Citation
The Life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner

Material Information

Title:
The Life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731 ( Author, Primary )
Defoe, Daniel 1661? 1731 Robinson Crusoe
Browne, Gordon, 1858-1932 ( Illustrator )
Griset, Ernest Henry, 1844-1907 ( Illustrator )
Burt, A. L ( Albert Levi ), 1843-1913 ( Publisher )
Armstrong & Company ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
A.L. Burt
Language:
English
Edition:
New ed.
Physical Description:
452 p., 34 leaves of plates : ill. (5 col.) ; 20 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States of America -- New York -- New York
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
NUC pre-1956
General Note:
Cover and spine with col. ill. have gilt title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Frontispiece has name: Armstrong & Co., Boston.
General Note:
Variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 807.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; with twenty-nine full page illustrations by Gordon Browne and Ernest Griset and five original colored plates.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
SN01272 ( lccn )
24526825 ( oclc )
001819899 ( aleph )

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Full Text






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Crusoe discovers the print of amans foot.
Frontis.see Fuge 123 Crusoe.















THE LIFE

AND

SURPRISING ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

OF YORK, MARINER.
By DANIEL DEFOE.

WITH TWENTY-NINE FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS BY GORDON
BROWNE AND ERNEST GRISET

AND

FIVE ORIGINAL COLORED PLATES,
NEW EDITION.

NEW YORK:
A, L. BURT, PUBLISHER.






ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a for-
eigner, of Bremen, who settled first at Hull; he got a good
estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived after-
ward at York ; from whence he had married my mother, whose
relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer ;
but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe ; and
so my companions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colo-
nel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly com-
manded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at
the battie near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became
of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father
or mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts ;
my father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-
school generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I
would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea ; and my in-
clination te this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the
commands, of my father, and against all the entreaties and
persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed
to be something fatal in that propension of nature, tending di-
rectly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excel-
lent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was con-
fined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon
this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father’s house and
my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry,



2 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

with a life of ease and pleasure. Ile told me it was men of
desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes
on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by en-
terprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a
nature out of the common road ; that these things were all
either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was
the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of
low life, which he had found by long experience was the best
state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not
exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labor and suf-
ferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embar-
rassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper
part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the hap-
piness of this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the
state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being
born to great things, and wished they had been placed in
the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the
great ; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just
standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither pov-
erty nor riches. .

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind ; but that the middle station had the fewest disas-
ters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher
or lower part of mankind ; nay, they were not subjected to so
many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as
those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on
one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and mean or
insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way of living ;
that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of
virtues and all kind of enjoyments ; that peace and plenty
were the handmaids of a middle fortune ; that temperance,
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions,
and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life ; that this way men went silently and
smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of it, not
embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the head, not
sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with per-
plexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body
of rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, nor the secret
burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy
circumstances, sliding gently through the world and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that















Crusor’s FarHer Enrreats Him to Stay at Home.—Page 3,






ROBINSON CRUSOE. 3

they are happy and learning by every day’s experience to know
it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affection-
ate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself
into miseries which Nature, and the station of life I was born
in, seemed to have provided against ; that I was under no
necessity of seeking my bread ; that he would do well for me,
and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station of life which
he had just been recommending to me ; and that if I was not
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or
fault that must hinder it ; and that he should have nothing to
answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my hurt ; ina
word, that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would not have
so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encourage-
ment to go away ; and to close all, he told me I had my elder
brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest
persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where he was killed ; and though he said
he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say
to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be
so himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his face very ©
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed ; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no
more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my father’s
desire. But, alas! afew days wore it all off ; and, in short,
to prevent any of my father’s further importunities, in a few
weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him. However,
I did not act quite so hastily neither as the first heat of my
resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I
thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her
that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world,
that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough



4 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to go through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it ; that I was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or
clerk to an attorney ; that I was sure, if I did, I should never
serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if
I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time
that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion ; she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such subject ; that he knew too well what was my inter-
est to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and
that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after
the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me ; and that,
in short, if I would ruinmyself, there was no help for me ; but
I might depend I should never have their consent to it ; that
for her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruc-
tion ; and I should never have it to say that my mother was
willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and
that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her
with a sigh: “That boy might be happy if he would stay at
home ; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born ; I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated
with my father and mother about their being so positively de-
termined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time ;
but I say, being there, and one of my companions being going
by sea to London in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go
with them, with the common allurement of a seafaring man,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted
neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, with-
out asking God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences, and in anill hour,
God knows, on the 1st of September, 1651, I went on board a
ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s mis-













Fata
3 #





Crusoz TEMPTED To Go TO Sza.—Page 4.






ROBINSON CRUSOE. 5

fortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer than
mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than the
wind began to blow, and the sea to rise ina most frightful
manner ; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my duty. All the
good counsels of my parents, my,father’s tears and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it
has come since, reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since ;
no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to
affect me then, who was buta young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should
never rise more: in this agony of mind I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in this
one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived ; that I would take his advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now
I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life, how easy, how comfortable he had lived all his .
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea ; or troubles
on shore ; .and, in short, I resolved that I would, like a true,
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a
little inured to it; however, I was very grave for all that day,
being also a little seasick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine even-
ing followed, the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning ; having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most de-
lightful that ever I saw.

Thad slept well in the night, and was now no more seasick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my



6 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had
enticed me away, comes to me.

“ Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how
do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t
you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?”

“A capful, d’you callit?” said I; “’twasa terrible storm.”

“A storm, you fool, you!” replies he; “do you call that
a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship
and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind
as that ; but you’re but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let
us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d’ye see
what charming weather ’tis now ?”

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way
of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-
drunk with it; and in that one night’s wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the
sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled
calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my
thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of
my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and

romises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it
were, endeavor to return again sometimes ; but I shook them
off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered
the return of those fits, for so I called them; and I had, in
five or six days, got as complete a victory over my conscience
as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it
could desire. But I was to have another trial for it still ; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse ; forif I would not take
this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads ; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz., at southwest, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same Roads, as the common harbor where the ships
might wait for a wind for the River.

We had not, however, rid here so 1ong, but we should have



ROBINSON CRUSOE. "

tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. How-
ever, the Roads being reckoned as good as an harbor, the an-
chorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger,
but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea ; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased,
and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as
easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we
rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to
the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the busi-
ness of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several
times, “Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost! we
shall be all undone !” and the like. During these first hurries
I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steer-
age, and cannot describe my temper. I could ill resume the
first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and
hardened myself against : I thought the bitterness of death
had been past, and that this would be nothing too, like the
first ; but when the master himself came by me, as I said just .
now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted.
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal
sight I never saw ; the sea ran mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress round us ; two ships
that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried ont that a ship which
rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more
ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the
Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much
laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out
before the wind.

Toward evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him



8 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood
so Joose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to
cut that away also, and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this dis-
tance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in ten-
fold more horror of mind upon account of my former convic-
tions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself ; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition
that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not
come yet ; the storm continued with such fury, that the sea-
men themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in
the sea, so that the seamen every now and then cried out she
would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that
I did not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent that I saw, what is not
often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every
moment when the ship would goto the bottom. Inthe middle
of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of
the men, that had been down to see, cried out we had sprung
a leak ; another said, there was four feet water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my
heart, as I thought, died within me ; and I fell backwards up-
on the side of my bed, where I sat, into the cabin. However,
the men roused me, and told me that I, that was able to do
nothing before, wasas well able to pump as another ; at which
I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers,
who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and
run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a
gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they
meant, thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing
happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life
to think of, nobody minded-me or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead ; and
it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 9

storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into any port, so the master con-
tinued firing guns for help ; and a light ship, who had rid it
out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was
with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near
the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and
venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope
over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it outa great
length, which they after much labor and hazard took hold
of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into
their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we
were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship ; so
all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could ; and our master promised them,
that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good
to their master: so partly rowing, and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea.
I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the
seamen told me she was sinking ; for from the moment that
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said
to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly
with fright, partly with horror of mind and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand, to assist us
when we should come near; but we made but slow way to-
wards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore till,
being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to
the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though
not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merehants and owners of ships, and had money given us suf-
ficient to carry us either to London -or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and



10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast
away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had
any assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go
home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call
this, nor will { urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction,
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed un-
avoidable misery attending, and which it was impossible for
me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible obstructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The
first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which
was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the
town to several quarters ; I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered ; and looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his
father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a
trial, in order to go farther abroad : his father turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, “ Young man,” says he,
“you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man.” “ Why, sir,” said I, “will you go to sea no
more?” ‘That is another case,” said he ; “it is my calling,
and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a
trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you
are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us
on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,”
continues he, “ what are you ; and on what account did you go
to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end
of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion: ‘“ What
had I done,” says he, “ that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship
with thee again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as
I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have
authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 1l

to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin ; telling me I might see a visible hand
of Heaven against me. “ And, young man,” said he, “depend
npon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I
saw him nomore ; which way he went 1 knownot. As for me,
having some money in my pocket,I traveled to London by
land ; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with
myself what course of life I should take, and whether I should
go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbors, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even
everybody else; from whence I have often since observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common temper of man-
kind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the ac-
tion for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be es-
teemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncer-
tain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead.
An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I
stayed a while, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off ; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid
aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father’s house, which hurried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune; and that impressed those con-
ceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good ad-
vice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father: I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as
our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.’

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I

1 Guinea.—A. district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where
the land runs nearly due east and west. The six countries into which it
is divided are known to sailors under the names of Sierra Leone, Grain
Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin,



12 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

did not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed
have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same
time I should have learnt the duty and office of a foremast
man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so I did here ; for having money in
my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always go
on board in the habit of a gentleman ; and so I neither had
any business in the ship nor learnt to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company
in London, which does not always happen to such loose and
misguided young fellows as I then was ; the devil generally
not omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it
was not so with me. I first got acquainted with the master
of aship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who,
having had very good success there, was resolved to go again ;
this captain taking a fancy to my conversation, which was
not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had
a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage
with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his mess-
mate and his companion; and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
encouragement.

I embraced the offer ; and entering into astrict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with
me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the cap-
tain, I increased very considerably ; for I carried about £40
in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
This £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe
got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so. much as
that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend the captain ; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navi-
gation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s course, take
an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by asailor ; for, as he took de-
light to instruct me, I took delight to learn ; and, in a word, this
voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant ; for I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London, at my return, almost £300; and



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 13

this filled mé with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particu-
larly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate ; our principal
trading being on the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees
north, even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the un-
happiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200
left which I had lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very
just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage ;
and the first was this, viz., our ship making her course towards
the Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the
African shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by a
Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail
she could make. We crowded alsoas much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear;
but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight;
our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by
mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern,
as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that
side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made him
sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also
his small shot from near two hundred men which he had on
board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend ourselves ; but laying us on board the next time upon
our other quarter, he entefed sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging.
We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to
cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being
disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sal-
lee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended ; nor was I carried up the country to the em-
peror’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the



14 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,
being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this
surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a
miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now I
looked back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that
I should be miserable and have none to relieve me; which I
thought was now so effectually brought to pass that I could
not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken
me, and I was undone without redemption. But, alas! this
was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
appear in the sequel of this story.

As my_new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when
he went to sea again, believing that it would some time or
other be his fate to be taken bya a Spanish or Portuguese man-
of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to sea,
he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house ; and when he
came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it ; but found no w ay that had the least
probability in it ; nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational ; for I had nobody to communicate it to that
would embark with me ; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irish-
man, or Scotsman there but myself; so that for two years,
though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I
never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in
practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented it-
self, which put the old thought of making some attempt for
my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always
took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we
made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Moresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing with him in a calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 15

knew not whither or which way, we labored all day, and all the
next night; and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled out to sea instead of pulling in for the shore ; and that
we were at least two leagues from the land. However, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labor, and some
danger ; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morn-
ing; but particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him the
long-boat of our English ship which he had taken, he resolved
he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also
was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in
the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it to steer and haul home the main-sheet ; and
room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails.

She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail ; and
the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very
snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or
two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in
some bottles of such liquor ashe thought fit to drink; and
particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out. with this boat a-fishing ; and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without
me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat,
either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some
distinction in that place, and for whom he. had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over-
night alarger store of provisions than usual; and had ordered
me to get ready three fusils' with powder and shot, which
were on board his ship, for that they designed some sport of
fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed; and waited the
next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient’? and
pendants out, and everything to accommodate his guests ;
when by and by my patron came on board alone, and told me
his guests had put off going, from some business that fell out,
and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go ont with
the boat and catch them some fish, and that his friends were
to sup at his house ; he commanded me too, that as soon as I
had got some fish, I should bring it home to his house: all
which I prepared to do.

1 Fustl, a French word, meaning a light musket or firelock.
* Ancient, the old word, derived from the French enseigne, for a flag,
or the man who carries it.



16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little
ship at my command ; and my master being gone, I prepared
to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,whither
I would steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my
desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread.

He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of
rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water,
into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood,
which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the
Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for our
master. I conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the
boat, which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the
wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also; his name was Ismael, which
they call Muley, or Moely ;soI called tohim: “ Moely,” said I,
“our patron’s guns are all on board the boat ; can you not geta
little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies
[a fowl like our curlews] for ourselves, for I know he keeps
the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he,“ I'll bring
some ;” accordingly, he brought a great leather pouch, which
held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more ; and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time, I had
found some powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with
which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another ; and thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port
to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew
who we were, and took no notice of us ; and we were not above a
mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and sat
us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E., which was
contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly, I had been
sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to
the bay of Cadiz ; but my resolutions were, blow which way it
would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was,
and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 17

when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he
might not see them, I said to the Moor, “This will not do ;
our master will not be thus served ; we must stand farther
off.” He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head
of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I ran
the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to as
if I would fish ; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped for-
ward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for
something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into
the sea. .

He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to
me, begged to be taken in, telling me he would go all over
the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that
he would have reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind ; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one
of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him and told him
I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would
do him none. “But,” said I, “you swim well enough to
reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your
way toshore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come
near the boat, Pll shoot you through the head, for I am re-
solved to have my liberty.” So he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore, and J make no doubt but he reached
it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be
faithful to me, Pll make you a great man ; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father’s beard, “ I must throw you into the sea too.”
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently that I could
not mistrust him, and swore to be faithful to me and go all
over the world with me.

While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea, with the boat rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the Straits’?
mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed we
were sailing on to the southward to the truly barbarian coast,
where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go

1 Stratts, the Straits of Gibraltar.



18 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind ?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the
shore ; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth,
quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day at
three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
conld not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south
of Sallee ; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions,
or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days ; and
then, the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over ; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came
to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what
nor where; neither what latitude, what country, what nation,
or that river. I neither saw, nor desired to see any people ;
the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon
as it was dark, and discover the country ; but as soon as it
was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. “ Well, Xury,”
said I, “then I won’t; but it may be we may see men by day,
who will be as bad to us as those lions.” “Then we give them
the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, “ make them run wey.”
Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him
up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it : we
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night ; I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast
great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many
sorts, come down to the seashore, and run into the water,
wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling
themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yellings
that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one mighty
creature come swimming toward our boat ; we could not see



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 19

him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous,
huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away. “No,” says I, “ Xury; we can
slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go to sea ; they cannot
follow us far.” I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature, whatever it was, within two oars’ length, which some-
thing surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him ; upon which
he immediately turned about, and swam towards the shore
again.

“But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hide-
ous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge
of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or
report of a gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those
creatures had never heard before. This convinced me that
there was no going onshore for usin the night upon that coast ;
and how to venture on shore in the day was another ques-
tion too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the
savages had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions
and tigers ; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger
of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had nota pint left in the boat ;
when or where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would
let him go onshore with one of the jars, he would find if there
was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he
would go? why I should not go,and he stay inthe boat? The
boy answered with so much affection that made me love him
ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go
wey.” “ Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us.”
So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram out of
our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before ; and we
hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper,
and waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms and two
jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the com-
ing of canoes with savages down the river ; but the boy, see-
ing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and
by and by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he
was pursued by some savage, orfrighted withsome wild beast,
and [ ran forward towards him to helphim ; but when I came
nearer to him I saw something hanging over his shoulders,
which was acreature that he had shot, likea hare, but different in



20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

color, and longer legs ; however, we were very glad of it, and it
was very good meat ; but the great joy poor Xury came with,
was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild
mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but
a little way up ; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare
we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and did not exactly know, or at least not remember,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them ; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope
was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts ; the negroes having abandoned
it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its bar-
renness ; and indeed both forsaking it because of the pro-
digious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious
creatures which harbor there ; so that the Moors use it for
their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time: and indeed, for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste unin-
habited country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and
roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries; and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my
little vessel ; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep
along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place ; and once in particular, being early in



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 21

the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of
land, which was pretty high ; and the tide beginning to fiow,
we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells
me that we had best go farther off the shore ; “for,” says he,
“look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hil-
lock, fast asleep.” JI looked where he pointed, and saw a dread-
ful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of a hill that
hung as it were a little overhim. ‘“Xury,” says I “you shall
go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted and said,
“Me kill? heeat me at one mouth ;” one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and
took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs,
and laid it down ; then I loaded another gun with two bullets ;
and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five
smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first
piece to have shot him in the head, but he lay so, with his leg
raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about
the knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling at
first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again ; and then got
up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I
heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the
head ; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop ; and making but
little noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart,
and would have me let him go on shore. “ Well, go,” said
I; so the boy jumped into the water, and taking the little gun
in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear,
and shot him in the head again, which dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet. ‘“ For what, Xury ?” said
I. “Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it
with him, and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I re-
solved to take off his skin if Icould. So Xury and I went to
work with him ; but Xury was much the better workman at



23 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it, for I knew very ill how to doit. Indeed, it took us up both
the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried
it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into
the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My de-
sign in this was to make the River Gambia or Senegal ; that
is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship ; and if Idid not, Iknew
not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or
perish there among the negroes. I knew that all the ships
ftom Europe which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands ;
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish,

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us ; we could also perceive
they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them ; but Xury was my better coun-
selor, and said to me, “No go, no go.” However, I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way : I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could
throw them a great way with good aim: so I kept ata distance,
but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and partic-
ularly made signs for something to eat: they beckoned to me
to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon
this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them
ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and
some corn, such as is the produce of their country ; but we
neither knew what the one nor the other was: however, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I would not venture on shore to them, and they
were as much afraid of us : but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went
and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then
came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends ; but an opportunity offered that very in-



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 23

stant to oblige them wonderfully ; for while we were lying
on the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains to-
wards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual.or strange :
but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place,
these ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night ; and,
in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart
did not fly from them, as the rest did ; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall
upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea,
and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion : at
last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first
I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my
gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired,
and shot him directly in the head ; immediately he sank down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down,
as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was ; he im-
mediately made to the shore ; but between the wound, which
was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
ready evento die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk into
the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore,
they took heart and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water: and by the help
of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to
haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a
most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable de-
gree ; and the negroes held up their hands with admiration,
to think what it was I killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam to the shore, and ran up directly to
the mountains from whence they came ; nor could I at that
distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
to have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take it, they were very
thankful for.. Immediately they fell to work with him ; and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood,



24 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than
we would have done with a knife. They offered me some of
the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would give it them ;
but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely,
and brought me a great deal more of their provision, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to
them, turning its bottom upward, to show that it was empty,
and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt as I suppose
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water ; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this
point. At length, doubling the point at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to sea-
ward ; then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great
distance, and I could not well tell what I had best do ; for if
I should be taken with a fresh gale of wind, I might neither
reach one nor other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, “‘ Master, master, a ship with a sail!”
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it
must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us,
when I knew we were gotten ‘far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the
ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship ; and, as I thought,
was bound to the coast of Guinea, for negroes. But, when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they
were bound some other way, and did not design to go any
nearer the shore: upon which I stretched out to the sea as
much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before
I could make any signal to them : but after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 25

the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some En-
ropean boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship
that was lost ; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I
was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on
board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and
in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them ; but at last a Scotch
sailor, who was on board, called to me: and I answered him,
and told him I was an Englishman, that had made my escape
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then bade me
come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will be-
lieve, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a
miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance ; but he generously told me he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be de-
livered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. “ For,” says
he, “I have saved your life on no other terms than as I would
be glad to be saved myself ; and it may, one time or other, be
my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,” said
he, “ when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from
your own country, if I should take from you what you have,
you will be starved there, and then I only take away that life
I have given. No, no,” says he; “Seignor Inglese [Mr. Eng-
lishman], I will carry you thither in charity, and these things
will help you to buy your subsistence there, and your passage
home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance to a tittle ; for he ordered the seamen that none
should offer to touch anything I had: then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one ; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use; and
asked me what I would have forit. I told him, he had been
so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make
any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him : upon which,
he told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil ; and when it came there,
if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He of-



26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

fered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loath to take ; not that I was unwilling to let the
captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy’s
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own.
However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy
an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Chris-
tian: upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him,
I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-
two days after. And now I was once more delivered from
the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do
next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me,I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty
for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused every-
thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me ; and
what I was willing to sell, he bought of me: such as the case of
bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-
wax, for I had made candles of the rest; in a word, I made
about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo ;
and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio,
as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house), I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means,
with the manner of their planting and making of sugar ; and
seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I would
turn planter among them ; resolving in the mean time, to find
out some way to get my money, which I had left in London,
remitted tome. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of
naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement ; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbor, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of
Euglish parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him neighbor, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land began



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 27

to come into order; so that the third year we planted some
tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come; but we both wanted
help ; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong
in parting with my boy Xury. ;

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. Ihad no remedy but to go on; I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius and directly con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice ; nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home,
and never fatigued myself in: the world, as I have done; and
I used often to say to myself, “I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness,
and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.”

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbor ; no work to be done, but by the labor of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been! and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island, or mere desolation, should be
my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in which, had IJ continued, I had, in all prob-
ability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained
there, in providing her lading, and preparing for the voyage,
near three months ; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice: “Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always called
me), “if you will give me letters, and a procuration in form
to me, with orders to the person who has your money in Lon-
don, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall
direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I w‘!l
bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return ;



28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters,
I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard
be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you may order
the rest the same way ; and if it miscarry, you may have the
other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentleman with
whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portu-
guese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all
my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior,
and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary
directions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came
to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over not the order only, but a full account of my
story, to a merchant in London, who represented it effectually
to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out
of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I
was too young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils
necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made; for
I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward the
captain had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had
sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me
over a servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which
I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manu-
facture, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them at a very great advantage ; so that I may say I had more
than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now in-
finitely beyond my poor neighbor—I mean in tne advance-
ment of my plantation ; for the first thing I did, I bought me
a negro slave, and an European servant also: I mean another
besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 29

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. JI went on the
next year with great success in my plantation : I raised fifty
great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more thanI had
disposed of for necessaries among my neighbors ; and these
fifty rolls, being each of above a hundredweight, were well
cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon.
And now increasing in business and wealth, my head began to
be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach ; such
as are indeed often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me for which my
father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and
which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life
to be full of ; but other things attended me, and I was still
to be the willful agent of all my own miseries ; and par-
ticularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to
make ; all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent
obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering
abroad, and pursuing that inclination in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit
of those prospects and those measures of life, which nature and
Providence concurred to present me with, and to make my
duty.

‘As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must goand leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted ; and thus
I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life and a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by just degrees to the particulars of this part
of my story : You may suppose, that having now lived almost
four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the lan-
guage, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St.
Salvadore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets,
bits of glass, and the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains,



30 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

elephants’ teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service of the Brazils,
in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying negroes ; which was a trade, at that time, not only
not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on
by the Assiento, or permission of the King of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few
negroes were brought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company one day with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon
what I had discoursed of with them the last night, and they
came to make a secret proposal to me; and after enjoining
me secrecy, they told me that they hada mind to fit out a
ship to go to Guinea ; that they had all plantations as well as
I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants ; that
as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they
could not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so
they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on
shore privately, and divide them among their own plantations ;
and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the
coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my
equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the
stock,

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming
to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But
for me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing
to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more,
and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England ;
and who in that time, and with that little addition, could
scarce have failed of being worth three or four thousand
pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me to think of
such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man
in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling
designs when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me.
In a word,I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it as I should direct, if I miscarried.



| fam |





























CRUSOE AND THE CAPTAIN CONSULTING THE CHARTS.—Page 31,






ROBINSON CRUSOE. 31

This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings, or
covenants, to do so; and Imade a formal will, disposing of
my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I
had directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to
himself, and the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, and have made
a judgment of whatI ought to have done, and not to have
done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving cir-
cumstance, and gone upon a voyage to ‘sea, attended with all
its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to
expect particular misfortunes to myself.

ut I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy rather than my reason ; and accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, and the cargo finished, and all things done as
by agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board
in an evil hour again, the Ist of September, 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went from my father and mother
at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the
fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially
little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coasts, with design to stretch
over for the African coast, when they came into about ten or
twelve degrees of northern latitude ; which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days. We had very good
weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; from whence,
keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as
if we were bound for the Isle Fernando de Noronha, holding
our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time,
and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-
two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from
the southeast, came about to the northwest, and then settled



32 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

into the northeast ; from whence it blew in such a terrible
manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us wher-
ever fate and the fury of the winds ‘directed ; and during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day
to be swallowed up ; nor did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men died of the calenture, and a man and a boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a
little, the master made an observation -as well as he could,
and found that he was in about eleven degrees of north lati-
tude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude differ-.
ence west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that he found he was
gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil,
beyond the river Amazones, towards that of the river Oroo-
noque, commonly called the Great River ; and now he began to
consult with me what course he should take ; for the ship was
leaky, and very much disabled, and he was for going directly
back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts
of the seacoast of America with him, we concluded there
was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to till we
came within the circle of the Carribbee Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off
at sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail ;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast
of Africa without some assistance both to our ship and to our-
selves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief ; but our voyage was’ otherwise de-
termined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eight-
een minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so
out of the way of all human commerce that, had all our lives
been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early one morning cried out, “Land!” and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon
the sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 33

all have perished immediately ; and we were even driver into
our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray
of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like con-
dition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon
what land it was we were driven; whether an island or the
main, whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the
wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes with-
out breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking
one upon another, and expecting death every moment, and
every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world ;
for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that
which was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had,
was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break
yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought the wind did a little abate, yet the
ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful con-
dition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship’s rudder, and in the next place she. broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea ; so there was
no hope from her. We had another boat on board, but how.
to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing ; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would
break in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung
over the ship’s side ; and getting all into her, we let go, and
committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy
and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated consider-
ably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and
might be well called den wild zee, asthe Dutch call the sea in
a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not
escape, and that weshould be inevitably drowned. As to mak-
ing sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done
anything with it ; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution ; for



84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

we all knew that when the boat came near the shore, she
would be dashed ina thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well
as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation was, if we might hap-
pen into’ some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the
sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de
grace. Ina word, it took us with such a fury that it overset
the boat at once ; and separating us as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, “O God!”
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I sank into the water ; for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead
with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind,
as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the mainland
than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavored to make
on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again ; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as
high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had
no means or strength to contend with: my business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could ;
and so byswimming to preserve my breathing, and ‘pilot my-
self towards the shore if possible, my greatest concern now
being, that the wave, asit would carry me a great way to-
wards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back
again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty feet deep inits own body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a



PAA



Crusoe Cast ASHORE.—Page 34,






ROBINSON CRUSOE, 35

very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when as I felt myself rising up, so, to
my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out
above the surface of the water; and though it was not two
seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved mg
greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not solong but I held it out ;
and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood stilla few moments to recover
breath, and till the waters-went from me, and then took to my
heels, and ran with what strength I had, farther towards the
shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I
was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me ;
for the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of arock, and that with such
force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance ; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the
breath as it were quite out of my body ; and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water ;
but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and
seeing I should be covered again with water, I resolved to hold
fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible,
till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high
as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so
near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the
next run I took, I got to the mainland ; where, to my great
comfort, I clambered up the clifts of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of
the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
was some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe
it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out
of the very grave: and Ido not wonder now at that custom,
when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied
up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought
to him—TI say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with



86 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of it, that
the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart,
and overwhelm him,

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

J walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliv-
erance ; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I can-
not describe ; reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but my-
self ; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign
of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off ; and considered, Lord! how wasit possible I could get on
shore ?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place
I was in, and what was next to be done: and I soon found m
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliver-
ance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything
either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was that I had no weapon, either to hunt and
kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In
a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco ina box. This was all my provision; and
this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I
ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was to get up into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and
consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw
no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to
my great joy ; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in
my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting
up into it, endeavored to place myself so that if I should sleep
I might not fall. And having cut me a short stick, like a



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 37

truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging; and being
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found
myself more refreshed with it than I think I ever was on such
an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before ;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which
I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright
still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save some
necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat,
which lay, as the wind and sea had tossed her up, upon the
land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as
I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck
or inlet of water between me and the boat which was about
half a mile broad ; so Icame back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find some-
thing for my present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship. And here I founda fresh renewing of my grief ;
for I saw evidently that, if we had kept on board, we had
been all safe ; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and
I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of
all comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears to
my eyes again ; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved,
if possible, to get to the ship ; so I pulled off my clothes, for the
weather was hot to extremity, and took the water. But when I
came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how
to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I
swam round her twice, and the second time I espied a small
piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hanging
down by the fore-chains so low, that with great difficulty I got
hold of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the fore-
castle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged, and
had a great deal of water in her hold ; but that she lay so on
the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the



38 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

water. By this means all her quarter was free and all that
was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work
was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what was free.
And, first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time to
lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which Ihad, indeed, need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but
a boat, to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me. :

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had; and this extremity roused my application. We had
several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood,
and a spare topmast or two in the ship: I resolved to fall to
work with them, and I flung as many of them overboard as I
could manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope,
that they might not drive away. When this was done, I
went down the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I tied four
of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them,
crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it
was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too
light. So I went to work, and with the carpenter’s saw I cut
a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labor and pains. But the hope of
furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me to go
beyond what I should have been able to have done upon
another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea: but I
was not long in considering this. I first laid all the planks
or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well
what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them
down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions
—viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little re-
mainder of European corn, which had been laid by for some
fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat together ;
but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the
rats had eaten or spoiled it all, As for liquors, I found





























































































































































































CrusoE on His Rarr.—Page 39,






ROBINSON CRUSOE. 39

several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which
were some cordial waters; and in all, about five or six
gallons of arrack. These I stowed by themselves, there being
no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon the
sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which were only
linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my
stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye
was more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore ; and it
was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at
that time. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without
losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it con-
tained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms, There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols. These I secured first, with some powder-horns, a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And nowI thought
myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder ;
and the least capful of wind would have overset all my navi-
gation.

I had three encouragements: first, a smooth, calm sea;
secondly, the tide rising, and setting in to the shore; thirdly,
what little wind there was blew me towards the land. And
thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws,
an ax, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea. For a
mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found
it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed be-
fore ; by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river
there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with
my cargo. .

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a lit-
tle opening of the land. I found a strong current of the tide



40 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

set into it ; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in
the middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think verily would have broken my heart ;
for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one
end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end,
it wanted buta little that all my cargo had slipped off towards
the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my
utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them
in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength ; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in ; but
holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that man-
ner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level ; and, a little after, the
water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up higher,
Tat length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up.
I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I
was not willing to be driven too high up the river ; hoping in
time to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near that, reaching ground with my oar,
I could thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have
dipped all my cargo into the sea again ; for that shore lying
pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was no place to
land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would
lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would
endanger my cargo again. All that I could do was to wait
till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a
flat piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow
over ; andso it did. Assoon as I found water enough, for my
raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat
piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking
my two broken oars into the ground—one on one side, near
one end, and one on the other side, near the other end ; and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all
my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not ; whether on the continent or an island ; whether inhabited





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ROBINSON CRUSOE, 41

or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts or not.
There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very
steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills,
which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of
the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of pow-
der ; and thus armed, J traveled for discovery up to the top
of that hill, where, after I had with great labor and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction—viz., that
I was in an island environed every way with the sea: no land
to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and
two small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues
to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of which, however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds ; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,
on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun
that had been fired there since the creation of the world. I
had no sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there
arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making
a confused screaming and crying, every one according to his
usual note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As
for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its
color and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws
more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing,

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of the day: what to do with myself at night I knew not,
nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not. knowing but some wild beast might devour me ;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that Ihad brought on shore, and made
a kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw
not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or
three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.

I now began to consider that I miocht yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land ; and I resolved to make another voy-
age on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that-the



42 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I
resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council—that is
to say, in my thoughts—whether I should take back the raft ;
but this appeared impracticable : so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down ; and I did so, only that I stripped be-
fore I went from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered
shirt, a pair of linen.drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before,and prepared a second
raft ; and, having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought
away several things very useful to me ; as, first, in the carpen-
ter’s stores I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a
great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all,
that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured,
together with several things belonging to the gunner, particu-
larly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets,
seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bagful of small shot, and
a great roll of sheet lead ; but this last was so heavy I could
not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s sides.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some
bedding ; and with this I loaded ‘my second raft, and brought
them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore ;
but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor ; only
there sat a creature like a wildcat, upon one of the chests,
which when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still. Shesat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not
understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great ; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she
went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased)
for more ; but I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being largé casks—I went to work
to make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which
I cut for that purpose ; and into this tent I brought every-



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

thing that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun ; and J
piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the
tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man
or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without ; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground,
laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length
by me, I went to bed the first time, and slept very quietly all
night. I was very weary and heavy ; for the night before I
had slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to
to fetch those things from the ship as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man ; butstill I was not satisfied, for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought
to get everything out of her that I could ; so every day, at
low water, I went on board, and brought away something or
other ; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes
and rope twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. Ina word I brought away all the sails, first
and last ; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as much at a time as I could, for they were no more useful
to me for sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was, that at last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with—lI say, after all thus, I found a great
hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a
box of fine sugar, and a barrel of fine flour : this was surprising
to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions
except what was spoiled by the water. I soon empiied the
hogshead of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel,
in pieces of the sails, which I cut out ; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also, though at several times.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having
punoeied the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,

began with the cable ; cutting the great cable into pieces
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the ironwork I could get ; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and
came away ; but my good luck began to leave me, for this raft
was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was entered the



44 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

little cove, where [ had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water ; as for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore ; but as to my
cargo, it was great part lost, especially the iron, which I ex-
pected would have been of great use to me ; however, when
the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and
some of the iron, though with infinite labor ; for I was fain to
dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very
much. After this, I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.

I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable of
bringing ; though I verily believe, had the calin weather held,
I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece ;
but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the
wind began to rise: however, at low water I went on board,
and though I thought I had rammaged the cabin s0 effectually
that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker
with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks ; in another I found about thirty-six
pounds’ value in money—some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

Ismiled to myself at the sight of this money. “ Oh, drug!”
said I aloud, “ what art thou good for? Thou art not worth
to me—no, not the taking off the ground ; one of those knives
is worth all this heap ; I have no manner of use for thee; e’en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as acreature whose
life is not worth saving.” However, upon second thoughts,
I took it away ; and wrapping all in a piece of canvas, I be-
gan to think of making another raft ; but while I was prepar-
ing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind offshore ; and that it was my busi-
ness to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I
might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I
let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel
which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with
difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had
about me, and partly from the roughness of the water ; for
the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high water
it blew a storm,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 45

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with
all my wealth about me-very secure. It blew very hard all
that night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no
more ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but re-
covered myself with this satisfactory reflection, that I had lost
no time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her
that could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore from her
wreck ; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did ; but
those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to
make—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a
tent upon the earth ; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the
manner and description of which it may not be improper to
give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish ground
near the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome, and
more particularly because there was no fresh water near it ; so
I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: first, health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned ; secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun ;
thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or
beast ; fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in
sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down
upon me from the top. On the side of the rock there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of
a cave ; but there was not really any cave, or way into the
rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, 1 re-
solved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green be-
fore my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the seaside, It was



46 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to the W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hol-
low place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter,
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its be-
ginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground above five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, upon one another, within the circle, be-
tween these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post ; and this fence was so strong
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be,not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top ; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done ; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution from the enemies that I appre-
hended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above ; andI made me a large tent also,
to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are
very violent there. I made it double—viz., one smaller tent
within, and one larger tent above it ; and covered the upper-
most part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a
very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed all
my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left
open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
ladder.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 47

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down, cut
through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot
and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent,
which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labor and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it occurred, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up the tent, and making the cave, that
a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud,a sudden
flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great clap of
thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. Iwas not so much
surprised with the lightning, as I was with the thought
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself.
“Oh, my powder!” My very heart sank within me, when I
thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed ;
on which not my defense only, but the providing me food, as
I thought, entirely depended. JI was nothing near so anxious
about my own danger; though, had the powder took fire, I
had never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me that, after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my work, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes to
separate my powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hopes, that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight ; and I think my powder, which in
all was about one hundred and forty pounds’ weight, was
divided into no less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from
that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I
called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holes
among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I had laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to
me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me,
viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot,



48 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after
I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner
for them: I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though
they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a
terrible fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence
I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight
was so directed downward that they did not readily see
objects that were above them; so afterwards I took this
method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily; for, when the old one fell, the
kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up; and
not only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my inclosure ; upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms,
and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame ; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it and eat
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I eat sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread
especially, as much as I possibly could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full ac-
count of in its place; but I must now give some little ac-
count of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.

Thad a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said,
by a violent storm quite out of the course of our intended
voyage, and a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of
the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my
life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when I
made these reflections: and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable, so without
help abandoned, and so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 49

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me ; and particularly one day walk-
ing with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pen-
sive upon the subject of my present condition, when Reason,
as it were, put in expostulating with me the other way, thus:
“ Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why
were not they saved, and you lost? Why are you singled out ?
Is it better to be here or there?” And then I pointed to
the sea, All evils are to be considered with the good that is
in them and with what worse attended them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had
not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the
ship floated from the place where first she struck, and was
driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her? What would have been my case, if I had
been forced to have lived in the condition in which I at first
came on shore, without necessaries of life, or any means to
supply and procure them? “Particularly,” said I aloud
(though to myself), “ what should I have done without a gun,
without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or
to work with ? without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any man-
ner of coverings?” and that now I had all these to a sufficient
quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a
manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition was
spent: so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without
any want as long as I lived; for I considered from the begin-
ning how I would provide for the accidents that might happen,
and for the time that was to come, even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and
strength should decay.

I confess I had not then entertained any notion of my am-
munition being destroyed at one blast—I mean, my powder
being blown up by lightning ; and this made the thought of
it surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.

And now, being about to enter into a melancholy relation of
a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in
the world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and con-
tinue it in its order.. It was, by my account, the 30th of Sep-
tember, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island ; when the sun being to us in its autum-
nal equinox, was almost just over my head: for I reckoned



50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees
twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for
want of books, and pen, and ink, and should even forget the
Sabbath-day from the working-days ; but to prevent this,
I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters ;
and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where
I first landed, viz., “I came on shore here on the 30th of Sep-
tember, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch
with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as
the rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that
long one ; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly,
and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that, among the many
things which I brought from the ship in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things
of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before ; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper ;
several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s
keeping ; three or four compasses, some mathematical instru-
ments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation ;
all which I huddled together, whether I might want them
or no; also I found three very good Bibles, which came to me
in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among
my things; some Portuguese books also ; and, among them,
two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other books ;
all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget that
we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent
history I must have occasion to say something in its place, for
I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he
jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me
the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he
could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to
me ; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could
not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper,
and I husbanded them to the utmost ; and I shall show that
while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact ; but after that
was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
ink was one: as also a spade, pick-ax, and shovel, to dig or



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 51
remove the earth ; needles, pins, and thread ; as for linen, I
soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work Idid go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my
little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in
bringing home ; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in
driving it into the ground ; for which purpose I got a heavy
piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of
the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, yet made
driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of
anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in?
nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at
least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
cireumstances I was reduced to ; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as
to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now to master
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse, and I stated it very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comfort I enjoyed,
against the miseries I suffered, thus :

EVIL.

I am cast upon a horrible, desolate
island ; void of all hope of recovery.

I am singled out and separated, as it
were, from all the world, to be miserable.

Iam divided from mankind, a solitary ;
one banished from human society.

T have no clothes to cover me.

Iam without any defense, or means to
resist any violence of man or beast.

Thave no soul to speak to or relieve me.

Upon the whole, here was

@ooD.

But I am alive; and not drowned, as
all my ship’s company was.

But Iam singled out, too, from all the
ane crew, to be spared from death ;
and He that miraculously saved me from
death can deliver me from this condition.

But I am not starved and perishing on
a barren place, atording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where if I
had clothes, I could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island where I see
no wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa ; and what if I had been
shipwrecked there ?

But God wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, that I have got
out so many necessary things as will
either supply my wants or enable me to
supply myself, even as long as I live.

an undoubted testimony that



52 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world—that we may always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my con-
dition, and giving over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy
a ship; I say, giving over these things, I began to apply my-
self to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as
easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the
outside: and after some time (I think it was a year and a
half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things asI could
get to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the
year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me.
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place ; I had no room to turn myself : so I set myself to
enlarge my cave, and worked farther into the earth; for it
was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labor I
bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as
to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into
the rock ; and then turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my
pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to
stow my goods, ,

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table ; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few com-
forts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do
several things with so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work ; and here I must needs observe that as
reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in



ROBINSON CRUSOE. ; 53

time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled
a tool in my life; and yet in time my labor, application, and
contrivance, I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools ; and some with no
more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labor.
For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to
cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat
on either side with my axe till I had brought it to be as thin
as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true,
by this method I could make but one board out of a whole
tree ; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more
than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor which it
took me up to make a plank or board ; but my time and labor
was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as
another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces
of boards that I brought on my raft fromthe ship. But when
I had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves,
of the breadth of a foot and an half, one over another, all
along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-
work on ; and, in a word, to separate everything at large into
their places, that I might come easily at them ; also I knocked
pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns and all
things that would hang up: so that had my cave been to be
seen, it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things ;
and I had everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great
pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially
to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment ; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only an hurry as to labor, but in too much dis-
composure of mind ; and my journal would have been full of
many dull things; for example, I must have said thus:

“ September 30.—After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliver-
ance, having first vomited, with the great quanity of salt
water which was gotten into my stomach, and recovering my-
self a little, I ran about the shore wringing my hands and
beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and
crying out I was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, I was
forced to lie down on the ground for repose, but durst not
sleep, for fear of being devoured.”



54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and had got all I could out of her, yet I could not for-
bear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking
out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy ata vast
distance I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and
then, after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it
quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase
my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began, I say, to keep my journal; of which I shall here give
you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again), as long as it lasted ; for at last, having no more
ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I
called “The Island of Despair”; all the rest of the ship’s
company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to; viz.,I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to ; and in despair
of any relief, saw nothing but death before me; either that I
should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night
I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures ; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again, much nearer the island; which, as it was some
comfort, on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not
broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on
board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for m
relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss
of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on
board, might have saved the ship, or at least, that they would
not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the
men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of
the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other part
of the world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing
myself on these things ; but, at length, secing the ship almost



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 55

dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam
on board. This day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th—All these days en-
tirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of
the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain also, in those days, though with some in-
tervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy
season.

October 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was
out.

October 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind ; during which time, the ship broke in pieces,
the wind blowing a little harder than before, and was no
more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low
water. Ispent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

October 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to
find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to
secure myself from any attack in the night, eitherfrom wild
beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place,
under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment,
which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortifica-
tion, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and with-
out with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country ;
when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home,
which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night ; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.

November 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed
a fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out
for my fortification. ,

November 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the after-
noon went to work to make me a table.

November 4.—This morning I began to order my times of



56 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of
diversion ; viz.,every morning I walked out with my gun for
two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself
to work till about eleven o’clock; then ate what I had to live
on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessive hot: and then, in the evening, to work again.
The working part of this day and the next were wholly
employed in making this table, for I was yet but a very sorry
workman, though time and necessity made me a complete
natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any
one else.

November 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and
my dog, and killed a wildcat; her skin pretty soft, but her
flesh good for nothing ; every creature I killed, I took off the
skins and preserved them.. Coming back by the seashore, I
saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand ; but
was surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they
were, got into the sea and escaped me for that time.

November 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking ;
nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

November 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th
was Sunday according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to
make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable
shape, but never to please me; and even in the making I
pulled it to pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected keeping Sundays ; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

November 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, and cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.

November 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making
little square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pounds at most, of powder ; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another
as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird
that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

November 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my further conveniency.

Note.—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work; viz.,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

a pickax, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket ; so I desisted
from my work, and began to consider how to supply that want,
and make me some tools. As for the pickax, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel, or spade; this was so absolutely nec-
essary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it ;
but what kind of one to make I knew not.

November 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found
a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
the iron tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great
labor, and almost spoiling my ax, I cut a piece, and brought it
home, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The
excessive hardness of the wood, and having on other way, made
me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually
by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the
handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the board
part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last
me so long ; however, it served well enough for the uses which
I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe,
made after that fashion, or so long making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such
things as twigs that would bend tomake wicker-ware—at least,
none yet found out; and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I
could make all but the wheel; but that I had no notion of ;
neither did I know how to go about it ; besides, I had no possi-
ble way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away
the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like
a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in, when they serve the
bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel ; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than
four days, I mean always excepting my morning’s walk with
my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of
bringing home something fit to eat.

November 23.—My other work having stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on,
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room, or
cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a
lodging, I kept to the tent ; except that sometimes, in the wet



58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep my-
self dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side ;
so much that, in short,it frighted me, and not without reason,
too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-
digger. Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do
over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, .so that I
might be sure no more would come down.

December 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of board across over each post; this I finished the
next day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured ; and the posts, standing in
rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.

December 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that
could be hung up ; and now I began to be in some order within
doors.

December 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of board like
a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but board began to be
very scarce with me; also I made me another table.

December 24.—Much rain all night and all day ; no stirring
out.

December 25.—Rain all day.

December 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than be-
fore, and pleasanter.

December 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so
that I catched it, and led it home in a string ; when I had it
at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

NV. B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and asstrong asever; butby nursing itso long it grew
tame and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go
away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot were all spent.

December 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats and no breeze, so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food ;
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors,



ROBINSON . CRUSOE. 59

January 1.—Very hot still : but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
center of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though
exceedingly shy, and hard to come at ; however, I resolved to
try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

January 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats ; but I was mistaken, for they
all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well,
for he would not come near them.

January 3.—I began my fence, or wall ; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.

NV. B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the Journal ; it is sufficient to observe that I
was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it
was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a
half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about
eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the center
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together ; but I thought I should
never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished ; and it is
scarce credible what inexpressible labor everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driv-
ing them into the ground ; forI made them much bigger than
I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside doubled-fenced
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that,
if any people were to come on shore there, they would not per-
ceive any thing like a habitation ; and it was very well I did
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable oc-
casion.

During this time I made rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries in these walks of something or other to my ad-
vantage ; particularly I founda kind of wild pigeons, which
build, not as woodpigeons in a tree, but rather as house pigeons,
in the holes of rocks ; and taking some young ones, I endeavored
to breed them up tame, and did so ; but when they grew older
they flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feed-
ing them, for I had nothing to give them ; however, I fre-
quently found their nests, and got their young ones, which
were very good meat,



60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it
was impossible for me to make ; as, indeed, as to some of them
it was ; for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped.
I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could
never arrive to the capacity of making one of them, though I
spent many weeks about it ; I could neither put in the heads,
nor join the staves so true to one another as to make them
hold water ; so I gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles ; so that
as soon as it was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock,
I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-
wax with which I made candles in my African adventure ;
but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added
a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me
light, though not a clear, steady light like a candle. In the mid-
dle of all my labors it happened that, rummaging my things, I
found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn for the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but
before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What
little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured
by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust ;
and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I think it
was to put powderin, when I divided it for fear of the lightning,
or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one
side of my fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and
not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything there,
when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few
stalks of something green shooting upon the ground, which I
fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was sur-
prised, and perfectly astonished when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our European—nay,
as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion ; I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all ; indeed, I had very few notions
of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any-
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than a chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring
into the end of Providence in these things, or his order in



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 61

governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there in aclimate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance in that wild,
miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of Nature
should happen upon my account ; and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks
of rice, and which I knew because I had seen it grow in Africa,
when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubting but that there was more in
the place, I went all over that part of the island where I had
been before, peering in every corner and under every rock, to
see for more of it, but I could not find any. At last it occurred
to my thoughts that I had shaken the bag of chickens’ meat
out in that place ; and the wonder began to cease ; and I must
confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began
to abate too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing
but what was common ; though I ought to have been as thank-
ful for so strange and unforeseen providence, as if it had been
miraculous ; for it was really the work of Providence as to me,
that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn
should remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the
rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven; as also that I
should throw it out in that particular place, where, it being in
the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately ; whereas,
if Ihad thrown it anywhere else at that time it had been
burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time,
to have some quantity, sufficient to supply me with bread.
But it was not till the fourth year that I would allow myself
the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but spar-
ingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all
that [sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time 5
for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came
at all, at least not as it would have done ; of which in its
place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty



62 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and
whose use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz.,
to make me bread, or rather food ; for I found ways to cook
it up without baking, though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal:

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April, I closed it up, contriv-
ing to go into it, not by a door, but over a wall, by a ladder,
that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder ; so I went up the ladder to
the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down on the
inside ; this was a complete inclosure to me; for within I
had room enough, and nothing could come at me from with-
out, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labors overthrown at once, and myself killed.
The case was thus: AsI was busy in the inside of it, behind
my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly
frightened with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for,
all on a sudden, I found the earth came tumbling down from
the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked
in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared; but thought
nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that the
top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before ;
and for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forwards to my
ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over
my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down
upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible
earthquake ; for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would
have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed
to have stood upon the earth ; and a great piece of the top of
the rock, which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea,
fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my
life. I perceived also the very sea was put into a violent
motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under
the water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one
dead or stupefied ; and the motion of the earth made my
stomach sick like one that was tossed at sea ; but the noise of
the falling of the rock awaked_me, as it were, and rousing me
from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 63

and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent
and all my household goods, and burying all at once; and
this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart
enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being buried
alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down and
disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while I had
not the least serious religious thought ; nothing but the com-
mon “Lord, have mercy upon me!” and when it was over,
that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grew
cloudy, as if it would rain; soon after that, the wind arose
by little and little, so that in less.than half an hour it blew a
most dreadful hurricane of wind; the sea was, all on a sud-
den, covered with foam and froth; the shore was covered
with the breach of the water; the trees were torn up by the
roots; and a terrible storm it was. This held about three
hours and then began to abate ; and then in two hours more
it was calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I
sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected ; when
on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and
rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake
itself was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave
again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive ; and
the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down
in my tent; but the rain was so violent that my tent was
ready to be beaten down with it ; and I was forced to go in-
to my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it
should fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a
new work, viz., to cut a hole through my new fortifications,
like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have
drowned my cave. After I had been in my cave some time,
and found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I
began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store,
and took a small sup of rum; which, however, I did then and
always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when
that was gone. It continued raining all that night, and great
part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad ; but my
mind being more composed, I began to think of what I had
best to do; concluding, that if the island was subject to
these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave,
but I must consider of building me some little hut in an open
place which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here,



64 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for 1
concluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one
time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the
place where it now stood, which was just under the hanging
precipice of the hill ; and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent ; and I spent the two next
days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where
and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swal-
lowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet ; and yet
the apprehensions of lying abroad without any fence were
almost equal to it: but still, when I looked about, and saw
how everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I
was, and how safe from danger, it made me loath toremove. In
the mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast
deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to
run the venture where I was, till [had formed a camp for my-
self, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this
resolution Icomposed myself for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, etc., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it,
when it was finished ; but that I would venture to stay where
I was till it was finished, and fit to remove to. This was the
21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means
to put this resolve in execution ; but I was at a great loss
about my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians) ; but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches, and dull ; and though I
had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This caused me as much thought as a statesman would have
bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or judge upon the life
and death ofa man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a
string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands
at liberty.

Note.—I had not seen any such thing in England, or at least
not to take notice how it was done, though I have observed
it was very common there ; besides that, my grindstone was
very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week’s
work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very
well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask ; when I came to it, Ifound
a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the
ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and look-
ing towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher
out of the water thanit used todo. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gun-
powder ; but it had taken water, and the powder was caked
as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore for the
present, and went on upon the sand, as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand,
was heaved up at least six feet, and the stern, which was
broken to pieces and parted from the rest by the force of the
sea soon after I had left rummaging of her, was tossed, as it
were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so
high on that side next the stern, that whereas there was a great
place of water before, so that I could not come within a quar-
ter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake ; and as by this violence the ship was more broken
open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore,
which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water
rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of remov-
ing my habitation and I busied myself mightily, that day espe-
cially, in searching whether I could make any way into the
ship ; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for
that all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. How-
ever, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to
pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding
that everything I could get from her would be of some use or
other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which held some of the upper part or quarterdeck
together, and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the
sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest ; but
the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time,

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going



66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. Ihad made me a
long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I fre-
quently caught ‘fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all
which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck ; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fire planks off from the decks, which
I tied together, and made swim on shore when the tide of
flood came on.

May 6.—W orked on the wreck ; got several iron bolts out
of her, and other pieces of iron-work ; worked very hard, and
came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it
over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, with an intent not to
work, but found the weight of the wreck had broken itself
down, the beams being cut ; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that
I could see into it ; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow
to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck
for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also
a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to
move.

May 10, 11,12, 18,14.—Went every day to the wreck ;
and got a great deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or planks,
and two or three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and
a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water ; but I stayed
so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide
prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore,
at a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see
what they were, and found they were pieces of the head, but
too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked ‘on the wreck ;
and with hard labor I loosened some things so much with the



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 67

crow that the first flowing tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen’s chests ; but the wind blowing from the
shore nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and
a hogshead which had some Brazil pork in it; but the
salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work
every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to
get food, which I always appointed, during this part of my
employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be
ready when it was ebbed out ; and by this time I had gotten
timber, and plank, and iron-work. enough to have built a good
boat, if I had known how; and also I got, at several times,
and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of the sheet
lead. -

June 16.—Going down to the seaside, I founda large tor-
toise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems,
was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place or the
scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other side of the
island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I
found afterwards ; but perhaps had paid dear enough for
them.

June 17.—I spent in cooking theturtle. I found in her three-
score eggs ; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savory and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had
no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrible

lace.
: June 18.—Rained all the day, and I stayed within. I
thought, at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was something
chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night ; violent pains in my head, and
feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the ap-
prehensions of my sad condition—to be sick, and no help:
prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off of Hull,
but scarce knew what I said or why ; my thoughts being ail
confused.

June 22.—A little better ; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent: the fit held me seven
hours ; cold fit, and hot with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my



68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

gun, but found myself very weak ; however, I killed a she-
goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some
of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some
broth, but had no pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst ;
but so weak I had no strength to stand up, or to get myself
any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-
headed ; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew
not what to say ; only I lay and cried, “ Lord, look upon me!
Lord, pity me ! Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours ; till the fit wearing off, I
fell asleep, and did not awake till far in the night. When I
awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and ex-
ceeding thirsty ; however,as I had no water in my whole
habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep
again. In this second sleep I had this terrible dream: I
thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of
my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earth-
quake, and that I saw a man desend from a great black cloud,
in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground : he was
all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to
look towards him: hiscountenance was most inexpressibly
dreadful, impossible for words to describe ; when he stepped
upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air
looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes
of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he
moved forwards towards me with a long spear or weapon in
his hand to kill me ; and when he came to a rising ground, at
some distance, he spoke to me—or I heard a voice so terrible
that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can
say I understcod was this :—“Seeing all these things have
not brought thee to repentance now thou shalt die ;”—at
which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his
hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this ter-
rible vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even
dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to de-
scribe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received
by the good instruction of my father was then worn out by
an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wicked-



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 69

n 3s, and a constant conversation with none but such as were,
like myself, wicked. and profane to the last degree. I do not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so
much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or
inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways: but a cer-
tain stupidity of soul without desire of good, or conscience
of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the
most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our
common sailors can be supposed to be—not having the least
sense, either of the fear of God in dangers, or of thankfulness
to God in deliverances.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will
be the more easily believed when I shall add, that through all
the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I
never had so much as once thought of its being the hand of
God, or that it was a just punishment for my sins—my re-
bellious behavior against my father—or my present sins,
which were great—or so much as a punishment for the gen-
eral course of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate
expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much
as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish to
God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the
danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from
voracious creatures as cruel savages; but I was merely
thoughtless of God or a Providence—I acted like a mere
brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of
common sense only, and indeed hardly that. When I was de-
livered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used,
and dealt justly and honorably with, as well as charitably, I
had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again,
I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on
this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it:as a
judgment. I only said to myself often, that I was an unfort-
unate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship’s crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised, with
a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankful-
ness ; but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of
joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the
least reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the Hand
which had preserved me, and had singled me out to be pre-
served when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me. Even just the
same common sort of joy which seamen generally have, after



70 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

they have got safe ashore from a shipwreck, all which they
drown in the next bowl of punch and forget almost as soon
as it is over: and all the rest of my life was like it. Even
when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible
of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of
the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect
of redemption, as soon as I saw a probability of living, and that
I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my
affliction wore off ; and I began to be very easy; applied my-
self to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and
was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judg-
ment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these
were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had
at first some little influence upon me, and began to affect
me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something
miraculous init ; but as soon as ever that part of the thought
was removed, all the impression which was raised from it
wore off also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake,
though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more
immediately directing to the invisible Power which alone di-
rects such things, yet no sooner was the first fright over, but
the impression it had made went off also. I had no more
sense of God or his judgment—much less of the present
affliction of my circumstances being from his hand—than if I
had been in the most prosperous condition of life. But now,
when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries
of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits be-
gan to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and na-
ture was exhausted with the violence of the fever, con-
science, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began
to reproach myself with my past life,in which I had so
evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of
God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me
in so vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed me
from the second or third day of my distemper; and in the
violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of
my conscience, extorted some words from me like praying to
God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attended
with desires or with hopes: it was rather the voice of mere
fright and distress. My thoughts were confused, the con-
victions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such
a miserable condition raised vapors into my head with the
mere apprehensions; and in these hurries of my soul, I knew
not what my tongue might express, But it was rather excla-



ROBINSON CRUSOE. val

mation, such as, “Lord, what a miserable creature am 1! If I
should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help, and what
will become of me?” ‘Then, the tears burst out of my eyes,
and I could say no more for a good while. In this interval, the
geod advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his
prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of this story,
viz., that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist me
in my recovery. “Now,” said I aloud, “my dear father’s
words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken me, and
I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of
Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture or sta-
tion of life wherein I might have been happy and easy ; but I
would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of
it from my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly;
and now Iam left to mourn under the consequences of it. I re-
fused their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into
the world, and would have made everything easy to me; and
now I have difficulties to struggle with too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no com-
fort, no advice.” Then I cried out, “Lord, be my help, for I
am in great distress.” This was the first prayer, if I might
call it so, that I had made for many years. But I return
to my Journal.

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep
I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up ; and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill ; and the first thing I did,
I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon
my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or
aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint
of rum into it, and mixed them together. ThenI got mea piece
of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat
very little ; I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very
sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition,
dreading the return of my distemper the next day. At night,
I made my supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted
in the ashes, and eat, as we call it,in the shell, and this was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing to, even as I
could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak
that I could hardly carry the gun, for I never went out with-



"2 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

out that; so I went out but a little way, and sat down upon
the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before
me, and very calm and smooth. AsI sat here, some thoughts
such as these occurred to me: Whatisthe earth and sea, of
which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced? And
what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human
and brutal? Whenceare we? Sure we are all made by some
secret Power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky.
And who is that? Then it followed most naturally, It is God
that has made it all. Well, but then, it came on strongly, if
God has made all these things, he guides and governs them
all, and all things that concern them ; for the Being that
could make all things must certainly have power to guide and
direct them. If so,nothing can happen in the great circuit of
his works, either without his knowledge or appointment.

And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows
that Iam here, and am in this dreadful condition ; and if noth-
ing happens without his appointment, he has appointed all this
to befall me. Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict
any of these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with
the greater force, that it must needs be that God had appointed
all this to befall me; that I was brought to this miserable cir-
cumstance by his direction, he having the sole power, not of
me only, but of everything that happened in the world. Im-
mediately it followed, Why has God done this tome? What
haveI done to be thus used? My conscience presently checked
me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought
it spoke to me like a voice, “‘ Wretch! dost thow ask what
thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life,
and ask thyself, what thou hast not done? Ask, why is it
that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not
drowned in Yarmouth Roads? killed in the fight, when the
ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war? devoured by the
wild beasts off the coast of Africa? or drowned here, when all
the crew perished but thyself? Dost thow ask, What have I
done?” Iwas struck dumb with these reflections, as one aston-
ished, and had not a word to say,—no, not to answer to my-
self,—but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat,
and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed;
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination
to sleep: so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for
it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehensions of the return of
my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought,
that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost
all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of



ROBINSON CRUSOE, - 498

the chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was
green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt ; for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. LI opened the chest,
and found what I looked for, viz., the tobacco ; and as the
few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the
Bibles which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had
not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I
say I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with
me to the table. Whatuse to make of the tobacco I knew not,
as to my distemper, or whether it was good for it or no ; but
I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should
heal one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed
it in my mouth, which, indeed, at first, almost stupefied my
brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and that I had not
been much used to it. Then I took some and steeped it an hour
or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay
down ; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held
my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as
well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held it almost to
suffocation. In the interval of this operation, I took up the
Bible and began to read ; but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time ; only,
having opened the book casually, the words first that occurred
to me were these, “Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I
will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.” These words
were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as
they did afterwards ; for, as for being delivered, the word had
no sound, as I may say, to me, the thing was so remote, so im-
possible in my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as
the children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to
eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began
to say, “Can God himself deliver me from this place?” And
asit was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the
words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon
them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I
said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep: so I left
my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in
the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did
what I never had done in all my life ; I kneeled down, and
prayed to God to fulfill the promise to me, that if I called upon
him in the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my
broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which



74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco, that indeed I could scarcely getit down ; immediately
upon this I went to bed ; and I found presently it flew up into
my head violently ; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no
more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o’clock
in the afternoon the next day: nay, to this hour I am partly
of opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till
almost three the day after ; for otherwise, I know not how I
should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as
it appeared some years after I had done ; for if I had lost it
by crossing and re-crossing the line, I should have lost more
than one day ; but in my account it was lost, and I never knew
which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when I
awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits
lively and cheerful ; when I got up I was stronger than I was
the day before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry ; and,
in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered
for the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a
sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought
them home ; but was not very forward to eat them; so I eat
some more of the’ turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This
evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did
me good the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum ;
only I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of
the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke ; however, I was not
so well the next day, which was the Ist of July, as I hoped I
should have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it
was not much.

July 2.—I renewed the medicine all three ways ; and dosed
myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I
drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was
thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon
this Scripture, “I will deliver thee ;” and the impossibility
of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it; but as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction that I disregarded
the deliverance I had received, and I was, as it were, made to
ask myself such questions as these, viz., Have I not been de-
livered, and wonderfully too, from sickness? from the most
distressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to



ROBINSON CRUSOE. - U5

me ? and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my
part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified him ;
that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as
a deliverance ; and how could I expect greater deliverance?
This touched my heart very much; and immediately I
kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery
from my sickness.

July 4.—In the morning I took the Bible ; and beginning
at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and im-
posed upon myself to read a while every morning and every
night ; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but as
long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after
I set seriously to this work, till I found my heart more deeply
and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life.
The impression of my dream revived; and the words, “ All
these things have not brought thee to repentance,” ran
seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God
to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the
very day, that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words :
“He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and
to give remission.” I threw down the book; and with my
heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of
ecstacy of joy, I cried out aloud, “ Jesus, thou Son of David !
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour ! give me repentance!”
This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the
words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a
sense of my condition, and with a true Scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the Word of God; and
from this time,I may say, I began to have hope that God
would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above,
“Call on me, and I will deliver thee,” in a different sense
from what I had ever done before ; for then I had no notion
of anything being called deliverance, but my being delivered
from the captivity I was in :-for though I was indeed at large
in the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and
that in the worst sense in the world. But now I learned to
take it in another sense : now I looked back upon my past life
with such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my
soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of
guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life,
it was nothing ; I did not so much as pray to be delivered
from it, or think of it ; it was all of no consideration, in com-
parison of this. And I added this part here, to hint to who-
ever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of



%6 - ROBINSON CRUSOE.

things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater
blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal :

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable
as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my
thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture
and praying to God, to thingstof a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing of ;
also, my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to
furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make my
way of living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little
at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a
fit of sickness ; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was,
and to what weakness I wasreduced. The application which
I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before ; neither can I recommend it to any one
to practice, by this experiment ; and though it did carry off
the fit, yet it rather contributed to weaken me’; for I had fre-
quent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time ; I
learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health
that could be, especially in those rains which came attended
with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which
came in a dry season was always most accompanied with such
storms, so I found this rain was much more dangerous than
the rain which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months ;
all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me ; and I firmly believed that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great
desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which yet I knew
nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more partic-
ular survey of the island itself. JI went up the creek first,
where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found,
after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow
any higher ; and that it was no more than a little brook of
running water, and very fresh and good ; but this being the
dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it ; at
least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could be per-
ceived, On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant



Full Text





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Crusoe discovers the print of amans foot.
Frontis.see Fuge 123 Crusoe.






THE LIFE

AND

SURPRISING ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

OF YORK, MARINER.
By DANIEL DEFOE.

WITH TWENTY-NINE FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS BY GORDON
BROWNE AND ERNEST GRISET

AND

FIVE ORIGINAL COLORED PLATES,
NEW EDITION.

NEW YORK:
A, L. BURT, PUBLISHER.
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a for-
eigner, of Bremen, who settled first at Hull; he got a good
estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived after-
ward at York ; from whence he had married my mother, whose
relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer ;
but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe ; and
so my companions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colo-
nel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly com-
manded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at
the battie near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became
of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father
or mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts ;
my father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-
school generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I
would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea ; and my in-
clination te this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the
commands, of my father, and against all the entreaties and
persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed
to be something fatal in that propension of nature, tending di-
rectly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excel-
lent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was con-
fined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon
this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father’s house and
my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry,
2 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

with a life of ease and pleasure. Ile told me it was men of
desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes
on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by en-
terprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a
nature out of the common road ; that these things were all
either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was
the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of
low life, which he had found by long experience was the best
state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not
exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labor and suf-
ferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embar-
rassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper
part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the hap-
piness of this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the
state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being
born to great things, and wished they had been placed in
the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the
great ; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just
standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither pov-
erty nor riches. .

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind ; but that the middle station had the fewest disas-
ters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher
or lower part of mankind ; nay, they were not subjected to so
many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as
those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on
one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and mean or
insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way of living ;
that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of
virtues and all kind of enjoyments ; that peace and plenty
were the handmaids of a middle fortune ; that temperance,
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions,
and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life ; that this way men went silently and
smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of it, not
embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the head, not
sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with per-
plexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body
of rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, nor the secret
burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy
circumstances, sliding gently through the world and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that












Crusor’s FarHer Enrreats Him to Stay at Home.—Page 3,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 3

they are happy and learning by every day’s experience to know
it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affection-
ate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself
into miseries which Nature, and the station of life I was born
in, seemed to have provided against ; that I was under no
necessity of seeking my bread ; that he would do well for me,
and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station of life which
he had just been recommending to me ; and that if I was not
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or
fault that must hinder it ; and that he should have nothing to
answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my hurt ; ina
word, that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would not have
so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encourage-
ment to go away ; and to close all, he told me I had my elder
brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest
persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where he was killed ; and though he said
he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say
to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be
so himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his face very ©
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed ; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no
more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my father’s
desire. But, alas! afew days wore it all off ; and, in short,
to prevent any of my father’s further importunities, in a few
weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him. However,
I did not act quite so hastily neither as the first heat of my
resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I
thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her
that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world,
that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough
4 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to go through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it ; that I was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or
clerk to an attorney ; that I was sure, if I did, I should never
serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if
I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time
that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion ; she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such subject ; that he knew too well what was my inter-
est to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and
that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after
the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me ; and that,
in short, if I would ruinmyself, there was no help for me ; but
I might depend I should never have their consent to it ; that
for her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruc-
tion ; and I should never have it to say that my mother was
willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and
that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her
with a sigh: “That boy might be happy if he would stay at
home ; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born ; I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated
with my father and mother about their being so positively de-
termined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time ;
but I say, being there, and one of my companions being going
by sea to London in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go
with them, with the common allurement of a seafaring man,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted
neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, with-
out asking God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences, and in anill hour,
God knows, on the 1st of September, 1651, I went on board a
ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s mis-










Fata
3 #





Crusoz TEMPTED To Go TO Sza.—Page 4.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 5

fortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer than
mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than the
wind began to blow, and the sea to rise ina most frightful
manner ; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my duty. All the
good counsels of my parents, my,father’s tears and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it
has come since, reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since ;
no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to
affect me then, who was buta young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should
never rise more: in this agony of mind I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in this
one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived ; that I would take his advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now
I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life, how easy, how comfortable he had lived all his .
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea ; or troubles
on shore ; .and, in short, I resolved that I would, like a true,
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a
little inured to it; however, I was very grave for all that day,
being also a little seasick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine even-
ing followed, the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning ; having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most de-
lightful that ever I saw.

Thad slept well in the night, and was now no more seasick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my
6 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had
enticed me away, comes to me.

“ Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how
do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t
you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?”

“A capful, d’you callit?” said I; “’twasa terrible storm.”

“A storm, you fool, you!” replies he; “do you call that
a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship
and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind
as that ; but you’re but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let
us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d’ye see
what charming weather ’tis now ?”

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way
of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-
drunk with it; and in that one night’s wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the
sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled
calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my
thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of
my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and

romises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it
were, endeavor to return again sometimes ; but I shook them
off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered
the return of those fits, for so I called them; and I had, in
five or six days, got as complete a victory over my conscience
as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it
could desire. But I was to have another trial for it still ; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse ; forif I would not take
this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads ; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz., at southwest, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same Roads, as the common harbor where the ships
might wait for a wind for the River.

We had not, however, rid here so 1ong, but we should have
ROBINSON CRUSOE. "

tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. How-
ever, the Roads being reckoned as good as an harbor, the an-
chorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger,
but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea ; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased,
and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as
easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we
rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to
the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the busi-
ness of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several
times, “Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost! we
shall be all undone !” and the like. During these first hurries
I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steer-
age, and cannot describe my temper. I could ill resume the
first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and
hardened myself against : I thought the bitterness of death
had been past, and that this would be nothing too, like the
first ; but when the master himself came by me, as I said just .
now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted.
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal
sight I never saw ; the sea ran mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress round us ; two ships
that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried ont that a ship which
rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more
ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the
Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much
laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out
before the wind.

Toward evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him
8 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood
so Joose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to
cut that away also, and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this dis-
tance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in ten-
fold more horror of mind upon account of my former convic-
tions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself ; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition
that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not
come yet ; the storm continued with such fury, that the sea-
men themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in
the sea, so that the seamen every now and then cried out she
would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that
I did not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent that I saw, what is not
often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every
moment when the ship would goto the bottom. Inthe middle
of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of
the men, that had been down to see, cried out we had sprung
a leak ; another said, there was four feet water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my
heart, as I thought, died within me ; and I fell backwards up-
on the side of my bed, where I sat, into the cabin. However,
the men roused me, and told me that I, that was able to do
nothing before, wasas well able to pump as another ; at which
I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers,
who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and
run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a
gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they
meant, thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing
happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life
to think of, nobody minded-me or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead ; and
it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 9

storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into any port, so the master con-
tinued firing guns for help ; and a light ship, who had rid it
out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was
with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near
the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and
venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope
over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it outa great
length, which they after much labor and hazard took hold
of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into
their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we
were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship ; so
all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could ; and our master promised them,
that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good
to their master: so partly rowing, and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea.
I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the
seamen told me she was sinking ; for from the moment that
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said
to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly
with fright, partly with horror of mind and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand, to assist us
when we should come near; but we made but slow way to-
wards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore till,
being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to
the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though
not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merehants and owners of ships, and had money given us suf-
ficient to carry us either to London -or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast
away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had
any assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go
home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call
this, nor will { urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction,
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed un-
avoidable misery attending, and which it was impossible for
me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible obstructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The
first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which
was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the
town to several quarters ; I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered ; and looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his
father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a
trial, in order to go farther abroad : his father turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, “ Young man,” says he,
“you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man.” “ Why, sir,” said I, “will you go to sea no
more?” ‘That is another case,” said he ; “it is my calling,
and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a
trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you
are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us
on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,”
continues he, “ what are you ; and on what account did you go
to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end
of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion: ‘“ What
had I done,” says he, “ that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship
with thee again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as
I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have
authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 1l

to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin ; telling me I might see a visible hand
of Heaven against me. “ And, young man,” said he, “depend
npon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I
saw him nomore ; which way he went 1 knownot. As for me,
having some money in my pocket,I traveled to London by
land ; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with
myself what course of life I should take, and whether I should
go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbors, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even
everybody else; from whence I have often since observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common temper of man-
kind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the ac-
tion for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be es-
teemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncer-
tain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead.
An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I
stayed a while, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off ; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid
aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father’s house, which hurried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune; and that impressed those con-
ceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good ad-
vice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father: I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as
our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.’

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I

1 Guinea.—A. district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where
the land runs nearly due east and west. The six countries into which it
is divided are known to sailors under the names of Sierra Leone, Grain
Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin,
12 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

did not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed
have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same
time I should have learnt the duty and office of a foremast
man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so I did here ; for having money in
my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always go
on board in the habit of a gentleman ; and so I neither had
any business in the ship nor learnt to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company
in London, which does not always happen to such loose and
misguided young fellows as I then was ; the devil generally
not omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it
was not so with me. I first got acquainted with the master
of aship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who,
having had very good success there, was resolved to go again ;
this captain taking a fancy to my conversation, which was
not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had
a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage
with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his mess-
mate and his companion; and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
encouragement.

I embraced the offer ; and entering into astrict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with
me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the cap-
tain, I increased very considerably ; for I carried about £40
in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
This £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe
got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so. much as
that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend the captain ; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navi-
gation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s course, take
an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by asailor ; for, as he took de-
light to instruct me, I took delight to learn ; and, in a word, this
voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant ; for I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London, at my return, almost £300; and
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 13

this filled mé with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particu-
larly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate ; our principal
trading being on the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees
north, even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the un-
happiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200
left which I had lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very
just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage ;
and the first was this, viz., our ship making her course towards
the Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the
African shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by a
Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail
she could make. We crowded alsoas much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear;
but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight;
our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by
mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern,
as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that
side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made him
sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also
his small shot from near two hundred men which he had on
board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend ourselves ; but laying us on board the next time upon
our other quarter, he entefed sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging.
We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to
cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being
disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sal-
lee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended ; nor was I carried up the country to the em-
peror’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the
14 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,
being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this
surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a
miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now I
looked back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that
I should be miserable and have none to relieve me; which I
thought was now so effectually brought to pass that I could
not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken
me, and I was undone without redemption. But, alas! this
was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
appear in the sequel of this story.

As my_new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when
he went to sea again, believing that it would some time or
other be his fate to be taken bya a Spanish or Portuguese man-
of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to sea,
he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house ; and when he
came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it ; but found no w ay that had the least
probability in it ; nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational ; for I had nobody to communicate it to that
would embark with me ; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irish-
man, or Scotsman there but myself; so that for two years,
though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I
never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in
practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented it-
self, which put the old thought of making some attempt for
my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always
took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we
made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Moresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing with him in a calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 15

knew not whither or which way, we labored all day, and all the
next night; and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled out to sea instead of pulling in for the shore ; and that
we were at least two leagues from the land. However, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labor, and some
danger ; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morn-
ing; but particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him the
long-boat of our English ship which he had taken, he resolved
he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also
was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in
the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it to steer and haul home the main-sheet ; and
room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails.

She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail ; and
the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very
snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or
two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in
some bottles of such liquor ashe thought fit to drink; and
particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out. with this boat a-fishing ; and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without
me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat,
either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some
distinction in that place, and for whom he. had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over-
night alarger store of provisions than usual; and had ordered
me to get ready three fusils' with powder and shot, which
were on board his ship, for that they designed some sport of
fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed; and waited the
next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient’? and
pendants out, and everything to accommodate his guests ;
when by and by my patron came on board alone, and told me
his guests had put off going, from some business that fell out,
and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go ont with
the boat and catch them some fish, and that his friends were
to sup at his house ; he commanded me too, that as soon as I
had got some fish, I should bring it home to his house: all
which I prepared to do.

1 Fustl, a French word, meaning a light musket or firelock.
* Ancient, the old word, derived from the French enseigne, for a flag,
or the man who carries it.
16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little
ship at my command ; and my master being gone, I prepared
to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,whither
I would steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my
desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread.

He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of
rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water,
into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood,
which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the
Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for our
master. I conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the
boat, which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the
wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also; his name was Ismael, which
they call Muley, or Moely ;soI called tohim: “ Moely,” said I,
“our patron’s guns are all on board the boat ; can you not geta
little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies
[a fowl like our curlews] for ourselves, for I know he keeps
the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he,“ I'll bring
some ;” accordingly, he brought a great leather pouch, which
held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more ; and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time, I had
found some powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with
which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another ; and thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port
to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew
who we were, and took no notice of us ; and we were not above a
mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and sat
us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E., which was
contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly, I had been
sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to
the bay of Cadiz ; but my resolutions were, blow which way it
would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was,
and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 17

when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he
might not see them, I said to the Moor, “This will not do ;
our master will not be thus served ; we must stand farther
off.” He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head
of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I ran
the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to as
if I would fish ; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped for-
ward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for
something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into
the sea. .

He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to
me, begged to be taken in, telling me he would go all over
the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that
he would have reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind ; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one
of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him and told him
I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would
do him none. “But,” said I, “you swim well enough to
reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your
way toshore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come
near the boat, Pll shoot you through the head, for I am re-
solved to have my liberty.” So he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore, and J make no doubt but he reached
it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be
faithful to me, Pll make you a great man ; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father’s beard, “ I must throw you into the sea too.”
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently that I could
not mistrust him, and swore to be faithful to me and go all
over the world with me.

While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea, with the boat rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the Straits’?
mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed we
were sailing on to the southward to the truly barbarian coast,
where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go

1 Stratts, the Straits of Gibraltar.
18 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind ?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the
shore ; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth,
quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day at
three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
conld not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south
of Sallee ; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions,
or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days ; and
then, the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over ; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came
to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what
nor where; neither what latitude, what country, what nation,
or that river. I neither saw, nor desired to see any people ;
the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon
as it was dark, and discover the country ; but as soon as it
was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. “ Well, Xury,”
said I, “then I won’t; but it may be we may see men by day,
who will be as bad to us as those lions.” “Then we give them
the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, “ make them run wey.”
Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him
up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it : we
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night ; I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast
great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many
sorts, come down to the seashore, and run into the water,
wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling
themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yellings
that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one mighty
creature come swimming toward our boat ; we could not see
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 19

him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous,
huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away. “No,” says I, “ Xury; we can
slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go to sea ; they cannot
follow us far.” I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature, whatever it was, within two oars’ length, which some-
thing surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him ; upon which
he immediately turned about, and swam towards the shore
again.

“But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hide-
ous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge
of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or
report of a gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those
creatures had never heard before. This convinced me that
there was no going onshore for usin the night upon that coast ;
and how to venture on shore in the day was another ques-
tion too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the
savages had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions
and tigers ; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger
of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had nota pint left in the boat ;
when or where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would
let him go onshore with one of the jars, he would find if there
was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he
would go? why I should not go,and he stay inthe boat? The
boy answered with so much affection that made me love him
ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go
wey.” “ Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us.”
So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram out of
our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before ; and we
hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper,
and waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms and two
jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the com-
ing of canoes with savages down the river ; but the boy, see-
ing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and
by and by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he
was pursued by some savage, orfrighted withsome wild beast,
and [ ran forward towards him to helphim ; but when I came
nearer to him I saw something hanging over his shoulders,
which was acreature that he had shot, likea hare, but different in
20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

color, and longer legs ; however, we were very glad of it, and it
was very good meat ; but the great joy poor Xury came with,
was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild
mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but
a little way up ; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare
we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and did not exactly know, or at least not remember,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them ; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope
was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts ; the negroes having abandoned
it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its bar-
renness ; and indeed both forsaking it because of the pro-
digious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious
creatures which harbor there ; so that the Moors use it for
their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time: and indeed, for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste unin-
habited country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and
roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries; and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my
little vessel ; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep
along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place ; and once in particular, being early in
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 21

the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of
land, which was pretty high ; and the tide beginning to fiow,
we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells
me that we had best go farther off the shore ; “for,” says he,
“look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hil-
lock, fast asleep.” JI looked where he pointed, and saw a dread-
ful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of a hill that
hung as it were a little overhim. ‘“Xury,” says I “you shall
go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted and said,
“Me kill? heeat me at one mouth ;” one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and
took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs,
and laid it down ; then I loaded another gun with two bullets ;
and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five
smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first
piece to have shot him in the head, but he lay so, with his leg
raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about
the knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling at
first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again ; and then got
up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I
heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the
head ; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop ; and making but
little noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart,
and would have me let him go on shore. “ Well, go,” said
I; so the boy jumped into the water, and taking the little gun
in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear,
and shot him in the head again, which dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet. ‘“ For what, Xury ?” said
I. “Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it
with him, and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I re-
solved to take off his skin if Icould. So Xury and I went to
work with him ; but Xury was much the better workman at
23 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it, for I knew very ill how to doit. Indeed, it took us up both
the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried
it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into
the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My de-
sign in this was to make the River Gambia or Senegal ; that
is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship ; and if Idid not, Iknew
not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or
perish there among the negroes. I knew that all the ships
ftom Europe which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands ;
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish,

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us ; we could also perceive
they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them ; but Xury was my better coun-
selor, and said to me, “No go, no go.” However, I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way : I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could
throw them a great way with good aim: so I kept ata distance,
but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and partic-
ularly made signs for something to eat: they beckoned to me
to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon
this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them
ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and
some corn, such as is the produce of their country ; but we
neither knew what the one nor the other was: however, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I would not venture on shore to them, and they
were as much afraid of us : but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went
and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then
came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends ; but an opportunity offered that very in-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 23

stant to oblige them wonderfully ; for while we were lying
on the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains to-
wards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual.or strange :
but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place,
these ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night ; and,
in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart
did not fly from them, as the rest did ; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall
upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea,
and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion : at
last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first
I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my
gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired,
and shot him directly in the head ; immediately he sank down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down,
as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was ; he im-
mediately made to the shore ; but between the wound, which
was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
ready evento die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk into
the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore,
they took heart and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water: and by the help
of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to
haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a
most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable de-
gree ; and the negroes held up their hands with admiration,
to think what it was I killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam to the shore, and ran up directly to
the mountains from whence they came ; nor could I at that
distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
to have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take it, they were very
thankful for.. Immediately they fell to work with him ; and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood,
24 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than
we would have done with a knife. They offered me some of
the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would give it them ;
but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely,
and brought me a great deal more of their provision, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to
them, turning its bottom upward, to show that it was empty,
and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt as I suppose
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water ; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this
point. At length, doubling the point at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to sea-
ward ; then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great
distance, and I could not well tell what I had best do ; for if
I should be taken with a fresh gale of wind, I might neither
reach one nor other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, “‘ Master, master, a ship with a sail!”
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it
must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us,
when I knew we were gotten ‘far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the
ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship ; and, as I thought,
was bound to the coast of Guinea, for negroes. But, when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they
were bound some other way, and did not design to go any
nearer the shore: upon which I stretched out to the sea as
much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before
I could make any signal to them : but after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 25

the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some En-
ropean boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship
that was lost ; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I
was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on
board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and
in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them ; but at last a Scotch
sailor, who was on board, called to me: and I answered him,
and told him I was an Englishman, that had made my escape
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then bade me
come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will be-
lieve, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a
miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance ; but he generously told me he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be de-
livered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. “ For,” says
he, “I have saved your life on no other terms than as I would
be glad to be saved myself ; and it may, one time or other, be
my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,” said
he, “ when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from
your own country, if I should take from you what you have,
you will be starved there, and then I only take away that life
I have given. No, no,” says he; “Seignor Inglese [Mr. Eng-
lishman], I will carry you thither in charity, and these things
will help you to buy your subsistence there, and your passage
home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance to a tittle ; for he ordered the seamen that none
should offer to touch anything I had: then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one ; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use; and
asked me what I would have forit. I told him, he had been
so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make
any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him : upon which,
he told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil ; and when it came there,
if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He of-
26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

fered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loath to take ; not that I was unwilling to let the
captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy’s
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own.
However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy
an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Chris-
tian: upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him,
I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-
two days after. And now I was once more delivered from
the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do
next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me,I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty
for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused every-
thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me ; and
what I was willing to sell, he bought of me: such as the case of
bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-
wax, for I had made candles of the rest; in a word, I made
about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo ;
and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio,
as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house), I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means,
with the manner of their planting and making of sugar ; and
seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I would
turn planter among them ; resolving in the mean time, to find
out some way to get my money, which I had left in London,
remitted tome. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of
naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement ; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbor, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of
Euglish parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him neighbor, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land began
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 27

to come into order; so that the third year we planted some
tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come; but we both wanted
help ; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong
in parting with my boy Xury. ;

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. Ihad no remedy but to go on; I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius and directly con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice ; nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home,
and never fatigued myself in: the world, as I have done; and
I used often to say to myself, “I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness,
and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.”

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbor ; no work to be done, but by the labor of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been! and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island, or mere desolation, should be
my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in which, had IJ continued, I had, in all prob-
ability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained
there, in providing her lading, and preparing for the voyage,
near three months ; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice: “Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always called
me), “if you will give me letters, and a procuration in form
to me, with orders to the person who has your money in Lon-
don, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall
direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I w‘!l
bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return ;
28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters,
I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard
be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you may order
the rest the same way ; and if it miscarry, you may have the
other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentleman with
whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portu-
guese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all
my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior,
and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary
directions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came
to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over not the order only, but a full account of my
story, to a merchant in London, who represented it effectually
to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out
of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I
was too young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils
necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made; for
I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward the
captain had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had
sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me
over a servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which
I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manu-
facture, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them at a very great advantage ; so that I may say I had more
than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now in-
finitely beyond my poor neighbor—I mean in tne advance-
ment of my plantation ; for the first thing I did, I bought me
a negro slave, and an European servant also: I mean another
besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 29

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. JI went on the
next year with great success in my plantation : I raised fifty
great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more thanI had
disposed of for necessaries among my neighbors ; and these
fifty rolls, being each of above a hundredweight, were well
cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon.
And now increasing in business and wealth, my head began to
be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach ; such
as are indeed often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me for which my
father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and
which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life
to be full of ; but other things attended me, and I was still
to be the willful agent of all my own miseries ; and par-
ticularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to
make ; all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent
obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering
abroad, and pursuing that inclination in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit
of those prospects and those measures of life, which nature and
Providence concurred to present me with, and to make my
duty.

‘As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must goand leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted ; and thus
I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life and a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by just degrees to the particulars of this part
of my story : You may suppose, that having now lived almost
four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the lan-
guage, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St.
Salvadore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets,
bits of glass, and the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains,
30 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

elephants’ teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service of the Brazils,
in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying negroes ; which was a trade, at that time, not only
not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on
by the Assiento, or permission of the King of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few
negroes were brought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company one day with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon
what I had discoursed of with them the last night, and they
came to make a secret proposal to me; and after enjoining
me secrecy, they told me that they hada mind to fit out a
ship to go to Guinea ; that they had all plantations as well as
I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants ; that
as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they
could not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so
they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on
shore privately, and divide them among their own plantations ;
and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the
coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my
equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the
stock,

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming
to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But
for me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing
to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more,
and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England ;
and who in that time, and with that little addition, could
scarce have failed of being worth three or four thousand
pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me to think of
such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man
in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling
designs when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me.
In a word,I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it as I should direct, if I miscarried.
| fam |





























CRUSOE AND THE CAPTAIN CONSULTING THE CHARTS.—Page 31,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 31

This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings, or
covenants, to do so; and Imade a formal will, disposing of
my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I
had directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to
himself, and the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, and have made
a judgment of whatI ought to have done, and not to have
done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving cir-
cumstance, and gone upon a voyage to ‘sea, attended with all
its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to
expect particular misfortunes to myself.

ut I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy rather than my reason ; and accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, and the cargo finished, and all things done as
by agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board
in an evil hour again, the Ist of September, 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went from my father and mother
at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the
fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially
little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coasts, with design to stretch
over for the African coast, when they came into about ten or
twelve degrees of northern latitude ; which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days. We had very good
weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; from whence,
keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as
if we were bound for the Isle Fernando de Noronha, holding
our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time,
and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-
two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from
the southeast, came about to the northwest, and then settled
32 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

into the northeast ; from whence it blew in such a terrible
manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us wher-
ever fate and the fury of the winds ‘directed ; and during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day
to be swallowed up ; nor did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men died of the calenture, and a man and a boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a
little, the master made an observation -as well as he could,
and found that he was in about eleven degrees of north lati-
tude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude differ-.
ence west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that he found he was
gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil,
beyond the river Amazones, towards that of the river Oroo-
noque, commonly called the Great River ; and now he began to
consult with me what course he should take ; for the ship was
leaky, and very much disabled, and he was for going directly
back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts
of the seacoast of America with him, we concluded there
was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to till we
came within the circle of the Carribbee Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off
at sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail ;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast
of Africa without some assistance both to our ship and to our-
selves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief ; but our voyage was’ otherwise de-
termined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eight-
een minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so
out of the way of all human commerce that, had all our lives
been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early one morning cried out, “Land!” and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon
the sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 33

all have perished immediately ; and we were even driver into
our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray
of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like con-
dition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon
what land it was we were driven; whether an island or the
main, whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the
wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes with-
out breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking
one upon another, and expecting death every moment, and
every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world ;
for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that
which was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had,
was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break
yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought the wind did a little abate, yet the
ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful con-
dition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship’s rudder, and in the next place she. broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea ; so there was
no hope from her. We had another boat on board, but how.
to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing ; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would
break in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung
over the ship’s side ; and getting all into her, we let go, and
committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy
and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated consider-
ably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and
might be well called den wild zee, asthe Dutch call the sea in
a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not
escape, and that weshould be inevitably drowned. As to mak-
ing sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done
anything with it ; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution ; for
84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

we all knew that when the boat came near the shore, she
would be dashed ina thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well
as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation was, if we might hap-
pen into’ some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the
sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de
grace. Ina word, it took us with such a fury that it overset
the boat at once ; and separating us as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, “O God!”
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I sank into the water ; for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead
with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind,
as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the mainland
than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavored to make
on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again ; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as
high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had
no means or strength to contend with: my business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could ;
and so byswimming to preserve my breathing, and ‘pilot my-
self towards the shore if possible, my greatest concern now
being, that the wave, asit would carry me a great way to-
wards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back
again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty feet deep inits own body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a
PAA



Crusoe Cast ASHORE.—Page 34,
ROBINSON CRUSOE, 35

very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when as I felt myself rising up, so, to
my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out
above the surface of the water; and though it was not two
seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved mg
greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not solong but I held it out ;
and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood stilla few moments to recover
breath, and till the waters-went from me, and then took to my
heels, and ran with what strength I had, farther towards the
shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I
was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me ;
for the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of arock, and that with such
force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance ; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the
breath as it were quite out of my body ; and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water ;
but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and
seeing I should be covered again with water, I resolved to hold
fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible,
till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high
as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so
near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the
next run I took, I got to the mainland ; where, to my great
comfort, I clambered up the clifts of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of
the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
was some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe
it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out
of the very grave: and Ido not wonder now at that custom,
when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied
up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought
to him—TI say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with
86 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of it, that
the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart,
and overwhelm him,

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

J walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliv-
erance ; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I can-
not describe ; reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but my-
self ; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign
of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off ; and considered, Lord! how wasit possible I could get on
shore ?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place
I was in, and what was next to be done: and I soon found m
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliver-
ance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything
either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was that I had no weapon, either to hunt and
kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In
a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco ina box. This was all my provision; and
this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I
ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was to get up into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and
consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw
no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to
my great joy ; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in
my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting
up into it, endeavored to place myself so that if I should sleep
I might not fall. And having cut me a short stick, like a
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 37

truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging; and being
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found
myself more refreshed with it than I think I ever was on such
an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before ;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which
I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright
still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save some
necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat,
which lay, as the wind and sea had tossed her up, upon the
land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as
I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck
or inlet of water between me and the boat which was about
half a mile broad ; so Icame back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find some-
thing for my present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship. And here I founda fresh renewing of my grief ;
for I saw evidently that, if we had kept on board, we had
been all safe ; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and
I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of
all comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears to
my eyes again ; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved,
if possible, to get to the ship ; so I pulled off my clothes, for the
weather was hot to extremity, and took the water. But when I
came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how
to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I
swam round her twice, and the second time I espied a small
piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hanging
down by the fore-chains so low, that with great difficulty I got
hold of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the fore-
castle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged, and
had a great deal of water in her hold ; but that she lay so on
the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the
38 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

water. By this means all her quarter was free and all that
was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work
was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what was free.
And, first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time to
lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which Ihad, indeed, need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but
a boat, to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me. :

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had; and this extremity roused my application. We had
several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood,
and a spare topmast or two in the ship: I resolved to fall to
work with them, and I flung as many of them overboard as I
could manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope,
that they might not drive away. When this was done, I
went down the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I tied four
of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them,
crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it
was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too
light. So I went to work, and with the carpenter’s saw I cut
a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labor and pains. But the hope of
furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me to go
beyond what I should have been able to have done upon
another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea: but I
was not long in considering this. I first laid all the planks
or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well
what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them
down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions
—viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little re-
mainder of European corn, which had been laid by for some
fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat together ;
but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the
rats had eaten or spoiled it all, As for liquors, I found


























































































































































































CrusoE on His Rarr.—Page 39,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 39

several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which
were some cordial waters; and in all, about five or six
gallons of arrack. These I stowed by themselves, there being
no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon the
sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which were only
linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my
stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye
was more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore ; and it
was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at
that time. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without
losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it con-
tained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms, There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols. These I secured first, with some powder-horns, a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And nowI thought
myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder ;
and the least capful of wind would have overset all my navi-
gation.

I had three encouragements: first, a smooth, calm sea;
secondly, the tide rising, and setting in to the shore; thirdly,
what little wind there was blew me towards the land. And
thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws,
an ax, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea. For a
mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found
it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed be-
fore ; by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river
there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with
my cargo. .

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a lit-
tle opening of the land. I found a strong current of the tide
40 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

set into it ; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in
the middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think verily would have broken my heart ;
for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one
end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end,
it wanted buta little that all my cargo had slipped off towards
the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my
utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them
in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength ; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in ; but
holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that man-
ner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level ; and, a little after, the
water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up higher,
Tat length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up.
I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I
was not willing to be driven too high up the river ; hoping in
time to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near that, reaching ground with my oar,
I could thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have
dipped all my cargo into the sea again ; for that shore lying
pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was no place to
land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would
lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would
endanger my cargo again. All that I could do was to wait
till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a
flat piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow
over ; andso it did. Assoon as I found water enough, for my
raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat
piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking
my two broken oars into the ground—one on one side, near
one end, and one on the other side, near the other end ; and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all
my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not ; whether on the continent or an island ; whether inhabited


| guided my raft as well as! could.
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ROBINSON CRUSOE, 41

or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts or not.
There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very
steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills,
which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of
the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of pow-
der ; and thus armed, J traveled for discovery up to the top
of that hill, where, after I had with great labor and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction—viz., that
I was in an island environed every way with the sea: no land
to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and
two small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues
to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of which, however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds ; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,
on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun
that had been fired there since the creation of the world. I
had no sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there
arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making
a confused screaming and crying, every one according to his
usual note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As
for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its
color and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws
more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing,

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of the day: what to do with myself at night I knew not,
nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not. knowing but some wild beast might devour me ;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that Ihad brought on shore, and made
a kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw
not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or
three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.

I now began to consider that I miocht yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land ; and I resolved to make another voy-
age on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that-the
42 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I
resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council—that is
to say, in my thoughts—whether I should take back the raft ;
but this appeared impracticable : so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down ; and I did so, only that I stripped be-
fore I went from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered
shirt, a pair of linen.drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before,and prepared a second
raft ; and, having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought
away several things very useful to me ; as, first, in the carpen-
ter’s stores I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a
great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all,
that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured,
together with several things belonging to the gunner, particu-
larly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets,
seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bagful of small shot, and
a great roll of sheet lead ; but this last was so heavy I could
not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s sides.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some
bedding ; and with this I loaded ‘my second raft, and brought
them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore ;
but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor ; only
there sat a creature like a wildcat, upon one of the chests,
which when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still. Shesat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not
understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great ; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she
went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased)
for more ; but I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being largé casks—I went to work
to make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which
I cut for that purpose ; and into this tent I brought every-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

thing that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun ; and J
piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the
tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man
or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without ; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground,
laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length
by me, I went to bed the first time, and slept very quietly all
night. I was very weary and heavy ; for the night before I
had slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to
to fetch those things from the ship as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man ; butstill I was not satisfied, for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought
to get everything out of her that I could ; so every day, at
low water, I went on board, and brought away something or
other ; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes
and rope twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. Ina word I brought away all the sails, first
and last ; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as much at a time as I could, for they were no more useful
to me for sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was, that at last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with—lI say, after all thus, I found a great
hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a
box of fine sugar, and a barrel of fine flour : this was surprising
to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions
except what was spoiled by the water. I soon empiied the
hogshead of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel,
in pieces of the sails, which I cut out ; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also, though at several times.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having
punoeied the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,

began with the cable ; cutting the great cable into pieces
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the ironwork I could get ; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and
came away ; but my good luck began to leave me, for this raft
was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was entered the
44 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

little cove, where [ had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water ; as for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore ; but as to my
cargo, it was great part lost, especially the iron, which I ex-
pected would have been of great use to me ; however, when
the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and
some of the iron, though with infinite labor ; for I was fain to
dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very
much. After this, I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.

I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable of
bringing ; though I verily believe, had the calin weather held,
I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece ;
but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the
wind began to rise: however, at low water I went on board,
and though I thought I had rammaged the cabin s0 effectually
that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker
with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks ; in another I found about thirty-six
pounds’ value in money—some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

Ismiled to myself at the sight of this money. “ Oh, drug!”
said I aloud, “ what art thou good for? Thou art not worth
to me—no, not the taking off the ground ; one of those knives
is worth all this heap ; I have no manner of use for thee; e’en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as acreature whose
life is not worth saving.” However, upon second thoughts,
I took it away ; and wrapping all in a piece of canvas, I be-
gan to think of making another raft ; but while I was prepar-
ing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind offshore ; and that it was my busi-
ness to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I
might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I
let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel
which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with
difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had
about me, and partly from the roughness of the water ; for
the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high water
it blew a storm,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 45

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with
all my wealth about me-very secure. It blew very hard all
that night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no
more ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but re-
covered myself with this satisfactory reflection, that I had lost
no time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her
that could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore from her
wreck ; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did ; but
those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to
make—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a
tent upon the earth ; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the
manner and description of which it may not be improper to
give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish ground
near the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome, and
more particularly because there was no fresh water near it ; so
I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: first, health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned ; secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun ;
thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or
beast ; fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in
sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down
upon me from the top. On the side of the rock there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of
a cave ; but there was not really any cave, or way into the
rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, 1 re-
solved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green be-
fore my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the seaside, It was
46 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to the W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hol-
low place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter,
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its be-
ginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground above five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, upon one another, within the circle, be-
tween these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post ; and this fence was so strong
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be,not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top ; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done ; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution from the enemies that I appre-
hended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above ; andI made me a large tent also,
to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are
very violent there. I made it double—viz., one smaller tent
within, and one larger tent above it ; and covered the upper-
most part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a
very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed all
my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left
open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
ladder.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 47

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down, cut
through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot
and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent,
which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labor and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it occurred, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up the tent, and making the cave, that
a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud,a sudden
flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great clap of
thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. Iwas not so much
surprised with the lightning, as I was with the thought
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself.
“Oh, my powder!” My very heart sank within me, when I
thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed ;
on which not my defense only, but the providing me food, as
I thought, entirely depended. JI was nothing near so anxious
about my own danger; though, had the powder took fire, I
had never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me that, after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my work, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes to
separate my powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hopes, that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight ; and I think my powder, which in
all was about one hundred and forty pounds’ weight, was
divided into no less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from
that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I
called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holes
among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I had laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to
me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me,
viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot,
48 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after
I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner
for them: I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though
they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a
terrible fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence
I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight
was so directed downward that they did not readily see
objects that were above them; so afterwards I took this
method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily; for, when the old one fell, the
kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up; and
not only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my inclosure ; upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms,
and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame ; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it and eat
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I eat sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread
especially, as much as I possibly could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full ac-
count of in its place; but I must now give some little ac-
count of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.

Thad a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said,
by a violent storm quite out of the course of our intended
voyage, and a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of
the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my
life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when I
made these reflections: and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable, so without
help abandoned, and so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 49

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me ; and particularly one day walk-
ing with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pen-
sive upon the subject of my present condition, when Reason,
as it were, put in expostulating with me the other way, thus:
“ Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why
were not they saved, and you lost? Why are you singled out ?
Is it better to be here or there?” And then I pointed to
the sea, All evils are to be considered with the good that is
in them and with what worse attended them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had
not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the
ship floated from the place where first she struck, and was
driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her? What would have been my case, if I had
been forced to have lived in the condition in which I at first
came on shore, without necessaries of life, or any means to
supply and procure them? “Particularly,” said I aloud
(though to myself), “ what should I have done without a gun,
without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or
to work with ? without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any man-
ner of coverings?” and that now I had all these to a sufficient
quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a
manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition was
spent: so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without
any want as long as I lived; for I considered from the begin-
ning how I would provide for the accidents that might happen,
and for the time that was to come, even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and
strength should decay.

I confess I had not then entertained any notion of my am-
munition being destroyed at one blast—I mean, my powder
being blown up by lightning ; and this made the thought of
it surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.

And now, being about to enter into a melancholy relation of
a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in
the world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and con-
tinue it in its order.. It was, by my account, the 30th of Sep-
tember, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island ; when the sun being to us in its autum-
nal equinox, was almost just over my head: for I reckoned
50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees
twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for
want of books, and pen, and ink, and should even forget the
Sabbath-day from the working-days ; but to prevent this,
I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters ;
and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where
I first landed, viz., “I came on shore here on the 30th of Sep-
tember, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch
with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as
the rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that
long one ; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly,
and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that, among the many
things which I brought from the ship in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things
of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before ; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper ;
several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s
keeping ; three or four compasses, some mathematical instru-
ments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation ;
all which I huddled together, whether I might want them
or no; also I found three very good Bibles, which came to me
in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among
my things; some Portuguese books also ; and, among them,
two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other books ;
all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget that
we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent
history I must have occasion to say something in its place, for
I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he
jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me
the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he
could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to
me ; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could
not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper,
and I husbanded them to the utmost ; and I shall show that
while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact ; but after that
was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
ink was one: as also a spade, pick-ax, and shovel, to dig or
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 51
remove the earth ; needles, pins, and thread ; as for linen, I
soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work Idid go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my
little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in
bringing home ; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in
driving it into the ground ; for which purpose I got a heavy
piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of
the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, yet made
driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of
anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in?
nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at
least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
cireumstances I was reduced to ; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as
to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now to master
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse, and I stated it very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comfort I enjoyed,
against the miseries I suffered, thus :

EVIL.

I am cast upon a horrible, desolate
island ; void of all hope of recovery.

I am singled out and separated, as it
were, from all the world, to be miserable.

Iam divided from mankind, a solitary ;
one banished from human society.

T have no clothes to cover me.

Iam without any defense, or means to
resist any violence of man or beast.

Thave no soul to speak to or relieve me.

Upon the whole, here was

@ooD.

But I am alive; and not drowned, as
all my ship’s company was.

But Iam singled out, too, from all the
ane crew, to be spared from death ;
and He that miraculously saved me from
death can deliver me from this condition.

But I am not starved and perishing on
a barren place, atording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where if I
had clothes, I could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island where I see
no wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa ; and what if I had been
shipwrecked there ?

But God wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, that I have got
out so many necessary things as will
either supply my wants or enable me to
supply myself, even as long as I live.

an undoubted testimony that
52 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world—that we may always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my con-
dition, and giving over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy
a ship; I say, giving over these things, I began to apply my-
self to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as
easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the
outside: and after some time (I think it was a year and a
half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things asI could
get to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the
year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me.
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place ; I had no room to turn myself : so I set myself to
enlarge my cave, and worked farther into the earth; for it
was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labor I
bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as
to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into
the rock ; and then turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my
pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to
stow my goods, ,

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table ; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few com-
forts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do
several things with so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work ; and here I must needs observe that as
reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ; 53

time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled
a tool in my life; and yet in time my labor, application, and
contrivance, I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools ; and some with no
more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labor.
For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to
cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat
on either side with my axe till I had brought it to be as thin
as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true,
by this method I could make but one board out of a whole
tree ; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more
than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor which it
took me up to make a plank or board ; but my time and labor
was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as
another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces
of boards that I brought on my raft fromthe ship. But when
I had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves,
of the breadth of a foot and an half, one over another, all
along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-
work on ; and, in a word, to separate everything at large into
their places, that I might come easily at them ; also I knocked
pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns and all
things that would hang up: so that had my cave been to be
seen, it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things ;
and I had everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great
pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially
to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment ; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only an hurry as to labor, but in too much dis-
composure of mind ; and my journal would have been full of
many dull things; for example, I must have said thus:

“ September 30.—After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliver-
ance, having first vomited, with the great quanity of salt
water which was gotten into my stomach, and recovering my-
self a little, I ran about the shore wringing my hands and
beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and
crying out I was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, I was
forced to lie down on the ground for repose, but durst not
sleep, for fear of being devoured.”
54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and had got all I could out of her, yet I could not for-
bear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking
out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy ata vast
distance I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and
then, after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it
quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase
my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began, I say, to keep my journal; of which I shall here give
you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again), as long as it lasted ; for at last, having no more
ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I
called “The Island of Despair”; all the rest of the ship’s
company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to; viz.,I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to ; and in despair
of any relief, saw nothing but death before me; either that I
should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night
I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures ; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again, much nearer the island; which, as it was some
comfort, on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not
broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on
board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for m
relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss
of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on
board, might have saved the ship, or at least, that they would
not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the
men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of
the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other part
of the world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing
myself on these things ; but, at length, secing the ship almost
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 55

dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam
on board. This day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th—All these days en-
tirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of
the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain also, in those days, though with some in-
tervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy
season.

October 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was
out.

October 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind ; during which time, the ship broke in pieces,
the wind blowing a little harder than before, and was no
more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low
water. Ispent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

October 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to
find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to
secure myself from any attack in the night, eitherfrom wild
beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place,
under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment,
which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortifica-
tion, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and with-
out with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country ;
when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home,
which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night ; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.

November 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed
a fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out
for my fortification. ,

November 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the after-
noon went to work to make me a table.

November 4.—This morning I began to order my times of
56 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of
diversion ; viz.,every morning I walked out with my gun for
two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself
to work till about eleven o’clock; then ate what I had to live
on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessive hot: and then, in the evening, to work again.
The working part of this day and the next were wholly
employed in making this table, for I was yet but a very sorry
workman, though time and necessity made me a complete
natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any
one else.

November 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and
my dog, and killed a wildcat; her skin pretty soft, but her
flesh good for nothing ; every creature I killed, I took off the
skins and preserved them.. Coming back by the seashore, I
saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand ; but
was surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they
were, got into the sea and escaped me for that time.

November 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking ;
nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

November 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th
was Sunday according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to
make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable
shape, but never to please me; and even in the making I
pulled it to pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected keeping Sundays ; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

November 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, and cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.

November 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making
little square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pounds at most, of powder ; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another
as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird
that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

November 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my further conveniency.

Note.—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work; viz.,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

a pickax, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket ; so I desisted
from my work, and began to consider how to supply that want,
and make me some tools. As for the pickax, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel, or spade; this was so absolutely nec-
essary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it ;
but what kind of one to make I knew not.

November 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found
a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
the iron tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great
labor, and almost spoiling my ax, I cut a piece, and brought it
home, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The
excessive hardness of the wood, and having on other way, made
me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually
by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the
handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the board
part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last
me so long ; however, it served well enough for the uses which
I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe,
made after that fashion, or so long making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such
things as twigs that would bend tomake wicker-ware—at least,
none yet found out; and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I
could make all but the wheel; but that I had no notion of ;
neither did I know how to go about it ; besides, I had no possi-
ble way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away
the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like
a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in, when they serve the
bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel ; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than
four days, I mean always excepting my morning’s walk with
my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of
bringing home something fit to eat.

November 23.—My other work having stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on,
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room, or
cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a
lodging, I kept to the tent ; except that sometimes, in the wet
58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep my-
self dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side ;
so much that, in short,it frighted me, and not without reason,
too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-
digger. Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do
over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, .so that I
might be sure no more would come down.

December 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of board across over each post; this I finished the
next day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured ; and the posts, standing in
rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.

December 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that
could be hung up ; and now I began to be in some order within
doors.

December 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of board like
a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but board began to be
very scarce with me; also I made me another table.

December 24.—Much rain all night and all day ; no stirring
out.

December 25.—Rain all day.

December 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than be-
fore, and pleasanter.

December 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so
that I catched it, and led it home in a string ; when I had it
at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

NV. B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and asstrong asever; butby nursing itso long it grew
tame and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go
away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot were all spent.

December 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats and no breeze, so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food ;
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors,
ROBINSON . CRUSOE. 59

January 1.—Very hot still : but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
center of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though
exceedingly shy, and hard to come at ; however, I resolved to
try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

January 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats ; but I was mistaken, for they
all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well,
for he would not come near them.

January 3.—I began my fence, or wall ; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.

NV. B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the Journal ; it is sufficient to observe that I
was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it
was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a
half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about
eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the center
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together ; but I thought I should
never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished ; and it is
scarce credible what inexpressible labor everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driv-
ing them into the ground ; forI made them much bigger than
I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside doubled-fenced
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that,
if any people were to come on shore there, they would not per-
ceive any thing like a habitation ; and it was very well I did
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable oc-
casion.

During this time I made rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries in these walks of something or other to my ad-
vantage ; particularly I founda kind of wild pigeons, which
build, not as woodpigeons in a tree, but rather as house pigeons,
in the holes of rocks ; and taking some young ones, I endeavored
to breed them up tame, and did so ; but when they grew older
they flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feed-
ing them, for I had nothing to give them ; however, I fre-
quently found their nests, and got their young ones, which
were very good meat,
60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it
was impossible for me to make ; as, indeed, as to some of them
it was ; for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped.
I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could
never arrive to the capacity of making one of them, though I
spent many weeks about it ; I could neither put in the heads,
nor join the staves so true to one another as to make them
hold water ; so I gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles ; so that
as soon as it was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock,
I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-
wax with which I made candles in my African adventure ;
but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added
a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me
light, though not a clear, steady light like a candle. In the mid-
dle of all my labors it happened that, rummaging my things, I
found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn for the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but
before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What
little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured
by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust ;
and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I think it
was to put powderin, when I divided it for fear of the lightning,
or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one
side of my fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and
not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything there,
when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few
stalks of something green shooting upon the ground, which I
fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was sur-
prised, and perfectly astonished when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our European—nay,
as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion ; I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all ; indeed, I had very few notions
of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any-
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than a chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring
into the end of Providence in these things, or his order in
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 61

governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there in aclimate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance in that wild,
miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of Nature
should happen upon my account ; and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks
of rice, and which I knew because I had seen it grow in Africa,
when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubting but that there was more in
the place, I went all over that part of the island where I had
been before, peering in every corner and under every rock, to
see for more of it, but I could not find any. At last it occurred
to my thoughts that I had shaken the bag of chickens’ meat
out in that place ; and the wonder began to cease ; and I must
confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began
to abate too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing
but what was common ; though I ought to have been as thank-
ful for so strange and unforeseen providence, as if it had been
miraculous ; for it was really the work of Providence as to me,
that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn
should remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the
rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven; as also that I
should throw it out in that particular place, where, it being in
the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately ; whereas,
if Ihad thrown it anywhere else at that time it had been
burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time,
to have some quantity, sufficient to supply me with bread.
But it was not till the fourth year that I would allow myself
the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but spar-
ingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all
that [sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time 5
for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came
at all, at least not as it would have done ; of which in its
place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
62 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and
whose use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz.,
to make me bread, or rather food ; for I found ways to cook
it up without baking, though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal:

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April, I closed it up, contriv-
ing to go into it, not by a door, but over a wall, by a ladder,
that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder ; so I went up the ladder to
the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down on the
inside ; this was a complete inclosure to me; for within I
had room enough, and nothing could come at me from with-
out, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labors overthrown at once, and myself killed.
The case was thus: AsI was busy in the inside of it, behind
my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly
frightened with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for,
all on a sudden, I found the earth came tumbling down from
the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked
in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared; but thought
nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that the
top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before ;
and for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forwards to my
ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over
my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down
upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible
earthquake ; for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would
have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed
to have stood upon the earth ; and a great piece of the top of
the rock, which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea,
fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my
life. I perceived also the very sea was put into a violent
motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under
the water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one
dead or stupefied ; and the motion of the earth made my
stomach sick like one that was tossed at sea ; but the noise of
the falling of the rock awaked_me, as it were, and rousing me
from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 63

and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent
and all my household goods, and burying all at once; and
this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart
enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being buried
alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down and
disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while I had
not the least serious religious thought ; nothing but the com-
mon “Lord, have mercy upon me!” and when it was over,
that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grew
cloudy, as if it would rain; soon after that, the wind arose
by little and little, so that in less.than half an hour it blew a
most dreadful hurricane of wind; the sea was, all on a sud-
den, covered with foam and froth; the shore was covered
with the breach of the water; the trees were torn up by the
roots; and a terrible storm it was. This held about three
hours and then began to abate ; and then in two hours more
it was calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I
sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected ; when
on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and
rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake
itself was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave
again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive ; and
the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down
in my tent; but the rain was so violent that my tent was
ready to be beaten down with it ; and I was forced to go in-
to my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it
should fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a
new work, viz., to cut a hole through my new fortifications,
like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have
drowned my cave. After I had been in my cave some time,
and found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I
began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store,
and took a small sup of rum; which, however, I did then and
always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when
that was gone. It continued raining all that night, and great
part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad ; but my
mind being more composed, I began to think of what I had
best to do; concluding, that if the island was subject to
these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave,
but I must consider of building me some little hut in an open
place which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here,
64 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for 1
concluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one
time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the
place where it now stood, which was just under the hanging
precipice of the hill ; and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent ; and I spent the two next
days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where
and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swal-
lowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet ; and yet
the apprehensions of lying abroad without any fence were
almost equal to it: but still, when I looked about, and saw
how everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I
was, and how safe from danger, it made me loath toremove. In
the mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast
deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to
run the venture where I was, till [had formed a camp for my-
self, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this
resolution Icomposed myself for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, etc., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it,
when it was finished ; but that I would venture to stay where
I was till it was finished, and fit to remove to. This was the
21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means
to put this resolve in execution ; but I was at a great loss
about my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians) ; but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches, and dull ; and though I
had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This caused me as much thought as a statesman would have
bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or judge upon the life
and death ofa man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a
string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands
at liberty.

Note.—I had not seen any such thing in England, or at least
not to take notice how it was done, though I have observed
it was very common there ; besides that, my grindstone was
very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week’s
work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very
well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask ; when I came to it, Ifound
a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the
ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and look-
ing towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher
out of the water thanit used todo. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gun-
powder ; but it had taken water, and the powder was caked
as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore for the
present, and went on upon the sand, as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand,
was heaved up at least six feet, and the stern, which was
broken to pieces and parted from the rest by the force of the
sea soon after I had left rummaging of her, was tossed, as it
were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so
high on that side next the stern, that whereas there was a great
place of water before, so that I could not come within a quar-
ter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake ; and as by this violence the ship was more broken
open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore,
which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water
rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of remov-
ing my habitation and I busied myself mightily, that day espe-
cially, in searching whether I could make any way into the
ship ; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for
that all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. How-
ever, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to
pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding
that everything I could get from her would be of some use or
other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which held some of the upper part or quarterdeck
together, and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the
sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest ; but
the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time,

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going
66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. Ihad made me a
long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I fre-
quently caught ‘fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all
which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck ; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fire planks off from the decks, which
I tied together, and made swim on shore when the tide of
flood came on.

May 6.—W orked on the wreck ; got several iron bolts out
of her, and other pieces of iron-work ; worked very hard, and
came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it
over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, with an intent not to
work, but found the weight of the wreck had broken itself
down, the beams being cut ; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that
I could see into it ; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow
to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck
for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also
a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to
move.

May 10, 11,12, 18,14.—Went every day to the wreck ;
and got a great deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or planks,
and two or three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and
a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water ; but I stayed
so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide
prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore,
at a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see
what they were, and found they were pieces of the head, but
too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked ‘on the wreck ;
and with hard labor I loosened some things so much with the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 67

crow that the first flowing tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen’s chests ; but the wind blowing from the
shore nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and
a hogshead which had some Brazil pork in it; but the
salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work
every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to
get food, which I always appointed, during this part of my
employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be
ready when it was ebbed out ; and by this time I had gotten
timber, and plank, and iron-work. enough to have built a good
boat, if I had known how; and also I got, at several times,
and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of the sheet
lead. -

June 16.—Going down to the seaside, I founda large tor-
toise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems,
was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place or the
scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other side of the
island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I
found afterwards ; but perhaps had paid dear enough for
them.

June 17.—I spent in cooking theturtle. I found in her three-
score eggs ; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savory and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had
no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrible

lace.
: June 18.—Rained all the day, and I stayed within. I
thought, at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was something
chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night ; violent pains in my head, and
feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the ap-
prehensions of my sad condition—to be sick, and no help:
prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off of Hull,
but scarce knew what I said or why ; my thoughts being ail
confused.

June 22.—A little better ; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent: the fit held me seven
hours ; cold fit, and hot with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my
68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

gun, but found myself very weak ; however, I killed a she-
goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some
of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some
broth, but had no pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst ;
but so weak I had no strength to stand up, or to get myself
any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-
headed ; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew
not what to say ; only I lay and cried, “ Lord, look upon me!
Lord, pity me ! Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours ; till the fit wearing off, I
fell asleep, and did not awake till far in the night. When I
awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and ex-
ceeding thirsty ; however,as I had no water in my whole
habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep
again. In this second sleep I had this terrible dream: I
thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of
my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earth-
quake, and that I saw a man desend from a great black cloud,
in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground : he was
all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to
look towards him: hiscountenance was most inexpressibly
dreadful, impossible for words to describe ; when he stepped
upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air
looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes
of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he
moved forwards towards me with a long spear or weapon in
his hand to kill me ; and when he came to a rising ground, at
some distance, he spoke to me—or I heard a voice so terrible
that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can
say I understcod was this :—“Seeing all these things have
not brought thee to repentance now thou shalt die ;”—at
which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his
hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this ter-
rible vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even
dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to de-
scribe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received
by the good instruction of my father was then worn out by
an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wicked-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 69

n 3s, and a constant conversation with none but such as were,
like myself, wicked. and profane to the last degree. I do not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so
much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or
inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways: but a cer-
tain stupidity of soul without desire of good, or conscience
of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the
most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our
common sailors can be supposed to be—not having the least
sense, either of the fear of God in dangers, or of thankfulness
to God in deliverances.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will
be the more easily believed when I shall add, that through all
the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I
never had so much as once thought of its being the hand of
God, or that it was a just punishment for my sins—my re-
bellious behavior against my father—or my present sins,
which were great—or so much as a punishment for the gen-
eral course of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate
expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much
as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish to
God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the
danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from
voracious creatures as cruel savages; but I was merely
thoughtless of God or a Providence—I acted like a mere
brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of
common sense only, and indeed hardly that. When I was de-
livered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used,
and dealt justly and honorably with, as well as charitably, I
had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again,
I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on
this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it:as a
judgment. I only said to myself often, that I was an unfort-
unate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship’s crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised, with
a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankful-
ness ; but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of
joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the
least reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the Hand
which had preserved me, and had singled me out to be pre-
served when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me. Even just the
same common sort of joy which seamen generally have, after
70 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

they have got safe ashore from a shipwreck, all which they
drown in the next bowl of punch and forget almost as soon
as it is over: and all the rest of my life was like it. Even
when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible
of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of
the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect
of redemption, as soon as I saw a probability of living, and that
I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my
affliction wore off ; and I began to be very easy; applied my-
self to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and
was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judg-
ment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these
were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had
at first some little influence upon me, and began to affect
me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something
miraculous init ; but as soon as ever that part of the thought
was removed, all the impression which was raised from it
wore off also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake,
though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more
immediately directing to the invisible Power which alone di-
rects such things, yet no sooner was the first fright over, but
the impression it had made went off also. I had no more
sense of God or his judgment—much less of the present
affliction of my circumstances being from his hand—than if I
had been in the most prosperous condition of life. But now,
when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries
of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits be-
gan to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and na-
ture was exhausted with the violence of the fever, con-
science, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began
to reproach myself with my past life,in which I had so
evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of
God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me
in so vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed me
from the second or third day of my distemper; and in the
violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of
my conscience, extorted some words from me like praying to
God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attended
with desires or with hopes: it was rather the voice of mere
fright and distress. My thoughts were confused, the con-
victions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such
a miserable condition raised vapors into my head with the
mere apprehensions; and in these hurries of my soul, I knew
not what my tongue might express, But it was rather excla-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. val

mation, such as, “Lord, what a miserable creature am 1! If I
should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help, and what
will become of me?” ‘Then, the tears burst out of my eyes,
and I could say no more for a good while. In this interval, the
geod advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his
prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of this story,
viz., that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist me
in my recovery. “Now,” said I aloud, “my dear father’s
words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken me, and
I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of
Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture or sta-
tion of life wherein I might have been happy and easy ; but I
would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of
it from my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly;
and now Iam left to mourn under the consequences of it. I re-
fused their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into
the world, and would have made everything easy to me; and
now I have difficulties to struggle with too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no com-
fort, no advice.” Then I cried out, “Lord, be my help, for I
am in great distress.” This was the first prayer, if I might
call it so, that I had made for many years. But I return
to my Journal.

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep
I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up ; and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill ; and the first thing I did,
I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon
my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or
aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint
of rum into it, and mixed them together. ThenI got mea piece
of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat
very little ; I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very
sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition,
dreading the return of my distemper the next day. At night,
I made my supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted
in the ashes, and eat, as we call it,in the shell, and this was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing to, even as I
could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak
that I could hardly carry the gun, for I never went out with-
"2 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

out that; so I went out but a little way, and sat down upon
the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before
me, and very calm and smooth. AsI sat here, some thoughts
such as these occurred to me: Whatisthe earth and sea, of
which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced? And
what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human
and brutal? Whenceare we? Sure we are all made by some
secret Power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky.
And who is that? Then it followed most naturally, It is God
that has made it all. Well, but then, it came on strongly, if
God has made all these things, he guides and governs them
all, and all things that concern them ; for the Being that
could make all things must certainly have power to guide and
direct them. If so,nothing can happen in the great circuit of
his works, either without his knowledge or appointment.

And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows
that Iam here, and am in this dreadful condition ; and if noth-
ing happens without his appointment, he has appointed all this
to befall me. Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict
any of these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with
the greater force, that it must needs be that God had appointed
all this to befall me; that I was brought to this miserable cir-
cumstance by his direction, he having the sole power, not of
me only, but of everything that happened in the world. Im-
mediately it followed, Why has God done this tome? What
haveI done to be thus used? My conscience presently checked
me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought
it spoke to me like a voice, “‘ Wretch! dost thow ask what
thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life,
and ask thyself, what thou hast not done? Ask, why is it
that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not
drowned in Yarmouth Roads? killed in the fight, when the
ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war? devoured by the
wild beasts off the coast of Africa? or drowned here, when all
the crew perished but thyself? Dost thow ask, What have I
done?” Iwas struck dumb with these reflections, as one aston-
ished, and had not a word to say,—no, not to answer to my-
self,—but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat,
and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed;
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination
to sleep: so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for
it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehensions of the return of
my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought,
that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost
all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of
ROBINSON CRUSOE, - 498

the chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was
green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt ; for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. LI opened the chest,
and found what I looked for, viz., the tobacco ; and as the
few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the
Bibles which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had
not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I
say I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with
me to the table. Whatuse to make of the tobacco I knew not,
as to my distemper, or whether it was good for it or no ; but
I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should
heal one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed
it in my mouth, which, indeed, at first, almost stupefied my
brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and that I had not
been much used to it. Then I took some and steeped it an hour
or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay
down ; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held
my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as
well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held it almost to
suffocation. In the interval of this operation, I took up the
Bible and began to read ; but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time ; only,
having opened the book casually, the words first that occurred
to me were these, “Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I
will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.” These words
were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as
they did afterwards ; for, as for being delivered, the word had
no sound, as I may say, to me, the thing was so remote, so im-
possible in my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as
the children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to
eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began
to say, “Can God himself deliver me from this place?” And
asit was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the
words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon
them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I
said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep: so I left
my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in
the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did
what I never had done in all my life ; I kneeled down, and
prayed to God to fulfill the promise to me, that if I called upon
him in the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my
broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which
74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco, that indeed I could scarcely getit down ; immediately
upon this I went to bed ; and I found presently it flew up into
my head violently ; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no
more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o’clock
in the afternoon the next day: nay, to this hour I am partly
of opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till
almost three the day after ; for otherwise, I know not how I
should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as
it appeared some years after I had done ; for if I had lost it
by crossing and re-crossing the line, I should have lost more
than one day ; but in my account it was lost, and I never knew
which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when I
awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits
lively and cheerful ; when I got up I was stronger than I was
the day before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry ; and,
in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered
for the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a
sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought
them home ; but was not very forward to eat them; so I eat
some more of the’ turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This
evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did
me good the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum ;
only I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of
the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke ; however, I was not
so well the next day, which was the Ist of July, as I hoped I
should have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it
was not much.

July 2.—I renewed the medicine all three ways ; and dosed
myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I
drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was
thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon
this Scripture, “I will deliver thee ;” and the impossibility
of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it; but as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction that I disregarded
the deliverance I had received, and I was, as it were, made to
ask myself such questions as these, viz., Have I not been de-
livered, and wonderfully too, from sickness? from the most
distressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to
ROBINSON CRUSOE. - U5

me ? and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my
part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified him ;
that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as
a deliverance ; and how could I expect greater deliverance?
This touched my heart very much; and immediately I
kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery
from my sickness.

July 4.—In the morning I took the Bible ; and beginning
at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and im-
posed upon myself to read a while every morning and every
night ; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but as
long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after
I set seriously to this work, till I found my heart more deeply
and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life.
The impression of my dream revived; and the words, “ All
these things have not brought thee to repentance,” ran
seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God
to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the
very day, that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words :
“He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and
to give remission.” I threw down the book; and with my
heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of
ecstacy of joy, I cried out aloud, “ Jesus, thou Son of David !
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour ! give me repentance!”
This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the
words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a
sense of my condition, and with a true Scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the Word of God; and
from this time,I may say, I began to have hope that God
would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above,
“Call on me, and I will deliver thee,” in a different sense
from what I had ever done before ; for then I had no notion
of anything being called deliverance, but my being delivered
from the captivity I was in :-for though I was indeed at large
in the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and
that in the worst sense in the world. But now I learned to
take it in another sense : now I looked back upon my past life
with such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my
soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of
guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life,
it was nothing ; I did not so much as pray to be delivered
from it, or think of it ; it was all of no consideration, in com-
parison of this. And I added this part here, to hint to who-
ever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of
%6 - ROBINSON CRUSOE.

things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater
blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal :

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable
as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my
thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture
and praying to God, to thingstof a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing of ;
also, my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to
furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make my
way of living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little
at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a
fit of sickness ; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was,
and to what weakness I wasreduced. The application which
I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before ; neither can I recommend it to any one
to practice, by this experiment ; and though it did carry off
the fit, yet it rather contributed to weaken me’; for I had fre-
quent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time ; I
learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health
that could be, especially in those rains which came attended
with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which
came in a dry season was always most accompanied with such
storms, so I found this rain was much more dangerous than
the rain which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months ;
all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me ; and I firmly believed that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great
desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which yet I knew
nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more partic-
ular survey of the island itself. JI went up the creek first,
where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found,
after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow
any higher ; and that it was no more than a little brook of
running water, and very fresh and good ; but this being the
dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it ; at
least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could be per-
ceived, On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant
ROBINSON CRUSOE. "7

savannas of meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass ;
and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds,
where the water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed I
found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a great
and very strong stalk ; there were divers other plants, which I
had no notion of or understanding about, and might, perhaps,
have virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I
searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in all that
climate make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw
large plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw
several sugar-canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation im-
perfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for this
time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might
take to know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits of
plants which I should discover; but could bring it to no con-
clusion ; for, in short, I had made so little observation while
I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants of the
field ; at least, very little that might serve me to any purpose
now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and
after going something further than I had gone the day before,
TI found the brook and savannas cease, and the country became
more woody than before. In this part I found different fruits,
and particularly I found melons upon the ground, in great
abundance; and grapes upon the trees ; the vines had spread
indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just
now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surpris-
ing discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was
warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them, remember-
ing that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes
killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by
throwing them into fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent
use for these grapes ; and that was to cure or dry them in the
sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which
I thought would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome and as
agreeable to eat, when no grapes might be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habi-
tation, which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say,
Thad lain from home. Inthe night, Itook my first contrivance,
and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morn-
ing proceeded upon my discovery, traveling nearly four miles,
as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due
north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me,
At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the coun-
try seemed to descend to the west ; and a little spring of fresh
"8 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the
other way, that is, due east ; and the country appeared so fresh,
so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure,
or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I
descended a little on the side of that delicious valley, surveying
it with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with other afflict-
ing thoughts, to think that this was all my own ; that I was king
and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of pos-
session ; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance
as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here
abundance of cocoa trees, orange.and lemon and citron trees ;
but all wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least not then. How-
ever, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to
eat, but very wholesome ; and I mixed their juice afterwards
with water, which made it very wholesome ; and very cool and
refreshing. J found now I had business enough to gather and
carry home ; and I resolved to lay upa store, as well of grapes
as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which
Iknew was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great
heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and
a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place ; and taking
a few of each with me, I traveled homeward, and resolved to
come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make to
carry the resthome. Accordingly, having spent three days in
this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my
cave) ; but before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled ; the
richness of the fruit, and the weight of the juice, having broken
them and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing ;
as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me
two small bags to bring home my harvest ; but I was surprised
when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and
fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread abroad,
trodden to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there,
and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there
were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this;
but what they were I knew not. However, as I found there
was no laying them up on heaps, and no carrying them away in
a sack, but that one way they would be destroyed, and the
other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took
another course ; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes,
and hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they
might cure and dry in the sun ; and as for the limes and lemons,
I carried as many back asI could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 79

great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley and the pleasant-
ness of the situation ; the security from storm on that side of
the water, and the wood ; and concluded that I had pitched
upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst part
of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of re-
moving my habitation, and to look out for a place equally safe
as where now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruit-
ful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me ;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was
now by the seaside, where it was at least possible that some-
thing might happen to my advantage ; and that the same ill
fate that brought me hither might bring some other unhappy
wretches to the same place ; and though it was scarce probable
that any such thing should ever happen, yet to inclose myself
among the hills and woods in the center of the island, was to
anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not only
improbable, but impossible ; and that therefore I ought not by
any means to remove. However, I was so enamored with
this place that I spent much of my time there for the whole
remaining part of the month of July ; and though, upon second
thoughts, I resolved as above not to remove, yet I built mea
little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance witha
strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach,
well staked, and filled between with brushwood; and here I
lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together, al-
ways going over it with a ladder as before ; so that I fancied
now I had my country house and my seacoast house; and this
work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my
labor, but the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first
habitation ; for though I had made me a tent like the other,
with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me
to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began toenjoy myself. The 3d of August, I found
the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and indeed were
excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them
down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for
the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had
lost the best part of my winter food; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner hadI taken them
all down, and carried most-of them home to my cave, but it
80 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

began to rain; and from hence, which was the 14th of August,
it rained, more or less, every day till the middle of October,
and sometimes so violently that I could not stir out of my cave
for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my
family ; I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats,
who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and
I heard no more tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she
came home about the end of August, with three kittens.
This was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed
a wildcat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a
quite different kind from our European cats ; but the young
cats were the same kind of house-breed as the old one; and
both my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But
from these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with
cats that I was forced to kill them like vermin or wild
beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so
that I could not stir,and was now very careful not to be much
wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened for food ;
but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last
day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which
was a treat to me, and my food was regulated thus: I ate a
bunch of raisins for my breakfast ; a piece of the goat’s flesh,
or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great mis-
fortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything), and two or
three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my
fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was
not perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed
myself before, I was ina perfect inclosure ; whereas now, I
thought, I lay exposed, and yet I could not perceive that there
was any living thing to fear; the biggest creature that I had
yet seen upon the island being a goat.

September 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary
of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found
Thad been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept
this day asa solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise,
prostrating myself on the ground with the most serious
humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his
righteous judgment upon me, and praying to him to have
mercy on me through Jesus Christ ; and having not tasted
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 81

the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going down
of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and
went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. ‘I had all this
time observed no Sabbath-day ; for as at first I had no sense of
religion upon my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to
distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary
for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of
the days were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I
found I had been there a year: so I divided it into weeks, and
set apart every seventh day foraSabbath ; though I found at
the end of my account I had lost a day or two in my reckoning.
A little after this my ink began to fail me, and so I contented
myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the
most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly ; but I bought all my experience before I
had it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most dis-
couraging experiments that I made at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley
and rice which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I
thought, of themselves ; and I believe there were about thirty
stalks of rice and about twenty of barley ; and now I thought
it a proper time ta sow it, after the rains, the sun being in his
southern position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a
piece of ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and
dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was
sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would not
sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper
time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving
about a handful of each. It was a great comfort to me
afterwards that I did so, for not one grain of that I sowed this
time came to anything; for the dry months following, the
earth having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no
moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all till the
wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had been
newlysown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily
imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of
ground to make another trialin, and dug up apiece of ground
near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in Feb-
ruary, a little before the vernal equinox ; and this having the
rainy months of March and April to water it, sprang up very
pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop ; but having part of
the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that Thad got, Thad
82 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

but a small quantity at last,my whole crop not amounting to
above half a peck of each kind. But by this experiment I was
made master of my business, and knew exactly when the proper
season was to sow, and that I might expect two seed-times and
two harvests every year. While this corn was growing I made
a little discovery, which was of use to me afterwards. Assoon
as the rains were over, and the weather began to settle, which
was about the month of November, I made a visit up the coun-
try to my bower, where, though I had not been some months
I found all things just as I left them. The circle or double
hedge that [had made was not only firm and entire, but the
stakes which I had cut off of some trees that grew thereabouts
were all shot out and grown with long branches, as much asa
willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head.
I could not tell what tree to callit that these stakes were cut
from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the
young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up to grow
as much alike asI could ; and it is scarcely credible how beauti-
ful a figure they grew into in three years ; sothat though the
hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter,
yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon covered it,
and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the
dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes
and make mea hedge like this, in a semicircle round my wall
(I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing
the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight yards distance
from my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a fine
cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defense
also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally
be divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into
the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were generally
thus:

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of
April—rainy, the sun being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and
ine half of August—dry, the sun being then to the north of the

ne.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half
of October—rainy, the sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December,
and January, and the half of February—dry, the sun being
then to the south of the line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the
winds happened to blow, but this was the general observation
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 83

I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill conse-
quence of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish my-
self with provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged
to go out, and I sat within doors as much as possible during
the wet months. In this time I found much employment, and
very suitable also to the time, for I found great occasion of
many things which I had no way to furnish myself with but
by hard labor and constant application ; particularly, I tried
many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could
get for the purpose proved so brittle that they would do noth-,
ing. It proved of excellent advantage to me now that, when I
was a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at a basket-
maker’s, in the town where my father lived, to see them make
their wickerware ; and being, as boys usually are, very offi-
cious to help, and a great observer of the manner how they
worked those things, and sometimes lent a hand, I had by this
means so full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted
nothing but the materials; when it came into my mind that
the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew
might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers
in England, and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day
I went to my country house, as I called it, and cutting some of
the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I
could desire ; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a
hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there
was a great plenty of them. ‘These I set up to dry, within my
circle or hedges, and when they were fit for use, I carried
them to my cave; and here, during the next season, I em-
ployed myself in making, as well as I could, a great many
baskets, both to carry earth or to carry or lay up anything, as
T had occasion ; and though I did not finish them very hand-
somely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my pur-
pose ; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without
them ; and as my wickerware decayed, I made more, espe-
cially strong, deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks,
when I should come to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of
time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to sup-
ply two wants. I had no vessel to hold anything that was
liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and
some glass bottles—some of the common size, and others
which were case-bottles, square, for the holding of water,
spirits, etc. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything in,
except a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and
which was too big for such uses as I desired it for—viz., to
84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second
thing I rain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was
impossible for me to make one ; however, I found a contriv-
ance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting my
second row of stakes or piles, and in this wickerwork, all the
summer or dry season, when another business took me up
more time than it could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole
island, and that I had traveled up the brook, and so on to
where I built my bower, and where I had an opening quite to
the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved to
travel quite across to the seashore on that side; so, taking
my gun,a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of
powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a
great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my
journey. When I had passed the vale where my bower stood,
as above, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it
being a very clear day, fairly descried land—whether an
island or a continent I could not tell ; but it lay very high, ex-
tending from the W. to the W.S.W., at a very great dis-
tance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, other-
wise than that I knew it must be part of America, and, as
I concluded, by all my observations, must be near the Spanish
dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if
I should have landed, I had been in a worse condition than I
was now; and therefore I acquiesced in the dispositions of
Providence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered
everything for the best ; I say I quieted my mind with this,
and left afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that
if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time
or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but
if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country
and the Brazils, which were indeed the worst of savages ; for
they are cannibals, and fail not to murder and devour all the
human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward.
I found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter
than mine—the open savanna fields sweet,} adorned with
flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. Isaw abun-
dance of parrots, and fain would I have caught one, if possible,
to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak tome. I did,
after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it




















f


































| reposed in my hut with my family.

Lage SSCiUS0€,
ROBINSON CRUSOE... 85

down with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home ;
but it was some years before I could make him speak ; how-
ever, at last, I taught him to call me by my name very famil-
iarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle,
will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in
the low ground hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes ; but
they differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with,
nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several.
But I had no need to be venturous, for [had no want of food,
and of that which was very good, too, especially these three
sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added
to my grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a
table better than I, in proportion to the company ; and though
my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thank-
fulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but
had rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never traveled in this journey above two miles outright in
a day, or thereabouts ; but I took so many turns and returns
to see what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough
to the place where I resolved to sit down for all night; and
then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself
with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either from one
tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me
without waking me. As soon as I came to the seashore I was
surprised to see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side
of the island, for here, indeed, the shore was covered with in-
numerable turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but
three in a year and ahalf. Here was also an infinite number
of fowls of many kinds, some of which I had not seen before,
and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the
names of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a
she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on; and though
there were many goats here, more than on the other side of the
island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come
near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me
much sooner than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine ; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as
I was fixed in my habitation it became natural to me, and I
seemed all the while I was here to be as it. were upon a journey,
and from home. However, I traveled along the shore of the
sea toward the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then set-
86 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I
would go home again, and that the next journey I took should
be on the other side of the island east from my dwelling, and
so round till I came to my post again, of which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep all the island so much in my view that I
could not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country;
but I found myself mistaken, for, bemg come about two or
three miles, Ifound myself descended into a very large valley,
but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood,
that I could not see which was my way: by any direction but
that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the posi-
tion of the sun at that time of the day. It happened, to my
further misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for three or
four days while I was in this valley, and not being able to see
the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortable, and at last was
obliged to find out the seaside, look for my post, and come back
the same way I went: and then, by easy journeys, I turned
homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, am-
munition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized
upon it, and I running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved
it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if
I could, for I had often been musing whether it might not be
possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats,
which might supply me when my powder and shot should be
spent. I made a collar to this little creature, and with a string,
which I made of some rope-yarn which I always carried about
me, I led him along, though withsome difficulty, till I came to
my bower, and there I inclosed him and left him, for I was very
impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above
a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come
into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This
little wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had
been so unpleasant to me that my own house, as I called it to
myself, was a perfect settlement to me, compared to that; and
it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I re-
solved I would never go a great way from it again, while it
should be my lot to stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey; during which, most of the time was taken
up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who
began now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well ac-
quainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid










Crusog anp His Famity.—Page 86.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 87

which I had pent in within my little circle, and resolved to go
and fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went,
and found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get out,
but was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut
boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find,
and threw them over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before,
to lead it away ; but it was so tame with being hungry, that I
had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog ; and
as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle,
and so fond, that it became from that time one of my domestics
also, and would never leave me afterwards.

Therainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner
as before, being the anniversary of my landing on theisland,
having now been there two years, and no more prospect of
being delivered than the first day I came there. I spent the
whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the
many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was at-
tended with, and without which it might have been infinitely
more miserable. I gave humble and hearty thanks that God
had been pleased to discover to me that it was possible I might
be more happy in this solitary condition -than I should have
been in a liberty of society, and in all the pleasures of the
world ; that he could fully make up to me the deficiencies of
my solitary state, and the want of human society, by his pres-
ence, and the communication of his grace to my soul; sup-
porting, comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon his
providence here, and hope for his eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy the life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of my days; and now having changed both my sor-
rows and my joys, my very desires altered, my affections
changed their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from
what they were at first coming, or, indeed, for the two years

ast.
: Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for
viewing the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition
would break out upon me ona sudden, and my very heart
would die within me, to think of the woods, the mountains,
the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with
the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited
wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest
composures of my mind, this would break out upon me likea
storm and make me wring my hands, and weep like a child ;
88 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and ]
would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the
ground for an hour or two together ; and this was still worse
to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or vent myself by
words, it would go off, and the grief having exhausted itself
would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I
daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts of
it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened
the Bible upon these words, “I will never leave thee, nor for-
sake thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words were
to me; why else should they be directed in such a manner,
just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition,
as one forsaken of God and man? “ Well, then,” said I, “if
God does not forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be,
or what matters it, though the world should all forsake me,
seeing on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should
lose the favor and blessing of God, there would be no com-
parison in the loss?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, sol-
itary condition, than it was probable I should ever have been
in any other particular state in the world; and with this
thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me
to this place. I know not what it was, but something shocked
my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words.
“How canst thou become such a hypocrite,” said I, even
audibly, “to pretend to be thankful for a condition, which,
however thou mayest endeavor to be contented with, thou
wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from?” SolI
stopped there ; but though I could not say I thanked God for
being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for opening
my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences, to see the former
condition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness, and
repent. Inever opened the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul
within me blessed God for directing my friend in England,
without any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and
for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the
ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year ;
and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so par-
ticular an account of my works this year as the first ; yet in
general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but
having regularly divided my time according to several daily
employments that were before me, such as, first, my duty to
ROBINSON CRUSOB 89

God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set
apart some time for, thrice every day; secondly, the going
abroad with my gun for food, which generally took up three
hours in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the
ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or
caught for my supply : these took up great part of the day ;
also, it is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when
the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great
to stir out ; so that about four hours in the evening was all
the time I could be supposed to work in, with this exception,
that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working,
and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in
the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labor, I desire may be added
the exceeding laboriousness of my work ; the many hours
which for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, every-
thing I did took up out of my time: for example, I was full
two-and-forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which
I wanted in my cave ; whereas two sawyers, with their tools
and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the same tree
in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be
cut down, because my board was to bea broadone. This tree
I was three days a-cutting down, and two more cutting off the
boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With
inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of
it into chips till it began to be light enough to move ; then I
turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board
from end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the
other side till I brought the plank to be about three inches
thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may judge. the
labor of my hands in such a piece of work; but labor and
patience carried me through that, and many other things ; I
only observe this in particular, to show the reason why so much
of my time went away with so little work, viz., that what might
bea little to be done with help and tools, was a vast labor and
required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. But
notwithstanding this, with patience and labor I went through
many things, and indeed everything that my circumstances
made necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now, in the months of November and December, ex-
pecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had ma-
nured or dug up for them was not great ; for, as I observed, my
seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I
had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season : but now
90 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my crop promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was
in danger of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts,
which it was scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first, the
goats, and wild creatures which I called hares, which, tasting
the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as
it came up, and eat it so close that it could get no time to
shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for, but by making an inclosure about
it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil, and the
more, because it required a great deal of speed ; the creatures
daily spoiling my corn. However,as my arable land was but
small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about
three weeks’ time ; and shooting some of the creatures in the
daytime, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up
to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night
long ; so ina little time the enemies forsook the place, and
the corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in
the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it
was in the ear; for going along by the place to see how it
throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know
not how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I
should be gone. I immediately let fly among them, for I
always had my gun with me. I had no sooner shot, but there
rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from
among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days
they would devour all my hopes ; that I should be starved, and
never be able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I could not
tell ; however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible,
though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, I
went among it to see what damage was already done, and found
they had spoiled a good deal of 1 it ; but that as it was yet toa
green for them, the loss was not so er eat, but the remainder was
likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved.

Istayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if
they only waited till I was gone away, and the event pr oved it
to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner
out of their sight, but they dropped down one by one into the
corn again. I was so provoked that I could not have patience
to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they
eat now was, as it might ‘ve said, a peck-loaf to me, in the con-
sequence ; but coming up to the hedge,I fired again, and
killed three of them. This was what I wished for ; so I took
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 91

them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves in Eng-
land, viz., hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It is
impossible to imagine almost that this should have had such an
effect as it had, for the fowls would not only not come at the
corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and
Icould never see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows
hung there. This I was very glad of, you may be sure, and
about the latter end of December, which was our second har-
vest of the year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down,
and all I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out of
one of my broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the
arms out of the ship. However, as my crop was but small, I
had no great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in
my way, for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away
in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with
my hands; and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that
out of my half-peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice, and
“above two bushels and a half of barley ; that is to say, by my
guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I fore-
saw that in time it would please God to supply me with bread ;
and yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to
grind or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and

art it ; nor, if made into meal how to make bread of it ; and
if how to make it, yet Iknew not how to bake it ; these things
being added to my desire of having a good quantity for store,
and to secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of
this crop, but to preserve it all for seed against the next season ;
and, in the mean time, to employ all my study and hours of
working to accomplish this great work of providing myself
with corn and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. It
is a little wonderful, and what I believe few people have
thought much upon, viz., the strange multitude of little things
necessary in providing, producing, curing, dressing, making,
and finishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to
my daily discouragement and was made more and more sensible
of it every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-
corn which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed
to a surprise.

First, I had no plow to turn up the earth ; no spade or shovel
to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a wooden
spade, as I observed before ; but this did my work but in a
92 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

wooden manner ; and though it cost me a great many days to
make it, yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out the sooner,
but made my work the harder, and made it be performed much
worse. However, this I bore with too, and was content to
work it out with patience, and bear with the badness of the
performance. When the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough
ofa tree over it to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than
rake or harrow it. When it was growing, or grown, I have
observed already how many things I wanted to fence it, secure
it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from
the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves
to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven
to bake it in; and all these things I did without, as shall be
observed ; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort and ad-
vantage to metoo. But this, as I said, made everything labori-
ous and tedious to me; but that there was no help for ; neither
was my time so much loss to me, because, as I divided it, acertain
part of it was every day appointed to these works; and as I
had resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater
quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself
wholly, by labor and invention, to furnish myself with utensils
proper for the performing all the operations necessary for mak-
ing the corn, when I had it fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I
had a week’s work at least to make me aspade, which, when it
was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and re-
quired double labor to work with it. However, I went through
that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as
near my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced
them in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of
that wood which I had set before, which I knew would grow ;
so that, in one year’s time, I knew I should have a quick or
living-hedge, that would want but little repair. This work was
not so little as to take me up less than three months, because
great part of that time was of the wet season, when I could not
go abroad. “Within-door, that is when it rained, and I could
not goout, I found employmentin the following occupations—
always observing that all the while I was at work I diverted
myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak ;
and I quickly learnt him to know his own name, and at last to
speak it out pretty loud, “Poll,” which was the first word I
ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own.
This, therefore, was not my work, but an assistant to my work ;
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 93

for now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my hands,
as follows: viz., I had long studied, by some means or other,
to make myself some earthen vessels, which, indeed, I wanted
sorely, but knew not where to come at them. However, con-
sidering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could
find out any clay, I might botch up some such pot as might,
being dried by the sun, be hard enough and strong enough to
bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required
to be kept so ; and as this was necessary in preparing corn, meal,
etc., which was the thing I was upon, I resolved to make some
as large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what
should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to
tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste ; what
odd, misshapen, ugly things I made ; how many of them fell
in, and how many fell out—the clay not being stiff enough to
bear its own weight ; how many cracked by the over-violent
heat of the sun, being set out too hastily ; and how many fell
to pieces with only removing, as well before as after they were
dried ; and, in a word, how, after having labored hard to find
the clay—to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work
it—I could not make above two large earthen ugly things (I
cannot call them jars) in about two months’ labor.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I
lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two great
wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for them, that
they might not break ; and as between the pot and the basket
there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and
barley straw’; and these two pots being to stand always dry,
I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when
the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots,
yet I made several smaller things with better success ; such as
little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any-
thing my hand turned to ; and the heat of the sun baked them
strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an
earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire ; which
none of these could do, It happened after some time, making
a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it
out after I had done with it I found a broken piece of one of
my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone,
and red as atile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said
to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if
they would burn broken.
94 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This set me to study how to order my fire so as to make it
burn me some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the
potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had some
lead to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two
or three pots, in a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood
all round it, with a great heap of embers under them. I plied
the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the top,
till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and ob-
served that they did not crack at all; when I saw them clear
red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till
I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run ;
for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the
violence of the heat, and would have run into glassif I had
gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots began to
abate of the red color, and watching them all night, that I
might not.et the fire abate too fast, in the morning I had three
very good (I will not say handsome) pipkins, and two other
earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and one of
them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort
of earthenware for my use; but I must needs say as to the
shapes of them they were very indifferent, as any one may sup-
pose, when I had no way of making them but as the children
make dirt pies,or as a woman would make pies that never
learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to
mine, when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear
the fire ; and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold
before I set one on the fire again, with some water in it, to boil
me some meat, which it did admirably well ; and with a piece
of a kid I made some very good broth, though I wanted oat-
meal and several other ingredients requisite to make it as good
as I would have had it.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or
beat some corn in ; for as to the mill, there was no thought of
arriving to that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To
supply this want I was at a great loss ; for, of all the trades in
the world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as for
any whatever ; neither had I any tools to go about it with. I
spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut hol-
low, and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except
what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or
cut out ; nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hardness
sufficient, but were all of a sandy, crumbling stone, which would
neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 95

corn without filling it with sand So, after a great deal of
time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved
to look out a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed
much easier ; and getiting-one as big as I had strength to stir,
I rounded it and formed it on the outside with my ax and
hatchet, and then, with the help of fire and infinite labor, made
a hollow place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes.
After this, I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood
called the iron-wood ; and this I prepared and laid by against
Thad my next crop of corn, which I proposed to myself to
grind, or rather pound my corn or meal, to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to dress
my meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk; without
which I did not see it possible I could have any bread. This
was a most difficult thing, so much as but to think on, for to
be sure I had nothing like the necessary things to make it
with ; I mean fine thin canvas, or stuff, to searce the meal
through. And here I was at a full stop for many months ;
nor did I really know what to do. Linen I had none left but
what was mere rags; I had goats’ hair, but neither knew I
how to weave or spin it; and had I known how, here were no
tools to work with. All the remedy that I found for this was,
that at last I did remember I had, among the seamen’s clothes
which were saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico
or muslin; and with some pieces of these I made three small
sieves, but proper enough for the work; and thus I made
shift for a good many years; howI did afterwards, I shall
show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and
how I should make bread when I came to have corn; for,
first, I had no yeast ; as to that part, as there was no supply-
ing the want, soI did not concern myself much about it. But
for an oven, I was indeed in great pain. At length I found out
an experiment for that also, which was this: I made some
earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about
two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep; these I
burned in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them by ;
and when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon.the
hearth, which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own
making and burning also; but I should not call them
square,

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers,
or live coals, I drew them forward upon the hearth, so as to
cover it all over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was
very hot ; then sweeping away all the embers, I set down my
96 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

loaf or loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon them,
drew the embers all round the outside of the pot, to keep in
and add to the heat ; and thus, as well as in the best oven in
the world, I baked my barley-loaves, and became, in little
time, a good pastry-cook into the bargain; for I made my-
self several cakes and puddings of the rice; indeed I made
no pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I
had, except the flesh either of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up
most part of the third year of my abode here ; for, it is to be
observed that, in the intervals of these things, I had my new
harvest and husbandry to manage ; for I reaped my corn in
its season, and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up
in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it out,
for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it
with,

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really
wanted to build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it
up in, for the increase of the corn now yielded me so much
that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice
as much, or more; insomuch that I now resolved to begin to
use it freely ; for my bread had been quite gone a great
while ; also I resolved to see what quantity would be sufficient
for me a whole year, and to sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of-barley
and rice were much more than I could consume in a year ; so
I resolved to sow just the same quantity every year that I
sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully pro-
vide me with bread.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which I
had seen from the other side of the island ; and I was not
without secret wishes that I was on shore there, fancying that,
seeing the mainland, and a inhabited country, I might find
some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at
last find some means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of
such a condition, and how I might fall into the hands of
savages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to think far
worse than the lions and tigers of Africa: that if I once came
into their power I should run a hazard more than a thousand
to one of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten ; for I had
heard that the people of the Caribbean coasts were cannibals,
or men-eaters adel knew by the latitude that I could not be far
off from that shore ! That suppose they were not cannibals, yet


Crusor REAPING His Corn AnD BaRuey. —lage 9b.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 97

they might kill me, as many Europeans who had fallen into their
hands had been served, even when they had been ten or
twenty together—much more I, that was but one, and could
make little or no defense; all these things, I say, which I
ought to have considered well of, and I did cast up in my
thoughts afterwards, yet took up none of my apprehensions
at first, and my head ran mightily upon the thought of get-
ting over to that shore.

Now, I wished for my boy Xury, and the longboat with
the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thou-
sand miles on the coast of Africa: but this was in vain: then
I thought I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I
have said, was blown up upon the shore a great way, in the
storm, when we were first cast away. She lay almost where
she did at first, but not quite, and was turned, by the force of
the waves and the winds, almost bottom upward, against the
high ridge of beachy, rough sands, but no water about her as
before. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done well
enough, and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her
easily enough ; but I might have easily foreseen that I could no
more turn her and set her upright upon her bottom than I could
remove the island ; however, I went to the wood, and cut levers
and rollers, and brought them to the boat, resolved to try what
I could do; suggesting to myself, that if I could but turn her
down, I might easily repair the damage she had received, and
she would be a very good boat, and I might go to sea in her
very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and
spent, I think, three or four weeks about it; at last, finding
it impossible to heave it up with my little strength, I fell to
digging away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall
down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in
the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again,
or to get under it, much less to move it forward towards the
water ; so I was forced to give it over; and yet, though I
gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over for
the main increased rather than decreased, as the means for it
seemed impossible.

This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not pos-
sible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of
those climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say, with-
out hands—viz., of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only
thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with
98 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my thoughts of making it, and with my having mucn more
convenience for it than any of the Negroes or Indians ; but
not at all considering the particular inconveniences which I
lay under more than the Indians did, viz., want of hands to
move it into the water when it was made—a difficulty much
harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of want
of tools could be to them. For what was it to me, that when
I had chosen a vast tree in the wood, I might with great trou-
ble cut it down, if after I might be able with my tools to hew
and dub the outside into the proper shape of a boat, and burn
or cut out the inside to make it hollow, so as to make a boat
of it—if, after all this, I must leave it just there where I
found it, and was not able to launch it into the water?

One would have thought I could not have had the least re-
flection upon my mind of my circumstances while I was making
this boat, but I should have immediately thought how I should
get it into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my
voyage over the sea in it, that I never once considered how I
should get it off the land ; and it was really, in its own nature,
more easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea, than
about forty-five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat
in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever
man did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself
with the design without determining whether I was ever able
to undertake it ; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat
came often into my head ; but I put a stop to my inquiries into
it, by this foolish answer which I gave myself : “Let me first
make it; I warrant I shall find some way or other to get it
along when it is done.”

This was a most preposterous method ; but the eagerness of
my fancy prevailed, and to work I went, and felled a cedar tree.
I question much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the
building the Temple at Jerusalem ; it was five feet ten inches
diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven
inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet ; after which
it lessened for a while, and then parted into branches. It was
not without infinite labor that I felled this tree. I was twenty
days hacking and hewing at it at the bottom ; I was fourteen
more getting the branches and limbs and the vast spreading
head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through with my
ax and hatchet, and inexpressible labor ; after this, it cost me
a month toshape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something
like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it ought
todo, It cost me near three months more to clear the inside,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 99

and work it out so as to make an exact boat of it; thisI did,
indeed, without fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint
of hard labor, till I had brought it to be a very handsome peri-
agua, and big enough to have carried six-and-twenty men, and
consequently big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely de-
lighted with it. ‘The boat was really much bigger than ever I
saw 4 canoe or a periagua, that was made of one tree, in my
life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure—for
there remained nothing but to get it into the water ; and had I
gotten it into the water, I make no question but I should have
begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be per-
formed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me ; though
they cost infinite labor too. It lay about one hundred yards
from the water, and not more ; but the first inconvenience was,
it was up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this dis-
couragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth,
and so make a declivity. This I began, and it cost me a pro-
digious deal of pains (but who grudge pains that have their
deliverance in view ?) ; but when this was worked through, and
this difficulty managed, it was still much at one, for I could no
more stir the canve than I could the other boat. Then I meas-
ured the distance of the ground, and resolved to cut a dock or
canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not
bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work ;
and when I began to enter into it, and calculate how deep it
was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out,
I found that, by the number of hands I had, being none but
my own, it must have been ten or twelve years before I could
have gone through with it ; for the shore lay so high that at
the upper end it must have been at least twenty feet deep ; so
at length, though with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt
over also.

This grieved me heartily ; and now I saw, though too late,
the folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and
before we judge rightly of our own strength to go through
with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this
place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and
with as much comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study
and serious application of the Word of God, and by the assist-
ance of his grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I
had before. I entertained different notions of things. I
looked now upon the world as a thing remote, which I had
100 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

nothing to do with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires
about : in a word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was
ever likely to have. So I thought it looked, as we may perhaps
look upon it hereafter, viz., as a place I had lived in, but was
come out of it; and well might I say, as Father Abraham to
Dives, “ Between me and thee isa great gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of
the world here ; I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of
the eye, nor the pride of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had
all I was now capable of enjoying ; I was lord of the whole
manor ; or, if I pleased, I might call myself king or emperor
over the whole country which I had possession of. There were
norivals ; I had no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or
command with me. I might have raised ship-ladings of corn,
but I had no use for it; so I let as little grow as I thought
enough for my occasion. I had tortoises or turtles enough, but
now and then one was as much as I could put to any use. I had
timber enough to have built fleet of ships; and I had grapes
enough to have made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to
have loaded that fleet when it had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable : I had
enough to eat and to supply my wants, and what was all the
rest tome? If I killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog
must eat it, or the vermin ; if I sowed more corn than I could
eat, it must be spoiled ; the trees that I cut down were lying
to rot on the ground ; I could make no more use of them than
for fuel, and that I had no occasion for but to dress my food.

Ina word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me,
apon just reflection, that all the good things of this world are
no further good to us than they are for our use; and that,
whatever we may heap up indeed to give others, we may enjoy
as much as we can use, and no more. The most covetous, grip-
ing miser in the world would have been cured of the vice of
covetousness, if he had been in my case; for I possessed in-
finitely more than I knew what to do with. Ihad no room
for desire, except it was of things which I had not, and they
were but trifles, though, indeed, of great use tome. I had, as
Lhinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about
thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry, use-
less stuff lay! I had no manner of business for it; and I often
thought with myself that I would have given a handful of it
for a gross of tobacco-pipes ; or for a hand-mill to grind my
corn; nay, I would have given it all for sixpenny-worth of
turnip and carrot seed out of England, or for a handful of peas
and beans and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 101

advantage by it, or benefit fromit ; but there it lay in a drawer,
and grew moldy with the damp of the cave in the wet seasons ;
and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the
same case, they had been of no manner of value to me, because
of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in it-
self than it was at first and much easier to my mind, as well as
tomy body. I frequently sat down to meat with thankful-
ness, and admired the hand of God’s providence, which had
thus spread my table in the wilderness. I learned to look more
upon the bright side of my condition, and less upon the dark
side, and to consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted ;
and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts that I can-
not express them ; and which I take notice of here, to put those
discontented people in mind of it, who cannot enjoy comfort-
ably what God has given them, because they see and covet
something that he has not given them. All our discontents
about what we want appeared to me to spring from the want
of thankfulness for what we have.

. Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless
would be so to any one that should fall into such distress as
mine was; and this was, to compare my present condition
with what I at first expected it would be; nay, with what it
would certainly have been, if the good providence of God
had not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up nearer to
the shore, where I not only could come at her, but could bring
what I got out of her to the shore, for my relief and comfort ;
without which, I had wanted for tools to work, weapons for de-
fense, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.

Ispent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing
to myself, in the most lively colors, how 1 must have acted
if I had got nothing out of the ship. How I could not have so
much as got any food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it
was long before I found any of them, I must have perished
first ; that I should have lived, if I had not perished, like a
mere savage; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any
contrivance, I had no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh
from the skin and the bowels, or to cut it up; but must gnaw
it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a beast.

. These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of
Providence to me, and very thankful for my present condition,
with all its hardships and misfortunes ; and this part also I
cannot but recommend to the reflection of these who are apt,
in their misery, to say,“Is any affliction like mine?” Let
them consider how. much worse the cases of some people are,
102 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and their case might have been, if Providence had thought
fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort
my mind with hopes; and this was comparing my present sit-
uation with what I had deserved, and had therefore reason to
expect from the hand of Providence. Ihad lived a dreadful
life, perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God.
Ihad been well instructed by father and mother ; neither had
they been wanting to me, in their early endeavors to infuse a
religious awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and
what the nature and end of my being required of me. But
alas ! falling early into the seafaring life, which, of all lives, is
the most destitute of the fear of God, though his terrors are
always before them ; I say, falling early into theseafaring life,
and into seafaring company, all that little sense of religion
which I entertained was laughed out of me by my messmates ;
by a hardened despising of dangers,and the views of death,
which grew habitual to me; by my long absence from all
manner of opportunities to converse with anything but what
was like myself, or to hear anything of what was good, or tended
towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least
sense of what I was, or was to be, that, in the greatest deliv-
erances I enjoyed—such as my escape from Sallee ; my being
taken up by the Portuguese master of the ship; my being
planted so well in the Brazils; my receiving the cargo from
England, and the like—I never once had the words, “ Thank
God !” so much as on my mind, or in my mouth; nor in the
greatest distress had Iso much thought as to pray to him, or
so much as to say, “Lord, have mercy upon me !” no, not to
mention the name of God, unless it was to swear by, and blas-
pheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months
as I have already observed, on the account of my wicked and
hardened life past ; and when I looked about me, and considered
what particular providences had attended me since my coming
into this place, and how God had dealt bountifully with me—
had not only punished me less than my iniquity had deserved,
but had so plentifully provided for me—this gave me great
hopes that my repentance was accepted, and that God had yet
mercies in store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to
resignation to the will of God in the present disposition of my
circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my con-
dition ; and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to com-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 103

lain, seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins. Thai
Tenjoved so many mercies which I had no reason to have ex-
pected in that place. That I ought never more to repine at
my condition, but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that
daily bread, which nothing but a crowd of wonders could have
brought. That I ought to consider I had been fed even by a
miracle, even as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens ; nay,
by a long series of miracles. And that I could hardly have
named a place in the uninhabited part of the world where I
could have been cast more to my advantage ; a place where,
as I had no society, which was my affliction on one hand, so I
found no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or tigers, to threaten
my life ; no venomous creatures or poisonous, which I might
have fed on to my hurt ; no savages to murder and devour me,
In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way, so it wasa
life of mercy another ; and I wanted nothing to make it a life
of comfort, but to be able to make my sense of God’s goodness
to me, and care over me in this condition, be my daily conso-
lation ; and after I made a just improvement of these things,
I went away, and was no more sad, I had now been here so
long, that many things which I brought on shore for my help
were either quite gone, or very much wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a
very little, which I eked out with water, a little and a little,
till it was so pale, it scarce left any appearance of black upon
the paper. As long as it lasted I made use of it to minute
down the days of the month on which any remarkable thing
happened to me ; and first, by casting up times past, I remem-
bered that there was a strange concurrence of days in the vari-
ous providences which befell me, and which, if I had been
superstitiously inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I
might have had reason to have looked upon with a great deal
of curiosity.

First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away
from my father and my friends, and ran away to Hull, in order
to go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee
man-of-war, and made a slave ; the same day of the year that
I escaped out of the wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads,
that same day of the year afterwards I made my escape from
Sallee in a boat ; the same day of the year I was born on, viz.
the 20th of September, the same day I had my life so miracu-
lously saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore
in this island ; so that my wicked life and solitary life began
both on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread,
104 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the ship ; this I had
husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake of
bread a day for above a year; and yet I was quite without
bread for a year before I got any corn of my own ; and great
reason I had to be thankful that I had any at all, the getting
it being, as has been already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes too, began to decay mightily ; as to linen, I had
had none a good while, except some checkered shirts which I
found in the chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully
preserved ; because many timesI could bear no other clothes on
but a shirt: and it wasa very great help to me that I had,
among all the men’s clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of
shirts. There were also several thick watch-coats of the sea-
mens which were left behind, but they were too hot to wear:
and though it is true that the weather was so violently hot that
there was no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite naked—
no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not; nor
could I abide the thoughts of it, though I was allalone. One
reason why I could not go naked was, I could not bear the
heat of the sun so well when quite naked as with some clothes
on ; nay, the very heat frequently blistered my skin ; whereas,
with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and whistling
under the shirt, was twofold cooler than without it. No more
could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun without
a cap ora hat; the heat of the sun, beating with such violence
as it does in that place, would give me the headache presently,
by darting so directly on my head, without a cap or hat on, so
that I could not bear it ; whereas, if I put on my hat, it would
presently go away.

Upon these views, I began to consider about putting the few
rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order ; I had
worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my business was now to
ty if I could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats
which I had by me, and with such other materials as I had ; so
I set to work, tailoring, or rather, indeed, botching, for I made
most piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make two
or three waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great
while ; as for breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry
shift indeed till afterwards.

. [have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures
that I killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung up
stretched out with sticks in the sun, by which means some of
them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but
others, it seems, were very useful. The first thing I made of
these was a great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside,


4



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[had much laborto make me a canoe.
Lage 105 Casoe.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 105

to shoot off the rain ; and this I performed so well, that after,
I made me a suit of clothes wholly of those skins—that is to
say, a waistcoat, and breeches open at the knees, and both
loose, for they were rather wanting to keep me cool than to keep
me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were
wretchedly made ; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse
tailor. However, they were such as I made a very good shift
with, and when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair
of the waistcoat and cap being outermost, I was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an
umbrella. I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great
mind to make one. I had seen them made in the Brazils, where
they are very useful in the great heats which are there, and I
felt the heats every jot as great here, and greater too, being
nearer the equinox ; besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad,
it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the
heats. I took a world of pains at it, and was a great while be-
fore I could make anything likely to hold ; nay, after I thought
Thad hit the way, I spoiled two or three before I made one to
my mind. But at last I made one that answered indifferently
well; the main difficulty I found was to make it to let down.
I could make it spread, but if it did not let down too, and draw
in, it would not be portable for me any way but just over my
head, which would not do. However, at last, as I said, I made
one to answer. I covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so
that it cast off the rain like a pent-house and kept off the sun
so effectually that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather
with greater advantage than I could before in the coolest, and
when [had no need of it, I could close it, and carry it under my
arm, —.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely
composed by resigning to the will of God, and throwing my-
self wholly upon the disposal of his providence. This made my
life better than sociable, for when I began to regret the want
of conversation, I would ask myself, whether thus conversing
mutually with my own thoughts, and (as I hope I may say with
even my Maker, by ejaculations and petitions, was not better
than the utmost enjoyment of human society in the world ?

I cannot say that, after this for five years, any extraordinary
thing happened to me, but I lived on in the same course, in the
same posture and place, just as before. The chief thing I was
employed in, besides my yearly labor of planting my barley and
rice, and curing my raisins—of both which I always kept up
just enough to have sufficient stock of the year’s provision be-
forehand—I say, besides this yearly labor, and my daily labor
106 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of going out with my gun, I had one labor to make me a canoe,
which at last I finished ; so that, by digging a canal to it of
six feet wide and four feet deep, I brought it into the creek,
almost half a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big,
as I made it without considering beforehand, as I ought to do,
how I should be able to launch it, so, never being able to bring
it into the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let
it lie where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser
the next time. Indeed, the next time, though I could not get
a tree proper for it, and was in a place where I could not get
the water to it at any less distance than, as I have said, of near
half a mile, yet, as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave
it over ; and though I was near two years about it, yet I never
grudged my labor, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at
last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size
of it was not at all answerable to the design which I had in view
when I made the first; I mean of venturing over to the terra
Jjirma, where it was above forty miles broad ; accordingly, the
smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that design, and
now I thought no more of it. As I had a boat, my next design
was to make a tour round the island ; for as I had been on the
other side in one place, crossing, as I have already described it,
over the land, so the discoveries I made in that journey made
me very eager to see other parts of the coast ; and now I
had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose, and that I might do everything with dis-
cretion and consideration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat,
and made a sail to it out of some of the pieces of the ship’s sails
which lay in store, and of which I had a great store by me.
Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found she
would sail very well ; then I made little lockers, or boxes, at
each end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, ammunition,
etc., into, to be kept dry, either from rain or the spray of the
sea; and a little, long, hollow place I cut in the inside of the
boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang down
over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast,
to stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off of me,
like anawning. And thus I every now and then took a little
voyage upon the sea ; but never went far out, nor far from the
creek, At last, being eager to view the circumference of my
little kingdom, I resolved upon my tour ; and accordingly I
victualed my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of
loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of barley-bread, an


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ROBINSON CRUSOE. 107

earthen pot full of parclied rice(a food I ate a great deal of), 2
little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder with shot for kill-
ing more, and two large watch-coats, of those which, as I men-
tioned before, I had saved out of the seamen’s chests ; these I
took, one ta lie upon and the other to cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or
my captivity, which you please, that I set out on this voyage,
and I found it much longer than I expected ; for though the
island itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east
side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out about two
leagues.into sea, some above water, some under it ; and beyond
that a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more so that I was
obliged to go a great way out to sea to double that point.

When I first discovered them, I was going to give over my
enterprise, and come back again, not knowing how far it might
oblige me to go out to sea; and, above all, doubting how I
should get back again ; soI came to an anchor ; for I had made
a kind of an anchor with a piece of a broken grappling which
I got out of the ship. .

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore,
climbing up a hill, which seemed to overlook that point where
I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I per-
ceived a strong and, indeed, a most furious current, which ran
to the east, and even came close to the point ; and I took the
more notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger,
that when I came into it, I might be carried out to sea by the
strength of it, and not be able tomake the island again. And,
indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I believe it would have
been so ; for there was the same current on the other side of
the island, only that it set off at a farther distance, and I saw
there wasa strong eddy under the shore ; so I had nothing to
do but to get out of the first current, and I should presently be
in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing
pretty fresh at E.S.E., and that being just contrary to the cur-
rent, made a great breach of the sea upon the point; so that
it was not safe for me to keep too close to the shore for the
breach, nor to go too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated over-
night, the sea was calm, andI ventured. But Iam a warning-
piece to all rash and ignorant pilots ; for no sooner was I come
to the point, when I was not even my boat’s length from the
shore, but I found myself in a great depth of water, and a cur-
rent like the sluice of a mill. It carried my boat along with it
108 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

with such violence that all I could do could not- keep her so
much as on the edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther
and farther out from the eddy, which was on my left hand.
There was no wind stirring to help me, and all that I could do
with my paddles signified nothing. And now I began to give
myself over for lost ; for, as the current was on both sides of
the island, I knew in a few leagues’ distance they must join
again, and then I was irrecoverable gone ; nor did I see any
possibility of avoiding it ; so that I hadno prospect before me
but of perishing, not by thesea, for that was calm enough, but
of starving from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise on the
shore, as big: almost as I could lift, and had tossed it into the
boat; and I had a great jar of fresh water, that is to say, one
of my earthen pots ; but what was all this to being driven into
the vast ocean, where, to be sure, there was no shore, no main-
land or island, for a thousand leagues at least ?

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God
to make the most miserable condition that mankind could be in
worse. NowTI looked back upon my desolate, solitary island as
the most pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness my
heart could wish for was to be there again. I stretched out my
hands to it, with eager wishes. “O happy desert!” said I,
“T shall never see thee more. O miserable creature ! whither
amI going?” ThenI reproached myself with my unthankful
temper, and how I had repined at my solitary condition ; and
now what would I give to be on shore there again! Thus, we
never see the true state of our condition till it is illustrated to
us by its contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy, but
by the want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine the con-
sternation I was now in, being driven from my beloved island
(for so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost
two leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it
again. However, I worked hard till, indeed, my strength was
almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the north-
ward—that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy
lay on—as possibly as I could; when about noon, as the sun
passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in
my face, springing up from the 8.S.E. This cheered my heart
a little, and especially when, in about half an hour more, it blew
apretty small, gentle gale. By this time, I had got at a fright-
ful distance from the island ; and had the least cloudy or hazy
weather intervened, I had been undone another way, too ; for
Ihad no compass on board, and should never have known how
to have steered towards the island, if I had but once lost sight
of it, But the weather continuing clear, I applied myself to


Crusor Makes A JouRNEY,—Page 107,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. - 109

get up my mast again, and spread my sail, standing: away to
the north as much as possible, to get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to
stretch away, I saw even by the clearness of the water some al-
teration of the current was near ; for where the current was so
strong the water was foul; but perceiving the water clear, I
found the current abate ; and presently I found to the east, at
about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks. These
rocks I found caused the current to part again, and as the main
stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the
northeast, so the other returned by the repulse of the rock, and
made a strong eddy, which ran back again to the northwest,
with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to havea reprieve brought to them
upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to
murder them, or who have been in such extremities, may guess
what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my
boat into the stream of this eddy ; and the wind also fresh-
ening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully
before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under-
foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again,
directly towards the island, but about two leagues more towards
the northward than the current lay which carried me away at
first’; so that when I came near the island, I found myself
open to the northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of
the island, opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by
help of this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and saved
me no farther. However, I found that being between two
great currents, viz., that on the south side, which had hurried
me away, and that on the north, which lay about two leagues
on the other side ; I say, between these two, in the wake of the
island, I found the water at least still, and running no way ;
and having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering
directly for the island, though not making such fresh way as I
did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within about
aleague of the island, I found the point of the rocks which oc-
casioned this disaster stretching out, as is described before, to
the southward, and casting off the current more southerly, had,
of course, made another eddy to the north ; and this I found
very strong, but directly setting the way my course lay, which
was due west, but almost full north. However, having afresh
gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting northwest; and in
110 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

about an hour came within about a mile of the shore, where, it
being smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks
for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my
deliverance by my boat ; and refreshing myself with such things
as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that
I had spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep, being
quite spent with the labor and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my
boat! I had run so much hazard, and knew too much of the case,
to think of attempting it by the way I went out ; and what
might be at the other side (I mean the west side) I knew not,
nor had I any mind to run any more ventures. So I resolved
on the next morning to make my way westward along the shore,
and to see if there was no creek where I might lay up my frig-
ate in safety so as to have her again, if I wanted her. In about
three miles, or thereabouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very
good inlet or bay, about a mile over, which narrowed till it
came to a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a very con-
venient harbor for my boat, and where she lay as if she had
been in a little dock made on purpose for her. HereI put in,
and having stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore to look
about me, and see where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I
had been before, when I traveled on foot to that shore; so,
taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and umbrella, for
it was exceedingly hot, I began my march. The way was com-
fortable enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and
I reached my old bower in the evening, where I found every-
thing standing asI left it; for I always kept it in good order,
being, as I said before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest
my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep. But judge
you, if you can, that read my story, what a surprise I must have
been in when I was awaked out of my sleep by a voice, calling
me by my name several times. “Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe !
poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where
are you? Where have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing or
paddling, as it is called, the first part of the day, and walking
the latter part, that I did not awake thoroughly ; and dozing
between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that some-
body spoke to me ; but as the voice continued to repeat, “ Robin
Crusoe! Robin Crusoe!” at last I began to awake more per-
fectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up
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Crusor AND His Parror.—Page 111,

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 111

in the utmost consternation. But no sooner were my eyes oper,
but I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge, andim-
mediately knew that it was le that spoke to me; for just in
such a bemoaning language I had used to talk to him, and teach
him ; and he had learned it so perfectly that he would sit
upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and ery “ Poor
Robin Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you been? How
came you here?” and such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that in-
deed it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I could
compose myself. First, I was amazed how the creature got
thither ; and then, how he should just keep about the place,
and nowhere else ; but as I was well satisfied it could be no-
body but honest Poll, I got over it ; and holding out my hand,
and calling him by his name, “ Poll,” the sociable creature came
to me, and sat upon my thumb, ashe used to do, and continued
talking to me, “ Poor Robin Crusoe? and how did I come here?
and where had I been?” just as if he had been overjoyed to
see me again ; and sol carried him home along with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and
had enough to do for many days, to sit still, and reflect upon
the dangerI had beenin. I would have been very glad to have
had my boat again on my side of the island; but I knew not
how it was practicable to get it about. As to the east side of
the island, which I had gone round, I knew well enough there
was no venturing that way; my very heart would shrink, and
my very blood run chill, but to think of it ; and as to the other
side of theisland, I did not know how it might be there. But
supposing the current ran with the same force against the shore
at the east as it passed by it on the other, I might run the same
risk of being driven down the stream, and carried by the island,
as I had been before of being carried away from it. So with
these thoughts I contented myself to be without any boat,
though it had been the product of somany months’ labor to make
it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper, J remained near a year;
lived a very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose ; andmy
thoughts being very much composed as to my condition, and
fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of Provi-
dence, I thought Ilived really very happily in all things, except
that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises
which my necessities put me upon applying myself to; andI
believe I should, upon occasion, have made a very good carpen-
ter, especially considering how few tools I had.
112 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earth-
enware, and contrived well enough to make them witha wheel,
which I found infinitely easier and better ; because I made
things round and shaped, which before were filthy things indeed
tolook on. But I think I was never more vain of my own per-
formance, or more joyful for anything I found out, than for
my being able to make a tobacco-pipe ; and though it was a
very ugly, clumsy thing when it was done, and only burnt red,
like other earthenware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would
draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it, for [ had
been always used to smoke ; and there were pipes in the ship,
but I forgot them at first, not thinking that there was tobacco
in the island ; and afterwards, when I searched the ship again,
I could not come at any pipes.

In my wickerware also I improved much, and made abun-
dance of necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed me ;
though not very handsome, yet they were such as were very
handy and convenient for laying things up in, or fetching
things home. For example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could
hang it up in a tree, flay it, and dress it, and cut it in pees
and bring it home in a basket : and thelike by aturtle ; I could
cut it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh,
which was enough for me, and bring them home in a basket,
and leave the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets were
my receivers for my corn, which I always rubbed out as soon
as it was dry, and cured ; and kept it in great baskets, instead
of a granary.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably ;
and this was a want which it was impossible for me to supply,
and I began seriously to consider what I must do when I should
have no more powder ; that is to say, how I should do to kill
any goats. I had, as I observed in the third year of my being
here, kept a young kid, and bred her up tame ; I was in hopes
of getting a he-kid : but I could not by any means bring it to
pass, till my kid grew to be an old goat ; and as I could never
find in my heart to kill her, she died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and as
Thave said, my ammunition growing low, I set myself to stud
some art to trap and snare the goats, to see whether I could
not catch some of them alive ; and particularly, I wanted a
she-goat great with young. To this purpose, I made snares to
hamper them ; and I believe they were more than once taken
in them ; but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and
always found them broken, and my bait devoured. At length,
I resolved to try a pitfall: so I dug several large pits in the
ROBINSON CRUSOE, 113

earth, in places where I had observed the goats used to feed,
and over these pits I placed hurdles, of my own making too,
with a great weight upon them ; and several times I put ears
of barley and dry rice, without setting the trap ; and I could
easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the
corn, for I could see the marks of their feet. At length, I set
three traps in one night, and going the next morning, I found
them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone: this was
very discouraging. However, I altered my traps ; and, not to
trouble you with particulars, going one morning to see my traps,
I found in one of them a large old he-goat ; and in one of the
others three kids, a male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he
was so fierce, I durst not go into the pit to him ; that is to say,
to go about to bring him away alive, which was what I wanted.
I could have killed him, but that was not my business, nor
would it answer my end; soI even let him out, and he ran
away as if he had been frighted out of his wits; but I had
forgot then what I learned afterwards, that hunger. will tame
alion. If I had let him stay there three or four days without
food, and then have carried him some water to drink, and then
a little corn, he would have been as tame as one of the kids ;
for they are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures, where they
are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at
that time: then I went to the three kids, and taking them one
by one, I tied them with strings together, and with some diffi-
culty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed ; but throwing
them some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be
tame. And now I found that if I expected to supply myself
with goats’ flesh, when I had no powder or shot left, breeding
some up tame was my only way; when, perhaps, I might have
them about my house like a flock of sheep. But, then, it oc-
curred to me that I must keep the tame from the wild, or else
they would always run wild when they grew up ; and the only
way for this was to have some inclosed piece of ground, well
fenced either with hedge or pale, to keep them up so effect-
ually, that those within might not break out, or those without
break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet as
I saw there was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first piece
of work was to find out a proper piece of ground ; viz., where
there was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for them
to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.
114 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Those who understand such inclosures will think I had very
little contrivance, when I pitched upon a place very proper for
all these, being a plain, open piece of meadow land, or savanna
(as our people call it in the western colonies), which had two or
three little drills of fresh water in it, and at one end was very
woody ; I say, they will smile at my forecast, when I shall tell
them I began by inclosing of this piece of ground in such a
manner, that my hedge or pale must have been at least two
miles about. Nor wasthe madness of it so great as to the com-
pass, for if it was ten miles about, I was like to have time enough
to do it in; but I did not consider that my goats would be as
wild in so much compass as if they had had the whole island,
and I should have so much room to chase them in that I should
never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty
yards, when this thought occurred to me ; so I presently stopped
short, and, for the first beginning, I resolved to inclose a piece
of about one hundred and fifty yards in length, and one hundred
yards in breadth, which, as it would maintain as many as I
should have in any reasonable time, so, as my flock increased,
I could add more ground to my inclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work
with courage. I was about three months hedging in the first
piece ; and, till I had done it, I tethered the three kids in the
best part of it, and used them to feed as near me as possible,
to make them familiar ; and very often I would go and carry
them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them
out of my hand ; so that, after my inclosure was finished, and
I let them loose, they would follow me up and down, bleating
after me for a handful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had
a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years
more I had three-and-forty, besides several that I took and
killed for my food ; and after that, I inclosed five several pieces
of ground to feed them in, with little pens to drive them into,
to take them as I wanted them, and gates out of one piece of
ground into another.

But this was not all ; for now I not only had goat’s flesh to
feed on when I pleased, but milk too—a thing which indeed in
my beginning I did not so much as think of, and which, when
it came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise ;
for now I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two
of milk ina day. And as Nature, who gives supplies of food
to every creature, dictates even naturally how to make use of
it, so I, that never milked a cow, much less a goat, or saw but-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. “115

ter or cheese made, very: readily and handily, though after a
great many essays and miscarriages, made me both butter and
cheese at last, and never. wanted it afterwards. How merci-
fully can our Creator treat his creatures, even in those condi-
tions in which they seemed to be overwhelmed in destruction !
How can he sweeten the bitterest providences, and give us
cause to praise him for dungeons and prisons! Whata table
was here spread for me in a wilderness, where I saw nothing
at first but to perish for hunger.

It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my
little family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the
prince and lord of the whole island ; I had the lives of all my
subjects at absolute command ; I could hang, draw, give life
and liberty and take it away, and no rebels among all my sub-
jects. Then to see how like a king I dined too, all alone, at-
tended by my servants! Poll, asif he had been my favorite,
was the only person permitted to talk to me ; my dog, who was
now grown very old and crazy, and had found no species to
multiply his kind upon, sat always at my right hand ; and two
cats, one on one side the table, and one on the other, expecting
now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of special favor.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore
at first, for they were both of them dead, and had been interred
near my habitation by my own hand ; but one of them having
multiplied by I know not what kind of creature, these were two
which I preserved tame ; whereas the rest ran wild in the
woods, aad became indeed troublesome to meat last ; for they
would often come into my house, and plunder me too, till at
last I was obliged to shoot them, and did killa great many ;
atlength they left me. With this attendance and in this plenti-
ful manner I lived ; neither could I be said to want anything
but society ; and of that, in some time after this, I was likely
to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the
use of my boat, though very loath to run any more hazard ;
and therefore sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her about
the island, and at other times I sat myself down contented
enough without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my
mind to go down to the point of the island where, as I have
said, in my last ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore
lay, and how the current set, that I might see what I had to do ;
this inclination increased upon me every day, and at length I
resolved to travel thither by land; and following the edge of
the shore, I did so; but had any one in England met such a
man as I was, it must either have frighted them, or raised a
116 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

great deal of laughter : and asI frequently stood still to look
at myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my traveling
through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in such a dress.
Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure, as follows :

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of goat’s skin, with a
flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as
to shoot the rain off from running into my neck ; nothing being
so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon the flesh under the
clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down
to about the middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed
breeches of the same ; the breeches were made of the skin of
an old he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length on either
side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my legs.
Stockings and shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of some-
things, I scarce knew what to call them, like buskins, to flap
over my legs, and lace on either side like spatterdashes, but of
a most barbarous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew to-
gether with two thongs of the same, instead of buckles; and
in a kind of a frog on either side of this, instead of asword and
dagger, hung-a little saw and a hatchet, one on one side, one on
the other. I had another belt not so broad, and fastened in the
same manner, which hung over my shoulder ; and at the end
of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s
skin too, in one of which hung my powder, in the other my shot.
At my back I carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun, and
over my head a great clumsy, ugly, goat-skin umbrella, but
which, after all, was the most necessary thing I had about me
next to my gun. As for my face, the color of it was really not
so mulatto-like as one might expect from a man noteat all care-
ful of it, and living within nine or ten degrees of the equinox.
My beard I had once suffered to grow till it was about a quar-
ter of a yard long ; but as I had both scissors and razors suf-
ficient, I had cut it pretty short, except what grew on my upper
lip, which I had trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan
whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee, for
the Moors did not wear such, though the Turks did ; of these
moustachios, or whiskers, I will not say they were long enough
to hang my hat upon them, but they were of a length and shape
monstrous enough, and such as in England would have passed
for frightful.

But all this is by the bye ; for, as to my figure, I had so few
to observe me that it was of no manner of consequence, so I
cay no more to that part. In this kind of dress I went my new
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 117

journey, and was out five or six days. I traveled first along
the seashore, directly to the place where I first brought my beat
to an anchor to get up upon the rocks; and having no boat now
to take care of, [ went over the land a nearer way to the same
height thatI was upon before, when, looking forward to the
point of the rock which lay out, and which I was obliged to
double with my boat, as Isaid above, I was surprised to see the
sea all smooth and quiet—no rippling, no motion, no current,
any more there than in other places. Iwas at astrange loss to
understand this, and resolved to spend some time in the observ-
ing it, to see if nothing from the sets of the tide had occasioned
it; but I was presently convinced how it was, viz., that the
tide of ebb setting from the west, and joining with the current
of waters from some great river on the shore, must be the oc-
casion of this current ; and that according as the wind blew
more forcibly from the west or from the north, this current
came near, or went farther from the shore ; for, waiting there-
abouts till evening, I went up to the rock again, and then the
tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw the current again as be-
fore, only that it ran farther off, being near half a league from
the shore, whereas in my case it set close upon the shore, and
hurried me in my canoe along with it, which at another time it
would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but
to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might
very easily bring my boat about the island again; but when I
began to think about putting it in practice, I had such terror up-
on my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been in,
that I could not think of it again with any patience ; but, on the
contrary, I took up another resolution, which was more safe,
though more laborious—and this was, that I would build, or
rather make me another periagua or canoe ; and so have one for
one side of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it, two
plantations in the island; one my little fortification or tent,
with the wall about it, under the rock, with the cave behind me,
which by this time I had enlarged into several apartments, or
caves, one within another, One of these, which was the driest
and largest, and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification,
that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock, was all
filled up with large earthen pots, of which I have given an ac-
count, and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would
hold five or six bushels each, where I laid up my stores of pro-
vision, especially my corn, some in the ear, cut off short from
the straw, and the other rubbed out with my hand,
118 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles,
those piles grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so
big, and spread so very much, that there was not the least ap-
pearance, to any one’s view, of any habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the
land, and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land,
which I kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which duly
yielded me their harvest in its season ; and whenever I had
occasion for more corn, I had more land adjoining, as fit as
that.

Besides this, I had my country-seat, and I had now a toler-
able plantation there also ; for first, I had my little bower, as
T called it, which I kept in repair—that is to say, I kept the
hedge, which circled it in, constantly fitted up to its usual
height, the ladder standing always in the inside; I kept the
trees, which at first were no more than my stakes, but were
now grown very firm and tall, always so cut, that they might
spread and grow thick and wild, and make the more agreeable
shade, which they did effectually to my mind. In the mid-
dle of this I had my tent always standing, being a piece of a
sail spread over poles set up for that purpose, and which
never wanted any repair or renewing ; and under this I had
made me a squab or couch, with the skins of the creatures I
had killed, and with other soft things, and a blanket laid on
them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had saved ;
and a great watch-coat to cover me; and here, whenever I
had occasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my
country habitation.

Adjoining to this, I had my inclosures for my cattle, that is
to say, my goats ; and as I had taken an inconceivable deal of
pains to fence and inclose this ground, I was so anxious to see
it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that I
never left. off till, with infinite labor, I had stuck the outside
of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one
another, that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was
scarce room to put a hand through between them; which
afterwards, when those stakes grew, as they all did in the next
rainy season, made the inclosure strong like a wall—indeed
stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I
spared no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary
for my comfortable support ; for I considered the keeping upa
breed of tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living mag-
azine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived
in this place, if it were to be forty years; and that keeping
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 119

them in my reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my
inclogures to such a degree that I might be sure of keeping
them together ; which, by this method, indeed, I so effectually
secured, that when these little stakes began to grow, I had
planted them so very thick I was forced to pull some of them
up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I prin-
cipally depended on for my winter store of raisins, and which
I never failed to preserve very carefully, as the best and most
agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and, indeed, they were
not agreeable only, but physical, wholesome, nourishing, and
refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also half-way between my other habitation and
the place where I had laid up my boat,I generally stayed and
lay here in my way thither, for I used frequently to visit my
boat ; andI kept all things about, or belonging to her, in
very good order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert my-
self, but no more hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever
above a stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehen-
sive of being hurried out of my knowledge again by the cur-
rents or winds, or any other accident. But now I come toa
new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I
was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man’s naked foot
on the shore, which was very plain to be seen on the sand. I
stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition.
I listened, I looked round me, but I could hear nothing, nor
see anything ; I went up to a rising ground, to look farther ;
I went up the shore, and down the shore, but it was all one: I
could see no other impression but that one. I went to it again
to see if there were any more, and to observe if it might not be
my fancy; but there was no room for that, for there was ex-
actly the print of a foot—toes, heel, and every part of a foot.
How it came thither I knew not, nor could in the least imagine.
But after innumerable fluttering thoughts like a man perfectly
confused and out of himself, I came home to my fortification,
not feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but terrified to
the last degree, looking behind me at every two or three steps,
mistaking every bush and tree, and fancying every stump at
a distance to be a man. Nor is it possible to describe how
many various shapes my affrighted imagination represented
things to me in; how many wild ideas were formed ever
moment in my fancy, and what strange unacccountable whim-
seys came into my thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I. think I called it ever
120 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

after this), I fled into it like one pursued. Whether I went
over by the ladder, as first contrived, or went in at the hole in
the rock, which I called a door,I cannot remember ; for never
frighted hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of
mind than I to this retreat.

I had no sleep that night ; the farther I was from the occa-
sion of my fright, the greater my apprehensions were, which
is something contrary to the nature of such things, and espe-
cially to the usual practice of all creatures in fear ; but I was
so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas of the thing, that
I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to myself, even
though I was now a great way off it. Sometimes I fancied it
must be the devil; and reason joined in with me upon this
supposition : for how should any other thing in human shape
come into the place? Where was the vessel that brought
them? What marks were there of any other footsteps? And
how was it possible a man should come there? But then to
think that Satan should take human shape upon him in such a
place, where there could be no manner of occasion for it, but
to leave the print of his foot behind him, and that even for no
purpose too, for he could not be sure I should see it—this was
an amazement the other way. I considered that the devil
might have found out abundance of other ways to have terri-
fied me than this of the simple print of a foot ; that as I lived
quite on the other side of the island, he would never have been
so simple as to leave a mark in a place where it was ten thou-
sand to one whether I should ever see it or not, and in the sand
too, which the first surge of the sea, upon a high wind, would
have defaced entirely. All this seemed inconsistent with the
thing itself, and with all the notions we usually entertain of
the subtlety of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out of
all apprehensions of its being the devil; and I presently con-
cluded then, that it must be some more dangerous creature ;
viz., that it must be some of the savages of the mainland
over against me, who had wandered out to sea in their canoes,
and either driven by the currents or by contrary winds, had
made the island, and had been on shore, but were gone away
again to sea; being as loath, perhaps, to have stayed in this
desolate island as I would have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was
very thankful in my thought, that I was so happy as not to be
thereabouts at that time, or that they did not see my boat, by
which they would have concluded that some inhabitants had
been in the place, and perhaps have searched farther for me.


““T WAS TERRIFIED TO THE LAST DEGREE.’’—Page 121.

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 121

Then terrible thoughts racked my imagination about their
having found my boat, and that there were people here ; and
that, if so, I should certainly have them come again-in greater
numbers, and devour me; that if it should happen that they
should not find me, yet they would find my inclosure, destroy
all my corn, and carry away all my flock of tame goats, and I
should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope; all that
former confidence in God, which was founded upon such
wonderful experience as I had had of his goodness, now van-
ished ; asif he that had fed me by miracle hitherto, could not
preserve by his power the provision which he had made for me
by his goodness. I reproached myself with my laziness, that
would not sow any more corn one year than would just serve
me till the next season, as if no accident could intervene to
prevent my enjoying the crop that was upon the ground ; and
this I thought so just a reproof, that I resolved for the future
to have two or three years’ corn beforehand, so that, whatever
might come, I might not perish for want of bread.

How strange a checkerwork of Providence is the life of
man! and by what secret differing springs are the affections
hurried about, as differing circumstances present! To-day
we love what to-morrow we hate; to-day we seek what to-
morrow we shun ; to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear,
nay, even tremble at the apprehensions of. This was exemp-
lified in me at this time in the most lively manner imaginable ;
for I, whose only affliction was, that I seemed banished from
human society, that I was alone, circumscribed by the bound-
less ocean, cut off from mankind, and condemned to what I
call silent life ; that I was as one whom Heaven thought not
worthy to be numbered among the living, or to appear amongst
the rest of his creatures ; that to have seen one of my own
species would have seemed to me a raising me from death to
life, and the greatest blessing that Heaven itself, next to the
supreme blessing of salvation, could bestow; I say, that I
should now tremble at the very apprehensions of seeing a man,
and was ready to sink into the ground at but the shadow or
silent appearance of a man having set his foot on the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded me
a great many curious speculations afterwards, when I had a
little recovered my first surprise, I considered that this was
the station of life the infinitely wise and good providence of
God had determined for me ; that as I could not foresee what
the end of Divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was not to
dispute his sovereignty, who, as I was his creature, had an
122 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

undoubted right by creation to govern and dispose of me ab-
solutely as he thought fit; and who, as I was a creature who
had offended him, had likewise a judicial right to condemn me
to what punishment he thought fit; and that it was my part
to submit to bear his indignation, because I had sinned against
him. I then reflected that God, who was not only righteous,
bnt omnipotent, as he had thought fit thus to punish and afflict
me, so he was able to deliver me; that if he did not think fit
to do it, it was my unquestioned duty to resign myself abso-
lutely and entirely to his will ; and, on the other hand, it was
my duty also to hope in him, pray to him, and quietly to at-
tend the dictates and directions of his daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may
say weeks and months ; and one particular effect of my cogi-
tations on this occasion I cannot omit ; viz., one morning early,
lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about my danger
from the appearance of savages, I found it discomposed me
very much ; upon which those words of the Scripture came
into my thoughts: “Call upon me in the day of trouble: I
will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.” Upon this, rising
cheerfully out of bed, my heart was not only comforted, but I
was guided and encouraged to pray earnestly to God for de-
liverance : when I had done praying, I took up my Bible, and
opening it to read, the first words that presented to me were,
“Wait on the Lord; be of good courage, and he shall
strengthen thy heart: wait, I say, on the Lord.” It is im-
possible to express the comfort this gave me, and in return I
thankfully laid down the book, and was no more sad; at least,
not on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflec-
tions, it came into my thoughts one day,that all this might be
a mere chimera of my own, and that this foot might be the
print of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat ;
this cheered me up a little, too, and I began to persuade my-
self it was all a delusion ; that it was nothing else but my own
foot ; and why might I not come that way from the boat, as
well as Iwas going that way to the boat? Again I considered
also, that I could by no means tell for certain where I had trod,
and where I had not; and that if, at last, this was only the
print of my own foot, I had played the part of those fools who
try to make stories of specters and apparitions, and then are
themselves frighted at them more than anybody else.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for
T had not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights,
so that I began to starve for provision ; for I had little or
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 123

nothing within doors but some barley-cakes and water. Then
I knew that my goats wanted to be milked too, which usu-
ally was my evening diversion ; and the poor creatures were
in great pain and inconvenience for want of it ; and, indeed,
it almost spoiled some of them, and almost dried up their milk.

Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this was
nothing but the print of one of my own feet, and so I might
be truly said to start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad
again, and went to my country-house to milk my flock ; but to
see with what fear I went forward, how often I looked behind
me, how I was ready, every now and then, to lay down my
basket, and run for my life, it would have made any one have
thought I was haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had
been lately most terribly frighted ; and so, indeed, I had. How-
ever, as I went down thus two or three days, and having seen
nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to think there was
really nothing in it but my own imagination; but I could not
persuade myself fully of this till I should go down to the shore
again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my own,
and see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I might be
assured it was my own foot. But when I came to the place—
first, it appeared evidently to me, that when I laid up my boat,
I could not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts ; sec-
ondly, when I came to measure the mark with my own foot, I
found my foot not so large by a great deal. Both these things
filled my head with new imaginations, and gave me the vapors
again to the highest degree, so that I shook with cold like one
in an ague ; and I went home again, filled with the belief that
some man or men had been on shore there ; or, in short, that
the island was inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was
aware ; and what course to take for my security I knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed
with fear! Itdeprives them of the use of those means which
reason offers for their relief. The first thing I proposed to
myself was, to throw down my inclosures, and turn all my tame
cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy might not find them
and then frequent the island in prospect of the same or the like
booty ; then the simple thing of digging up my two cornfields,
that they might not find such a grain there, and still be prompted
to frequent the island ; then to demolish my bower and tent,
that they might not see any vestiges of habitation, and be
prompted to look farther, in order to find out the persons in-
habiting.

These were the subjects of the first night’s cogitations, after I
was come home again, while the apprehensions which had so
124 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and my head wasfull of
vapors as above. Thus, fear of danger is ten thousand times
more terrifying than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes ;
and we find the burden of anxiety greater, by much, than the
evil which-we are anxious about ; but, which was worse than
all this, I had not that relief in this trouble, from the resignation
I used to practice, that I hoped to have. I looked, I thought,
like Saul, who complained not only that the Philistines were
upon him, but that God had forsaken him ; for I did not now
take due ways to compose my mind, by crying to God in my
distress, and resting upon his providence, as I had done before,
for my defense and deliverance ; which if I had done, I had at
least been more cheerfully supported under this new surprise,
and perhaps carried through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking all night;
but in the morning I fell asleep ; and having by the amusement
of my mind been, as it were, tired, and my spirits exhausted,
I slept very soundly, and awaked much better composed than
I had ever been before. And now I began to think sedately ;
and, upon the utmost debate with myself, I concluded that this
island (which was so exceeding pleasant, fruitful, and no
farther from the mainland than as I had seen) was not so
entirely abandoned as I might imagine ; that although there
were no stated inhabitants who lived on the spot, yet that there
might sometimes come boats off from the shore, who either with
design, or perhaps never but when they were driven by cross
winds, might come to this place ; that I had lived here fifteen
years now, and had not met with the least shadow or figure of
any people yet; and that, if at any time they should be driven
here, it was probable they went away again as soon as ever they
could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix here upon any
occasion to this time ; that the most I could suggest any danger
from was, from any casual accidental landing of straggling
people from the main, who, as it was likely, if they were driven
hither, were here against their wills ; so they made no stay
here, but went off again,with all possible speed, seldom staying
one night on shore, lest they should not have the help of the
tides and daylight back again; and that, therefore, I had
nothing to do but to consider of some safe retreat, in case I should
see any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so
large as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said,
came out beyond where my fortification joined to the rock.
Upon maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw
me a second fortification, in the same manner of a semicircle,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. - 125

at a distance from my wall, just where I had planted a double
row of trees about twelve years before, of which I made men-
tion ; these trees having been planted so thick before, there
wanted but few piles to be driven between them, that they
should be thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon fin-
ished. So that I had now a double wall; and my outer wall
was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and everything
I could think of to make it strong, having in it seven little holes,
about as big as I might put my arm out at. In the inside of
this, I thickened my wall to about ten feet thick, continually
bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it at the foot of the
wall, and walking upon it ; and through the seven holes I con-
trived to plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I got
seven on shore out of the ship; these I say, I planted like my
cannon, and fitted them into frames, that held them like a car-
riage, that so I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’
time. This wall I was many a weary month in finishing, and
yet never thought myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall,
for a great way every way, as full with stakes or sticks of the
osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they could
well stand ; insomuch that I believe I might set in near twenty
thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space between them
and my wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and they
might have no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted
to approach my outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove ; and in five
or six years’ time I had a wood before my dwelling grown
so monstrous thick and strong that it was indeed perfectly im-
passable ; and no man, of what kind soever, would ever imagine
that there was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As
for the way which I proposed to myself to go in or out (for I
left no avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a part of
the rock which was low, and then broke in, and left room to
place another ladder upon that ; so when the two ladders were
taken down, no man living could come down to me without
mischiefing himself ; and .if they had come down, they were
still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest
for my own preservation ; and it will be seen, at length, that
they were not altogether without just reason ; though I foresaw
nothing at that time more than my mere fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my
other affairs ; for I had a great concern upon me for my little
herd of goats ; they were not only a present supply to me up-
126 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

on every occasion, and began to be sufficient for me, without
the expense of powder and shot, but also abated the fatigue of
my hunting after the wild ones ; and I was loath to lose the
advantage of them, and to have them all to nurse up over
again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of
but two ways to preserve them : one was to find another con-
venient place to dig a cave under ground, and to drive them
into it every night ; and the other was to inclose two or three
little bits of land, remote one from one another, and as much
concealed as I could, where I might keep about half a dozen
young goats in each place ; so that if any disaster happened to
the flock in general, I might be able to raise them again witha
little trouble and time: and this, though it would require a
good deal of time and labor, [thought was the most rational
design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired
parts of the island ; and I pitched upon one which was as pri-
vate indeed as my heart could wish ; it was a little damp piece
of ground, in the middle of the hollow and thick woods, where,
as is observed, I almost lost myself once before, endeavor-
ing to come back that way from the eastern part of the island.
Here I found a clear piece of land, near three acres, so sur-
rounded with woods, that it was almost an inclosure by
Nature; at least, it did not want near so much labor to make
it so as the other pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground;
and, in less than a month’s time, I had so fenced it round that
my flock, or herd, call it which you please, which were not so
wild now as at first they might be supposed to be, were well
enough secured init. So, without any further delay, Iremoved
ten she-goats, and two he-goats, to this piece ; and, when they
were there, I continued to perfect the fence, till I had made it
as secure as the other ; which, however I did at more leisure,
and it took me up more time by a great deal.

All this labor I was at the expense of, purely from my ap-
prehensions on the account of the print of a man’s foot which
[had seen: for, as yet, [had neverseen any human creature
come near the island ; and I had now lived two years under
this uneasiness, which, indeed, made my life much less comfort-
able than it was before, as may well be imagined by any who
know what it is to live in the constant snare of the fear of
man. And this I must observe, with grief, too, that the dis-
composure of my mind had too great impressions also upon the
religious part of my thoughts ; for the dread and terror of fali-


TaE FooTpRINT ON THE SAND.—Page 126.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 127

ing into the hands of savages and cannibals lay so upon my
spirits that I seldom found myself in a due temper for applica-
tion to my Maker ; atleast, not with the sedate calmness and
resignation of soul which I was wont to do; I rather prayed to
God as under great affliction and pressure of mind, surrounded
with danger, and in expectation every night of being murdered
and devoured before morning ; and I must testify, from my ex-
perience, that a temper of peace, thankfulness, love and affec-
tion, is much the more proper frame for prayer than that of
terror and discomposure ; and that under the dread of mischief
impending, a man is no more fit for a comforting performance of
the duty of praying to God than he is for repentance on a sick
bed ; for these discomposures affect the mind, as the others do
the body : and the discomposure of the mind must necessarily
be as great a disability as that of the body, and much greater ;
praying to God being properly an act of the mind, not of the
ody.

But to go on: after I had thus secured one part of my little
living stock, I went about the whole island, searching for
another private place to make such another deposit ; when,
wandering more to the west point of the island than I had ever
done yet, and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon
the sea, at a great distance. I had found a perspective glass
or two in one of the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our
ship, but I had it not about me; and this was so remote that
I could not tell what to make of it, though I looked at it till
my eyes were not able to hold to look any longer: whether it
was a boat or not, Ido not know; but as I descended from
the hill I could see no more of it, so I gave it over; only I re-
solved to go no more out without a perspective glass in my

ocket.
p When I was come down the hill to the end of the island,
where, indeed, I had never been before, I was presently con-
vinced that the seeing the print of a man’s foot was not such
a strange thing in the island as I imagined ; and, but that it
was a special providence that I was cast upon the side of the
island where the savages never came, I should easily have
known that nothing was more frequent than for the canoes
from the main, when they happened to be a little too far out
at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for harbor:
likewise, as they often met and fought in their canoes, the
victors, having taken any prisoners, would bring them over to
this shore, where, according to their dreadful customs, being
all cannibals, they would kill and eat them ; of which hereafter.
When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above,
128 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

being the 8.W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded
and amazed ; nor it is possible for me to express the horror of
my mind, at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet,
and other bones of human bodies ; and particularly, I observed
a place where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in
the earth, like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches
had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of
their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things that I
entertained no notions of any danger to myself from it for a
long while: all my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts
of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of
the degeneracy of human nature, which, though I had heard of
often, yet I never had so near a view of before ; in short, I
turned away my face from the horrid spectacle ; my stomach
grew sick, and I was just at the point of fainting, when nature
discharged the disorderfrom my stomach ; and having vomited
with uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but could not
bear to stay in the place a moment ; so I got up the hill again
with all the speed I could, and walked on towards my own hab-
itation.

When I came alittle out of that part of the island, I stood
still awhile, as amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked up
with the utmost affection of my soul, and, with a flood of tears
in my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot in a part
of the world where I was distinguished from such dreadful
creatures as these ; and that, though I had esteemed my pres-
ent condition very miserable, had yet given me so many com-
forts in it that I had still more to give thanks for than to com-
plain of : and this, above all, that I had, even in this miserable
condition, been comforted with the knowledge of himself, and
the hope of his blessing : which was a felicity more than suffi-
ciently equivalent to all the misery which I had suffered, or
could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and
began to be much easier now, as to the safety of my circum-
stances than ever I was before: for I observed that these
wretches never came to this island in search of what they could
get; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting, any-
thing here ; and having often, no doubt, been up in the covered,
woody part of it, without finding anything to their purpose.
I knew I had been here almost eighteen years, and never saw
the least footsteps of human creature there before ; and I might
be eighteen years more as entirely concealed as I was now, if I
did not discover myself to them, which Ihad no manner of oc-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 129

casion to do ; it being my only business to keep myself entirely
concealed where I was, unless I found a better sort of creatures
than cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I entertained
such an abhorrence of the savage wretches that I have been
speaking of, and of the wretched inhuman custom of their de-
vouring and eating one another up, that I continued pensive
and sad, and kept close within my own circle for almost two
years after this : when I say my own circle, I mean by it my
three plantations,viz., my castle, my country-seat (which I called
my bower), and my inclosure in the woods : nor did I look after
this for any other use than as an inclosure for my goats; for
the aversion which nature gave me to these hellish wretches
was such that I was as fearful of seeing them as of seeing the
devil himself, nor did Iso much as go to look after my boat in
all this time, but began rather to think of making me another ;
for I could not think of evermaking any more attempts to bring
the other boat round the island to me, lest I should meet with
some of those creaturés at sea ; in which case, if I had happened
to have fallen into their hands, I knew what would have been
my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no
danger of being discovered by these people, began to wear off
my uneasiness about them ; and I began to live just in the
same composed manner as before, only with this difference,
that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me
than I did before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of
them ; and particularly, I was more cautious in firing my gun,
lest any of them, being on the island, should happen to hear it ;
and it was, therefore, a very good providence to me that I had
furnished myself with a tame breed of goats, and that I had
no need to hunt any more about the woods, or shoot at them ;
and if J did catch any of them after this, it was by traps and
snares, as I had done before : so that for two years after this,
I believe I never fired my gun once off, though I never went
out without it; and which was more, as I had saved three
pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out with me, or
at least two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin belt. I
likewise furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had
out of the ship, and made me a belt to put it on also; so that
I was now a most formidable fellow to look at when I went
abroad, if you add to the former description of myself, the
particular of two pistols, and a great broadsword hanging at
my side in a belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time I seemed,
excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my former calm
130 ROBINSON CRUSOZ.

sedate way of living. All these things tended to show me,
more and more, how far my condition was from being miserable,
compared to some others; nay to many other particulars of
life, which it might have pleased God to have made my lot.
It put me upon reflecting how little repining there would be
among mankind at any condition of life, if people would rather
compare their condition with those that are worse, in order to
be thankful, than be always comparing them with those which
are better, to assist their murmurings and complainings.

As in my present condition- there were not really many
things which I wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights
I had been in about these savage wretches, and the concern I
-had been in for my own preservation, had taken off the edge
of my invention for my own conveniences ; and [had dropped
a good design, which I had once bent my thoughts upon, and
that was to try if I could not make some of my barley into
malt, and then try to brew myself some beer. This was really
a whimsical thought, and I reproved myself often for the sim-
plicity of it: for I presently saw there would be the want of
several things necessary to the making my beer, that it would
be impossible for me to supply ; as, first, casks to preserve it
in, which wasa thing that, as I have observed already, I could
never compass ; no, though I spent not many days, but weeks,
nay months, in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next
place, I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to make it work,
no copper or kettle to make it boil ; and yet had not all these
things intervened—I mean, the frights and terrors I was in
about the savages—I had undertaken it, and perhaps brought
it to pass, too; for I seldom gave anything over without ac-
complishing it, when I once had it in my head enough to begin
it. But my invention now ran quite another way ; for, night
and day, I could think of nothing but how I might destroy
some of these monsters in their cruel, bloody entertainment ;
and, if possible, save the victim they should bring hither to
destroy. It would take up a larger volume than this whole
work is intended to be, to set down all the contrivances I
hatched, or rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the de-
stroying these creatures, or at least frightening them so as to
prevent their coming hither any more: but all was abortive ;
nothing could be possible to take effect, unless I was to be
there to do it myself ; and what could one man do among them,
when perhaps there might be twenty or thirty of them together
with their darts, or their bows and arrows, with which they
could shoot as true to a mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place where
ROBINSON CRUSOE 131

they made their fire, and putting in five or six pounds of gun-
powder, which, when they kindled their fire, would conse-
quently take fire, and blow up all that was near it: but as, in
the first place, I should be unwilling to waste so much powder
upon them, my store being now within the quantity of one
barrel, so neither could I be sure of its going off at any certain
time, when it might surprise them and, at best, that it would
do little more than just blow the fire about their ears and fright
them, but not sufficient to make them forsake the place: so I
laid it aside; and then proposed that I would place myself in
ambush in some convenient place with my three guns all double
loaded, and in the middle of their bloody ceremony let fly at
them, when I should be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or
three at every shot; and then falling in upon them with my
three pistols and my sword, I made no doubt but that, if there
were twenty, I should kill them all. This fancy pleased my
thoughts for some weeks, and I was so full of it that I often
dreamed of it, and sometimes, that I was just going to let fly
at them in my sleep. I went so far with it in my imagination,
that I employed myself several days to find out proper places
to put myself in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them, and
I went frequently to the place itself, which was now grown
more familiar to me ; but while my mind was thus filled with
thoughts of revenge and of a bloody putting twenty or thirty
of them to the sword, as I may call it, the horror I had at the
place, and at the signals of the barbarous wretches devouring
one another, abetted my malice. Well, at length I found a
place in the side of the hill, where I was satisfied I might se-
curely wait till saw any of their boats coming ; and might
then, even before they would be ready to come on shore, convey
myself unseen into some thickets of trees, in one of which there
was a hollow large enough to conceal me entirely ; and there I
might sit and observe all their bloody doings, and take my
full aim at their heads when they were so close together as
that it would be next to impossible that I should miss my shot,
or that I could fail wounding three or four of them at the first
shot. In this place, then, I resolved to fix my design ; and ac-
cordingly, I prepared two muskets and my ordinary fowling-
piece. The two muskets I loaded witha brace of slugs each,
and four or five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol bullets ;
and the fowling-piece I loaded with near a handful of swan-
shot of the largest size; I also loaded my pistols with about
four bullets each ; and in this posture, well provided with am-
munition for a second and third charge, I prepared myself for
my expedition,
132 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my
imagination put it in practice, I continually made my tour every
morning to the top of the hill, which was from my castle, as
I called it, about three miles, or more, to see if I could observe
any boats upon the sea, coming near the island, or standing over
towards it ; but I began to tire of this hard duty, after I had for
two or three months constantly kept my watch, but came al-
ways back without any discovery ; there having not, in all that
time, been the least appearance, not only on or near the shore,
but on the whole ocean, as far as my eyes or glass could reach
every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so
long also I kept up the vigor of my design, and my spirits
seemed to be all the while in a suitable frame for so outrageous
an execution as the killing twenty or thirty naked savages for
an offense which I had not at all entered into a discussion of in
my thoughts, any farther than my passions were at first fired by
the horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of the people
of that country ; who, it seems, had been suffered by Provi-
dence, in his wise disposition of the world, to have no other
guide than that of their own abominable and vitiated passions ;
and, consequently, were left, and perhaps had been so for some
ages, to act such horrid things, and receive such dreadful cus-
toms, as nothing but nature, entirely abandoned by Heaven,
and actuated by some hellish degeneracy, could have run them
into. But now, when, as I have said, I began to be weary of
the fruitless excursion which I had made so long and so far
every morning in vain, so my opir.ion of the action itself began
to alter ; and I began, with cooler and calmer thoughts, to con-
sider what I was going to engage in; what authority or call I
had to pretend to be judge and executioner upon these men as
criminals, whom Heaven had thought fit, for so many ages, to
suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to be, as it were, the execu-
tioners of his judgments, one upon another ; how far these
people were offenders against me, and what right I had to en-
gage in the quarrel of that blood which they shed promiscuously
upon one another. I debated this very often with myself
thus: “How do I know what God himself judges in this par-
ticular case? It is certain these people do not commit this asa
crime ; it is not against their own conscience reproving, or
their light reproaching them ; they do not know it to be an of-
fense, and then commit it in defiance of Divine justice, as we
do in almost all the sins we commit. They think it no morea
crime to kill a captive taken in war than we do to kill an ox;
or to eat human flesh than we do to eat mutton,”
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 133

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that
I was certainly in the wrong in it; that these people were not
murderers, in the sense that I had before condemned them in my
thoughts, any more than those Christians were murderers who
often put to death the prisoners taken in battle ; or more fre-
quently, upon many occasions, put whole troops of men to the
sword, without giving quarter, though they threw down their
arms and submitted. In the next place, it occurred to me, that
albeit the usage they gave one another was thus brutish and in-
human, yet it was really nothing tome. These people had done
me no injury ; that if they attempted me, or I saw it necessary,
for my immediate preservation, to fall upon them, something
might be said for it: but that I was yet out of their power,
and they really had no knowledge of me, and consequently no
design upon me; and, therefore, it could not be just for me
to fall upon them. That this would justify the conduct of the
Spaniards in all their barbarities practiced in America, where
they destroyed millions of these people ; who, however they
were idolators and barbarians, and had several bloody and bar-
barous rites in their customs, such as sacrificing human bodies
to their idols, were yet, as to the Spaniards, very innocent people;
and that the rooting them out of the country is spoken of with
the utmost abhorrence and detestation by even the Spaniards
themselves, at this time, and by all other Christian nations in
Europe, as a mere butchery, a bloody and unnatural piece of
cruelty, unjustifiable either to God or man; and such as for
which the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned to be frightful
and terrible to all people of humanity or of Christian compas-
sion , as if the kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for
the product of a race of men who were without principles of
tenderness, or the common bowels of pity to the miserable, which
is reckoned to be a mark of a generous temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and to a kind
of a full stop: and I began, by little and little, to be off my
design, and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in my
resolution to attack the savages ; and that it was not my busi-
ness to meddle with them, unless they first attacked me ; and
this it was my business, if possible, to prevent ; but that, if I
were discovered and attacked by them, then I knew my duty.
On the other hand, I argued with myself that this really was
the way not to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin and destroy
myself ; for, unless I was sure to kill every one that not only
should be on shore at that time, but that should ever come on
shore afterwards, if but one of them escaped to tell their coun-
try-people what had happened, they would come over again by
134 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

thousands to revenge the death of their fellows, and I should
only bring upon myself a certain destruction, which, at present,
I had no manner of occasion for. Upon the whole, I concluded
that I ought, neither in principle nor in policy, one way or
other, to concern myself in this affair ; that my business was,
by all possible means, to conceal myself from them, and
not to leave the least sign for them to guess by that there
were any living creatures upon the island—I mean of human
shape. Religion joined in with- this prudential resolution ;
and I was convinced now, many ways, that I was perfectly out
of my duty when I was laying all my bloody schemes for the
destruction of innocent creatures—I mean innocent as to me.
As to the crimes they were guilty of towards one another, I had
nothing to do with them ; these were national punishments, to
make a just retribution for national offenses, and to bring pub-
lic judgment upon those who offend in a public manner, by
such ways as best please God. ‘This appeared so-clear to me
now, that nothing was a greater satisfaction to me than that I
had not been suffered to do a thing which I now saw so much rea-
son to believe would have been no less a sin than that of willful
murder, if I had committed it ; and I gave most humble thanks,
on my knees, to God, that he had thus delivered me from blood-
guiltiness ; beseeching him to grant me the protection of his
providence, that I might not fall into the hands of the barbari-
ans, or that I might not lay my hands upon them, unless I had
a more clear call from Heaven to do it, in defense of my own
life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this;
and so far was I from desiring an occasion for falling upon these
wretches, that in all that time I never once went up the hill to
see whether there were any of them in sight, or to know whether
any of them had been on shore there or not, that I might not
be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against them, or
be provoked by any advantage that might present itself, to fall
upon them: only this I did; I went and removed my boat,
which I had on the other side of the island, and carried it down
to the east end of the whole island, where I ran it into a little
cove, which I found under some high rocks, and where I knew,
by reason of the currents, the savages durst not, at least would
not, come with their boats upon any account whatever. With
my boat I carried away everything that I had left there belong-
ing to her, though not necessary for the bare going thither, viz.,
a mast and sail which I had made for her, and a thing like an
anchor, but which indeed could not be called either anchor or
grapnel ; however, it was the best I could make of its kind ;
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 135

all these I removed, that there might not be the least shadow
for discovery, or any appearance of any boat, or of any habi-
tation upon the island. Besides this, I kept myself, as I said,
more retired than ever, and seldom went from my cell, except
upon my constant employment, viz., to milk my she-goats, and
manage my little flock in the wood, which, as it was quite on
the other part of the island, was out of danger ; for certain it
is that these savage people, who sometimes haunted this island,
never came with any thoughts of finding anything here, and
consequently never wandered off from the coast, and I doubt
not but they might have been several times on shore after my
apprehensions of them had made me cautious, as well as before.
Indeed, I looked back with some horror upon the thoughts of
what my condition would have been, if I had chopped upon
them and been discovered before that ; when, naked, and un-
armed, except with one gun, and that loaded often only with
small shot, I walked everywhere, peeping and peering about the
island to see what I could get; what a surprise should I have
been in, if, when I discovered the print of a man’s foot, I had in-
stead of that seen fifteen or twenty savages, and found them
pursuing me, and by the swiftness of their running, no possi-
bility of my escaping them! The thoughts of this sometimes
sunk my very soul within me, and distressed my mind so much
that I could not soon recover it, to think what I should have
done, and how I should not only have been unable to resist
them, but even should not have had presence of mind enough
to do what I might have done ; much less what now, after so
much consideration and preparation, I might be able to do.
Indeed, after serious thinking of these things I would be very
melancholy, and sometimes, it would last a great while: but I
resolved it all, at last, into thankfulness to that Providence
which had delivered me from so many unseen dangers, and had
kept me from those mischiefs which I could have no way been
the agent in delivering myself from, because I had not the least
notion of any such thing depending, or the least supposition of
its being possible.

This renewed a contemplation which often had come into
my thoughts in former times, when first I began to see the
merciful dispositions of Heaven, in the dangers we run through
in this life ; how wonderfully we are delivered when we know
nothing of it ; how, when we are in a quandary (as we call it),
a doubt or hesitation whether to go this way or that way, a
secret hint shall direct us this way when we intended to go that
way : nay, when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps bus'-
ness, has called us to go the other way, yet a strange impres-
136 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sion upon the mind, from we know not what springs, and by
we know not what power, shall overrule us to go this way;
and it shall afterwards appear that had we gone that way which
we should have gone, and even to our imagination ought to
have gone, we should have been ruined and lost. Upon these,
and many like reflections, I afterwards made it a certain rule
with me, that. whenever I found those secret hints or pressings
of mind, to doing or not doing anything that presented, or go-
ing this way or that way, I never failed to obey the secret dic-
tate ; though I knew no other reason for it than that such a
pressure, or such a hint, hung upon my mind. I could give
many examples of the success of this conduct in the course of
my life, but more especially in the latter part of my inhabiting
this unhappy island; besides many occasions which it is very
likely I might have taken notice of if I had seen with the same
eyes then that I see with now. But it is never too late to be
wise ; and I cannot but advise all considering men, whose lives
are attended with such extraordinary incidents as mine, or even
though not so extraordinary, not to slight such secret intima-
tions of Providence, let them come from what invisible intel-
ligence they will. That I shall not discuss, and perhaps cannot
account for ; but certainly they are a proof of the converse of
spirits, and a secret communication between those embodied
and those unembodied, and such a proof as can never be with-
stood ; of which I shall have occasion to give some very re-
markable instances in the remainder of my solitary residence
in this dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I
confess that these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in,
and the concern that was now upon me, put an end to all in-
vention, and to all the contrivances that I had laid for my fu-
ture accommodations and conveniences. I had the care of
my safety more now upon hands than that of my food. I
cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for fear
the noise I should make should be heard; much less would I
fire a gun for the same reason ; and, above all, I was intoler-
ably uneasy at making any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible
at a great distance in the day, should betray me. For this
reason, I removed that part of my business which required
fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, etc., into my new apart-
ment in the woods: where, after I had been some time, I
found, to my unspeakable consolation, a mere natural cave in
the earth, which went in a vast way, and where, I dare say,
no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so hardy
ROBINSON CRUSOE. . 137

as to venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but one
who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock,
where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant
reason to ascribe all such things now to Providence), I was
cutting down some thick branches of trees to make charcoal ;
and before I go on I must observe the reason of my making
this charcoal, which was thus: I was afraid of making a
smoke about my habitation, as I said before ; and yet I could
not live there without baking my bread, cooking my meat,
etc. ; so I contrived to burn some wood here, as I had seen
done in England, under turf, till it became chark, or dry coal ;
and then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry
home and perform the other services for which fire was want-
ing, without danger of smoke. But this is by the bye.
While I was cutting down some wood here, I perceived that,
behind a very thick branch of low brushwood or underwood,
there was a kind of hollow place : I was curious to look in it ;
and getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was
pretty large, that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright
in it, and perhaps another with me: but I must confess to you
that I made more haste out than I did in, when looking farther
into the place, and which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad
shining eyes of some creature—whether devil or man I knew
not—which twinkled like two stars ; the dim light from the
cave’s mouth shining directly in, and making the reflection.
However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and began to
call myself a thousand fools, and to think that he that was
afraid to see the devil was not fit to live twenty years in a
island all alone ; and that I might well think there was noth-
ing in this cave that was more frightful than myself. Upon
this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand, and in I
rushed again, with the stick flaming in my hand: I had not
gone three steps in, before I was almost as much frightened
as before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in
some pain, and it was followed -by a broken noise, as of words
half expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped back,
and was indeed struck with such a surprise that it put me into
a cold sweat, and if I had had a hat on my head, I will not
answer for it that my hair might not have lifted it off. But
still plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and encourag-
ing myself a little with considering that the power and pres-
ence of God was everywhere, and was able to protect me, I
stepped forward again, and by the dim light of the firebrand,
138 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

holding it up a little over my head, I saw lying on the ground
a monstrous, frightful old he-goat, just making his will, as we
say, and gasping for life,and dying indeed of mere oldage. I
stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, and he es-
sayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself ; and I
thought with myself he might even lie there ; for if he had
frightened me, so he would certainly fright any of the savages,
if any one of them should be so hardy as to come in there
while he had any lifein him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look
round me, when I found the cave was but very small, that is
to say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in no manner
of shape, neither round nor square, no hands having ever been
employed in making it but those of mere Nature. I observed
also that there was a place at the farther side of it that went
in farther, but was so low that it required me to creep upon
my hands and knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew
not ; so, having no candle, I gave it over for that time, but re-
solved to come again the next day provided with candles and
a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of one of the
muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day, I came provided with six large
candles of my own making (for I made very good candles
now of goats’ tallow, but was hard set for candle-wick, using
sometimes rags or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of
a weed like nettles) ; and going into this low place I was ob-
liged to creep upon all-fours, as J have said, almost ten yards
—which, by the way, I thought was a venture bold enough,
considering that I knew not how far it might go, nor what
was beyond it. WhenI had got through the strait, I found
the roof rose higher up, I believe near twenty feet ; but never
was such a glorious sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it
was to look round the sides and roof of this vault or cave;
the wall reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from my
two candles. What it was in the rock—whether diamonds, or
any other precious stones, or gold—which I rather supposed it
to be—I knew not. The place I was in was a most delightful
cavity, or grotto, though perfectly dark; the floor was dry
and level, and had a sort of a'small loose gravel upon it, so that
there was no nauseous or venomous creature to be seen, neither
was there any damp or wet on the sides or roof ;. the only diffi-
culty in it was the entrance—which, however, as it was a place
of security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought was a
convenience—so that I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and
resolved, without any delay, to bring some of those things which
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 139

Iwas most anxious about to this place! particularly, I re-
solved to bring hither my magazine of powder, and all my
spare arms ; viz., two fowling-pieces—for I had three in all—
and three muskets—for of them I had eight in all; so I kept
in my castle only five, which stood ready mounted like pieces
of cannon on my outmost defense, and were ready also to take
out upon any expedition. Upon this occasion of removing
my ammunition, I happened to open the barrel of powder
which I took up out of the sea, and which had been wet, and
I found that the water had penetrated about three or four
inches into the powder on every side, which caking and grow-
ing hard, had preserved the inside like a kernel in the shell, so
that I had near sixty pounds of very good powder in the cen-
ter of the cask ; and this was a very agreeable discovery to
me at that time ; so I carried all away thither, never keeping
above two or three pounds of powder with me in my castle,
for fear of a surprise of any kind ; I also carried thither all
the lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who
were said to live in caves and holes in the rocks, where none
could come at them; for I persuaded myself, while I was
here, that if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could
never find me out—or if they did, they would not venture to
attack me here. The old goat whom I found expiring died in
the mouth of the cave the next day after I made this dis-
covery ; and I found it much easier to dig a great hole there,
and throw him in and cover him with earth, than to drag him
out ; so J interred him there, to prevent offense to my nase.

I was now in the twenty-third year of residence in this island,
and was so naturalized to the place and the manner of living,
that, could I but have enjoyed the certainty that no savages
would come to the place to disturb me, I could have been content
to have capitulated for spending the rest of my time there, even
to the last moment, till I had laid me down and died, like the
old goat in the cave. I had also arrived tosome little diversions
and amusements, which made the time pass more pleasantly
with me a great deal than it did before ; first, I had taught my
Poll, as I noted before, to speak ; and he did it so familiarly,
and talked so articulately and plain, that it was very pleasant
to me, and he lived with me no less than six-and-twenty years.
How long he might have lived afterwards I know not, though
I know they have a notion in the Brazils that they live a hun-
dred years. Perhaps some of my Polls may be alive there
still, calling after poor Robinson Crusoe to this day ; I wish
no Englishman the ill-luck to come there and hear them ; but if
140 ' ROBINSON CRUSOE.

he did he would certainly believe it was the devil. My dog was
a pleasant and loving companion to me for no less than sixteen
years of my time, and then died of mere old age. As for my
cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to that degree, that
I was obliged to shoot several of them at first, to keep them
from devouring me and all I had; but, at length, when the old
ones I brought with me were gone, and after some time con-
tinually driving them from me, and letting them have no pro-
vision with me, they all ran wild into the woods, except two
or three favorites, which I kept tame, and whose young, when
they had any, I always drowned ; and these were part of my
family. Besides these I always kept two or three household
kids about me, whom I taught to feed out of my hand ; and [had
two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all call
“Robin Crusoe,” but none like my first; nor, indeed, did I
take the pains with any of them that I had done with him, I
had also several tame sea-fowls, whose name I knew not, that
I caught upon the shore, and cut their wings ; and the little
stakes which I had planted before my castle-wall being now
grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived among
these low trees, and bred there, which was very agreeable to
me ; so that, as I said above, I began to be very well contented
with the life I led, if I could have been secured from the dread
of the savages. But it was otherwise directed ; and it may
not be amiss for all people who shall meet with my story to make
this just observation from it ; viz., how frequently, in the course
of our lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and
which, when we are fallen into, is the most dreadful to us, is
oftentimes the very means or door of our deliverance, by which
alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen
into. Icould give many examples of this in the course of my
unaccountable life, but in nothing was it more particularly re-
markable than in the circumstances of my last years of solitary
residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my
twenty-third year; and this, being the southern solstice (for
winter I cannot call it), was the particular time of my harvest,
and required me to be pretty much abroad in the fields, when,
going out pretty early in the ‘morning, even before it was
thorough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some
fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of about two miles
towards the end of the island where I had observed some
savages had been, as before, and not on the other side, but, to
my great affliction, it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 141

short within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be
surprised ; and yet I had no more peace within, from the appre-
hensions J had that if these savages, in rambling over the island,
should find my corn standing or cut, or any of my works and
improvements, they would immediately conclude that there
were people in the place, and would then never rest till they had
found me out. In this extremity I went back directly to my
castle, pulled up the ladder after me, having made all things
without look as wild and natural as I could.

Then] prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture
of defense ; I loaded all my cannon, as I called them—that is
to say, my muskets, which were mounted upon my new forti-
fication, and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to
the last gasp—not forgetting seriously to commend myself to
the Divine protection, and earnestly to pray to God to deliver
me out of the hands of the barbarians. And in this posture I
continued about two hours, and began to be impatient for
intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to send out. After sit-
ting a while longer and musing what I should do in this case,
I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance any longer ; so set-
ting up my ladder to the side of the hill, where there was a
flat place, as I observed before, and then pulling the ladder
after me, I set it up again, and mounted to the top of the hill,
and pulling out my perspective-glass, which I had taken on
purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the ground, and
began to look for the place. I presently found there were no
less than -nine naked savages sitting round a small fire they
had made, not to warm them, for they had no need of that,
the weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to dress
some of their barbarous diet of human flesh which they had
brought with them, whether alive or dead I could not know.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up
upon the shore; and asit was then ebb of tide, they seemed
to me to wait the return of the flood to go away again, It is
not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me into, es-
pecially seeing them come on my side of the island, and so near
me, too; but when I considered their coming must be always
with the current of the ebb, I began afterwards to be more
sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad with
safety all the time of the flood of tide, if they were not on
shore before ; and having made this observation, I went abroad
about my harvest work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved ; for, as soon as the tide made
to the westward, I saw. them all take boat and row (or paddle,
as we call it) away. I should have observed, that for an hour
142 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

or moré before they went off they were dancing, and I could
easily discern their postures and gestures by my glass. I could
not perceive, by my nicest observation, but that they were
stark naked, and had not the least covering upon them ; but
whether they were men or women I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns
upon my shoulders, and two pistols in my girdle, and my great
sword by my side, without a scabbard, and with all the speed
I was able to make went away to the hill where I had discovered
the first appearance of all ; and as soon asI got thither, which
was not less than two hours es I could not go apace, being
so loaded with arms as I was), I perceived there had been three
canoes more of savages at that place ; and, looking out farther
I saw they were all at sea together, making over for the main.
This was a dreadful sight to me, especially when, going down
to the shore, I could see the marks of horror which the dismal
work they had been about had left behind it, viz., the blood,
the bones, and part of the flesh of human bodies eaten and de-
voured by those wretches with merriment and sport. I was
so filled with indignation at the sight, that I now began to pre-
meditate the destruction of the next that I saw there, let them
be whom or how many soever. It seemed evident to me that
the visits which they made thus to this island were not very
frequent, for it was above fifteen months before any more of
them came on shore there again—that is to say, I neither saw
them nor any footsteps or signals of them in all that time; for
as to the rainy seasons, then they are sure not to come abroad,
at least not so far: yet all this while I lived uncomfortably,
by reason of the constant apprehensions of their coming upon
me by surprise—from whence I observe that the expectation
of evil is more bitter than the suffering, especially if there is
no room to shake off that expectation or those apprehensions

During all this time I was in the murdering humor, and
spent most of my hours, which should have been better em-
ployed, in contriving how to circumvent and fall upon them
the very next time I should see them—especially if they should
be divided, as they were the last time, into two parties ; nor
did I consider at all that if I killed one party—suppose ten or
a dozen—I was still the next day, or week, or month, to kill
another, and so another, even ad infinitum, till I should be, at
length, no less a murderer than they were in being man-
eaters—and perhaps much moreso. I spent my days now in
great perplexity and anxiety of mind, expecting that I should
one day or other fall into the hands of these merciless crea-
tures; and if I did at any time venture abroad, it was not with-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 143

out looking around me with the greatest care and caution im-
aginable. And now IJ found, to my great comfort, how happy
it was that I had provided a tame flock, or herd, of goats ; for
I durst not upon any account fire my gun, especially near that
side of the island where they usually came, lest I should
alarm the savages ; and if they had fled from me now, I was
sure to have them come again with perhaps two or three hun-
dred canoes with them in a few days, and then I knew-what
to expect. However, I wore out a year and three months more
before I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I found
them again, asI shall soon observe. It is true they might
have been there once or twice, but either they made no stay,
or at least I did not hear them ; but, in the month of May, as
near as I could calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year,
I had a very strange encounter with them ; of which in its
lace.

The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or sixteen
months’ interval was very great ; I slept unquietly, dreamed
always frightful dreams, and often started out of my sleep in
the night. - In the day, great troubles overwhelmed my mind ;
and in the night, I dreamed often of killing the savages, and
of the reasons why I might justify the doing of it. But to
waive all this for a while. It was in the middle of May, on
the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor wooden calender
would reckon, for I marked all upon the post still; I say, it
was on the sixteenth of May that it blew a very great storm
of wind all day, with a great deal of lightning and thunder,
and a very foul night it was after it. I knew not what was
the particular occasion of it; but as I was reading the Bible,
and taken up with very serious thoughts about my present
condition, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought,
fired at sea. This was, to be sure, a surprise of a quite different
nature from any I had met with before ; for the notions this
put into my thoughts were quite of another kind. I started
up in the greatest haste imaginable ; and, in a trice, clapped
my ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled it after
me; and, mounting it the second time, got to the top of the
hill the very moment that a flash of fire bid me listen for a
second gun, which accordingly, in about half a minute, I heard ;
and by the sound, knew that it was from that part of the sea
where I was driven out with the current in my boat. I im-
mediately considered that this must be some ship in distress,
and that they had some comrade, or some other ship in com-
pany, and fired these for signals of distress, and to obtain help.
I had the presence of mind, at that minute, to think. that
144 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

though I could not help them, it might be they might help
me; so I brought together all the dry wood I could get at
hand, and, making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon
the hill. The wood was dry, and blazed freely ; and though
the wind blew very hard, yet it burned fairly out, so that I was
certain, if there was any such thing as a ship, they must need
see it, and no doubt they did ; for as soon as ever my fire blazed
up, I heard another gu and after that several others, all from
the same quarter. I plied my fire all night long, till daybreak ;
and when it was broad day, and the air cleared up, I saw some-
thing at a great distance at sea, full east of the island, whether
a sail or a hull I could not distinguish—no, not with my glass ;
the distance was so great, and the weather still something hazy
also—at least, it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that
it did not move ; so I presently concluded that it was a ship
at anchor ; and being eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied,
I took my gun in my hand, and ran towards the south side of
the island, to the rocks where I had formerly been carried away
with the current ; and getting up there, the weather by this
time being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great
sorrow, the wreck of a ship, cast away in the night upon those
concealed rocks which I found when I was outin my boat ; and
which rocks, as they checked the violence of the stream, and
made a kind of counter-stream, or eddy, were the occasion of
my recovering from the most desperate, hopeless condition that
ever I had been in in all my life. Thus, what is one man’s
safety is another man’s destruction ; for it seems these men,
whoever they were, being out of their knowledge, and the rocks
being wholly under water, had been driven upon them in the
night, the wind blowing hard at E. and E.N.E. Had they
seen the island, as I must necessarily suppose they did not, they
must, as I thought, have endeavored to have saved themselves
on shore by the help of their boat ; but their firing off their
guns for help, especially when they saw, as I imagined, my fire,
filled me with many thoughts. First, I imagined that upon
seeing my light, they might have put themselves into their
boat, and endeavored to make the shore ; but that the sea run-
ning very high, they might have been cast away. Other times,
I imagined that they might have lost their boat before, as might
be the case many ways; as particularly, by the breaking of the
sea upon their ship, which many times obliged men to stave, or
take in pieces, their boat, and sometimes to throw it overboard
with their own hands. Other times, I imagined they had some
other ship orships in company, who, upon the signals of distress
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 145

they made, had taken them up and carried them off. Other
times, I fancied they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and
being carried away by the current that I had been formerly in,
were carried out into the great ocean, where there was nothing
but misery and perishing ; and that, perhaps, they might by
this time think of starving, and of being in a condition to eat
one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition
I was in, I could do no more than look on upon the misery of
the poor men, and pity them ; which had still this good effect
upon my side, that it gave me more and more cause to give
thanks to God, who had so happily and comfortably provided
for me in my desolate condition ; and that of two ships’ com-
panies, who were now cast away upon this part of the world,
not one life should be spared but mine. I learned here again
to observe, that it is very rare that the providence of God casts
us into any condition of life so low, or any misery so great, but
we may see something or other to be thankful for, and may see
others in worse circumstances than our own. Such certainly
was the case of these men, of whom I could not so much as see
room to suppose any of them were saved ; nothing could make
it rational so much as to wish or expect that they did not all
perish there, except the possibility only of their being taken
up by another ship in company ; and this was but mere pos-
sibility indeed, for I saw not the least signal or appearance of
any such thing. I cannot explain, by any possible energy of
words, what a strange longing I felt in my soul upon this sight,
breaking out sometimes thus : “Oh, that there had been but
one or tivo, nay, or but one soul, saved out of this ship, to have
escaped to me, that I might but have one companion, one fel-
low-creature, to have spoken to me and to have conversed
with!” In all the time of my solitary life, I never felt so
earnest, so strong a desire after the society of my fellow-crea-
tures, or so deep a regret at the want of it.

There are some secret moving springs in the affections, which,
when they are set a-going by some object in view, or, though
not in view, yet rendered present to the mind by the power of
imagination, that motion carries out the soul, by its impetuosity,
to such violent, eager embracings of the object, that the absence
of it is insupportable. Such were these earnest wishings that
but one man had been saved. I believe I repeated the words,
“Oh, that it had been but one!” a thousand times; and my
desires were so moved by it that when I spoke the words my
hands would clinch together, and my fingers would press the
palms of my hands, so that if I had had any soft thing in my
146 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hand, I would have crushed it involuntarily ; and my teeth in
my head would strike together, and set against one another so
strong, that for some time I could not part them again. Let
the naturalists explain these things, and the reason and manner
of them. All I can say of them is to describe the fact, which
was even surprising to me, when I found it, though I knew
not from what it should proceed ; it was, doubtless, the effect of
ardent wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my mind, realiz-
ing the comfort which the conversation of one of my fellow-
Christians would have been to me. But it was not to be ; either
their fate, or mine, or both, forbade it, for till the last year of
my being on this island, I never knew whether any were saved
out of that ship or no ; and had only the affliction, some days
after, to see the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore at the
end of the island which was next the shipwreck. He had no
clothes on but a seaman’s waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen
drawers, and a blue linen shirt ; nothing to direct me so much
as to guess what nation he was of. He had nothing in his pock-
ets but two pieces of eight and a tobacco-pipe—the last was
to me of ten times more value than the first.

It was now calm, and I hada great mind to venture out in
my boat to this wreck, not doubting but I might find something
on board that might be useful tome. But that did not alto-
gether press me so much as the possibility that there might be
yet some living creature on board, whose life I might not only
save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to the last
degree ; and this thought clung so to my heart that I could not
be quiet night or day, but I must venture out in my boat on
board this wreck ; and committing the rest to God’s providence,
I thought the impression was so strong upon my mind that it
could not be resisted, that it must come from some invisible di-
rection, and that I should be wanting to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my
castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a quantity of
bread, a great pot for fresh water, a compass to steer by, a bottle
of rum (for I had still a great deal of that left), and a basket
of raisins ; and thus loading myself with everything necessary,
I went down to my boat, got the water out of her, got her
afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home again
for more. My second cargo was a great bag full of rice, the
umbrella to set up over my head for a shade, another large pot
full of fresh water, and about two dozen of small loaves, or
barley-cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat’s-milk,
and a cheese ; all which, with great labor and sweat, I brought
to my boat ; and praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out,
ROBINSON CRUSOE, 147

and, rowing or paddling the canoe along the shore, came at last
to the utmost point of the island on the northeast side. And
now I was to launch out into the ocean, and either to venture or
not toventure. I looked on the rapid currents which ran con-
stantly on both sides of the island at a distance, and which
were very terrible to me, from the remembrance of the hazard
I had been in before, and my heart began to fail me; for I
foresaw that if I was driven into either of those currents, I
should be carried a great way out’ to sea, and perhaps out of
my reach, or sight of the island again ; and that then, as my
boat was but small if any little gale of wind should rise, Ishould
be inevitably lost,

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give
over my enterprise ; and having hauled my boat into a little
creek on the shore, I stepped out, and sat down upon a rising
bit of ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear and de-
sire about my voyage; when, as I was musing, I could per-
ceive that the tide was turned, and the flood came on; upon
which, my going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon
this, presently it occurred to me that I should go up to the
highest piece of ground I could find, and observe, if I could,
how the sets of the tide, or currents lay, when the flood came
in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out, I
might not expect to be driven another way home, with the
same rapidity of the currents. This thought was no sooner in
my head than I cast my eye upon a little hill, which sufficiently
overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence I had a clear
view of the currents, or sets of the tide, and which way I was
to guide myself in my return. Here I found that as the cur-
rent of ebb set out close by the scuth point of the island, so
the current of the flood set in close by the shore of the north
side ; and that I had nothing to do but to keep to the north
of the island in my return, and I should do well enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next
morning, to set out with the first of the tide; and reposing
myself for the night in my canoe, under the great watch-coat
I mentioned, I launched out. I first made a little out to sea,
full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the current, which
set eastward, and which carried me at a great rate ; and yet
did not so hurry me as the current on the south side had done
before, so as to take from me all government of the boat ; but
having a strong steerage with my paddle, I went, at a great
rate, directly for the wreck, and in less than two hours I came
up to it. It was a dismal sight to look at: the ship, which,
by its building, was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between
148 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

two rocks; all the stern and quarter of her were beaten to
pieces by the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck in the
rocks, had run on with great violence, her mainmast and fore-
mast were brought by the board—that is to say, broken short
off ; but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow ap-
peared firm. When I came close to her, a dog appeared upon
her, who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried ; and, as soon
as I called him, jumped into the sea to come to me. I took
him into the boat, but found him almost dead with hunger
and thirst. I gave him a cake of my bread, and he devoured
it like a ravenous wolf that had been starving a fortnight in
the snow ; I then gave the poor creature some fresh water,
with which, if I would have let him, he would have burst him-
self. After this I went on board; but the first sight I met
with was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle, of
the ship, with their arms fast about one another. I concluded,
as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being in
a storm, the sea broke so high and so continually over her,
that the men were not able to bear it, and were strangled with
the constant rushing in of the water, as much as if they had
been under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left in
the ship that had life; nor any goods, that I could see, but
what were spoiled by the water. There weresome casks of liq-
uor, whether wine or brandy, I knew not, which lay lower in
the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I could see ;
but they were too big to meddle with. I saw several chests,
which I believe belonged to some of the seamen; and I got
two of them into the boat, without examining what was in
them. Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the forepart
broken off, Iam persuaded I might have made a g« od voyage;
for, by what I found in these two chests, [had room to suppose
the ship had a great deal of wealth on board ; and, if I may
guess from the course she steered, she must have been bound
from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de Ja Plata, in the south part
of America, beyond the Brazils to the Havannah, in the Gulf
of Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. She had, no doubt, a
great treasure in her, but of no use, at that time, to anybody ;
but what became of the crew I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of
about twenty gallons, which I got into my boat with much dif-
ficulty. There were several muskets in the cabin, and a great
powder horn, with about four pounds of powder in it; as for
the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left them, but
took the powder-horn. I tooka fire-shovel and tongs, which I
wanted extremely ; as also two little brass kettles, a copper pot
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 149

to make chocolate, and a gridiron ; and with this cargo, and the
dog, I came away, the tide beginning to make home again ; and
the same evening, about an hour within night, 1 reached the
island again, weary and fatigued to the last.degree. I reposed
that night in the boat ; and in the morning I resolved to har-
bor what I had got in my new cave, and not carry it home to my
castle. After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo on shore,
and began to examine the particulars. The cask of liquor I
found to be a kind of rum, but not such as we had at the
Brazils; and, in a word, not at all good: but when I came to
open the chests, I found several things of great use to me ; for
example, I found in oneafine case of bottles, of an extraordinary
kind, and filled with cordial waters, fine and very good; the
bottles held about three pints each, and were tipped with silver.
I found two pots of very good succades, or sweetmeats, so fast-
ened also on the top that the salt water had not hurt them ;
and two more of the same, which the water had spoiled. I
found some very good shirts, which were very welcome to me ;
and about a dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs and
colored neckcloths ; the former were also very welcome, being
exceedingly refreshing to wipe my facein a hot day. Besides
this, when I came to the till in the chest, [ found there three
great bags of pieces of eight, which held about eleven hundred
pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six
doubloons of gold, and some small bars or wedges of gold ; I sup-
pose they might all weigh near a pound. In the other chest
were some clothes, but of little value; but, by the circum-
stances, it must have belonged to the gunner’s mate ; though
there Was no powder in it, except two pounds of fine glazed
powder, in-three small flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their
fowling-pieces on occasion. Upon the whole, I got very little
by this voyage that was of any use tome ; for as to the money,
I had no manner of occasion for it: it was to me as the dirt
under my feet, and I would have given it all for three or four
pair of English shoes and stockings, which were things I greatly
wanted, but had none on my feet formany years. I had, indeed,
got two pair of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the two
drowned men whom I saw in the wreck, and I found two pair
more in one of the chests, which were very welcome to me ;
but they were not like our English shoes, either for ease or ser-
vice, being rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found in
this seaman’s chest about fifty pieces of eight, in rials, but no
gold. I suppose this belonged to a poorer man than the other,
which seemed to belong to some officer. Well, however, I
lugged this money home to my cave, and laid it up, as I had
150 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

done that before which I had brought from our own ship ; but
it was a great pity, as I said, that the other part of this ship
had not come to my share ; for I am satisfied I might have
loaded my canoe several times over with money ; which, if I
had ever escaped to England, would have lain here safe enough
till I might have come again and fetched it.

Having now brought all my things on shore and secured
them, I went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along
the shore to her old harbor where I laid her up, and made the
best of my way to my old habitation, where I found everything
safe and quiet. I began now to repose myself, live after my
old fashion, and take care of my family affairs ; and for a while
I lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant than I used
to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so much ;' and
if, at any time, I did stir with any freedom, it was always to
the east part of the island, where I was pretty well satisfied the
savages never came, and where I could go without so many pre-
cautions, and such a load of arms and ammunition as I always
carried with me if I went the other way. I lived in this con-
dition near two years more; but my unlucky head, that was
always to let me know it was born to make my body miserable,
was all these two years filled with projects and designs, how, if
it were -ossible, I might get away from this island ; for some-
time I was for making another voyage to the wreck, though
my reason told me that there was nothing left there worth the
hazard of my voyage ; sometimes for a ramble one way, some-
times another ; and I believe verily, if I had had the boat that
I went from Sallee in, I should have ventured to sea, bound
anywhere, I knew not whither. I have been in all my circum-
stances, a memento to those who are touched with the general
plague of mankind, whence, for aught I know, one half of their
miseries flow ; I mean that of not being satisfied with the
station wherein God and Nature hath placed them : for, not
to look back upon my primitive condition, and the excellent
advice of my father, the opposition to which was, as I may call
it, my origina! sin, my subsequent mistakes of the same kind
had been the means of my coming into this miserable condition ;
for had that Providence, which-so happily seated me at the
Brazils as a planter, blessed me with confined desires, and I
could have been contented to have gone on gradually, I might
have been by this time, I mean in the time of my being in this
island, one of the most considerable planters in the Brazils ;
nay, I am persuaded that by the improvements I had made
in that little time I lived there, and the increase I should prob-
ably have made if J had remained, I might have been worth a
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 151

hundred thousand moidores : and what business had I to leave
a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation, improving and in-
creasing, to turn supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when
patience and time would have so increased our stock at home,
that we could have bought them at our own door from those
whose business it was to fetch them? and though it had cost
us something more, yet the difference of that price was by no
means worth saving at so great a hazard. But as this is ordi-
narily the fate of young heads, so reflection upon the folly of it
is as commonly the exercise of more years, or of the dear-bought
experience of time ; so it was with me now ; and yet so deep
had the mistake taken root in my temper, that I could not satisfy
myself in my station, but was continually poring upon the means
and possibility of my escape from this place ; and that I may,
with the greater pleasure to the reader, bring on the remaining
part of my story, it may not be improper to give some account
of my first conceptions on the subject of this foolish scheme for
my escape, and how, and upon what foundation, I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle, after my late
voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under
water, as usual, and my condition restored to what it was be-
fore. I had more wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was
not at all the richer ; for [had no more use for it than the In-
dians of Peru had: before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the
four-and-twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island
of solitude. I was lying in my bed or hammock, awake, very
well in health, had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of body
nor any uneasiness of mind more than ordinary, but could by
no means close my eyes, that is so as to sleep ; no, not a wink
all night long, otherwise than as follows: It is impossible and
needless to set down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that
whirled through that great thoroughfare of the brain—the
memory—in this night’s time. I ran over the whole history of
my life in miniature, or by abridgment, as I may call it, to my
coming to this island, and also of that part of my life since I
came to this island. In my reflections upon the state of my
case since I came on shore on this island, I was comparing the
happy posture of my affairs in the first yearsof my habitation
here, with the life of anxiety, fear,and care which I had lived in
ever since I had seen the print of a foot in the sand ; not that I
did not believe the savages had frequented the island even all the
while, and might have been several hundreds of them at times
on shore there, but I had never known it, and was incapable
of any apprehensions about it; my satisfaction was perfect,
152 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

though my danger was the same, and I was as happy in not
knowing my danger as if I had never really been exposed to it.
This furnished my thoughts with many very profitable reflec-
tions, and particularly this one : How infinitely good that prov-
idence is which has provided, in its government of mankind,
such narrow bounds to his sight and knowledge of things;
and though he walks in the midst of somany thousand dangers,
the sight of which, if discovered to him, would distract his
mind and sink his spirits, he is kept serene and calm, by having
the events of things hid from his eyes, and knowing nothing
of the dangers which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I
came to reflect seriously upon the real danger I had been in for
so many years in this very -island, and how I had walked
about in the greatest security, and with all possible tranquil-
lity, even when perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great
tree, or the casual approach of night, had been between me
and the worst kind of destruction, viz., that of falling into the
hands of cannibals and savages, who would have seized on me
with the same view as I would on a goat or a turtle ; and have
thought itno more crime to kill and devour me than I did of
a pigeon or a curlew. I would unjustly slander myself, if I
should say I was not sincerely thankful to my great Preserver,
to whose singular protection I acknowledged, with great hu-
mility, all these unknown deliverances were due, and without
which I must inevitably have fallen into their merciless
hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time
taken up in considering the nature of these wretched crea-
tures, I mean the savages, and how it came to pass, in the world,
that the wise Governor of all things should give up any of his
creatures to such inhumanity, nay, to something so much be-
low even brutality itself, as to devour its own kind ; but as this
ended in some (at that time) fruitless speculations, it occurred
to me to inquire, what part of the world these wretches lived
in? how far off the coast was from whence they came? what
they ventured over so far from home for? what kind of boats
they had? and why I might not order myself and my busi-
ness so, that I might be as able to go over thither, as they were
to come to me.

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I
should do with myself when I went thither ; what would be-
come of me if I fell into the hands of these savages; or how
I should escape them if they attacked me ; no, nor so much as
how it was possible for me to reach the coast, and not be at-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 153

tacked by some or other of them, without any possibility of
delivering myself: and if I should not fall into their hands,
what I should do for provision, or whither I should bend my
course ; none of these thoughts, I say, so much as came in
my way ; but my mind was wholly bent upon the notion of
my passing over in my boat to the mainland. I looked upon
my present condition as the most miserable that could pos-
sibly be ; that I was not able to throw myself into anything
but death, that could be called worse ; and if I reached the
shore of the main, I might perhaps meet with relief, or I
might coast along, as I did on the African shore, till I came
to some inhabited country, and where I might find some re-
lief ; and, after all, perhaps I might fall in with some Christian
ship that might take me in; and if the worst came to the
worst, I could but die, which would put an end to all these
miseries at once. Pray note, all this was the fruit of a dis-
turbed mind, an impatient temper, made, as it were, desperate
by the long continuance of my troubles, and the disappoint-
ments I had met with in the wreck I had been on board of,
and where I had been so near the obtaining what I so earn-
estly longed for, namely, somebody to speak to, and to learn
some knowledge of the place where I was, and of the probable
means of my deliverance. I say I was agitated wholly by
these thoughts ; all my calm of mind, in my resignation to
Providence, and waiting the issue of the dispositions of
Heaven, seemed to be suspended ; and IJ had, as it were, no
power to turn my thoughts to anything but the project of a
voyage to the main, which came upon me with such force,
and such an impetuosity of desire, that it was not to be re-
sisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more,
with such violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and
my pulse beat as if I had been in a fever, merely with the extra-
ordinary fervor of my mind about it, Nature, as if I had been
fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts of it, threw me
into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should have
dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating to it ; but
I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning, as usual,
from my castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven
savages, coming to land, and that they brought with them
another savage, whom they were going to kill, in order to eat
him ; when, on a sudden, the savage that they were going to
kill jumped away, and ran for his life ; then I thought, in my
sleep, that he came running into my little thick grove before my
fortification, to hide himself ; and that I, seeing him alone, and
154 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

not perceiving that the others sought him that way, showed
myself to him, and, smiling upon him, encouraged him; that
he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray me to assist him;
upon which I showed him my ladder, made him go up it, and
carried him into my cave, and he became my servant ; and
that as soon as I had got this man, I said to myself, “ Now I
may certainly venture to the mainland, for this fellow will serve
me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither to go for
provisions, and whither not to go for fear of being devoured ;
what places to venture into and what to escape.” I waked with
this thought ; and was under such inexpressible impressions
of joy at the prospect of my escape in my dream, that the dis-
appointments which I felt upon coming to myself, and finding
that it was no more than a dream, were equally extravagant the
other way, and threw me into a good dejection of spirits.
Upon this, however, I made this conclusion ; that my only
way to go about an attempt for an escape was, if possible, to get
a savage into my possession ; and, if possible, it should be one
of their prisoners, whom they had condemned to be eaten, and
should bring hither to kill. But these thoughts still were at-
tended with this difficulty, that it was impossible to effect this
without attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing them
all ; and this was not only a very desperate attempt, and might
miscarry, but, on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the
lawfulness of it to me; and my heart trembled at the thoughts
of shedding so much blood, though it was for my deliverance.
I need not repeat the arguments which occurred to me against
this, they being the same mentioned before ; but-though I had
other reasons to offer now—viz., that those men were enemies
to my life, and would devour me if they could ; that it was self-
preservation, in the highest degree, to deliver myself from
this death of a life, and was acting in my own defense as much
as if they were actually assaulting me, and the like; I say,
though these things argued for it, yet the thoughts of shedding
human blood for my deliverance were very terrible to me, and
such as I could by no means reconcile myself to for a great
while. However, at last, after many secret disputes with my-
self, and after great perplexities about it (for all these argu-
ments, one way and another, struggled in my head a long time),
the eager prevailing desire of deliverance at length mastered
all the rest ; and I resolved, if possible, to get one of these
savages into my hands, cost what it would. My next thing was
to contrive how to do it, and this indeed was very difficult to
resolve on; but as I could pitch upon no probable means for
it, sol resolved to put myself upon the watch, to see them when
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 155

they came on shore, and leave the rest to the event ; taking such
measures as the opportunity should present, let be what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the
scout as often as possible, and indeed so often that I was heartily
tired of it; for it was above a year and a half that I waited ;
and for a great part of that time went out to the west end, and
to the southwest corner of the island almost every day, to look
for canoes, but none appeared. This was very discouraging,
and began to trouble me much, though I cannot say that it did
in this case (as it had done some time before) wear off the edge
of my desire to the thing ; but the longer it seemed to be de-
layed, the more eager I was for it ; in a word, I was not at first
so careful to shun the sight of these savages, and avoid being
seen by them, as I was now eager to be upon them. Besides,
I fancied myself able to manage one, nay, two or three savages,
if I had them, so as to make them entirely slaves to me, to do
whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their being able
at any time todo me any hurt. It was a great while that I
pleased myself with this affair ; but nothing still presented ; all
my fancies and schemes came to nothing, for no savages came
near me for a great while.

About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and
by long musing had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing,
for want of an occasion to put them in execution), I was sur-
prised one morning early by seeing no less than five canoes all
on shore together on my side the island, and the people who
belonged to them all landed and out of my sight. The number
of them broke all my measures ; for seeing so many, and know-
ing that they always came four or six, or sometimes more, in a
boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or how to take my
measures to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed ; so lay
stillin my castle, perplexed and discomforted. However, I put
myself into all the same postures for an attack that I had
formerly provided, and was just ready for action, if anything
had presented. Having waited a good while, listening to hear
if they made any noise, at length, being very impatient, I set my
guns at the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the top of’
the hill, by my two stages, as usual ; standing so, however, that
my head did not appear above the hill, so that they could not
perceive me by any means. Here I observed, by the help of my
perspective glass, that they were no less than thirty in number ;
that they had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed.
How they had cooked it, I knew not, or what it was ; but they
were all dancing, in I know not how many barbarous gestures
and figures, their own way, round the fire,
156 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my per-
spective, two miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where,
it seems, they were laid by, and were now brought out for the
slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fall ; being
knocked down, I suppose, with a club or wooden sword, for
that was their way ; and two or three others were at work im-
mediately, cutting him open for their cookery, while the other
victim was left standing by himself, till they should be ready
for him. In that very moment, this poor wretch, seeing him-
self a little at liberty, and unbound, Nature inspired him with
hopes of life and he started away from them, and ran with in-
credible swiftness along the sands, directly towards me ; I mean
towards that part of the coast where my habitation was. Iwas
dreadfully frightened, that I must acknowledge, when I per-
ceived him run my way ; and especially when, as I thought, I
saw him pursued by the whole body ; and now I expected that
part of my dream was coming to pass, and that he would cer-
tainly take shelterin my grove ; but I could not depend, by any
means, upon my dream, that the other savages would not pursue
him thither, and find him there. However, I kept my station,
and my spirits began to recover when I found that there was
not above three men that followed him ; and still more was en-
couraged, when I found that he outstripped them exceedingly in
running, and gained ground on them ; so that, if he could but
hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he would fairly get away
from them all.

There was, between them and my castle, the creek, which I
mentioned often in the first part of my story, where I landed
my cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw plainly he must
necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken there ;
but when the savage escaping came thither, he made nothing
of it, though the tide was then up; but, plunging in, swam
through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and
tan with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the three

ersons came to the creek I found that two of them could swim,
but the third could not, and that, standing on the other side,
‘he looked at the others, but went no farther, and soon after
went softly back again ; which, as it happened, was very well
for him in theend. I observed that the two who swam were
yet more than twice as long swimming over the creek than the
fellow was that fled from them. It came very warmly upon
my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now was the time to
get me a servant, and perhaps a companion or assistant ; and
that I was plainly called by Providence to save this poor crea-
ture’s life. Iimmediately ran down the ladder with all possible


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ROBINSON CRUSOE. 157

expedition, fetched my two guns, for they were both at the
foot of the ladder, as I observed before, and getting up again
with the same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards
the sea ; and having a very short cut, and all down hill, clap’d
myself in the way between the pursuers and the pursued, hal-
looing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back, was at first
perhaps as much frightened at me as at them ; but I beckoned
with my hand to him to come back ; and, in the mean time, I
slowly advanced towards the two that followed ; then rushing
at once upon the foremost, I knocked him down with the stock
of my piece. I was loth to fire, because I would not have the
rest hear; though at that distance it would not have been
easily heard, and being out of sight of the smoke, too, they
would not have known what to make of it. Having knocked
this fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped, as if he
had been frightened, and I advanced towards him; but as I
came nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow and arrow,
and was fitting it to shoot at me; so I was then obliged to
shoot at him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot.
The poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though he saw
both his enemies fallen and killed, as he thought, yet was so
frightened with the fire and noise of my piece that he stood
stock still, and neither came forward nor went backward,
though he seemed rather inclined still to fly than to come on.
T hallooed again to him, and made signs to come forward, which
he easily understood, and came a little way; then stopped
again, and then a little farther, and stopped again ; and I could
then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been taken
prisoner, and had just been to be killed, as his two enemies
were. I beckoned to him again to come to me, and gave him all
the signs of encouragement that I could think of ; and he came
nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve steps,
in token of acknowledgment for saving his life. I smiled at
him, and looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still
nearer ; at length, he came close to me; and then he-kneeled
down again, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the
ground, and, taking me by the foot, set my foot upon his head ;
this, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my slave forever.
I took him up, and made much of him, and encouraged him
all I could. But there was more work to do yet; for I per-
ceived the savage whom I had knocked down was not killed,
but stunned with the blow, and began to come tohimself. So
I pointed to him, and showed him the savage, that he was not
dead ; upon this he spoke some words to me, and though I
could not understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant
158 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to hear ; for they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I
had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five years.
But there was no time for such reflections now; the savage
who was knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit up
upon the ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be
afraid ; but when I saw that, I presented my other piece at
the man, as if I would shoot him ; upon this my savage, for so
I call him now, made a motion to me to lend him my sword,
which hung naked in a belt by my side, which I did. He no
sooner had it, but he runs to his enemy, and at one blow cut
off his head as cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have
done it sooner or better; which I thought very strange for
one who, I had reason to believe, never saw a sword in his life
before, except their own wooden swords: however, it seems,
as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden swords so
sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will even
cut off heads with them, ay, and arms, and that at one blow
too. When he had done this, he comes laughing to me in sign
of triumph, and brought me the sword again, and with abund-
ance of gestures which I did not understand, laid it down, with
the head of the savage that he had killed just before me. But
that which astonished him most, was to know how I killed the
other Indian so far off ; so pointing to him, he made signs to
me to let him go to him ; and I bade him go, as well as I could.
When he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at
him, turning him first on one side, then on the other ; looked
at the wound the bullet had made, which it seems was just in
his breast, where it had made a hole, and no great quantity of
blood had followed ; but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite
dead. He took up his bow and arrows, and came back ; so I
turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow me, making
signs to him that more might come after them.

Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them
with sand, that they might not be seen by the rest, if they fol-
lowed ; andso I made signs to him again to do so. He fell to
work ; and in an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with
his hands, big enough to bury the first in, and then dragged
him into it, and covered him ; and did so by the other also; I
believe he had buried them both in a quarter ofan hour. Then
calling him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite
away to my cave, on the farther part of the island ; sol did
not let my dream come to pass in that part, that he came into
my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and a bunch of
raisins to eat, and a draught of water, which I found he was
indeed in great distress for from his running ; and having re-


Tue Savace Maxine 4 SIGN oF SuBMISSION.—Page 159,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 159

freshed him, I made signs for him to go and lie down to sleep,
showing him a place where I had laid some rice straw, and a
blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon myself sometimes ;
so the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made,
with straight, strong limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped ;
and, as I reckon, about twenty-six yearsofage. He hadavery
good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to
have something very manly in his face ; and yet he had all the
sweetness and softness of a European in his countenance, too,
especially when he smiled. His hair was long and black, not
curled like wool; his forehead very high and large; and a
great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in hiseyes. The color
of his skin was not quite black, but very tawny ; and yet not
an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians and Virgin-
ians, and other natives of America are, but of a bright kind of
a dun olive-color, that had in it something very agreeable,
though not very easy to describe. His face was round and
plump ; his nose small, not flat like the negroes; a very good
mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well set, and as white as
ivory.

“After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half-an-hour,
he awoke again, and came out of the cave to me, for I had
been milking my goats, which I had in the inclosure just by :
when he espied me, he came running to me, laying himself
down again upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an
humble, thankful disposition, making a great many antic ges-
tures to show it. At last he lays his head flat upon the ground,
close to my foot, and sets my other foot upon his head, as he
had done before ; and after this, made all the signs to me of
subjection, servitude, and submission imaginable, to let me
know how he would serve me so long ashe lived. I understood
him in many things, and let him know I was very well pleased
with him. In a little time I began to speak to him, and teach
him to speak to me ; and, first, [let him know his name should
be Frmay, which was the day I saved his life ; I called him so
for the memory of the time. I likewise taught him to say
Master, and then let him know that wasto be my name ; I like-
wise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know the meaning
of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let him
see me drink it before him, and sop my bread in it ; and gave
him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly complied
with, and madesigns that it was very goodforhim, I keptthere
with him all that night; but, as soon asit was day, I beckoned
to him to come with me, and let him know I would give him
160 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

some clothes ; at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark
naked. As we went by the place where he had buried the two
men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the marks
that he had made to find them again, making signs to me that
we should dig them up again and eat them. At this I ap-
peared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I
would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand
to him to come away, which he did immediately, with great
submission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if
his enemies were gone, and pulling out my glass, I looked, and
saw plainly the place where they had been, but no appearance
of them or their canoes ; so that it was plain they were gone,
and had left their two comrades behind them, without any search
after them.

But I was not content with this discovery ; but, having now
more courage, and consequently more curiosity, I took my man
Friday with me, giving him the sword in his hand, with the bow
and arrows at his back, which I found he could use very dex-
terously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two for my-
self ; and away we marched to the place where these creatures
had been—for I had a mind now to get some fuller intelligence
of them. When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill
in my veins, and my heart sunk within me at the horror of the
spectacle ; indeed, it was a dreadful sight ; at least it was so to
me, though Friday made nothing of it. The place was covered
with human bones, the ground dyed with the blood, and great
pieces of flesh left here and there, half-eaten, mangled, and
scorched ; and, in short,.all the tokens of the triumphant feast
they had been making there, after a victory over their enemies.
Isaw three skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs
and feet, and abundance of other parts of the bodies; and
Friday, by his signs, made me understand that they brought over
four prisoners to feast upon ; that three of them were eaten up
and that he, pointing to himself, was the fourth ; that there had
been a great battle between them and their next king, of whose
subjects, it seems, he had been one, and that they had taken a
great number of prisoners; all which were carried to several
places by those who had taken them in the fight, in order to
feast upon them, as was done here by these wretches upon those
they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and
whatever remained, and lay them together on a heap, and make
a great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday
had still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh, and was
stilla cannibal in his nature; but I discovered so much abhor-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 161

rence at the very thoughts of it, andat the least appearance of
it, that he durst not discover it—for I had, by some means, let
him know that I would kill him if he offered it.

When he had done this we came back to our castle, and
there I fell to work for my man Friday ; and, first of all, I gave
him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the poor gun-
ner’s chest I mentioned, which I found in the wreck, and which,
with a little alteration, fitted him very well; and then I made
him a jerkin of goat’s skin, as well as my skill would allow (for
I was now grown a tolerably good tailor); and I gave hima
cap which I made of hare’s skin, very convenient, and fashion-
able enough, and thus he was clothed, for the present, tolerably
well, and was mighty well pleased to see himself almost as
well clothed as his master. Itis true, he went awkwardly in
these clothes at first; wearing the drawers was very awkward
to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and
the inside of his arms—but a little easing them where he com-
plained they hurt him, and using himself to them, at length he
took to them very well.

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I
began to consider where I should lodge him; and, that I
might do well for him, and yet be pertectly easy myself, I
made a little tent for him in the vacant place between my two
fortifications, in the inside of the last, and in the outside of the
first. As there was a door or entrance there into my cave, I
made a formal framed door-case, and a door to it of -boards,
and set it up in the passage, a little within the entrance ; and,
causing the door to open in the inside, I barred it up in the
night, taking in my ladders, too ; so that Friday could no way
come at me in the inside of my innermost wall, without mak-
ing so much noise in getting over that it must needs awaken
me ; for my first wall had now a complete roof over it of long
poles, covering all my tent, and leaning up to the side of the
hill ; which was again laid across with smaller sticks, instead
of laths, and then thatched over a great thickness with the
rice-straw, which was strong, like reeds; and at the hole or
place which was left to go in or out by the ladder, I had
placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on
the outside, would not have opened at all, but would have
fallen down and made a great noise ; as to weapons, I took
them all into my side every night. But I needed none of all
this precaution ; for never man had a more faithful, loving,
sincere servant than Friday was to me; without passions,
sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and engaged ; his
very affections were tied to me like those of a child to a
162 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

father ; and I dare say he would have sacrificed his life for
saving mine, upon any occasion whatsoever : the many testi-
monies he gave me of this put it out of doubt, and soon con-
vinced me that I needed no precautions for my safety on his
account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with
wonder, that however it had pleased God in his Providence,
and in the government of the works of his hands, to take from
so great a part of the world of his creatures the best uses to
which their faculties and the powers of their souls are adapted,
yet that he has bestowed upon them the same powers, the
same reason, the same affections ; the same sentiments of kind-
ness and obligation ; the same passions and resentments of
wrongs ; the same sense of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all
the capacities of doing good and receiving good, that he has
given to us; and that when he pleases to offer them occasions
of exerting these, they are as ready, nay, more ready, to apply
them to the right uses for which they were bestowed than we
are. This made me very melancholy sometimes, in reflecting,
as the several occasions presented, how mean a use we make of
all these, even though we have these powers enlightened by
the great lamp of instruction, the spirit of God, and by the
knowledge of his word added to our understanding ; and why
it has pleased God to hide the like saving knowledge from so
many millions of souls, who, if I might judge by this poor sav-
age, would make a much better use of it than we did. From
hence, I sometimes was led too far, to invade the sovereignty
of Providence, and, as it were, arraign the justice of so
arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that sight
from some, and reveal it to others,and yet expect a little duty
from both ; but I shut it up, and checked my thoughts with
this conclusion: first, That we did not know. by what light
and law these should be condemned; but that as God was
necessarily, and, by the nature of his being, infinitely holy and
just, so it could not be; but if these creatures were all sen-
tenced to absence from himself, it was on account of sinning
against that light, which, as the Scripture says, was a law to
themselves, and by such rules as their conscience would ac-
knowledge to be just, though the foundation was not discov-
ered to us ; and, secondly, That still, as we are all the clay in
the hand of the Potter, no vessel could say to him, “ Why hast
thou formed me thus?”

But to return to my new companion: I was greatly delighted
with him, and made it my business to teach him everything
that was proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful ; but






Make HimseLF HELPFuL,—Page 163,

Crusog Instructs FRIpAY TO

ROBINSON CRUSOE, 163

especially to make him speak, and understand me when I
spoke; and he was the aptest scholar that ever was; and par-
ticularly was so merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased
when he could but understand me, or make me understand him,
that it was very pleasant to me to talk to him. And now my
life began to be so easy that I began to say to myself, that could
I but have been safe from more savages, I cared not if I was
never to remove from the place while I lived.

After I had been two or three days returned to my castle,
I thought that, in order to bring Friday off from his horrid
way of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s stomach,
I ought to let him taste other flesh ; so I took him out with me
one morning to the woods. I went, indeed, intending to kill
a kid out of my own flock, and bring it home and dress it ;
but as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade,
and two young kids sitting by her. Icatched hold of Friday.
“ Hold,” said I, “stand still”; and made signs to him not to
stir ; immediately I presented my piece, shot and killed one of
the kids. The poor creature, who had, at a distance, indeed,
seen me kill the savage, his enemy, but did not know, nor could
imagine, how it was done, was sensibly surprised ; trembled,
and shook, and looked so amazed that I thought he would have
sunk down. He did not see the kid I shot at, or perceive I
had killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat to feel whether he
was not wounded ; and, as I found presently, thought I was
resolved to kill him : for he came and kneeled down to me, and,
embracing my knees, said a great many things I did not under-
stand ; but I could easily see the meaning was to pray me not
to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no
harm ; and taking him up by the hand, laughed at him, and
pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned to him to run
and fetch it, which he did: and while he was wondering, and
looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun
again. By and by I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sitting upon
a tree within shot ; so, to let Friday understand a little what
I would do, I called him to me again, pointed at the fowl, which
was indeed a parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I
say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to the ground
under the parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, I made
him understand that I would shoot and kill that bird ; accord-
ingly, I fired, and bade him look, and immediately he saw the
parrot fall. He stood like one frightened again, notwith-
standing all I had said to him; and I found he was the more
amazed, -because he did not see me put anything into the gun,
164 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

but thought that there must be some wonderful fund of death
and destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or
anything near or far off ; and the astonishment this created in
him was such as could not wear off for a long time ; and I be-
lieve, if I would have let him, he would have worshiped me
and my gun. As for the gun itself, he would not so much as
touch it for several days after ; but he would speak to it and
talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he was by himself ;
which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not to
kill him. Well after his astonishment was a little over at this,
I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which
he did, but stayed some time; for the parrot, not being quite
dead, had fluttered away a good distance from the place where
she fell ; however, he found her, took her up, and brought her
to me; and as I had perceived his ignorance about the gun
before, I took this advantage to charge the gun again, and to
let him see me do it, that I might be ready for any other mark
that might present ; but nothing more offered at that time :
so I brought home the kid, and the same evening I took the
skin off, and cut it out as well as I could ; and having a pot fit
for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and
made some very good broth. After I had begun to eat some,
I gave some to my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked
it very well; but that which was strangest to him was to see
me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me that the salt was
not good to eat; and putting a little into his own mouth, he
seemed to nauseate it and would spit and sputter at it, washing
his mouth with fresh water after it ; on the other hand, I took
some meat into my mouth without salt, and I pretended to
spit and sputter for want of salt, as fast as he had done at the
salt ; but it would not do; he would never care for salt with
his meat, or in his broth; at least, not for a great while, and
then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was re-
solved to feast him the next day with roasting a piece of the
kid ; this I did by hanging it before the fire ona string, as I
had seen many people do in England, setting two poles up,
one on each side of the fire, and one across on the top, and
tying the string to the cross stick, letting the meat turn con-
tinually. This Friday admired very much ; but when he came
to taste the flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well
he liked it, that I could not but understand him ; and at last
he told me, as well as he could, he would never eat man’s flesh
any more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 165

sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I observed before ;
and he soon understood how to do it as well as I, especially
after he had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was
to make bread of; for after that, I let him see me make
my bread, and bake it, too: and in a little time Friday
was able to do all the work for me, as well asI could do it
myself,

I began now to consider that having two mouths to feed
instead of one, I must provide more ground for my harvest, and
plant a larger quantity of corn than I used'to do; so I marked
out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the same man-
ner as before, in which Friday worked not only very willingly
and very hard, but didit very cheerfully ; and I told him what it
was for; that it was for corn to make more bread, because he
was now with me, and that I might have enough for him and my-
self too. He appeared very sensible of that part, and let me
know that he thought I had much more labor upon me on his
account, than I had for myself ; and that he would work the
harder for me, if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this
place. Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the
names of almost everything I had occasion to call for, and of
every place I had to send him to, and talk a great deal to me ;
so that, in short, I began now to have some use for my tongue
again, which, indeed, I had very little occasion for before ;
that is to say about speech. Besides the pleasure of talking
to him, I had a singular satisfaction in the fellow himself :
his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me more and more
every day, and I began really to love the creature ; and on his
side I believe he loved me more than it was possible for him
ever to love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering inclination
to his own country again ; and having taught him English so
well that he could answer me almost any question, I asked him
whether the nation that he belonged to never conquered in
battle. At which he smiled, and said, “ Yes, yes, we always
fight the better” ; that is, he meant, always get the better in
fight ; and so we began the following discourse :

Master.—Y ou always fight the better ; how came you to be
taken prisoner then, Friday? .

Friday.—My nation beat much, for all that.

Master.—How beat? If your nation beat them, how came
you to be taken ?

Friday.—They more many than my nation, in the place where
me was; they take one, two, three, and me ; my nation over-
166 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

beat them in the yonder place, where me no was; there my
nation take one, two, great thousand.

Master.—But why did not your side recover you from the
hands of your enemies then ?

Friday.—They run, one, two, three, and me, and make me
go in the canoe; my nation have no canoe that time.

Master.—Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with
the men they take? Do they carry them away and eat them,
as these did ?

Friday.—Yes, my nation eat mans too ; eat all up.

Master.— Where do they carry them ? ;

Friday.—Go to other place, where they think.

Master.—Do they come hither ?

Friday.—Yes, yes, they come hither ; come other else place.

Master.—Have you been here with them?

Friday.—Yes, I been here (points to the N.W. side of the
island, which, it seems, was their side).

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been
among the savages who used to come on shore on the farther
part of the island, on the said man-eating occasions that he was
now brought for ; and, some time after, when I took the courage
to carry him to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned,
he presently knew the place, and told me he was there once,
when they eat up twenty men, two. women, and one child ; he
could not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them by
laying so many stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell
them over.

T have told this passage, because it introduces what follows ;
that after this discourse I had with him, I asked him how far
it was from our island to the shore, and whether the canoes
were not often lost. He told me there was no danger, no canoes
ever lost; but that after a little way out to sea, there was a
current and wind, always one way in the morning, the other in
the afternoon. This I understood to be no more than the sets
of the tide, as going out or coming in ; but I afterwards under-
stood it was occasioned by the great draft and reflux of the
mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth of which river, asI thought
afterwards, ourisland lay ; and that thisland which I perceived
to the W. and N.W. was the great island Trinidad, on the north
point of the mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand
questions about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast,
and what nations were near ; he told me all he knew, with the
greatest opénness imaginable. I asked him the names of the
several nations of his sort of people, but could get no other
uame than Caribs ; from whence I easily understood that these
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 167

were the Caribbees, which our maps place on the part of
America which reaches from the mouth of the river Oroonoko
to Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha. He told me, that up
a great way beyond the moon (that was, beyond the setting of
the moon, which must be west from their country), there dwelt
white-bearded men like me, and pointed to my great whiskers,
which I mentioned before ; and that they had killed much mans,
that was his word ; by all which I understood he meant the
Spaniards, whose cruelties in America had been spread over
the whole country and were remembered by all the nations,
from father to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from this
island, and get among those white men : he told me, “Yes, yes,
I might go in two canoe.” I could not understand what he
meant by two canoe, till at last, with great difficulty, I found
he meantit must be in a large, great boat, as big as two canoes.
This part of Friday’s discourse began to relish with me very
well ; and from this time I entertained some hopes that, one
time or other, I might find an opportunity to make my escape
from this place, and that this poor savage might be a means to
help me to do it.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me,
and that he began to speak to me, and understand me, I was
not wanting to lay a foundation of religious knowledge in his
mind ; particularly I asked him one time who madehim. The
poor creature did not understand meat all, but thought I had
asked him who was his father : but I took it by another handle,
and asked him who made the sea, the ground we walked on, and
the hills and woods. He told me, “It was one Benamuckee,
that lived beyond all ;” he could describe nothing of this great
person, but that he was very old, “much older,” he said, “ than
the sea or the land, than the moon or the stars.”. I asked him
then, if this old person had made all things, why did not all
things worship him? He looked very grave, and, with a per-
fect look of innocence, said, “ All things said O! to him.” I
asked him if the people who die in his country went away any-
where. Hesaid,“ Yes; they all went to Benamuckee.” Then
Tasked him whether those they eat up went thither too. He
said, “ Yes.”

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowledge
of the true God: I told him that the great Maker of all things
lived there, pointing up towards heaven ; that he governed the
world by the same power and providence by which he made
it; that he was omnipotent, and could do everything for us,
give evérything to us, take everything from us ; and thus, by
168 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened with great attention,
and received with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being
sent to redeem us, and of the manner of making our prayers to
God, and his being able to hear us, even into heaven. He toldme
one day, that if our God could hear us, up beyond the sun, he
must needs bea greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived
but a little way off, and yet could not hear till-they went up to
the great mountains where he dwelt to speak to him. I asked
him if ever he went thither to speak to him, He said, “No;
they never went that were young men ; none went thither but
the old men,” whom he called their Oowokakee ; that is, as I
made him explain it to me, their religious, or clergy ; and that
they went to say O! (so he called saying prayers) and then
came back and told them what Benamuckee said. By this I
observed, that there is priestcraft even among the most blinded,
ignorant pagans in the world; and the policy of making a
secret of religion, in order to preserve the veneration of the
people to the clergy, is not only to be found in the Roman, but,
perhaps, among all religions in the world, even among the most
brutish and barbarous savages.

I endeavored to clear up this fraud to my man Friday, and
told him that the pretense of their old men going up to the
mountains to say O! to their god Benamuckee was a cheat ;
and their bringing word from thence what he said was much
more so; that if they met with any answer, or spoke with any
one there, it must be with an evil spirit ; and then I entered
into a long discourse with him about the devil, the original of
him, his rebellion against God, his enmity to man, the reason
of it, his setting himself up in the dark parts of the world to
be worshiped instead of God, and as God, and the many strata-
gems he made use of to delude mankind to their ruin ; how he
had a secret access to out passions and to our affections, and to
adapt his snares to our inclinations, so as to cause us even to
be our own tempters, and run upon our own destruction by our
own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his
mind about the devilas it was about the being of a God: na-
ture assisted all my arguments to evidence to him even the
necessity of a great First Cause—an overruling, governing
Power—a secret directing Providence ; and of the equity and
justice of paying homage to him that made us, and the like :
but there appeared nothing of this kind in the notion of an
evil spirit ; of his original, his being, his nature ; and, above
all, of his inclination to do evil, and to draw us in to do so too:
and the poor creature puzzled me once in such a manner, by a
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 169

question merely natural and innocent, that I scarce knew what
to say to him. I had been talking a great deal to him of the
power of God, his omnipotence, his aversion to sin, his being
a consuming fire tothe workers of iniquity ; how, as he had
made us all, he could destroy us and all the world in a moment ;
and he listened with great seriousness to me all the while.
After this, I had been telling him how the devil was God’s
enemy in the hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill
to defeat the good designs of Providence, and to ruin the king-
dom of Christ in the world, and the like. “ Well,” says Fri-
day ; “but you say God is so strong, so great; is he not
much strong, much might as the devil?” “Yes, yes,” says I,
“Friday ; God is stronger than the devil: God is above the
devil, and therefore we pray to God to tread him down under
our feet, and to enable us to resist his temptations and quench
his fiery darts.” “But,” says he again, “if God much strong,
much might as the devil, why God no kill the devil, so make
him no more do wicked ?” I was strangely surprised at this
question ; and after all though I was now an old man, yet I was
but a young doctor, and ill qualified for a casuist, or solver of
difficulties ; and at first Icould not tell what to say ; so I pre-
tended not to hear him, and asked him what he said ; but he
was too earnest for an answer to forget his question, so that
he repeated it in the very same broken words as above. By
this time I had recovered myself a little, and I said, “ God will
at last punish him severely ; he is reserved for the judgment,
and he is to be cast into the bottomless pit, to dwell with ever-
lasting fire.” This did not satisfy Friday ; but he returns up-
on me, repeating my own words, “ ‘Reserve at last/? me no
understand : but why not kill the devil now; not kill great
ago?” “You may as well ask me,” said I, “why God does
not kill you or me, when we do wicked things here that offend
him : weare preserved to repent and be pardoned.” He muses
awhile on this: “ Well, well,” says he, mightily affectionately,
“that well: so you, I, devil, all wicked, all preserve, repent,
God pardon all.” Here I was run down by him to the last
degree: and it was a testimony to me, how the mere notions
of nature, though they will guide reasonable creatures to the
knowledge of a God, and of a worship or homage due to the
supreme being of God, as the consequence of our nature, yet
nothing but Divine revelation can form the knowledge of Jesus
Christ, and of redemption purchased for us ; of a Mediator of
the new covenant, and of an Intercessor at the footstool of
God’s throne ; I say, nothing but a revelation from heaven can
form these in the soul; and that, therefore, the gospel of our
170 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of God, and
the Spirit of God, promised for the guide and sanctitier of his
people, are the absolutely necessary instructors of the souls of
men in the saving knowledge of God and the means of salva-
tion.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and
my man, rising up hastily as upon some sudden occasion of
going out ; then sending him for something a good way off, I
seriously prayed to God that he would enable me to instruct
savingly this poor savage ; assisting by his Spirit the heart of
the poor ignorant creature to receive the light of the knowledge
of God in Christ, reconciling him to himself,and would guide
me to speak so to him from the Word of God, that his con-
science might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved.
When he came again to me,I entered into a long discourse
with him upon the subject of the redemption of man by the
Saviour of the world, and of the doctrine of the gospel preached
from heaven—viz., of repentance towards God, and faith in
our blessed Lord Jesus. I then explained to him as well as I
could why our blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature
of angels, but the seed of Abraham ; and how, for that reason,
the fallen angels had no share in the redemption ; that he came
only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and the like.

T had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the
methods I took for this poor creature’s instruction, and must
acknowledge, what I believe all that act upon the same princi-
ple will find, that, in laying things open to him, I really informed
and instructed myself in many things that I either did not know,
or had not fully considered before, but which occurred naturally
to my mind upon searching into them, for the information of
this poor savage ; and I had more affection in my inquiry after
things upon this occasion than ever I felt before; so that,
whether this poor wild wretch was the better for me or no, I
had reason to be thankful that ever he came to me; my grief
sat lighter upon me ; my habitation grew comfortable to me
beyond measure ; and when I reflected that in this solitary life
which I had been confined to, I had not only been moved to
look up to heaven myself, and to seek the hand that had brought
me here, but was now to be made an instrument, under Provi-
dence, to save the life, and, for aught I know, the soul of a poor
savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of religion, and
of the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, to
know whom is life eternal ; I say, when I reflected upon all
these things, a secret joy ran through every part of my soul,
and I frequently rejoiced that ever I was brought to this place,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 171

which I had so often thought the most dreadful ofall afflictions
that could possibly have befallen me.

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of my
time ; and the conversation which employed the hours between
Friday and me were such as made the three years which we
lived there together perfectly and completely happy, if any
such thing as complete happiness‘can be found in a sublunary
state. This savage was now a good Christian, a much better
than I ; though I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that
we were equally penitent, and comforted, restored penitents.
We had here the Word of God to read, and no farther off from
His Spirit to instruct, than if we had beenin England. Lalways
applied myself, in reading the Scriptures, to let him know, as
well as I could, the meaning of what I read ; and heagain, by
his serious inquiries and questionings, made me, asI said before,
a much better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than I should
ever have been by my own mere private reading. Another
thing I cannot refrain from observing here also, from experience
in this retired part of my life—viz., how infinite and inexpressi-
ble a blessing it is that the knowledge of God, and of the doc-
trine of salvation by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid down in the
Word of God, so easy to be received and understood, that, as
the bare reading the Scripture made me capable of understand-
ing enough of my duty to carry me directly on to the great
work of sincere repentance for my sins, and of laying hold of
a Saviour for life and salvation, to a stated reformation in
practice, and obedience to all God’s commands, and this with-
out any teacher or instructor, I mean human ; so the same plain
instruction sufficiently served to the enlightening this savage
creature, and bringing him to be such a Christian as I have
known few equal to him in my life.

As to the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contention which
have happened in the world about religion, whether niceties in
doctrines or schemes of church government, they were all per-
fectly useless to us, and, for aught I can yet see, they have been
to the rest of the world. We had the sure guide to heaven,
viz., the Word of God ; and we had, blessed be God, comfort-
able views of the Spirit of God teaching and instructing us by
his word, leading us into all truth, and making us both willing
and obedient to the instruction of his word. And I cannot see
the least use that the greatest knowledge of the disputed points
of religion, which -have made such confusions in the world,
would have been to us, if we could have obtained it; but I
must go on with the historical part of things, and take every
part in its order.
172 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and
that he could understand almost all I said to him, and speak
fluently, though in broken English, to me, I acquainted him
with my own story, or at least so much of it as related to my
coming into this place ; how I had lived there, and how long :
Ilet him into the mystery, for such it was to him, of gun-
powder and bullet, and taught him how to shoot. I gave him
a knife, with which he was wonderfully delighted ; and I made
him a belt, with a frog hanging to it, suchas in England we
wear hangers in ; and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave
him a hatchet, which was not only as good a weapon in some
cases, but much more useful upon many occasions.

I described to him the countries of Europe, particularly
England, which I came from; how we lived, how we wor-
shiped God, how we behaved to one another, and how we
traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave himan account
of the wrsck which I had been on board of, and showed him,
as near as I could, the place where she lay: but she was all
beaten in pieces long before, and quite gone. I showed him
the ruins of our boat, which we lost when we escaped, and which
I could not. stir with my whole strength then ; but was now
fallen almost all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood
musing a great while, and said nothing. I asked-him what it
was he studied upon. At last, says he, “ Me see such boat like
come to place at my nation.” I did not understand hima good
while ; but, at last, when I had examined further into it, I
understood by him, that a boat, such as that had been, came
on shore upon the country where he lived ; that is, as he ex-
plained it, was driven thither by stress of weather. _ I presently
imagined that some European ship must have been cast away
upon their coast, and the boat might get loose and drive
ashore; but was so dull that I never once thought of men
making their escape from a wreck thither, much less whence
they might come: so I only inquired after the description
of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough ; but brought
me better to understand him when he added with some warmth,
“We save the white mans from drown.” Then I presently
asked if there were any white mans, as he called them, in the
boat. “Yes,” he said; “the boat full of white mans.” I
asked him how many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I
asked him then what became of them. He told me, “They
live, they dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head ; for I presently im-
agined that these might be the men belonging to the ship that
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 178

was cast away in the sight of my island, as I now cailed it ; and
who, after the ship was struck on the rock and they saw her in-
evitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and were
landed upon that wild shore among the savages. Upon this I
inquired of him more critically what was become of them.
He assured me they lived still there ; that they had been there
about four years ; that the savages left them alone, and gave
them victuals to live. I asked him how it came to pass that
they did not kill them and eat them. He said, “No, they
make brother with them ;” that is, as I understood him, a
truce ; and then he added, “ They no eat mans but when make
the war fight ;” that is to say, they never eat any men but
such as come to fight with them, aud are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the
top of the hill, at the east side of the island, from whence, as I
have said, I had, in a clear day, discovered the main or continent
of America, Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very
earnestly towards the mainland, and, in a kind of surprise,
falls a-jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at
some distance from him. I asked him what was the matter.
“ Oh, joy!” says he; “oh, glad! there see my country, there
my nation !” I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure ap-
peared in his face and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance
discovered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his
own country again. This observation of mine put a great
many thoughts into me, which made me at first not so
easy about my new man Friday as I was before ; and I made no
doubt but that, if Friday could get back to his own nation
again, he would not only forget all his religion, but all his ob-
ligation to me, and would be forward enough to give his
countrymen an account of me, and come back, perhaps, with a
hundred or two of them, and make a feast upon me, at which
he might be as merry as he used to be with those of his enemies,
when they were taken in war. But I wronged the poor honest’
creature very much, for which I was very sorry afterwards.
However, as my jealousy increased, and held me some weeks,
I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar and kind
to him as before: in which I was certainly in the wrong too:
the honest grateful creature having no thought about it, but
what consisted with the best principles both as a religious
Christian, and as a grateful friend ; as appeared afterwards to
my full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was
every day pumping him, to see if he would discover any of the
new thoughts which I suspected were in him; but I found
174 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

everything he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could
find nothing to nourish my suspicion ; and, in spite of all my
uneasiness, he made me at last entirely his own again ; nor did
he in the least perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could
not suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being
hazy at sea, so that we could not see the continent, I called to
him, and said, “ Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own
country, your own nation?” Yes,” he said, “I be much O
glad to beat my own nation.” ‘ What would you do there?”
said I: “ would you turn wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and
be a savage, as you were before?” He looked full of concern,
and shaking his head, said, “ No, no; Friday tell them to live
good; tell them to pray God: tell them to eat corn-bread,
cattle-flesh, milk ; no eat managain.” “ Why, then,” said I to
him, “they will kill you.” He looked grave at that, and then
said, “ No, no; they no kill me, they willing love learn.” He
meant by this, they would be willing to learn. He added, they
learned much of the bearded mans that came in the boat. Then
I asked him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that,
and told me he could not swim so far. I told him, I would
makeacanoeforhim. He told me he would go if I would go
with him. “I go!” saysI; “why they will eat me if I come
there.” “No, no,” says he, “me make them no eat you; me
make them much love you.” He meant, he would tell them how
I had killed his enemies, and saved his life,and so he would
make themlove me. Then he told me, as well as he could, how
kind they were to seventeen white men, or bearded men as he
called them, who came on shore in distress,

From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over, and
see if I could possibly join with those bearded men, who, I
made no doubt, were Spaniards or Portuguese ; not doubting
but, if I could, we might find some method to escape from
thence, being upon the continent, and a good company to-
gether, better than I could from an island forty miles off the
shore, alone, and without help. So, after some days, I took
Friday to work again, by way of discourse, and told him I
would give him a boat to go back to his own nation ; and, ac-
cordingly, I carried him to my frigate, which lay on the other
side of the island, and having cleared it of water (for I always
kept it sunk in the water) I brought it out, showed it him, and
we both went into it. I found he wasa most dexterous fellow
at managing it and would make it go almost as swift and
fast again asI could. So when he was in, I said to him,
“ Well, now, Friday, shall we go to your nation?” He looked
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 175

very dull at my saying so; which it seems was because he
thought the boat too small to goso far. Ithen told him I had
a bigger ; so the next day I went to the place where the first
boat lay which I had made, but which I could not get into the
water. He said that was big enough ; but then, as I had taken
no care of it, and it had lain two or three and twenty years
there, the sun had split and dried it, that it wasrotten. Friday
told me that such a boat would do very well, and would carry
“much enough vittle, drink, bread ;”—that was his way of
talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design
of going over with him to the continent, that I told him we
would go and make one as big as that, and he should go home
in it. He answered not one word, but looked very grave and
sad. Iasked him what was the matter with him, He asked
me again, “Why you angry mad with Friday?—what me
done?” Jasked him what he meant. I told him I was not angry
with him at all. “No angry ?” says he, repeating the words
several times; “ why send Friday home away to my nation ?”
“Why, ” says I, “ Friday, did not you say you wished you were
there?” “Yes, yes,” says he, “wish we both there ;.no wish
Friday there, no master there.” Ina word, he would not think
of going there without me. “TI go there, Friday?” saysI:
“ what shall I do there?” He turned very quick upon me at
this. “You do great deal much good,” says he ; “you teach
wild mans be good, sober, tame mans ; you tell them know God,
pray God,.and live new life.” “ Alas, Friday !” says I, “thou
knowest not what thou sayest ; I am but an ignorant man my-
self.” “Yes, yes,” says he, “ you teachee me good, you teachee
them good.” “No, no, Friday,” says I, “you shall go without
me; leave me here to live by myself, as I did before.” He
looked confused again at that word ; and running to one of his
hatchets which he used to wear, he takes it up hastily, and gives
ittome. ‘“ What must Ido with this?” saysItohim. “You
take kill Friday,” sayshe. ‘ What must I kill youfor?” said
I again. He returns very quick: “ What you send Friday
away for? Take kill Friday, no send Friday away.” This he
spoke so earnestly that I saw tears stand in his eyes. In a word,
Iso plainly discovered the utmost affection in him to me, and a
firm resolution in him, that I told him then, and often after,
that I would never send him away from me, if he was willing
to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled af-
fection to me, and that nothing could part him from me, so I
found all the foundation of his desire to go to his own country
176 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

was laid in his ardent affection to the people, and his hopes of
my doing them good; a thing which, as I had no notion of
myself, so I had not the least thought, or intention, or desire of
undertaking it. But still I found astrong inclination to my at-
tempting an escape, founded on the supposition gathered from
the former discourse, that there were seventeen bearded men
there ; and therefore, without any more delay, I went to work
with Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a
large periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were
trees enough in the island to have built a little fleet, not of per-
jaguas or canoes, but even of good large vessels ; but the main
thing I looked at was, to get one so near the water that we
might launch it when it was made, to avoid the mistake I com-
mitted at first. At last, Friday pitched upon a tree; for I
found he knew much better than I what kind of wood was fit-
test for it ; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the
tree we cut down, except that it was very like the tree we call
fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was
much of the same color and smell. Friday was for burning
the hollow or cavity of this tree out, to make it into a boat, but
I showed him how rather to cut it with tools; which, after I
had showed him how to use, he did very handily ; and in about
a month’s hard labor, we finished it and made it very handsome ;
especially, when, with our axes, whichI showed him how to
handle, we cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat
After this, however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her
along, as it were, inch by inch, upon great rollersinto the water ;
but when she was in, she would have carried twenty men with
great ease.

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it amazed
me to see with what dexterity and how swift my man Friday
could manage her, turn her, and paddle her along. So I asked
him if we would, and if we might venture over in her. ‘ Yes,”
he said ; “we venture over in her very well, though great blow
wind.” However, I had a farther design that he knew noth-
ing of, and that was to make a mast and a sail, and to fit her
with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough
to get ; soI pitched upon a straight young cedar tree, which
I found near the place, and which there was great plenty of in
the island, and I set Friday to work to cut it down, and gave
him directions how to shape and order it. But as to the sail,
that was my particular care. I knew I had old sails, or rather
pieces of old sails, enough ; but as I had had them now six-
and-twenty years by me, and had not been very careful to pre-
serve them, not imagining that I should ever have this kind of
Sg

es
aes 2 ber oN y)
ee: ee

iS



CRUSOE AND FRipAY LAUNCH THE Boat.—Page 176.
ROBINSON. CRUSOE. 177

use for them, I did not doubt but they were all rotten ; and,
indeed, most of them were so. However, I found two pieces,
which appeared pretty good, and with these I went to work;
and with a great dealof pains, and awkward, tedious stitching,
you may be sure, for want of needles, I at length made a three-
cornered ugly thing, like what we call in England a shoulder-
of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at bottom, and a little short
sprit at the top, such as usually our ships’ longboats sail with,
and such as I best knew how to manage, because it was such a
one as I used in the boat in which I made my escape from Bar-
bary, as related in the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work—viz., rig-
ging and fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them very
complete, making a small stay, and a sail or foresail to it, to
assist if we should turn to windward; and, which was more
than all, I fixed arudder tothe stern of her to steer with. And
though I was but a bungling shipwright, yet as I knew the
usefulness, and even the necessity of such a thing, I applied
myself with so much pains to do it, that at last I brought it to
pass ; though, considering the many dull contrivances I had
for it that failed, [think it cost me almost as much labor as
making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as to
what belonged to the navigation of my boat; for, though he
knew very well how to paddle the canoe, he knew nothing of
what belonged to a sail and a rudder; and was the most
amazed when he saw me work the boat to and again inf the sea
by the rudder, and how the sail gibbed, and filled this way
or that way, as the course we sailed changed ; I say, when he
saw this, he stood like one astonished and amazed. However,
with a little use, I made all these things familiar to him, and
he became an expert sailor, except that as to the compass I
could make him understand very little of that. On the other
hand, as there was very little cloudy weather, and seldom or
never any fogs in those parts, there was the less occasion for
the compass, seeing the stars were always to be seen by night,
and the shore by day, except in the rainy seasons, and then no-
body cared to stir abroad either by land or sea.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my
captivity in this place ; though the three last years that I had
this creature with me ought rather to be left out of the account,
my habitation being quite of another kind than in all the rest
of my time. I kept the anniversary of my landing here with
the same thankfulness to God for his mercies as at first: and
if Thad such cause of acknowledgment at first, ] had much
178 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

more so now, having such additional testimonies of the care of
Providence over me, and the great hopes I had of being effect-
ually and speedily delivered ; for I had an invincible im-
pression upon my thoughts that my deliverance was at hand,
and that I should not be another year in this place. However,
I went on with my husbandry ; digging, planting, and fencing,
as usual. I gathered and cured my grapes, and did every
necessary thing as before.

The rainy season was in the meantime upon me, when I
kept more within doors than at other times. I had stowed
our new vessel as secure as we could, bringing her up into the
creek, where, as Isaid in the beginning, I landed my rafts from
the ship ; and hauling her up to the shore at high-water mark,
I made my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to
hold her, and just deep enough to give her water enough to
float in ; and then, when the tide was out, we made a strong
dam across the end of it, to keep the water out ; and so she
lay dry as to the tide from the sea: and to keep the rain off,
we laida great many boughs of trees, so thick that she was as
well thatched as a house ; and thus we waited for the months
of November and December, in which I designed to make my
adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought
of my design returned with the fair weather, I was preparing
daily for the voyage. And the first thing I did was to lay by
a certain quantity of provisions, being the stores for our voy-
age; and intended, ina week or a fortnight’s time, to open
the dock, and launch out our boat. I was busy one morning
upon something of this kind, when I called to Friday, and bid
him go to the seashore, and see if he could find a turtle or
tortoise, a thing which we generally got once a week, for the
sake of the eggs, as well as the flesh. Friday had not been
gone long when he came running back, and flew over my outer
wall, or fence, like one that felt not the ground, or the steps
he set his feet on; and before I had time to speak to him, he
criesout to me“ Omaster! Omaster! Osorrow! Obad!”
“ What’s the matter, Friday?” said I. “Oh! yonder, there,”
says he; “one, two, three canoes ; one, two, three!” By this
way of speaking, I concluded there were six ; but on inquiry I
found there were but three. “ Well, Friday,” says I, “do not be
frightened.” SoIheartened him up as wellasI could. How-
ever, I saw the poor fellow was most terribly scared, for nothing
ran in his head but that they were come back to look for him,
and would cut him in pieces and eat him; and the poor fellow
trembled so that Iscarcely knew what to do with him, I com-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 179

forted him as well as I could, and told him I was in as much
danger as he, and that they would eat me as well as him.
“ But,” said I,“ Friday, we must resolve to fight them. Can
you fight, Friday?” “ Me shoot,” says he ; “but there come
many great number.” “No matter for that,” said I, again ;
“ our guns will fright them that we do not kill.” So I asked
him whether, if I resolved to defend him, he would defend me,
and stand by me, and do just as I bid him. He said, “ Me die,
when you bid die, master.” SolI went and fetched a good
dram of rum and gave him ; for I had been so good a husband
of my rum, that I had a great deal left. When he had drunk
it, I made him take the two fowling-pieces, which we always
carried, and load them with large swanshot, as big as small
pistol-bullets. Then I took four muskets, and loaded them
with two slugs, and five small bullets each ; and my two pistols
I loaded with a brace ef bullets each. I hung my great sword,
as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet.
When [ had thus prepared myself, I took my perspective-glass,
and went up to the side of the hill, to see what I could discover ;
and I found quickly by my glass that there were one-and-
twenty savages, three prisoners, and three canoes ; and that
their whole business seemed to be the triumphant banquet upon
these three human bodies ; a barbarous feast indeed, but nothing
more than, as J had observed, was usual with them. I observed
also that they landed, not where they had done when Friday
made his escape, but nearer to my creek, where the shore was
low, and where a thick wood came close almost down to the sea.
This, with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches
came about, filled me with such indignation that I came down
again to Friday, and told him I was resolved to go down to
them, and kill them all ; and asked him if he would stand by me,
He had now got over his fright, and his spirits being a little
raised with the dram I had given him, he was very cheerful,
and told me, as before, he would die when I bid die.

In this fit of fury I took first and divided the arms which I
had charged, as before, between us ; I gave Friday one pistol
to stick in his girdle, and three guns upon his shoulder, and I
took one pistol_and the other three myself ; and in this posture
we marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my pocket,
and gave Friday a large bag with more powder and bullets ;
and as to orders, I charged him to keep close behind me, and
not to stir, or shoot, or do anything till I bid him, and in the
meantime not to speak a word. In this posture I fetched a
compass to my right hand of near a mile, as well to get over
the creek as to get into the wood, so that 1 might come within
180 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

shot of them before I should be discovered, which I had seen
by my glass it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts re-
turning, I began to abate my resolution—I do not mean that
Tentertained any fear of their number, for, as they were naked,
unarmed wretches, it is certain I was superior to them—nay,
though I had been alone. But it occurred to my thoughts,
what call, what occasion, much less what necessity, I was in to
go and dip my hands in blood, to attack people who had
neither done nor intended me any wrong ?—who, as to me, were
innocent, and whose barbarous customs. were their own dis-
aster, being in them a token, indeed, of God’s having left them,
with the other nations of that part of the world, to such stu-
pidity, and to such inhuman courses, but did not call me to
take upon me to be a judge of their actions, much less an exe-
cutioner of his justice—that whenever he thought fit he would
take the cause into his own hands, and by national vengeance
punish them for national crimes ; but that, in the meantime,
it was none of my business—that it was true Friday might
justify it, because he was a declared enemy, and in a state of
war with those very particular people, and it was lawful for
himtoattack them ; but I could not say the same with regard
to myself. These things were so warmly pressed upon my
thoughts all the way as I went, that I resolved I would only
go and place myself near them that I might observe their bar-
barous feast, and that I would act then as God should direct ;
and that unless something offered that was more a call to me
than yet I knew of, I would not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and with all pos-
sible wariness and silence, Friday following close at my heels,
I marched till I came to the skirt of the wood on the side which
was next to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between
meandthem. Here I called softly to Friday, and showing him
a great tree, which was just at the corner of the wood, I bade
him go to the tree, and bring me word if he could see there
plainly what they were doing. He did so, and came im-
mediately back to me, and told me they might be plainly
viewed there—that they were all about their fire eating the
flesh of one of their prisoners, and that another lay bound upon
the sand alittle from them, whom he said they would kill next ;
and this fired the very soul within me. He told me it was not
one of their nation but one of the bearded men whom he had
told me of, that came to their country in a boat. I was filled
with horror at the very naming of the white, bearded man ;
and going to the tree, [saw plainly by my glass a white man,


“WITH THAT I FIRED AMONG THE AMAZED SAVAGES.”’—Page 181
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 181

who lay upon the beach of the sea with his hands and feet
tied with flags, or things like rushes, and that he was a European
and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it, about
fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I was, which
by going a little way about, I saw I might come at undis-
covered, and that then I should be within half a shot of them;
so I withheld my passion, though I was indeed enraged to
the highest degree; and going back about twenty paces, I got
behind some bushes, which held all the way till I came to the
other tree, and then came to a little rising ground, which gave
me a full view of them at the distance of about eighty yards.

Ihad now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dread-
ful wretches sat upon the ground, all close huddled together,
and had just sent the other two to butcher the poor Christian,
and bring him perhaps limb by limb to their fire, and they
were stooping down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned
toFriday. “Now, Friday,” said I,“doasI bid thee.” Friday
said he would. “Then, Friday,” said I, “do exactly as you
see me do; fail in nothing.” So I set down one of the muskets
and the fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday did the
like by his, and with the other musket I took my aim at the
savages, bidding him do the like; then asking him if he was
ready, he said, “ Yes.” “Then fire at them,” said I; and at
the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side
that he shot he killed two of them, and wounded three more;
and on my side I killed one, and wounded two. They were,
you may be sure, in a dreadful consternation; and all of them
that were not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not
immediately know which way to run, or which way to look,
for they knew not from whence their destruction came.
Friday kept his eyes close upon me, that, as I had bid him, he
might observe what I did; so, as soon as the first shot was
made, I threw down the piece, and took up the fowling-piece,
and Friday did the like; he saw me cock and present; he did
the same again. “ Are you ready, Friday?” said I. “Yes,”
sayshe. “Let fly, then,” said I, “in the name of God!” and
with that I fired again among the amazed wretches, and so
did Friday; and as our pieces were now loaded with what I
call swanshot, or small pistol-bullets, we found only two
drop; but so many were wounded, that they ran about yelling
and screaming like mad creatures, all bloody, and most of
them miserably wounded; whereof three more fell quickly af-
ter, though not quite dead.
182 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

“Now, Friday,” said I, laying down the discharged pieces,
and taking up the musket which was yet loaded, “follow me,”
which he did with a great deal of courage; upon which I
rushed out of the wood and showed myself, and Friday close
at my foot. As soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted
as loud as I could, and bade Friday do so too, and running as
as fast as I could, which by the way was not very fast, being
loaded with arms as I was, I made directly toward the poor
victim, who was, as I said, lying upon the henoh or shore, be-
tween the place where they sat and the sea. Thetwo butchers
who were just going to work with him had left him at the
surprise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible fright to the sea-
side, and had jumped into a canoe, and three more of the rest
made the same way. I turned to Friday, and bade him step
forward and fire at them; he understood me immediately, and
running about forty yards to be nearer them, he shot at them;
and I thought he killed them all, for I saw them all- fall of a
heap into the boat, though I saw two of them up again
quickly; however, he killed two of them, and wounded the
third so that he lay down in the bottom of the boat as if he
had been dead. ~

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife
and cut the flags that bound the poor victim; and loosing his
hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him, in the Por-
tuguese tongue, what he was. He answered, in Latin, Christi-
anus; but was so weak and faint that he could scarce stand or
speak. I took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it him,
making signs that he should drink, which he did; and I gave
him a piece of bread, which he ate. Then I asked him what
countryman he was, and he said Espagnole; and being a little
recovered, let me know, by all the signs he could possibly
make, how much he was in my debt for his deliverance.
“Seignior,” said I, with as much Spanish as I could make up,
“we will talk afterwards, but we must fight now; if you have
any strength left, take this pistol and sword, and lay about
you.” He took them very thankfully; and no sooner had he
the arms in his hands, but, as if they had put new vigor into
him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had cut two
of them in pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as the whole
was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures were so much
frightened with the noise of our pieces that they fell down for
mere amazement and fear, and had no more power to attempt
their own escape, than their flesh had to resist our shot : and
that was the case of those five that Friday shot at in the boat;
‘eQl OSUg—aUVINVdY AHL Jo TAOsay


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 183

for as three of them fell with the hurt they received, so the
other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being will-
ing to keep my charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard
my pistol and sword; so I called to Friday, and bade him run
up to the tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the arms
which lay there that had been discharged, which he did with
great swiftness; and then giving him my musket,I sat down
myself to load all the rest again, and bade them come to me
when they wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there
happened a fierce engagement between the Spaniard and one
of the savages, who made at him with one of their great
wooden swords, the same weapon that was to have killed him
before, if I had not prevented it. The Spaniard, who was as
bold and brave as could be imagined, though weak, had fought
this Indian a good while, and had cut two great wounds on
his head; but the savage being a stout lusty fellow, closing in
with him, had thrown him down, being faint, and was wring-
ing my sword out of his hand; when the Spaniard, though
undermost, wisely quitted the sword, drew the pistol from his
girdle, shot the savage through the body, and killed him upon
the spot, before I, who was running to help him, could come
near him. ;

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying
wretches, with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet; and
with that he dispatched those three who, as I said before,
were wounded at first,and fallen, and all the rest he could
come up with: and the Spaniard coming to me fora gun, I gave
him one of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of
the savages, and wounded them both; but, as he was not able
to run, they both got from him into the wood, where Friday
pursued them, and killed one of them, but the other was too
nimble for him; and though he was wounded, yet had plunged
himself into the sea, and swam with all his might off to those
two who were left in the canoe; which three in the canoe, with
one wounded, that we knew not whether he died or no, were
all that escaped our hands, of one-and-twenty. The account of
the whole is as follows: Three killed at our first shot from
the tree; two killed at the next shot; two killed by Friday in
the boat; two killed by Friday, of those at first wounded; one
killed by Friday in the wood; three killed by the Spaniard; four
killed, being found dropped here and there, of the wounds,
or killed by Friday in his chase of them; four escaped in the
boat, whereof one wounded if not dead—twenty-one, in all,
184 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gun-
shot, and though Friday made two or three shots at them, I
did not find that he hit any of them. Friday would fain have
had me take one of their canoes, and pursue them ; and, indeed,
I was very anxious about their escape, lest, carrying the news
home to their people, they should come back perhaps with two
or three hundred of the canoes, and devour us by mere muiti-
tude ; soI consented to pursue them by sea, and running to
one of their canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me ;
but when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find another
poor creature lie there, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard
was, for the slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not knowing
what was the matter ; for he had not been able to look up over
the side of the boat, he was tied so hard, neck and heels, and
had been tied so long, that he had really little life in him.

Limmediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which. they
had bound him with, and would have helped him up, but he
could not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously, believ-
ing, it seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be
killed. When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him,
and tell him of his deliverance ; and pulling out my bottle,
made him give the poor wretch a dram ; which, with the news
of his being delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat.
But when Friday came to hear him speak, and look in his face,
it would have moved any one to tears to have seen how Friday
kissed him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed,
jumped about, danced, sung ; then cried again, wrung his
hands, beat his own face and head ; and thensung and jumped
about again like a distracted creature. It was a good while
before I could make him speak to me, or tell me what was the
matter; but when he came a little to himself, he told me that
it was his father,

It is not easy for meto express how it moved me to see what
ecstasy and filial affection had worked in this poor savage at
the sight of his father, and of his being delivered from death ;
nor, indeed, can I describe half the extravagances of his affec-
tion after this ; for he went into the boat, and out of the boat,
a great many times: when he went in to him, he would sit
down by him, open his breast, and hold his father’s head close
to his bosom half an hour together, to nourish it ; then he took
his arms and ankles, which were numbed and stiff with the
binding, and chafed and rubbed them with his hands ; and I,
perceiving what the case was, gave him some rum out of my
bottle to rub them with, which did them a great deal of good.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. . 185

other savages, who were now gotten almost out of sight ; and
it was happy for us that we did not, for it blew so hard with-
in two hours after, and before they could be got a quarter of
their way, and continued blowing so hard all night, and that
from the northwest, which was against them, that I could not
suppose their boat could live, or that they ever reached their
own coast.

But to return to Friday ; he was so busy about his father,
that I could not find in my heart to take him off for some time ;
but after I thought he could leave him a little I called him to
me, and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased to the
highest extreme ; then I asked him if he had given his father
any bread. He shook his head, and said, “None; ugly dog
eat all up self.” I then gave him acake of bread, out of a
little pouch I carried on purpose ; I also gave him a dram for
himself ; but he would not taste it, but carried it to his father.
I had in my pocket also two or three bunches of raisins, so I
gave him a handful of them for his father. He had no sooner
given his father these raisins, but Isaw him come out of the
boat, and run away asif he had been bewitched, for he was
the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever I saw ; I say, he ran
at such a rate that he was out of sight, as it were, in an instant ;
and though I called, and hallooed out, too, after him, it was
all one—away he went ; andin a quarter of an hourI saw him
come back again, though not so fast as he went; and, as he
came nearer, I found his pace slacker, because he had something
in his hand. When he came up to me, I found he had been
quite home for an earthen jug or pot, to bring his father some
fresh water, and that he had got two more cakes or loaves of
bread : the bread he gave me, but the water he carried to his
father ; however, as I was very thirsty too, I took a little sup
of it. This water revived his father more than all the rum or
spirits I had given him, for he was just fainting with thirst.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there
was any water left ; he said “ Yes” ; and I bade him give to
the poor Spaniard, who was in as much want of it as his
father ; and I sent one of the cakes, that Friday brought, to
the Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak, and was reposing
himself upon a green place under the shade of a tree; and
whose limbs were also very stiff, and very much swelled with
the rude bandage he had been tied with. WhenIsaw that upon
Friday’s coming to him with the water he sat up and drank,
and took the bread and began to eat, I went to him and gave
him a handful of raisins; he looked up in my face with all the
tokens of gratitude and thankfulness that could appear in any
186 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

countenance ; but was so weak, notwithstanding he had so
exerted himself in the fight, that he could not stand up upon
his feet ; he tried to do it two or three times, but was really
not able, his ankles were so swelled and so painful to him ; so
I bade him sit still, and caused Friday to rub his ankles, and
bathe them with rum, as he had done his father’s.

Tobserved the poor affectionate creature every two minutes,
or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turned his head about,
to see if his father was in the same place and posture as he left
him sitting ; and at last he found he was not to be seen; at
which he started up, and, without speaking a word, flew with
that swiftness to him that one could scarce perceive his feet
to touch the ground as he went: but when he came, he only
found he had laid himself down to ease his limbs, so Friday
came back to me presently ; and I then spoke to the Spaniard to
let Friday help him up, if he could, and lead him to the boat,
and then he should carry him to our dwelling, where I would
take care of him. But Friday, a lusty young fellow, took the
Spaniard quite up upon his back, and carried him away to the
boat, andsethim down softly upon the side or gunnel of the
canoe, with his feet in the inside of it ; and then lifted him quite
in, and set him close to his father ; and presently stepping out
again, launched the boat off, and paddled it along the shore
faster than I could walk, though the wind blew pretty hard
too ; so he brought them both safe into our creek, and, leaving
them in the boat, runs away to fetch the other canoe. As he

assed me I spoke to him, and asked him whither he went.
He told me, “ Go fetch more boat” ; so away he went like the
wind, for sure never man or horse ran like him; and he had
the other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I got to it by
land ; so he wafted me over, and then went to help our new
guests out of the boat, which he did; but they were neither
of them able to walk ; so that poor Friday knew not what to do.
. To remedy this, I went to work in my thought, and calling
to Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while he came to me,
Isoon made a kind of hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday
and I carried them up both together upon it between us.

But when we got themto the outside of our wall, or for-
tification, we were at a worse loss than before,for it was
impossible to get them over, and I was resolved not to break
it down ; so I set to work again, and Friday and I, in about
two hours’ time, made a very handsome tent, covered with old
sails, and above that with boughs of trees, being in the space
without our outward fence, and between that and the grove of
young wood which [had planted ; and here we made them two
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 187

beds of such things as I had, viz., of good rice straw, with
blankets laid upon it, to lie on, and another to cover them, on
each bed. -

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich
in subjects ; and it was a merry reflection, which I frequently
made, how like a king I looked. First of all, the whole coun-
try was my own mere property, so that I had an. undoubted
right of dominion. Secondly, my people were perfectly sub-
jected ; I was absolutely lord and lawgiver ; they all owed their
lives to me, and were ready to lay down their lives, if there
had been occasion for it, forme. It was remarkable, too, I had
but three subjects, and they were of three different religions :
my man Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Pagan and
a cannibal, and the Spaniard was a Papist. However, I allowed
liberty of conscience throughout my dominion. But this is by
the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued prisoners,
and given them shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I began
to think of making some provisions for them ; and the first
thing I did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt
a kid anda goat, out of my particular flock, to be killed ; when
I cut off the hinder quarter, and chopping it into small pieces,
I set Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made them
a very good dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth, having put
some barley and rice also into the broth ; and as I cooked it
without doors, for I made no fire within my inner wall, so I
carried it all into the new tent, and having set a table there
for them, I sat down, and ate my own dinner also with them,
and, as well as I could, cheered them and encouraged them.
Friday was my interpreter, especially to his father, and, indeed,
to the Spaniard too ; for the Spaniard spoke the language of
the savages pretty well. ;

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to
take one of the canoes and go and fetch our muskets and other
firearms, which, for want of time, we had left upon the place
of battle; and, the next day, I ordered him to go and bury
the dead bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and
would presently be offensive. I also ordered him to bury the
horrid remains of their barbarous feast, which I could not
think of doing myself : nay, I could not bear to see them, if I
went that way ; all which he punctually performed, and defaced
the very appearance of the savages being there ; so that when
I went again, I could scarce know where it was, otherwise
than by the corner of the wood pointing to the place.

I them began to enter into alittle conversation with my two
188 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

new subjects; and, first, Iset Friday to inquire of his father
what he thought of the escape of the savages in that canoe, and
whether we might expect a return of them, with a power too
great for us to resist. His first opinion was, that the savages
in the boat never could live out the storm which blew that
night they went off, but must, of necessity, be drowned, or
driven south to those other shores, where they were as sure
to be devoured as they were to be drowned if they were cast
away ; but, as to what they would do if they came safe on
shore, he said he knew not; but it was his opinion that they
were so dreadfully frightened with the manner of their being
attacked, the noise, and the fire, that he believed they would
tell the people they were all killed by thunder and lightning,
not by the hand of men; and that the two which appeared,
viz., Friday and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies, come
down to destroy them, and not men with weapons. This he
said he knew because he heard them all cry out so, in their
language, one to another; for it was impossible for them to
conceive that a man could dart fire, and speak thunder, and
kill at a distance without lifting up the hand, as was done now ;
and this old savage was in the right ; for, as I understood
since, by other hands, the savages never attempted to go
over to the island afterwards ; they were so terrified with the
accounts given by those four men (for it seems they did escape
the sea), that they believed whoever went to that enchanted is-
land would be destroyed with fire from the gods. This, how-
ever, I knew not, and therefore was under continual appre-
hension for a good while, and kept always upon my guard, I
and all my army; for, as we were now four of us, I would
have ventured upon a hundred of them, fairly in the open field,
at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear
of their coming wore off ; and I began to take my former
thoughts of a voyage to the main into consideration ; being
likewise assured by Friday’s father that I might depend upon
good usage from their nation, on his account, if I would go.
But my thoughts were a little suspended when J had a serious
discourse with the Spaniard, and when I understood that there
were sixteen more of his countrymen and Portuguese, who,
having been cast away and made their escape to that side, lived
there at peace, indeed, with the savages, but were very sore put
to it for necessaries, and, indeed, for life. I asked him all the
particulars of their voyage, and found they werea Spanish ship,
bound from the Rio de la Plata to the Havanna, being directed
to leave their loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 189

and to bring back what European goods they could meet with
there; that they had five Portuguese seamen on board, whom
they took out of another wreck ; that five of their own men
were drowned, when first the ship was lost, and that these
escaped through infinite danger and hazards, and arrived, almost
starved, on the cannibal coast, where they expected to have
been devoured every moment. He told me they had some
arms with them, but they were perfectly useless, for that they
had neither powder nor ball, the washing of the sea having
spoiled all their powder but a little, which they used, at their
first landing, to provide themselves some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of them there,
and if they had formed no design of making any escape. He
said they had many consultations about it; but that having
neither vessel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any kind,
their councils always ended in tears and despair. I asked him
how he thought they would receive a proposal from me, which
might tend towards an escape; and whether, if they were all
here, it might not be done. I told him with freedom, I feared
mostly their treachery and ill-usage of me, if I put my life in
their hands; for that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the
nature of man, nor did men always square their dealings by the
obligations they had received so much as they did by the ad-
vantages they expected. I told him it would be very hard
that I should be the instrument of their deliverance, and that
they should afterwards make me their prisoner in New Spain,
where an Englishman was certain to be made a sacrifice, what
necessity, or what accident soever brought him thither ; and
that I had rather be delivered up to the savages, and be de-
voured alive, than fall into the merciless claws of the priests,
and be carried into the Inquisition. I added that, otherwise, I
was persuaded, if they were all here, we might, with so many
hands, build a bark large enough to carry us all away, either
to the Brazils southward, or to the islands or Spanish coast
northward ; but that if, in requital, they should, when I had
put weapons into their hands, carry me by force among their
own people, I might be ill used for my kindness to them, and
make my case worse than it was before.

He answered, with a great deal of candor and ingenuousness,
that their condition was so miserable, and that they were so
sensible of it, that he believed they would abhor the thought
of using any man unkindly that should contribute to their
deliverance ; and that, if I pleased, he would go to them, with
the old man, and discourse with them about it and return again,
and bring me their answer: that he would make conditions
190 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

with them upon their solemn oath, that they should be abso-
lutely under my direction, as their commander and captain ; and
they should swear upon the holy sacrament and gospel, to be
true to me, and go to such Christian country as I should agree
to, and no other; and to be directed wholly and absolutely by
my orders, till they were landed safely in such country as I in-
tended ; and that he would bring a contract from them, under
their hands, for that purpose. ‘Then he told me he would first
swear to me himself, that he would never stir from me as long
as he lived, till I gave him orders ; and that he would take my
side to the last drop of his blood, if there should happen the
least breach of faith among his countrymen. He told me they
were all of them very civil, honest men, and they were under
the greatest distress imaginable, having neither weapons nor
clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy and discretion of the
savages; out of all hopes of ever returning to their own coun-
try; and that he was sure, if I would undertake their relief,
they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them,
if possible, and to send the old savage and this Spaniard over
to them to treat. But when we had got all things in readiness
to go, the Spaniard himself started an objection, which had so
much prudence in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on the
other hand, that I could not but be very well satisfied in it ;
and, by his advice, put off the deliverance of his comrades for
at least half a year. The case was thus: he had been with us
now about a month, during which time I had let him see in
what manner I had provided, with the assistance of Providence,
for my support ; and he saw evidently what stock of corn and
rice I had Jaid up; which, though it was more than sufficient
for myself, yet it was not sufficient, without good husbandry,
for my family, now it was increased to four; but much less
would it be sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he said,
fourteen, still alive, should come over ; and, least of all would
it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if we should build one, fora
voyage to any of the Christian colonies of America ; so he told
me he thought it would be more advisable to let him and the
other two dig and cultivate some more land, as much asI could
spare seed to sow, and that we should wait another harvest, that
we might have a supply of corn for his countrymen, when they
should come; for want might be a temptation to them to dis-
agree, or not to think themselves delivered, otherwise than out
of one difficulty into another. ‘ You know,” says he, “ the
children of Israel, though they rejoiced at first for their being
delivered out of Egypt, yet rebelled even against God himself,
. ROBINSON CRUSOE. 191

that delivered them, when they came to want bread in the
wilderness.”

His caution was*so seasonable, and his advice so good, that
I could not but be very well pleased with his proposal, as well
as I was satisfied with his fidelity ; so we fell to digging, all
four of us, as well as the wooden tools we were furnished with

ermitted ; and in about a month’s time, by the end of which
it was seed-time, we had got as much land cured and trimmed
up, a8 we sowed two-and-twenty bushels of barley on, and six-
teen jars of rice, which was, in short, all the seed we had to
spare ; indeed, we left ourselves barely sufficient for our own
food for the six months that we had to expect our crop ; that
is to say, reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for
sowing ; for itis not to be supposed it is six months in the
ground. in that country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient
to put us out of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless
their number had been very great, we went freely all over the
island, whenever we found occasion ; and as we had our escape
or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at least
for me, to have the means of it out of mine. For this purpose,
I marked out several trees which I thought fit for our work,
and I set Friday and his father to cut them down ; and then I
caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thoughts on that
affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed them with
what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single
planks, and I caused them to do the like, till they had made
about a dozen large planks of good oak, near two feet broad,
thirty-five feet long, and from two inches to four inches thick ;
what prodigious labor it took up, any one may imagine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little stock of
tame goats as much as I could; and for this purpose I made
Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and myself with
Friday the next day (for we took our turns), and by this
means we got about twenty young kids to breed up with the
rest ; for whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids and
added them to our flock. But, above all, the season for curing
the grapes coming on, I caused such a prodigious quantity to
be hung up in the sun, that, I believe, had we been at Alicant,
where the raisins of the sun are cured, we could have filled
sixty or eighty barrels; and these, with our bread, formed a
great part of our food—very good living too, I assure you, for
they are exceeding nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order; it was not
the most plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but, how-
192 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ever, it was enough to answer our end; for,from twenty-two
bushels of barley, we brought in and thrashed out above two
hundred and twenty bushels; and the like in proportion of the
rice; which was store enough for our food to the next harvest,
though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore with me;
or, if we had been ready fora voyage, it would very plentifully
have-victualed our ship to have carried us to any part of the
world, that is to say, of America. When we had thus housed
and secured our magazine of corn, we fell to work to make
more wickerwork, viz., great baskets, in which we kept it; and
the Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at this part, and often
blamed me that I did not make some things for defense of
this kind of work; but I saw no need of it.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests
expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over the main, to
see what he could do with those he had left behind him there.
I gave him a strict charge not to bring any man with him who
would not first swear, in the presence of himself and the old
savage, that he would no way injure, fight with, or attack the
person he should find in the island, who was so kind as to
send for them in order to their deliverance; but that they
would stand by him and defend him against all such attempts,
and wherever they went, would be entirely under and subjected
to his command ; and that this should be put in writing, and
signed with their hands. How.they were to have done this,
when I knew they had neither pen nor ink—that, indeed, was
a question which we never asked. Under these instructions,
the Spaniard and the old savage, the father of Friday, went
away in one of the canoes which they might be said to have
come in, orrather were brought in, when they came as prisoners
to be devoured by the savages. I gave each of them a musket,
with a firelock on it, and about eight charges of powder and
ball, charging them to be very good husbands of both, and
not to use either of them but upon urgent occasion.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by
me, in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven years
and some days. I gave them provisions of bread, and of dried
grapes, sufficient for themselves for many days, and sufficient
for all the Spaniards for about eight days’ time ; and wishing
them a good voyage, I saw them go, agreeing with them about
a signal they should hang out at their return, by which I
should know them again, when they came back, at a distance,
before they came on shore. They went away, with a fair
gale, on the day the moon was at full, by my account, in the
month of October ; but as for an exact reckoning of days, after
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 193

I had once lost it, I could never recover it again ; nor had I
kept even the number of years so punctually as to be sure I
was right, though, as it proved, when I afterwards examined
my account, I found I had kept a true reckoning of years.

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when
a strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the
like has not, perhaps, been heard of in history. I was fast asleep
in my hutch one morning, when my man Friday came running
in to me, and called aloud, “ Master, master, they are come,
they are come!” I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I
went out as soon as I could get my clothes on, through my
little grove, which, by the way, was by this time grown to be
a very thick wood ; I say, regardless of danger, I went without
my arms, which was not my custom to do : but I was surprised,
when, turning my eyes to the sea,I presently saw a boat at
about a league and a half distance, standing in for the shore,
with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it,and the wind
blowing pretty fair to bring them in : also I observed, presently,
that they did not come from that side which the shore lay on,
but from the southernmost end of the island. Upon this
I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these were not
the people we looked for, and that we might not know yet
whether they were friends or enemies. In the next place, I
went in to fetch my perspective-glass, to see what I could
make of them ; and, having taken the ladder out, I climbed
up to the top of the hill, as I used to do when I was apprehen-
sive of anything, and to take my view plainer, without being
discovered. I had scarce set my foot upon the hill, when my
eye plainly discovered a ship lying at an anchor, at about two
leagues and a half distance from me,8.8.E., but not above a
league and a half from the shore. By my observation, it ap-
peared plainly to be an English ship, and the boat appeared to
be an English longboat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of
seeing a ship, and one that I had reason to believe was manned
by my own countrymen, and consequently friends, was such as
I cannot describe ; but-yet I had some secret doubts hung
about me—I cannot tell from whence they came—bidding me
keep upon my guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to
consider what business an English ship could have in that
part of the world, since it was not the way to or from any part
of the world where the English had any traffic ; and I knew
there had been no storms to drive them in there, in distress ;
and that if they were really English, it was most probable that
they were here upon no good designs ; and that I had better
194 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

continue as I was, than fall into the hands of thieves and
murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger
which sometimes are given him when he may think there is no
possibility of its being real. That such hints and notices are
given us,I believe few that have made any observations of
things can deny ; that they are certain discoveries of an invis-
ible world, and a converse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if
the tendency of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why
should we not suppose they are from some friendly agent,
(whether supreme, or inferior and subordinate, is not the ques-
tion), and that they are given for our good?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice
of this reasoning ; for had I not been made cautious by this
secret admonition, come it from whence it will, I had been un-
done inevitably, and in a far worse condition than before, as
you will see presently. I had not kept myself long in this
posture, till I saw the boat draw near the shore, as if they
looked for a creek to thrust it in at, for convenience of landing ;
however, as they did not come quite far enough, they did not
see the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but ran
their boat on shore upon the beach, at about half a mile from
me ; which was very happy for me; for otherwise they would
have landed just at my door,as [may say,and would soon
have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps have plundered
me of all Thad. When they were on shore, I was fully satis-
fied they were Englishmen, at least most of them ; one or two
I thought were Dutch, but it did not prove so ; there were in
all eleven men, whereof three of them I found were unarmed,
and, as I thought, bound ; and when the first four or five of
them were jumped on shore, they took those three out of the
boat, as prisoners : one of the three I could perceive using the
most passionate gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair,
even toa kind of extravagance ; the other two, I could perceive,
lifted up their hands sometimes, and appeared concerned, in-
deed, but not to such a degree as the first. I was perfectly
confounded at the sight, and knew not what the meaning of it
should be. Friday called out to me in English, as well as he
could, “O master! yousee English mans eat prisoner as well
as savage mans.” “ Why, Friday,” says I, “do you think
they are going to eat them, then ?”—“ Yes,” says Friday,
“they will eat them.”—“No,no,” says I, “Friday ; I am
afraid they will murder them, indeed ; but you may be sure
they will not eat them.”

_ All this while I had no thought of what the matter really
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 195

was, but stood trembling with the horror of the sight, expect-
ing every moment when the three prisoners should be killed ;
nay, once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm with a great
cutlass, as the seamen call it,or sword, to strike one of the
poor men ; and I expected to see him fall every moment; at
which all the blood in my body seemed to run chill in my
veins. I wished heartily now for my Spaniard, and the savage
that was gone with him, or that I had any way to have come
undiscovered within shot of them, that I might have secured
the three men, for I saw no firearms they had among them ;
but it fell out to my mind another way. After I had observed
the outrageous usage of the three men by the insolent seamen,
I observed the fellows run scattering about the land, as if they
wanted to see the country. I observed also that the three
other men had liberty to go where they pleased ; but they sat
down all three upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like
men in despair. This put me in mind of the first time when I
came on shore, and began to look about me; how I gave my-
self over for lost ; how wildly I looked round me ; what dread-
ful apprehensions I had; and how I lodged in the tree all
night, for fear of being devoured by wild beasts. As I knew
nothing, that night, of the supply I was to receive by the
providential driving of the ship nearer the land by the storms
and tide, by which I have since been so long nourished and
supported ; so these three poor desolate men knew nothing
how certain of deliverance and supply they were, how near it
was to them,and how effectually and really they were in a
condition of safety, at the same time they thought themselves
lost, and their case desperate. So little do we see before us in
the world, and so much reason have we to depend cheerfully
upon the great Maker of the world, that he does not leave
his creatures so absolutely destitute, but that, in the worst
circumstances, they have always something to be thankful for,
and sometimes are nearer their deliverance than they imagine ;
nay, are even brought to their deliverance by the means by
which they seem to be brought to their destruction.

It was just at the top of high water when these people came
on shore ; and while they rambled about to see what kind of
a place they were in, they had carelessly stayed till the tide
was spent, and the water was ebbed considerably away, leav-
ing their boat aground. They had left two men in the boat,
who as I found afterwards, having drunk a little too much
brandy, fell asleep ; however, one of them waking a little
sooner than the other, and finding the boat too fast aground
for him to stir it, hallooed out for the rest, who were strag-
196 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

gling about ; upon which they all soon came to the boat ; but
it was past all their strength to launch her, the boat being
very heavy, and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand,
almost like a quicksand. In this condition, like true seamen,
who are, perhaps, the least of all mankind given to forethought,
they gave it over, and away they strolled about the country
again ; and J heard one of them say aloud to another, calling
them off from the boat, “ Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t you ?
she’ll float next tide ;” by which I was fully confirmed in the
main inquiry of what countrymen they were. ‘All this while
I kept myself close, not once daring to stir out of my castle,
any farther than to my place of observation, near the top of
the hill ; and very glad I was to think how well it was forti-
fied. I knew it was no less than ten hours before the boat
could float again, and by that time it would be dark, and I
might be at more liberty to see their motions, and to hear
their discourse, if they had any. In the meantime, I fitted
myself up for a battle,as before, though with more caution,
knowing I had to do with another kind of enemy than I had
at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had made an excellent
marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms. I took
myself two fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets.
My figure, indeed, was very fierce ; I had my formidable goat-
skin coat on, with the great cap I have mentioned, a naked
sword, two pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any
attempt till it was dark ; but about two o’clock, being the heat
of the day, I found, in short, they were all gone straggling into
the woods, and, as I thought, were all laid down to sleep. The
three poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition to
get any sleep, had, however, sat down under the shelter of a
great tree,at about a quarter of a mile from me, and,as I
thought, out of sight of any of the rest. Upon this I resolved
to discover myself to them, and learn something of their
condition ; immediately I marched as above, my man Friday
at a good distance behind me, as formidable for his arms as I,
but not making quite so staring a specter-like figure as I did.
I came as near them undiscovered as I could, and then, before
any of them saw me, I called aloud to them in Spanish, “ What
are ye, gentlemen?” They started up at the noise, but were
ten times more confounded when they saw me, and the uncouth
figure that Imade. They made no answer at all, but I thought
I perceived them just going to fly from me, when I spoke to
them in English ; “ Gentlemen, ” said I, “do not be surprised
at me: perhaps you may have a friend near, when you did not
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 197

expect it.” “He must be sent directly from heaven, then,”
said one of them very gravely to me, and pulling off his hat
at the same time ; “for our condition is past the help of man.”
“ All help is from heaven, sir,” said I: “but can you put a
stranger in the way to help you? for you seem to be in some
great distress. I saw you when you landed ; and when you
seemed to make application to the brutes that came with you,
I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trem-
bling, looked like one astonished, returned, “Am I talking to
God, orman? Isitarealman,oranangel?” “Bein no fear
about that, sir,” said I ; “if God had sent an angel to relieve
you, he would have come better clothed, and armed after
another manner than you see me in; pray lay aside your fears ;
I am a man, an Englishman, and disposed to assist you ; you
see I have one servant only ; we have arms and ammunition ;
tell us freely, can we serve you? What is your case?” “Our
case, sir,” said he, “is too long to tell you, while our murderers
are so near us ; but, in short, sir, I was commander of that ship ;
my men have mutinied against me ; they have been hardly
prevailed on not to murder me, and, at last, have set me on
shore in this desolate place, with these two men with me—one
my mate, the other a passenger, where we expected to perish,
believing the place to be uninhabited, and know not yet what
to think of it.” “ Where are these brutes, your enemies ?”
said I ; “do you know where they are gone?” “There they
lie, sir,” said he, pointing to a thicket of trees ; “my heart
trembles for fear they have seen us, and heard you speak ; if
they have, they willcertainly murderusall.” “Have they any
firearms?” saidI. He answered, “They had only two pieces, one
of which they left in the boat.” “ Well then,” said I, “leave
the rest to me ; I see they are all asleep ; it isan easy thing to
kill them all ; but shall we rather take them prisoners?” He
told me there were two desperate villains among them that it
was scarce safe to show any mercy to ; but if they were secured,
he believed all the rest would return to their duty. I asked
him which they were. He told me he could not at that dis-
tance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in any-
thing I would direct. ‘“ Well,” says I, “let us retreat out of
their view or hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve
further.” So they willingly went back with me, till the woods
covered us from them.

“Look you, sir,” said I; “if I venture upon your deliver-
ance, are you willing to make two conditions with me!” He
anticipated my proposals by telling me that both he and the
198 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ship, if recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded by
me ineverything ; and if theship was not recovered, he would
live and die with me in what part of the world soever I would
send him ; and the two other men said the same. ‘“ Well,” said
I, “my conditions are but two ; first,—that while you stay on
this island with me, you will not pretend to any authority here ;
and if I put arms in your hands, you will, upon all occasions,
give them up to me, and do no prejudice to me or mine upon
this island, and in the meantime be governed by my orders ;
secondly,—that if the ship is or may be recovered, you will
carry me and my man to England passage free.”

He gave me all the assurance that the invention and faith of
aman could devise that he would comply with these most
reasonable demands, and besides would owe his life to me, and
acknowledge it upon all occasions as longashe lived, “ Well,
then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you, with powder
and ball ; tell me next what you think is proper to be done.”
He showed all the testimony of his gratitude that he was able,
but offered to be wholly guarded by me. I told himI thought
it was hard venturing anything ; but the best method I could
think of was to fire on them at once as they lay, and if any
were not killed at the first volley, and offered to submit, we
might save them, and so put it wholly upon God’s providence
to direct-the shot. He said, very modestly, that he was loath to
kill them, if he could help it ; but that those two were incor-
rigible villains, and had been the authors of all the mutiny in
the ship, and if they escaped, we should be undone still, for they
would go on board and bring the whole ship’s company, and
destroy us all. “Well, then,” says I, “necessity legitimates
my advice, for it is the only way to save our lives.” However,
seeing him still cautious of shedding blood, I told him they
should go themselves, and manage as they found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them awake,
and soon after we saw two of them on their feet. Iasked him if
either of them were the men who he had said were the heads of
the mutiny? He, said, “No.” “ Well, then,” said I, “you
may let them escape ; and Providence seems to have awakened
them on purpose to save themselves. Now,” says I, “if the rest
escape you, itis your fault.” Animated with this, he took the
musket I had given him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and
his two comrades with him, with each man a piece in his hand 3
the two men who were with him, going first, made some noise,
at which one of the seamen, who was awake, turned about, and
seeing them coming, cried out to the rest ; but it was too late
then, for the moment he cried out they fired—I mean the two
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 199

men, the captain wisely reserving his own piece. They had so
well aimed their shot at the men they knew, that one of them was
killed on the spot, and the other very much wounded ; but not
being dead, he started up on his feet, and called eagerly for
help to the other ; but the captain, stepping to him, told him it
was too late to cry for help, he should call upon God to forgive
his villainy, and with that word knocked him down with the
stock of his musket, so that he never spoke more : there were
three more in the company, and one of them was slightly
wounded. By this time I was come; and when they saw their
danger, and that it was in vain to resist, they begged for mercy.
The captain told them he would spare their lives if they would
give him an assurance of their abhorrence of the treachery they
had been guilty of, and would swear to be faithful to him in
recovering the ship, and afterwards in carrying her back to
Jamaica, from whence they came. They gave him all the pro-
testations of their sincerity that could be desired ; and he was
willing to believe them, and spare their lives, which I was not
against, only I obliged him to keep them bound hand and feet
while they were upon the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate
to the boat, with orders to secure her, and bring away the oars
and sails, which they did ; and by and by three straggling
men, that were (happily for them) parted from the rest, came
back upon hearing the guns fired ; and seeing the captain, who
before ,was their prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted
to be bound also ; and so our victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into
one another’s circumstances. I began first, and told him my
whole history, which he heard with an attention even to amaze-
ment—and particularly at the wonderful manner of my being
furnished with provisions and ammunition ; and, indeed, as my
story is a whole collection of wonders, it affected him deeply.

But when he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I
seemed to have been preserved there on purpose to save his
life, the tears ran down his face, and he could not speak a word
more. After this communication was at an end, I carried him
and his two men into my apartments, leading them in just
where I came out, viz., at the top of the house, where I re-
freshed him with such provision as I had, and showed them
all the contrivances I had made during my long, long inhabit-
ing that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing ;
above all, the captain admired my fortification, and how per-
fectly Chad concealed my retreat with a grove of trees, which,
200 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

having been now planted near twenty years, and the trees
growing much faster than in England, was become a little
wood, so thick that it was impassable in any part of it but at
that one side where I had reserved my little winding passage in-
to it. Itold him this was my castle and my residence, but
that I had a seat in the country, as most princes have, whither
I could retreat upon occasion, and I would show him that too
another time ; but at present our business was to consider how
to recover the ship. He agreed with me as to that, but told
me he was perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for that
there were still six-and-twenty hands on board, who, having
entered into a cursed conspiracy, by which they had all for-
feited their lives to the law, would be hardened in it now by
desperation, and would carry it on, knowing that if they were
subdued they should be brought to the gallows as soon as they
came to England, or to any of the English colonies, and that,
therefore, there would be no attacking them with so small a
number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it
was a very rational conclusion, and that therefore something
was to be resolved on very speedily, as well to draw the men
on board into some snare for their surprise, as to prevent their
landing upon us, and destroying us. Upon this, it presently
occurred to me that ina little while the ship’s crew, wondering
what was become of their comrades and of the boat, would cer-
tainly come on shore in their other boat to look for them, and
that then, perhaps, they might come armed, and be too strong
for us: this he allowed to be rational. Upon this, I told him
the first thing we had to do was tostave the boat, which lay up-
on the beach, so that they might not carry her off, and taking
everything out of her, leave her so far useless as not to be fit
to swim. Accordingly we went on board, took the arms which
were left on board out of her, and whatever else we found
there—which was a bottle of brandy, and another of rum, afew
biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of sugar in
a piece of canvas (the sugar was five or six pounds) ; all which
was very welcome to me, especially the brandy and sugar, of
which I had had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars,
mast, sail, and rudder of the boat were carried away before),
we knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if they had,.come
strong enough to master us, yet they could not carry off the
boat. Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could
be able to recover the ship; but my view was, that if they
went away without the boat, I did not much question to make
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 201

her again fit to carry us to the Leeward Islands, and call upon
our friends the Spaniards in my way, for I had them still in my
thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by
main strength, heaved the boat upon the beach, so high that
the tide would not float her off at high-water mark, and be-
sides, had broken a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly
stopped, and were sat down musing what we should do, we
heard the ship fire a gun, and make a waft with her ensign as
a signal for the boat to come on board: but no boat stirred ;
and they fired several times, making other signals for the boat.
At last, when all their signals and firing proved fruitless, and
they found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help of
my glasses, hoist another boat out, and row towards the shore ;
and we found, as they approached, that there were no less than
ten men in her, and that they had firearms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a
full view of them as they came, and a plain sight even of their
faces ; because the tide having set them a little to the east of
the other boat, they rowed up under shore, to come to the same
place where the other had landed, and where the boat lay ; by
this means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the captain
knew the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of
whom, he said, there were three very honest fellows, who, he
was sure, were led into this conspiracy by the rest, being over-

owered and frightened ; but that as for the boatswain, who
it seems was the chief officer among them, and all the rest,
they were as outrageous as any of the ship’s crew, and were no
doubt made desperate in their new enterprise ; and terribly ap-
prehensive was he that they would be too powerful for us, I
smiled at him, and told him that men in our circumstances
were past the operation of fear ; that seeing almost every
condition that could be was better than that which we were
supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the consequence,
whether death or life, would be sure to be a deliverance. I
asked him what he thought of the circumstances of my life,
and whether a deliverance were not worth venturing for.
“ And where, sir,” said I, “is your belief of my being preserved
here on purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little-
while ago? For my part,” said I, “ there seems to be but one
thing amiss in all the prospect of it.” “ What is that?” says
he. “Why,” said I, “it is, that as you say there are three or
four honest fellows among them, which should be spared, had
they been all of the wicked part of the crew, I should have
thought God’s providence had singled them out to deliver them
202 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

into your hands; for depend upon it, every man that comes
ashore is our own, and shall die or live as they behave to us.”
As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful countenance,
I found it greatly encouraged him ; so we set vigorously to our
business.

We had, upon the first appearance of the boat coming from
the ship, considered of separating our prisoners ; and had, in-
deed, secured them effectually. Two of them, of whom the
captain was less assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday and
one of the three delivered men to my cave, where they were
remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or discovered,
or of finding their way out of the woods, if they could have
delivered themselves ; here they left them bound, but gave
them provisions ; and promised them, if they continued there
quietly, to give them their liberty in a day or two ; but that if
they attempted their escape, they should be put to death with-
ont mercy. They promised faithfully to bear their confine-
ment with patience, and were very thankful that they had such
good usage as to have provisions and a light left them: for
Friday gave them candles (such as we made ourselves) for
their comfort; and they did not know but that he stood sen-
tinel over them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were
kept pinioned, indeed, because the captain was not free to
trust them ; but the other two were taken into my service, upon
the captain’s recommendation, and upon their solemnly engag-
ing to live and die with us ; so with them and the three honest
men we were seven men, well armed ; and I made no doubt
we should be able to deal well enough with the ten that were
coming, considering that the captain had said there were three
or four honest men among them also. As soon as they got to
the place where their other boat lay, they ran their boat into
the beach and came all on shore, hauling the boat up after
them, which I was glad to see, for I was afraid they would
rather have left the boat at anchor some distance from the
shore,with some hands in her, to guard her, and so we should
not be able to seize the boat. Being on shore, the first thing
they did, they ran all to their other boat ; and it was easy to
see they were under a great surprise to find her stripped, as
above, of all that was in her, and a great hole in her bottom.
After they had mused awhile upon this, they set up two or
three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if
they could make their companions hear ; but all was to no pur-
pose: then they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of
their small-arms, which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes made
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 203

the woods ring ; but it was all one; those in the cave, we
were sure, could not hear; and those. in our keeping, though
they heard it well enough, yet durst give no answer to them.
They were so astonished at the surprise of this, that, as they
told.us afterwards, they resolved to go all on board again to
their ship, and let them know that the men were all murdered,
and the long boat staved; accordingly, they immediately
launched their boat again, and got all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at
this, believing they would go on board the ship again, and set
sail, giving their comrades over for lost, and so he should still
lose the ship, which he was in hopes we should have recov-
ered ; but he was quickly as much frightened the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, when we per-
ceived them all coming on shore again ; but with this new mea-
sure in their conduct, which it seems they consulted together
upon, viz., to leave three men in the boat, and the rest to go on
shore, and go up into the country to look for their fellows.
This was a great disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss
what to do, as our seizing those seven men on shore would be
no advantage to us if we let the boat escape; because they
would row away to the ship, and then the rest of them would
be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our recovering the ship
would be lost. However, we had no remedy but to wait and
see what the issue of things might present. The seven
men came on shore, and the three who remained in the boat
put her off to a good distance from the shore, and came to an
anchor to wait for them ; so that it was impossible for us to
come at them in the boat. ‘Those that came on shore kept
close together, marching towards the top of the little hill un-
der which my habitation lay ; and we could see them plainly,
though they could not perceive us. We should have been
very glad if they would have come nearer to us, so that we
might have fired at them, or that they would have gone farther
off, that we might come abroad. But when they were come
to the brow of the hill where they could see a great way into
the valleys and woods, which lay towards the northeast part,
and where the island lay the lowest, they shouted and hallooed
till they were weary : and not caring, it seems, to venture far
from the shore, nor far from one another, they sat down to-
gether, under a tree, to consider of it. Had they thought fit
to have gone to sleep there as the other party of them had
done, they had done the job for us ; but they were too full of
apprehensions of danger to venture to go to sleep, though
they could not tell what the danger was they had to fear,
204 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this con-
sultation of theirs, viz., that perhaps they would all fire a vol-
ley again, to endeavor to make their fellows hear, and that we
should all sally upon them just at the juncture when their
pieces were all discharged, and they would certainly yield,
and we should have them without bloodshed. I liked this pro-
posal, provided it was done while we were near enough to
come up to them before they could load their pieces again.
But this event did not happen ; and we lay still a long time,
very irresolute what course to take. At length, I told them
there would be nothing done, in my opinion, till night ; and
then if they did not return to the boat, perhaps we might
find a way to get between them and the shore, and so might
use some stratagem with them in the boat to get them on
shore. We waited a great while, though very impatient for
their removing ; and were very uneasy, when, after long con-
sultation, we saw then all start up, and march down towards
the sea: it seems they had such dreadful apprehensions of the
danger of the place, that they resolved to go on board the
ship again, give their companions over for lost, and so go on
with their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I im-
agined it to be as it really was, that they had given over their
search, and were for going back again ; and the captain, as
soon as I told him my thoughts, was ready to sink at the ap-
prehensions of it: but I presently thought of a stratagem to
fetch them back again, and which answered my end to a tittle.
I ordered Friday and the captain’s mate to go over the little
creek westward, towards the place where the savages came on
shore when Friday was rescued, and so soon as they came to
a little rising ground, at about half a mile distance, I bade
them hallo out, as loud as they could, and wait till they found
the seamen heard them ; that as soon as ever they heard the
seamen answer them, they should return it again ; and then
keeping out of sight, take a round, always answering when
the others hallooed, to draw them as far into the island, and
among the woods, as possible, and then wheel about again to
me by such ways as I directed.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the
mate hallooed ; and they presently heard them, and, answer-
ing, ran along the shore westward, towards the voice they
heard, when they were presently stopped by the creek, where,
the water being up, they could not get over, and called for
the boat to come up and set them over ; as, indeed, I expected.

When they had set themselves over, I observed that the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 205

boat being gone upa good way into the creek, and, as it were,
in a harbor within the land, they took one of the three men
out of her, to go along with them, and left only two in the
boat, having fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the
shore. This was what I wished for ; and immediately leaving
Friday and the captain’s mate to their business, I took the
rest. with me, and crossing the creek out of their sight, we sur-
prised the two men before they were aware ; one of them ly-
ing on the shore, and the other being in the boat. The fellow
on shore was between sleeping and waking, and going to start
up ; the captain, who was foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked
him down ; and then called out to him in the boat to yield, or
he was a dead man, There needed very few arguments to
persuade a single man to yield, when he saw five men upon
him, and his comrade knocked down: besides, this was, it
seems, one of the three who were not so hearty in the mutiny
as the rest of the crew ; and, therefore, was easily persuaded
not only to yield, but afterwards to join very sincerely with
us. In the meantime, Friday and the captain’s mate so well
managed their business with the rest, that they drew them,
by hallooing and answering, from one hill to another, and
from one wood to another, till they not only heartily tired
them, but left them where they could not reach back to the
boat before it was dark ; and indeed, they were heartily tired
themselves also, by the time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the
dark, and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work with
them. It was several hours after Friday came back to me be-
fore they came back to their boat; and we could hear the
foremost of them, long before they came quite up, calling to
those behind to come along ; and could also hear them answer,
and complain how lame and tired they were, and not able to
come any faster: which was very welcome news to us. At
length they came up to the boat: but it is impossible to ex-
press their confusion when they found the boat fast aground
in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two men gone.
We could hear them call to one another in a most lamentable
manner, telling one another they were got into an enchanted
island ; that either there were inhabitants in it, and they should
all be murdered, or else there were devils and spirits in it, and
they should be all carried away and devoured. They ballooed
again, and called their two comrades by their names a great
many times ; but no answer. After some time, we could see
them, by the little light there was, run about, wringing their
hands like men in despair, and sometimes they would go and
206 ROBINSON. CRUSOE.

sit down in the boat to rest themselves: then come ashore
again, and walk about again, and so the same thing over again.
My men would fain have had me give them leave to fall upon
them at once in the dark; but I was willing to take them at
some advantage, so as to spare them, and kill as few of them
as I could ; and especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing
any of our men, knowing the others were very well armed. I
resolved to wait, to see if they did not separate ; and there-
fore, to make sure of them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and
ordered Friday and the captain to creep upon their hands and
feet, as close to the ground as they could, that they might not
be discovered, and get as near them as they could possibly, be-
fore they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when the boatswain,
who was the principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now
shown himself the most dejected and dispirited of all the rest,
came walking towards them, with two more of the crew; the
captain was so eager at having the principal rogue so much in
his power, that he could hardly have patience to let him come
so near as to be sure of him, for they only heard his tongue
before ; but when they came nearer, the captain and Friday,
starting up on their feet, let fly at them. The boatswain was
killed upon the spot : the next man was shot in the body, and
fell just by him, though he did not die till an hour or two after ;
and the third ran for it. At the noise of the fire, I immedi-
ately advanced with my whole army, which was now eight
men ; viz., myself, generalissimo ; Friday, my lieutenant-gen-
eral ; the captain and his two men, and the three prisoners of
war, whom we had trusted with arms. We came upon them,
indeed, in the dark, so that they could not see our number ;
and I made the man they had left in the boat, who was now
one of us, call them by name, to try if I could bring them toa
parley, and so perhaps reduce them to terms ; which fell out
just as we desired ; for, indeed, it was easy to think, as their
condition then was, they would be very willing to capitulate.
So he calls out as loud as he could to one of them, “Tom
Smith! Tom Smith !” Tom Smith answered immediately,
“ Who’s that ? Robinson ?” for it seems he knew the voice.
The other answered, “ Ay, ay ; for God’s sake, Tom Smith,
throw down your arms and yield, or you are all dead men this
moment.” “ Whomust we yieldto? Where are they ?” says
Smith again. “ Here they are,” says he ; “here’s our captain
and fifty men with him, have been hunting you these two
hours ; the boatswain is killed, Will Frye is wounded, and I
am a prisoner ; and if you do not yield, you are all lost,”
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 207

* Will they give us quarter then ?” says Tom Smith, “and we
will yield.” “Tl go and ask, if you promise to yield,” said
Robinson _s0 he asked the captain ; and the captain himself
then calls out, “ You, Smith, you know my voice ; if you lay
down your arms immediately, and submit, you shall have
your lives, all but Will Atkins.”

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, “ For God’s sake, captain,
give me quarter; what have I done? They have been all as
bad as I:” which, by the way, was not true ; for, it seems, this
Will Atkins was the first man that laid hold of the captain,
when they first mutinied, and used him barbarously, in tying
his hands, and giving him injurious language. However, the
captain told him he must lay down his arms at discretion, and
trust to the governor’s mercy : by which he meant me, for
they all called me governor. In a word, they all laid down
their arms, and begged their lives ; and I sent the man that
had parleyed with them, and two more, who bound them all ;
and then my great army of fifty men, which, with those three,
were in all but eight, came up and seized upon them, and upon
their boat; only that I kept myself and one more out of
sight, for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat and think of seizing
the ship ; and as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley
with them, he expostulated with them upon the villainy of their
practices with him, and upon the further wickedness of their
design, and how certainly it must bring them to misery and
distress in the end, and perhaps to the gallows. They all
appeared very penitent, and begged hard for their lives. As
for that, he told them they were none of his prisoners, but
the commander’s of the island ; that they thought they had
set him on shore in a barren, uninhabited island ; but it had
pleased God so to direct them, that it was inhabited, and that
the governor was an Englishman ; that he might hang them
all there, if he pleased ; but as he had given them all quarter,
he supposed he would send them to England, to be dealt
with there as justice required, except Atkins, whom he was
commanded by the governor to advise to prepare for death,
that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was all a fiction of his own, yet it had its de-
sired effect ; Atkins fell upon his knees, to beg the captain to
intercede with the governor for his life; and all the rest
begged of him, for God’s sake, that they might not be sent to
England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance was
come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring these
208 : ROBINSON CRUSOE.

fellows in to be hearty in getting possession of the ship; so 1
retired in the dark from them, that they might not see what
kind of a governor they had, and called the captain to me ;
when I called, as at a good distance, one of the men was
ordered to speak again, and say to the captain, “ Captain, the
commander calls for you” ; and presently the captain replied,
“Tell his Excellency, Iam just coming.” This more perfectly
amazed them, and they all believed that the commander was
just by, with his fifty men. Upon the captain coming to mg
I told him my project for seizing the ship, which he liked
wonderfully well, and resolved to put it in execution next
morning. But, in order to execute it with more art, and to be
secure of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners,
and that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the
worst of them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the
others lay. This was committed to Friday and the two men
who came on shore with the captain. They conveyed them to
the cave as to a prison: and it was, indeed, a dismal place,
especially to men in their condition. The others I ordered to
my bower, as I called it, of which I have given a full descrip-
tion : and as it was fenced in, and they pinioned, the place
was secure enough, considering they were upon their be-
havior. :

To these in the morning I. sent the captain, who was to
enter into a parley with them; ina word, to try them, and
tell me whether he thought they might be trusted or not to
go on board and surprise the ship. He talked to them of the
injury done him, of the condition they were brought to, and
that though the governor had given them quarter for their
lives as to the present action, yet that if they were sent to
England they would be all hanged in chains ; but that if
they would join in such an attempt as to recover the ship, he
would have the governor’s engagement for their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be
accepted by men in their condition ; they fell down on their
knees to the captain, and promised, with the deepest impreca-
tions, that they would be faithful to him to the last drop, and
that they should owe their lives to him, and would go with
him all over the world ; that they would own him for a father
to them as long as they lived. “ Well,” says the captain, “I
must go and tell the governor what you say, and see what I
can do to bring him to consent to it.” So he brought me an
account of the temper he found them in, and that he verily be-
lieved they would be faithful. However, that we might be
very secure, I told him he should go back again and choose out
ROBINSON CRUSOE, 209

five of them, and tell them that they might see that he did not
want men, that he would take out those five to be his assist-
ants, and that the governor would keep the other two and the
three that were sent prisoners to the castle (my cave), as
hostages for the fidelity of those five ; and that if they proved
unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages should be hanged
in chains alive on the shore. This looked severe, and con-
vinced them that the governor was in earnest ; however, they
had no way left them but to accept it ; and it was now the
business of the prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade
the other five to do their duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition : first,
the captain, his mate, and passenger ; second, then the two
prisoners of the first gang, to whom, having their character
from the captain, I had given their liberty, and trusted them
with arms ; third, the other two whom I had kept till now in
my bower pinioned, but, upon the captain’s motion, had now
released ; fourth, these five released at last; so that they.
were twelve in all, besides five we kept prisoners in the cave
for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these
hands on board the ship ; for as for me and my man Friday,
I did not think it was proper for us to stir, having seven men
left behind; and it was employment enough for us to keep
them asunder, and supply them with victuals. As to the five
in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but Friday went in
twice a day to them, to supply them with necessaries; and I
made the other two carry provisions toa certain distance, where
Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the
captain, who told them I was the person the governor had
ordered to look after them; and that it was the governor’s
pleasure they should not stir anywhere but by my direction ;
that if they did, they would be fetched into the castle,
and be laid in irons: so that as we never suffered them
to see me as governor, I now appeared as another person, and
spoke of the governor, the garrison, the castle, and the like,
upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish
his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made
his passenger captain of one, with four other men ; and him-
self, his mate, and five more, went in the other; and they
contrived their business very well, for they came up to the
ship about midnight. Assoon as they came within call of the
ship, he made Robinson hail them, and tell them they had
210 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

brought off the men and the boat, but that it was a long time
before they had found them, and the like; holding them in a
chat till they came to the ship’s side ; when the captain and
the mate entering first with their arms, immediately knocked
down the second mate and carpenter with the butt-end of their
muskets, being very faithfully seconded by their men ; they
secured all the rest that were upon the main and quarter decks,
and began to fasten the hatches, to keep them down that were
below ; when the other boat and their men, entering at the
fore-chains, secured the forecastle of the ship, and the scuttle
which went down into the cook-room, making three men they
found there prisoners. When this was done, and all safe upon
deck, the captain ordered the mate, with three men, to break
into the round-house, where the new rebel captain lay, who,
having taken the alarm, had got up and with two men and
a boy had got firearms in their hands; and the mate, with a
crow, split open the door, the new captain and his men fired
boldly among them, and wounded the mate with a musket-
ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two more of the men,
but killed nobody. The mate, calling for help, rushed, how-
ever, into the round-house, wounded as he was, and with his
pistol shot the new captain through the head, the bullet enter-
ing at his mouth, coming out again behind one of his ears, so
that he never spoke a word more : upon which the rest yielded,
and the ship was taken effectually, without any more lives
lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered
seven guns to be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with
me to give me notice of his success, which, you may be sure, I
was very glad to hear, having sat watching upon the shore for
it till near two o’clock in the morning. Having thus heard
the signal plainly, I laid me down ; and it having been a day
of great fatigue to me, I slept very sound, till I was something
surprised with the noise of a gun ; and presently starting up,
I heard a man calling me by the name of “ Governor ! Gover-
nor !” and presently I knew the captain’s voice ; when climb-
up to the top of the hill, there he stood, and, pointing to the ship,
he embraced me in his arms. “My dear friend and deliv-
erer,” says he, “ there’s your ship; for she is all yours, and
80 are we, and all that belongs to her.” I cast my eyes to the
ship, and there she rode, within little more than half a mile of
the shore ; for they had weighed her anchor as soon as they
were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had brought her
to an anchor just against the mouth of the little creek ; and,
the tide being up, the captain had brought the pinnace in near
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 211

the place where I first landed my rafts, so landed just at my
door. I was at first ready to sink down with the surprise ; for
I saw my deliverance, indeed, visibly put into my hands, all
things easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away
whither I pleased to go. At first, for some time, I was not
able to answer one word ; but as he had taken me in his arms,
Theld fast by him, or I should have fallen to the ground. He
preceived the surprise, and immediately pulled a bottle out of
his pocket, and gave me a dram of cordial, which he had
brought on purpose forme. After I had drunk it, I sat down
upon the ground ; and though it brought me to myself, yet it
was a good while before I could speak a word to him, All
this while the poor man was in as great an ecstasy as I, only
not under any surprise as I was ; and he said a thousand kind
and tender things to me, to compose and bring me to myself ;
but such was the flood of joy in my breast that it put all my
spirits into confusion : at last it broke into tears; and, ina
little while after, [recovered my speech ; then I took my turn,
and embraced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced together.

I told him I looked upon him as a man sent from heaven to
deliver me, and that the whole transaction seemed to be a chain
of wonders ; that such things as these were the testimonies we
had of a secret hand of Providence governing the world, and
an evidence that the eye of an Infinite Power could search in-
to the remotest corner of the world, and send help to the
miserable whenever he pleased. I forgot {not to lift up my
heart in thankfulness to Heaven ; and what heart could for-
bear to bless him, who had not only in a miraculous manner
provided for one in such a wilderness, and in such a desolate
condition, but from whom every deliverance must always be
acknowledged to proceed ?

When we had talked a while, the captain told me he had
brought me some little refreshments, such as the ship afforded,
and such as the wretches that had been so long his masters
had not plundered him of. Upon this, he called aloud to the
boat, and bade his men bring the things ashore that were for
the governor ; and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been
one that was not to be carried away along with them, but as
if I had been to dwell upon the island still, and they were to
go without me. First, he had brought me a case of bottles
full of excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira
wine (the bottles held two quarts each), two pounds of ex-
cellent good tobacco, twelve good pieces of the ship’s beef,
and six pieces of pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hundred-
weight of biscuit ; he also brought me a box of sugar, a box
212 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of flour, a bag full of lemons, and two bottles of lime-juice,
and abundance of other things. But besides these, and what
was a thousand times more useful, he brought me six new
clean shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one
pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of stockings, and a very good
suit of clothes of his own, which had been worn but very
little : in a word, he clothed me from head to foot. It was a
very kind and agreeable present, as any one may imagine, to
one in my circumstances ; but never was anything in the world
of that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy as it was to
me to wear such clothes at their first putting on.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good
things were brought into my little apartment, we began to
consult what was to be done with the prisoners we had ; for it
was worth considering whether we might venture to take
them away with us or no, especially two of them, whom he
knew to be incorrigible and refractory to the last degree; and
the captain said he knew they were such rogues that there
was no obliging them, and if he did carry them away, it must
be in irons, as malefactors, to be delivered over to justice at
the first English colony he could come at : and I found that
the captain Limself was very anxious aboutit. Upon this, I
told him that, if he desired it, I would undertake to bring the
two men he spoke of to make it their own request that he
should leave them upon the island. “I should be very glad
of that,” says the captain, “ withall my heart.” “ Well,” says
I, “ I will send for them up, and talk with them for you.” Sol
caused Friday and the two hostages, for they were now dis-
charged, their comrades having performed their promise ; I
say, I caused them to go to the cave,and bring up the five
men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and keep them there
tillI came. After some time, I came thither dressed in my
new habit ; and now I was called governor again. Being all
met, and the captain with me,I caused the men to be brought
before me, and I told them I had got a full account of their
villainous behavior to the captain, and how they had run
away with the ship, and were preparing to commit further
robberies, but that Providence had ensnared them in their own
ways, and that they were fallen into the pit which they had
dug for others. I let them know that by my direction the
ship had been seized ; that she lay now in the road ; and they
might see by and by that their new captain had received the
reward of his villainy, for that they might see him hanging at
the yard-arm ; that, as to them, I wanted to know what they
had to say why I should not execute them as pirates, taken in
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 213

the fact, as by my commission they could not doubt but I had
authority to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they
had nothing to say but this, that when they were taken the
captain promised them their lives, and they humbly implored
my mercy. ButI told them I knew not what mercy to show
them ; for as for myself I had resolved to quit the island
with all my men, and had taken passage with the captain to go
to England ; and as for the captain, he could not carry them to
England other than as prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny,
and running away with the ship ; the consequence of which,
they must needs know, would be the gallows ; so that I could
not tell what was the best for them, unless they had a mind
to take their fatein the island. If they desired that,I did
not care ; as I had liberty to leave it, I had some inclination
to give them their lives,if they thought they could shift on
shore. They seemed very thankful for it, and said they would
much rather venture to stay there than be carried to England
to be hanged. So [left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it,
as if he durst not leave them there. Upon this I seemed a
little angry with the captain, and told him that they were my
prisoners, not his; and, that seeing I had offered them so
much favor, I would be as good as my word; and that if he
did not think fit to consent to it, I would set them at liberty,
as I found them ; and if he did not like it, he might take them
again if he could catch them. Upon this they appeared very
thankful, and I accordingly set them at liberty, and bade them
retire into the woods, to the place whence they came and I
would leave them some firearms, some ammunition, and some di-
rections how they should live very well, if they thought fit.
Upon this I prepared to goon board the ship ; but told the
captain I would stay that night to prepare my things, and de-
sired him to go on board in the meantime, and keep all right
in the ship, and send the boat on shore next day for me ;
ordering him, in the meantime, to cause the new captain, who
was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that these men
might see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to mein my
apartment, and entered seriously into discourse with them of
their circumstances. I told them I thought they had made a
right choice ; but if the captain had carried them away, they
would certainly be hanged. I showed them the new captain
hanging at the yard-arm of the ship, and told them they had
nothing less to expect.
914 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I told
them I would let them into the story of my living there, and
put them into the way of making iteasy to them. Accord-
ingly, I gave them the whole history of the place, and of my
coming to it ; showed them my fortifications, the way I made
my bread, planted my corn, cured my grapes, and, in a word,
all that was necessary to make themeasy. I told them the
story also of the sixteen Spaniards, that were to be expected,
for whom I left a letter, and made them promise to treat them
in common with themselves.

I left them my firearms, viz., five muskets, three fowling-
pieces, and three swords. I had above a barrel and a half of
powder left ; for after the first year or two I used but little,
and wasted none. I gave them a description of the way I
managed the goats, and directions to milk and fatten them,
and to make both butter and cheese. In a word, I gave them
every part of my story ; and told them I should prevail with
the captain to leave them two barrels of gunpowder more, and
some garden-seeds, which I told them I would have been very
glad of. Also, I gave them the bag of peas which the captain
had brought me to eat, and bade them be sure to sow and in-
crease them.

Having done all this, I left the next day, and went on board
the ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but did not weigh
that night. The next morning early, two of the five men came
swimming to the ship’s side, and made the most lamentable
complaint of the other three, begged to be taken into the ship
for God’s sake, for they should be murdered, and begged the
captain to take them on board, though he hanged them
immediately. Upon this,the captain pretended to have no
power without me ; but after some difficulty, and after their
solemn promises of amendment, they were taken on board,
and were, some time after, soundly whipped and pickled ; after
which they proved very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, I went with the boat on shore, the
tide being up, with the things promised to the men ; to which
the captain, at my intercession, caused their chests and clothes
to be added, which they took, and were very thankful for. I
algo encouraged them, by telling them that if it lay in my way
to send any vessel to take them in I would not forget them.

When I took leave of thisisland, I carried on board, for
relics, the great goatskin cap I had made, my umbrella, and
one of my parrots; also I forgot not to take the money I
formerly mentioned, which had lain by me so long useless that
it was grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly pass for


Crusok'’s FAREWELL TO THE ISLAND.—Page 214. ~
ROBINSON CRUSOE, 215

silver till it had been a little rubbed and handled, and also the
money I found in the wreck of the Spanish ship. And thus I
left the island, the 19th of December, as I found by the ship’s
account, in the year 1686, after] had been upon it eight-and-
twenty years, two months, and nineteen days ; being delivered
from this second captivity the same day of the month that
I first made my escape in the long boat from among the
Moors of Sallee. In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived
in England the 11th of June, in the year 1687, having been
thirty-five years absent.

When I came to England, I was a perfect stranger to all
the world, as if I had never been known there. My benefactor
and faithful steward, whom I had left my money in trust
with, was alive, but had had great misfortunes in the world ;
was become a widow the second time, and very low in the
world. I made her easy as to what she owed me, assuring her
I would give her no trouble ; but, on the contrary, in gratitude
for her former care and faithfulness to me, I relieved her as
my little stock would afford ; which at that time would, in-
deed, allow me to do but little for her: but I assured her I
would never forget her former kindness to me ; nor did I for-
get her when I had sufficient to help her, as shall be observed
in its place. I went down afterwards into Yorkshire ; but my
father was dead, and my mother and all the family extinct,
except that I found two sisters and two of the children of one
of my brothers; and as I had been long ago given over for
dead, there had been no provision made for me ; so that, in a
word, I found nothing to relieve or assist me ; and that little
money I had would not do much for me as to settling in the
world.

I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed, which I did not
expect ; and this was, that the master of the ship, whom I
had so happily delivered, and by the same means saved the
ship and cargo, having given a very handsome account to the
owners of the manner how I had saved the lives of the men
and the ship, they invited me. to meet them and some other
merchants concerned, and all together made me a very hand-
some compliment upon the subject,and a present of almost
£200 sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the circumstances
of my life, and how little way this would go towards settling
me in the world, I resolved to go to Lisbon, and see if I might
not come by some information of the state of my plantation in
the Brazils, and of what was become of my partner, who, I
had reason to suppose, had some years now given me over for
216 ROBINSON CRUSOE. -

dead. With this view I took shipping for Lisbon, where I
arrived in April following ; my man Friday accompanying me
very honestly in all these ramblings, and proving a most faithful
servant upon all occasions. When I came to Lisbon, I found
out, by inquiry, and to my particular satisfaction, my old
friend, the captain of the ship who first took me up at sea off
the shore of Africa, He was now grown old, and had left
the sea, having put his son, who was far from a young man,
into his ship, and who still used the Brazil trade. The old
man did not know me ; and indeed, I hardly knew him. But
I soon brought myself to his remembrance, when I told him
who I was.

After some passionate expressions of the old acquaintance
between us I inquired, you may be sure, after my plantation
and my partner. The old man told me he had not been in
the Brazils for about nine years ; but that he could assure me,
that when he came away my partner was living ; but the
trustees, whom I had joined with him to take cognizance of
my part, were both dead; that, however, he believed that I
would have a very good account of the improvement of the
plantation ; for that, upon the general belief of my being cast
away and drowned, my trustees had given in the account of
the produce of my part of the plantation to the procurator-
fiscal, who had appropriated it, in case I never came to claim it,
one-third to the king, and two-thirds to the monastery of St.
Augustine, to be expended for the benefit of the poor and for the
conversion of the Indians to the Catholic faith; but that if
I appeared, or any one for me, to claim the inheritance, it
would be restored; only that the improvement, or annual
production, being distributed to charitable uses, could not be
restored ; but he assured me that the steward of the king’s
revenue from lands, and the providore, or steward of the
monastery, had taken great care all along that the incumbent,
that is to say, my partner, gave every year a faithful account,
of the produce, of which they had received duly my moiety.
I asked him if he knew to what height of improvement he had
brought the plantation, and whether he thought it might be
worth looking after; or whether, on my going thither, I
should meet with any obstruction to my possessing my just
right in the moiety. He told me he could not tell exactly to
what degree the plantation was improved ; but this he knew,
that my partner was grown exceeding rich upon the enjoying
but one half of it ; and that, to the best of his remembrance, he
had heard that the king’s third of my part, which was, it
seems, granted away to some other monastery or religious
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 217

house, amounted to above two hundred moidores a year: that
as to my being restored to a quiet possession of it, there was
no question to be made of that, my partner being alive to
witness my title, and my name being also enrolled in the
register of the country ; also he told me that the survivors of
my two trustees were very fair, honest people, and very
wealthy ; and he believed I would not only have their assistance
for putting mein possession, but would find a very considerable
sum of money in their hands for my account, being the proc -ce
of the farm while their fathers held the trust,and before it
was given up, as above ; which, as he remembered, was for
about twelve years.

Ishowed myself alittle concerned and uneasy at this account,
and inquired of the old captain how it came to pass that the
trustees should thus dispose of my effects, when he knew that
Thad made my will, and had made him, the Portuguese captain,
my universal heir, etc.

He told me that was true; but that as there was no proof
of my being dead, he could not act as executor, until some
certain account should come of my death ; and that besides, he
was not willing to intermeddle with a thing so remote ; that
it was true he had registered my will, and put in his claim;
and could he have given any account of my being dead or alive,
he would hhave acted by procuration, and taken possession of
the ingenio (so they call the sugar-house), and have given his
son, who was now at the Brazils, orders to doit. “But,” says
the old man, “ Ihave one piece of news to tell you, which per-
haps may not be so acceptable to you as the rest ; and that is,
believing you were lost, and all the world believing so also,
your partner and trustees did offer to account with me, in
your name, for the first six or eight years’ profits, which I re-
ceived. There being at that time great disbursements for in-
creasing the works, building an ingenio, and buying slaves, it
did not amount to near so much as afterwards it produced :
however,” says the old man, “I shall give you a true account
of what I have received in all, and how I have disposed of it.”

After a few days’ further conference with this ancient friend,
he brought me an account of the first six years’ income of my
plantation, signed by my partner and the merchant-trustees,
being always delivered in goods, viz., tobacco in roll, and sugar
in chests, besides rum, molasses, etc., which is the consequence
of a sugar-work ; and I found by this account, that every year
the income considerably increased ; but, as above, the disburse-
ments being large, the sum at first was small ; however, the
old man let me see that he was debtor to me four hundred and
218 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

seventy moidores of gold, besides sixty chests of sugar, and
fifteen double rolls of tobacco, which were lost in his ship ; he
having been shipwrecked coming home to Lisbon, about eleven
years aftermy leaving the place. The good man then began
to complain of his misfortunes, and how he had been obliged
to make use of my money to recover his losses, and buy him a
share in new ship. ‘ However, my old friend,” says he, “ you
shall not want a supply in your necessity, and as soon as my
son returns you shall be fully satisfied.” Upon this he pulls
out an old pouch, and gives me one hundred and sixty Portugal
moidores in gold; and giving me the writings of his title
to the ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of which
he was quarter-part owner, and his son another, he puts them
both in my hands for security of the rest.

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of
the poor man to be able to bear this ; and remembering what
he had done for me, how he had taken me up at sea, and how
generously he had used me on all occasions, and particularly
how sincere a friend he was now to me, I could hardly refrain
weeping at what he had said to me; therefore, first, I asked
him if his circumstances admitted him to spare so much money
at that time, and if it would not straiten him? He told mehe
could not say but it might straiten him a little ; but, however,
it was my money, and I might want it more than he.

Everything the good man said was full of affection, and I
could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke: in short, I
took one hundred of the moidores, and called for a pen and
ink to give him a receipt for them ; then I returned him the
rest, and told him if ever I had possession of the plantation I
would return the other to him also (as, indeed, I afterwards
did) ; and that as to the bill of sale of his part in his son’s ship,
I would not take it by any means; but that if I wanted the
money, I found he was honest enough to pay me ; and if I
did not, but came to receive what he gave me reason to ex-
pect, I would never have a penny more from him.

When this was past, the old man began to ask me if he
should put me into a method to make my claim to my planta-
tion. I told him I thought to go over to it myself. He said
I might do so if I pleased ; but that, if I did not, there were
ways enough to secure my right, and immediately to appro-
priate the profits to my use: and as there were ships in the
river of Lisbon just ready to go away to Brazil, he made me
enter my name in a public register, with his affidavit, affirm-
ing, upon oath, that I was alive, and that I was the same per-
sou who took up the land for the planting the said plantation
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 219

at first. This being regularly attested by a notary, and a pro-
curation affixed, he directed me to send it, with a letter of his
writing, to a merchant of his acquaintance at the place; and
then proposed my staying with him till an account came of the
return.

Never was anything more honorable than the proceedings
upon this procuration ; for in less than seven months I re-
ceived a large packet from the survivors of my trustees, the
merchants, for whose account I went to sea, in which were the
following particular letters and papers inclosed.

First, there was the account-current of the produce of my
farm or plantation, from the year when their fathers had bal-
anced with my old Portugal captain, being for six years ; the
balance appeared to be one thousand one hundred and
seventy-four moidores in my favor.

Secondly, there was the account of four years more, while
they kept the effects in their hands, before the government
claimed the administration, as being the effects of a person not
to be found, which they called civil death ; and the balance of
this, the value of the plantation increasing, amounted to nine-
teen thousand four hundred and forty-six crusadoes, being
about three thousand two hundred and forty moidores.

Thirdly, there was the Prior of the Augustines’ account,
who had received the profits for above fourteen years ; but not
being to account for what was disposed of by the hospital,
very honestly declared he had eight hundred and seventy-two
moidores not distributed, which he acknowledged to my ac-
count ; as to the king’s part, that refunded nothing.

There was also a letter of my partner’s, congratulating me
very affectionately upon my being alive, giving me an account
how the estate was improved, and what it produced a year ;
with the particulars of the number of squares or acres that it
contained, how planted, how many slavcs there were upon it :
and making two-and-twenty crosses for blessings, told me he
had said so many Ave Marias to thank the Blessed Virgin
that I was alive ; inviting me very passionately to come over
and take possession of my own ; and, in the meantime, to give
him orders to whom he should deliver my effects, if I did not
come myself; concluding with a hearty tender of his friend-
ship, and that of his family ; and sent me, as a present, seven
fine leopards’ skins, which he had, it seems, received from
Africa, by some other ship that he had sent thither, and which,
it seems, had made a better voyage than I. He sent me also
five chests of excellent sweetmeats, and a hundred pieces of
gold uncoined, not quite so large as moidores. By the same
220 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

fleet, my two merchant-trustees shipped me one thousand two
hundred chests of sugar, eight hundred rolls of tobacco, and
the rest of the whole account in gold.

I might well say now, indeed, that the latter end of Job was
better than the beginning. Itisimpossible to express the flutter-
ings of my very heart when I looked over these letters, and es-
pecially when I found all my wealth about me ; for, as the Brazil
ships come all in fleets, the same ships which brought my let-
ters brought my goods: and the effects were safe in the river
before the letters came to my hand. Ina word I turned pale,
and grew sick ; and, had not the old man run and fetched me
a cordial, I believe the sudden surprise of joy had overset na-
ture, and I had died upon the spot: nay, after that, I contin-
ued very ill, and was so some hours, till a physician being sent
for, and something of the real cause of my illness being known,
he ordered me to let blood ; after which I had relief, and grew
well : but I verily believe, if I had not been eased by the vent
given in that manner to the spirits, I should have died.

I was now master, all on a sudden, of above fifty thousand
pounds sterling in money, and had an estate, as I might well
call it, in the Brazils, of above a thousand pounds a year, as
sure as an estate of lands in England; and, in a word, I was
in a condition which I scarce knew how to understand, or how
to compose myself for the enjoyment of. The first thing I did
was to recompense my original benefactor, my good old cap-
tain, who had been first charitable to me in my distress, kind
to me in the beginning, and honest to meat the end. Ishowed
him all that was sent to me; I told him that, next to the
providence of Heaven, which disposes all things, it was owing
to him ; and that it now lay on me to reward him, which I
would do a hundred-fold ; so I first returned to him the hun-
dred moidores I had received of him, then I sent for a notary
and caused him to draw up a general release or discharge
from the four hundred and seventy moidores, which he had ac-
knowledged he owed me, in fullest and firmest manner possi-
ble. After which, I caused a procuration to be drawn, em-
powering him to be the receiver of the annual profits of my
plantation ; and appointing my partner to account him, and
make the returns, by the usual fleets, to him in my name; and
by a clause in the end, made a grant of one hundred moidores
a year to him during his life, out of the effects, and fifty moi-
dores a year to his son after him, for his life: and thus I re-
quited my old man.

I had now to consider which way to steer my course next,
and what to do with the estate that Providence had thus put
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 221

into my hands ; and indeed, I had more care upon my head now
than I had in my silent state of life in the island, where I
wanted nothing but what I had, and had nothing but what I
wanted ; whereas I had now a great charge upon me, and my
business was how to secure it. I had not a cave now to hide
my money in, ora place where it might lie without lock or key,
till it grew moldy and tarnished before anybody would med-
dle with it ; onthe contrary, I knew not where to put it. My
old patron, the captain, indeed, was honest, and that was the
only refuge I had. Inthe next place, my interest in the Bra-
zils seemed to summon me thither ; but now I could not tell
how to think of going thither till I had settled my affairs, and
left my effects in some safe hands behindme. At first I
thought of my old friend the widow, who I knew was honest,
and would be just to me ; but then she was in years, and but
poor, and, for aught I knew, might be in debt; so that, in a
word, I had no way but to go back to England myself, and
take my effects with me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved upon this ;
and therefore, as I had rewarded the old captain fully, and to
his satisfaction, who had been my former benefactor, so I be-
gan to think of my poor widow, whose husband had been my
first benefactor, and she, while it was in her power, my faith-
ful steward and instructor. So, the first thing I did, I got a
merchant in Lisbon to write to his correspondent in London
not only to pay a bill, but to go find her out, and carry her in
money a hundred pounds from me, and to talk with her, and
comfort her in her poverty, by telling her she should, if I
lived, have a further supply : at the same time, I sent my two
sisters in the country a hundred pounds each, they being,
though not in want, yet not in very good circumstances ; one
having been married and left a widow ; and the other having
a husband not so kind to her as he should be. But, among all
my relations or acquaintances, I could not yet pitch upon one
to whom I durst commit the gross of my stock, that I might
go away to the Brazils, and leave things safe behind me ; and
this greatly perplexed me. ,

I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazils, and have
settled myself there, for I was, as it were, naturalized to the
place ; but I had some little scruple in my mind about religion,
which insensibly drew me back, of which I shall say more pres-
ently. However, it was not religion that kept me from going
there for the present ; and as I had made no scruple of being
openly of the religion of the country all the while I was among
them, so neither did I yet ; only that, now and then, having
222 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of late thought more of it than formerly, when I began to
think of living and dying among them, I began to regret my
having professed myself a Papist, and thought it might not
be the best religion to die with.

But, as I have said, this was not the main thing that kept
me from going to the Brazils, but that really I did not know
with whom to leave my effects behind me; sol resolved at
last to go to England with them, where, if I arrived, I con-
cluded Ishould make some acquaintance, or find some relations,
that would be faithful to me ; and, accordingly, I prepared to
go to England with all my wealth.

In order to prepare things for my going home, I first (the
Brazil fleet being just going away) resolved to give answers
suitable to the just and faithful account of things I had from
thence ; and, first, to the Prior of St. Augustine, I wrote a let-
ter full of thanks for his just dealings, and the offer of the
eight hundred and seventy-two moidores which were undis-
posed of, which I desired might be given, five hundred to the
monastery, and three hundred and seventy-two to the poor, as
the prior should direct ; desiring the good padre’s prayers for
me, and the like. I wrote next a letter of thanks to my two
trustees, with all the acknowledgment that so much justice
and honesty called for: as for sending them any present, they
were far above having any occasion of it. Lastly, I wrote to
my partner, acknowledging his industry in the improving the
plantation, and his integrity in increasing the stock of works;
giving him instructions for his future government of my part,
according to the powers I had left with my old patron, to
whom I desired him to send whatever became due to me, till
he should hear from me more particularly ; assuring him that
it was my intention not only to come to him, but to settle my-
self there for the remainder of my life. To this I added a
very handsome present of some Italian silks for his wife and
two daughters, for such the captain’s son informed me he had :
with two pieces of fine English broadcloth, the best I could
get in Lisbon, five pieces of black baize, and some Flanders
lace of a good value.

Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned
all-my effects into good bills of exchange, my next difficulty
was which way to go to England. I had been accustomed
enough to the sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to go to
England by sea at that time ; and though I could give no reason
for it, yet the difficulty increased upon me so much, that
though I had once shipped my baggage in order to go, yet I
altered my mind, and that not once, but two or three times.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. © 223

It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and that
might be one of the reasons ; but let no man slight the strong
impulses of his own thoughts in cases of such moment ; two of
the ships which I had singled out to go in—I mean, more par-
ticularly singled out than any other—havirg put my things on
board one of them, and in the other having agreed with the
captain, I say two of these ships miscarried ; viz., one was taken
by the Algerines, and the other was cast away on the Start,
near Torbay, and all the people drowned, except three ; so that
in either of those vessels I had been made miserable, in which
most, it was hard to say.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old pilot, to
whom I communicated everything, pressed me earnestly not to
go by sea, but either to go by land to the Groyne, and cross over
the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, from whence it was but an easy
and safe journey by land to Paris, and so to Calais and Dover ;
or togo up to Madrid, and so all the way by land through
France. In a word, I was so prepossessed against my going by
sea at all, except from Calais to Dover, that [resolved to travel
all the way by land; which,asI was not in haste, and did not
value the charge, was by much the pleasanter way : and to make
it more so, my old captain brought an English gentleman, the
son of a merchant in Lisbon, who was willing to travel with
me; after which we picked up two more English merchants
also, and two young Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to
Paris only ; so that in all there were six of us, and five ser-
vant; the two merchants and the two Portuguese contenting
themselves with one servant between two, to save the charge ;
and as for me, I got an English sailor to travel with me as a
servant, besides my man Friday, who was too much a stranger
to ne capable of supplying the place of a servant upon the
road.

In this manner I set out from Lisbon ; and our company be-
ing very well mounted and armed, we made a little troop,
whereof they did me the honor to call me captain, as well be-
cause I was the oldest man, as because I had two servants, and,
indeed, was the origin of the whole journey.

As Ihave troubled you with none of my sea journeys, so I
shall trouble you now with none of my land journeys ; but some
adventures that happened to us in this tedious and difficult
journey I must not omit.

When we came to Madrid, we, being all of us strangers to
Spain, were willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain,
and what was worth observing ; but, it being the latter part of
the summer, we hastened away, and set out from Madrid about

<
994 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the middle of October ; but when we came to the edge of
Navarre, we were alarmed, at several towns on the way, with
an account that so much snow was fallen on the French side of
the mountains that several travelers were obliged to come
back to Pampeluna, after having attempted at an extreme
hazard to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so indeed ;
and to me, that had been always used to a hot climate, and to
countries where I could scarce bear any clothes on, the cold
was insufferable ; nor, indeed, was it more painful than it was
surprising, to come but ten days before out of Old Castile,
where the weather was not only warm, but very hot, and im-
mediately to feel a wiud from the Pyrenean Mountains so very
keen, so severely cold, as to be intolerable, and to endanger
benumbing and perishing of our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frightened when he saw the mountains
all covered with snow, and felt cold weather, which he had
never seen or felt before in his life. To mend the matter, after
we came to Pampeluna, it continued snowing with so much vio-
lence, and so long, that the people said winter was come before
its time ; and the roads, which were difficult before, were now
quite impassable ; in a word, the snow lay in some places too
thick for us to travel, and being not hard frozen, as is the case
in the northern countries, there was no going without being
in danger of being buried aliveevery step. We stayed no less
than twenty days at Pampeluna; when (seeing the winter com-
ing on, and no likelihood of its being better, for it was the sever-
est winter all over Europe that had been known in many years)
I proposed that we should go away to Fontarabia, and there take
shipping for Bordeaux, which was a very little voyage. But,
while I was considering this, there came in four French gen-
tlemen, who, having been stopped on the French side of the
passes, as we were on the Spanish, had found out a guide,
who, traversing the country near the head of Languedoc, had
brought them over the mountains by such ways that they
were not much incommoded with the snow; for where they
met with snow in any quantity, they said it was frozen hard
enough to bear them and their horses. We sent for this
guide, who told us he would undertake to carry us the same
way, with no hazard from the snow, provided we were armed
sufficiently to protect ourselves from wild beasts ; for, he
said, in these great snows, it was frequent for some wolves to
show themselves at the foot of the mountains, being made
ravenous for want of food, the ground being covered with
snow. We told him we were well enough prepared for such
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 225

creatures as they were, if he would insure us from a kind of
two-legged wolves, which, we were told, we were in most dan-
ger from, especially on the French side of the mountains. He
satisfied us that there was no danger of that kind in the way
that we were to go; so we readily agreed to follow him, as
did also twelve other gentlemen, with their servants, some
French, some Spanish, who, as I said, had attempted to go,
and were obliged to come back again.

Accordingly, we set out from Pampeluna with our guide on
the 15th of November ; and, indeed, I was surprised, when, in-
stead of going forward, he came directly back with us on the
same road that we came from Madrid, about twenty miles ;
when, having passed two rivers, and come into the plain coun-
try, we found ourselves ina warm climate again, where the
country was pleasant, and no snow to be seen ; but, on a sud-
den, turning to his left, he approached the mountains another
way ; and though it is true the hills and precipices looked
dreadful, yet he made so many tours, such meanders, and led
us by such winding ways, that we insensibly passed the height
of the mountains without being much encumbered with the
snow; and, all of a sudden, he showed us the pleasant and
fruitful provinces of Languedoc and Gascony,all green and
flourishing, though, indeed, they were at a great distance, and
we had some rough way to pass still.

We were a little uneasy, however, when we found it snowed
one whole day and a night so fast that we could not travel ;
but he bid us be easy ; we should soon be past it all: we found,
indeed, that we began to descend every day, and to come more
north than before ; and so, depending upon our guide, we
went on.

Tt was about two hours before night, when, our guide being
something before us, and not just in sight, out rushed three
monstrous wolves, and after them a bear, from a hollow way
adjoining to a thick wood ; two of the wolves flew upon the
guide, and, had he been far before us he would have been de-
voured before we could have helped him ; one of them fastened
upon his horse, and the other attacked the man with such vio-
lence that he had not time or presence of mind enough to draw
his pistol, but hallooed and cried out to us most lustily. My
man Friday being next me, I bade him ride up and see what
was the matter. As soon as Friday came in sight of the man,
he hallooed outas loud as the other,“ Oh, master ! Oh, master !”
but, like a bold fellow, rode directly up to the man, and with
his pistol shot the wolf that attacked him in the head.

It was happy for the poor man that it was my man Friday ;
226 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

for, having been used to such creatures in his country, he had
no fear upon him, but went close up to him and shot him ;
whereas, any other of us would have fired at a farther distance,
and have perhaps either missed the wolf, or endangered shoot-
ing the man. ;

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than J;
and, indeed, it alarmed all our company, when, with the noise
of Friday’s pistol, we heard on both sides the most dismal
howling of wolves; and the noise, redoubled by the echo of
the mountains, that it was to us as if there had been a prodig-
ious number of them ; and perhaps there was not such a few
as that we had no cause of apprehension ; however, as Friday
had killed this wolf, the other, that had fastened upon the
horse, left him immediately, and fled, without doing him any
damage, having happily fastened upon his head, where the
bosses of the bridle had stuck in his teeth. But the man was
most hurt ; for the raging creature had bit him twice, once in
the arm, and the other time a little above his knee ; he was
just, as it were, tumbling down by the disorder of his horse,
when Friday came up and shot the wolf.

It is easy to suppose that at the noise of Friday’s pistol we
all mended our pace, and rode up as fast as the way, which
was very difficult, would give us leave, to see what was the
matter. As soon as we came clear of the trees, which blinded
us before, we saw plainly what had been the case, and how
Friday had disengaged the poor guide, though we did not
presently discern what kind of creature it was he had killed.

But never wasa fight managed so hardily, and in such asur-
prising manner, as that which followed between Friday and
the bear, which gave us all, though at first we were surprised
and afraid for him, the greatest diversion imaginable. As the
bear is a heavy, clumsy creature, and does not gallop as the
wolf does, which is swift and light, so he has two particular
qualities, which generally are the rule of his actions ; first, as
to men, who are not his proper prey (he does not usually at-
tempt them, except they first attack him, unless he be excess-
ively hungry, which it is probable might now be the case, the
ground being covered with snow), if you do not meddle with
him, he will not meddle with you; but then you must take
care to be very civil to him, and give him the road, for he is
a very nice gentleman ; he will not goa step out of his way
for a prince ; nay, if you are really afraid, your best way is to
look another way and keep going on; for sometimes if you
stop, and stand still, and look steadfastly at him, he takes it
for an affront ; but if you throw or toss anything at him, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 227

it hits him, though it were but a bit of stick as big as your
finger, he takes it for an affront, and sets all other business
aside to pursue his revenge, and will have satisfaction in point
of honor—that is his first quality ; the next is, that if he be
once affronted, he will never leave you, night or day, till he
has had his revenge, but follow at a good round rate till he
overtakes you.

My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we came
up to him, he was helping him off from his horse, for the man
was both hurt and frightened, and indeed the last more than
the first, when on a sudden we espied the bear come out of the
wood, and a vast, monstrous one it was, the biggest by far
that ever I saw. We were all a little surprised when we saw
him ; but when Friday saw him it was easy to see joy and
courage in ,the fellow’s countenance. “Oh, oh, oh,” says Fri-
day, three times, pointing to him ; “oh, master! you give me
te leave, me shakee te hand with him; me make you good
laugh.”

I was surprised to see the fellow so pleased. “You fool,”
said I, “ he will eat you up.”—“ Eatee me up ! eatee me up!”
says Friday, twice over again ; “me eatee him up ; me makee
you good laugh ; you all stay here, me show you good laugh.”
So down he sits, and gets his boot off in a moment, and puts
ona pair of pumps (as we call the flat shoes they wear, and
which he had in his pocket), gives my other servant his horse,
and with his gun away he flew, swift like the wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle with
nobody, till Friday coming pretty near, calls to him, as if the
bear could understand him, “ Hark ye, hark ye,” says Friday,
“me speakee with you.” We followed at a distance, for
now, being come down to the Gascony side of the mountains,
we were entered a vast, great forest, where the country was
plain and pretty open, though it had many trees in it scat-
tered here and there. Friday, who had, as we say, the heels
of the bear, came up with him quickly, and took up a great
stone, and threw it at him, and hit him just on the head, but
did him no more harm than if he had thrown it against a
wall; but it answered Friday’s end, for the rogue was so void
of fear that he did it purely to make the bear follow him, and
show us some laugh, as he called it. As soon as the bear felt
the stone, and saw him, he turns about, and came after him,
taking very long strides, and shuffling on at a strange rate, so
as would have put a horse to a middling gallop ; away runs
Friday, and takes his course as if he ran towards us for help ;
s0 we all resolved to fire at once upon the bear, and deliver my
928 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

man ; though I was angry at him heartily for bringing the
bear back upon us, when he was going about his own business
another way ; and especially I was angry that he had turned
the bear upon us, and then run away ; and I called out, “ You
dog!” said I, “is this your making us laugh! Come away,
and take your horse, that we may shoot the creature.” He
heard me, and cried out, “ No shoot, no shoot; stand still, you
get much laugh”; and as the nimble creature ran two feet
for the beast’s one, he turned on a sudden on one side of us,
and seeing a great oak tree fit for his purpose, he beckoned us
to follow ; and doubling his pace, he got nimbly up the tree,
laying his gun down upon the ground at about five or six yards
from the bottom of the tree. The bear soon came to the tree,
and we followed at a distance; the first thing he did he
stopped at the gun, smelled at it, but let it lie, and up he
scrambles into the tree, climbing like a cat, though so mon-
strous heavy. I was amazed at the folly, as I thought it, of
my man, and could not for my life see anything to laugh
at yet, till seeing the bear get up the tree, we all rode near
to him.

When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to the
small end of a large limb of the tree, and the bear got about
half way to him. As soon as the bear got out to that part
where the limb of the tree was weaker—“ Ha !” says he to us,
“now you see me teachee the bear dance”; so he began
jumping and shaking the bough, at which the bear began to
totter, but stood still, and began to look behind him, to see
how he should get back ; then, indeed, we did laugh heartily.
But Friday had not done with him by a great deal ; when see-
ing him stand still, he called out to him again, as if he had
supposed the bear could speak English, “ What, you no come
farther ? pray you, come farther”; so he left jumping and
shaking the bough ; and the bear, just asif he had under-
stood what he said, did come alittle farther ; then he began
jumping again, and the bear stopped again. We thought now
was a good time to knock him on the head, and called to Fri-
day to stand still, and we would shoot the bear ; but he cried
out earnestly, “ Oh, pray ! oh, pray ! no shoot, me shoot by and
then ”; he would have said by and by. However, to shorten
the story, Friday danced so much, and the bear stood so tick-
lish, that we had laughing enough indeed, but still could not
imagine what the fellow would do; for first we thought he
depended upon shaking the bear off ; and we found the bear
was too cunning for that too; for he would not go out far
enough to be thrown down, but clung fast with great broad
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 229

claws and feet, so that we could not imagine what would be
the end of it, and what the jest would be at last. But Friday
put us out of doubt quickly: for seeing the bear cling fast to
the bough,and that he would not be persuaded to come
any farther, “ Well, well,” says Friday, “you no come farther,
me go; you no come to me, me come to you”; and upon this
he went out to the smaller .end of the bough, where it would
bend with his weight, and gently let himself down by it, slid-
ing down the bough till he came near enough to jump down
on his feet, and away he ran to his gun, took it up, and stood
still. ‘ Well,” said I to him, “Friday, what will you do now !
Why don’t you shoot him!”—“No shoot,” says Friday,
“no yet ; me shoot now, me no kill; me stay, give you one
more laugh” ; and, indeed, so he did, as you will see presently ;
for when the bear saw his enemy gone, he came back
from the bough where he stood, but did it very cautiously,
looking behind him every step, and coming backward till he
got into the body of the tree ; then, with the same hinder end
foremost, he came down the tree, grasping it with his claws,
and moving one foot at a time, very leisurely. At this junc-
ture, and just before he could set his hind feet upon the ground,
Friday stepped up close to him, clapped the muzzle of his
piece into his ears, and shot him dead asa stone. Then the
rogue turned about to see if we did not laugh ; and when he
saw we were pleased, by our looks, he began to laugh very
loud. “So we killed bear in my country,” says Friday. “So
you kill them?” says1; “why, you have no guns.”—“ No,”
says he, “no gun, but shoot great much long arrow.” This was
a good diversion to us; but we were still in a wild place, and
our guide very much hurt, and what to do we hardly knew;
the howling of wolves ran much in my head ;_ and indeed, ex-
cept the noise I once heard on the shore of Africa, of. which I
have said something already, I never heard anything that filled
me with so much horror.

These things, and the approach of night, called us off, or
else, as Friday would have had us, we should certainly have
taken the skin of this monstrous creature off, which was worth
saving ; but we had near three leagues to go, and our guide
hastened us; so we‘left him, and went forward on our jour-
ney.

The ground was still covered with snow, though not so deep
and dangerous as on the mountains ; and the ravenous crea-
tures, as we heard afterwards, were come down into the forest
and plain country, pressed by hunger, to seek for food, and
had done a great deal of mischief in the villages, where they
230 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

surprised the country people, killing a great many of their
sheep and horses, and some people too. We had one danger-
ous place to pass, and our guide told us if there were more
wolves in the country we should find them there; and this
was a small plain surrounded with woods on every side, and a
long narrow defile, or lane, which we were to pass to get
through the wood, and then we ‘should come to the village
where we were to lodge. It was within half an hour of sun-
set when we entered the wood, and a little after sunset when
we came into the plain ; we met nothing in the first wood, ex-
cept that in a little plain within the wood, which was not
above two furlongs over, we saw five great wolves cross the
road, full speed, one after another, as if they had been in
chase of some prey, and had it in view ; they took no notice of
us, and were gone out of sight in a few moments. Upon this, our
guide, who, by the way, was a faint-hearted fellow, bid us
keep in aready posture, for he believed there were more wolves
a-coming. We kept our arms ready and our eyes about us ;
but we saw no more wolves till we came through that wood,
which was near a half a leagne, and entered the plain. As
soon as we came into the plain, we had occasion enough to
look about us: the first object we met with was a dead horse;
that is to say a poor horse which the wolves had killed, and at
least a dozen of them at work, we could not say eating him,
but picking his bones rather; for they had eaten up all the
flesh before. We did not think fit to disturb them at their
feast, neither did they take much notice of us. Friday would
have let fly at them, but I would not suffer him by any
means ; for I found we were like to have more business upon
our hands than we were aware of. We had not gone half
over the plain, when we began to hear the wolves howl in the
wood on our left in a frightful manner, and presently after we
saw about a hundred coming on directly towards us, all ina
body, and most of them in a line as regularly as an army drawn up
by experienced officers. Iscarce knew in what manner to receive
them, but found to draw ourselves in a close line was the only
way ; so we formed in a moment; but that we might not
have too much interval, I ordered that only every other man
should fire, and that the others, who had not fired, should
stand ready to give them a second volley immediately, if they
continued to advance upon us; and then that those who had
fired at first should not pretend to load their fusees again,
but stand ready, every one with a pistol, for we were all armed
with a fusee and a pair of pistols each man ; so we were, by
this method, able to fire six volleys, half of us at a time;
ROBINSON CRUSOE, 231

however, at present we had no necessity ; for upon firing the
first volley, the enemy made a full stop, being terrified as well
with the noise as with the fire. Four of them being shot in
the head, dropped ; several others were wounded, and went
bleeding off, as we could see by the snow. I found they stopped,
but did not immediately retreat ; whereupon, remembering
that I had been told that the fiercest creatures were terri-
fied at the voice of a man, I caused all the company to haloo
as loud as we could ; and I found the notion not altogether
mistaken ; for upon our shout they began to retire and turn
about. I then ordered a second volley to be fired in their
rear, which put them to the gallop, and away they went to
the woods. This gave us leisure to charge our pieces again ;
and that we might lose no time, we kept going ; but we had
but little more than loaded our fusees, and put ourselves in
readiness, when we heard a terrible noise in the same wood on
our left, only that it was farther onward, the same way we
were to go.

The night was coming on, and the light began to be dusky,
which made it the worse on our side ; but the noise increasing,
we could easily perceive that it was the howling and yelling
of those hellish creatures ; and, on a sudden, we perceived two
or three troops of wolves, one on our left, one behind us, and
one in our front, so that we seemed to be surrounded with
them ; however, as they did not fall upon us, we kept our way
forward, as fast as we could make our horses go, which, the
way being very rough, was only a good hard ‘trot. In this
manner, we came in view of the entrance of a wood, through
which we were to pass, at the farther side of the plain ; but
we were greatly surprised when, coming nearer the lane or pass,
we saw a confused number of wolves standing just at the en-
trance. On a sudden, at another opening of the wood, we
heard the noise of a gun, and looking that way, out rushed a
horse, with a saddle and a bridle on him, flying like the wind,
and sixteen or seventeen wolves after him full speed. Indeed,
the horse had the advantage of them ; but as we suppose that
he could not hold it at that rate, we doubted not but they would
get up with him at last: and no question but they did.

But here we had a most horrible sight ; for, riding up to the
entrance where the horse came out, we found the carcases of
another horse and of two men, devoured by the ravenous crea-
tures; and one of the men was no doubt the same whom we
heard fire the gun, for there lay a gun just by him fired off ;
but as to the man, his head and the upper part of his body
were eaten up. This filled us with horror, and we knew not
232 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

what course to take; but the creatures resolved us soon, for
they gathered about us presently, in hopes of prey; and I
verily believe there were three hundred of them. It happened,
very much to our advantage, that at the entrance into the wood,
but a little way from it, there lay some large timber trees,
which had been cut down the summer before, and I suppose
lay there for carriage. I drew my little troop in among those
trees, and placing ourselves in a line behind one long tree, I
advised them all to alight, and keeping that tree before us for
a breastwork, to stand in a triangle, or three fronts, inclosing
our horses in the center. We did so, and it was well we did ;
for never was a more furious charge than the creatures made
upon us in this place. They came on us with a growling kind
of a noise, and mounted the piece of timber, which, as I said,
was our breastwork, as if they were only rushing upon their
prey ; and this fury of theirs, it seems, was principally oc-
casioned by their seeing our horses behind us, which was the
prey they aimed at. I ordered our men to fire as before, every
other man ; and they took their aim so sure that indeed they
killed several of the wolves at the first volley ; but there was
a necessity to keep a continual firing, for they came on like
devils, those behind pushing on those before.

When we had fired a second volley of our fusils, we thought
they stopped a little, and I hoped they would have gone off, but
it was but a moment, for others came forward again ; so we
fired two volleys of our pistols ; and I believe in these four
firings we had killed seventeen or eighteen of them, and lamed
twice as many, yet they came on again. I was loth to spend
our last shot too hastily ; so I called my servant—not my man
Friday, for he was better employed, for, with the greatest dex-
terity imaginable, he had charged my fusee and his own while
we were engaged—but, as I said, I called my other man, and
giving him a horn of powder, I bade him lay a train all along
the piece of timber and let it be a largetrain. He did so, and
had but just time to get away, when the wolves came up to it,
and some got upon it, when I, snapping an uncharged pistol
close to the powder, set it on fire ; those that were upon the
timber were scorched with it, and six or seven of them fell, or
rather jumped in among us with the force and fright of the
fire: we dispatched these in an instant, and the rest were so
frightened with the light, which the night—for it was now very
dark—made more terrible, that they