a
more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I
found would be proper for me. First, health and fresh
water, I just now mentioned. Secondly, shelter from
the heat of the sun. Thirdly, security from ravenous
creatures, whether men or beasts. Fourthly, a view
to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight I might
not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I
was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards
this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that

nothing could come down upon me from the top; on
the side of this rock there was a hollow place; worn a
little way in, like the entrance or ddor of a cave; but
there was not really any cave, or way into the rock
at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not
above an hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door, and at the
end of it descended irregularly every way down into
the low grounds by the seaside. It was on the N.N.W.
side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat
every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or there-
abouts, which in those countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before
the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in
its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in
its diameter from its beginning and ending. In this
half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about
five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The
two rows did not stand above six inches from one
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows one upon another,
within the circle, between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside leaning
against them, about two feet and a half high, like a
spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that
neither man or beast could get into it, or over it.
This cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially

to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the, place,
and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a
door, but by a short ladder to go over the top; which
ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me, and so I
was. completely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought,
from all the world, and consequently slept secure in
the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though as it appeared afterwards, there was no need
of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended
danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, of which you have the account above; and
I made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from
the rains that in one part of the year are very violent
there, I made double, viz., one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the upper-
most with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails. And now I lay no more for a while in the
bed which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to
the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus
enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which,
till now, I had left open, and so passed and repassed,
as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock; and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them
up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that

it rail the ground within about a foot and a half;
and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent,
which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour, and many days, before all
these things were brought to perfection, and therefore
I must go back to some other things which took up
some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened,
after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent,
and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from
a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened,
and after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with
the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning itself. Oh my
powder I My very heart sunk within me when I
thought, that at one blast all my powder might be
destroyed, on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended.
I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger;
though had the powder took fire, I had never known
who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after
the storm was over I laid aside all my works, my
building, and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes to separate the powder, and keep it
a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever
might come it might not all take fire at once, and to
keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make
one part fire another. I finished this work in about
a fortnight, and I think my powder, which in all was
about 240 pounds' weight, was divided in not less
than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had

been wet, I did not apprehend any Ianger frorthat,
so I placed it in my new cave, which in my fancy
I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down
in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come
to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
out once, at least, every day with my gun, as well to
divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for
food, and as near as I could to acquaint myself with
what the island produced. The first time I went out,
I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then
it was attended with this misfortune to mo viz., that
they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that
it was the difficultest thing in the world to come at
them. But I was not discouraged at this, not doubting
but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened; for after I had found their haunts a little,
I laid wait in this manner for them. I observed if
they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon
the rocks, they would run away in a terrible fright;
but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon
the rocks, they took no notice of me, from whence
I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did not
readily see objects that were above them. So after-
ward I took this method; I always climbed the rocks
first to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
mark. The first shot I made among these creatures
I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her,
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily;
but when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by

her till came and took her up; and not only so, but
when I carried the.old one with me upon my shoulders,
the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my
arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced
to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me
with flesh a great while, for I eat sparingly, and saved
my provisions, my bread especially, as much as
possibly I could.
And now, being about to enter into a melancholy
relation of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by
my account, the 3oth of September when, in the
manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid
island, when the sun being to us in its autumnal
equinox, was almost.just over my head, for I reckoned
myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees
22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning
of time for want of books and pen and ink, and should
even forget the Sabbath days from the working days,
but to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a
large post, in capital letters; and making it into a
great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first
landed, viz., I came on shore here on the 3oth of
September 1659." Upon the sides of this square post
I cut every day a notch with my knife, and every
seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every
first day of the month as long again as that long one;

and thus I kept my calendar, of weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among the
many things which I brought out of the ship in the
several voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made to
it, I got several things of less value, but not all less
useful to me, which I omitted setting down before; as
in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several parcels in
the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping,
three orfour compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation,
all which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no. Also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and
which I had packed up among my things ; some Portu-
guese books also, and among them two or three Popish
prayer-books, and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget, that we had in
the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history
I may have occasion to say something in its place;
for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the
dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam
on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my
first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many
years. I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor
any company that he could make up to me; I only
wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could not
do. As I observed before, I found pen, ink, and paper,
and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall
show that while my ink lasted, I kept things very
exact ; but after that was gone, I could not, for I could
not make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and
of these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and
shovel, to dig or remove the earth, needles, pins, and
thread; as for linen, I soon learned to want that
without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily; and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale or surrounded habita-
tion. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as
I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more by far in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day
in driving it into the ground; for which purpose I got
a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows, which, however,
though I found it, yet it made driving those posts or
piles very laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tedious-
ness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough
to do it in ? nor had I any other employment, if that
had been over, at least, that I could foresee, except
the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did
more or less every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and
the circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up
the state of my affairs in writing; not so much to
leave them to any that were to come after me, for I
was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts
from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind.
And as my reason began now to master my despondency,

I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to
set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse ; and I stated
it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the
comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered,
thus :

I am cast upon a horrible
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out and
separated, as it were, from
all the world to be miser-

I am divided from man-
kind, a solitaire, one ban-
ished from human society.

I have not clothes to
cover me.

I am without any defence
or means to resist any vio-
lence of man or beast.

But I am alive, and not
drowned, as all my ship's
company was.
But I am singled out,
too, from all the ship's
crew to be spared fiom
death; and He that mira-
culously saved me from
death, can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved
and perishing on a barren
place, affording no sus-
But I am in a hot
climate, where if I had
clothes I could hardly
wear them.
But I am cast on an
island, where I see no wild
beasts to hurt me, as I
saw on the coast of Africa;
and what if I had been
shipwrecked there ?

Evi. Good.
I have no soul to speak But God wonderfully
to, or relieve me. sent the ship in near
enough to the shore, that
I have gotten out so many
necessary things as will
either supply my wants,
or enable me to supply
myself even as long as I
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and given over looking out to sea, to see
if Could spy a ship; I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of
living, and to make things as easy as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was
a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a
strong pale of posts and cabled; but I might now
rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up
against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside,
and after some time-I think it was a year and a half
-I raised rafters from it leaning to the rock, and
thatched or covered it with boughs of trees and such
things as I could get to keep out the rain, which
I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave which I had made
behind me. But I must observe, too, that at first
this was a confused heap of goods, which as they lay
in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself. So I set myself to enlarge my
cave and works farther into the earth; for it was a


loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour
I bestowed on it. And so, when I found I was pretty
safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways to the
right hand into the rock; and then, turning to the
right again, worked quite out, and made a door to
come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a
back-way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave
me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, as par-
ticularly a chair and a table; for without these I was
not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world.
I could not write or eat, or do several things with so
much pleasure without a table.
I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet in
time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found
at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made
it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things even without tools, and some
with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which
perhaps were never made that way before, and that
with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a
board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a
plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is
true, by this method I could make but one board out
of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but
patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal
of time and labour which it took me up to make a
plank or board. But my time or labour was little

worth, and so it was as well employed one way as
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I
observed above, in the first place, and this I did out
of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft
from the ship. But when I had wrought out some
boards, as above, I made large shelves of the breadth
of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one
side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-
work; and, in a word, to separate everything at large
in their places, that I might come easily at them.
I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my
guns and all things that would hang up; so that had
my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything
so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to
me to see all my goods in such order, and especially
to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of
every day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was
in too much hurry, and not only hurry as to labour,
but in too much discomposure of mind ; and my journal
would have been full of many dull things.
But having gotten over these things in some measure,
and having settled my household stuff and habitation,
made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome
about me as I could, I began to keep my journal, of
which I shall here give you the copy (though in it
will be told all these particulars over again) as long as
it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it off.



Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and
time of diversion, viz., every morning I walked out
with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain;
then employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock;
then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to
two I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessive
hot; and then in the evening to work again. The
working part of this day and of the next were wholly
employed in making my table; for I was yet but a
very sorry workman, though time and necessity made
me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe
it would do any one else.
Nov. 5.-This day went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but
her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed,
I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming
back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls,
which I did not understand; but was surprised, and
almost frighted, with two or three seals, which, while
I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were,
got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to
my liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, zoth, and part of the 12th (for the
uth was Sunday) I took wholly up to make me a
chair, and with much ado, brought it to a tolerable
shape, but never to please me ; and even in the making,
I pulled it in pieces several times. Note, I soon
neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark
for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent
into the rock, to make room for my farther convenience.
Note, three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz., a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket;
so I desisted from my work, and began to consider
how to supply that want, and make me some tools.
As for a pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing
was a shovel or spade. This was so absolutely neces-
sary, that indeed I could do nothing effectually without
it ; but what kind of one to make, I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods,
I found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the
Brazils they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hard-
ness; of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling
my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with
difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine,
for I worked it effectually, by little and little, into the
form of a shovel or spade, the handle exactly shaped
like ours in England, only that the broad part having
no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me
so long.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a
wheel-barrow. A basket I could not make by any
means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker ware, at least none yet found
out. And as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could
make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of,
neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I had
no possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so I gave it
over; and so for carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which
the labourers carry mortar in, when they serve the
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still
because of my making these tools, when they were
finished I went on, and working every day, as my
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days
entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.
Note: During all this time I worked to make this
room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as
a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room,
and a cellar; as for my lodging, I kept to the tent,
except that sometimes in the wet season of the year
it rained so hard, that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and
large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December Io.-I began now to think my cave or
vault finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made
it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from

the top and one side, so much, that, in short, it frighted
me, and not without reason too; for if I had been
under it, I had never wanted a gravedigger. Upon
this disaster I had a great deal of work to do over
again; for I had the loose earth to carry out; and,
which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to
prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come
Dec. II.-This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top,
with two pieces of boards across over each post. This
I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof
secured; and the posts standing in rows, served me
for partitions to part of my house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the twentieth I placed
shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts to hang
everything up that could be hung up; and now I
began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave,
and began to furnish my house, and set up some
pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me;
also I made me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day; no
stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
so that I catched it, and led it home in a string. When
I hadit home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which

was broke. N.B.-I took such care of it, that it lived,
and the leg grew well and as strong as ever; but by
my nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the
little green at my door, and would not go away. This
was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have
food when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30.-Great heats and no breeze, so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening,
for food. This time I spent in putting all my things
in order within doors.
January I.-Very hot still, but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of
the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys
which lay towards the centre of the island, I found
there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy, and
hard to come at. However, I resolved to try if I could
not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day, I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mis-
taken, for they all faced about upon the dog; and he
knew his danger too well, for he would not come near
Jan. 3.-I began my fence or wall; which, being
still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I
resolved to make very thick and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the journal. It is sufficient to
observe that I was no less time than from the 3rd of
January to the 14th of April working, finishing, and
perfecting this wall, though it was no more than about
twenty-four yards in length, being a half circle from

one place in the rock to another place about eight yards
from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but
I thought I should never be perfectly secure till this
wall was finished. And it was scarce credible what
inexpressible labour everything was done with, especi-
ally the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground; for I made them much bigger
than I need to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-
fenced with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I per-
suaded myself that if any people were to come on shore
there, they would not perceive anything like a habita-
tion ; and it was very well I did so, as may be observed
hereafter upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods
for game every day, when the rain permitted me, and
made frequent discoveries in these walks of something
or other to my advantage; particularly I found a kind
of wild pigeons, who built, not as wood pigeons in a
tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the
rocks. And taking some young ones, I endeavoured
to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they
grew older they flew all away, which, perhaps, was at
first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to
give them. However, I frequently found their nests,
and got their young ones, which were very good meat.
And now in the managing my household affairs I
found myself wanting in many things, which I thought

at first it was impossible for me to make, as indeed, as
to some of them, it was. For instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped; I had a small runlet or
two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive to
the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it. I could neither put in the heads,
or joint the staves so true to one another, as to make
them hold water; so I gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle;
so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally
by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remem-
bered the lump of beeswax with which I made candles
in my African adventure, but I had none of that now.
The only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a
goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a
wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this
gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a
In the middle of all my labours it happened, that
rummaging my things, I found a little bag, which, as
I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the
feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before, as
I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What
little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all
devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag
but husks and dust; and being willing to have the
bag for some other use, I think it was to put powder in,
when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some
such use, I shook the husks of corn out of it on one
side of my fortification, under the rock. It was a
little before the great rains, just now mentioned, that

I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown
anything there; when, about a month after, or there-
about, I saw some few stalks of something green shoot-
ing out of the ground, which I fancied might be some
plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and per-
fectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I
saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley of the same kind as our European,
nay, as our English barley.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be
sure, in their season, which was about the end of June ;
and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all
again, hoping in time to have some quantity sufficient
to supply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth
year that I could allow myself the least grain of this
corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards in its order; for I lost all that I sowed
the first season, by not observing the proper time;
for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all, at least not as it would have done;
of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there was, as above, twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same
care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the
same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather
food; for I found ways to cook it up without baking,
though I did that also after some time. But to return
to my journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four months
to get my wall done; and the i4th of April I dosed
it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over

the wall by a ladder, that there might be no sign in
the outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder, so I went up with
the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me,
and let it down on the inside. This was a complete
enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and
nothing could come at me from without, unless it
could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labour overthrown at once, and
myself killed. The case was thus: As I was busy in
the inside of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance
into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most
dreadful surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden
I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof
of my cave, and from the edge of the bill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave
cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared,
but thought nothing of what was really the cause,
only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in,
as some of it had done before; and for fear I should
be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder; and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall
for fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped
down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was
a terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on
shook three times at about eight minutes' distance,
with three such shocks, as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock, which stood about half a mile from me next the

sea, fell down with such a terrible noise, as I never
heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea
was put into violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more
for some time, I began to take courage; and yet I
had not heart enough to go over my wall again, for
fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground,
greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what
to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious
thought, nothing but the common, Lord, have mercy
upon me I and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain. Soon after that the wind
rose by little and little, so that in less than half-an-
hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane. The sea was
all on a sudden covered over with foam and froth;
the shore was covered with the breach of the water;
the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible
storm it was: and this held about three hours, and
then began to abate; and in two hours more it was
stark calm, and began to rain very hard.
I was forced to go into my cave, though very much
afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to
cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink,
to let the water go out, which would else have drowned
my cave. After I had been in my cave some time,
and found still no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I began to be more composed. And now to
support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much,

I went to my little store, and took a small sup of rum,
which however, I did then, and always, very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night and great part
of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but
my mind being more composed, I began to think of
what I had best do, concluding that if the island was
subject to these earthquakes, there would be no
living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building
me some little hut in an open place, which I might
surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so make
myself secure from wild beasts or men; but concluded,
if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time
or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent
from the place where it stood, which was just under
the hanging precipice of the hill, and which, if it should
be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent;
and I spent the two next days, being the i9th and
20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove
my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that
I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of
lying abroad without any fence was almost equal to it.
But still, when I looked about and saw how everything
was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and
how safe from danger, it made me very loth to remove.
In the meantime it occurred to me that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that
I must be contented to run the venture where I was,
till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it
so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I com-

'*~I ~i;~




posed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go
to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, &c., in a circle as before, and set my tent
up in it when it was finished, but that I would venture
to stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove
to. This was the 2zst.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution; but I was at
a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes,
and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets
for traffic with the Indians), but with much chopping
and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of
notches and dull; and though I had a grindstone,
I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This
cost me as much thought as a statesman would have
bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge
upon the life and death of a man. At length I con-
trived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot,
that I might have both my hands at liberty. Note,
I had never seen any such thing in England, or at
least not to take notice how it was done, though since
I have observed it is very common there; besides
that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This
machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in
grinding my tools, my machine for turning my grind-
stone performing very well.


May i.-In the morning, looking towards the seaside,
the tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore
bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask. When
I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three
pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on
shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards the
wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of
the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel
which was driven on shore, and soon found it was a
barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and
the powder was caked as hard as a stone. However,
I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went
on upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of
the ship to look for more.
When I came down to the ship I found it strangely
removed. The forecastle, which lay before buried in
sand, was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern,
which was broken to pieces, and parted from the rest
by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging
her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side,
and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her
stern, that whereas there was a great place of water
before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now
walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was
surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must
be done by the earthquake. And as by this violence

the ship was more broken open than formerly, so many
things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened,
and which the winds and water rolled by degrees to
the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily,
that day especially, in searching whether I could make
any way into the ship. But I found nothing was to
be expected of that kind, for that all the inside of the
ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had
learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull
everything to pieces that I could of the ship, con-
cluding, that everything I could get from her would
be of some use or other to me.
May 3-17.-Went every day to the wreck, and got
a great deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or plank,
and two or three hundredweight of iron.
May 24.-Every day to this day I worked on the
wreck, and with hard labour I loosened some things so
much with the crow, that the first blowing tide several
casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests.
But the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to
land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead,
which had some Brazil pork in it, but the salt water
and the sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be
when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it
was ebbed out. And by this time I had gotten timber,
and plank, and ironwork enough to have builded a
good boat, if I had known how; and also, I got at

several times, and in several pieces, near one hundred-
weight of the sheet lead.
June 16.-Going down to the seaside, I found a
large tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen,
which it seems was only my misfortune, not any defect
of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on
the other side of the island, I might have had hundreds
of them every day, as I found afterwards ; but, perhaps,
had paid dear enough for them.
June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in
her three-score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that
time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever I
tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats
and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within.
I thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I was
something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my
head, and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill, frighted almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no
help. Prayed to God for the first time since the
storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why;
my thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better, but under dreadful appre-
hensions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and
then a violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.

June 25.-An ague very violent; the fit held me
seven hours ; cold fit, and hot with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak. However,
I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it
home, and broiled some of it, and eat. I would fain
have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay abed
all day, and neither eat or drink. I was ready to
perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not strength to
stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed
to God again, but was light-headed; and when I was
not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say;
only I lay and cried, Lord, look upon me Lord,
pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me! I suppose
I did nothing else for two or three hours, till the fit
wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in
the night. When I waked, I found myself much
refreshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty. However,
as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was forced
to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this
second sleep I had this terrible dream.
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the
outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew
after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and
light upon the ground. He was all over as bright as
a flame, so that I could but just bear to lool towards
him. His countenance was most inexpressibly dread-
ful, impossible for words to describe. When he stepped
upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth
trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake,

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