Citation
The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731 ( Author, Primary )
Watson, John Dawson, 1832-1892 ( Illustrator )
Spilsbury, Alfred John, 1874- ( Editor )
Tugwell, Ernest H. Crusoe's island ( Illustrator )
Dalziel Brothers ( Engraver )
George Gill & Sons ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London (13, Warwick Lane, E.C.)
Publisher:
George Gill & Sons, Ld.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Oxford and Cambridge ed.
Physical Description:
xi, 323, 3 p., 2 leaves of plates : ill., map ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1907 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1907 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
fiction ( marcgt )
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference:
NUC pre-1956,
General Note:
On spine: The Oxford and Cambridge edition, Robinson Crusoe, Spilsbury, London, Gill & Sons, Limited.
General Note:
Date from NUC and Lovett citations below.
General Note:
Editor's pref. signed A.J.S.
General Note:
Ill. engraved by Dalziel.
General Note:
Crusoe's island (2 p.) <a map> designed and drawn by Ernest H. Tugwell, precedes t.p.
General Note:
Intended for classroom use, with notes on Defoe's life and writings and the production of Crusoe. An appendix (p. 317-323) lists biographies of Defoe, discusses his style and popularity and other points related to the work.
General Note:
Publishers' advertisement (3 p.) at end.
General Note:
Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; with introd., notes, appendix, etc. ; with fifty-two illustrations by J.D. Watson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
SN01272 ( lccn )
27966241 ( oclc )
001814256 ( aleph )

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Ghe Ortord and Cambridge Edition,

THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ROBINSON CRUSOE

BY

DANIEL DEFOE.

WITH

INTRODUCTION, NOTES, APPENDIX, ETC.



WITH FIFTY-TWO ILLUSTRATIONS BY J. D. WATSON.

Jonvor:
GEORGE GILL & SONS, Iop.,
18, WARWICK LANE, E.C,
[All rights reserved.]






EDITOR’S PREFACE.

Ir is hoped that this edition of Defoe’s great work may be
useful, not merely to students who have to prepare the text
carefully for examination purposes, but also to those general
readers to whom English as it was written two centuries
ago is somewhat unfamiliar, and who wish to have before
them in a succinct form the main outlines of the Author’s
life, the circumstances of the production of the book, and
the historical and geographical points that arise in it. To
this end there have been supplied, in addition to the
Explanatory Notes on the Text.at the foot of each page:
(a) a Sketch of Defoe’s Life and Writings; (b) Notes upon
the Production and Occasion of the Work; and (c) an
Appendix, dealing with the Author's Style and other special
points ; together with a Specimen: Set of Questions, by
which the student may test his knowledge of the book.

For the facts of Defoe’s life and much information about
his works the editor has consulted and is indebted to nearly
all the biographies noted in Appendix (a) (1), but more
particularly to the small “Life” by Wilfred Whitton in the

“‘ Westminster Biographies.”
A. J. 8.






INTRODUCTION.

Danzext Drros, son of James Foe, butcher, of Fore Street, in the City of
London, was born in the year 1659,* in the Parish of St. Giles’,
Cripplegate ; he died in 1731, in his seventy-second year. These dates are
not so unimportant as at first sight they might appear, since they show
us that his long and eventful life was associated with the following
periods: the Commonwealth, Charles II., James II., William and Mary,
Anne, George I. and George II. Defoe’s Journal of the Plague has often
been spoken of as a work of imagination only; however, from these dates
we see that in 1665, the year of the great pestilence, our author was of just
the age to receive vivid impressions. When about fourteen years of age
Defoe was sent to a Dissenter’s ‘‘ Academy ”’ at Stoke Newington, to be
trained for the Ministry. Of his progress here we do not know much,
but he tells us in one of his ‘‘ Reviews’? that he had studied five
languages, the mathematics, natural philosophy, logic, geography and
history. So it is probable that we may disregard the allegations of his
political enemies in later life, that Defoe was ‘‘an illiterate person,
without education.’? Indeed, the two hundred and fifty literary works
which stand to his name would alone save to disprove such a statement.
It is interesting to note, in connection with Defoe’s sojourn at Stoke
Newington, under the Rev Charles Morton, that among his fellow-
scholars was one Timothy Crusoe, of whom we learn that ‘he was so great
a textuary that he could pray two hours together in Scripture language.”
Be that as it may, his interest to us is that he must have given his name
to what is, in many respects, the most famous of all boys’ books and all
works of fiction, The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.

However, Defoe did not follow out a ministerial career, but about 1680
entered the employ of a hose-factor—what we should now perhaps call a
wholesale hosiery business—in the City. And soon afterwards we find
him in business on his own account “at the sign of the Civet Cat,” in
Freeman’s Yard, Cornhill. His experience in this export business
provided Defoe later with the local colour he is enabied to introduce into
his fiction, especially where he deals with Spain or Portugal—places which

#@, A. Aitken, in the Atheneum for August 23rd, 1890, was the first to prove
conclusively that 1659, not 1661, was the date of Defoe’s birth.



vi INTRODUCTION.

we know he visited on business. His happy relations with the friends he
made there may, perhaps, explain the favourable light in which he
represents the Spaniards in Robinson Crusoe.

In his twenty-fourth year we learn that our author married one
Mary Tuffley, at St. Botolph’s Church, Aldgate, but this fact is not of
very material importance.

On the accession of James II. in 1685 Defoe is said to have taken some
part in the rising of the Protestant Duke of Monmouth; and, indeed,
throughout his life his early Protestant up-bringing seems to have guided
him in all his aims and ideals. However, he seems to have escaped the
penalty of his essay in treason and settled down to his business as hose-
factor. We hear of him making journeys to Portugal and Spain in the
years 1688-1691, but in 1692 he failed in business for a sum of £17,000.
To do him justice, however, we must not forget that even one of his
political enemies had to admit later that Defoe went out of his way most
honourably to pay his liabilities back in full as soon as he could. After
an unsuccessful attempt to found a business with a brick and pantile-
factory at Tilbury, in Hssex, Defoe at last seems to have realized, what
is obvious to us as we look back on his career, that literature rather than
business was his strong point. Henceforth he gives up trade and enlists
under the Whig Government of William III. as a writer of political
pamphlets.

Defoe may be said to have made his name as a pamphleteer by his first
attempt of importance, “The True-born Englishman” (1701-2). This
was composed in answer to a ‘ vile, abhorred pamphlet in very ill verse,’’
written by one Mr. Tutchin, and called “The Foreigners,” being in
reality a violent attack upon the King and the Dutch nation. The gist
of Defoe’s reply was that ‘‘we Englishmen ourselves, ab origine, are
really all foreigners.” The work, naturally, brought him into Royal
favour, and he was henceforth employed by William ITI. on several secret
missions.

This period of prosperity, however, was not to last long; for, with the
accession of Queen Anne, in 1702, canie a return of 'l'ory and High
Church power. The violent sermons of the famous Dr. Sacheverell, at
Oxford and elsewhere, helped to foment the now popular persecution
of Dissenters. Defoe’s ready wit was now to bring him into serious
trouble. Adopting the methods of Machiavelli, impersonating the typical
High Churchman of the day, he wrote his brilliant satire, ‘‘ The Shortest
Way with Dissenters.” For this jew d’esprit, which earned him the
ill-will of friends and foes alike, so dull-witted were the former, Defoe was
sentenced to a fine, the pillory. and a term of imprisonment.



INTRODUCTION. vii

In 1704 he was released from Newgate by the influence ci Robert
Harley, the new Secretary of State, who was acute enough to see how
valuable a political asset he might have in Defoe’s ready pen. For nine
years the latter edited a semi-political journal called The Review, and it
was not until 1719, when he was sixty years old, that he started writing
those stories, the first of which to be published was Robinson Crusoe,
which have made his name famous the world over.

In 1707 and 1708, he made several journeys to Edinburgh, and the
Review was most active in advocacy of the Union. Rumour among
Defoe’s enemies in London was busy with the suggestion (which was the
fact) that he was in the pay of Godolphin. With a coolness and effrontery
that are simply astounding, this political agent denied the suggestion and
expected them to accept his statement that he had gone down to
Scotland and been at all his pains for nothing.

Though we cannot acquit Defoe of considerable double-dealing in his
character as a pamphleteer, one must remember that, owing to the
variability of party politics at the time, it was not at all easy even for a
man of his mental ability to choose his course. When that arch-turncoat,
Robert Harley, turned Tory in 1715 and intrigued against Godolphin
and the Whigs, to use the words of Defoe’s biographer, he gradually
‘faced about with steady caution, on the alert to give the lie to anybody
who dared to accuse him of having faced about at all.”’? But the result of
the attitude he adopted in the heated controversy about the succession,
and of his three pamphlets against the Pretender, was finally to discredit
him in the eyes of Tories and Whigs alike, and he was branded as an
intriguer and a renegade.

It has been, until recently, supposed that Defoe’s political career ended
in 1715; but owing to the accident of the discovery some thirty years
ago of a bundle of six letters written by Defoe in 1718, it is, unhappily
for his memery, made abundantly clear that from 1716 to 1725, our
author was in the secret pay of the Whigs, retaining control, meantime,
of the leading Jacobite and Tory papers, which he is paid to edit in such
a way as to “take all the sting out of them,” that is to say, that, though
they are Tory in name, they are to play into the -hands of the Whigs.
As his name is now discredited, all these political articles are unsigned.

During this life of public dishonour, Defoe enjoyed considerable
financial prosperity, the result partly of his ill-gotten political salary,
and partly of the success of his more purely literary works, notably
Robinson Crusoe itself (1719). He lived in what was then described as
a “ genteel ’’ style, in a house of his own at Stoke Newington, and it was



vill INTRODUCTION.

while here, no doubt, that hé published his most famous work of all.
From 1719 to 1727 were years of extraordinary productiveness from a
literary point of view. Robinson Crusoe was published by W. Taylor, at
the Ship, Paternoster Row, on April 25th, 1719. This was quickly
followed by Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, a poor piece of work,
evidently tacked on from pecuniary rather than artistic motives, Defoe’s
journalistic eye having scen that his great success should not be allowed
to drop. In close succession to these follow The Life of Captain Singleton,
Molt Flanlers, A Journal of the Plague Year, Colonel Jack, The Life
of Rob Roy, Roxana, Lives of Jack Sheppard, Jonathan Wild, and of
John Gow, Pirate, and a score of others.

In 1727, however, his long career of journalistic and political intrigue
which he had begun in 1719 came to anend. Family troubles and domestic
quarrels and a general sinking of his mental powers added to his despair:
we hear of him flying from his, home and becoming a wanderer with no
settled abode. In 1730 he returned to London and took a humble lodging
in Ropemaker’s Alley, Moorfields, close to the Fore Street, where he had
played as a boy. On the 26th of April of the next year he died of a
lethargy. He is buried in the old Dissenters’ Burial-Ground in the City
Road.

If it has been necessary owing to the criticism of the last thirty years
to give up some of our beliefs about the injured innocence of Defoe, and
no longer to defend his political career against the attacks of ‘‘ malicious
accusers,” this can make n> difference to our estimate of his merits asa
writer. The fame of Robinson Crusoe has never rested upon the moral
character of its writer, nor will any adverse opinion about the private
life of the latter have the slightest effect upon the popularity of the
former.

We see in Defoe, as we should expect to see in the author of this
wonderful romance, to use his own words, A T'rue-born Englishman. A
life of adventure, whether it took the form of political intrigue or
imprisonment on an uninhabited island, was of profound interest to him.
Furthermore his intense practical bent, his happy resourcefulness, his
straightforward style, his habit of pious moralising, have endeared him to
all English-speaking peoples.



BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE STORY.

My birth and parentage—at nineteen years of age I determined to go tc
sea—dissuaded by my parents—elope with a schoolfellow, and go on
board ship—a storm arises, during which I am dreadfully frightened—
ship founders—myself and crew saved by a boat from another vessel
and landed near Yarmouth—mect my companion’s father there, who
advises me never to go to sea more, but allin vain . . pp. 27—42

Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully—death of my captain
—sail another trip with his mate—the vengeance of Providence for
disobedience to parents now overtakes me—taken by a Sallee rover,
and all sold as slaves—my master frequently sends me a fishing, which
suggests an idea of escape—make my escape in an open boat, with a
Morescoboy . 1. 2 6 7 ee eee ee eee pp. 48-54

Make for the southward in hopes of meeting with some European vessel
—sce savages along shore—shoot a large leopard—am taken up by a
merchantman —arrive at the Brazils, and buy a settlement there—

cannot be quiet, but sail on a voyage of adventure to Guinea—ship
strikes on a sandbank in unknown Jand—all lost but myself, who am
driven ashore, half dead. 2. 2. 1 1 eu ee Opp. 54-71

Appearance of the wreck and country next day—swim on board of the
ship, and, by means of a contrivance, get a quantity of stores on
shore—shoot a bird, but it turns out perfect carrion—noralise upon
my situation—the ship blown off land, and totally lost—set out in
search of a proper place for a habitation—see numbers of goats
melancholy reflections. . . 2. . . . 2. 2. +) opp. 71-95

(

I begin to keep a journal—christen my desert island the Island of Despair
-—fall upon various schemes to make tools, baskets, &c., and begin to
build my honse—at a great loss of an evening for candle, but fall upon
an expedient to supply the want—strange discovery of corn—-a terrible
earthquake and storm. «©. 2 6 2 2 5 6 + we) pp. 983—105



x BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE STORY.

Observe the ship driven further aground by the late storm—procure a vast
quantity of necessaries from the wreck—catch a large turtle—T fall ill
of a fever and ague—terrible dream, and serious reflections thereupon
—find a Bible in one of the seamen’s chests thrown ashore, the reading
whereof gives me great comfort. . . . . . . . pp. 105-118

I begin to take a survey of my island—discover plenty of tobacco, grapes,
lemons, and sugar-canes, wild, but no human inhabitants—resolve to
lay up a store of these articles, to furnish me against the wet seasen—
my cat, which I supposed lost, returns with kittens—I regulate my
diet, and shut myself up for the wet season—sow my grain, which
comes to nothing ; but I discover and remedy my error—take account
of the course of the weather. . . 2. 1...) opp. 118—127

Make a second tour through the island—catch a young parrot, which I
afterwards teach to speak—my mode of sleeping at night—find the
other side of the island much more pleasant than mine, and covered
with turtle and sea-fowl—catch a young kid, which I tame—return to
my old habitation—great plague with my harvest . . pp. 127—137



T attempt to mould earthenware, and succeed—description of my mode of
baking—begin to make a boat—after it is finished, am unable to get
it down to the water —serious reflections—my ink and biscuit
exhausted, and clothes in a bad state—contrive to make a dress of
skins. 2. 1 eee ee ee ee ee pp. 137-152

I succeed in getting a canoe afloat, and set out on a voyage in the sixth
year of my reign, or captivity—blown out to sea—reach the shore
with great difficulty—fall asleep, and am awakened by a voice calling
my name—devise various schemes to tame goats, and at last succeed.

pp. 153—166

Description of my fignre—also of my dwelling and enclosures—dreadful
alarm on seeing the print of a man’s foot on the shore—reflections—
take every possible measure of precaution . . . . pp. 166—181

I observe a canoe out at sea—find on the shore the remnant of a feast of
cannibals-—horror of mind thereon—double arm myself—terribly
alarmed by a goat—discover a singular cave, or grotto, of which 1
form my magazine—my fears on account of the savages begin to
subside. 2... ee ee ee ee ee. pp. 181—197

Description of my situation in the twenty-third year of my residence—
discover nine naked savages round a fire on my side of the island—my
horror on beholding the dismal work they were about —I determine on
the destruction of the next party, at all risks—a ship lost off the
island—go on board the wreck, which I discern to be Spanish—procure
a great variety of articles from the vessel. - . . . pn. 197—212



BRIEF OUTLINE OF THF STORY. Xl

Reflections—an extraordinary dream —discover five canoes of savages on
shore—observe from my station two miserable wretches dragged out
of the boats to be devoured—one of them makes his escape, and runs
direcily towards me, pursued by two others—I take measures so as to
destroy his pursuers, and save his hfe—christen him by the name of
Friday, and he becomes a faithful and excellent servant . pp. 212—228

Iam at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my abhorrence of the
cannibal practices of the savages—he is amazed at the effects of the
gun, and considers it an intelligent being—begins to talk English
tolerably—a dialogue—I instruct him in the knowledge of religion,
and find him very apt—he describes to me some white men who had
come to his country, and still lived there. . . . . pp. 228—241

[ determine to go over to the continent—Friday and I construct a boat
equal to carry twenty men—his dexterity in managing her-—Friday
brings intelligence of three canoes of savages on shore—resolve to go
down upon them—Friday and I fire upon the wretches, and save the
life of a poor Spaniard—list — the killed and wounded—discover a
poor Indian bound in one of the canoes, who turns out to he Friday’s
father 2 0. 6 ww ee ee ew ew ewe pp. 241—258

i learn from the Spaniard that there were sixteen more of his countrymen
among the savages—the Spaniard and Friday’s father, well armed, sail
on a mission to the continent—I discover an English ship lying at
anchor off the island—her boat comes on shore with three prisoners—
the crew straggie into the woods, their boat being aground—discover
myself to the prisoners, who prove to be the captain and mate of the
vessel, and a passenger—secure the mutineers . . . pp. 258—272

The ship makes signals for her boat--on receiving no answer, she sends
another boat on shore—methods by which we secure this boat’s crew.
and recover the ship. . . . 2... . 2. . © | opp. 278—28

I take leave of the island, and, after a long voyage, arrive in England—go
down into Yorkshire, and find the greater part of my family dead—
resolve to go to Lisbon for information respecting my plantation at the
Brazils—meet an old friend there, by whose means I become rich—set
out for England overland—imuch annoyed by wolves on the road,

pp. 289 —304

Strange battle betwixt Friday and a bear—terrible engagement with oa
whole army of wolves—arrive in England safely, and settle my affairs
there—l marry, and havea family . . . . . . . pp. 804—816






THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a
* foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a
good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived
afterwards at York, from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in
that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutz-
naer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we
are now called—nay, we call ourselves, and write our name,

Crusoe ; and so my companions always called me. 10

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
* colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
* commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
*at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What

became of my second brother I never knew, any more than 15

my father or mother knew what became of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
* thoughts) My father, who was very ancient, had given me a

* competent share of learning, as far as house-education and a 20

country freeschool generally go, and designed me for the
law ; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea,
and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will,



3 Bremen—an important town on the river 14 Dunkirk—a coast town of Flanders.

Weser, in Germany, famous for its

breweries. 19 ancient — must here mean “ old-
12 Flanders—the district which now covers fashioned,” rather than ‘old’ in

the N.E, of France and part of 7

Belgium. At the time when Defoe years.

wrote it belonged to Spain.

18 the famous Colonel Lockhart. Colone! | 20 house-education and a country free
Sir W. Lockhart was commanding the school—education at hcme with a

English troops, when the English

and French combined armies, under tutor, and (later) at a country

Turenne, captured Dunkirk. 1658. grammar school.



28 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there
* seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and 5
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was con-

* fined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me

upon this subject.

He asked me what reasons, more than a

mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father’s 10
house and my native country, where I might be well intro-
duced, and had a’ prospect of raising my fortune by applica-

tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure.

He told

me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of

aspiring,

superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad 16

upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road ;
that these things were all either too far above me, or too far
below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by 20
long experience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and

* hardships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambi-

* tion, and envy of the upper part of mankind.

He told me I 25

might judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing,

* viz., that this was the state of life which all other people
envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable
consequence of being born to great things, and wished they
had been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between 80

we

* the mean and the great ; that the wise man gave his testimony

* to this, as the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have

neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part 35
of mankind, but that the middle station had the fewest

* disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the

. higher or lower part of mankind ;

nay, they were not sub:

* jected to so many distempers, and uneasiness, either of body
or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and 40
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour, want of neces-
saries and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring

3 propensity—inclination (Lat.
inclined towards),

8 expostulated—reasoned earnestly
ex and postulo, to demand).

23 mechanic—artisan, working-class. (Gk.
PNXaV7) (mechane), a contrivance),

25 upper part of mankind—those higher in
position than themselves,

propensus :

(Lat,

27 viz.—short for Latin
++ licet),
sanely,

31 the wise man—a Eslerenee to the wise
men of Proverbs xxx.

32 felicity—happiness (Lat. Stes happy).

37 viblealbndsa clarses of ‘fortune,

39 distempers—illnesses (of mind or body),
usually applied only to animals,

I videlicet (videre
meaning to wit, that is to say,



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 29







CRUSOE’S FATHER ENTREATS HIM TO STAY AT HOME



30 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

distemper upon themselves by the natural consequences of

their way of living; that the middle station of life was
calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments ;
« that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle for-
tune ; that temperance, moderation,-quietness, health, society,
all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the
blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way
men went silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the
hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily
bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob
the soul of peace and the body of rest, nor enraged with the
passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for
great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning
by every day’s experience to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
* myself into miseries which nature, and the station of life I
was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do
well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station
of life which he had just been recommending to me ; and that
if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be
my mere fate or fanlt that must hinder it; and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged
his duty in warning me against measures which he knew
would be to my hurt; in a word, that as he would do very
kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfor
tunes as to give me any encouragement to go away ; and tc
close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example,
to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep
him from going into the Low Country wars, but could not
provail, his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed ; and though he said he would not
cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that
if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me,
and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recoverv.

%

*

o

x



or

10

16

20

25

30

35

40

4 were the handmaids of—attended upon, 19 precipitate myself—throw myself head-

went with. long (Lat. preceps: headlong).

19 play the young man -—act violently and 35 Low Country wars — wars in the
P D cilesslys after the manner of young Netherlands. Part of Holland is so

men,

called, being below the sea-level.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 31

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was

« truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know
it to be so himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his
face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother
who was killed; and that when he spoke of my having 5
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved
that -he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full he coula say no more to me.

* I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed,
who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of 10
going abroad any more, but to settle at home according to
my father’s desire. But alas! a few days wore it all off;

«and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s further im-

portunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite

away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily 15

as the first heat of my resolution prompted; but I took my

mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant
than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the world that I should never

settle to anything with resolution enough to go through 20

with it, and my father had better give me his consent than

force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years
old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade or clerk

to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve

out my time, but I should certainly run away from my 25

master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if

she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad,

if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no

more ; and I would promise, by a double diligence to recover

the time that I had lost. 30
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she

knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon

any such subject ; that he knew too well what was my interest

to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and

that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after 35

the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and

tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help
for me; but I might depend I should never have their con-

sent to it ; that for her part, she would not have somuch hand 40

in my destruction; and I should never have it to say that

my mother was willing when my father was not.

x

2 prophetic — destined to come to pass, 13 importunities—continual, repeated re-
t.e, in Crusoe’s later troubles, his quests (Lat. in, not; Portunus, the
shipwreck, and miseries on the lonely God of Harbors, or resting-places).
island. 24 attorney — lawyer, ' \(the word is used

9 affected with—moy ed, influenced by. but rarely now fadays).

B



en

32 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him,
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her, with a sigh: “That boy might be happy if he would
stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was borii: I can give no consent
to it.”

Ié was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all

proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated

with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually,

x and without any purpose of making an elopement at that

os

time ; but, I say, being there, and one of my companions
being about to sail to London in his father’s ship, and prompt-

« ing me to go with them with the common allurement of sea-

faring meu, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much
as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as
they might, without asking God’s blessing or my father’s,
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences,
and in an ill hour, God knows, on the Ist of September, 1651,
I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinued longer, than mine. ‘The ship was no sooner out of
the Humber, than the wind began to blow and the sea to
rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at
sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified
in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had
done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandon-
ing my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my father’s
tears and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my
mind ; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness to which it has since, reproached me with
the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God
and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
lngh, though nothing like what I have seen many times since ;
no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to
affect me then, who was by* a young sailor, and had never



1 to move—to propose, suggest.
used only of lovers’ escapes).

10

15

20

30

35

40



14 elopement — secret escape (generally

= 17 allurement — attraction, temptation
10 expostulated — reasoned earnestly (as (generally used of something

on p. 28, line 8). ‘ which attracts us to our ruin),

evil



ww

cig

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 23

known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down.
as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we
should never rise more ; in this agony of mind, I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to spare 5
my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon
dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and
never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I would take
his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these
any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observa- 10
tions about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfort-
ably he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed
to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved
that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my
father. 15
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a
little ured to it: however, I was very grave for all that
day, being also a litt’e sea-sick still; but towards night the 20
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming
fine evening followed ; the sun went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and
a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I
thought, the most delightful that ever I saw. 25
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more seasick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed 30
me away, comes to me: “ Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me
upon the shoulder, ‘‘ how do you do after it? I warrant you
were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a
sapful of wind?” “A capful d’you call it?’’ said I; “twas
a terrible storm.” ‘A storm, you fool you,” replies he ; “do 35
you call that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us
but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such
a squall of wind as that; but you’re but a fresh-water sailor,

* Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget

all that ; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?” ‘Te 40
make short this sad pait of my story, we went the way of all
seilors ; the punch was made, and I was made half drunk with



3 the trough—the hollow between two old word ure, used in the phrase “ to

14 repenting prodigal—the allusion is to

great waves, so called from its shape. put in wre,” i.e. in operation, Cf.
Fr. @uvre ; Lat. opera.)

39 punch —a drink made up of five in-
gredients—spirit, water, sugar, lemon-
Juice, spice. [Hindi. panch, five. Cf.

the Parable of the Prodigal Son, told
in St. Luke xv. 18.

19 inured—accustomed, [From in and an , Welsh pump; Gk. penté, etc.]



34

it; and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my re-
pentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my
resolutions for the future. Ina word, as the sea was returned
to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abate-
ment of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over,
my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea
being forgotten, and the current of-my former desires re.
turned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made
in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ;
and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return
again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused myself
« from them as it were from a distemper, and applying myself
to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those
fits—for so I called them ; and I had in five or six days got
as complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that
resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was
to have another tria! for it still; and Providence, as in such
cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without
excuse; for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the
next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
* Roads ; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
* tinuing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time-a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have
« tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However,
the Roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage
* good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were un-
concerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but
spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea;
but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and
* we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
* ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

vs



10

16

20

30

40

12 distemper—as above (see note on p. 28),
meaning ‘‘illness’’ of body or mind,
usually applied to animals.

24 Roads — Roads is a shorter form of
roadstead, a place where ships may
ride at anchor.

27 viz.—(Cf. note on p. 28) short for Lat.
videlicet : “namely.”

31 agi older past tense of the verb to
ride,

32 tided it—been carried by the tide.

35 ground-tackle—fackle means ropes or
rigging ; and so ground-tackle comes
to mean the ropes, etc., connected
with the anchors.

39 strike—to haul in. To strike sail is a
technical term for taking down the
canvas of a boat.

42 rode forecastle in — sailed with her
forecastle in or under the water.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 35

* once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our
* master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two
« anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the 5



CRUSOE IS BANTERED BY HIS FRIEND AFTER THE STORM,

seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the busi-
ness of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several
times, “‘ Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we
«shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first 10

1 come home — failed to hold, and so | thrown out, in moments of extreme

“ ” : danger.
pene Homie’ Rossen 3 veered out to the better end—let out
2 sheet-anchor — the largest anchor of a

as far as they would go.
ship, so called because it is shof, or





10 undone—destroyed, ruined.



36 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the

« steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill resume
the first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon,
and hardened wyself against: I thought the bitterness of
death had been past; and that this would be nothing like the §
first ; but when the master himself came by me, as I said just

* now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted.
I got up out of my cabin and looked out; but such a dismal
sight I never saw: the sea ran mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes; when I could look 10
about, I could see nothing but distress round us; two ships

« that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which

x rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more
ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the 15

«x Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much

* labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and

* came close by use, running away with only their spritsail out
before the wind. 20

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to Jet them cut away the fore-mast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him,
that if he did not the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood 25
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut
that away also, and make a clear deck.

Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this 30
distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the resolu-
tions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself ;
and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such 35
a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet ; the storm continued with such fury,
that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen
a worse. We hada good ship, but she was deep laden, and

« wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every now and then 40
evied out she would founder. It was my advantage in one
respect that I did not know what they meant by founder, till



2 steerage—the forepart of aship, where ; 16 at all adventures — at all risks, or
the quarters of the crew and the hazards.

_inferior passengers are, 18 drove—drifted with the wind.
7 frighted — more usually written a/f- 19 spritsail—a small sail, attached to a
frighted, frightened. sprit, or spar, set diagonally to a
12 by the board -- level with the board, mast.
or deck. 40 wallowed — rolled (generally used of

14 foundered—sunk, shipwrecked. rolling in mud, etc.),



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 37

[ inquired. However the storm was so violent, that I saw,
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and
expecting every moment when the ship would go to the
bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest
of our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see,
« eried out we had sprung a leak ; another said, there was four
feet water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the
pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within
me: and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I
sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me, that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to
* the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing,
«the master seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to the sea,
and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal
of distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought
the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In
a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon.
As this was a time when everybody had his own life to think
of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside
with his foot, let me lie, thinking. I had been dead; and it was
a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could
swim till we might run into any port; so the master con-
‘tinued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it
out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was
with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the. ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered
it out a great length, which they, after much labour and
hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for
them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching
their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to
pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our

%

oe

%

cn

10

15

20

25

30

35

40



3 sensible —easily affected, whose ee 14 doing—being done (active for passive,

are capable of being aroused, (N.B as often).

The meaning ‘intelligent ” is quite 15 colliers — of course here means boats

recent.) carrying coal, not (as usually) men
7 four feet water—the ‘of,’ which we engaged in coal working.

should expect before ‘‘ water,'’ was 30 rid if out—it must refer “to the storm

frequently omitted in expressions of (as a few lines above); the phrase

quantity, as ‘two gallons ale,” will mean ‘‘had managed to keep

etc., etc. riding (i.e, drifting) with the wind.”



38 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

« master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore,
he would make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and
partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping

* towards the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship till we saw her sink, and»then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I
must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the
seamen told me she was sinking; for from the moment that
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said
to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly
with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore—we could see
(when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the

« Shore) a great many people running along the strand, to assist
us when we should come near; but we made but slow way
towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore, till,
being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to
the westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though
not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates

«of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
suflicient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as
we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our

blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for

me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in

Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any

assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist ; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to
go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to
call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree,
that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruc-
tion, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it

x



1 staved—with its staves (staffs) or ribs 17 strand—beach, shore.
broken in. 26 quarters—lodgings.

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4 Winterton Ness —a point or headland, 32 the fatted calf—the Parable of the

a few miles N. of Caister (near Prodigal Son is given in
Yarmouth), on the coast of Norfolk. Luke xv. 23.

St.










Me

LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 4)

with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed
unavoidable misery, which it was impossible for me to escape,
could have pushed me forward against the calm reasonings

« and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against

two such visible instructions as I had met with in my first
attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was
not till two or three days, for we were si parated in the town
to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it ap-
peared his tone was altered ; and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his
father who I was, and how J had come this voyage only for a
trial, in order to go farther abroad : his father, turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, “ Young man,” says

« he, ‘you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to
take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be
a seafaring man.” “ Why, sir,” said I, “will you go to sea
no more?” “That is another case,” said he; “it is my
calling, and therefore my duty ; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen
us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,”
continues he, ‘what are you; and on what account did you
go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story ; at the
end of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion:
“What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch
should come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the
same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed

«x was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could

ate

have authoritr to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin, telling me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. “And, young man,” said he,
“depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go,
you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments,
till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more; which way he went I knew not. As for
me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London



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4 retired—quiet, private. t to be shipwrecked on one's first

17 you ought never to go to sea any voyage.

more—it should be remembered that 81 excursion—sudden sally, or outbreak,

sailors are proverbially superstitious, of passion. a }
and they regard it as most unlucky 34 exhorting—advising, encouraging.



42 LirE AND ADVENTURES

by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles

with myself, what course of life I should take, and whether

I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my “thoughts ; ; and it immediately occurred to me 5
how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father-and mother only, but even
everybody else; from whence I have since often observed,

* how incongruous and irrational the common temper of man-
kind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to 10
guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent ; not ashamed of the action
for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them bé
esteemed wise men. 15

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncer-
tain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead.
An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I
stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my 20
desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father’s house,—which burried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed thos 25

« conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father ;—I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as 30

« our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures ]

did not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed

have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same

« time I should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast 35
man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not fora master. But as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in
my pocket and goud clothes upon my back, I would always go
on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had 40
any business in the ship, nor learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in

Pa

MB



4 shame opposed, etc.—i.c. shame pre- 26 conceits — thoughts, ideas, purposes.
vented me from following the best (Cf. concepts.)
impulses that came to me (namely, 31 Guinea—the name of a part of the West
the impulses to go home). Coast of Africa, The coins, ‘‘ guineas,”
9 incongruous — inharmonious, not in were made from the gold of this district.

agreement (Lat. in, not; congruo, to 35 fore-mast man—a common sailor (who
agree), serves ‘ before the mast'’).



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

London, which does not always happen to such loose and mis-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early ; but it was
not so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a
ship who had been on the coast of Guinea ; and who, having
had very good success there, was resolved to go again. This
captain taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at
all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to
see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I
should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his
companion ; and if I could carry anything with me, I. should
have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit ; and
perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer ; and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I
« went the voyage with him, aud carried a small adventure
« With me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the
captain, I increased very considerably ; for I carried about
£40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
These £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with; and who, I
believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute
so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful
in all my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend the captain ; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a sailor ; for, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn ; and,
in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant ;
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for
my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost £300 ; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin. :

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; par-
ticularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a
x Violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate ; our
principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of
fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to

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35

40



16 adventure—here means money or property to risk in trade.
17 disinterested—unselfish, devoid of self-interest.
39 calenture—a fever (Lat. caleo, I am hot).



44. LIFE AND ADVENTURES

my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhap-
piest voyage that ever man made ; for though I did not carry
quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200
left, which I had lodged with my friend’s widow, who was
very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes : the first

: was this—our ship making her course towards the Canary

oe

3

%

*

Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African
shore, was surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish
rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she
could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards
would spread, or our masts carry to get clear ; but finding the
pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us
in a few hours, we prepared to fight ; our ship having twelve
guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon

« he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart

our yuarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in
a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from
near two hundred men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves. But

« laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he

entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to
cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them
with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this
melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and
three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged
to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port
belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I

* apprehended; nor was I carried up the country to the

emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept
by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his
slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At
this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant
to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now
I looked back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me,

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20

26

30

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40



9 Canary Islands—N.W. of Africa, just 26 laying us on board —laying his
off the coast of Morocco. alongside so as to board ours.

12 Sallee—on the coast of Morocco, about
a hundred miles S. of the Straits of 28 plied — urged, pressed hard (French

Gibraltar. j plier, to bend),

18 athwart our quarter —across the side 99 half-pike —a short kind of

ofourship. The quarter is the nautical ; je es
term for the part of a ship's side (formerly used by foot-soldiers).
between the main-mast and stern, 386 apprehended—feared,

ship

spear



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 45

that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me,

which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that

I could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven had over-

taken me, and J was undone without redemption ; but, alas!

this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
« appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when
he went to sea again, believing that it would some time or
other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-
of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to sea,
he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he
came home again from his cruise, he or dered me to lie in the
cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
i might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it ; nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational ; for I had nobody to communicate it to that
would embark with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Trishman, or Scotchman, there but myself; so that for two
years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination,
yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in
practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s

; pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing ; and, as he always
took me and young Maresco with him to row the boat, we
:: made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
* one of his kinsmen, and the youth—the Maresco, as they called
him—+to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning,
a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from
the shore, we lost sight of it ; and rowing we knew not whither
or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night;
and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to

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6 sequel — remainder (Lat. sequor: I 34 dexterous—clever, handy (Lat. dexter:

follow). the right hand).

32 pinnace — a man-of-war’s small boat 36 Maresco — an _ adjective meaning

(proverly, a boat made of pine-wood). Moorish,



46 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at
least two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in
again, though with a great deal of labour and some danger ;
for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning ; but
we were all very hungry. 5
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him
the long-boat of our English ship that he had taken, he
resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a com-
pass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his 10
ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little state-
room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a
barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home

«x the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand

and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder- 15

of-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin,

which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to
lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he

thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee. 90
We went frequently out with his boat a- fishing; and as I

was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-

out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors

of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had pro- 25

vided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the

boat over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary ;

* and had ordered me to get ready three fusees with powder
and shot, which were on board his ship. for that they designed
some sport of fowling as well as fishing. 30

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the

* next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and

pendants out, and everything to accommodate his guests;

when by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and told me

his guests had put off going, from some business that fell 85

out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go

out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that his
friends were to sup at his house, and commanded that as soon

as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house; all

which I prepared to do. 40
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into

my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little

*%

*

14 main-sheet — the rope fastened to the 16 gibed—shifted with the wind.
main-sail to stretch or extend it to the 98 fusees—(Fr. fusils), small guns,

wind.
15 shoulder- of-mutton sail—a small tri- 32 ancient—a flag or ensign.
angular sail, so called from its shape. ,
16 boom — the pole on which the foot of 83 pendant—(or pennant), a long streaming
the sail is tastened. Hag.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 47

ship at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared
to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer—any where to get out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread.
He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk
or biscuit, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I
knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was
evident, by the make, were taken out cf some English prize,
and I conveyed them into the boat while tae Moor was on
shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I
conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were
of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he inno-
cently came into also: his name was Ismael, which they
call Muley, or Moely ; so I called to him :—‘‘ Moely,” said I,
“ our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you not get
a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some
: alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know
he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” ‘‘ Yes,’’ says he,
“Tll bring some;’’ and accordingly he brought a great
leather pouch, which held a pound and a half of powder, or
rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six
pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the
same time, I had found some powder of my master’s in the
great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into
another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the
entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice
of us; and we were not above a mile out of the port before
we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind
blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire, for
had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the
coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but
my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be
gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest
to fate.

=

23 curlews—wading birds, having a long slender bill and legs, and a short tail.

C

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48 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them, I said to the Moor, ‘This will not
do; our master will not be thus served; we must stand
farther off.’ He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in
the head of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I
ran the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her
to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise
with my arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard
into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork,
and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would go
all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the
boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
« fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and
told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I
would do him none: “ But,” said I, “you swim well enough
to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of
your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you
come near the boat I’ll shoot you through the head, for I am
resolved to have my liberty;” sc he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached
it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be
faithful to me, I'll make you a great man ; but if you will not
« stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear by
Mahomet and his father’s beard, “I must throw you into
the sea too.’ The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so
innocertly, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be
faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the
* Straits’ mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits
must have been supposed to do) : for who would have supposed
we were sailed on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian
coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround



17 fowling-pieces — light guns used for

81 stroke your face—anyone swearing by



killing birds (fowls). own beard.

the beard of the Prophet would suit course, the Straits of Gibraltar.

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85

40

the action to the word and stroke his

39 Straits’ mouth —these would be, of



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 49

us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not go
on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or
more merciless savages of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my 5
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the
shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth,
quiet sea, I made ‘such sail that I believe by the next day, at

« three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, ]
could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of 10
Sallee: quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or
indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and

; the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands,
that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; 15
the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner
five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I
concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me,
they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, 20

* I knew not what, nor where, neither what latitude, what

country, what nation, or what river. -I neither saw, nor
desired to see any people; the principal thing I wanted
was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and dis- 25
cover the country ; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, of we knew not what. kinds, that the poor boy
was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day. ‘Well, Xury,” said I, ‘“then-I won’t; but 30
it may be that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to
us as those lions.” “Then we give them the shoot gun,”
says Xury, laughing, “make them run wey.” Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I war

« glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out 3
of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all,
Xury’s advice was good, and I took it: we dropped our little
anchor, and lay still all night ; I say still, for we slept none ;
for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we —
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the 40

* Sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing
themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they

3

se

or





9 made the land—reached the land; to 21 latitude—the distance of a place N. or
“make the shore” is a frequently-used S. of the equator.
nautical phrase 35 dram — a small qvantity to drink
; ; (strictly {th of an ounce).
14 apprehensions—fears. 4] wallowing—rolling about.



50 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

made such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never indeed
heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one of these
mighty creatures come swimming.towards our boat ; we could
not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a

aS



SOU ae Bl EPP

XURY SWEARS TO BE FAITHFUL.

monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried

«to me to weigh the anchor and row away: ‘No,” says I,

« “ Xury; we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go 10
off to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner said
so, but [ perceived the creature (whatever it was) within
two oars’ length, which something surprised me; however, I





9 weigh the anchor—raise it.
10 slip our cable, etc.—let the anchor-rope drop, with a buoy attached to it (so that they
could come upon it again),



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 51

immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun,
fired at him; upon which he immediately turned about, and
swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and
hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the
noise or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason to
believe those creatures had never heard before: this con-
vinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the night
on that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for to have fallen into the hands of
any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
hands of the lions and tigers; at least we were equally
apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat ; when and where to get to it was the point. Xury said,
if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would
find if there was any water, and bring some tome. I asked
him why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in
the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, as made
me love him ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they
eat me, you go wey.”’ “Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both
go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall
eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles which I
mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in as near the
shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore ;
carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it,
and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I
thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with
some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards him to help
him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hang-
ing over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs:
however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat ;
but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he
had found good water, and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains

10

25

30

35

40



Me

52 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare
we had killea, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country. 65
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Tslands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering, 10
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise
I might now easily have found some of these islands. But

« my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to

that part where the English traded, I should find some of 15
their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco’s dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and unin- 20
habited, except by wild beasts ; the Negroes having abandoned
it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barren-

ness ; and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious

number of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures 25
which harbour there ; so that the Moors use it for their hunt-
ing only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand
men at a time : and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together
upon this coast we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited
country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring 80
of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in 35
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my
little vessel ; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep
along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place ; and once in particular, being early in 40
the morning, we came toan anchor under a little point of land,
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay



14 stood along—kept along, hugged the | 24 prodigious—wonderful, miraculous.

shore. 26 harbour—take refuge or shelter.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 53

still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
that it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that
we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast
asleep.” I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful 9
monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill
that hung as it were a little over him. ‘“ Xury,” says I, “you
shall go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and
said, “Me kill! he eat me at one mouth!” one mouthful 10
he meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him
« lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket
bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
* two slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded another gun with
two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) 19
I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started
up, growling at first, but finding his leg broken, fell down 20
again; and then got up upon three legs, and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that
I had not hit him on the head ; however, I took up the second
piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired
again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see 20
him drop and make but little noise, but lie struggling for life.
Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on
shore. “ Well, go,” said I: so the boy jumped into the water,
and taking a little gun in one hand; swam to shore with the
other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle 30
of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
« despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury 85
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet. ‘ For what, Xury?”’ said
I. ‘Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with
him, and it was a monstrous great one. 40
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I

%



12 almost musket bore—having a_ barrel 14 slugs—irregular, oval-shaped bullets.
almost as large as a musket; the bore
is the hole in the barrel of a gun. 32 despatched—ended, killed.



54 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

resolved to take off his skinif I could. So Xury and I went
to work-with him; but Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him,
and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually 5
. dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie
upon,
ee this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions
« which began to abate very much, and going no oftener to the 10
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
« this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say,
anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or 15
perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships
from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands ;
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish. 20
‘When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us; we c-uld also perceive
they were quite black, and naked. I was once inclined to 25
have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, “No go, no go.’’ However, I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way. I observed they
had no weapons in their hand, except one, who had a long 80
slonder stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept ata
distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could;
and particularly made signs for something to eat; they
beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me 35
* some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay
by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half an hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of
dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country ; but we neither knew what the one or the other 40
was: however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture on shore



10 abate —become reduced.

12 Gambia and Senegal—rivers of importance in West Africa, a little farther south than the
places hitherto mentioned,

86 lay by—stopped near the shore,



*

*

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 55

to them, and they were as much afraid of us: but they took
a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it
on board, and then came close to us again,

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends: but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully : for while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange,
but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place,
those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night ; and,
in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart
did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall
upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea,

: and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion: at

last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun
with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired,
and shot him directly in the head : immediately he sank down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down,
as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he im-
mediately made to the shore; but between the wound, which
was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the
very terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk
in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water: and
by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that
it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree ; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration,
to think what it was I had killed him with.

20 diversion—amusement.

23 expedition—speed, quickness.
29 strangling—choking, suffocation.

10

IS

20

25

80

40



50 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and van up directly to the
mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that
distance, know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes
wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very
thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of
wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily,
than we could have done with a knife. They offered me some
of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would give
it them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me
very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their
provisions, which, though I did not understand, yet I
accepted. JI then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward,
to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it
filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and
there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of
earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they set
down to me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my
jars, and filled them all three. The women were as naked as
the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,

«x at about the distance of four or five leagues “before me ; 5 and

«the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to sea-
ward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to

* do; for if I should be taken with a fresh of wind, I might
neither reach one or other.

* In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, ‘‘ Master, master, a ship with a
sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits.



29 leagues—the nautical league is 34 miles. 387 a fresh of wind—a gust of wind.
30 offing—the water far off from shore, 39 dilemma—difficulty.
where it is deep. 39 pensive—thoughtful.

a

10

15

20

30

40



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

thinking it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to
pursue us, but I knew we were far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only
the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I
thought was bound to the coast of Guinea, for Negroes.
But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore: upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them: but after I had

« crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,

saw, by the help of their glasses, that it was some European

boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship that was

lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was

encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on

« board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me;
and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last,
a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me: and I
answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee ,
they then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me
in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, .. I esteemed it, from
such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in;
and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship.
as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told
me, he would take nothing from me, but that all I had
should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils.
“ For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no other terms
than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.

* Besides,” said he, “‘when I carry you to the Brazils, so great
-a way from your own country, if I should take from you what.

*



14 crowded—i.e. crowded on sail, as much

10

15

20

25

30

40

41 the Brazils—ln the 18th century, when

as I could carry. Defoe wrote, Brazil was divided into

18 ancient—flag, ensign.
19 a waft—something to wave with. Portugal,

several parts and was owned by



58 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, no,” says he: “ Seignor
Inglese” (Mr. Englishman), ‘‘I will carry you thither in
* charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence
there, and your passage home again.”



CRUSOE IS TAKEN UP BY A PORTUGUESE VESSEL,

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the

«x performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that
none should touch anything that I had: then he took every-
thing into his own possession, and gave me back an exact



4 subsistence —livelihood, living. ‘ :
qa tittle—a small particle, an iota, as in the phrases, ‘* Not a jot,’ ‘ Nota tittle,”

or



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 59

«inventory of them, that I might have them, even to my
three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for his ship’s use; and
asked me what I would have for it? Itold him, he had been 5
so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon
which, he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me

« eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came
there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. 10
He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy
Xury, which I was loath to take ; not that I was unwilling
to let the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the
poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in pro-
curing my own. However, when I let him know my reason, 15

x he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he

+ would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years,
if he turned Christian : upon this, and Xury saying he was
willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived 20
in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what
to do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never 25
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my

% passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and
forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to
me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me, such as 30
the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump
of bees’-wax—for I had made candles of the rest: in a word,

I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all
my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the
Brazils. 35

I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the
house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio,
as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I
lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar; 40
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got
rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle



1 inventory—a complete list. 17 an obligation—in modern English we

9 pieces of eight—Spanish coins of the should say an undertaking, an agree-

value ¢ 2 ar . . ment. :
eae page Hae Use: ae 27 ducats—properly a ducat was a coin
gs.

struck by a dux or duke; the silver
16 medium—compromise, agreement be- ducat was worth qs. 6d., and the gold
tween the two proposals. about double that amount.



60 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

there, I would turn planter among them; resolving, in the
meantime, to find out some way to get my money, which I
had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting

« a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land
« that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a

plan for my plantation and settloment; such a one as might
be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive
from England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbour, because
his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land began
to come into order; so that the third year we planted some
tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted
help; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong
in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into

«x an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-

trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay,
I was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done ;
and I used often to say to myself,-I could have done this as
well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness.
and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour ; no work to be done, but by the labour
of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been—and how should all men
vefiect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the



10

16

20

25

30

35

40



4lettsr of naturalization—a document 23 genius—special taste, inborn power

iving a foreigner the rights of citizen- i
fhip any ountteer sc (more often used in a good sense, as

5 uncured—uncultivated. meaning superior talent).



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 61

« exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience—I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be
my lot, who bad so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all 5
probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich,

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back—for the ship re.
mained there, in providing his lading, and preparing for his 10
voyage, nearly three months; when, telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this
friendly and sincere advice :—“‘Seignor Inglese,”’ says he
(for so he always called me), “if you will give me letters,

« and a procuration in form to me, with orders to the person 15

* who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon,
to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are
proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give 20
orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say,

« is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first ; so
that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way ,
and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have
recourse to for your supply.” 25

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take ; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired. 30

I wrote the English captain’s widow . full account of all
my adventures—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour,
und what condition I was now in, with al] other necessary
directions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came 35
to Lisbon, he found means, by some cf the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effec-
tually to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very 40
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me

* ‘The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in

1 felicity—happiness. 16 effects—goods, property.

15 procuration—a legal document by which 22 let the hazird be run for the first—risk
one person is authorised to act for only half first.

another in business matters. 42 vesting—investing,



#*

62 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to mo
to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, ironwork,and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, [thought my fortunes made, for I
was surprised with the joy of ‘t; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had
sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me
over a servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which
I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English

* manufacture, such as cloths, st~{fs, baize, and things particu-

larly valuable and desirable in the country, I found means
to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I might say,
i had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and
was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour—I mean in the
advancement of my plantation; for the sirst thing I did, 1
bought me a negro slave, and an European servant also—I
mean another besides that which the captain brought me
from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the
next year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty
great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had
disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these
fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred-weight, were well
cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon :
and now increasing in business and in wealth, my head began
to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach ;
such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads-in busi-
ness. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for
which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired
life, and of which he had so sensibly described the middle
station of life to be full of ; but other things attended me,
and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries ;
and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflec-
tions upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have

leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my



12 consideration—payment.
15 baize—a coarse woollen cloth (so called from its colour; also spelt bays),
42 miscarriages — mistakes.

cnr

10

20

30

40



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 63

apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wan-
dering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction
to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life, which
nature and Providence concurred to present me with, and to make 6
my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my
new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire 10
of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and
thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life, and a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of 15
this part of my story:—You muzy suppose, that having now
lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive
and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only
learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the 90

; merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in
my discourses among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea; the manuer
of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to
purchase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, 95
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like—not only gold
x dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the
service of the Brazils, in great numbers,

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the 39
buying Negroes, which was a trade, at that time, not only not
far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by

x assieutos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,
x and engrossed in the public stock; so that few Negroes were
bought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me next morning, and told
me they had been musing very inuch upon what I had dis-
coursed with them of the last night, and they came to make a 40

x. Secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they
told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to



21 St. Salvador, or Bahia, is the chief town panies the right to trade in slaves,
in the United States of Brazil. importing them from Africa to South
27 Guinea grains—a species of pepper-grains America.
used as a medicine. 34 engrossed in the public stock—mono
33 assientos—these were the agreements or polised by government.
treaties by which the Spanish and 41 enjoining me secrecy—bidding me be
Portuguese farmed out to English com- - secret about it.

D



64 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Guinea ; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants ; that as it was a
trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore 5
privately, and divide them among their own plantations ; and,
* in a word, the question was, whether I would go their super-
cargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock. 10
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and a planta-
tion of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of
coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon
it; but for me, that was thus entered and established, and 15
had nothing to do but to-go on as I had begun, for three or
four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred
pounds from England; and who in that time, and with that
little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three
or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too— 20
«for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous
thing that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling
designs when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In 25
a word, I told them I would go with all heart, if they would
undertake to look after my plantation in my absence, and
: would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried.
This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or
covenants to do so; and I made a formal will, disposing of 30
my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
* universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as
I had directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to
himself, and the other to be shipped in England. 385
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, and have made
a judgment of what TI ought to have done and not to have
done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an 40
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving cir-
cumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea. attended with all

aw

%

ey

.

3

*





2 straitened—inconvenienced (Lit. nar- 28 miscarried—was unsuccessful.
vowed ; strait is from Lat. strictus:
tightened). 382 my universal heir—heir to all my pro-

7 supercargo—the official on a merchant-
ship placed over the cargo or mer-
chandise in the vessel. 2 ;

21 preposterous—absurd, ridiculocs (Lat, | ‘1 leaving all the probable views, ete.—
pre, before; posterus, behind; hence giving up all my good prospects of
hind-foremost). q ®@&omins prosperous.

peity.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

« its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to
expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done, 5
as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour, the 1st September, 1659, being the same -
day eight years that I went from my father and mother at
Hull, in order to act the rébel to their authority, and the fool
to my own interests. 10

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially 15
little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with desigr to stretch
over for the African coast when we came about ten or twelve
degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner 20
of course in those days. We had very good weather, only
excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came
to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping
further off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we
were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our 25
course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In
this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and
were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two

x minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane,
took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from the south- 30
east, came about to the north-west, and then settled in the
north-east ; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive,

« and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate
and the fury of the winds directed ; and, during these twelve 35
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed
up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives,

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one

* of our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy

washed overboard. Abont the twelfth day, the weather 40

abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he

could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north

2



1 hazards—risks, chances. 34 scudding—running before the wind (in a
3 Gelee anes what is ordered, gale); a nautical technical term.
ictated, ;

29 tornado—a whirlwind, or whirling storm 39 calenture—fever
(Cf. French tourner: to whirl).



66 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found
he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil,

« beyond the river Amazons, towards that of the river Oroonoque,
commonly called the Great River ; and began to consult with
me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky, and
very much disabled, and he was going directly back to the
coast of Brazil.

ft was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was
nc inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore re-
solved to stand away for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off at

; sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail ;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast
of Africa without some assistance both to our ship and to
ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen
minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of
the way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been
saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured
by savages than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning cried out, ‘‘ Land!” and we
had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of
seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck
upon a sand, and ina moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we
should all have perished immediately ; and we were immedi-
ately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very
foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like con-

* dition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon
what land it was we were driven—whether an island or the

* main, whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the
wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could

se

Or

10

20

25

30

40



4 Oroonoque—now written Orinoco, one of 38 consternation—fear, terror.
the largest rivers in South America ; ;

it runs through Venezuela. 41 main—here mainland (not sea, as some-

14 indraft—the current flowing inwards :
towards the Gulf of Mexico, times).



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 67

not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes
without breaking into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of
miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat
looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man, accordingly, preparing for another world; for 5
there was little or nothing more for us to do in this. Taat which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that,
contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, 10
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just

« before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against 15

the ship’s rudder, and in the next place, she broke away and
either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope
from her. We had ancther boat on board, but how to get her
off into the sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was no
time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces 20
every minute, and some told us she was actually broken

‘already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, got her slung over
the ship's side ; and getting all into her, let go, and committed 25
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the
wild sea ; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well
called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw 30
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all 35
knew that when the boat came nearer the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. How-
ever, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well 40
as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep







15 staved—had her ribs (staves) knocked in,
87 breach—breaking (of the sea).



oe

68 LIFE AND ADVENTUKES

or shoal, we knéw not. The only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might find
some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great

x chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of

the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing like this appeared ; but as we made nearer and nearer
the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly “bade us expect the coup de
grace. Ina word, it took us with such a fur y, that it overset
the boat at once ; ‘and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time to say, ‘““O God!” for we
were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I sank into the water ; for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that, seeing mysolf nearer the mainland than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as
high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had
no means or strength to contend with: my business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could;
and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot
myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern
now being, chat the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might nct carry me back
again with it when it gave back towar ds the sea. .

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore a very great way ; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water: and though it was

? J. shoal—shallow ; sand-bank.
4 under the lee of—under the protected side of.
10 coup de griice—final blow, finishing stroke.

a

10

20

25

30

385

40



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 69

not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out ; and, anding the water had spent itself and begun

to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves, 5
and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath and till the waters went from me,
and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength

I had, further towards the shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring 10
in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by
the waves and carried forward as before, the shore being
very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me,
for the sea baving hurried me along, as before, landed me, or 15
rather dashed me, against a piece of arock, and that with such
force, that it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my
own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat
the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it
returned again immediately, I must have been strangledin the 20
water; but I recovered a little before the return of the
waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water, I
resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my
breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the
waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held 25
my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run,
which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to
carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the main
land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the clifis of 30
the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger
and quite out of the reach of the water.

T was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
was, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe 35

< it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the very grave : and I do not wonder now at the custom,
when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied

x up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought 40
to him—I say, I-do not wonder that they bring a surgeon

x With it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of



36 ecstasies—(Gk. ek-stasis, a standing out), 42 let him blood—/im is here a relic ofthe

au erenorts (Lat. gras, beyond ; old English dative case. Doctors used
ortare, to carry) are both terms us sn

denoting an excessive emotion (of to frequently order the tapping of

oy, terror, etc.), which places a man a patient, in the belief that such illness

beside himself. was due to an excess of blood in the

40 reprieve—pardon. system.



70 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the
heart, and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of 5
my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my comrades
that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one 10
cap, and two shoes that were not tellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so
far off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could
get on shore ? 15

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done: and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dread-

« ful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, 20
nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither
did I see any prospect before me but that of perishing with
hunger or being devoured by wild beasts ; and that which
was particularly aftlicting to me was, that I had no weapon,

« either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to 25
defend myself against any other creature that might desire to
kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a
knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was
all my provisions ; and this threw me into terrible agonies of
mind, that for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night 30
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in
that country, as at night they always come abroad for their

rey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, 385
was to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night,
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as

x yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from
the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, 40
which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a





16 Solaced—consoled, comforted. 25 sustenance—food (to sustain life).
20 shift—change into; a ‘‘shift” once 39 furlong—an eighth of a mile (Lit. a
‘meant a change of clothes. furrow's length).



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 7?

little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so
that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me

+a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up m
lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast 5



CRUSOE GETS INTO A TREE TO SLEEF,

asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with
it than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as 10
before. But that which surprised me most was, that the ship



4 truncheon—a cudgel (connected with frunk).



G2 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay by
the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as
the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been go
bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the
ship seeming to stand upright still, E wished myself on board,
that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me «gain, and the first thing I found was the boat,

which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon |

the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as
far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a
neck or inlet of water between me and the boat which was
about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present,
being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to
find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief ,
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had
been all safe—that is to say, we had all got safe on shore,
and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely desti-
tute of all comfort and company as I now was, This forced
tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that,
I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my

«x clothes—for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the

water. But when I came to the ship my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board; for, as she lay aground,
and high out of the water, there was nothing within my
reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered

« I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low, as

that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of
that rope I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I

« fonnd that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water

25

82 fore-chains—that part in the side of a

in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard
sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the
bank, and her head low, almost to the water. By this means
all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was
dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to
see what was spoiled and what was free. And, first, I. found
that all the ship’s provisions were dry and untouched by the



15

20

30

40

hot to extremity—excessively hot. 85 bulged —swollen out; the bulge is properly

z: 39 quarter—in nautical language, is
vessel to which the ropes of the part of a ship's side between
fore-mast are fixed. main-mast and the stern,

the widest part of a cask (Cf. bilge, etc.).

that
the



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 73

water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the

« bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I
went about other things, for I had no time to lose, I also
found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large
dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to spirit me
for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.

Tt was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be

‘had; and this extremity roused my application, We had
several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood,
and a spare top-mast or two in the zhip: I resolved to fall to
work with these, and I flung as mony of them overboard as
I could manage for their weight, tying evory one with a rope,
that they might not drive a\vay. When this was done I
went down the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I tied
four of them together at both onds, as well as I could, in the
form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it very
well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the
pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with a car-
penter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I Jaid upon it from the surf of the sea: but I
was not long considering this. I first laid all the plank or
boards upon it that I covld get, and having considered well
what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them
down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions,
viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat’s flesh (which we lived much upor), and a little re-
mainder of European corn, which had been laid by for some
fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. # There had been some barley and wheat together ;
but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the

vats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper. in which

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2 filed my pockets with biscuit. It has been pointed out that Defoe has apparently

forgotten that he told us, on the last page, that Crusoe took off his clothes!
10 this extremity, etc. —being in such need, I set to work with the more vigour.



v4 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

x Were some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six

« gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves, there being
no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the tide begin to flow, though
very calm; and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt,
and waistcext, which I had left on the shore, upon the sand,
swim away. .is for my breeches, which were only linen, and
open-knee’d, I swam on board in them and my stockings.
However, this set me on rummaging for clothes, of which I
found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon—as,
first, tools to work with on shore. And it was after long
searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which was,
indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable
than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time. I got
it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to
look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols. These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them ; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought

«myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder ;
and the least capful of wind would have overset all my
navigation.

I had three encouragements : 1st, a smooth, calm sea ; 2ndly,
the tide rising, and setting into the shore; 3rdly, what little
wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having
found twa or three broken oars belonging to the boat—and,
besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws,
an axe, and a hammer: with this cargo I put to sea. For a
mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before ; by which I perceived that there was some in-
«draft of the water, and consequently, I hoped to find some
creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little

ee

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1 cordial waters—a cordial is a refreshing 26 freighted—loaded.
medicine.

2 rack—sometimes written arrack, or arag, 38 indraft — current, or ‘'set,” towards

a strong spirit, made from rice. land.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. q5

opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it ; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream.

* But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broken my heevt ;

































































CRUSOE’S RAFT IS NEARLY UPSET.

for, Lnowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one
end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the othe
end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped oft
towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water.

4 I had like to have—I should, very likely, have; I very nearly suffered.



ot

76 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

T did my utmost, by setting my back-against the chests, to
keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft
with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture
I was in; but holding up the chests with all mv might, I
stood in that :nanner near half an hour, in which time the
rising of the water brought me a little more upon a level ; and,
a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and
I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then
driving up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a
little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current of
tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to
get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up
the river : hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and there-
fore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near, that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep
—that is to say, sloping—there was no place to land, but
where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so
high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would en-
danger my cargo again, All that I could do, was to wait till
the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a
flat piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow
over; and soit did. As soon as I found water enough—for
my raft drew about a foot of water—I thrust her upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by stick-
ing my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near
one end, and one on the other side, near the other end ; and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all
my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not ; whether on the continent or on an island‘ whether in-
habited or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts or
not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose
up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills, which lay as in aridge from it, northward. I took
out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn

or

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15 cove—a small bay.



+

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 77

of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to
the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and

difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction,
« viz. that I was in an island environed every way with the

sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great
way off; and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as 1
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts,
of whom, however, I sawnone. Yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds ; neither when I killed them could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back,
I shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on tie side
of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been
fired there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner
fired, than from all parts of the wood there arose an innumer.
able number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused
screaming and crying, and every one according to his usual
note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for
the creature I killed, I took it to be akind of hawk, its colour
and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more

than common, Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up
the rest of that day. What to do with myself at night I
knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie
down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears.

However, as well asI could, I barricaded myself round with

the chests and boar ds that I had brought on shore, and made

a kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw
not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or
three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.

- I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in_ pieces, I
resolved to set all other things apart till I had got everything

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4 environed—surrounded, 30 barricaded—a barricade is a temporary
fortification or defence, hastily made

22 carrion—dead or putrid flesh of animals. of bars, casks, etc.



qs uIFE AND ADVENTURES

out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council—
that is to say, in my thoughts—whether I should take back
the raft ; but this appeared impracticable : so I resolved to go
as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that
I stripped before I went from my hut, having nothing on but 5
a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps
on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and, having had experience of the first, I neither made
« this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought 10
away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the
carpenter’s stores I found two or three bags full of nails and
«spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All
these I secured, together with several things belonging to the 15
* gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels
of musket bullets, seven muskets, another fowling-piece, with
some small quantity of powder more; a large bagful of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead ; but this last was so heavy,
I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side. 20
Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some
bedding ; and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought
them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension, during my absence from 25
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore: but when I came back I found no sign of any visitor ;
only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little
distance, and then stood still. She sat very composed and un- 30
concerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to
-be acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her, but, as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it,
nor did she offer to stir away ; upon which I. tossed her a bit
of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, 35
for my store was not great: however, I spared her a bit, I
say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked
(as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare
no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore,—though I was fain 40
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large casks—I went to work to make

a

*

%



3 impracticable —useless, unworkable. 13 screw-jack (or jack-screw)—an instrument

6 pumps—thin-soled shoes, used especially for lifting heavy weights by means of
for dancing. a screw ; 1.e, a sort of crane,

10 unwieldy—difficult to move, or wield. 16 iron crows—crowbars, or levers.



3

x

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 79

me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut
for that purpose: and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,

« to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without ; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground,
laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length
by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night
before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, to
fetch all those things from the ship, and to get them on shore,

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still,
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could: so every day
at low water I went on board, and brought away something
or other ; but particularly the third time I went I brought
away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails, first
and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as fish at a time as I could, for they were no more
useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with ;—I say, after all this, I found a

:: great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits,

a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel
by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a
word, I got all this safe on shore also,

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having

* plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,

I began with the cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces,

« such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,

with all the ironwork I could get; and having cut down the

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5 attempt—attack. 31 runlets—barrels.
14 magazine—s torehouse (Cf. French 39 portable—able to be carried.
magasin, shop). 41 hawser—rope; a smaller cable,

E



80 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

« spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to

make a large raft, I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and
came away. But my good luck began now to leave me; for
this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that, after I had
entered the little cove where I had landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other,
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As
for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore;
but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially
the iron, which J expected would have been of great use to
me: however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of the cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite

which fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day
on board, and brought away what I could get.

IT had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the suip, in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to
bring ; though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I

should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But 2

preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise: however, at low water I- went on board, and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually,
that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker

- with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three

Ke

razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks: in another I found about thirty-
six pounds value in money—some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: “O drug!”
said I, aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou art not worth
to me—no, not the taking off the ground: one of those knives
is worth all this heap: I have no manner of use for thee—
e’en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature

- whose life is not worth saving’’ However, upi.n second
’ thoughts, I took it away; and, wrapping all this in a piece
oO 2 > fo} Pp

of canvas, I began to think of making another raft; but while
I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale

- from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in



vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore ; and
that it was mv business te be gone before the tide of flood



1 spritsail-yard—the beam on which the 13 to dip—to dive,
spritsail rests. _
1 mizen-yard—the beam which is attached

* labour; for I was fain to dip for it into. the water, a work

30

35

40

30 drug—has two meanings: (a) a medicin

to the mizzen-mast, ¢.e. the mast aft of (cf. dry) ; (b) anything that sells slowly

the main-mast. Here the latter is the meaning.



%

ro

Ol ROBINSON CRUSOE. él

began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands,
and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight
of the things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water ; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all .

my wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all
night, and in the morning, when IJ looked out, behold no more
ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered
myself with the satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no
time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of hex
that could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore from her

. wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but

those things were of small use to me,

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to
make—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, ora
tent upon the earth ; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the
manner and description of which, it may not be improper to
give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settle-
ment, because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea,
and I believed it would not be wholesome, and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find
amore healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: Ist, health and fresh water, I just
tow mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun;

| 8rdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or

beast; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in
sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain or
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down



18 divers—various, different.
29 moorish—marshy, boggy.

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40



82 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

upon me from the top. On the side of the rock there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door
of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into *he
rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a. green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-
side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was 10
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and
by 8. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near
the setting.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the
‘hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi- 15
diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above five feet 20
and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not
stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top placing other 2
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so
strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it.
This cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut
the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them 30
into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and 35
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not have done ; though, as it appeared afterwards, there
was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I
apprehended danger from. ©

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried 40
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of which you have the account above; and I made a large

Or

%

x

Or

15 ten yards, etc.—the diameter of a circle semi-diameter (distance from centre to
is an imaginary line drawn from one rock) ten yards.
edge of the circumference to the other 20 piles—stakes driven into the ground to

and passing through the centre. Thus, support buildings, especially such
his diameter was twenty yards, his buildings as piers or bridges.



*

OF ROBINSON CRUSOX. 83

tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of
the year are very violent there, I made double, one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the

« uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among

the saile. 5

And uow I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all 10
my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left
open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down 15
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about
a fvot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these 20
things were brought to perfection; and, therefore, I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my thoughts.
At the same time it happened,.after I had laid my scheme for
the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of
rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of light- 25
ning happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with
the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted into my
mind as swift as the lightning itself—O my powder! My
very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast, 30
all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence
only, but the providing my food, as I thought, entirely depended.

I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder took fire, I should never have known who had
hurt me. 30

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to sepa-
rate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel,
in the hope that whatever might come, it might not all take 40
fire at once: and to keep it so apart, that it sheuld not be
possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work





4 tarpaulin—or parpanling, is a tarred pall or covering, of coarse canvas; tarsed so as to

be waterproo;



84 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

in about a jortnight; and I think my powder, which in all
was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided

in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I
placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my 5
kitchen ; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
cocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, 10
as to see if I could kill anything fit for food ; and, as near as
I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me ;
but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz. that 15
they were so shy, so.subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was
the most difficult thing in the world to come at them; but I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now
and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had
tound their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for 20)
them: I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though they

"were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible
fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was.
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I

« concluded, that by the position of their optics, their sight was 25
so directed downward, that they did not readily see objects
that were above them; so afterwards, I took this method,—

I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then
had frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she. 30
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily ; for, when the old one fell, the kid
3tood stock still by her, till 1 came and took her up; and not
only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure ; upou 85
which, I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms,
and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame ;
but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and eat it
myself, These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for
I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, 40
as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely

.



25.optics—eyes. .[N.B.—This use of the word has gone out nowadays; with us, “ optics‘
means the science of the laws of vision.]



xs
%*

Me

15 expostulate—reason earnestly (against

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, and also how I enlarged my
eave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give-a full. ac-
count of in its place ; but I must now give some little account
of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may
well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said,
by a violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended
voyage, and a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out
of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great
reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in

« this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end

my life. The tears would run pientifully down my face when
I made these reflections ; and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin His
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable ; so with-
out help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly

« be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day,
walking with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when reason,
as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus: ‘“ Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember,
where are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you.
in the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved,
and you lost Why were you singled out? Is it better to
be here or there ?’’? And then I pointed to the sea. All evils
are to be considered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished foi
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had

~« not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that thi

ship floated from the place where she first struck, and was
driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her; what would have been my case, if I had
been forced to have lived in the condition in which I at
first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or nécessaries
to supply and procure them? “Particularly,” said I aloud
(though to myself), “ what should I have done without a gun,
without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or

10

15

20

25

30

40

13 desolate—lonely, deserted. 34 which was a, etc. He means just the

reverse of this; 7.e. that the chances of

the boat having been driven near to

something), shore were as one is to a hundred
thousand; it was a hundred thousand

19 rational—reasonable, sensible. to one against this happening.



86 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

to work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner
of covering?’’ and that now I had all these to sufficient
quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a
manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition was





CRUSOE WALKS BY THE SEA-SIDE IN GREAT DEJECTION.

cr

* spent: so that had a tolerable view of subsisting, without
any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from the be-
ginning, how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after



5 subsisting—continuing to live.



OF ROBINSON ORUSOE. 87

my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and
strength should decay.

I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammuni-
tion being destroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it 5
so surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.

«x And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in
the world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and 10
continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of
September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island; when the sun, being to us in its

« autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head: for I
reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine 15
degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After 1 had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for
want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the
Sabbath days; but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon 20
a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a great
cross, I set up on the shore where I first landed, “I came on
shore here on the 30th of September, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch
with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as 25
the rest, and every first day of the month, as long again as
that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly,
monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages 30
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things
of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper,
several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpen-
ter’s keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical 35

* instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of naviga-
tion, all which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no; also, I found three very good Bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also; and, among 40
them, two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other
books, all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget,

8 melancholy relation—sad, miserable 86 dials—instruments for telling the time of

narrative. * : 7
14 autumnal equinox—about September day (either sun-dials or clocks).

23rd, when the sun is vertically over ives— di
the equator and nights and days are 86 persnectives=—telescopes,. ‘long-distance

equal throughout the world, glasses,

%





88 LIFE AND ADVENTURES.

that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats, ot whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place; for
I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he
jumped out-of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me

the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a

trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he

could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to
me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would
not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper,

« and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that 10
while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that
was gone I could not, for I could not “make any ink by any
means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these, 15
ink was one; as also a spade, pick-axe, ‘and shovel, to dig or
remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I

* goon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished 20
; my little pale, or surrounded my habitation, The piles or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long
time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far,
in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in
cutting and bringing homo one of those posts, and a third day 25
in driving it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a
heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of
one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it,
made driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious,
work. But what need [ have been concerned at the tedious- 30
ness of anything I had tc do, seeing I had time enough to do
it in? nor bad I any other employment, if that had been over,
at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the 35
circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me~for I was likely to have but few heirs
—as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring over them, and
afflicting my mind : and as my reason began now to master 40
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,

and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-

Or

10 husbanded—used carefully and sparingly. 21 pale—fence. a
18 want—to do without. | 33 langing—wandering over,



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

89

thing to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
* impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus :—

EVIL.

XY am cast upon a horribie,
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.

I am singled out and separ-
ated, as it were, from all the
world, to be miserable,

I am divided from man-
* kind—a solitaire; one ban-
ished from human society.
I have not clothes to cover
me.

I am without any defence,
or means to resist any Vio-
lence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to
or relieve me.

GOOD.

But I am alive; and not
drowned, as all my ship's
company were.

But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship’s crew, to be
spared from death; and He
that miraculously saved me
from death, can deliver me
from this zondition.

But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to
hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there?

But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out as
many necessary things as wil!
either supply my wants or
enable me to supply myself,
even as long as [ live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but
there was something negative or something positive to be
thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world: that we may always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.



2 impartially—without taking one side or

the other.

10

20

25

30

35

15 solitaire —a solitary ; one who lives alone

| 82 testimony—witness.



%

Me

90 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condi-
tion, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a
ship—I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself
to arrange my way of living, and to make things as easy to
me as I could. ,

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet
thick on the outside ; and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock,
and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such
things as I could get, to keep out the rain ; which I found at
some times of the year verv violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me.
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which, as thev lay in no order, so they took up all
my place; I had no room to turn myseif: so I set myself to
enlarge my cave, and work fartLer into the earth; for it was
a loose sandy rock, whicn yielded easily to the labour I
bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as to

beasts of prey, I worked siaeways, to the right uand, into the

rock; and then, turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my

« pale or fortification, This gave me not only egress and
« regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my store-

house, but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and
a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world; I could not write or eat, or do
several things, with so much pleasure without a table: so I
went to work. -And here | must needs observe, that as reason
is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating
nnd squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. JI had never handled a tool in
my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and con.
trivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made

abundance of things, even without tools; and some with no

10

16

20

25

30

35

26 egress—way out.
27 regress—way back.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 91

* more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labour.
For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to
cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat.
on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as 0

* @ plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree ;
but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I
had for the prodigious deal of time and labour which it took
me up to make a plank or board: but my time or labour was 10
little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as
another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces
of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when 15
I had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves,
of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work
on; and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their
places, that I might come easily at them... I knocked pieces 20
into the wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that
would hang up: so that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure
to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find 28
my stock of all necessaries so great. :

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only hurry as to labour, but in too much

x discomposure of mind; and my journal would have been full 30
of many dull things; for example, I must have said thus:

“ Sept. 30¢th.—After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited, with the great quantity of salt water
which had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, 35
I ran about the shore wringing my hands and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, ‘I was
undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down
on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of being
devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on hoard the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not



1 adze—a tool consisting of a thin arched 6 dub it smooth—to dub (cf. to dab) is to
sae ea 1 knock or strike. So to dub it smooth is
blade, with its edge at right angles to to smooth it by knocking chips off it.

the handle. 30 discomposure—distress, disquiet.



92 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looked
out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy, at a vast
distance, I’ spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it,
and then after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose





WS ’ (ox Rules

Be Oe irae 1
| py) iy iS
ME GERROIPT | a\"N
: Zz Td le
IDW. ZZipiejy



wY

CRUSOE LOOKS OUT TO SFA FOR A SAIL,

it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase 5
my misery by my folly.

-_ But having gotten over these things in some measure, and

* having settled my household staff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I



8 staff—the original edition reads stuff, which makes a better sense. Household staff
would imply that he had servants or companions to form his staff. “



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 93

began to keep my journal; of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it off,

THE JOURNAL

September 30, 1659.—I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the otting,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I
called ‘The Island of Despair ;” all the rest of the ship’s
company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to; viz. I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and, in
despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me—
either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach
of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept
soundly, though it rained all night.

October 1.--In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort,
on one hand—for, seeing her set upright, and not broken to
pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief—so, on
the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my com-
rades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might
have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been
all drowned, as they were ; and that, had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world, I
spent great part of ths day in perplexing myself on these
things; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went
apon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board.
fhis day also it continued raining, though with no wind
w all. .

From the Ist ci Gctober to the 24th.—All these days
entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could out
of the ship, which I brought on shore every tide of flood upon
yafts. Much rain also in the days, though with some inter-
vals of fair weather ; but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got



7 in the offing—in the deep water of the shore.

10

30

40



94 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

* upon it; but, being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide
was out.

Oct. 25.--It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the
wind blowing a little harder than before, and was no more
to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low
water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find 10
out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts
or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, 15
made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without
with turf.

From the 26th to 30th, I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard. 20

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to see for some food, and discover the country ; when
I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I
afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there 25
for the first night ; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2,—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my 30
fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.--This morning I began to order my times of work, 35
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diver.
sion ; viz.—every moxaing I walked out with my gun for two
or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to
work till about eleven o’clock ; then eat what I had to live on ;
and from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather 40
being excessively hot; and then, in the evening, to work
again. The working part of this day and of the next were

or

1 shoal—here an adjective, ‘* shallow.”



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 95

wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet but a

* very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a

complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would
do any one else.» ————~
Nov. 5.—This day, went abroad with my gun and my dog,

| and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good

*

for nothing ; every creature that I killed I took off the skins
and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand ; but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they
were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday),
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and
even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays ; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little
square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or
two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another
as possible. On one of these three days, I killed a large bird
that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

Nov, 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the

« vock, to make room for my further conveniency.

Note.—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work;
viz. a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply
that want, and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I

s made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though.

heavy ; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade; this was

2 sorry—poor, imperfect. 18 ado—trouble.

10

15

20

25

30

85

40

5 abroad—out of doors. This is the 36 conveniency—would nowadays be writtew

original meaning ; it now has come to convenience.
mean only out of one's own country, 41 proper—suitable, (Lat. proprius.)
Â¥F



96 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

« sv absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I-could Jo nothing effec-
tually without it; but what kind of one to make [ knew not.
ov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woos, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of this, with great 5
labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I eut a piece, and brought
it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I
worked it effectually by little and little into the form of a 10
shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in
‘England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon
it av bottom, it would not last me so long; however, it
served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it
to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, 15
or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having no
such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware—
at least, none yet found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I 20
fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that I had no
notion of ; neither did I know how to go about it; besides I

* had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle
or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for
carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made 25

«me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar in
when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to
me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel,
and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow,
took me up no less than four days—I mean always excepting 30
my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and
very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having now stood still, because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on,
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I 35
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time, I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my 40
lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep



1 effectually—so as to have effect ; we 23 gudgeons—iron pieces at the end of the
axis on which the wheel turns. Called

Suoulisen ecm: gudgeons presumably from their shape
12 shod—[past participle of the verb to shoe] 96 hod—a kind EE aooden trough for carrying
1.e. having no piece of iron fixed on it bricks, etc., carried on the shoulder by

like a shoe, bricklayers,



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 97

myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover au my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves ot
trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or, vault
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top on one side ;
so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason,
too, for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-
digger. I had now a great deal of work to do over again, for
I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more
importance, J had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be
sure no more would come down.

Dec, 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of boards across over each post; this I finished the
next day ; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured, and the posts, standing in

* rows, served me for partitions to part off the house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up
that could be hung up; and now I began to be in some
order within doors,

_ Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and

began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards
* like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but bowds began
to be very scarce with me ; also, I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day. No stirring
out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before
ind pleasanter.

Dee, 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that
I caught it and led it home in a string; when I had it at
liome, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and as strong as ever; but, by my nursing it so long, it
grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and
would not goaway. ‘This was the first time that I enter-
tained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I
might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that



10

16

20

30

40

19 partitions—divisions (Lat. partior: I 26 victuals—food, what one lives on (Lat

victus : food).

divide). 36 N.B.—the initials of the Latin words, No-

2% order--arrange. ta bene (=mark well),



98 LIFE AND. ADVENTURES

there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food;
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards
the centre of the island, I found there were plenty of goats,
though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, ]
resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for
they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger
too well, for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal; itis sufficient to observe, that
T was no less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of
April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it

. was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a

half-circle from one place in the rock to another place, about
eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me

. many days, nay, sometimes weeks together ; but I thought T

*

should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished ;
and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything
was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I needed to have done,

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there, they would not per.
ceive anything like a habitation ; and it was very well I did so,
as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries in these walks of something or other to my
advantage ~ particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons,
which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as
house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking some
young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and



27 scarce credible—hardly to be believed.

ar

10

15

30

35

40



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 99

did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which
perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had
nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their
nests, and got their young ones, which were very good
meat, And now, in the managing my household affairs, I 5
found myself wanting in many things, which I thought at
first it was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, with some
of them it was: for instance, I could never make a cask to

* be hooped. I hada small runlet or two, as I observed before ;

« but [ could never arrive at the capacity of making one by 10
them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither
put in the heads, or join the staves so true to one another as
to make them hold water; so I gave that also over. In the
next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon
as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I 15
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered. the lump of bees-
wax with which I made candles in my African adventure ;
but IT had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added 20

; a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me
light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In the

« middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my
things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been
filled with corn for the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, 25
but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon.
The little remainder of corn that had been in the bag was all
devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other
use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for 30
fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of
corn out of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.

Ié was a little before the great rains just now mentioned
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so
much ag remembering that I had thrown anything there, 35
when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few
stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I
fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was sur-
prised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were 40
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our Kuropean—nay,
as our English barley.

2

9 runlet—(as before), a small barrel.

10 capacity—ability, power. . wee og

21 oakum—old ropes in an untwisted state; familiar from the practice of making imamate
of prisons ‘pick oakum,” ¢.e, untwist hempen ropes.

23 rummaging—turning out, searching thoroughly.



100 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion

of my thoughts on this occasion. I hid hitherto acted upon

* no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions

« of religion in my hed, nor had entertained any sense of any-
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as 5



CRUSOE IS ASTONISHED AT THE GROWTH OF BARLEY.

we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquir.
ing into the end of Providence in these things, or His order
in governing events for the world. But after I saw barley
grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn,

3 foundation —here means principle, guiding belief.
4 entertaiaed—taken into consideration,



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 101

and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled
me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miracu-
lously caused His grain to grow without any help of seed
sown, und that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on
that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my

: eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account; and this was the more
strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side

« of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the
place, I went all over that part of the island, where I had

« been before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to
see for more of it, but I could not find any. Ad last it

* occurred to my thoughts, that I shook a bag of chickens’
meat out in that place ; and then the wonder began to cease ;
and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s provi-
dence began to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this
was nothing but what was common; though I ought to have
been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as
if it had been miraculous ; for it was really the work of Pro-
vidence to me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve
grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had
destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven ;
as also, that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang -up
immediately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at
that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying
up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in
time, te have some quantity, suflicient to supply me with
bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow

myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but
sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost
all that I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper
time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all, at least not as it would have done; of
which in its place.

20

26

30

35

40



7 prodigy—a marvel, wonder, miracle. 16 peering—looki king carefully,
10 straggling—growing wild. 18 chickens’ meat—i.e. corn.



102 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care and for
the same use, or to the same purpose—to make me bread, or
rather food; for I found ways to cook it without baking,
though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal :—

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to
get my wall done ; and the 14th of April; I closed it up, con-
triving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by
a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my
habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder ; so I went up the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down
in the inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from
without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The
case was thus :—As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent,
just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with
a most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for, all on a sudden,
I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my
cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of
the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful

: manner. I was heartily scared ; but thought nothing of what
was really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave
was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I
should be buried in it, | ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear
of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down
upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake ; for
the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight
minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have over-
turned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock
which stood about half a mile from me next the sea fell down,
with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I
perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion by it;
and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than
on the island.

T was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never

25 heartily—from my heart, exceedingly.

10

15

30

85

40



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 103

felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was

* like one dead or stupified ; and the motion of the earth made
my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the
noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were, and
rousing me from the stupified condition I was in, filledme with 45
horror; and J thought of nothing then but the hill falling
upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying all at
once ; and this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some

time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough 10
to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but

. sat still upon the ground greatly cast down and disconsolate,
not knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least
serious religious thought; nothing but the common “ Lord have
mercy upon me!” and when it was over that wentaway too, 10

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,

ag if it would rain. Soon after that, the wind arose by little
and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a most
dreadful hurricane, the sea was all on a sudden covered over

: with foam and froth ; the shore was covered with the breach 20
of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a ter-
vible storm it was. This held about three hours, and then
began to abate; and in two hours more it was quite calm, and
began to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the
ground. very much terrified and dejected ; when on a sudden 25
it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the
consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was
spent and over, and I might venture into my cave again.
With this thought, my spirits began to revive; and the rain
also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my 30
tent. But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to
be beaten down with it; and [,was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on
my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz. to
cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the 35
water go out, which would else have flooded my cave After
I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no more
shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more com.
posed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted
it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small 40

* Sup of rum; which, however, I did then and always very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone

+



2 stupified—the more modern, and correct, 20 breach—breaking (on the shore).
spelling is stupefied (from Lat. stupe- 41 sup—sip, or drink. The word has now
factus : amazed, bewildered). become almost a provincialism, but
12 disconsolate— not to be comforted, or is frequently heard in the North of

consoled. England.



104 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

It continued raining all that night, and great part of the next
day, so that T could not stir abroad; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do; conclud-
ing, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there
would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of 4
building a little hut in an open place, which I might surround.
with a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure
from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where I
was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the 10
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging preci-
pice of the hill; and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent ; and I spent the two next
days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where
and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swai- 15
lowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet
the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence was
almost equal to it; but still, when I looked about, and saw
how everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed

« Iwas, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to 20
remove. In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must
be contented to venture where I was, till I had formed a camp
for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with

« this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that 25
I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with
piles and cables, &c. in a circle, as before, and set my tent up
in it, when it was finished; but that I would venture to
stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove. This
was the 21st. 30

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means

« to put this resolve into execution ; but I was at a great loss
about my tools. J had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard 85
wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I
had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have

«x bestowed upon a grand point of politics. or a judge upon the
life and death of aman. At length, I contrived a wheel with 40
a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.

20 loath (or Joth)—unwilling. 82 put into execution—actually carry out.
25 composed myself — contented, quieted 89 grand point of politics — important
myself. question of government.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 105

Note.—I haa never seen any such thing in England, or
at least not to take notice how it was done, though since J
have observed it is very common there; besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me
a full week’ s work to bri ing it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine for turning my giindstone performing
very well.

April 30.—Having peiceived my bread had been low a great

while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea side, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore b’gger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I
found a small barrel, and two or thiee pieces of the wreck of
the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane ;
and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed
to lie higher out cf the water than it used to do. I examined
the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it was
a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the
powder was caked as hard as a stone; however, I rolled
it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the
sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look
for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was
heaved up at least six feet, and the stern, which was broke in
pieces and parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon
after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up,
and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on
that side next her stern, that whereas there was a great place
of water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of
a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake ; and as by this violence the ship was more broke
open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore,
which the sea had’ loosened, and which the winds and water
rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the desea of
removing my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that
day especially, in searching whether I could make any way

or

10

15

20

25

30

40



106 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expectea or that

kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand.

However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I

resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship,

concluding that everything I could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which
lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give
over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I

* durst eat of, till Iwas weary of my sport ; when, just going to
* leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long
line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently
caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made to float on shore when the tide of
flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out
of her, and other pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard,
and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving
it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to
work, but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself
down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open
that I could see into it; but it was almost full of water and
sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow ta
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
or sand. J wrenched open two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck
for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body cf the wreck, and felt several casks, and
loosened them with the crow, but could not break them up.
I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was
too heavy to remove.

*

14 durst—past participle of verb to dare. .
15 dolphin —an animal of the whale kind, generally about 8 to so feet in length.
33 crow—crowbar (as before).

10

30

40



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Ghe Ortord and Cambridge Edition,

THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ROBINSON CRUSOE

BY

DANIEL DEFOE.

WITH

INTRODUCTION, NOTES, APPENDIX, ETC.



WITH FIFTY-TWO ILLUSTRATIONS BY J. D. WATSON.

Jonvor:
GEORGE GILL & SONS, Iop.,
18, WARWICK LANE, E.C,
[All rights reserved.]
EDITOR’S PREFACE.

Ir is hoped that this edition of Defoe’s great work may be
useful, not merely to students who have to prepare the text
carefully for examination purposes, but also to those general
readers to whom English as it was written two centuries
ago is somewhat unfamiliar, and who wish to have before
them in a succinct form the main outlines of the Author’s
life, the circumstances of the production of the book, and
the historical and geographical points that arise in it. To
this end there have been supplied, in addition to the
Explanatory Notes on the Text.at the foot of each page:
(a) a Sketch of Defoe’s Life and Writings; (b) Notes upon
the Production and Occasion of the Work; and (c) an
Appendix, dealing with the Author's Style and other special
points ; together with a Specimen: Set of Questions, by
which the student may test his knowledge of the book.

For the facts of Defoe’s life and much information about
his works the editor has consulted and is indebted to nearly
all the biographies noted in Appendix (a) (1), but more
particularly to the small “Life” by Wilfred Whitton in the

“‘ Westminster Biographies.”
A. J. 8.
INTRODUCTION.

Danzext Drros, son of James Foe, butcher, of Fore Street, in the City of
London, was born in the year 1659,* in the Parish of St. Giles’,
Cripplegate ; he died in 1731, in his seventy-second year. These dates are
not so unimportant as at first sight they might appear, since they show
us that his long and eventful life was associated with the following
periods: the Commonwealth, Charles II., James II., William and Mary,
Anne, George I. and George II. Defoe’s Journal of the Plague has often
been spoken of as a work of imagination only; however, from these dates
we see that in 1665, the year of the great pestilence, our author was of just
the age to receive vivid impressions. When about fourteen years of age
Defoe was sent to a Dissenter’s ‘‘ Academy ”’ at Stoke Newington, to be
trained for the Ministry. Of his progress here we do not know much,
but he tells us in one of his ‘‘ Reviews’? that he had studied five
languages, the mathematics, natural philosophy, logic, geography and
history. So it is probable that we may disregard the allegations of his
political enemies in later life, that Defoe was ‘‘an illiterate person,
without education.’? Indeed, the two hundred and fifty literary works
which stand to his name would alone save to disprove such a statement.
It is interesting to note, in connection with Defoe’s sojourn at Stoke
Newington, under the Rev Charles Morton, that among his fellow-
scholars was one Timothy Crusoe, of whom we learn that ‘he was so great
a textuary that he could pray two hours together in Scripture language.”
Be that as it may, his interest to us is that he must have given his name
to what is, in many respects, the most famous of all boys’ books and all
works of fiction, The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.

However, Defoe did not follow out a ministerial career, but about 1680
entered the employ of a hose-factor—what we should now perhaps call a
wholesale hosiery business—in the City. And soon afterwards we find
him in business on his own account “at the sign of the Civet Cat,” in
Freeman’s Yard, Cornhill. His experience in this export business
provided Defoe later with the local colour he is enabied to introduce into
his fiction, especially where he deals with Spain or Portugal—places which

#@, A. Aitken, in the Atheneum for August 23rd, 1890, was the first to prove
conclusively that 1659, not 1661, was the date of Defoe’s birth.
vi INTRODUCTION.

we know he visited on business. His happy relations with the friends he
made there may, perhaps, explain the favourable light in which he
represents the Spaniards in Robinson Crusoe.

In his twenty-fourth year we learn that our author married one
Mary Tuffley, at St. Botolph’s Church, Aldgate, but this fact is not of
very material importance.

On the accession of James II. in 1685 Defoe is said to have taken some
part in the rising of the Protestant Duke of Monmouth; and, indeed,
throughout his life his early Protestant up-bringing seems to have guided
him in all his aims and ideals. However, he seems to have escaped the
penalty of his essay in treason and settled down to his business as hose-
factor. We hear of him making journeys to Portugal and Spain in the
years 1688-1691, but in 1692 he failed in business for a sum of £17,000.
To do him justice, however, we must not forget that even one of his
political enemies had to admit later that Defoe went out of his way most
honourably to pay his liabilities back in full as soon as he could. After
an unsuccessful attempt to found a business with a brick and pantile-
factory at Tilbury, in Hssex, Defoe at last seems to have realized, what
is obvious to us as we look back on his career, that literature rather than
business was his strong point. Henceforth he gives up trade and enlists
under the Whig Government of William III. as a writer of political
pamphlets.

Defoe may be said to have made his name as a pamphleteer by his first
attempt of importance, “The True-born Englishman” (1701-2). This
was composed in answer to a ‘ vile, abhorred pamphlet in very ill verse,’’
written by one Mr. Tutchin, and called “The Foreigners,” being in
reality a violent attack upon the King and the Dutch nation. The gist
of Defoe’s reply was that ‘‘we Englishmen ourselves, ab origine, are
really all foreigners.” The work, naturally, brought him into Royal
favour, and he was henceforth employed by William ITI. on several secret
missions.

This period of prosperity, however, was not to last long; for, with the
accession of Queen Anne, in 1702, canie a return of 'l'ory and High
Church power. The violent sermons of the famous Dr. Sacheverell, at
Oxford and elsewhere, helped to foment the now popular persecution
of Dissenters. Defoe’s ready wit was now to bring him into serious
trouble. Adopting the methods of Machiavelli, impersonating the typical
High Churchman of the day, he wrote his brilliant satire, ‘‘ The Shortest
Way with Dissenters.” For this jew d’esprit, which earned him the
ill-will of friends and foes alike, so dull-witted were the former, Defoe was
sentenced to a fine, the pillory. and a term of imprisonment.
INTRODUCTION. vii

In 1704 he was released from Newgate by the influence ci Robert
Harley, the new Secretary of State, who was acute enough to see how
valuable a political asset he might have in Defoe’s ready pen. For nine
years the latter edited a semi-political journal called The Review, and it
was not until 1719, when he was sixty years old, that he started writing
those stories, the first of which to be published was Robinson Crusoe,
which have made his name famous the world over.

In 1707 and 1708, he made several journeys to Edinburgh, and the
Review was most active in advocacy of the Union. Rumour among
Defoe’s enemies in London was busy with the suggestion (which was the
fact) that he was in the pay of Godolphin. With a coolness and effrontery
that are simply astounding, this political agent denied the suggestion and
expected them to accept his statement that he had gone down to
Scotland and been at all his pains for nothing.

Though we cannot acquit Defoe of considerable double-dealing in his
character as a pamphleteer, one must remember that, owing to the
variability of party politics at the time, it was not at all easy even for a
man of his mental ability to choose his course. When that arch-turncoat,
Robert Harley, turned Tory in 1715 and intrigued against Godolphin
and the Whigs, to use the words of Defoe’s biographer, he gradually
‘faced about with steady caution, on the alert to give the lie to anybody
who dared to accuse him of having faced about at all.”’? But the result of
the attitude he adopted in the heated controversy about the succession,
and of his three pamphlets against the Pretender, was finally to discredit
him in the eyes of Tories and Whigs alike, and he was branded as an
intriguer and a renegade.

It has been, until recently, supposed that Defoe’s political career ended
in 1715; but owing to the accident of the discovery some thirty years
ago of a bundle of six letters written by Defoe in 1718, it is, unhappily
for his memery, made abundantly clear that from 1716 to 1725, our
author was in the secret pay of the Whigs, retaining control, meantime,
of the leading Jacobite and Tory papers, which he is paid to edit in such
a way as to “take all the sting out of them,” that is to say, that, though
they are Tory in name, they are to play into the -hands of the Whigs.
As his name is now discredited, all these political articles are unsigned.

During this life of public dishonour, Defoe enjoyed considerable
financial prosperity, the result partly of his ill-gotten political salary,
and partly of the success of his more purely literary works, notably
Robinson Crusoe itself (1719). He lived in what was then described as
a “ genteel ’’ style, in a house of his own at Stoke Newington, and it was
vill INTRODUCTION.

while here, no doubt, that hé published his most famous work of all.
From 1719 to 1727 were years of extraordinary productiveness from a
literary point of view. Robinson Crusoe was published by W. Taylor, at
the Ship, Paternoster Row, on April 25th, 1719. This was quickly
followed by Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, a poor piece of work,
evidently tacked on from pecuniary rather than artistic motives, Defoe’s
journalistic eye having scen that his great success should not be allowed
to drop. In close succession to these follow The Life of Captain Singleton,
Molt Flanlers, A Journal of the Plague Year, Colonel Jack, The Life
of Rob Roy, Roxana, Lives of Jack Sheppard, Jonathan Wild, and of
John Gow, Pirate, and a score of others.

In 1727, however, his long career of journalistic and political intrigue
which he had begun in 1719 came to anend. Family troubles and domestic
quarrels and a general sinking of his mental powers added to his despair:
we hear of him flying from his, home and becoming a wanderer with no
settled abode. In 1730 he returned to London and took a humble lodging
in Ropemaker’s Alley, Moorfields, close to the Fore Street, where he had
played as a boy. On the 26th of April of the next year he died of a
lethargy. He is buried in the old Dissenters’ Burial-Ground in the City
Road.

If it has been necessary owing to the criticism of the last thirty years
to give up some of our beliefs about the injured innocence of Defoe, and
no longer to defend his political career against the attacks of ‘‘ malicious
accusers,” this can make n> difference to our estimate of his merits asa
writer. The fame of Robinson Crusoe has never rested upon the moral
character of its writer, nor will any adverse opinion about the private
life of the latter have the slightest effect upon the popularity of the
former.

We see in Defoe, as we should expect to see in the author of this
wonderful romance, to use his own words, A T'rue-born Englishman. A
life of adventure, whether it took the form of political intrigue or
imprisonment on an uninhabited island, was of profound interest to him.
Furthermore his intense practical bent, his happy resourcefulness, his
straightforward style, his habit of pious moralising, have endeared him to
all English-speaking peoples.
BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE STORY.

My birth and parentage—at nineteen years of age I determined to go tc
sea—dissuaded by my parents—elope with a schoolfellow, and go on
board ship—a storm arises, during which I am dreadfully frightened—
ship founders—myself and crew saved by a boat from another vessel
and landed near Yarmouth—mect my companion’s father there, who
advises me never to go to sea more, but allin vain . . pp. 27—42

Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully—death of my captain
—sail another trip with his mate—the vengeance of Providence for
disobedience to parents now overtakes me—taken by a Sallee rover,
and all sold as slaves—my master frequently sends me a fishing, which
suggests an idea of escape—make my escape in an open boat, with a
Morescoboy . 1. 2 6 7 ee eee ee eee pp. 48-54

Make for the southward in hopes of meeting with some European vessel
—sce savages along shore—shoot a large leopard—am taken up by a
merchantman —arrive at the Brazils, and buy a settlement there—

cannot be quiet, but sail on a voyage of adventure to Guinea—ship
strikes on a sandbank in unknown Jand—all lost but myself, who am
driven ashore, half dead. 2. 2. 1 1 eu ee Opp. 54-71

Appearance of the wreck and country next day—swim on board of the
ship, and, by means of a contrivance, get a quantity of stores on
shore—shoot a bird, but it turns out perfect carrion—noralise upon
my situation—the ship blown off land, and totally lost—set out in
search of a proper place for a habitation—see numbers of goats
melancholy reflections. . . 2. . . . 2. 2. +) opp. 71-95

(

I begin to keep a journal—christen my desert island the Island of Despair
-—fall upon various schemes to make tools, baskets, &c., and begin to
build my honse—at a great loss of an evening for candle, but fall upon
an expedient to supply the want—strange discovery of corn—-a terrible
earthquake and storm. «©. 2 6 2 2 5 6 + we) pp. 983—105
x BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE STORY.

Observe the ship driven further aground by the late storm—procure a vast
quantity of necessaries from the wreck—catch a large turtle—T fall ill
of a fever and ague—terrible dream, and serious reflections thereupon
—find a Bible in one of the seamen’s chests thrown ashore, the reading
whereof gives me great comfort. . . . . . . . pp. 105-118

I begin to take a survey of my island—discover plenty of tobacco, grapes,
lemons, and sugar-canes, wild, but no human inhabitants—resolve to
lay up a store of these articles, to furnish me against the wet seasen—
my cat, which I supposed lost, returns with kittens—I regulate my
diet, and shut myself up for the wet season—sow my grain, which
comes to nothing ; but I discover and remedy my error—take account
of the course of the weather. . . 2. 1...) opp. 118—127

Make a second tour through the island—catch a young parrot, which I
afterwards teach to speak—my mode of sleeping at night—find the
other side of the island much more pleasant than mine, and covered
with turtle and sea-fowl—catch a young kid, which I tame—return to
my old habitation—great plague with my harvest . . pp. 127—137



T attempt to mould earthenware, and succeed—description of my mode of
baking—begin to make a boat—after it is finished, am unable to get
it down to the water —serious reflections—my ink and biscuit
exhausted, and clothes in a bad state—contrive to make a dress of
skins. 2. 1 eee ee ee ee ee pp. 137-152

I succeed in getting a canoe afloat, and set out on a voyage in the sixth
year of my reign, or captivity—blown out to sea—reach the shore
with great difficulty—fall asleep, and am awakened by a voice calling
my name—devise various schemes to tame goats, and at last succeed.

pp. 153—166

Description of my fignre—also of my dwelling and enclosures—dreadful
alarm on seeing the print of a man’s foot on the shore—reflections—
take every possible measure of precaution . . . . pp. 166—181

I observe a canoe out at sea—find on the shore the remnant of a feast of
cannibals-—horror of mind thereon—double arm myself—terribly
alarmed by a goat—discover a singular cave, or grotto, of which 1
form my magazine—my fears on account of the savages begin to
subside. 2... ee ee ee ee ee. pp. 181—197

Description of my situation in the twenty-third year of my residence—
discover nine naked savages round a fire on my side of the island—my
horror on beholding the dismal work they were about —I determine on
the destruction of the next party, at all risks—a ship lost off the
island—go on board the wreck, which I discern to be Spanish—procure
a great variety of articles from the vessel. - . . . pn. 197—212
BRIEF OUTLINE OF THF STORY. Xl

Reflections—an extraordinary dream —discover five canoes of savages on
shore—observe from my station two miserable wretches dragged out
of the boats to be devoured—one of them makes his escape, and runs
direcily towards me, pursued by two others—I take measures so as to
destroy his pursuers, and save his hfe—christen him by the name of
Friday, and he becomes a faithful and excellent servant . pp. 212—228

Iam at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my abhorrence of the
cannibal practices of the savages—he is amazed at the effects of the
gun, and considers it an intelligent being—begins to talk English
tolerably—a dialogue—I instruct him in the knowledge of religion,
and find him very apt—he describes to me some white men who had
come to his country, and still lived there. . . . . pp. 228—241

[ determine to go over to the continent—Friday and I construct a boat
equal to carry twenty men—his dexterity in managing her-—Friday
brings intelligence of three canoes of savages on shore—resolve to go
down upon them—Friday and I fire upon the wretches, and save the
life of a poor Spaniard—list — the killed and wounded—discover a
poor Indian bound in one of the canoes, who turns out to he Friday’s
father 2 0. 6 ww ee ee ew ew ewe pp. 241—258

i learn from the Spaniard that there were sixteen more of his countrymen
among the savages—the Spaniard and Friday’s father, well armed, sail
on a mission to the continent—I discover an English ship lying at
anchor off the island—her boat comes on shore with three prisoners—
the crew straggie into the woods, their boat being aground—discover
myself to the prisoners, who prove to be the captain and mate of the
vessel, and a passenger—secure the mutineers . . . pp. 258—272

The ship makes signals for her boat--on receiving no answer, she sends
another boat on shore—methods by which we secure this boat’s crew.
and recover the ship. . . . 2... . 2. . © | opp. 278—28

I take leave of the island, and, after a long voyage, arrive in England—go
down into Yorkshire, and find the greater part of my family dead—
resolve to go to Lisbon for information respecting my plantation at the
Brazils—meet an old friend there, by whose means I become rich—set
out for England overland—imuch annoyed by wolves on the road,

pp. 289 —304

Strange battle betwixt Friday and a bear—terrible engagement with oa
whole army of wolves—arrive in England safely, and settle my affairs
there—l marry, and havea family . . . . . . . pp. 804—816
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a
* foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a
good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived
afterwards at York, from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in
that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutz-
naer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we
are now called—nay, we call ourselves, and write our name,

Crusoe ; and so my companions always called me. 10

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
* colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
* commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
*at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What

became of my second brother I never knew, any more than 15

my father or mother knew what became of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
* thoughts) My father, who was very ancient, had given me a

* competent share of learning, as far as house-education and a 20

country freeschool generally go, and designed me for the
law ; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea,
and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will,



3 Bremen—an important town on the river 14 Dunkirk—a coast town of Flanders.

Weser, in Germany, famous for its

breweries. 19 ancient — must here mean “ old-
12 Flanders—the district which now covers fashioned,” rather than ‘old’ in

the N.E, of France and part of 7

Belgium. At the time when Defoe years.

wrote it belonged to Spain.

18 the famous Colonel Lockhart. Colone! | 20 house-education and a country free
Sir W. Lockhart was commanding the school—education at hcme with a

English troops, when the English

and French combined armies, under tutor, and (later) at a country

Turenne, captured Dunkirk. 1658. grammar school.
28 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there
* seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and 5
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was con-

* fined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me

upon this subject.

He asked me what reasons, more than a

mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father’s 10
house and my native country, where I might be well intro-
duced, and had a’ prospect of raising my fortune by applica-

tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure.

He told

me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of

aspiring,

superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad 16

upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road ;
that these things were all either too far above me, or too far
below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by 20
long experience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and

* hardships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambi-

* tion, and envy of the upper part of mankind.

He told me I 25

might judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing,

* viz., that this was the state of life which all other people
envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable
consequence of being born to great things, and wished they
had been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between 80

we

* the mean and the great ; that the wise man gave his testimony

* to this, as the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have

neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part 35
of mankind, but that the middle station had the fewest

* disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the

. higher or lower part of mankind ;

nay, they were not sub:

* jected to so many distempers, and uneasiness, either of body
or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and 40
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour, want of neces-
saries and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring

3 propensity—inclination (Lat.
inclined towards),

8 expostulated—reasoned earnestly
ex and postulo, to demand).

23 mechanic—artisan, working-class. (Gk.
PNXaV7) (mechane), a contrivance),

25 upper part of mankind—those higher in
position than themselves,

propensus :

(Lat,

27 viz.—short for Latin
++ licet),
sanely,

31 the wise man—a Eslerenee to the wise
men of Proverbs xxx.

32 felicity—happiness (Lat. Stes happy).

37 viblealbndsa clarses of ‘fortune,

39 distempers—illnesses (of mind or body),
usually applied only to animals,

I videlicet (videre
meaning to wit, that is to say,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 29







CRUSOE’S FATHER ENTREATS HIM TO STAY AT HOME
30 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

distemper upon themselves by the natural consequences of

their way of living; that the middle station of life was
calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments ;
« that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle for-
tune ; that temperance, moderation,-quietness, health, society,
all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the
blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way
men went silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the
hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily
bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob
the soul of peace and the body of rest, nor enraged with the
passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for
great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning
by every day’s experience to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
* myself into miseries which nature, and the station of life I
was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do
well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station
of life which he had just been recommending to me ; and that
if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be
my mere fate or fanlt that must hinder it; and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged
his duty in warning me against measures which he knew
would be to my hurt; in a word, that as he would do very
kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfor
tunes as to give me any encouragement to go away ; and tc
close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example,
to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep
him from going into the Low Country wars, but could not
provail, his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed ; and though he said he would not
cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that
if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me,
and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recoverv.

%

*

o

x



or

10

16

20

25

30

35

40

4 were the handmaids of—attended upon, 19 precipitate myself—throw myself head-

went with. long (Lat. preceps: headlong).

19 play the young man -—act violently and 35 Low Country wars — wars in the
P D cilesslys after the manner of young Netherlands. Part of Holland is so

men,

called, being below the sea-level.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 31

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was

« truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know
it to be so himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his
face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother
who was killed; and that when he spoke of my having 5
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved
that -he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full he coula say no more to me.

* I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed,
who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of 10
going abroad any more, but to settle at home according to
my father’s desire. But alas! a few days wore it all off;

«and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s further im-

portunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite

away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily 15

as the first heat of my resolution prompted; but I took my

mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant
than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the world that I should never

settle to anything with resolution enough to go through 20

with it, and my father had better give me his consent than

force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years
old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade or clerk

to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve

out my time, but I should certainly run away from my 25

master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if

she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad,

if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no

more ; and I would promise, by a double diligence to recover

the time that I had lost. 30
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she

knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon

any such subject ; that he knew too well what was my interest

to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and

that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after 35

the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and

tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help
for me; but I might depend I should never have their con-

sent to it ; that for her part, she would not have somuch hand 40

in my destruction; and I should never have it to say that

my mother was willing when my father was not.

x

2 prophetic — destined to come to pass, 13 importunities—continual, repeated re-
t.e, in Crusoe’s later troubles, his quests (Lat. in, not; Portunus, the
shipwreck, and miseries on the lonely God of Harbors, or resting-places).
island. 24 attorney — lawyer, ' \(the word is used

9 affected with—moy ed, influenced by. but rarely now fadays).

B
en

32 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him,
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her, with a sigh: “That boy might be happy if he would
stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was borii: I can give no consent
to it.”

Ié was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all

proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated

with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually,

x and without any purpose of making an elopement at that

os

time ; but, I say, being there, and one of my companions
being about to sail to London in his father’s ship, and prompt-

« ing me to go with them with the common allurement of sea-

faring meu, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much
as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as
they might, without asking God’s blessing or my father’s,
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences,
and in an ill hour, God knows, on the Ist of September, 1651,
I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinued longer, than mine. ‘The ship was no sooner out of
the Humber, than the wind began to blow and the sea to
rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at
sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified
in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had
done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandon-
ing my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my father’s
tears and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my
mind ; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness to which it has since, reproached me with
the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God
and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
lngh, though nothing like what I have seen many times since ;
no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to
affect me then, who was by* a young sailor, and had never



1 to move—to propose, suggest.
used only of lovers’ escapes).

10

15

20

30

35

40



14 elopement — secret escape (generally

= 17 allurement — attraction, temptation
10 expostulated — reasoned earnestly (as (generally used of something

on p. 28, line 8). ‘ which attracts us to our ruin),

evil
ww

cig

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 23

known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down.
as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we
should never rise more ; in this agony of mind, I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to spare 5
my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon
dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and
never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I would take
his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these
any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observa- 10
tions about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfort-
ably he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed
to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved
that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my
father. 15
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a
little ured to it: however, I was very grave for all that
day, being also a litt’e sea-sick still; but towards night the 20
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming
fine evening followed ; the sun went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and
a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I
thought, the most delightful that ever I saw. 25
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more seasick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed 30
me away, comes to me: “ Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me
upon the shoulder, ‘‘ how do you do after it? I warrant you
were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a
sapful of wind?” “A capful d’you call it?’’ said I; “twas
a terrible storm.” ‘A storm, you fool you,” replies he ; “do 35
you call that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us
but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such
a squall of wind as that; but you’re but a fresh-water sailor,

* Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget

all that ; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?” ‘Te 40
make short this sad pait of my story, we went the way of all
seilors ; the punch was made, and I was made half drunk with



3 the trough—the hollow between two old word ure, used in the phrase “ to

14 repenting prodigal—the allusion is to

great waves, so called from its shape. put in wre,” i.e. in operation, Cf.
Fr. @uvre ; Lat. opera.)

39 punch —a drink made up of five in-
gredients—spirit, water, sugar, lemon-
Juice, spice. [Hindi. panch, five. Cf.

the Parable of the Prodigal Son, told
in St. Luke xv. 18.

19 inured—accustomed, [From in and an , Welsh pump; Gk. penté, etc.]
34

it; and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my re-
pentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my
resolutions for the future. Ina word, as the sea was returned
to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abate-
ment of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over,
my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea
being forgotten, and the current of-my former desires re.
turned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made
in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ;
and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return
again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused myself
« from them as it were from a distemper, and applying myself
to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those
fits—for so I called them ; and I had in five or six days got
as complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that
resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was
to have another tria! for it still; and Providence, as in such
cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without
excuse; for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the
next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
* Roads ; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
* tinuing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time-a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have
« tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However,
the Roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage
* good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were un-
concerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but
spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea;
but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and
* we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
* ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

vs



10

16

20

30

40

12 distemper—as above (see note on p. 28),
meaning ‘‘illness’’ of body or mind,
usually applied to animals.

24 Roads — Roads is a shorter form of
roadstead, a place where ships may
ride at anchor.

27 viz.—(Cf. note on p. 28) short for Lat.
videlicet : “namely.”

31 agi older past tense of the verb to
ride,

32 tided it—been carried by the tide.

35 ground-tackle—fackle means ropes or
rigging ; and so ground-tackle comes
to mean the ropes, etc., connected
with the anchors.

39 strike—to haul in. To strike sail is a
technical term for taking down the
canvas of a boat.

42 rode forecastle in — sailed with her
forecastle in or under the water.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 35

* once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our
* master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two
« anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the 5



CRUSOE IS BANTERED BY HIS FRIEND AFTER THE STORM,

seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the busi-
ness of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several
times, “‘ Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we
«shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first 10

1 come home — failed to hold, and so | thrown out, in moments of extreme

“ ” : danger.
pene Homie’ Rossen 3 veered out to the better end—let out
2 sheet-anchor — the largest anchor of a

as far as they would go.
ship, so called because it is shof, or





10 undone—destroyed, ruined.
36 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the

« steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill resume
the first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon,
and hardened wyself against: I thought the bitterness of
death had been past; and that this would be nothing like the §
first ; but when the master himself came by me, as I said just

* now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted.
I got up out of my cabin and looked out; but such a dismal
sight I never saw: the sea ran mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes; when I could look 10
about, I could see nothing but distress round us; two ships

« that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which

x rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more
ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the 15

«x Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much

* labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and

* came close by use, running away with only their spritsail out
before the wind. 20

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to Jet them cut away the fore-mast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him,
that if he did not the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood 25
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut
that away also, and make a clear deck.

Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this 30
distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the resolu-
tions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself ;
and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such 35
a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet ; the storm continued with such fury,
that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen
a worse. We hada good ship, but she was deep laden, and

« wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every now and then 40
evied out she would founder. It was my advantage in one
respect that I did not know what they meant by founder, till



2 steerage—the forepart of aship, where ; 16 at all adventures — at all risks, or
the quarters of the crew and the hazards.

_inferior passengers are, 18 drove—drifted with the wind.
7 frighted — more usually written a/f- 19 spritsail—a small sail, attached to a
frighted, frightened. sprit, or spar, set diagonally to a
12 by the board -- level with the board, mast.
or deck. 40 wallowed — rolled (generally used of

14 foundered—sunk, shipwrecked. rolling in mud, etc.),
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 37

[ inquired. However the storm was so violent, that I saw,
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and
expecting every moment when the ship would go to the
bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest
of our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see,
« eried out we had sprung a leak ; another said, there was four
feet water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the
pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within
me: and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I
sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me, that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to
* the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing,
«the master seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to the sea,
and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal
of distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought
the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In
a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon.
As this was a time when everybody had his own life to think
of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside
with his foot, let me lie, thinking. I had been dead; and it was
a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could
swim till we might run into any port; so the master con-
‘tinued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it
out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was
with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the. ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered
it out a great length, which they, after much labour and
hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for
them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching
their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to
pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our

%

oe

%

cn

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3 sensible —easily affected, whose ee 14 doing—being done (active for passive,

are capable of being aroused, (N.B as often).

The meaning ‘intelligent ” is quite 15 colliers — of course here means boats

recent.) carrying coal, not (as usually) men
7 four feet water—the ‘of,’ which we engaged in coal working.

should expect before ‘‘ water,'’ was 30 rid if out—it must refer “to the storm

frequently omitted in expressions of (as a few lines above); the phrase

quantity, as ‘two gallons ale,” will mean ‘‘had managed to keep

etc., etc. riding (i.e, drifting) with the wind.”
38 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

« master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore,
he would make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and
partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping

* towards the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship till we saw her sink, and»then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I
must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the
seamen told me she was sinking; for from the moment that
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said
to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly
with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore—we could see
(when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the

« Shore) a great many people running along the strand, to assist
us when we should come near; but we made but slow way
towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore, till,
being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to
the westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though
not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates

«of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
suflicient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as
we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our

blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for

me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in

Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any

assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist ; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to
go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to
call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree,
that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruc-
tion, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it

x



1 staved—with its staves (staffs) or ribs 17 strand—beach, shore.
broken in. 26 quarters—lodgings.

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25

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40

4 Winterton Ness —a point or headland, 32 the fatted calf—the Parable of the

a few miles N. of Caister (near Prodigal Son is given in
Yarmouth), on the coast of Norfolk. Luke xv. 23.

St.

Me

LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 4)

with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed
unavoidable misery, which it was impossible for me to escape,
could have pushed me forward against the calm reasonings

« and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against

two such visible instructions as I had met with in my first
attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was
not till two or three days, for we were si parated in the town
to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it ap-
peared his tone was altered ; and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his
father who I was, and how J had come this voyage only for a
trial, in order to go farther abroad : his father, turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, “ Young man,” says

« he, ‘you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to
take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be
a seafaring man.” “ Why, sir,” said I, “will you go to sea
no more?” “That is another case,” said he; “it is my
calling, and therefore my duty ; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen
us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,”
continues he, ‘what are you; and on what account did you
go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story ; at the
end of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion:
“What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch
should come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the
same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed

«x was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could

ate

have authoritr to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin, telling me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. “And, young man,” said he,
“depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go,
you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments,
till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more; which way he went I knew not. As for
me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London



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40

4 retired—quiet, private. t to be shipwrecked on one's first

17 you ought never to go to sea any voyage.

more—it should be remembered that 81 excursion—sudden sally, or outbreak,

sailors are proverbially superstitious, of passion. a }
and they regard it as most unlucky 34 exhorting—advising, encouraging.
42 LirE AND ADVENTURES

by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles

with myself, what course of life I should take, and whether

I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my “thoughts ; ; and it immediately occurred to me 5
how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father-and mother only, but even
everybody else; from whence I have since often observed,

* how incongruous and irrational the common temper of man-
kind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to 10
guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent ; not ashamed of the action
for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them bé
esteemed wise men. 15

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncer-
tain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead.
An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I
stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my 20
desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father’s house,—which burried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed thos 25

« conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father ;—I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as 30

« our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures ]

did not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed

have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same

« time I should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast 35
man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not fora master. But as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in
my pocket and goud clothes upon my back, I would always go
on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had 40
any business in the ship, nor learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in

Pa

MB



4 shame opposed, etc.—i.c. shame pre- 26 conceits — thoughts, ideas, purposes.
vented me from following the best (Cf. concepts.)
impulses that came to me (namely, 31 Guinea—the name of a part of the West
the impulses to go home). Coast of Africa, The coins, ‘‘ guineas,”
9 incongruous — inharmonious, not in were made from the gold of this district.

agreement (Lat. in, not; congruo, to 35 fore-mast man—a common sailor (who
agree), serves ‘ before the mast'’).
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

London, which does not always happen to such loose and mis-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early ; but it was
not so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a
ship who had been on the coast of Guinea ; and who, having
had very good success there, was resolved to go again. This
captain taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at
all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to
see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I
should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his
companion ; and if I could carry anything with me, I. should
have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit ; and
perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer ; and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I
« went the voyage with him, aud carried a small adventure
« With me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the
captain, I increased very considerably ; for I carried about
£40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
These £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with; and who, I
believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute
so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful
in all my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend the captain ; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a sailor ; for, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn ; and,
in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant ;
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for
my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost £300 ; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin. :

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; par-
ticularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a
x Violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate ; our
principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of
fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to

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16 adventure—here means money or property to risk in trade.
17 disinterested—unselfish, devoid of self-interest.
39 calenture—a fever (Lat. caleo, I am hot).
44. LIFE AND ADVENTURES

my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhap-
piest voyage that ever man made ; for though I did not carry
quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200
left, which I had lodged with my friend’s widow, who was
very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes : the first

: was this—our ship making her course towards the Canary

oe

3

%

*

Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African
shore, was surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish
rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she
could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards
would spread, or our masts carry to get clear ; but finding the
pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us
in a few hours, we prepared to fight ; our ship having twelve
guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon

« he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart

our yuarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in
a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from
near two hundred men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves. But

« laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he

entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to
cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them
with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this
melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and
three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged
to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port
belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I

* apprehended; nor was I carried up the country to the

emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept
by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his
slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At
this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant
to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now
I looked back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me,

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9 Canary Islands—N.W. of Africa, just 26 laying us on board —laying his
off the coast of Morocco. alongside so as to board ours.

12 Sallee—on the coast of Morocco, about
a hundred miles S. of the Straits of 28 plied — urged, pressed hard (French

Gibraltar. j plier, to bend),

18 athwart our quarter —across the side 99 half-pike —a short kind of

ofourship. The quarter is the nautical ; je es
term for the part of a ship's side (formerly used by foot-soldiers).
between the main-mast and stern, 386 apprehended—feared,

ship

spear
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 45

that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me,

which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that

I could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven had over-

taken me, and J was undone without redemption ; but, alas!

this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
« appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when
he went to sea again, believing that it would some time or
other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-
of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to sea,
he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he
came home again from his cruise, he or dered me to lie in the
cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
i might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it ; nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational ; for I had nobody to communicate it to that
would embark with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Trishman, or Scotchman, there but myself; so that for two
years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination,
yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in
practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s

; pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing ; and, as he always
took me and young Maresco with him to row the boat, we
:: made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
* one of his kinsmen, and the youth—the Maresco, as they called
him—+to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning,
a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from
the shore, we lost sight of it ; and rowing we knew not whither
or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night;
and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to

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30

35

40



6 sequel — remainder (Lat. sequor: I 34 dexterous—clever, handy (Lat. dexter:

follow). the right hand).

32 pinnace — a man-of-war’s small boat 36 Maresco — an _ adjective meaning

(proverly, a boat made of pine-wood). Moorish,
46 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at
least two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in
again, though with a great deal of labour and some danger ;
for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning ; but
we were all very hungry. 5
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him
the long-boat of our English ship that he had taken, he
resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a com-
pass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his 10
ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little state-
room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a
barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home

«x the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand

and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder- 15

of-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin,

which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to
lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he

thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee. 90
We went frequently out with his boat a- fishing; and as I

was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-

out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors

of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had pro- 25

vided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the

boat over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary ;

* and had ordered me to get ready three fusees with powder
and shot, which were on board his ship. for that they designed
some sport of fowling as well as fishing. 30

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the

* next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and

pendants out, and everything to accommodate his guests;

when by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and told me

his guests had put off going, from some business that fell 85

out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go

out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that his
friends were to sup at his house, and commanded that as soon

as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house; all

which I prepared to do. 40
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into

my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little

*%

*

14 main-sheet — the rope fastened to the 16 gibed—shifted with the wind.
main-sail to stretch or extend it to the 98 fusees—(Fr. fusils), small guns,

wind.
15 shoulder- of-mutton sail—a small tri- 32 ancient—a flag or ensign.
angular sail, so called from its shape. ,
16 boom — the pole on which the foot of 83 pendant—(or pennant), a long streaming
the sail is tastened. Hag.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 47

ship at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared
to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer—any where to get out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread.
He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk
or biscuit, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I
knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was
evident, by the make, were taken out cf some English prize,
and I conveyed them into the boat while tae Moor was on
shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I
conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were
of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he inno-
cently came into also: his name was Ismael, which they
call Muley, or Moely ; so I called to him :—‘‘ Moely,” said I,
“ our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you not get
a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some
: alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know
he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” ‘‘ Yes,’’ says he,
“Tll bring some;’’ and accordingly he brought a great
leather pouch, which held a pound and a half of powder, or
rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six
pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the
same time, I had found some powder of my master’s in the
great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into
another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the
entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice
of us; and we were not above a mile out of the port before
we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind
blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire, for
had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the
coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but
my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be
gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest
to fate.

=

23 curlews—wading birds, having a long slender bill and legs, and a short tail.

C

10

15

25

30

40
48 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them, I said to the Moor, ‘This will not
do; our master will not be thus served; we must stand
farther off.’ He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in
the head of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I
ran the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her
to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise
with my arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard
into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork,
and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would go
all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the
boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
« fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and
told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I
would do him none: “ But,” said I, “you swim well enough
to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of
your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you
come near the boat I’ll shoot you through the head, for I am
resolved to have my liberty;” sc he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached
it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be
faithful to me, I'll make you a great man ; but if you will not
« stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear by
Mahomet and his father’s beard, “I must throw you into
the sea too.’ The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so
innocertly, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be
faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the
* Straits’ mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits
must have been supposed to do) : for who would have supposed
we were sailed on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian
coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround



17 fowling-pieces — light guns used for

81 stroke your face—anyone swearing by



killing birds (fowls). own beard.

the beard of the Prophet would suit course, the Straits of Gibraltar.

10

15

20

30

85

40

the action to the word and stroke his

39 Straits’ mouth —these would be, of
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 49

us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not go
on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or
more merciless savages of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my 5
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the
shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth,
quiet sea, I made ‘such sail that I believe by the next day, at

« three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, ]
could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of 10
Sallee: quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or
indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and

; the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands,
that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; 15
the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner
five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I
concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me,
they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, 20

* I knew not what, nor where, neither what latitude, what

country, what nation, or what river. -I neither saw, nor
desired to see any people; the principal thing I wanted
was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and dis- 25
cover the country ; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, of we knew not what. kinds, that the poor boy
was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day. ‘Well, Xury,” said I, ‘“then-I won’t; but 30
it may be that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to
us as those lions.” “Then we give them the shoot gun,”
says Xury, laughing, “make them run wey.” Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I war

« glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out 3
of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all,
Xury’s advice was good, and I took it: we dropped our little
anchor, and lay still all night ; I say still, for we slept none ;
for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we —
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the 40

* Sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing
themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they

3

se

or





9 made the land—reached the land; to 21 latitude—the distance of a place N. or
“make the shore” is a frequently-used S. of the equator.
nautical phrase 35 dram — a small qvantity to drink
; ; (strictly {th of an ounce).
14 apprehensions—fears. 4] wallowing—rolling about.
50 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

made such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never indeed
heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one of these
mighty creatures come swimming.towards our boat ; we could
not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a

aS



SOU ae Bl EPP

XURY SWEARS TO BE FAITHFUL.

monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried

«to me to weigh the anchor and row away: ‘No,” says I,

« “ Xury; we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go 10
off to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner said
so, but [ perceived the creature (whatever it was) within
two oars’ length, which something surprised me; however, I





9 weigh the anchor—raise it.
10 slip our cable, etc.—let the anchor-rope drop, with a buoy attached to it (so that they
could come upon it again),
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 51

immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun,
fired at him; upon which he immediately turned about, and
swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and
hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the
noise or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason to
believe those creatures had never heard before: this con-
vinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the night
on that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for to have fallen into the hands of
any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
hands of the lions and tigers; at least we were equally
apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat ; when and where to get to it was the point. Xury said,
if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would
find if there was any water, and bring some tome. I asked
him why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in
the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, as made
me love him ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they
eat me, you go wey.”’ “Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both
go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall
eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles which I
mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in as near the
shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore ;
carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it,
and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I
thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with
some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards him to help
him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hang-
ing over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs:
however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat ;
but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he
had found good water, and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains

10

25

30

35

40
Me

52 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare
we had killea, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country. 65
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Tslands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering, 10
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise
I might now easily have found some of these islands. But

« my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to

that part where the English traded, I should find some of 15
their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco’s dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and unin- 20
habited, except by wild beasts ; the Negroes having abandoned
it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barren-

ness ; and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious

number of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures 25
which harbour there ; so that the Moors use it for their hunt-
ing only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand
men at a time : and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together
upon this coast we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited
country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring 80
of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in 35
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my
little vessel ; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep
along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place ; and once in particular, being early in 40
the morning, we came toan anchor under a little point of land,
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay



14 stood along—kept along, hugged the | 24 prodigious—wonderful, miraculous.

shore. 26 harbour—take refuge or shelter.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 53

still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
that it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that
we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast
asleep.” I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful 9
monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill
that hung as it were a little over him. ‘“ Xury,” says I, “you
shall go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and
said, “Me kill! he eat me at one mouth!” one mouthful 10
he meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him
« lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket
bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
* two slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded another gun with
two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) 19
I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started
up, growling at first, but finding his leg broken, fell down 20
again; and then got up upon three legs, and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that
I had not hit him on the head ; however, I took up the second
piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired
again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see 20
him drop and make but little noise, but lie struggling for life.
Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on
shore. “ Well, go,” said I: so the boy jumped into the water,
and taking a little gun in one hand; swam to shore with the
other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle 30
of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
« despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury 85
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet. ‘ For what, Xury?”’ said
I. ‘Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with
him, and it was a monstrous great one. 40
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I

%



12 almost musket bore—having a_ barrel 14 slugs—irregular, oval-shaped bullets.
almost as large as a musket; the bore
is the hole in the barrel of a gun. 32 despatched—ended, killed.
54 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

resolved to take off his skinif I could. So Xury and I went
to work-with him; but Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him,
and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually 5
. dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie
upon,
ee this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions
« which began to abate very much, and going no oftener to the 10
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
« this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say,
anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or 15
perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships
from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands ;
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish. 20
‘When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us; we c-uld also perceive
they were quite black, and naked. I was once inclined to 25
have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, “No go, no go.’’ However, I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way. I observed they
had no weapons in their hand, except one, who had a long 80
slonder stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept ata
distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could;
and particularly made signs for something to eat; they
beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me 35
* some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay
by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half an hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of
dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country ; but we neither knew what the one or the other 40
was: however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture on shore



10 abate —become reduced.

12 Gambia and Senegal—rivers of importance in West Africa, a little farther south than the
places hitherto mentioned,

86 lay by—stopped near the shore,
*

*

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 55

to them, and they were as much afraid of us: but they took
a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it
on board, and then came close to us again,

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends: but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully : for while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange,
but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place,
those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night ; and,
in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart
did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall
upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea,

: and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion: at

last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun
with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired,
and shot him directly in the head : immediately he sank down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down,
as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he im-
mediately made to the shore; but between the wound, which
was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the
very terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk
in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water: and
by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that
it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree ; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration,
to think what it was I had killed him with.

20 diversion—amusement.

23 expedition—speed, quickness.
29 strangling—choking, suffocation.

10

IS

20

25

80

40
50 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and van up directly to the
mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that
distance, know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes
wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very
thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of
wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily,
than we could have done with a knife. They offered me some
of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would give
it them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me
very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their
provisions, which, though I did not understand, yet I
accepted. JI then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward,
to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it
filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and
there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of
earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they set
down to me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my
jars, and filled them all three. The women were as naked as
the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,

«x at about the distance of four or five leagues “before me ; 5 and

«the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to sea-
ward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to

* do; for if I should be taken with a fresh of wind, I might
neither reach one or other.

* In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, ‘‘ Master, master, a ship with a
sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits.



29 leagues—the nautical league is 34 miles. 387 a fresh of wind—a gust of wind.
30 offing—the water far off from shore, 39 dilemma—difficulty.
where it is deep. 39 pensive—thoughtful.

a

10

15

20

30

40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

thinking it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to
pursue us, but I knew we were far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only
the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I
thought was bound to the coast of Guinea, for Negroes.
But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore: upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them: but after I had

« crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,

saw, by the help of their glasses, that it was some European

boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship that was

lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was

encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on

« board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me;
and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last,
a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me: and I
answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee ,
they then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me
in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, .. I esteemed it, from
such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in;
and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship.
as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told
me, he would take nothing from me, but that all I had
should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils.
“ For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no other terms
than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.

* Besides,” said he, “‘when I carry you to the Brazils, so great
-a way from your own country, if I should take from you what.

*



14 crowded—i.e. crowded on sail, as much

10

15

20

25

30

40

41 the Brazils—ln the 18th century, when

as I could carry. Defoe wrote, Brazil was divided into

18 ancient—flag, ensign.
19 a waft—something to wave with. Portugal,

several parts and was owned by
58 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, no,” says he: “ Seignor
Inglese” (Mr. Englishman), ‘‘I will carry you thither in
* charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence
there, and your passage home again.”



CRUSOE IS TAKEN UP BY A PORTUGUESE VESSEL,

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the

«x performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that
none should touch anything that I had: then he took every-
thing into his own possession, and gave me back an exact



4 subsistence —livelihood, living. ‘ :
qa tittle—a small particle, an iota, as in the phrases, ‘* Not a jot,’ ‘ Nota tittle,”

or
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 59

«inventory of them, that I might have them, even to my
three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for his ship’s use; and
asked me what I would have for it? Itold him, he had been 5
so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon
which, he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me

« eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came
there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. 10
He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy
Xury, which I was loath to take ; not that I was unwilling
to let the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the
poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in pro-
curing my own. However, when I let him know my reason, 15

x he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he

+ would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years,
if he turned Christian : upon this, and Xury saying he was
willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived 20
in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what
to do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never 25
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my

% passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and
forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to
me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me, such as 30
the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump
of bees’-wax—for I had made candles of the rest: in a word,

I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all
my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the
Brazils. 35

I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the
house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio,
as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I
lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar; 40
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got
rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle



1 inventory—a complete list. 17 an obligation—in modern English we

9 pieces of eight—Spanish coins of the should say an undertaking, an agree-

value ¢ 2 ar . . ment. :
eae page Hae Use: ae 27 ducats—properly a ducat was a coin
gs.

struck by a dux or duke; the silver
16 medium—compromise, agreement be- ducat was worth qs. 6d., and the gold
tween the two proposals. about double that amount.
60 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

there, I would turn planter among them; resolving, in the
meantime, to find out some way to get my money, which I
had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting

« a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land
« that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a

plan for my plantation and settloment; such a one as might
be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive
from England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbour, because
his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land began
to come into order; so that the third year we planted some
tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted
help; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong
in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into

«x an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-

trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay,
I was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done ;
and I used often to say to myself,-I could have done this as
well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness.
and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour ; no work to be done, but by the labour
of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been—and how should all men
vefiect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the



10

16

20

25

30

35

40



4lettsr of naturalization—a document 23 genius—special taste, inborn power

iving a foreigner the rights of citizen- i
fhip any ountteer sc (more often used in a good sense, as

5 uncured—uncultivated. meaning superior talent).
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 61

« exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience—I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be
my lot, who bad so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all 5
probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich,

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back—for the ship re.
mained there, in providing his lading, and preparing for his 10
voyage, nearly three months; when, telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this
friendly and sincere advice :—“‘Seignor Inglese,”’ says he
(for so he always called me), “if you will give me letters,

« and a procuration in form to me, with orders to the person 15

* who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon,
to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are
proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give 20
orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say,

« is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first ; so
that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way ,
and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have
recourse to for your supply.” 25

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take ; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired. 30

I wrote the English captain’s widow . full account of all
my adventures—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour,
und what condition I was now in, with al] other necessary
directions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came 35
to Lisbon, he found means, by some cf the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effec-
tually to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very 40
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me

* ‘The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in

1 felicity—happiness. 16 effects—goods, property.

15 procuration—a legal document by which 22 let the hazird be run for the first—risk
one person is authorised to act for only half first.

another in business matters. 42 vesting—investing,
#*

62 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to mo
to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, ironwork,and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, [thought my fortunes made, for I
was surprised with the joy of ‘t; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had
sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me
over a servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which
I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English

* manufacture, such as cloths, st~{fs, baize, and things particu-

larly valuable and desirable in the country, I found means
to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I might say,
i had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and
was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour—I mean in the
advancement of my plantation; for the sirst thing I did, 1
bought me a negro slave, and an European servant also—I
mean another besides that which the captain brought me
from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the
next year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty
great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had
disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these
fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred-weight, were well
cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon :
and now increasing in business and in wealth, my head began
to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach ;
such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads-in busi-
ness. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for
which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired
life, and of which he had so sensibly described the middle
station of life to be full of ; but other things attended me,
and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries ;
and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflec-
tions upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have

leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my



12 consideration—payment.
15 baize—a coarse woollen cloth (so called from its colour; also spelt bays),
42 miscarriages — mistakes.

cnr

10

20

30

40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 63

apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wan-
dering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction
to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life, which
nature and Providence concurred to present me with, and to make 6
my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my
new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire 10
of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and
thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life, and a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of 15
this part of my story:—You muzy suppose, that having now
lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive
and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only
learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the 90

; merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in
my discourses among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea; the manuer
of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to
purchase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, 95
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like—not only gold
x dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the
service of the Brazils, in great numbers,

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the 39
buying Negroes, which was a trade, at that time, not only not
far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by

x assieutos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,
x and engrossed in the public stock; so that few Negroes were
bought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me next morning, and told
me they had been musing very inuch upon what I had dis-
coursed with them of the last night, and they came to make a 40

x. Secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they
told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to



21 St. Salvador, or Bahia, is the chief town panies the right to trade in slaves,
in the United States of Brazil. importing them from Africa to South
27 Guinea grains—a species of pepper-grains America.
used as a medicine. 34 engrossed in the public stock—mono
33 assientos—these were the agreements or polised by government.
treaties by which the Spanish and 41 enjoining me secrecy—bidding me be
Portuguese farmed out to English com- - secret about it.

D
64 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Guinea ; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants ; that as it was a
trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore 5
privately, and divide them among their own plantations ; and,
* in a word, the question was, whether I would go their super-
cargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock. 10
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and a planta-
tion of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of
coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon
it; but for me, that was thus entered and established, and 15
had nothing to do but to-go on as I had begun, for three or
four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred
pounds from England; and who in that time, and with that
little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three
or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too— 20
«for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous
thing that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling
designs when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In 25
a word, I told them I would go with all heart, if they would
undertake to look after my plantation in my absence, and
: would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried.
This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or
covenants to do so; and I made a formal will, disposing of 30
my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
* universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as
I had directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to
himself, and the other to be shipped in England. 385
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, and have made
a judgment of what TI ought to have done and not to have
done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an 40
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving cir-
cumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea. attended with all

aw

%

ey

.

3

*





2 straitened—inconvenienced (Lit. nar- 28 miscarried—was unsuccessful.
vowed ; strait is from Lat. strictus:
tightened). 382 my universal heir—heir to all my pro-

7 supercargo—the official on a merchant-
ship placed over the cargo or mer-
chandise in the vessel. 2 ;

21 preposterous—absurd, ridiculocs (Lat, | ‘1 leaving all the probable views, ete.—
pre, before; posterus, behind; hence giving up all my good prospects of
hind-foremost). q ®@&omins prosperous.

peity.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

« its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to
expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done, 5
as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour, the 1st September, 1659, being the same -
day eight years that I went from my father and mother at
Hull, in order to act the rébel to their authority, and the fool
to my own interests. 10

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially 15
little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with desigr to stretch
over for the African coast when we came about ten or twelve
degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner 20
of course in those days. We had very good weather, only
excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came
to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping
further off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we
were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our 25
course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In
this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and
were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two

x minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane,
took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from the south- 30
east, came about to the north-west, and then settled in the
north-east ; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive,

« and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate
and the fury of the winds directed ; and, during these twelve 35
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed
up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives,

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one

* of our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy

washed overboard. Abont the twelfth day, the weather 40

abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he

could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north

2



1 hazards—risks, chances. 34 scudding—running before the wind (in a
3 Gelee anes what is ordered, gale); a nautical technical term.
ictated, ;

29 tornado—a whirlwind, or whirling storm 39 calenture—fever
(Cf. French tourner: to whirl).
66 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found
he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil,

« beyond the river Amazons, towards that of the river Oroonoque,
commonly called the Great River ; and began to consult with
me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky, and
very much disabled, and he was going directly back to the
coast of Brazil.

ft was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was
nc inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore re-
solved to stand away for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off at

; sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail ;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast
of Africa without some assistance both to our ship and to
ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen
minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of
the way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been
saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured
by savages than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning cried out, ‘‘ Land!” and we
had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of
seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck
upon a sand, and ina moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we
should all have perished immediately ; and we were immedi-
ately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very
foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like con-

* dition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon
what land it was we were driven—whether an island or the

* main, whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the
wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could

se

Or

10

20

25

30

40



4 Oroonoque—now written Orinoco, one of 38 consternation—fear, terror.
the largest rivers in South America ; ;

it runs through Venezuela. 41 main—here mainland (not sea, as some-

14 indraft—the current flowing inwards :
towards the Gulf of Mexico, times).
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 67

not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes
without breaking into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of
miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat
looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man, accordingly, preparing for another world; for 5
there was little or nothing more for us to do in this. Taat which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that,
contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, 10
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just

« before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against 15

the ship’s rudder, and in the next place, she broke away and
either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope
from her. We had ancther boat on board, but how to get her
off into the sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was no
time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces 20
every minute, and some told us she was actually broken

‘already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, got her slung over
the ship's side ; and getting all into her, let go, and committed 25
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the
wild sea ; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well
called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw 30
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all 35
knew that when the boat came nearer the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. How-
ever, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well 40
as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep







15 staved—had her ribs (staves) knocked in,
87 breach—breaking (of the sea).
oe

68 LIFE AND ADVENTUKES

or shoal, we knéw not. The only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might find
some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great

x chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of

the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing like this appeared ; but as we made nearer and nearer
the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly “bade us expect the coup de
grace. Ina word, it took us with such a fur y, that it overset
the boat at once ; ‘and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time to say, ‘““O God!” for we
were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I sank into the water ; for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that, seeing mysolf nearer the mainland than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as
high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had
no means or strength to contend with: my business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could;
and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot
myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern
now being, chat the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might nct carry me back
again with it when it gave back towar ds the sea. .

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore a very great way ; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water: and though it was

? J. shoal—shallow ; sand-bank.
4 under the lee of—under the protected side of.
10 coup de griice—final blow, finishing stroke.

a

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40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 69

not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out ; and, anding the water had spent itself and begun

to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves, 5
and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath and till the waters went from me,
and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength

I had, further towards the shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring 10
in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by
the waves and carried forward as before, the shore being
very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me,
for the sea baving hurried me along, as before, landed me, or 15
rather dashed me, against a piece of arock, and that with such
force, that it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my
own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat
the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it
returned again immediately, I must have been strangledin the 20
water; but I recovered a little before the return of the
waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water, I
resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my
breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the
waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held 25
my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run,
which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to
carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the main
land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the clifis of 30
the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger
and quite out of the reach of the water.

T was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
was, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe 35

< it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the very grave : and I do not wonder now at the custom,
when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied

x up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought 40
to him—I say, I-do not wonder that they bring a surgeon

x With it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of



36 ecstasies—(Gk. ek-stasis, a standing out), 42 let him blood—/im is here a relic ofthe

au erenorts (Lat. gras, beyond ; old English dative case. Doctors used
ortare, to carry) are both terms us sn

denoting an excessive emotion (of to frequently order the tapping of

oy, terror, etc.), which places a man a patient, in the belief that such illness

beside himself. was due to an excess of blood in the

40 reprieve—pardon. system.
70 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the
heart, and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of 5
my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my comrades
that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one 10
cap, and two shoes that were not tellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so
far off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could
get on shore ? 15

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done: and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dread-

« ful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, 20
nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither
did I see any prospect before me but that of perishing with
hunger or being devoured by wild beasts ; and that which
was particularly aftlicting to me was, that I had no weapon,

« either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to 25
defend myself against any other creature that might desire to
kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a
knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was
all my provisions ; and this threw me into terrible agonies of
mind, that for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night 30
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in
that country, as at night they always come abroad for their

rey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, 385
was to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night,
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as

x yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from
the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, 40
which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a





16 Solaced—consoled, comforted. 25 sustenance—food (to sustain life).
20 shift—change into; a ‘‘shift” once 39 furlong—an eighth of a mile (Lit. a
‘meant a change of clothes. furrow's length).
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 7?

little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so
that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me

+a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up m
lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast 5



CRUSOE GETS INTO A TREE TO SLEEF,

asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with
it than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as 10
before. But that which surprised me most was, that the ship



4 truncheon—a cudgel (connected with frunk).
G2 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay by
the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as
the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been go
bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the
ship seeming to stand upright still, E wished myself on board,
that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me «gain, and the first thing I found was the boat,

which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon |

the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as
far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a
neck or inlet of water between me and the boat which was
about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present,
being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to
find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief ,
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had
been all safe—that is to say, we had all got safe on shore,
and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely desti-
tute of all comfort and company as I now was, This forced
tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that,
I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my

«x clothes—for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the

water. But when I came to the ship my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board; for, as she lay aground,
and high out of the water, there was nothing within my
reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered

« I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low, as

that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of
that rope I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I

« fonnd that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water

25

82 fore-chains—that part in the side of a

in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard
sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the
bank, and her head low, almost to the water. By this means
all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was
dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to
see what was spoiled and what was free. And, first, I. found
that all the ship’s provisions were dry and untouched by the



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hot to extremity—excessively hot. 85 bulged —swollen out; the bulge is properly

z: 39 quarter—in nautical language, is
vessel to which the ropes of the part of a ship's side between
fore-mast are fixed. main-mast and the stern,

the widest part of a cask (Cf. bilge, etc.).

that
the
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 73

water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the

« bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I
went about other things, for I had no time to lose, I also
found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large
dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to spirit me
for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.

Tt was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be

‘had; and this extremity roused my application, We had
several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood,
and a spare top-mast or two in the zhip: I resolved to fall to
work with these, and I flung as mony of them overboard as
I could manage for their weight, tying evory one with a rope,
that they might not drive a\vay. When this was done I
went down the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I tied
four of them together at both onds, as well as I could, in the
form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it very
well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the
pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with a car-
penter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I Jaid upon it from the surf of the sea: but I
was not long considering this. I first laid all the plank or
boards upon it that I covld get, and having considered well
what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them
down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions,
viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat’s flesh (which we lived much upor), and a little re-
mainder of European corn, which had been laid by for some
fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. # There had been some barley and wheat together ;
but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the

vats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper. in which

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2 filed my pockets with biscuit. It has been pointed out that Defoe has apparently

forgotten that he told us, on the last page, that Crusoe took off his clothes!
10 this extremity, etc. —being in such need, I set to work with the more vigour.
v4 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

x Were some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six

« gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves, there being
no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the tide begin to flow, though
very calm; and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt,
and waistcext, which I had left on the shore, upon the sand,
swim away. .is for my breeches, which were only linen, and
open-knee’d, I swam on board in them and my stockings.
However, this set me on rummaging for clothes, of which I
found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon—as,
first, tools to work with on shore. And it was after long
searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which was,
indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable
than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time. I got
it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to
look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols. These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them ; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought

«myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder ;
and the least capful of wind would have overset all my
navigation.

I had three encouragements : 1st, a smooth, calm sea ; 2ndly,
the tide rising, and setting into the shore; 3rdly, what little
wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having
found twa or three broken oars belonging to the boat—and,
besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws,
an axe, and a hammer: with this cargo I put to sea. For a
mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before ; by which I perceived that there was some in-
«draft of the water, and consequently, I hoped to find some
creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little

ee

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1 cordial waters—a cordial is a refreshing 26 freighted—loaded.
medicine.

2 rack—sometimes written arrack, or arag, 38 indraft — current, or ‘'set,” towards

a strong spirit, made from rice. land.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. q5

opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it ; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream.

* But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broken my heevt ;

































































CRUSOE’S RAFT IS NEARLY UPSET.

for, Lnowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one
end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the othe
end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped oft
towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water.

4 I had like to have—I should, very likely, have; I very nearly suffered.
ot

76 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

T did my utmost, by setting my back-against the chests, to
keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft
with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture
I was in; but holding up the chests with all mv might, I
stood in that :nanner near half an hour, in which time the
rising of the water brought me a little more upon a level ; and,
a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and
I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then
driving up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a
little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current of
tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to
get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up
the river : hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and there-
fore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near, that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep
—that is to say, sloping—there was no place to land, but
where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so
high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would en-
danger my cargo again, All that I could do, was to wait till
the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a
flat piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow
over; and soit did. As soon as I found water enough—for
my raft drew about a foot of water—I thrust her upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by stick-
ing my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near
one end, and one on the other side, near the other end ; and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all
my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not ; whether on the continent or on an island‘ whether in-
habited or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts or
not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose
up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills, which lay as in aridge from it, northward. I took
out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn

or

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15 cove—a small bay.
+

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 77

of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to
the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and

difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction,
« viz. that I was in an island environed every way with the

sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great
way off; and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as 1
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts,
of whom, however, I sawnone. Yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds ; neither when I killed them could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back,
I shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on tie side
of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been
fired there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner
fired, than from all parts of the wood there arose an innumer.
able number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused
screaming and crying, and every one according to his usual
note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for
the creature I killed, I took it to be akind of hawk, its colour
and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more

than common, Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up
the rest of that day. What to do with myself at night I
knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie
down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears.

However, as well asI could, I barricaded myself round with

the chests and boar ds that I had brought on shore, and made

a kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw
not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or
three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.

- I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in_ pieces, I
resolved to set all other things apart till I had got everything

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4 environed—surrounded, 30 barricaded—a barricade is a temporary
fortification or defence, hastily made

22 carrion—dead or putrid flesh of animals. of bars, casks, etc.
qs uIFE AND ADVENTURES

out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council—
that is to say, in my thoughts—whether I should take back
the raft ; but this appeared impracticable : so I resolved to go
as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that
I stripped before I went from my hut, having nothing on but 5
a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps
on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and, having had experience of the first, I neither made
« this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought 10
away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the
carpenter’s stores I found two or three bags full of nails and
«spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All
these I secured, together with several things belonging to the 15
* gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels
of musket bullets, seven muskets, another fowling-piece, with
some small quantity of powder more; a large bagful of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead ; but this last was so heavy,
I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side. 20
Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some
bedding ; and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought
them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension, during my absence from 25
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore: but when I came back I found no sign of any visitor ;
only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little
distance, and then stood still. She sat very composed and un- 30
concerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to
-be acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her, but, as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it,
nor did she offer to stir away ; upon which I. tossed her a bit
of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, 35
for my store was not great: however, I spared her a bit, I
say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked
(as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare
no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore,—though I was fain 40
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large casks—I went to work to make

a

*

%



3 impracticable —useless, unworkable. 13 screw-jack (or jack-screw)—an instrument

6 pumps—thin-soled shoes, used especially for lifting heavy weights by means of
for dancing. a screw ; 1.e, a sort of crane,

10 unwieldy—difficult to move, or wield. 16 iron crows—crowbars, or levers.
3

x

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 79

me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut
for that purpose: and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,

« to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without ; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground,
laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length
by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night
before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, to
fetch all those things from the ship, and to get them on shore,

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still,
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could: so every day
at low water I went on board, and brought away something
or other ; but particularly the third time I went I brought
away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails, first
and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as fish at a time as I could, for they were no more
useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with ;—I say, after all this, I found a

:: great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits,

a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel
by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a
word, I got all this safe on shore also,

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having

* plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,

I began with the cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces,

« such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,

with all the ironwork I could get; and having cut down the

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380

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5 attempt—attack. 31 runlets—barrels.
14 magazine—s torehouse (Cf. French 39 portable—able to be carried.
magasin, shop). 41 hawser—rope; a smaller cable,

E
80 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

« spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to

make a large raft, I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and
came away. But my good luck began now to leave me; for
this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that, after I had
entered the little cove where I had landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other,
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As
for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore;
but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially
the iron, which J expected would have been of great use to
me: however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of the cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite

which fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day
on board, and brought away what I could get.

IT had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the suip, in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to
bring ; though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I

should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But 2

preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise: however, at low water I- went on board, and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually,
that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker

- with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three

Ke

razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks: in another I found about thirty-
six pounds value in money—some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: “O drug!”
said I, aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou art not worth
to me—no, not the taking off the ground: one of those knives
is worth all this heap: I have no manner of use for thee—
e’en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature

- whose life is not worth saving’’ However, upi.n second
’ thoughts, I took it away; and, wrapping all this in a piece
oO 2 > fo} Pp

of canvas, I began to think of making another raft; but while
I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale

- from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in



vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore ; and
that it was mv business te be gone before the tide of flood



1 spritsail-yard—the beam on which the 13 to dip—to dive,
spritsail rests. _
1 mizen-yard—the beam which is attached

* labour; for I was fain to dip for it into. the water, a work

30

35

40

30 drug—has two meanings: (a) a medicin

to the mizzen-mast, ¢.e. the mast aft of (cf. dry) ; (b) anything that sells slowly

the main-mast. Here the latter is the meaning.
%

ro

Ol ROBINSON CRUSOE. él

began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands,
and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight
of the things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water ; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all .

my wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all
night, and in the morning, when IJ looked out, behold no more
ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered
myself with the satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no
time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of hex
that could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore from her

. wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but

those things were of small use to me,

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to
make—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, ora
tent upon the earth ; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the
manner and description of which, it may not be improper to
give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settle-
ment, because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea,
and I believed it would not be wholesome, and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find
amore healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: Ist, health and fresh water, I just
tow mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun;

| 8rdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or

beast; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in
sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain or
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down



18 divers—various, different.
29 moorish—marshy, boggy.

10

16

20

25

30

35

40
82 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

upon me from the top. On the side of the rock there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door
of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into *he
rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a. green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-
side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was 10
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and
by 8. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near
the setting.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the
‘hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi- 15
diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above five feet 20
and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not
stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top placing other 2
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so
strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it.
This cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut
the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them 30
into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and 35
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not have done ; though, as it appeared afterwards, there
was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I
apprehended danger from. ©

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried 40
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of which you have the account above; and I made a large

Or

%

x

Or

15 ten yards, etc.—the diameter of a circle semi-diameter (distance from centre to
is an imaginary line drawn from one rock) ten yards.
edge of the circumference to the other 20 piles—stakes driven into the ground to

and passing through the centre. Thus, support buildings, especially such
his diameter was twenty yards, his buildings as piers or bridges.
*

OF ROBINSON CRUSOX. 83

tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of
the year are very violent there, I made double, one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the

« uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among

the saile. 5

And uow I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all 10
my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left
open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down 15
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about
a fvot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these 20
things were brought to perfection; and, therefore, I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my thoughts.
At the same time it happened,.after I had laid my scheme for
the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of
rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of light- 25
ning happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with
the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted into my
mind as swift as the lightning itself—O my powder! My
very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast, 30
all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence
only, but the providing my food, as I thought, entirely depended.

I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder took fire, I should never have known who had
hurt me. 30

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to sepa-
rate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel,
in the hope that whatever might come, it might not all take 40
fire at once: and to keep it so apart, that it sheuld not be
possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work





4 tarpaulin—or parpanling, is a tarred pall or covering, of coarse canvas; tarsed so as to

be waterproo;
84 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

in about a jortnight; and I think my powder, which in all
was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided

in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I
placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my 5
kitchen ; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
cocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, 10
as to see if I could kill anything fit for food ; and, as near as
I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me ;
but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz. that 15
they were so shy, so.subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was
the most difficult thing in the world to come at them; but I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now
and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had
tound their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for 20)
them: I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though they

"were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible
fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was.
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I

« concluded, that by the position of their optics, their sight was 25
so directed downward, that they did not readily see objects
that were above them; so afterwards, I took this method,—

I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then
had frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she. 30
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily ; for, when the old one fell, the kid
3tood stock still by her, till 1 came and took her up; and not
only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure ; upou 85
which, I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms,
and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame ;
but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and eat it
myself, These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for
I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, 40
as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely

.



25.optics—eyes. .[N.B.—This use of the word has gone out nowadays; with us, “ optics‘
means the science of the laws of vision.]
xs
%*

Me

15 expostulate—reason earnestly (against

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, and also how I enlarged my
eave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give-a full. ac-
count of in its place ; but I must now give some little account
of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may
well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said,
by a violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended
voyage, and a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out
of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great
reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in

« this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end

my life. The tears would run pientifully down my face when
I made these reflections ; and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin His
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable ; so with-
out help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly

« be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day,
walking with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when reason,
as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus: ‘“ Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember,
where are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you.
in the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved,
and you lost Why were you singled out? Is it better to
be here or there ?’’? And then I pointed to the sea. All evils
are to be considered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished foi
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had

~« not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that thi

ship floated from the place where she first struck, and was
driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her; what would have been my case, if I had
been forced to have lived in the condition in which I at
first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or nécessaries
to supply and procure them? “Particularly,” said I aloud
(though to myself), “ what should I have done without a gun,
without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or

10

15

20

25

30

40

13 desolate—lonely, deserted. 34 which was a, etc. He means just the

reverse of this; 7.e. that the chances of

the boat having been driven near to

something), shore were as one is to a hundred
thousand; it was a hundred thousand

19 rational—reasonable, sensible. to one against this happening.
86 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

to work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner
of covering?’’ and that now I had all these to sufficient
quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a
manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition was





CRUSOE WALKS BY THE SEA-SIDE IN GREAT DEJECTION.

cr

* spent: so that had a tolerable view of subsisting, without
any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from the be-
ginning, how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after



5 subsisting—continuing to live.
OF ROBINSON ORUSOE. 87

my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and
strength should decay.

I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammuni-
tion being destroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it 5
so surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.

«x And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in
the world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and 10
continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of
September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island; when the sun, being to us in its

« autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head: for I
reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine 15
degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After 1 had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for
want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the
Sabbath days; but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon 20
a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a great
cross, I set up on the shore where I first landed, “I came on
shore here on the 30th of September, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch
with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as 25
the rest, and every first day of the month, as long again as
that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly,
monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages 30
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things
of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper,
several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpen-
ter’s keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical 35

* instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of naviga-
tion, all which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no; also, I found three very good Bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also; and, among 40
them, two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other
books, all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget,

8 melancholy relation—sad, miserable 86 dials—instruments for telling the time of

narrative. * : 7
14 autumnal equinox—about September day (either sun-dials or clocks).

23rd, when the sun is vertically over ives— di
the equator and nights and days are 86 persnectives=—telescopes,. ‘long-distance

equal throughout the world, glasses,

%


88 LIFE AND ADVENTURES.

that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats, ot whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place; for
I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he
jumped out-of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me

the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a

trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he

could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to
me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would
not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper,

« and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that 10
while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that
was gone I could not, for I could not “make any ink by any
means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these, 15
ink was one; as also a spade, pick-axe, ‘and shovel, to dig or
remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I

* goon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished 20
; my little pale, or surrounded my habitation, The piles or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long
time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far,
in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in
cutting and bringing homo one of those posts, and a third day 25
in driving it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a
heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of
one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it,
made driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious,
work. But what need [ have been concerned at the tedious- 30
ness of anything I had tc do, seeing I had time enough to do
it in? nor bad I any other employment, if that had been over,
at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the 35
circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me~for I was likely to have but few heirs
—as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring over them, and
afflicting my mind : and as my reason began now to master 40
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,

and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-

Or

10 husbanded—used carefully and sparingly. 21 pale—fence. a
18 want—to do without. | 33 langing—wandering over,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

89

thing to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
* impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus :—

EVIL.

XY am cast upon a horribie,
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.

I am singled out and separ-
ated, as it were, from all the
world, to be miserable,

I am divided from man-
* kind—a solitaire; one ban-
ished from human society.
I have not clothes to cover
me.

I am without any defence,
or means to resist any Vio-
lence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to
or relieve me.

GOOD.

But I am alive; and not
drowned, as all my ship's
company were.

But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship’s crew, to be
spared from death; and He
that miraculously saved me
from death, can deliver me
from this zondition.

But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to
hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there?

But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out as
many necessary things as wil!
either supply my wants or
enable me to supply myself,
even as long as [ live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but
there was something negative or something positive to be
thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world: that we may always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.



2 impartially—without taking one side or

the other.

10

20

25

30

35

15 solitaire —a solitary ; one who lives alone

| 82 testimony—witness.
%

Me

90 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condi-
tion, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a
ship—I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself
to arrange my way of living, and to make things as easy to
me as I could. ,

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet
thick on the outside ; and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock,
and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such
things as I could get, to keep out the rain ; which I found at
some times of the year verv violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me.
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which, as thev lay in no order, so they took up all
my place; I had no room to turn myseif: so I set myself to
enlarge my cave, and work fartLer into the earth; for it was
a loose sandy rock, whicn yielded easily to the labour I
bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as to

beasts of prey, I worked siaeways, to the right uand, into the

rock; and then, turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my

« pale or fortification, This gave me not only egress and
« regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my store-

house, but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and
a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world; I could not write or eat, or do
several things, with so much pleasure without a table: so I
went to work. -And here | must needs observe, that as reason
is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating
nnd squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. JI had never handled a tool in
my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and con.
trivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made

abundance of things, even without tools; and some with no

10

16

20

25

30

35

26 egress—way out.
27 regress—way back.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 91

* more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labour.
For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to
cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat.
on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as 0

* @ plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree ;
but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I
had for the prodigious deal of time and labour which it took
me up to make a plank or board: but my time or labour was 10
little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as
another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces
of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when 15
I had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves,
of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work
on; and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their
places, that I might come easily at them... I knocked pieces 20
into the wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that
would hang up: so that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure
to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find 28
my stock of all necessaries so great. :

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only hurry as to labour, but in too much

x discomposure of mind; and my journal would have been full 30
of many dull things; for example, I must have said thus:

“ Sept. 30¢th.—After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited, with the great quantity of salt water
which had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, 35
I ran about the shore wringing my hands and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, ‘I was
undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down
on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of being
devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on hoard the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not



1 adze—a tool consisting of a thin arched 6 dub it smooth—to dub (cf. to dab) is to
sae ea 1 knock or strike. So to dub it smooth is
blade, with its edge at right angles to to smooth it by knocking chips off it.

the handle. 30 discomposure—distress, disquiet.
92 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looked
out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy, at a vast
distance, I’ spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it,
and then after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose





WS ’ (ox Rules

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ME GERROIPT | a\"N
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wY

CRUSOE LOOKS OUT TO SFA FOR A SAIL,

it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase 5
my misery by my folly.

-_ But having gotten over these things in some measure, and

* having settled my household staff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I



8 staff—the original edition reads stuff, which makes a better sense. Household staff
would imply that he had servants or companions to form his staff. “
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 93

began to keep my journal; of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it off,

THE JOURNAL

September 30, 1659.—I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the otting,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I
called ‘The Island of Despair ;” all the rest of the ship’s
company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to; viz. I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and, in
despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me—
either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach
of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept
soundly, though it rained all night.

October 1.--In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort,
on one hand—for, seeing her set upright, and not broken to
pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief—so, on
the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my com-
rades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might
have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been
all drowned, as they were ; and that, had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world, I
spent great part of ths day in perplexing myself on these
things; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went
apon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board.
fhis day also it continued raining, though with no wind
w all. .

From the Ist ci Gctober to the 24th.—All these days
entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could out
of the ship, which I brought on shore every tide of flood upon
yafts. Much rain also in the days, though with some inter-
vals of fair weather ; but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got



7 in the offing—in the deep water of the shore.

10

30

40
94 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

* upon it; but, being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide
was out.

Oct. 25.--It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the
wind blowing a little harder than before, and was no more
to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low
water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find 10
out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts
or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, 15
made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without
with turf.

From the 26th to 30th, I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard. 20

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to see for some food, and discover the country ; when
I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I
afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there 25
for the first night ; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2,—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my 30
fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.--This morning I began to order my times of work, 35
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diver.
sion ; viz.—every moxaing I walked out with my gun for two
or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to
work till about eleven o’clock ; then eat what I had to live on ;
and from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather 40
being excessively hot; and then, in the evening, to work
again. The working part of this day and of the next were

or

1 shoal—here an adjective, ‘* shallow.”
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 95

wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet but a

* very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a

complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would
do any one else.» ————~
Nov. 5.—This day, went abroad with my gun and my dog,

| and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good

*

for nothing ; every creature that I killed I took off the skins
and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand ; but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they
were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday),
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and
even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays ; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little
square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or
two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another
as possible. On one of these three days, I killed a large bird
that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

Nov, 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the

« vock, to make room for my further conveniency.

Note.—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work;
viz. a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply
that want, and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I

s made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though.

heavy ; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade; this was

2 sorry—poor, imperfect. 18 ado—trouble.

10

15

20

25

30

85

40

5 abroad—out of doors. This is the 36 conveniency—would nowadays be writtew

original meaning ; it now has come to convenience.
mean only out of one's own country, 41 proper—suitable, (Lat. proprius.)
Â¥F
96 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

« sv absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I-could Jo nothing effec-
tually without it; but what kind of one to make [ knew not.
ov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woos, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of this, with great 5
labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I eut a piece, and brought
it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I
worked it effectually by little and little into the form of a 10
shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in
‘England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon
it av bottom, it would not last me so long; however, it
served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it
to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, 15
or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having no
such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware—
at least, none yet found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I 20
fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that I had no
notion of ; neither did I know how to go about it; besides I

* had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle
or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for
carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made 25

«me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar in
when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to
me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel,
and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow,
took me up no less than four days—I mean always excepting 30
my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and
very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having now stood still, because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on,
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I 35
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time, I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my 40
lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep



1 effectually—so as to have effect ; we 23 gudgeons—iron pieces at the end of the
axis on which the wheel turns. Called

Suoulisen ecm: gudgeons presumably from their shape
12 shod—[past participle of the verb to shoe] 96 hod—a kind EE aooden trough for carrying
1.e. having no piece of iron fixed on it bricks, etc., carried on the shoulder by

like a shoe, bricklayers,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 97

myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover au my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves ot
trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or, vault
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top on one side ;
so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason,
too, for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-
digger. I had now a great deal of work to do over again, for
I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more
importance, J had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be
sure no more would come down.

Dec, 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of boards across over each post; this I finished the
next day ; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured, and the posts, standing in

* rows, served me for partitions to part off the house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up
that could be hung up; and now I began to be in some
order within doors,

_ Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and

began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards
* like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but bowds began
to be very scarce with me ; also, I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day. No stirring
out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before
ind pleasanter.

Dee, 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that
I caught it and led it home in a string; when I had it at
liome, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and as strong as ever; but, by my nursing it so long, it
grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and
would not goaway. ‘This was the first time that I enter-
tained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I
might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that



10

16

20

30

40

19 partitions—divisions (Lat. partior: I 26 victuals—food, what one lives on (Lat

victus : food).

divide). 36 N.B.—the initials of the Latin words, No-

2% order--arrange. ta bene (=mark well),
98 LIFE AND. ADVENTURES

there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food;
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards
the centre of the island, I found there were plenty of goats,
though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, ]
resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for
they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger
too well, for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal; itis sufficient to observe, that
T was no less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of
April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it

. was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a

half-circle from one place in the rock to another place, about
eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me

. many days, nay, sometimes weeks together ; but I thought T

*

should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished ;
and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything
was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I needed to have done,

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there, they would not per.
ceive anything like a habitation ; and it was very well I did so,
as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries in these walks of something or other to my
advantage ~ particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons,
which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as
house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking some
young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and



27 scarce credible—hardly to be believed.

ar

10

15

30

35

40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 99

did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which
perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had
nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their
nests, and got their young ones, which were very good
meat, And now, in the managing my household affairs, I 5
found myself wanting in many things, which I thought at
first it was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, with some
of them it was: for instance, I could never make a cask to

* be hooped. I hada small runlet or two, as I observed before ;

« but [ could never arrive at the capacity of making one by 10
them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither
put in the heads, or join the staves so true to one another as
to make them hold water; so I gave that also over. In the
next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon
as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I 15
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered. the lump of bees-
wax with which I made candles in my African adventure ;
but IT had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added 20

; a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me
light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In the

« middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my
things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been
filled with corn for the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, 25
but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon.
The little remainder of corn that had been in the bag was all
devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other
use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for 30
fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of
corn out of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.

Ié was a little before the great rains just now mentioned
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so
much ag remembering that I had thrown anything there, 35
when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few
stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I
fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was sur-
prised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were 40
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our Kuropean—nay,
as our English barley.

2

9 runlet—(as before), a small barrel.

10 capacity—ability, power. . wee og

21 oakum—old ropes in an untwisted state; familiar from the practice of making imamate
of prisons ‘pick oakum,” ¢.e, untwist hempen ropes.

23 rummaging—turning out, searching thoroughly.
100 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion

of my thoughts on this occasion. I hid hitherto acted upon

* no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions

« of religion in my hed, nor had entertained any sense of any-
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as 5



CRUSOE IS ASTONISHED AT THE GROWTH OF BARLEY.

we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquir.
ing into the end of Providence in these things, or His order
in governing events for the world. But after I saw barley
grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn,

3 foundation —here means principle, guiding belief.
4 entertaiaed—taken into consideration,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 101

and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled
me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miracu-
lously caused His grain to grow without any help of seed
sown, und that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on
that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my

: eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account; and this was the more
strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side

« of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the
place, I went all over that part of the island, where I had

« been before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to
see for more of it, but I could not find any. Ad last it

* occurred to my thoughts, that I shook a bag of chickens’
meat out in that place ; and then the wonder began to cease ;
and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s provi-
dence began to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this
was nothing but what was common; though I ought to have
been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as
if it had been miraculous ; for it was really the work of Pro-
vidence to me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve
grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had
destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven ;
as also, that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang -up
immediately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at
that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying
up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in
time, te have some quantity, suflicient to supply me with
bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow

myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but
sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost
all that I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper
time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all, at least not as it would have done; of
which in its place.

20

26

30

35

40



7 prodigy—a marvel, wonder, miracle. 16 peering—looki king carefully,
10 straggling—growing wild. 18 chickens’ meat—i.e. corn.
102 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care and for
the same use, or to the same purpose—to make me bread, or
rather food; for I found ways to cook it without baking,
though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal :—

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to
get my wall done ; and the 14th of April; I closed it up, con-
triving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by
a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my
habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder ; so I went up the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down
in the inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from
without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The
case was thus :—As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent,
just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with
a most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for, all on a sudden,
I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my
cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of
the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful

: manner. I was heartily scared ; but thought nothing of what
was really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave
was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I
should be buried in it, | ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear
of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down
upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake ; for
the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight
minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have over-
turned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock
which stood about half a mile from me next the sea fell down,
with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I
perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion by it;
and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than
on the island.

T was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never

25 heartily—from my heart, exceedingly.

10

15

30

85

40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 103

felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was

* like one dead or stupified ; and the motion of the earth made
my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the
noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were, and
rousing me from the stupified condition I was in, filledme with 45
horror; and J thought of nothing then but the hill falling
upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying all at
once ; and this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some

time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough 10
to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but

. sat still upon the ground greatly cast down and disconsolate,
not knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least
serious religious thought; nothing but the common “ Lord have
mercy upon me!” and when it was over that wentaway too, 10

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,

ag if it would rain. Soon after that, the wind arose by little
and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a most
dreadful hurricane, the sea was all on a sudden covered over

: with foam and froth ; the shore was covered with the breach 20
of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a ter-
vible storm it was. This held about three hours, and then
began to abate; and in two hours more it was quite calm, and
began to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the
ground. very much terrified and dejected ; when on a sudden 25
it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the
consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was
spent and over, and I might venture into my cave again.
With this thought, my spirits began to revive; and the rain
also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my 30
tent. But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to
be beaten down with it; and [,was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on
my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz. to
cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the 35
water go out, which would else have flooded my cave After
I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no more
shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more com.
posed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted
it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small 40

* Sup of rum; which, however, I did then and always very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone

+



2 stupified—the more modern, and correct, 20 breach—breaking (on the shore).
spelling is stupefied (from Lat. stupe- 41 sup—sip, or drink. The word has now
factus : amazed, bewildered). become almost a provincialism, but
12 disconsolate— not to be comforted, or is frequently heard in the North of

consoled. England.
104 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

It continued raining all that night, and great part of the next
day, so that T could not stir abroad; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do; conclud-
ing, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there
would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of 4
building a little hut in an open place, which I might surround.
with a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure
from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where I
was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the 10
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging preci-
pice of the hill; and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent ; and I spent the two next
days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where
and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swai- 15
lowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet
the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence was
almost equal to it; but still, when I looked about, and saw
how everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed

« Iwas, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to 20
remove. In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must
be contented to venture where I was, till I had formed a camp
for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with

« this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that 25
I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with
piles and cables, &c. in a circle, as before, and set my tent up
in it, when it was finished; but that I would venture to
stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove. This
was the 21st. 30

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means

« to put this resolve into execution ; but I was at a great loss
about my tools. J had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard 85
wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I
had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have

«x bestowed upon a grand point of politics. or a judge upon the
life and death of aman. At length, I contrived a wheel with 40
a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.

20 loath (or Joth)—unwilling. 82 put into execution—actually carry out.
25 composed myself — contented, quieted 89 grand point of politics — important
myself. question of government.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 105

Note.—I haa never seen any such thing in England, or
at least not to take notice how it was done, though since J
have observed it is very common there; besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me
a full week’ s work to bri ing it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine for turning my giindstone performing
very well.

April 30.—Having peiceived my bread had been low a great

while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea side, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore b’gger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I
found a small barrel, and two or thiee pieces of the wreck of
the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane ;
and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed
to lie higher out cf the water than it used to do. I examined
the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it was
a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the
powder was caked as hard as a stone; however, I rolled
it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the
sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look
for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was
heaved up at least six feet, and the stern, which was broke in
pieces and parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon
after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up,
and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on
that side next her stern, that whereas there was a great place
of water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of
a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake ; and as by this violence the ship was more broke
open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore,
which the sea had’ loosened, and which the winds and water
rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the desea of
removing my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that
day especially, in searching whether I could make any way

or

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106 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expectea or that

kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand.

However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I

resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship,

concluding that everything I could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which
lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give
over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I

* durst eat of, till Iwas weary of my sport ; when, just going to
* leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long
line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently
caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made to float on shore when the tide of
flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out
of her, and other pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard,
and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving
it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to
work, but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself
down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open
that I could see into it; but it was almost full of water and
sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow ta
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
or sand. J wrenched open two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck
for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body cf the wreck, and felt several casks, and
loosened them with the crow, but could not break them up.
I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was
too heavy to remove.

*

14 durst—past participle of verb to dare. .
15 dolphin —an animal of the whale kind, generally about 8 to so feet in length.
33 crow—crowbar (as before).

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40
*

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 107

May 10—14.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a
great many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two
or three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut
a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and
a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed
so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide
prevented my going to the’ wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at
a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see

. what they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but

too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck;
and with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the
crow, that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and

« a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt

water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work
every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to
get food, which I always appointed, during this part of my
employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had got timber
and plank and iron-work enough to have built a good boat,
if I had known how; and also I got, at several times and in
several pieces, near one hundredweight of the sheet-lead.
June 16.—-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it
seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place,
or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day,

: as I found afterwards ; but perhaps had paid enough dear for

them.
June 17.—I spent in zooking the turtle. I found in her
threescore eggs; and bor flesh was to me, at that time, the

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35

most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, 40

having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
in this horrid place.



15 head—i.e. the figure-head of the vessel. 22 hogshead—a large cask (the size

It was, and is still to some extent, i
contains).

and

capacity varies with the liquor it

customary to have a wooden figure of | 35 nyt perhaps, etc., i.e. might have fallen
some god or goddess or the like, carved in with the savages (whom he mentions

on the prow of the vessel. later),
108 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

June 18.~-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought,
at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly;
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19,—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, ana
feverish, -

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition—to be sick, and no help.
Prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull.
but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all
confused.

June 22.—A little better; but under dreadful apprehen-
sions of sickness.

June-23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent: the fit held me seven
hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-
goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some
of it, and ato. I would fain have stewed it, and made some
broth, but had no pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all
day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst ; but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to
get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but

« was light headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant
that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried, ‘ Lord,
lock upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!”
I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours; till, the
fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in
the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed,
but weak, and exceeding thirsty. However, as I had nc
water in my habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I had
this terrible dream :—I thought that I was sitting on the
ground, on the outs:de of my wall, where I sat when the
storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man
descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flaine of fire,
and light upon the ground. He was all over as bright asa

18 ague—a fever, coming on at fixed intervals; it is common in tropical climates.
29 light-headed—delirious, raving.

or

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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 109

flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him; his
countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for
words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground with
his feet, I thovght the earth trembled, just as it had done
before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my 9

: apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire, He
was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forward
towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill
ne; and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance,
he spoke to me—or I heard a voice so terrible that it is im- 10
possible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I
understood was this :—‘“‘Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die ;’’—at which
words, I thought he lifted up the apeat that was in his
hand to kill me 15

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that 1
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this
terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I
even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible
to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when 20
I awaked, and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received
by the good instruction of my father was then worn out by
an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wicked-

: Ness, and a constant conversation with none but such as were, 25
like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so
much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or
inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways; but a
certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience 30
of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and If was all that
the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our
common sailors can be supposed to be; not having the least
sense, either of the fear of God, in danger, oy of thankfulness
to God, in deliverance. 85

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will
be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through
all the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I
never had so much as one thought of it being the hand ‘of
God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin. My rebel- 40
lious behaviour against my father—or my present sins, which
were great,—or so much as a punishment for the general



6 apprehension—ment: l grasp (not, as | 25 conversation — association with (no
before, fears). merely talk, as nowadays).
110 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

course of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate
expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much
as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish to
God to direct me whither I should go, ev to keep me from the
* danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from vora-
* cious creatures as cruel savages. But I was merely thought-
less of a God or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from
the principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense
only, and, indeed, hardly that. When I was delivered and
taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used, and dealt 10
justly and honourably with, as well as charitably, I had not
the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this
island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judg-
ment. I only said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate 15
dog, and born to be always miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship’s crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised
« with a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which,
had the grace of God assisted, might have come up to true 20
thankfulness ; but it ended where it began, in a mere common
flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without
the least reflection upon the distinguished goodness of the
hand which had preserved me, and had singled me out to be
preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry 25
why Providence had been thus merciful unto me. Even just
the same common sort-of joy which seamen generally have,
after they are got safe ashore from a shipwreck, which they
drown all in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon
as it isover; and all the rest of my life was like it. Even 30.
when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of
my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of
the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect
of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and
that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense 35
of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply,
and was far enough from being afilicted at my condition, as a
judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me:
these were thoughts which very seldom entered my head. 40
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal,
had, at first, some little influence upon me, and began to affect

Or

ro

Me



5 voracious—greedy (Lat. vorax). ; d ;
19 ecstasy—transports — violent emotions (of joy or sorrow) which render a man beside

himself, as we say.
*

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 211

me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something
miraculous in it ; but as soon as ever that part of the thought
was removed, all the impression that was raised from it wore

off also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake,

though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more
immediately directing to the invisible power which alone
directs such things, yet no sooner was the first fright over,
but the impression it hid made went off also. I had no more
sense of God, or His judgments—much less of the present
affliction of my circumstances being from His hand—than if T
had been in the most prosperous condition of life. But now,
when [ began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miserieg
of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits began
to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted with the violence of the fever; conscience,
that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to
reproach myself with my past life, in which I had so
evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice
of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal

«x with me in so vindictive a manner. These reflections op-

ca

oe

14 distemper—illness, weakness (usually of

dogs and animals generally). thi art 4 i
20 vindictive — would naturally mean which a;-variety o strange fancies

spiteful, but here is probably used float across the mind.

in Latin sense meaning, ‘serving as ‘

a punishment.” 29 hurries—excitement, flurry.

pressed me for the second or third day of my distemper ;
and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful
reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from me
like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a
prayer attended with desires or with hopes: it was rather the
voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were con-
fused, the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of

: dying in such a miserable condition raised vapours into my
; head with the mere apprehension ;. and in these hurries of my

soul, I knew not what my tongue might express. But it was
rather exclamation, such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature
am I! If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of
help; and what will become of me!’ Then the tears burst
out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In
this interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind,
and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the begin-
ning of this story, viz. that if I did take this foolish step, God
would sot bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery. “Now,” said I, aloud, “my
dear father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice has over-
taken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the

on

ba
oO

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G

28 vapours—states of nervous weakness, in
RY

*

112 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

« voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture

or station of life wherein ] might have been happy and easy ;
but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the
blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over
my folly, and now I am left to mourn under the consequences 5
of it. I refused their help and assistance, who would have
lifted me in the world, and would have made everything easy
to me ; and now I have difliculties to struggle with, too great
for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no
comfort, no advice.” Then I cried out, “ Lord, be my help, 10
for I am in great distress.” This was the first prayer, if I
may call it so, that I had made for many years.

But to return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep
I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though 15
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill; and the first thing I did,

* T filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon 20

my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or
aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a
pint of rum into it, and mixed them tcgether. Then I got me
a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but
could eat very little. I walked about, but was very weak. 25
and withal very sad and heavy-hearted under a sense of my
miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the
next day. At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle’s
eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in
the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked 30
God’s blessing to, that I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak,
that I could hardly carry a gun, for I never went out without
that; so I went but a Little way, and sat down upon the

ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, 35

and very calm and smooth. As J sat here, some such thoughts
as these occurred to me:—What is this earth and sea, of
which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced? And
what am I, and all the other creatures wild and tame, human
and brutal? Whence are we? Sure woe are all made by some 40
secret power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky.
And who is that? Then it followed most naturally, it is God



1 posture—position.
20 case-bottle—a bottle from a case or set of bottles,
22 aguish—feverish.
“

*

*

1

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 113

that has made all. Well, but then, it came on strangely, if
God has made all these things, He guides and governs them
all, and all things that concern them; for the power that
could make all things must certainly have power to guide
and direct them. Is so, nothing can happen in the great
cireuit of His works, either without His knowledge or
appointment.

And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows
that I am here, and am in this dreadfu! condition ; and if
nothing happens without His appointment, He has appointed
all this to befall me. Nothing occurred to my thought to
contradict any of these conclusions, and therefore it rested
upon me with the greater force, that it must needs be that
God had appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought
into this miserable circumstance by His direction, He having
the sole power, not of me only, but of everything that hap-
pened in the world. Immediately it followed,—Why has
God done this to me? "What have I done to be thus used ?
My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I
had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice—
“Wretch! dost thow ask what thou hast done? Look back
upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast
not done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago
destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads ;
killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee
man-of war; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of
Africa; or drowned here, when all the crew perished but
thyself 2 Dost thow ask, What have I done?” I was struck

« dumb with these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a

word to say—no, not to answer to myself, but rose up pensive
and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up over my
wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts were
sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat
down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be
dark. Now, as the apprehension of the return of my dis-
temper terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought, that
the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost all
distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the
« chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green,
and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and

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40



1came on strangely—it was, surely, a 29 astonished—(or astonied) was in older

strange result.

struck dumb,”
1 befall me—happen to me 39 cured—dried,

English much stronger in meaning
than it is now, and meant * bewildered,
114 LIFE ANL) ADVENTURES

tound what I looked for, the tobacco ; and as the few books
T had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which
[ mentioned before, and which to this time I had not found
leisure or inclination to Icok into. TI say, I took it out, and
brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.



CRUSOE FINDS A BIBLE,

What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, in my dis-
temper, or whether it was good for it or no: but I tried
several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit
one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it
in my mouth, which, indeed, at first almost stupified my brain,
the tobacco being green and strong, and that I had not been
* Much used to. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or



12 steeped it—soaked it.
se

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 115

two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay
down ; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held
my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it,
as well for the heat, as almost for suffocation. In the interval.
of this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but
my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco to bear
reading, at least at that time; only, having opened the book
: casually, the first words that occurred 1 me were these,
**Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee,

+ and thou shalt glorify me.’”’ These words were very apt to

my case, and made some impression upon my thoughts at the
time of reading them, though not so much as they did after-
wards ; for, as for being delivered, the word had no sound, as

* [ may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in

my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as the
children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat,

* “Can God spread a table in the wilderness?’ so I began to

say, ‘‘Can God himself deliver me from this place?’? And as
it was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this pre-
vailed very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words
made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them
very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said,

* dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep ; so I left my

lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the
night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I

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25

never had done in all my life—I kneeled down, and prayed to ©

God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in
the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken and
imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had

« steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the

tobacco that I could scarcely get it down; immediately upon
this I went to bed. I found presently it flew up into my head
violently ; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more
till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o’clock in
the afternoon the next day—nay, to this hour I am partly of
opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for otherwise, I know not how I should
lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it
appeared some years after I had done ; for if I had lost it by

* crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than

one day ; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never
knew which way. Be that, however, one way or the other,

8 casually—at random, by chance. The but here is used _ transitively,
reference is to Psalm I. 15. means “ made sleepy, dazed.”
10 apt—fitting, suitable. 30 rank—strong (in smell or taste).

14 remote—distant.

30

35

40

and

40 Line—the equator. Crusoe had crossed
it in his sailing south to S. America,

17 Can God, etc.— the reference is to and recrossed it in his journey north
Psalm Ixxviii. 19. from Brazil, which ended in his

23 dezed—the word is generally intransitive, shipwreck,
116 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

when I awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my
spirits lively and cheerful; when I got up I was stronger than
I was the day before, and my stomach better, for I waa
hungry ; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued
much altered for the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a
sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought
them home ; but was not very forward to eat them ; so late
some more of the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This
evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me
good the day before—the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did
not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or
hold my head over the smoke ; however, I was not so well
the next day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should
« have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was
not much.

July 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity
which I drank.

*



recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was
thus gathering strength my thoughts ran exceedingly upon
this scripture, “I will deliver thee;’’ and the impossibility
* of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it; but as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the
deliverance I had received, and I was as it were made to ask
myself such questions as these; viz.: Have TI not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness—from the most
distressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful
to me? and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my
part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified Him—
that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as
a deliverance ; and how could I expect greater deliverance ?
This touched my heart very much ; and immediately I knelt
down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
sickness.
July 4.—In the morning, I took the Bible ; and, beginning
«at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and im:
posed upon myself to read a while every morning and every

Me

8 brand goose—a species of wild goose.

16 spice—touch, or ‘‘ taste,"’ as we say,

25 in bar of—hindering, acting as a barrier to..

41 imposed upon myself-—made it a rule for myself,

10

16

20

25

80

35

40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 117

night ; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but long
as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I
set seriously to this work, till I found my heart more deeply
and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life.
The impression of my dream revived; and the words. “ All
these things have not brought thee to repentance,” ran seriously
in my thoughts. Iwas earnestly begging of God to give me
repentance, when it happened providentially, the very day,

ar

* that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words: “ He is

exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and to give 10

« remission.” I threw down the book; and with my heart as

well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, “ Jesus, thou son of David ! Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!” This
was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the words, 15
that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a sense
of my condition, and a true Scripture view of hope, founded
on the encouragement of the Word of God; and from this
time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would hear
me. 20

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “ Call
on me, and I will deliver thee,” in a different sense from what
I had ever done before; for then I had no notion of anything
being called deliverance, but my being delivered from the
captivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the 25
place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in
the worse sense in the world. But now I learned to take it
in another sense: now I looked back upon my past life with
such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul
sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt 30
that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it
was nothing ; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from
it, or think of it; it was all of no consideration, in comparison
to this. And I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall
read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things, 35
they will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing
than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal :—

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as
to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my 40
thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a



9 He is exalted, eto—Reference to Acts | 11 remission—forgiveness (of sins).
Vv. 31 21 construe—interpret, explain.
118 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing
of ; also, my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself
to furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make
my way of living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little
at a time, as aman that was gathering up his strength after
a fit of sickness ; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I

. was. and to what weakness I was reduced. The application
which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which 10
had never cured an ague before ; neither can I recommend it
to any to practise, by this experiment: and though it did
carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me ;

: for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for
some time. I learned from it also this, in particular, that 15

« being abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing
to my health that could be, especially in those rains which
came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind ; for as the
rain which came in the dry season was almost always accom-
panied with such storms, so I found that rain was much more 20
dangerous than the rain which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months,
All possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believe that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured 25
ny habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great
desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which I yet knew
nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more 30
particular survey of the island itself. 1 went up the creek
first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found,
after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow
any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of
running water, very fresh and good; but this being the dry 35
season there was hardly any water in some parts of it—at
least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could be per.
ceived, On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant

* savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass;
and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, 40
where the water, as might be supposed, never overflowed, I
found a great deal of tobacco, green. and growing to a great

ww

oe



9 application—treatment, what is applied 16 pernicious—destructive, fatal, dangerous,
to the sick part. 39 savannahs—the name given to the vast

es F prairie-lands of S. and parts of N.

14 convulsions—violent shakings. America (Spanish sabana, a bed-sheet,

16 abroad—out of doors. or (met) a meadow).
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 119

x and very strong stalk. There were divers otner plants, which

I had no notion of or understanding about, that might, per-

haps have virtues of their own, which I could not find out.

* I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw 5

«large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw
several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation,
imperfect, TU contented myself with these discoveries for this
time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might
take to know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or 10
plants which I should discover, but could bring it to no conclu-
sion ; for, in short, I had made go little observation while I was
in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field; at
least, very little that might serve to any purpose nowin my
distress. 15

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again ;

« and, after going something further than I had gone the day
before, I found the brook and savannahs cease, and the country
become more woody than before. In this part I found different
fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground, in 20
great abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had
spread, indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were
just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a sur-
prising discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I
was warned by my experienc? to eat sparingly of them; re- 25
membering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating

of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves
there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. But [found an
excellent use for these grapes; and that was, to cure or dry
them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are 30
kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were, whole
some and agreeable to eat when no grapes could be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation ; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might
say, I had lain from home. In the night, I took my first 35
contrivance, and got up in a tree, where I slept well; and
the next morning proceeded upon my discovery ; travelling
‘nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length of the

valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills
on the south and north side of me. At the end of this 40
march, I came to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which

oo

*%

*



1 divers—various. 17 something—somewhat.

4 cassava—a starchy plant from which our 26 Barbary—the old name given to North
tapioca is made. Africa. :

6 aloes—a plant with juicy leaves, yielding 28 fluxes—(lit. a flowing; Lat. fluo, to flow)
the gum called aloes. dysentery.
”

%

120 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

issued out of the side of the hill by mie, ran the other way,
that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh, so green,

« so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure or

flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I
descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying 5
it with a secret kind of pleasure, though mix-d with my other
afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that I

« was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a
« right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might have it

in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. 10
I saw here abundance of coco.-trees, orange, and lemon, and
citron-trees ; but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at
least not then. However, the green limes that I gathered
were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I
mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very 16
wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I
had business enough, to gather and carry home; and I re-
solved to lay up a store as well of grapes as limes and
lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew
was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap 20
of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and a
great parcel of limes and lemons in another place ; and taking

a few of each with me, I travelled homewards; resolving to
come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to
carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three days in 25
this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and
my cave); but before I got thither the grapes were spoiled ;
the richness of the fruit and the weight of the juice having
broken them and bruised them, they were good for little or
nothing; as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring 80
but a few.

The next day, being the nineteenth, I went back, having
made me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I
was surprised, when coming to my heap of grapes, which were
so rich and fine when I gathered them, to find them all spread 35
nbout, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this, I con-
cluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which
had done this; but what they were I knew not. However,
as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and no 40
carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would
be destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with

8 verdure—green vegetation. | 9 convey—the legal term for transferring

8 indefeasibly—incontestably, indisputably. property to someone else,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 121

their own weight, I took another course; for I gathered a
« large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the out
«x branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the
sun ; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back
as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the
pleasantness of the situation; the security from storms on
that side the water, and the wood: and concluded that I
had pitched upon a place to fix my abode which was by far
the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to
consider of removing my habitation, and looking out for a
place equally safe as where now I was situate, if possible, in
that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me ;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I
was now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible that
something might happen to my advantage ; and, by the same
ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some other un-
happy wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce
probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet to
inclose myself among the hills and woods in the centre of
«x the island was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such
on affair not only improbable, but impossible ; and that there-
fore I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was
* so enamoured of this place, that I spent much of my time
there for the whole of the remaining part of the month of
July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to
remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and sur-
rounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double
hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between
with brushwood ; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or
three nights together; always going over it with a ladder ;
so that I fancied now I had my country house and my sea-
coast house ; and this work took me up to the beginning of
August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy
my labour, when the rains came on, and made me stick
close to my first habitation ; for though I had made me a
tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it
very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me

2 the out branches—the outer, or projecting, branches.

24 anticipate—(Lat. antecapio, to take beforehand) ; to take on myself before I need,

27 enamoured—in love with.

10

16

20

25

30

40
%

122 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when
the rains were extraordinarv.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished
my bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August,
I found the grapes I had hung up perfectly dried, and
indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began
to take them down from the trees, and it was very happy
that I did so, for the rains which followed would have
spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my winter
food; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them.
No.sooner had I taken them all down, and carried most of
them home to my cave, than it began to rain; and from
hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained, more or
less, every day till the middle of October; and sometimes
so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for
several days.

In this season, I was much surprised with the increase
of my family; I had been concerned for the loss of one of
my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had
been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her, till, to my
astonishment, she came home about the end of August,
with three kittens. This was the more strange to me,
because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with
my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from
our European cats; but the young cats were the same kind
of house-breed as the old one; and both my cats being
females, I thought it very strange. But from these three
cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that I
was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to
drive them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so,
that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be

«much wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened

for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat;
and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large
tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food was regu-
lated thus:—I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a
piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner,
broiled; for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to
boil or stew anything; and two or three of the turtle’s eggs
for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain. I

29 vermin—here, animals that do damage to crops, etc, (rather than, as often, insects).

33 straitened for—in need of, lacking.

10

16

20

25

30

35

40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 123

worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and
by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I came to
the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which
came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out
this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open; 5
for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a_ perfect
inclosure ; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed, and open
for anything to come in upon me; and yet I could not per-
ceive that there was any living thing to fear, the diggest
creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat. 10
Sept, 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary
of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and
found I had been on shore three hundred and _ sixty-five
days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart
«for religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground 15
with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to
God, acknowledging his righteous judgments upon me, and
praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ ;
and not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve
hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a 20
biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed,
finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time
observed no Sabbath day; for as at first I had no sense of
religion upon my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to
distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than 25
ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know
what any of the days were; but now, having cast up the
days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I
divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for
a Sabbath; though I found at the end of my account 1 80
had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after
this, my ink began to fail me, and so I contented myself to
use it more sparingly, and to write down only the most
remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily
* momorandum of other things. 35
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide
*for them accordingly; but I bought all my experience
before I had it, and this I am going to relate was one of
the most discouraging experiments that I made. 40
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of
barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly found spring

%



11 anniversary—the day of the year on 35 memorandum—a note of something to be

which any important event happened remembered. 5
is so-called every succeeding year. 38 I bought all, etc., i.e. 1 made mistakes,
(Lat. annus, year; vertere, to turn). and so by the inconvenience I suffered

15 religious Eker eee Ueayet etc. I paid dearly for the knowledge I
15 prostrating—throwing down, gained.
124 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

up, as I thought, of themselves, and I believe there were
about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley;
and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after the
rains, the sun being in its southern position, going from
me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I 5
could with my wooden spade, and dividing it intc two
parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually
occurred to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at
first, because I did not know when was the proper time for
it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a 10
handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards
that I did so, for nct one grain of what I sowed this time
came to anything: for the dry months following, the earth
having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no
moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all till 15
the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it
had been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not
grow, which I easily imagined was by the drought, I
sought for a moister piece of ground to make another trial
in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, 20
and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before
the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly,
and yielded a very good crop; but having part of the seed
left only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but 25
a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to
above half a peck of each kind. But by this experiment I
was made master of my business, and knew exactly when
the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two
seed times and two harvests every year. 30
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery,
which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains
were over, and the weather began to settle, which was
about the month of November, I made a visit up the
country to my bower, where, thcugh I had not been some 35
months, yet I found all things just as I left them. The
circle or double hedge that I had made was not only firm
and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some
trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a _ willow-tree usually 40
«x shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not
tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from.
22 vernal equinox—About March 2oth, the the vernal or spring equinox. Cf. note
sun being just over the equator, the on autumnal equinox on p. 87.

days and nights are of equal length . .
over the world; this period is called 41 lopping—trimming, cutting.

At
*

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 125

I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the
young trees grow: and I pruned them, and led them up to
grow as much alike as I could; and it is scarce credible
how beautiful a figure they grew into in three years; so
that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five 5
yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call
them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, suffi-
cient to lodge under all the dry season. This made me
resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like
this, in a semi-circle round my wall (I mean that of my 10
first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees cr stakes
in a double row, at about eight yards distance from my
first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a fine
cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence
also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally
be divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but
into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were
generally thus :—

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half 20
of April—rainy, the sun being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July,
and the half of August—dry, the sun being then to the
north of the Line.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the 25
half of October—rainy, the sun being then come Lack.

The half of October, the whole of November, December,
and January, and the half of February—dry, the sun being
then to the south of the Line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as 30
the winds happened to blow, but this was the general
observation I made. After I had found, by experience,
the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took
care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I
might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as 35
much as possible during the wet months. ‘This time I
found much employment, and very suitable also to the
time, for I found great occasion for many things which I
had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and
constant application; particularly I tried many ways to 40
make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the
purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing, It





24 Line—Equator (as before),
126 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

proved of excellent advantage to me now, that when I was
a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at a basket-
maker's, in the town where my father lived, to see them
make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are,
« very ofticious to help, and a great observer of the manner
in which they worked those things, and sometimes lending
a hand. I had by these means full knowledge of the
nethods of it, and I wanted nothing but the materials,
when it came into my mind that the twigs of that tree
from whence I eut my stakes that grew might possibly be 10
sas tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England,
and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day I went
to my country house, as I called it, and cutting some of
the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as

I could desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared 15
with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon
found, for there was great plenty of them. These I set up
to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit
for use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the
next season, I employed myself in making, as well as I 20
could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to
carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and though I
did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, after-
wards, I took care never to be without them; and as my 26
wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong deep
baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I
should come to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of
time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to 30
supply two wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that
was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of
rum, and some glass bottles—some of the common size,
and others which were case bottles, square, for the holding
of water, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to boil 35
anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out of the
ship, and which was too big for such as I desired it, viz. to
make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second
thing I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was
impossible to me to make one; however, I found a con- 40
trivance for that, too, at last. “I employed myself in plant-
ing my second rows of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-

or

%

ot



5 officious—interfering, over-busy. .

11 sallows, willows, osiers—are all plants whose pliant twigs are lopped off and used in
basket-making.

29 a world of time—a great deal of (a strong metaphor).
*

OF ROBINSON CRUSOK. 127

working all the summer or dry season, when another business
took me up more,time than it could be imagined I could
spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the
whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so 46
on to where I built my bower, and where I had an opening
quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I now
vesolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that
side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a
larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two 10
biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for
my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the
vale where my bower stood, as above, I came within view
of the sea to the west, and it being a- very clear day, I
fairly descried land—whether an island or a continent ] 15
could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the
W. to the W.8.W. at a very great distance; by my guess it
could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be,
otherwise than that I knew it must be part of America, and, 20
as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near the
Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages,
where, if I had landed, I had been in a worse condition than

« I was now; and therefore I acquiesced in the dispositions of

%

Providence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered %5
everything for the best; I say I quieted my mind with this,
and left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being
there. -

Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I considered
that if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one 80
time or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other;
but if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish
country and Brazils, where are found the worst of savages;
for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder
and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands. 85

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward,

I found that side of the island where I now was much

pleasanter than mine—the open or savannah fields sweet,

adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods.
T saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, 40
if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak
to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot,





15 descried—espied, discerned clearly.
24 dispositions—arrangements.
40 fain—willingly (an adverb, here),
128 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

for I knocked it down with a stick, and having recoveied it
I brought it home ; but it was some years, before I could make
him speak ; however, at last, I taught him to call me by name
very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it
: be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place. 5
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in
the low grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes ;
but they differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met
with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed
several. But I had no need to be venturous, for I had no 10
want of food, and of that which was very good, too, especially
these three sorts, viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise,
: which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-market could not have
furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the company ;
and though my case was deplorab!e enough, yet I had great 15
cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities
for food, but had rather plenty, even to dainties.

T never travelled in this journey above two miles outright
in a day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and
returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I came 20
weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit down ail
night; and then I either reposed myself in a tree, or sur-
rounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the
ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no wild
creature could come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see
that I had taken up my lot on the worst. side of the island,
for here, indeed, the shore was covered with innumerable
turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but three in a
year and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of 80
many kinds, some which I had seen, and some which Tf had not
seen before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I
knew not the names of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very
sparing of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind 89
to kill a she goat, if I could, which I could better feed on;
and though there were many goats here, more than on my side
the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that { could
come near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw
me much sooner than when I was on the hills. 40

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine ; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for

*

bo
Or

*%



5 diverting—amusing.
13 Leadenhall-market—the great poultry-market of London (Defoe, it will be remembered,
was a Londoner).
83 panguins—sea birds found in the Southern Hemisphere,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. _ 129

as I was fixed in my habitation it became natural to me, and
I seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a
journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the
shore of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve
miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the shore for a
mark, I concluded I would go home again, and that the next
journey I took should be on the other side of the island east
from my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that
I could not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the
country ; but I found myself mistaken, for, being come about
two or three miles, I found myself descended into a very large
valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered
with wood, that I could not see which was my way by any
direction but tnat of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew
very well the position of the sun at that time of the day. It
happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved
hazy for three or four days while I was in the valley, and not
being able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfort-
ably, and at last was obliged to find the sea-side, look for my
post, and come back the same way I went: and then, by easy
journeys, I turned homeward, tho weather being exceeding
hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchot, and other things,
very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized
upon it; and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and
saved it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it
bome if 1 could, for I had often been musing whether it
might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed
of tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and
shot should be all spent. I made a collar for this little

- creature, and with a string, which I made of some rope-yarn,
which T always carried about me, I led him along, though
with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I
inclosed him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at
home, from whence | had been absent above a month. --

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come

«into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock bed. This
little wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had
been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to
myself, was a perfect settlement to me compared te that; and

10

15

20

30

35

40



33 rope-yarn—the same as oakuim (p. 99) : untwisted rope cords,

39 hutch —a box or chest (the word is common still, in Essex, in this sense); here=hut.
130 LIFE ANL ADVENTURES

it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I re.
solved I would never go a great way from it again, while it
should be my lot to stay on the island.

* I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself
after my long journey; during which, most of the time was
taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll,

: who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be well ac-
quainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned in within my little circle, and resolved
to go and fetch it home, or give it some food ; accordingly I
went, and found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get
out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went and
cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could
find, and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as T did
before, to lead it away ; but it was so tame with being hungry,
that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like
a dog; and as I continually fed it, the creature became so
loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that
time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me
afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner
as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island,
having now been there two years, and no more prospect of
being delivered than the first day I came there. I spent the
whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the
niany wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was
attended with, and without which it might have been infi-
nitely more miserable. I gave humble and hearty thanks
that God had been pleased to discover to me that it was

« possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition than
T should have been in the liberty of society and in all the
pleasures of the world; that He could fully make up to me

« the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human
society, by His presence and the communications of His grace
to my soul; supporting, comforting, and encouraging me to
depend upon His providence here, and hope for His eternal
presence hereafter.

«x It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of my days; and now I changed both my sorrows

%

or

10

15

20

25

30

35

40



4 regale—entertain, feast royally, (Lat. 31 solitary—lonely.
regalis, royal). F 34 deficiencies—shortcomings.
7 domestic—domesticated (animal).

21 autumnal equinox—See notes on p, 124

and p. 87. in modern use),

39 sensibly —vividly (not ‘‘ intelligently,” as
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 131

and my joys; my very desires altered, my affections changed

‘their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what
they were at my first coming, or, indeed, for the two years
ast.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for 5
viewing the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition
would break out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart
would die within me, to think of the woods, the mountains
the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with
the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited 10

* wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of the great-

* est composure of my mind, this would break out upon me like
a storm, and make me wring my hands and weep like a child.
Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and i
would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the.15
ground for an hour or two together ; and this was still worse

* to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or vent myself by
words, it would go off, and the grief, having exhausted itself,
would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts : 20
I daily read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of

it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened
the Bible upon these words, ‘“‘I will never, never leave thee,
aor forsake thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words
were to me; why else should they be directed in such a man- 25
ner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my. con-
dition, as one forsaken of God and man? “ Well, then,” said
I, “if God does not forsake me, of what ill consequence can
it be, or what matters it, though the world should all forsake
me, seeing on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should 30
lose the favour and blessing of God, there would be no
comparison in the loss?”

-From this moment, I began to conclude in my mind, that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary
condition, than it was probable I should ever have been in 35
any other particular state in the world ; and with this thought
I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to thig
place. I know not what it was, but something shocked my
mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words
* How canst thou become such a hypocrite,’’ said I, even 40

audibly, “to pretend to be thankful for a condition, which,

however thou mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou

ae

Mt

2

oe

2 gusts—pleasures, relish (now only found 23 I will never, etc.—The quotation is from
inits opposite, disgust). Hebrews xiii. 5.

11 redemption—deliverance. 40 hypocrite—from a Greek word, mean-

12 composure —quietness, restfulness. ing literally a play-actor; then, one

17 vent—to let out, allow to escape (Cf. who plays a part, generally ; and so

vent-hole), “an insincere person.”
182 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from?’’ SoI
stopped there; but though I could not say I thanked God for
being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for opening
; my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences, to see the former
condition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness, and
repent. I never opened’the Bible, or shut it, but my very
soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in Eng-
land, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
zoods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the
wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third
year ; and though I have not given the reader the trouble of
so particular an account of my works this year as the first ;
yet in general it may be observed, that I was very seldom
idle, but having regularly divided my time according to the
several daily employments that were before me, such 1 as, first,
my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I con-
stantly set apart some time for, thrice every day; secondly,
the going abroad with my gun for food, which generally took
me up three hours in every morning, when it did not rain;
thirdly, the ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking, what
Thad killed or caught for my supply: these took up great
part of the day. Also, it is to be considered, that in the
middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the vio-
lence of the heat was too great to stir out ; so that about four
hours in the evening was all the time I could be supposed to
work in, with this exception, that sometimes I changed my
hours of hunting and working, and went to work in the
morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be
added the exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many
hours which for want of tools, want of help, and want of
skill, everything I did took up out of my time. For example,
I was full two and forty days in making a board for a long
shelf, which I wanted in my cave ; whereas, two sawyers, with
their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of
the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to
be cut down, because my board was to be a broad one, This
tree I was three days in cutting down, and two more cutting
off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber.
With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the

xy

*%

Cr

10

15

30

40



4 providences—instances of foresight and | 24 zenith—highest point [lit. ‘the point of

forethought. the heavens directly overhead].
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 133

sides of it into chips till it began to be light enough to move;
then I turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as
a board from end to end; then, turning that side downward,
cut the other side till I brought the plank to be about three
inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may judge





CRUSOE IS COMFORTED BY HIS BIBLE,

the labour of my hands in such a piece of work; but labour
and patience carried me through that, and many other things.
I only observe this in particular, to show the reason why so
much of my time went away with so little work, viz. that



Co
134 UIFE AND ADVENTURES

what might bea little to be done with help and tools, was a
vast labour and required a prodigious time to do alone, and
by hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience and labour
I got through everything that my circumstances made neces-
sary +0 me to do, as will appear by what follows. 5

I was now, in the months of November and December, ex-
pecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had
manured and dug up for them was not great; for, as I ob-
served, my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a
peck, for I had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry 10
season. But now my crop promised very well, when on a
sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by
enemies of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep
from it; as, first the goats, and wild creatures which I called
hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night 15
and day, as soon as it came up, and eat it so close, that it
could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about
it with a hedge; which I did with a great deal of toil, and

* the more, because it required speed. However, as my arable 20
land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well
fenced in about three weeks’ time; and shooting some of the
creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the
night, tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would
stand and bark all night long; so ina little time, the enemies 28
forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well,
and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in
the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when
it was in the ear; for, going along by the place to see how it 30
throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know
not how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I
should be gone. I immediately let fly among them, for I
always had my gun with me. I had no sooner shot, but there

«x rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, 35
from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days
they would devour all my hopes; that I should be starved,
and never be able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I
could not tell ; however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if 40
possible, though I should watch it night and day. In the
first place. I went among it, to see what damage was already



29 arable —fit for cultivation (Lat. aro, I plough).
85 fowls—birds, generally (German vogel, O.E. fowel).
87 touched me sensibly—seriously disturbed me.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOR, 135

done, and found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that
as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not so great
out that the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could
ioe saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, 1 5
could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about
me, as if they only waited till I was gone away, and the event
proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, 1
was no sooner out of their sight, than they dropped down one
by one into the corn again. I was so provoked, that I could 10
not have patience to stay till more came on, knowing that
every grain that they ate now was, as it might be said, a

: peck-loaf to me in the consequence ; but coming up to the
hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was
what I wished for ; so I took them up, and served them as 15
we serve notorious thieves in England—hanged them in
chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine
that this should have such an effect as it had, for the fowls
would not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they
forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a 20
bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there.
This I was very glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter
end of December, which was our second harvest of the year,

I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, 25
and all I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out of

sone of the broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved among
the arms out of the ship. However, as my first crop was but
small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I
reaped it in my way, for I cut nothing off but the ears, and 30
carried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so
vubbed it out with my hands; and at the end of all my
harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed I had
near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels and a half of
barley ; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure al 35
that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I
foresaw that, in time, it would please God to supply me with
bread. And yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither
knew how to grind, or make meal of my corn, or indeed, how 40
to clean it and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make
bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I knew not how ta



13 peck-loaf—a loaf of a peck weight, 7.e. + of a bushel g
Q7 cutlasses—broad, curving swords, formerly used in the Navy. (French, coutelas. Latin,
cultellus, a small knife.) .
136 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

bake it. ‘These things being added to my desire of having a
good quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I
resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all
«for seed against the next season ; and, in the meantime, to
employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this 6
great work of providing myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly-said, that now I worked for my bread.
I believe few people have thought much upon the strange
multitude of little things necessary in the providing, pro-
* ducing, curing, dressing, making, and finishing this one article 10
of bread.

I, that was reduced to a meve state of nature, found this to
my daily discouragement ; and was made more sensible of
it every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-
corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed 15
to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth—no spade or
shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a
wooden spade, as I observed before; but this did my work
but in a wooden manner ; and though it cost me a great many 20
days to make it, yet for want of iron, it not only wore cut
soon, but made my work the harder, and made it be performed
much worse. However, this I bore with, and was content to
work it out with patience, and bear with the badness of the
performance. When the corn was sown, I had no harrow, 25
but was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy
bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be called,
rather than rake or harrow it. When it was. growing, and
grown, I have observed already how many things I wanted to
fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it home, 80
* thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a
mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it
into bread, and an oven to bake it ; but all these things I did
without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn was an in
estimable comfort and advantage to me too, All this, as I 85
said, made everything laborious and tedious to me; but that
there was no help for. Neither was my time so much loss to
me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every
day appointed to these works ; and as I had resolved. to use
none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me, 40
I had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour
* and invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper for the

*

%

4 against—for. 31 chaff—the worthless, empty covering of
10 curing —drying. the grain. :
10 dressing—preparing. 32 yeast —a substance used to raise the
95 harrow—a spiked iron frame, for tearing | flour in making bread or pastry.
and breaking the clods. 42 utensils —vessels used in common life.




ie

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 137

performing all the operations necessary for making the corn,
when I had it, fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I
had a week’s work at least to make me a spade, which, when 5
it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and
required double labour to work with it. However, I got
through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of
ground, as near my house as I could find them to my mind,
and fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes of which 10
were all cut off that wood which I had set before, and knew it
would grow; so that, ina year’s time, I knew I should have
a quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair.
This work did not take me up less than three months, because
a great part of that time was the wet season, when I could not 15
go abroad. Within-doors, that is when it rained, and I could
not go out, I found employment in the following occupations—
always observing, that all the while I was at work, I diverted
myself with taiking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak ;
and I quickly taught him to know his own name, and at last 20
to speak it out pretty loud, “ Poll,’’ which was the first word
I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own.
This, therefore, was not my work, but an assistance to my
work ; for now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my
hands, as follows: I had long’ studied to make, by some means 25
or other, some earthen vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely,
but knew not where to come at them. However, considering
the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find
out any clay, I might make some pots that might, being dried
in the sun, be hard enough and strong enough to bear handling, 30
and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept
so; and as this was necessary in the preparing corn, meal,
&e., which was the thing I was doing, I resolved to make
some as large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to
hold what should be put into them. 35
' It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me,
to tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste ;
what odd, mis-shapen, ugly things I made; how many of
them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff
enough to bear its own weight; how many cracked by the 40
over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily; and
how many fell in pieces with only removing, as well before



26 sorely—badly.
138 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

as after they were dried; and, in a word, how, after having
* laboured hard to find the clay—to dig it, to temper it, to
bring it home, and work it—I could not make above two

large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about
two months’ labonr.

é
e
e



CRUSOE ATTEMPTS TO MAKE EARTHENWARE.

However, as the. sun baked these two very dry and hard,
I lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two
great wicker-baskets, which I had made on purpose for them,
that they might not hreak; and as between the pot and the

2 temper—mix it with water, so as to soften it,


*

* all round it with a great heap of embers under them. I plied

—__.

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 139

basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the
‘rice and barley straw; and these two pots being to stand
always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perbaps
the meal, when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots,
yet I made several smaller things with better success ; such as
little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any
things my hand turned to; and the heat of the sun baked
them quite hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get
an earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire—
which none of these could do. It happened after some time,
making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went
to put it out after I had done with it, I found a broken piece
of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as
a stone, and red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see
it, and said to myself, that certainly they might be made to
burn whole, if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it
; burn some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters
* burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had some lead

to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or
three pots, in a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood

the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the top,
till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and
observed that they did not crack at all. When I saw them
clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours,
till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or
run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by
the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if I
had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots
began to abate of the red colour; and, watching them all
night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the
morning I had three very good (I will not say handsome)
pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could
be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no
sort of earthenware for my use; but I must needs say as to
the shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any one
may suppose, when I had no way of making them but as the



10

16

20

25

30

40

8 being to stand—being meant to stand. 2) kiln—an oven, or stove, for baking clay

bricks, etc.

7 pipkins—earthenware pots for boiling or 21 glazing—making smooth (like glass).

stewing. 24 embers—glowing coals, etc.
140 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

children make dirt pies, or as a woman-woulad make pies that
never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to
mine, when [ found I had made an earthen pot that would
bear the fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they 5
were cold before I set one on the fire again, with some water
in it, to boil me some meat, which 1t did admirably well; and '
with a piece of a kid I made some very good broth, though

* I wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients requisite to
make it as good as I would have had it been. 10

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or
beat some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought
of arriving at that perfection of art with one pair of hands.
To supply this want, I was at a great loss; for, of all the
trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a 15
stone cutter, as for any whatever ; neither had I any tools to
go about it with. I spent many a day to find out a great
stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit for a mortar,
and could find none at all, except what was in the solid rock,
and which I had no way to dig or cut out; nor indeed were 20
the rocks in the island of hardness sufficient, but were all of
a sandy, crumbling stone, which neither would bear the weight
of a heavy pestle, nor would break the corn without filling it
with sand. So, after a great deal of time lost in searching
for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look out for a 25
great block of hard wood, which I found indeed much easier ;
and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it,
and formed it on the outside with my axe and hatchet, and
then, with the help of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow
place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After 30

x this, I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood
called the iron-wood ; and this I prepared and laid by against
Thad my next crop of corn, which I proposed to myself to
grind, or rather pound, into meal, to make bread.

* My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to dress 35

* my meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk ; without
which I did not see it possible 1 could have any bread. This
was a most difficult thing, even to think on, for to be sure
Thad nothing like the necessary thing to make it—I mean

«fine thin canvas or stuff to searce the meal through. And 40
here I was at a full stop for many months; nor did I really
know what to do. Linen I had none left but what was mere

ve



9 ingredients—contents. 35 searce—(or siglo implement for
— ie searcing, or searching, the grain and
11 mortar—a stone Lasin, sifting it from the chaff.

31 pestle—the hammer with which one 86 bran—refuse (of grain).
bruises corn or other substances in 36 husk—outer case.
the mortar, 40 searce—see note above.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 14]

rags; I had goat’s-hair, but neither knew how to weave it or
spin it; and had I knewn how, here were no tools to work it
with. All the remedy that I found for this was, that at last

I did remember I had, among the seamen’s clothes which were
saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin; 5
and with some pieces of these I made three smal] sieves proper
enough for the work; and thus I made shift for some years:
how I did afterwards, I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and
how I should make bread when I came to have corn; for, 10
first, I had no yeast. As to that part, there was no supplying
the want, so I did not concern myself much about it. But
for an oven, I was indeed in great pain. At length I found
out an experiment for that also, which was this: I made
some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that is to say, 15
about two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep.
These I burned in the fire, as J had done the other, and laid
them by; and when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire
upon my hearth, which I had paved with some square tiles,
of my own baking and burning also; but I should not call 20
them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers,

| or live coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to
| cover it all over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was

very hot. Then, sweeping away all the embers, I set down 25

«my loaf or loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon

*%

them, drew the embers all round the outside of the pot, to
keep in and add to the heat; and thus, as well as in the best
oven in the world, I baked my barley-loaves, and became, in
little time, a good pastrycook into the bargain; for I made 30
nyself several cakes and puddings of the rice; but I made no
pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing J
had, except the flesh either of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up
most part of the third year of my abode here; for, it is to be 35
observed that in the intervals of these things I had my new

«harvest and husbandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in

its season, and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it
up in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it
out, for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash 40
it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really



26 whelming -covering. | 87 husbandry—farming,.
142 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

wanted to build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it
up in, for the increase of the corn now yielded me so much,
that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of the
rice as much, or more; insomuch that now I resolved to begin
to use it freely ; for my bread had been quite gone a great
while; also I resolved to see what quaatity would be sutlicient
for me a whole year, and to sow but once a_year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley
and rice were much more than I could consume in a year; so
I resolved to sow just the same quantity every year that I
sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully
provide me with bread, &e.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
« thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which I

had seen from the other side of the island; and I was not
without secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying
that, seeing the main-land, and an inhabited country, I might
find some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps
at last find some means of escape.

But all this while 1 made no allowance for the dangers of
such an undertaking, and how I might fall into the hands of
savages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to think far
worse than the lions and tigers of Africa: that if I once came
in their power, I should run a hazard of more than a thousand
to one of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten; for I had

* heard that the people of the Caribbean coast were cannibals,
or man-eaters, and I knew by the latitude that I could not be
far from that shore. Then, supposing they were not canni-
bals, yet they might kill me, as many Europeans who had
fallen into their hands had been served, even when they had
been ten or twenty together—much more I, that was but one,
and could make little or no defence ; all these things, I say,
which I ought to have considered well, and did come into
my thoughts afterwards, yet gave me no apprehensions at
first, and my head ran mightily upon the thought of getting
over to the shore.

Now 1 wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand
miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain: then I
thought I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I
have said, was blown up upon the shore a great way, in the
storm, when we were first cast away. She lay almost where

Â¥.

3



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15

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25

30

35

40

13 doing — being done (active used for 26 Caribbean coast—All the islands now
: known as the Windward Islands and

passive). the Lesser Antilles, off the N. Coast of

S. America, weuld be included in the

14 prospect—hope, distant view. Caribbean coast,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 143

she did at first, but not quite ; and was turned, by the force ot
the waves and the winds, almost bottom upward, against a high
ridge of beachy, rough sand, but no water about her. If I
had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched
her into the water, the boat would have done well enough,
and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily
enough; but I might have foreseen that I could no more
turn her and set her upright upon her bottom, than I could
remove the island; however, I went to the woods, and cut
levers and rollers, and brought them to the boat, resolving 10
to try what [ could do; suggesting to myself, that if I could
but turn her down, I might repair the damage she had re-
ceived, and she would be a very good boat, and I might go to
sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and 15
spent, I think, three or four weeks about it; at last, finding
it impossible to heave it up with my little strength, I feli to
digging away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it
fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right
in the fall. 20

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again,
or to get under it, much less to move it forward towards the
water ; so I was forced to give it over; aud yet, though I
gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over for
the main increased, rather than decreased, as the means for it 25
seemed impossible.

This at length put me upon thinking whether it was not

x possible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the
natives of those climates make, even without tools, or, as I
might say, without hands, of the trunk of a great tree. 30
This I not only thought possible, but easy, and pleased my-
self extremely with the thoughts of making it, and with my
having much more convenience for it than any of the Negroes
or Indians; but not at all considering the particular incon
veniences which I lay under more than the Indians did, viz 35
want of hands to move it, when it was made, into the water—
a difficulty much harder for me to surmount than all the con-
sequences of want of tools could be to them ; for what was it
to me, if when I had chosen a vast tree in the woods, and
with much trouble cut it down, if I had been able with my 40
* tools to hew and dub the outside into the proper shape of a

boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it hollow,. so

cr





28 periagua—a Spanish word for a double 41 dub—knock (a word formed from the
cance. | sound of rub, dab, etc.).
I
144 LIFE AND ADVEN'TURES

as to make a boat of it—if, after all this, I must leave it
just there where I found it, and not be able to launch it into
she water 4

One would have thought I could not have had the least
reflection upon my mind of my circumstances while I was
making this boat, but I should have immediately thought how
T should get it into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent
upon my voyage over the sea in it, that I never once con-
sidered how I should get it off the land: and it was really, in
its own nature, more easy for me to guide it over forty-five

« miles in sea, than about forty-five fathoms of land, where it

lay, to set it afloat in the water.

-I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever
man did who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myselt
with the design, without determining whether I was ever able
to undertake it; not but that the difficulty of launching my
boat came often into my head; but I put a stop to my in-
quiries into it, by this foolish answer, which I gave myself:
“Let me first make it; I warrant I will find some way or
other to get it along when it is done.”

This was a most preposterous method ; but the eagerness of
my fancy prevailed, and to work. I went. I felled a cedar-
tree, and I question much whether Solomon ever had such a
one for the building of the Temple of Jerusalem ; it was five
feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next the stump, and
four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two
feet ; after which it lessened for a while, and then parted into
branches. It was not without infinite labour that I felled
this tree ; I was twenty days hacking and hewing at it at the
bottom ; I was fourteen more getting the branches and limbs
and the vast spreading head cut off, which I hacked and
hewed through with axe and hatchet, and inexpressible
labour: after this, it cost me a month to shape it and dub it
to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat,
that it might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near
three months more to clear the inside, and work it out so as
to make an exact boat of it; this I did, indeed, without fire,
by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till
I had brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big
enough to have carried six-and-twenty men, and consequently
big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

‘When I had gone through this work, I was extremely

i)

10

20

25

30

40

11 fathoms—a fathom is six feet. | 21 preposterous—absurd(Lit. hind-foremost).
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 145

delighted with it. The boat was really much bigger than
ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that was made of one tree,

in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be
sure; and had I gotten it into the water, [ make no ques-
tion but I should have begun the maddest voyage, and the 6
roost unlikely to be performed, that ever was undertaken,

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me,
though they cost me infinite labour too, It lay about one
hundred yards from the water, and not more; but the first
inconvenience was, it was up hill towards the creek. Well, to 10
take away this discouragement, I resolved to dig into the



CRUSOE IS UNABLE TO MOVE HIS BOAT,

« surface of the earth, and so make a declivity : this I began.
and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but who grudge
pains who have their deliverance in view?) ; but when this
was worked through, and this ditliculty managed, it was still 15
much the same, for I could no more stir the canoe than 1
could the other boat. Then J measured the distance of
ground, and resolved to cut a dock or canal, to bring the
water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe
down to the water. Well, I began this work; and when I 20
began to enter upon it, and calculate how deep it was to be



12 declivity—slant, sloping place.
*

6 reluctancy—unwillingness (reluctance is

8

146 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Jug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found
that, by the number of hands I had, being none but my own,

it must have been ten or twelve years before I could have
gone through with it; for the shore lay so high, that at the
upper end it must have been at least twenty feet deep; so at 5
length, though with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt
over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too
fate, the folly of beginning a work before we count the cost,
and before we judge rightly of our own strength to go through 10
with it.

In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in
this place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion,
and with as much comfort as ever before; for, by a constant
study and serious application to the Word of God, and by the 15
assistance of His grace, I gained a different knowledge from
what I had before. I entertained different notions of things.

I looked now upon the world as a thing remote, which I had
nothing to do with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no
desires about: in a word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, 20
nor was ever likely to have; so I thought it looked, as we
may perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz. as a place I had lived
in, but was come out of it; and well might I say, as Father
Abraham to Dives, ‘‘ Between me and thee is a great gulf
fixed.” 25

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness
of the world here; I had neither the lusts of the flesh, the
lusts of the eye, nor the pride of life. I had nothing to covet,
for I had all that I was now capable of enjoying ; I was lord
of the whole manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself 30
king or emperor over the whole country which I had possession
of : there were no rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute
sovereignty or command with me: I might have raised ship-
loadings of corn, but I had no use for it; so I let as little
grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoise or 35
turtle enough, but now and then one was as much as I could
put to any use: I had timber enough to have built a fleet of
ships; and I had grapes enough to have made wine, or to
have cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when it had
been built. 40

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I
had enough to eat and supply my wants, and what was all
23 as Father, etc.—the allusion is to the
the form now used). perele of aesens and Dives, related
heartily—sorely, greatly (to the heart). 27 lusts of the flesh, etc.—see John ii. 16,
*

12

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 147

the rest to me? If I killed more flesh than I could eat,
the dog must eat it, or vermin; if I sowed’ more corn than
I could eat, it must be spoiled; the trees that I cut down
were lying to rot on the ground; I could make no more use
of them but for fuel, and that I had no occasion for but to
dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to
me, upon just reflection, that all the good things of this world
are no farther good to us than they are for our use; and that,
whatever we may heap up to give others, we enjoy just. as
much as we can use, and no more. The most covetous,
sriping miser in the world would have been cured of the
vice of covetousness, if he had been in my case; for I
possessed infinitely more than I knew what to do with. I
had no room for desire, except it was of things which I had
not, and they were but trifles, though, indeed, of great use
to me. I had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as
well gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas!

: there the sorry, useless stuff lay; I had no manner of business

for it; and often thought with myself, that I would have
given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes ; or for a
hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have given it all
for a sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England,
or for a handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As
it was, I had not the least advantage by it or benefit from it ;
but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp
of the cave in the wet seasons; and if 1 had had the drawer
full of diamonds, it had been the same case, they had been
of no manner of value to me, because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in
itself than it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as
well as to my body. 1 frequently sat down to meat with
thankfulness, and admired the hand of God’s providence,
which had thus spread my table in the wilderness. I learned
to look more upon the bright side of my condition, and less
upon the dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed rather
than what I wanted ; and this gave me sometimes such secret
comforts, that I cannot express them; and which I take
notice of here, to put those discontented people in mind of
it, who cannot enjoy comfortably what God has given them,
because they see and covet something that he has not given
them. All our discontents about what we want appeared to



griping—grasping, greedy (Cf. to grip), [| 19 sorry—poor, miserable.

10

15

20

25

30

35

40
*

148 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

me to spring from the want of thankfulness for what we
have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless
would be so to any one that should fall into such distress as
mine was; and this was, to compare my present condition
with what I at first expected it would be; nay, with what it
would certainly have been, if the good providence of God had
not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up nearer to the
shore, where I not only could come at her, but could bring
what I got out of her to the shore, for my relief and comfort ;
without which, I had wanted for tools to work, weapons for
defence, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing
to myself, in the most lively colours, how I must have acted
if I had got nothing out of the ship. How I could not have
so much as got any food, except fish and turtles; and that,
as it was long before I found any of them, I must have
perished first ; that I should have lived, if I had not perished,
like a mere savage ; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by
any contrivance, I had no way to flay or open it, or part the
flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to cut it up; but must
gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a
beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of
Providence to me, and very thankful for my present condition,
with all its hardships and misfortunes: and this part also I
cannot but recommend to the reflection of those who are apt,
in their misery, to say, “Is any affliction like mine?’ Let
them consider how much worse the cases of some people
are, and their case might have been, if Providence had
thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort
my mind with hopes; and this was comparing my present
situation with what I had deserved, and had therefore reason
to expect from the hand of Providence. I had lived a dread-

* ful life, perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God.

I had been well instructed by father and mother ; neither had

« they been wanting to me in their early endeavours to infuse

a religious awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty,
and what the nature and end of my being required of me.
But, alas! falling early into the seafaring life which, of all
lives, is the most destitute of the fear of God. though His

20 flay—to skin.
36 destitute of—wanting in, lacking.
88 infuse—pour in, instil.

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35

40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 149

terrors are always before them; 1 say, falling early into the
seafaring life, and into seafaring company, all that little sense

of religion which I had entertained was laughed out of me
by my messmates; by a hardened despising of dangers, and
the views of death, which grew habitual to me by my long 5
absence from all manner of opportunities to converse with
anything but what was like myself, or to hear anything that
was good or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or the least
sense of what-I was, or was to be, that, in the greatest 10
deliverances I enjoyed—such as my escape from Sallee ; my
being taken up by the Portuguese master of the ship; my
being planted so well in the Brazils; my receiving the cargo
from England, and the like—I never had once the words,
«Thank God,” so much as on my mind, or in my mouth ; nor 15
in the greatest distress had I so much as a thought to pray to
him, or so much as to say, “ Lord, have mercy upon me!”
no, nor to mention the name of God, unless it was to swear
by, and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, 20
as I have already observed, on account of my wicked and
hardened life past ; and when I looked about me, and con-
sidered what particular providences had attended me since my
coming into this place, and how God had dealt bountifully
with me—had not only punished me less than my iniquity 25
had deserved, but had so plentifully provided for me—this
gave me great hopes that my repentance was accepted, and
that God had yet mercy in store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind np, not only to
a resignation to the will of God in the present disposition of 30
my circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my
condition ; and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not
to complain, seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins;
that I enjoyed so many mercies which I had no reason to
have expected in that place; that I ought never more tc 35
* repine at my condition, but to rejoice, and to give daily

thanks for that daily bread, which nothing but a crowd of

wonders could have brought; that I ought to consider I had
* been fed even by a miracle, even as great as that of feeding

Klijah by ravens ; nay, by a long series of miracles : and that .40
* [ could hardly have named a place in the uninhabitable part

of the world where I could have been cast more to my



9 void—empty. 41 uninhabitable — literally would mean
86 repine—mourn over, grieve. 2 . !
39 feeding Elijah, etc.—the allusion is to “that cannot be inhabited.” He pro-

1 Kings xvii. 6, seq. bably means uninhabited.
150 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

advantage ; a place where, as I had no society, which was
my affliction on one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no
furious wolves or tigers, to threaten my life; no venomous
creatures, or poisons, which I might feed on to my hurt; no

’ savages to murder and devour me. In a word, as my life was

3

a life of sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy another ;
and I wanted nothing to make it a life of comfort, but to be
able to make my sense of God’s goodness to me, and care
over me in this condition, be my daily consolation ; and after
T did make a just improvement on these things, I went away,
and was no more sad. JI had now been here so long, that
many things which I had brought on shore for my help
were either quite gone, or very much wasted and near
spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a

« very little, which I eked out with water, a little and a little,

till it was so pale, it scarce left any appearance of black upon

‘the paper. As long as it lasted I made use of it to minute

* down the days of the month on which any remarkable thing

*

happened to me ; and first, by casting up times past, I remem-
bered that there was a strange concurrence of days in the
various providences which befell me, and which, if I had been
superstitiously inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate,
I might have had reason to have looked upon with a great
deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away
from my father and friends, and ran away to Hull, in order
to go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee
man-of-war, and made a slave; the same day of the year that
I escaped out of the wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads,
that same day year afterwards I made my escape from Sallee
in a boat ; the same day of the year I was born on, viz. the
30th of September, that same day I had my life so mira-
culously saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore
in this island; so that my wicked life and my solitary life
began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my
bread, 1 mean the biscuit which I brought out of the ship;

*« this I had husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but

one cake of bread a day for above a year; and yet I was
quite without bread for near a year before I got any corn of
my own; and great reason I had to be thankful that I had

1b €K31 Out—inade last longer. f .
18 minute dow.—jot down (Cf. the ‘‘ minutes"’ of a meeting).
3J i3).n13d—treasured, used sparingly.

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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 151

any at all, the getting it being, as has been already observed,
next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay; as to linen, I had had
none a good while, except some chequered shirts which I
found in the chests of the other seamen, and which I care-
fully preserved ; because many times I could bear no other
clothes on but a shirt; and it was a very great kelp te me
that I had, among all the men’s clothes of the ship, almost
three dozen of shirts, There were also, indeed, several thick

: watch-coats of the seamen’s which were left, but they ware toa
hot to wear; and though it is true that the weather was so
violently hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I could
not go quite naked—ne, though I had been inclined to it,
which I was not ;—nor could I abide the thought of it,
though I was alone. The reason why I could not go naked
was, I could not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite
naked as with some clothes on ; nay, the very heat frequently
blistered my skin; whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself
made some motion, and whistling under the shirt, was twofold
cooler than without it. No more could I ever bring myself te
go out in the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat
of the sun, beating with such violence as it does in that place,
would give me the head-ache presently, by darting so directly
on my head, without a cap or hat on, so that I could not bear
it ; whereas, if I put on my hat, it would presently go away.
Upon these views I began to consider about putting the few
rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order; I had
worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my business was now
to try if I could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats
which I had by me, and with such other materials as I had ;
so I set to work, tailoring, or rather, indeed, botching, for T
made most piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make
two or three new waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me
x a great while; as for breeches or drawers, I made but a very
sorry shift indeed till afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures
that I killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung
up, stretched out with sticks in the sun, by which means some
of them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but
others were very useful. The first thing I made of these was
a great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot
in the rain; and this I performed so well, that after. IT made

os

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10 watch-coats—great-coats used by the sailors when on watch.
3L botching—unskilfully patching. :
34 made but a very sorry shift —made only a poor job,
152 LifFE AND ADVENTURES

me a suit of clothes wholly of these skins—that is to say, a
waistcoat, and breeches open at the knees, and both loose, for
they were rather wanting to keep me cool than to keep me
warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were
wretchedly made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a
worse tailor. However, they were such as I made very good
shift with, and when I was out, if it happened to rain, the
hair of my waistcoat and cap being outermost, I was kept
very dry.

After this, ] spent a great deal of time and pains to make 10
an umbrella; 1 was indeed in great want of one, and had a
great mind to make one: I had seen them made in the
Brazils, where they are very useful in the great heats there,

« and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and greater too,

* Deing nearer the equinox ; besides, as I was obliged to be 15
much abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the
rains as the heats. I took a world of pains with it, and was
a great while before I could make anything likely to hold:
nay, after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three
before I made one to my mind: but at last I made one that 20

« answered indifferently well; the main difficulty I found was
to make it let down. I could make it spread, but if it did
not let down too, and draw in, it was not portable for me any
way but just over my head, which would not do. However,
at last, as I said, I made one to answer, and covered it with 25

« Skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-

house, and kept off the sun so effectually, that I could walk

out in the hottest of the weather with greater advantage than

I could before in the coolest, and when I had no need of it,

could close it, and carry it under my arm. 30
Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely

composed by resigning myself to the will of God, and throwing

myself wholly upon the disposal of His providence, This made
my life better than sociable, for when I began to regret the

want of conversation, I would ask myself, whether thus 35

conversing mutually with my own thoughts, and (as I hope I

may say) with even God Himself, by ejaculations, was not

better than the utmost enjoyment of human society in the
world ?

I cannot say that, after this, for five years, any extraor- 40
dinary thing happened to me, but I lived on in the same
course, in the same posture and place, as before; the chief

cn

3



la jot—a jot is the yod, the smallest letter in 26 penthouse—a building with a slanting
the Hebrew alphabet; used for any- roof, such that the rain may run- ott
thing very small. from it

15 equinox—i.e. the equator.
2l inditerently—fairly, moderately. 37 ejaculations—sudden cries.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 153

things I was employed in, besides my yearly labour of planting
my barley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both which I
always kept up just enough to have sufficient stock of one
year’s provision beforehand ; I say, besides this yearly labour,
and my daily pursuit of going out with my gun, I had one
labour, to make a canoe, which at last I finished: so that, by
digging a canal to it of six feet wide and four feet deep, I
brought it into the creek, almost half a mile. As for the first,
which was so vastly big, for I made it without considering
.eforehand, as 1 ought to have done, how J should be able to
launch it, so, never being able to bring it into the water, or
bring the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was
*as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next time:
indzed, the next time, though I could not get a tree proper for
it, and was in a place where I could not get the water to it at
any less distance than, as I have said, near half a mile, yet, as
L saw it was practicable at last, I never gave 1t over; and
though I was near two years about it, yet I never grudged my
labour, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the

«size of it was not at all answerable to the design which I had
in view when I made the first; I mean of venturing over to

x the terra firma, where it was above forty miles broad ; accord-
ingly, the smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that
design, and now I thought no more of it. As I had a boat,
my next design was to make a cruise round the island; for as
I had been on the other side in one place, crossing, as I have
already described it, over the land, so the discoveries I made
in that little journey made me very eager to see other parts of
the coast; and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but
sailing round the island.

For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion
and consideration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and
made a sail too out of some of the pieces of the ship’s sails
which lay in store, and of which I had a great stock by me.
Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found
she woulc sail very well: then I made little lockers, or
boxes, at each end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries,
ammunition, &c. into, to be kept dry, either from rain or the
spray of the sea; and a little, long, hollow place I cut in the
inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap
to hang down over it, to keep it dry.

18 memorandum—reminder.

21 answerable to—fitted for. :
23 terra firma—dry land; the mainland.

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154 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast,
to stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off me,
like an awning ; and thus I every now and then took a little
voyage upon the sea: but never went far out, nor far from the
little creek. At last, being eager to view the circumference of
my little kingdom, I resolved upon my cruise ; and accordingly
I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of
loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an
earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I ate a great deal of),
a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder and shot for
killing more, and two large watch-coats, of those which, as I
mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen’s chests;
these I took, one to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the
night, :

‘it was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign—
or my captivity, which you please—that J set out on this
voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected; for
though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came
to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out
about two leagues into the sea, some above water, some under
it; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league
more, so that I was obliged to go a great way out to sea tc
double the point.

When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my
enterprise, and come back again, not knowing how far it might
oblige me to go out to sea: and, above all, doubting how I
should get back-again : so I came to an anchor; for I had

made a kind of an anchor with a piece of a broken grappling

which I got out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore,
climbing up a hill, which seemed to overlook that point where
T saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I per-
ceived a strong and, indeed, a most furious current, which ran
to the east, and even came close to the point; and I took the
more notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger
that when I came into it, I might be carried out to sea by the
strength of it, and not be able to make the island again: and
indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I believe it would
have been so; for there was the same current on the other
side the island, only that it set off at a farther distance, and
T saw there was astrong eddy under the shore; so I had



3 awning—-a covering to keep off the sun.

9 parched—dried.

28 grappling, or grappling iron~an iron hook used on ships.
42 eddy—a whirling current.

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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 155

nothing to do but to get out of the first current, and I should
presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the*wind blowing
pretty fresh at E.S. E.,and that being justcontrary to the current,
made a great breach of the sea upon the point ; so that it was
not safe for me to keep too close to the shore for the breach,
nor to go too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated
overnight, the sea was calm, and I ventured: but I am a
warning to all rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I
come to the point, when I was not even my boat’s length from
the shore, but I found myself in a great depth of water, and
a current like the sluice of a mill: it carried my boat along
with it with such violence that all I could do could not keep
her so much as on the edge of it; but I found it hurried me
farther and farther out from the eddy, which was on my
left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all I
could do with my paddles signified nothing : and now I began
to give myself over for lost ; for as the current was on both
sides of the island, I knew in a few leagues’ distance they
must join again, and then I was irrecoverably gone; nor did
I see any possibility of avoiding it ; so that I had no prospect
before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for that was calm
enough, but of starving from hunger. JI had, indeed, found a
tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had
tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh water,
that is to say, one of my earthen pots ; but what was all this
to being driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure, there
was no shore, no main land or island, for a thousand
leagues at least ?

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God
to make even the most miserable condition of mankind worse.
Now I looked back upon my desolate, solitary island, as the
most pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness my
heart could wish for was to be but there again. I stretched
out my hands to it, with eager wishes: ‘O happy desert!”
said I, “I shall never see thee more. O miserable creature!
whither am I going?’’? Then I reproached myself with my

* unthankful temper, and that I had repined at my solitary

condition ; and now what would I give to be on shore there
again! Thus, we never see the true state of our condition till
it is illustrated to us by its contraries, nor know how to value



18 sluice—the rushing stream that turns the mill-wheel.
89 repined at—grumbled at, complained at.

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156 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSUE.

what we enjoy, but by the want of it. It is sear cely possible

* to imagine the consternation I was now in, being driven from my

beloved island (for so it appeared to me now to be) into the
wide ocez.n, almosi two leagues, and in the utmost despair of
ever recovering it again. However, I worked hard till indeed
my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much
to the northward, that is, towards the side of the current
which the eddy lay on, as possibly I could; when about noon,

« as the sun passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze

of wind in my face, springing up from §8.8.E. This cheered
my heart a little, and especially when, in about half an hour
more, it blew a pretty gentle gale. By this time, I had got at
a frightful distance from the island, and had the least cloudy

« or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone another way,

too; for I had no compass on board, and should never have
known how to have steered towards the island, if I had but
once lost sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I
applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my sail,
standing away to the north as much as possible, to get out of
the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to
stretch away, I saw even by the clearness of the water some
alteration of the current was near; for where the current was
so strong the water was foul; but perceiving the water clear,
I found the current abate ; and presently I found to the east,
at about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks :
these rocks I found caused the current to part again, and as
the main stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the

« rocks to the north east, so the other returned by the repulse

of the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran baek again
to the north-west, with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to
them upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going
to murder them, or who have been in such extremities, may
guess what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly 1
put my boat into the stream of this eddy ; and the wind also
freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheer-
fully before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under
foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again,
directly towards the island, but about two leagues more to the
northward than the current which carried me away at first ;

2 consternation—terror, anxiety. 14 undone—ruined, lost.

9 meridian—an imaginary circle passing

through the poles of the heavens enn sis
which the sun crosses at midday. , 29 repulse—set-back, driving back.

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NY)

N a. SL igy. ~

XY



Vy

LIVERANCE

4

X HIS DE

FOL

Ss

CRUSOE RETURNS THANK
yee







eee OT














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 159

so that when I came near the island, I found myself open to
the northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the
island, opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by
the help of this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and
served mo no farther. However, I found that being between
two great currents, viz. that on the south side, which had
hurried me away, and that on the north, which lay about a

« league on the other side; I say, between these two, in the
wake of the island, I found the water at least still, and run-
ning no way; and having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I
kept on steering directly for the island, though not making

* such fresh way as I did before.

About four o'clock in the evening, being then within a
league of the island, I found the point of the rocks which
occasioned this disaster, stretching out, as is described before,
to the southward, and casting off the current more southerly,
had, of course, made another eddy to the north; and this I
found very strong, but not directly setting the way my course
lay, which was due west, but almost full north. However,
having a fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting
north-west ; and in about an hour came within abouta mile of
the shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God
thanks for my deliverance, vesolving to lay aside all thoughts
of my deliverance by my boat; and refreshing myself with
such things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a
little cove that Thad spied under some trees, and laid me down
to sleep, being quite spent with the labour and fatigue of the
voyage,

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my
boat! I had run so much hazard, and knew too much of the
case, to think of attempting it by the way I went out; ana
what might be at the other sido (I mean the west side) I
knew not, nor had I any mind to run any more ventures: so
I resolved on the next morning to make my way westward
along the shore, and to see if there was no creek where I

* might lay up my frigate in safety, so as to have her again, if
Iwanted her. In about three miles, or thereabouts, coasting
the shore, I came to a very good inlet or bay, wbout a mile
over, which narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet or
brook, where I faund a very convenient harbour for my boat,

%

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9 in the wake of—immediately behind. 13 fresh wWay—good progress.
(Lit. the streak of calm water left by 88 frigate—a quick-sailing ship of
the trail of a vessel.] (strictly).
K

war
160 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

and where she lay as if she had been in a little dock made on
purpose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed my boat
very safe, I went on shore to look about me, and see where I
was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I
had been before, when I travelled on foot to that shore ; so
taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and umbrella, for
it was exceedingly hot, | began my march. The way was com-
fortable enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and
T reached my old bower in the evening, where I found every
thing standing as I left it ; for I always kept it in good order,
being, as I said before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest
my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep; but judge
you, if you can, that read my story, what a surprise I must be
in when I was awaked out of my sleep by a voice, calling
me by my name several times, “‘ Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe :
poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where
are you? Where have you been?”

i was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or
paddling as it is called, the first part of the day, and with
walking the latter part, that I did not wake thoroughly ; but
dozing between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that
somebody spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat,
“Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe,’’ at last I began to wake more
perfectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started

< up in the utmost consternation ; but no sooner were my eyes
open, but I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge; and
immediately knew that it was he that spoke to me; for just in

» such bemoaning language I had used to talk to him, and teach
him ; and he had learned it so perfectly that he would sit
upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and cry,
“ Poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you
been? How came you here?” and such things as I had
taught him.

However, even though 1 knew it was the parrot, and that
indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I
could compose myself. First, I was amazed how the creature
got thither; and then, how he should just keep about the place,
and nowhere else; but as I was well satisfied it could be
nobody but honest Poll, I got over it; and holding out my
hand, and calling him by his name, “Poll,” the sociable creature



27 consternation—terror, anxiety (as on p. 156).
30 bemoaning—sorrowful, wailing.

or

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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 161

vame to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he used to do, and
continued talking to me, “ Poor Robin Crusoe! and how did 1
come here? and where had I been?” just as if he had been
overjoyed to see me again; and so I carried. him home along
with me.

T had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and
had enough to do for many days, to sit still, and reflect upon
the danger I had been in. I would have been very glad to
nave had my boat again on my side of the island; but I knew
not how it was practicable to get it about. As to the east side
of the island, which I had gone round, I- knew well enough
there was no venturing that way; my very heart would
shrink, and my very blood run chill, but to think of it; and
as to the other side of the island, I did not know how it might
be there ; but supposing the current ran with the same force
against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I
might run the same risk of being driven down the stream, and
carried by the island, as I had been before of being carried away
from it: so with these thoughts, I contented myself to be without
any boat, though it had been the product of so many months’
labour to make it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained near a year;
and lived a very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose ;
and my thoughts being very much composed, as to my condi-
tion, and fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions
of Providence, I thought I lived really very happily in all
things, except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises
which my necessities put me upon applying myself to; and I
believe I should, upon occasion, have made a very good car-
penter, especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my
earthenware, and contrived well enough to make them with a
Vheel, which I found infinitely easier and better ; because I
made things round and shaped, which before were filthy things
indeed tolook on. But I think I was never more vain of my own
performance, or more joyful for anything I found out, than for
my being able to make a tobacco-pipe; and though it was a
very ugly, clumsy thing when it was done, and only burned
red, like other earthenware, yet as it was hard and firm, and
would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it,
for I had been always used to smoke; and there were pipes in

23 sedate--quiet.

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162 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

the ship, but I forgot them at first, not thinking there was
tobacco in the island; and afterwards, when I searched the
ship again, I could not come at any pipes.

In my wickerware, also, I improved much, and made abund-
ance of necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed
me; though not very handsome, yet they were such as were
very handy and convenient for laying things up in, or fetching
things home. For example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could
hang it up in a tree, flay it, dress it, and cut it in pieces, and
bring is home in a basket; and the like by a turtie: I could
cut it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the fiesh,
which was enough for me, and bring them home in a basket,
and leave the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets were
the receivers of my corn, which I always rubbed out as
soon as it was dry, and cured, and kept it in great baskets.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably ;
this was a want which it was impossible for me to supply, and
{ began seriously to consider what I must do when I should
have no more powder ; that is to say, how I should kill any
goats. I had, as is observed, in the third year of my being
here, kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and I was in
hopes of getting a he-goat: but I could not by any means
bring it to pass, till my kid grew an old goat; and as I could
never find in my heart to kili her, she died at last of mere
age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and,
as I have said, my ammunition growing low, I set myself to
study some art to trap and snare the goats, to see whether |
could not catch some of them alive ; and particularly, I wanted
a she-goat great with young. For this purpose I made snares
to hamper them ; and I do believe they were more than once
taken in them ; but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire,
and I always found them broken, and my bait devoured. At
length, I resolved to try a pitfall: so I dug several large pits
in the earth, in places where I had observed the goats used to
feed, and ovex those pits I placed hurdles, of my own making
too, with a great weight upon them ; and several times I put
ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the trap; and I could
easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the
corn, for I could see the marks of their feet. At length, I set
three traps in one night, and going the next morning I found
them all standing, and vet the bait eaten and gone: this was

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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 163

very discouraging. However, I altered my traps ; and, not to
trouble you with particulars, going one morning to see my
traps, I found in one of them a large old he-goat ; and in one
of the others, three kids, a male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was
so fierce, I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to
bring him away alive, which was what I wanted. I could have
killed him, but that was not my business, nor would it answer
my end; so I even let him out, and he ran away as if he had
been frightened out of his wits. But I did not then know
what I afterwards learned, that hunger will tame a lion. If
1 had let him stay there three or four days without tood, and
then have carried him some water to drink, and then a little
corn, he would have been as tame as one of the kids; for they

* are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures, where they are well

used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better
at that time: then I went to the three kids, and, taking them
one by one, I tied them with strings together, and with some
difficulty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing
them some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be
tame. And now I found that if I expected to supply myself
with goats’ flesh, when I had no powder or shot left, breeding
some up tame was my only way, when, perhaps, I might have
them about my house like a flock of sheep. But, then, it
occurred to me that I must keep the tame from the wild, or
else they would always run wild when they grew up; and the
only way for this was to have some inclosed piece of ground,
well fenced either with hedge or pale, to keep them in so
effectually, that those within might not break out, or those
without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands ; yet, as
I saw there was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first
work was to find out a proper piece of ground, where there
was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for them to
drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such inclosures will think I had very
little contrivance, when I pitched upon a place very proper for
all these ‘being a plain open piece of meadow land, or
savannah, as our people call it in the western colonies), which

* had two or three little drills of fresh water in it, and at one

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15 mighty sagacious, tractable creatures— 31 effectually—effectively.

very clever and teachable creatures, 42 drills—rills, streamlets,
164 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

x end was very woody,—lI say, they will smile at my forecast,
when I shall tell them I began by inclosing this piece of ground
in such a manner, that my hedge or pale must have been at least
two miles about. Nor was the madness of it so great as to

* the compass, for if it was ten miles about, I was like to have
time enough to do it in; but I did not consider that my goats
would be as wild in so much compass as if they had had the
whole island, and I should have so much room to chase them
in that I should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, abvut fifty
yards when this thought occurred to me; so I presently
stopped short, and, for ‘the beginning, I resolved to inclose a
piece of about one hundred and fifty yards in length, and one
hundred -yards in breadth, which, as it would maintain as
many as I should have in any reasonable time, so as my stock
increased, I could add more ground to my inclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work
with courage. I was about three months hedging in the first

«piece ; and, till I had done it, I tethered the three kids in the
best part of it, and used them to feed as near me as possible,
to make them familiar ; and very often I would go and carry
them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them
out of my hand; so that, after my inclosure was finished, and
I let them loose, they would follow me up and down, bleating
after me for a handful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had
a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years
more I had three-and-forty, besides several that I took and killed
for my food. After that, I inclosed five several pieces of
ground to feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to
take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground
into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had goats’ flesh to
feed on when I pleased, but milk too,—a thing which, indeed,
in the beginning, I did not so much as think of, and which,
when it came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable
surprise, for now I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a
gallon or two of milk ina day. And as Nature, who gives
supplies of food to every creature, dictates even naturally how
to make use of it, so I, that had never milked a cow, much
less « goat, or seen butter or cheese made only when I was a
«boy, after a great many essays and miscarriages, made both



2 forecast—foresight (the we urd would now 19 tethered—tied up, fastened.
mean ‘an anticipation, a shrewd aiieed
guess ") : 42 essays—attempts,

§ compass—circuit, enclosure. 42 miscarriages—failures.

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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 165

butter and cheese at last, also salt (though I found it partly
made to my hand by the heat of the sun upon some of the
rocks of the sea), and never wanted it afterwards. How
mercifully can our Creator treat His creatures, even in those
conditions in which they seemed to be overwhelmed in 56
destruction! How can He sweeten the bitterest providences,

and give us cause to piaise Him for dungeons and prisons !







CRUSOL£ DINES WITH HIS FAMILY,

What a table was here spread for me in the wilderness, where
I saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger !

It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my 10
little family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the
prince and lord of the whole island; I had the lives of all

my subjects at my absolute command; I could hang, draw,
give liberty, and take it away, and no rebels among all my
subjects. Then, to see how like a king I dined, too, all alone, 15
attended by my servants! Poll, as if he had been my



1U Stoic—The Stoics were a school of philosophers in antiquity, one of whose aims was to
betray no emotion, either of pleasure or pain.
13 hang, draw (and quarter)—the legal penalties for traitors,
166 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

favourite, was the only person permitted to talk to me. My
* dog, who was now grown old and crazy, and had found no
species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at my right
hand ; and two cats, one on one side of the table, and one on
the other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a 5
mark of especial favour.
But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore
*« at first, for they were both of them dead, and had been in-
terred near my habitation by my own hand; but one of them
having multiplied by I know not what kind of creature, these 10
were two which I had preserved tame; whereas the rest ran
wild in the woods, and became indeed troublesome to me at
last, for they would often come into my house, and plunder
me too, till at last I was obliged to shoot them, and did kill a
great many ; at length they left me. With this attendance 15
and in this plentiful manner I lived; neither could I be said
to want anything but society; and of that, some time after
this, I was likely to have much.
I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the
x use of my boat, though very loath to run any more hazards ; 20
and therefore sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her about
the island, and at other times I sat myself down contented
enough without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my
mind to go down to the point of the island where, as I have
said in my last ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore 25
lay, and how the current set, that I might see what I had to
do: this inclination increased upon me every day, and at
length I resolved to travel thither by land, following the edge
of thé shore. I did so; but had any one in England met such
a man as I was, it must either have frightened him, or raised 30
a great deal of laughter; and as I frequently stood still to
look at myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my
«travelling through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in
such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure.
as follows :— 35
JI had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat’s skin, with
a flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me
as to shoot the rain off from running into my neck, nothing
being so hurtful in these climates ag the rain upon the flesh
under the clothes. 40
' Thad a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming
down to about the middle of the thighs, and a pair of open







2 crazy—worn out (not, as now, confined to 20 loath—unwilling.
___loss of the mental powers), 33 equipage—retinue, surroundings, furn
8 interred—buried. ture.

LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 169

kneed breeches of the same; the breeches were made of the
skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length
on either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle
of my legs; stockings and shoes I had none, but had made me
a pair of somethings, I scarce know what to call them, like 5
buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace on either side like
spatter dashes, but of a most barbarous shape, as indeed were
all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew
together with two thongs of the same instead of buckles, and 10

‘in a kind of a frog on either side of this, instead of a sword
and dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one on one side,
and one on the other. I had another belt not so broad, and
fastened in the same manner, which hung over my shoulder,
and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, 15
both made of goat’s skin too, in one of which hung my
powder, in the other my shot. At my back I carried my
basket, and on my shoulder, my gun, and over my head a
great clumsy, ugly, goat’s-skin umbrella, but which, after all,
was the most necessary thing I had about me next to my gun. 20

: As for my face, the colour of it was really not so mulatto-like
as one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and
living within nine or ten degrees of the equinox. My beard
I had once suffered to grow till it was about a quarter of a
yard long ; but as I had both scissors and razors sufficient, I 25
had cut it pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip,

‘which I had trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan
whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee,
for the Moors did not wear such, though the Turks did; of
these moustachios, or whiskers, I will not say they were long 30
enough to hang my hat upon them, but they were of a length
and shape monstrous enough, and such as in England would
have passed for frightful.

* But all this is by the bye ; for, as to my figure, I had so few te
observe me, that it was of no manner of consequence, so I say 36
no more of that. In this kind of dress I went my new
journey, and was out five or six days. I travelled first along
the sea-shore, directly to the place where I first brought my
boat to an anchor to get upon the rocks; and having no boat
now to take care of, I went over the land a nearer way to the 40
same height that I was upon before, when, looking forward to
the points of the rocks which lay out, and which I was obliged

3 pantaloons— trousers. 21 mulatto-like—a mulatto is the offspring

6 buskins—high-heeled boots, used in
ancient Greek tragedy.

7 apater dashes—a kind of gaiters (now 27 Mahometan—the Turks, as a rule, are
called ‘‘spats”’). ¥ : - : i

ll frog—a leather sheath, for sword or worshippers of the prophet Matomet
bayonet. 34 by the bye—by the way, a digression.

of black parents and white.
170 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

to double with my boat, as is said above, I was surprised to
see the sea ell smooth and quiet—no rippling , ho motion, no
current, any.more there than in any other places, I was ata
strange loss to understand this, and resolved to spend some
‘ time in the observing it, to see if nothing from the sets of the
tide had ozcasioned it ; but I was presently convinced how it
was, viz, that the tide of ebb setting from the west, and
joining with the current of waters from some great river on
the shore, must be the occasion of this current, and that,
according as the wind blew more forcibly from the west 01
from the north, this current came nearer, or went farther from
the shore ; for, waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to
the rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, 4 plainly
saw the current again as before, only that it ran farther off,
being near half a league from the shore, whereas in my case
it set close upon the shore, and hurried me and my canoe
along with it, which at another time it would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but
to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might
very easily bring my boat about the island again; but when I
began to think of putting it in practice, I had such terror
upon my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been
in, that I could not think of it again with any patience, but,
on the contrary, I took up another resolution, which was more
safe, though more laborious—and this was, that I would build,
or rather make, me another periagua or canoe, and so have one
for one side of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it,
two plantations in the island,—one my little fortification or
tent, with the wall about it, under the rock, with the cave
behind me, which by this time I had enlarged into several
apartments, or caves, one within another. One of these, which
was the driest and largest, and had a door out beyond my wall
or fortification,—that is to say, beyond where my wall joined
to the rock, was all filled up with the large earthen pots, of
which I have given an account, and with fourteen or fifteen
great baskets, which would hold five or six bushels each, where
I laid up my stores of provisions, especially my corn, some in
the ear, cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out
with my hand.

As for mv wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles,
those piles grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so



5 sets - the direction of the ebb and flow.

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*

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 171

big, and spread so very much, that there was not the least
appearance, to any one’s view, of any habitation behind
them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the
land, and ugon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land,
which I kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which duly
yielded me their harvest in its season; and whenever I had
occasion for more corn, I had more land adjoining as fit as
that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a
tolerable plantation there also; for, first, I had my little
bower, as [ called it, which [ kept in repair—that is to say, I
kept the hedge, which encircled it in, constantly fitted up to
its usual height, the ladder standing always in the inside. I
kept the trees, which at first were no more than stakes, but
were now grown very firm and tall, always cut, so that they
might spread and grow thick and wild, and make the more
agreeable shade, which they did effectually tomy mind. In
the middle of this I had my tent always standing, being a
piece of a sail spread over poles, set up for that purpose, and
which never wanted any repair or renewing ; and under this I

‘ had made me a squab or couch, with the skins of the creatures

I had killed, and with other soft things, and a blanket laid on
them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had saved ;
and a great watch-coat to cover me. And here, whenever I
had occasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my
country habitation.

Adjoining to this, I had my inclosures for my cattle, that


pains to fence and inclose this ground. I was so anxious to
see it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that I
never left off till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside
of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one another,
that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce
room to put a hand through between them; which afterwards,
when those stakes grew, as they all did in the next rainy
season, made the inclosure strong like a wall, indeed stronger
than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that 1
spared no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary
for my comfortable support, for I considered the keeping up a

breed of tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living



22, squab— a stuffed cushion, or settee.
29 inconceivable—unthinkable.
39 testify—bear witness,

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172 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

« magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as 1

lived in the place, if it were to be forty years; and that
keeping them in my reach depended entirely upon my per-
fecting my inclosures to such a degree, that I might be sure
of keeping them together; which, by this method, indeed, I
so effectually secured, that when these little stakes began to
grow, I had planted them so very thick, that I was fore ced to
pull some of them up aga‘n.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I princi-
pally depended on for my winter store of raisins, and which I
never failed to preserve very carefully, as the best and most
agreeable dainty of my whole diet ; and indeed they were not
only agreeable, but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing, and
refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habita-
tion and the place where I had laid up my boat, I generally
staid and lay here in my way thither, for I used frequently
to visit my boat ; and I kept all things about, or belonging to
her, in very good order. Sometimes I went out in her to
divert myself, but no more hazardous voyages would I go,
scarcely ever above a stone’s cast or two from the shore, I

; Was so apprehensive of being hurried out of my knowledge

again by the currents or winds, or any other accident. But
now I come toa new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat,
I was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man’s naked
foot on the shore, which was very plain to be seen on the
sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an

« apparition. I listened, I looked round me, but 1 could hear

nothing, nor see anything; I went up to a rising ground, to
look farther ; I went up the shore, and down the shore, but it
was all one: I could see no other impression but that one. I
went to it again to see if there were any more, and to observe
if it might not be my fancy ; but there was no room for that, for
there was exactly the print of a foot—toes, heel, and every
part of a foot. How it came thither I knew not, nor could
I in the least imagine; but after innumerable fluttering
thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out of myself,
I came home to my fortification, not feeling, as we say, the
ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree, looking
behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every bush
and tree, and fancying every stump at a distance to be a man.



1 magazine—store.
22 apprehensive—fearful, frightened.
29 apparition—ghost, vision.

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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 173

Nor is it possible to describe how many various shupes my
affrighted imagination represented things to me in, how many
wild ideas were found every moment in my fancy, and what

* strange, unaccountable whimseys came into my thoughts by
the way. 5
- When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever
nfter this), I fled into it like one pursued. Whether I went
over by the ladder, as first contrived, or went in at the hole in
the rock, which I had called a door, I cannot remember; no,
nor could I remember the next morning, for never frightened 10



CRUSOE FLEES TO HIS FORTIFICATION,

hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind
than I to this retreat.

I slept none that night; the farther I was from the occa-
sion of my fright, the greater my apprehensions were, which
is something contrary to the nature of such things, and espe- 15
cially to the usual practice of all creatures in fear ; but I was
so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas of the thing, that
I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to myself, even
though I was now a great way off. Sometimes I fancied it
must be the devil, and reason joined in with me in this suppo-
sition, for how should any other thing in human shape come

nd
oO

a



4 whimseys—curious fancies.
174 LIFE AND ADVENTURES,

into the place? Where was the vessel that brought them 4
What marks were there of any other footstep 7’: And how was

it possible a man should come there? But then, to think that
Satan should take human shape upon him in such a place,
where there could be no manner of occasion for it, but to 5
leave the print of his foot behind him, and that even for no
purpose too, for he could not be sure I should see it,—this

; Was an amusement the other way. I considered that the
devil might have found out abundance of other ways to have
terrified me than this of the single print of a foot; that as 1 10
lived quite on the other side of the island, he would never
have been so simple as to leave a mark in a place where it
was ten thousand to one whether I should ever see it or not,
and in the sand too, which the first surge of the sea, upon a
high wind, would have defaced entirely. All this seemed 15
inconsistent with the thing itself, and with all the notions we

* usually entertain of the subtilty of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out
of all apprehensions of its being the devil; and I presently
concluded then, that it must be some more dangerous creature, 20
viz. that it must be some of the savages of the main land
opposite, who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and
either driven by the currents or by contrary winds, had
made the island, and had been on shore, but were gone away
again to sea; being as loath, perhaps, to have stayed in this 25
desolate island as I would have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling in my mind, I was very
thankful in my thoughts, that I was so happy as not to be
thereabouts at that time, or that they did not see my boat,
by which they would have concluded that some inhabitants 30
had been in the place, and perhaps have searched farther for

«me. Then terrible thoughts racked my imagination about
their having found out my boat, and that there were people
here ; and that, if so, I should certainly have them come again
in greater numbers, and devour me; that if it should happen 35
that they should not find me, yet they would find my inclo-
sure, destroy all my corn, and carry away all my flock of
tame goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all that former
confidence in God, which was founded upon such wonderful 40
experience as I had had of His goodness; as if He that had
fed me by miracle hitherto could not preserve, by His power,

%

3







8 amusement—thought, consideration. ([Lat. a, from; Muse, the Muses] (the word hig
changed in meaning, and now is only used of diverting, entertaining thought).

17 subtilty—cunning.

82 racked—tortured, kept upon the rack.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 175

the provision which He had made for me by His goodness.
I reproached myself with my laziness, that would not sow any
more corn one year than would just serve me till the next
season, as if no accident could intervene to prevent my en-
joying the crop that was upon the ground ; and this I thought
go just a reproof, that I resolved for the future to have two or
three years’ corn beforehand; so that, whatever might come,
I might not perish for want of bread.

*« How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life of

a

”

2

man! and by what secret different springs are the affections
hurried about, as different circumstances present! To-day
we love what to-morrow we hate; to-day we seek what
to-morrow we shun; to-day we desire what to-morrow we
fear, nay, even tremble at the apprehensions of. This was

« exemplified in me, at this time, in the most lively manner

imaginable, for I, whose only affliction was that I seemed

« banished from human society, that I was alone, circumscribed

by the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and condemned
to what I call silent life; that I was as one whom Heaven
thought not worthy to be numbered among the living, or to
appear among the rest of His creatures; that to have seen

* one of my own species would have seemed to me a raising me

from death to life, and the greatest blessing that Heaven
itself, next to the supreme blessing of salvation, could bestow.
I say, that I should now tremble at the very apprehensions
of seeing a man, and was ready to sink into the ground at
but the shadow or silent appearance of a man having set his
foot in the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded me
a great many curious speculations afterwards, when I had a
little recovered my first surprise. I considered that this was
the station of life the infinitely wise and good providence of
God had determined for me; that as I could not foresee what
the ends of Divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was not
to dispute His sovereignty ; who, as I was His creature, had
an undoubted right, by creation, to govern and dispose of me
absolutely as He thought fit ; and who, as I was a creature
that had offended Him, had likewise a judicial right to con-
demn me to what punishment He thought fit; and that it
was my part to submit to bear His indignation, because I
had sinned against Him. I then reflected, that as God, who
was not onlv righteous, but omnipotent, had thought fit thus

9 chequer-work—i.e. like a chess- or 15 exemplified—illustrated.
chequer-board; made up of white and warrowed!
black squares. 22 species—kind,

qh

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176 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

to punish and affiict me, so He was able to deliver me: that
if He did not think fit to do so, it was my unquestioned duty
to resign myself absolutely and entirely to His will; and, on
the other hand, it was my duty also to hope in Him, pray to
Him, and quietly to attend to the dictates and directions of
His daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may
say weeks.und months: and one particular effect of my

* cogitations on this occasion I cannot omit. One morning

early, lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about my

« danger from the appearances of savages, I found it discomposed

me very much; upon which these words of the Scripture
came into my thoughts: ‘Call upon Me in the day of trouble,
and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” Upon
this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my heart was not only
comforted, but I was guided and encouraged to pray earnestly
to God for deliverance: when I had done praying, I took up
my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words that pre-

« sented to me were, ‘‘ Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer,
« and He shali strengthen thy heart ; wait, I say, on the Lord.”

%

%



It is impossible to express the comfort this gave me. In
answer, I thankfully laid down the book, and was no more
sad, at least on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and
reflections, it came into my thoughts one day, that all this

; might be a mere chimera of my own, and that this foot might

be the print of my own foot, when I came on shore from my
boat: this cheered me up a little, too, and I began to persuade
myself it was all a delusion ; that it was nothing else but my
own foot; and why might I not come that way from the
boat, as well as I was going that way to the boat? Again I
considered also, that I could by no means tell, for certain,
where I had ‘trod, and where I had not; and that if, at last,
this was only the print of my own foot, I had played the part

« of those fools who try to make stories of spectres and appa-
« ritions, and then are frightened at them more than anybody.

Now I begar to take courage, and to peep abroad again,
for I had not stirred out of my castle for three days and
nights, so that I began to starve for provisions; for J had
little or nothing within doors but some barley-cakes and
water ; then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked too,
which usually was my evening diversion; and the poor



9 cogitations—reflections, thoughts.
11 discomposed—upset, disquieted.

19 Wait on the Lord, etc.—see Psalm xxvii. 14.
26 chimera—fancy, imaginary creature.

35 spectres—ghosts; apparitions, visions,

or

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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 177

creatures were in great pain and inconvenience for want of
it; and, indeed, it almost spoiled some of them, and almost
dried up their milk. Encouraging myself, therefore, with
the belief that this was nothing but the print of one of my
own feet, and that I might be truly said to start at my own
shadow, I began to go abroad again, and went to my country
house to milk my flock: but to see with what fear I went
forward, how often I looked behind me, how I was ready,
every now and then, to lay down my basket, and run for

my life, it would have made any one have thought I was

haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately
most terribly frightened ; and so, indeed, I had. However, I
went down thus two or three days, and having seen nothing,
I began to be a little bolder, and to think there was really
nothing in it but my own imagination; but I could not per-
stade myself fully of this till I should go down to the shore
again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my own,
and see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I might be
assured it was my own foot: but when I came to the place—
first, it appeared evidently to me, that when I laid up my
boat, I could not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts :
secondly, when I came to measuro the mark with my own
foot, I found my foot not so large by a great deal. Both
these things filled my head with new imaginations, and gave
me the vapours again to the highest degree, so that I shook
with cold like onc in an ague; and I went home again, filled
with the belief that some man or men had been on shore
there; or, in short, that the island was inhabited, and I
might be surprised before I was aware ; and what course to
take for my security I knew not.

O what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed
with fear! It deprives them of the use of those means which
reason offers for their relief. The first thing I proposed to
myself was, to throw down my inclosures, and turn all my
tame cattle wild into the woods, lest the enemy should find
them, and then frequent the island in prospect of the same
or the like booty: then the simple thing of digging up my
two corn-fields, lest they should find such a grain there, and
still be prompted to frequent the island: then to demolish

«x my bower and tent, that they might not see any vestiges of

habitation, and be prompted to look farther, in order to find
out the persons inhabiting.



a

10

15

20

30

35

40

25 vapours —nervous fits, | 40 vestiges—traces, footsteps.
178 LIFE AND* ADVENTURES

These were the subject of the first night’s cogitations after
I was come home again, while the apprehensions which had
so overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and my head was
full of vapours. ‘Thus, fear of danger is ten thousand times
more terrifying than danger itself, when apparent to the
eyes; and we find the burden of anxiety greater, by much,
than the evil which we are anxious about: and what was
worse than all this, I had not that relief in his trouble that,
from the resignation I used to practise, I hoped to have. I
looked, I thought, like Saul, who complained not only that 10
the Philistines were upon him, but that God had forsaken
him ; for I did not now take due ways to compose my mind,
by crying to God in my distress, and resting upon His provi-
dence, as I had done before, for my defence and deliverance ;
which, if I had done, I had at least been more cheerfully 15
supported under this new surprise, and perhaps carried
through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all night ;

* but in the morning I fell asleep; and having, by the amuse-
ment of my mind, been, as it were, tired, and my spirits 20
exhausted, I slept very soundly, and waked much better
composed than I had ever been before. And now I began to

«think sedately ; and, upon debate with myself, I concluded
that this island (which was so exceedingly pleasant, fruitful,
and no farther from the main land than as I had seen) was 25
not so entirely abandoned as I might imagine; that although

there were no stated inhabitants who lived on the spot, yet
that there might sometimes come boats off from the shore,
who, either with design, or perhaps never but when they were
driven by cross winds, might come to this place; that I had 30
lived here fifteen years now, and had not met with the least
shadow or figure of any people yet; and that, if at any time
they should be driven here, it was probable they went away
again as soon as ever they could, seeing they had never
thought fit to fix here upon any occasion; that the most I 35
could suggest any danger from was, from any casual acci-

* dental landing of straggling people from the main, who, as it
was likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their
wills, so they made no stay here, but went off again with all
possible speed ; seldom staying one night on shore, lest they 40
should not have the help of the tides and daylight back again ;
and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of

or

%

19 amusement—cccupation, distraction (not 23 sedately—quietly.
necessarily pleasant). 37 straggling—stray, wandering.
%

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 179

some safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon
the spot. «

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave sa
large as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said,
came out beyond where my fortification joined to the rock:

* upon maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw

me a second fortification, in the manner of a semicircle, at a
distance from my wall, just where I had planted a double
row of trees about twelve years before, of which I made
mention: these trees having been planted so thick before,
they wanted but few piles to be driven between them, that
they might be thicker and stronger, and my wall would be
soon finished. So that I had now a double wall; and my
outer wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables,
and everything I could think of, to make it strong; having
in it seven little holes, about as big as I might put my arm
out at. In the inside of this, I thickened my wall to about
ten feet thick, with continually bringing earth out of my
cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon
it; and through the seven holes I contrived to plant the

« muskets, of which I took notice that I had got seven on

%

21 muskets—guns. |

shore out of the ship; these I planted like my cannon, and
fitted them into frames, that held them like a carriage, so
that I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’ time;
this wall I was many a weary month in finishing, and yet
never thought myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my
wall, for a great length every way, as full with stakes or

« sticks of the osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as

they could well stand ; insomuch, that [ believe I might set
in near twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space
between them and my wall, that I might have room to see an
enemy, and they might have no shelter from the young trees,
if they attempted to approach my outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove; and in five
or six years’ time I had a wood before my dwelling, growing
so monstrously thick and strong that it was indeed perfectly
impassable: and no men, of what kind soever, could ever
imagine that there was anything beyond it, much less a habi-
tation. As for the way which I proposed to myself to go in
and out (for I left no avenue), it was by setting two ladders,
one to a part of the rock which was low, and then broke in,

6 maturely—carefully, fully.
~ uF % family, used in basket-making.

15

20

25

30

36

40

29 osier-like—osiers are plants of the willow
180 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

and left room to place another ladder upon that; so when the
two ladders were taken down, no man living could come down
to me without doing himself mischief; and if they had come
down, they were still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest 5
for my own preservation; and it will be seen, at length, that
they were not altogether without just reason; though J
foresaw nothing at that time more than my mere fear
suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my 10
other affairs ; for I had a great concern upon me for my little .
herd of goats: they were not only a ready supply to me on
every occasion, and began to be sutticient for me, without the
expense of powder and shot, but also without the fatigue of
hunting after the wild ones ; and I was loath to lose the advan- 15
tage of them, and to have them all to nurse up over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of
but two ways to preserve them : one was, to find another con-
venient place to dig a cave underground, and to drive them
into it every night ; and the other was to inclose two or three 20
little bits of land, remote from one another, and as much
concealed as I could, where I might keep about half a dozen
young goats in each place; so that if any disaster happened
to the flock in general, I might be able to raise them again
with little trouble and time: and this, though it would require 25
a good deal of time and labour, I thought was the most
rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired
parts of the island; and I pitched upon one, which was as
private, indeed, as my heart could wish: it was a little damp 30
piece of ground, in the middle of the hollow and thick woods,
where, as is observed, I almost lost myself once before,
endeavouring to come back that way from the eastern part of
the island. Here I found a clear piece of land, near three
acres, so surrounded with woods, that it was almost an 35
inclosure by nature; at least, it did not want near so much
labour to make it so, as the other piece of ground J had
worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground; and,
in less than a month’s time, I had so fenced it round that my 40
flock, or herd, call it which you please, which were not so wild
now as at first they might be supposed to be, were well enough
st

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE 181

secured in it: so, without any further delay, I removed ten
young she-goats, and two he-goats, to this piece; and, when
they were there, I continued to perfect the fence, till I had
made it as secure as the other ; which, however, I did at more
leisure, and it took me up more time by a great deal. Al!
this labour I was at the expense of, purely from my apprehen-
sions on account of the print of a man’s foot; for, as yet, I
had never seen any human creature come near the island ; and
I had now lived two years under this uneasiness, which,
indeed, made my life much less comfortable than it was before,
as may be well imagined by any who know what it is to live
in the constant snare of the fear of man. And this I must
observe, with grief, too, that the discomposure of my mind
had great impression also upon the religious part of my
thoughts ; for the dread and terror of falling into the hands
of savages and cannibals lay so upon my spirits, that I seldom
found myself in a due temper for application to my Maker ;
at least, not with the sedate calmness and resignation of soul
which I was wont to do: I rather prayed to God as under
great afiliction and pressure of mind, surrounded with danger,
and in expectation every night of being murdered and devoured
before morning; and I must testify, from my experience,
that a temper of peace, thankfulness, love and affection, is
much the more proper frame for prayer than that of terror
and discomposure; and that under the dread of mischief

‘impending, a man is no more fit for a comforting performance

of the duty of praying to God, than he is for a repentance on
a sick bed; for these discomposures affect the mind, as the
others do the body ; and the discomposure of the mind must
necessarily be as great a disability as that of the body, and
much greater ; praying to God being properly an act of the
mind, not of the body.

But to go on: after I had thus secured one part of my little
living stock, I went about the whole island, searching for
another private place to make such another deposit; when,
wandering more to the west point of the island than I had
ever done yet, and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat
upon the sea, at a great distance. I-had found a perspective

: glass or two in one of the seamen’s chests, which I saved out

looked at it till my eyes were not able to hold to look any

26 impending—overhanging, boding.

of our ship, but I had it not about me; and this was so
remote that I could not tell what to make of it, though I

10

16

20

25

30

40

| 88 perspective-glass—telescope, spy-glass,
182 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

longer: whether it was a boat or not, I do not know, but as I
descended from the hill I could see no more of it, so I gave it
over; only I resolved to go no more out without a perspective
glass in my pocket. When 1 was come down the hill to the
end of the island, where, indeed, I had never been before, I 5
was presently convinced that the seeing the print of a man’s
foot was not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined,
and but that it was a special providence that I was cast upon
the side of the island where the savages never came, I should
easily have known that nothing was more frequent than for 10
the canoes from the main, when they happened to be a little too
far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for
harbour: likewise, as they ofter met and fought in their
canoes, the victors, having taken any prisoners, would bring
them over to this shore, where, according to their dreadful 15
customs, being all cannibals, they would kill and eat them ; of
which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said
above, being the 8.W. point of the island, I was perfectly
confounded and amazed ; nor is it possible for me to express 20
the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore spread with skulls,
hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies; and particu-
larly, I observed a place where there had been a fire made,

* and a circle dug in the earth, like a cockpit, where I supposed
the savage wretches had sat down to their inhuman feastings 25
upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I
entertained no notions of any danger to myself from it for a
long while: all my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts
of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror 30

« of the degeneracy of human nature, which, though I had
heard of it often, yet I never had so near a view of before;
in short, I turned away my face from the horrid spectacle;
my stomach grew sick, and I was just at the point of fainting,
when nature discharged the disorder from my stomach; and 35
having vomited with uncommon violence, I was a_ little
relieved, but could not bear to stay in the place a moment; so
I got up the hill again with all the speed I could, and walked
on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood 40
still awhile, as amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked

* up with the utmost affection of my soul, and with a flood of

*

”

*



11 main—mainland. 31 degeneracy—the going from bad to
£4 cockpit—a pit or hollow in which cocks worse,
are set to fight. 42 utmost affection—deepest emotion,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 183

tears in my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot
in a part of the world where I was distinguished from such
dreadful creatures as these; and that, though I had esteemed
my present condition very miserable, had yet given-me so
many comforts in it that T had still more to give thanks for
than to complain of : and this, above all, that I had, even in
this miserable condition, been comforted with the knowledge
of Himself, and the hope of His blessing: which was a
‘felicity more than sufficiently equivalent to al] the misery
which I had suffered, or could suffer.
In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castis,
and began to be much easier now, as to the safety of my cir-
cumstances, than ever I was before: for I observed that these
wretches never came to this island in search of what they
could get ; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting,
anything here; and having often, no doubt, been up the
covered, woody part of it, without finding anything to their
purpose. I knew I had been here now almost eighteen years,
and never saw the least footsteps of human creature there
before ; and I might be eighteen years more as entirely con-
cealed as I was now, if I did not discover myself to them,
which I had no manner of occasion to do; it being my only
business to keep myself entirely concealed where I was,
unless I found a better sort of creatures than cannibals to
* make myself known to. Yet I entertained such an abhorrence
of the savage wretches that I have been speaking of, and of
the wretched inhuman custom of their devouring and eating

* one another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and kept
close within my own circle, for almost two years after this:
when I say my own circle, I mean by it my three plantations,
viz. my castle, my country-seat (which I called my bower),
and my inclosure in the woods: nor did I look after this for
any other use than as an inclosure for my goats; for the

: aversion which nature gave me to these hellish wretches was
such, that I was as fearful of seeing them as of seeing the devil
himself. I did not so much as go to look after my boat all
this time, but began rather to think of making another ; for 1
could not think of ever making any more attempts to bring
the other boat round the island to me, lest I should meet with
some of these creatures at sea: in which case if I nad
happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what would
have been my lot.

9 felicity— happiness. 25 abhorrence—loathing, hatred.
P 8)

9 sufficiently equivalent —sufficient return 28 pensive—thoughtful,
ioe 34 aversion—dislike,

qn

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25

30

40
*



184 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no
danger of being discovered by these people, began tc wear off
my uneasiness about them ; and I began to live just in the
same ‘composed manner as before, only with this difference,
that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me
than I did before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of
them ; and particularly, I was more cautious of firing my gun,
lest any of them, being on the island, should happen to hear
it. It was, therefore, a very good providence to me that I
had furnished myself with a tame breed of goats, and that I
had no need to hunt any more about the woods, or shoot at
them ; and if I did catch any of them after this, it was by
traps and snares, as I had done before ; so that for two years
atter this, I believe I never fired my gun once off, though I
never went out without it ; and what was more, as I had saved
three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out with
me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my goat skin
belt. I also furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I
had out of the ship, and made me a belt to hang it on also; so
that I was now a most formidable fellow to look at when I
went abroad, if you add to the former description of myself,
the particular of two pistols, and a great broad-sword hanging
at my side in a belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, [
seemed, excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my former
calm, sedate way of living. All these things tended to show
me, more and more, how far my condition was from being
miserable, compared to some others ; nay, to many other par-
ticulars of life, which it might have pleased God to have
made my lot. It put me upon reflecting how little repining
there would be among mankind at any condition of life, if
people would rather compare their condition with those that
were worse, in order to be thankful, than be always comparing
them with those which are better, to assist their murmurings
and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not really many
things which I wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights
I had been in about these savage wretches, and tho concern I
had been in for my own preservation, had taken off the edge
of my invention for my own conveniences ; and I had dropped
a good design, which I had once bent my thoughts upon, and
that was to try if I could not make some of iy barley into



18 furbished up—polished. | 30 repining—complaining.



10

16

20

25

30

35

40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 185

malt, and then try to brew myself some beer. This was
«really a whimsical thought, and I reproved myself often for
the simplicity of it: for I presently saw there would he the
want of several things necessary to the making my beer, that
it would be impossible for me to supply; as, first, casks to
preserve it in, which was a thing that, as I have observed
already, I could never compass: no, though I spent not only
many days, but weeks, nay months, in attempting it, but to no
purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to make’it keep,
no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to make it boil ;
and yet with all these things wanting, I verily believe, had
not the frights and terrors I was in about the savages inter-
vened, I had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it to pass
too; for I seldom gave anything over without accomplishing
it, when once I had it in my head to begin it. But my inven-
tion now ran quite another way ; for, night and day, I could
think of nothing but how I might destroy some of these
monsters in their cruel, bloody entertainment; and, if pos-
sible, save the victim they should bring hither to destroy. It
would take up a larger volume than this whole work is
intended to be, to set down all the contrivances I hatched,
or rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying
these creatures, or at least frightening them so as to prevent
their coming hither any more: but all this was abortive ;
nothing could be possible to take effect, unless I was to be
there to do it myself: and what could one man do among
them, when perhaps there might be twenty or thirty of them
together with their darts, or their bows and arrows, with
which they could shoot as true to a mark as I could with my
gun 4

~ Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place
where they made their fire, and putting in five or six pounds
of gunpowder, which, when they kindled their fire, would
consequently take fire, and blow up all that was near it: but
as, in the first place, I should be unwilling to waste so much
powder upon them, my store being now within the quantity of
one barrel, so neither could I be sure of its going off at any
certain time, when it might surprise them ; and, at best, that
it would do little more than just blow the fire about their ears
and fright them, but not sufficient to make them forsake the
place: sc I laid it aside; and then proposed that I would
x place myself in ambush in some convenient place, with my

st

*

x

2 whimsical—fanciful, jesting. 24 was abortive—proved a failure.

10

15

20

25

30

40

7 compass—inanage, accomplish. 42 ambush—hiding (lit. hiding in bushes),
186 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON ORUSOE.

three guns all double loaded, and in the middle of their
bloody ceremony let fly at them, when I should be sure to kill
or wound perhaps two or three at every shot; and then falling
in upon them with my three pistols and my sword, I made no
doubt but that, if there were twenty, I should kill them all.
This fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks, and I was so
full of it, that I often dreamed of it, and sometimes, that I
was just going to let fly at them in my sleep. I went so far
with it in my imagination, that I employed myself several
days to find out proper places to put myself in ambuscade, as 10
I said, to watch for them, and I went frequently to the place
itself, which was now grown more familiar to me; but while
my mind was thus filled with thoughts of revenge and a
bloody putting twenty or thirty of them to the sword, as I
may call it, the horror I had at the place, and at the signals 15
of the barbarous wretches devouring one another, abetted my
malice. Well, at length I found a place in the side of the
hill, where I was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any
of their boats coming; and might then, even before they
would be ready to come on shore, convey myself unseen into 20
some thickets of trees, in one of which there was a hollow
large enough to conceal me entirely; and there I might sit
and observe all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at
their heads, when they were so close together as that it would
be next to impossible that I should miss my shot, or that I ¢5
could fail wounding three or four of them at the first shot. In
this place, then, I resolved to fulfil my design; and accord-
ingly, I prepared two muskets and my ordinary fowling-piece.
* The two muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs each, and four
or five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol bullets; and 30
* the fowling-piece I loaded with near a handful of swan-shot of
the largest size; I also loaded my pistols with about four
bullets each; and in this posture, well provided with ammu-
nition for a second and third charge, I prepared myself for my
expedition, 835
After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my
imagination put it in practice, I continually made my tour
every morning to the top of the hill, which was from my
castle, as I called it, about three miles, or more, to see if I
could observe any boats upon the sea, coming near the island, 49
or standing over towards it; but I began to tire of this hard
duty, after I had for two or three months constantly kept my

CA



29 slugs—(as before), irregular, oval-shaped 31 swan-shot—a fairly large variety of
bullets. gun-shot,






CRUSOE PLOTS THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CANNIBALS
LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 189

watch, but came always back without any discovery; there
having not, in all that time, been the least appearance, not
only on or near the shore, but on the whole ocean, so far as my
eyes or glass could reach every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so 5
long also I kept up the vigour of my design, and my spirits
seemed to be all the while in a suitable frame for so outrageous:
an execution as the killing twenty or thirty naked savages, for
an offence which I had not at all entered into any discussion
of in my thoughts, any farther than my passions were at first 10
fired by the horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of the
people of that country; who, it seems, had been suffered by
Providence, in His wise disposition of the world, to have no
other guide than that of their own abominable and vitiated
passions ; and, consequently, were left, and perhaps had been 15
so for some ages, to act such horrid things, and receive such
dreadful customs, as nothing but nature, entirely abandoned
by Heaven, and actuated by some hellish degeneracy, could
have run them into. But now, when, as I have said, I began
to be weary of the fruitless excursion which I had made so 20
long and so far every morning in vain, so my opinion of the
action itself began to alter; and I began, with cooler and
calmer thoughts, to consider what I was going to engage in;
what authority or call I had to pretend to be judge and execu
tioner upon these men as criminals, whom Heaven had thought 25
fit, for so many ages, to suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to
be, as it were, the executioners of His judgments one upon
another ; how far these people were offenders against me, and
what right I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood which
they sned promiscuously upon one another. I debated this 30
very often with myself thus: “How do I know what God
himself judges in this particular case? It is certain these
people do not commit this as a crime ; it is not against their
own consciences reproving, or their light reproaching them ;
they do not know it to be an offence, and then commit it in 35
defiance of divine justice, as we do in almost all the sins we
commit. They think it no more a crime to kill a captive
taken in war, than we do to kill an ox; or to eat human flesh,
than we do to eat mutton.”

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that 40
I was certainly in the wrong; that these people were not
murderers, in the sense that I had before condemned them

u “yitiated—spoilt, ‘corrupted, | 30 promiscuously—without distinction.
190 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

in my thoughts, any more than those Christians were murder-
ers who often put to death the prisoners taken in battle ; or
more frequently, upon many occasions, put whole troops of
men to the sword, without giving quarter, though they threw
down their arms, and submitted. In the next place, it oc-
curred to me, that although the usage they gave one another
was thus brutish and inhuman, yet it was really nothing to
me: ;these people had done me no injury: that if they
attempted, or I saw it necessary, for my immediate preserva-
tion, to fall upon them, something might be said for it: but 10
that I was yet out of their power, and they really had no
knowledge of me, and consequently no design upon me; and,
therefore it could not be just for me to fall upon them ; that
this would justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their
* barbarities practised in America, where they destroyed mil- 15
‘lions of these people ; who, however they were idolaters and
barbarians, and had several bloody and barbarous rites in
their customs, such as sacrificing human bodies to their idols,
were yet, as to the Spaniards, very innocent people; and that
the rooting them out of the country is spoken of with the 20
utmost abhorrence and detestation by even the Spaniards
themselves, at this time, and by all other Christian nations of
Europe, asa mere butchery, a bloody and unnatural piece of
cruelty, unjustifiable either to God or man ; and for which the
very name of a Spaniard is reckoned to be frightful and 95
terrible to all people of humanity or of Christian compassion ;
as if the kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for the
produce of a race of men, who were without principles of
« tenderness, or the common bowels of pity to the miserable,
which is reckoned to be a mark of generous temper in the 30
mind. :
These considerations really put me to a pause, and to akind
of a full stop; and I began, by little and little, to be off my
design, and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in my
resolution to attack the savages; and that it was not my 386
business to meddle with them, unless they first attacked me ;
and this it was my business, if possible, to prevent : but that, if
I were discovered and attacked by them, I knew my duty. On
the other hand, I argued with myself, that this really was the
way not tc deliver myself, but entirely to ruin and destroy 40
myself ; for, unless I was sure to kill every one that not only
should be on shore at that time, but that should ever come on

or

o.

ue

%



9 attempted — the original edition has 16 idolaters —- heathen, worshippers of
attempted me, which means “made an images, .
attempt on my life.” 21 abhorrence and detestation—loathing

15 America—i.e. Peru and Mexico, where | and hatred.



the conquering Spaniards practised 29 bowels of pity—the bowels were sup-
great cruelty upon the native posed to be the seat of the emotion

Americans, of compassion and the like.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 191

shore afterwards, if but one of them escaped to tell their
country-people what had happened, they would come over again
by thousands to revenge the death of their fellows, and I
should only bring upon myself a certain destruction, which,
at present, I had no manner of occasion for. Upon the whole, 5
« Iconcluded that I ought, neither in principle nor in policy,
one way or other, to concern myself in this affair: that my
business was, by all possible means, to conceal myself from
them, and not to leave the least sign for them to guess by
that there were any living creatures upon the island—I mean 10
*« of human shape. Religion joined in with this prudential
resolution ; and I was convinced now, many ways, that I was
perfectly out of my duty when I was laying all my bloody
schemes for the destruction of innocent creatures—I mean
innocent as to me. As to the crimes they were guilty of 15
towards one another, I had nothing to do with them ; they
were national, and I ought to leave them to the justice of
God, who is the Governor of nations, and knows how, by
: national punishments, to make a just retribution for national
offences, and to bring public judgments upon those who offend 90
in a public manner, by such ways as best please Him. This
appeared so clear to me now, that nothing was a greater satis-
faction to me than that I had not been suffered to do a thing
which I now saw so much reason to believe would have been
no less a sin than that of wilful murder, if I had committed 95
it; and I gave most humble thanks, on my knees, to God,
that He had thus delivered me from blood-guiltiness ; beseech-
ing Him to grant me the protection of His providence, that I
might not fall into the hands of the barbarians, or that I
might not lay my hands upon them, unless I had a more clear 30
call from Heaven to do it, in defence of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this ;
and so far was I from desiring an occasion for falling upon
these wretches, that in all that time T never once went up the
nill to see whether there were any of them in sight, or to know 35
whether any of them had been on shore there or not, that I
might not be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against
them, or be provoked by any advantage that might present
itself, to fall upon them: only this I did ; I went and removed
my boat, which I had on the other side of the island, and 40
carried it down to the east end of the whole island, where I
ran it into a little cove, which I found under some high rocks,

%









6 principle—duty, conscience, 11 prudential—prudent, cautious.
. 19 retribution—punishment, requital, pay-
6 policy—interest, advantage. : ment.
M
192 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

and where I knew, by reason of the currents, the savages
x durst not, at least would not, come with their boats upon any
account whatever. With my boat I carried away everything
that I had left there belonging to her, though not necessary
for the bare going thither, viz. a mast and sail which I had 5
made for her, and a thing like an anchor, but which indeed
« could not be called either anchor or grapnel ; however, it was
the best I could make of its kind: all these I removed, that
there might not be the least shadow for discovery, or appear-
ance of any boat, or of any human habitation upon the island. 10
Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than ever,
and seldom went from my cell except upon my constant em-
ployment, to milk my she-goats, and manage my little flock in
the wood, which, as it was quite on the other part of the
island, was out of danger; for certain it is that these savage 15
people, who sometimes haunted this island, never came with
any thoughts of finding anything here, and consequently never
wandered off from the coast, and I doubt not but they
might have been several times on shore after my apprehen-
sions of them had made me cautious, as well as before. 20
Indeed, I looked back with some horror upon the thoughts of
* what my condition would have been, if I had chopped upon
them and oeen discovered before that ; when, naked, and un-
armed, except with one gun, and that loaded often only with
small shot, I walked everywhere, peeping and peering about 25
the island to see what I could get; what a surprise should I
have been in, if, when I discovered the print of a man’s foot,
I had, instead of that, seen fifteen or twenty savages, and
found them pursuing me, and, by the swiftness of their run.
ning, no possibility of my escaping them! The thoughts of 30
this sometimes sank my very soul within me, and distressed
my mind so much that I could not soon recover it, to think
what I should have done, and how I should not only have been
unable to resist them, but even should not have had presence
of mind enough to do what I might have done; much les 35
what now, after so much consideration and preparation, 3
might be able to do. Indeed, after serious thinking of these
things, I would be melancholy, and, sometimes, it would
last a great while ; but I resolved it all, at last, into thankful-
ness to that Providence which had delivered mefrom so many 40
unseen dangers, and had kept me from those mischiefs which
I could have no way been the agent in delivering myself

2 durst—past participle of to dare. 2, non—c
7 grapnel—a small anchor, with several SECHORDES DESH PE enora Upon eerie MERE
claws or arms (Cf. to grapple).



by accident.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 193

from, because I had not the least notion of any such thing

«depending, or the least supposition of its being possible.

This renewed a contemplation which often had come into my
thought: in former times, when first I began to see the
merciful dispositions of Heaven, in the dangers we run through
in this life ; how wonderfully we are delivered when we know

« nothing of it; how, when we are in a quandary (as we call it),

2

7
21

a doubt or hesitation whether to go this way or that way, a
secret hint shall direct us this way, when we intended to go that
way: nay, when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps
business, has called us to go the other way, yet a strange
impression upon the mind, from we know not what springs,
and by we know not what power, shall overrule us to go
this way ; and it shall afterwards appear, that had we gone
that way which we should have gone, and even to our imagi-
nation ought to have gone, we should have been ruined and
lost. Upon these, and many like reflections, I afterwards
made it a certain rule with me, that whenever I found those
secret hints or pressings of mind, to doing or not doing any-
thing that presented, or going this way or that way, I never

«failed to obey the secret dictate; though: I knew no other

reason for it than such a pressure, or such a hint, hung upon
my mind. I could give many examples of the success of this
conduct in the course of my life, but more especially in the
latter part of my inhabiting this unhappy island ; besides
many occasions which it is very likely I might have taken notice
of, if I had seen with the same eyes then that I see with now.
But it is never too late to be wise; and I cannot but advise all
considering men, whose lives are attended with such extra-
ordinary incidents as mine, or even though not. so extra-

* ordinary, not to slight such secret intimations of Providence,

let them come from what invisible intelligence they will.
That I shall not discuss, and perhaps cannot account for; but

: certainly they are a proof of the converse of spirits, and a secret
; communication between those embodied and those unembodied,

and such a proof as can never be withstood ; of which I shall
have occasion to give some very remarkable instances in the
remainder of my solitary residence in this dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange, if I
confess that these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in,
and the concern that was now upon me, put an end to all
invention, and to all the contrivances that I had laid for my



depending—hanging over one, impending 81 intimations—hints.

10

15

20

25

30

40

(as we should say). (Lat. de, down; 34 converse—conversation, communication.

pendeo, I hang.) 35 embodied—having human shape.

quandary—a “ fix,” awkward position. 85 unembodied--the opposite of this, ie.

dictate—command, order (noun). ghostly, spirit-like.
oe

194 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

future accommodations and conveniences. I had the care of
my safety more now upon my hands than that of my food.

I cared not to drive a naii, or chop a stick of wood now, for
fear the noise I might make should be heard: much less
would I fire a gun for the same reason: and, above all, I was 5
intolerably uneasy at making any fire, lest the smoke, which

1s visible at a great distance in the day, should betray me.
For this reason, I removed that part of my business which
required fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, &c, into my
new apartment in the woods; where, after I had been some 10
time, I found to my unspeakable consolation a mere natural
cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and where, I
dare say, no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be

so hardy as to venturein; nor, indeed, would any man else,
but one who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a safe 15
retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great
rock, where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not see
abundant reason to ascribe all such things now to Providence),

I was cutting down some thick branches of trees to make 20
charcoal ; and before I go on I must observe the reason of
my making this charcoal, which was thus: I was afraid of
making a smoke about my habitation, as I said before; and
yet I could not live there without baking my bread, cooking
my meat, &c.; so I contrived to burn some wood here, as I 25

‘had seen done in England, under turf, till it became chark or

dry coal : and then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal
to carry home, and perform the other services for which fire
was wanting, without danger of smoke. But this is by the
bye. While I was cutting down some wood here, I perceived 30
that, behind a very thick branch of low brushwvod or under-
wood, there was a kind of hollow place: I was curious to
look in it ; and getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I
found it was pretty large, that is to say, suflicient for me to
stand upright in it, and perhaps another with me: but I must 35
confess to you that I made more haste out than I did in, when
looking farther into the place, and which was perfectly dark,
I saw two broad shining eyes of some creature, whether devil
or Yan I knew not, which twinkled like two stars; the dim
light from the cave’s mouth shining directly in, and making 40
the reflection. However, after some pause, I recovered myself,
and began to call myself a thousand fools, and to think that



26 chark—charred coal,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 195

ho that was afraid to see the devil, was not fit to live twenty
year's in an island all alone ; and that I might well think there
was nothing in this cave that was more frightful than myself
Upon this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand,
and in I rushed again, with the stick flaming in my hand: I 6
had not gone three steps in, before I was almost as much
frightened as before ; for I heard very loud sigh, like that.
of & man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken noise.



CRUSOE FINDS A DYING HE-GOAT IN THE CAVE,

ag of words half expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I
stepped back, and was indeed struck with such a surprise that 10
it put me into a cold sweat, and if I had had a hat on my
head, I will not answer for it that my hair might not have
lifted it off. But still plucking up my spirits as well as I
could, and encowraging myself a little with considering that
the power and presence of God was everywhere, and was able 15
to protect me, I stepped forward again, and by the light of
196 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

the firebrand, holding it up a little over my head, I saw lying
on the ground a monstrous, frightful, old he-goat, just making
his will, as we say, and gasping for life, and dying, indeed, of
mere old age. I stirred him a little to see if I could get him
x out, and he essayed to get up, but was not able to raise
himself; and I thought with myself he might even lie
there,—for if he had frightened me, so he would certainly
fright any of the savages, if any of them should be so hardy
as to come in there while he had any life in him.
I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look 10
round me, when I found the cave was but very small, that is
to say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in no manner
of shape, neither round nor square, no hands having ever
been employed in making it but those of mere Nature. I
observed also that there was a place at the farther side of it 15
that went in further, but was so low that it required me to
creep upon my hands and knees to go into it, and whither it
went I knew not; so, having no candle, I gave it over for
that time, but resolved to go again the next day provided
+ with candles and a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock 26
* of one of the muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.
Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large
candles of my own making (for I made very good candles
now of goat’s tallow, but was hard set for candlewick, using
sometimes rags or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of 25
a weed like nettles); and going into this low place I was
obliged to creep upon all-fours, as I have said, almost ten
yards—which, by the way, I thought was a venture bold
enough, considering that I knew not how far it might go, nor
« what was beyond it. When I had got through the strait, I 30
found the roof rose higher up, I believe near twenty feet ;
but never was such a glorious sight seen in the island, I dare
say, as it was to look round the sides and roof of this vault
or caye—the wall reflected a hundred thousand lights to me
from my two candles. What it was in the rock—whether 35
diamonds or any other precious stones, or gold—which I
rather supposed it to be—I knew not. The place I was in
was a most delightful cavity, or grotto, though perfectly
dark ; the floor was dry and level, and had a sort of a small
* loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nauseous or 40
* venomous creature to be seen, neither was there any damp
or wet on the sides or roof, The only difficulty in it was the

or



5 essayed—tried. 21 wildfire—was the tinder, or dried sub-
29 tinder-box—a box containing a flint and stance to whieh the spark was applied
teel to kindle a spark, whi va 2 to create aire.
ae nae park, which was the 30 strait—the narrow part.
old substitute for the modern match- 40 nauseous—unpleasant, disgusting.

box. 41 venomous—poisonous.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 197

entrance—which, however, as it was a place of security, and
such a retreat as I wanted, I thought was a convenience ; so
that I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and resolved,
without any delay, to bring some of those things which I was
most anxious about to this place; particularly, I resolved tc 5
bring hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare arms,
viz. two fowling-pieces—for I had three in all—and three
muskets—for of them I had eight in all; so I kept in my

' castle only five, which stood ready mounted like pieces ot
cannon on my outmost fence, and were ready also to take out 10
upon any expedition. Upon this occasion of removing my
ammunition I happened to open the barrel of powder which
I took up out of the sea, and which had been wet, and I
found that the water had penetrated about three or four
inches into the powder on every side, which caking and 15
growing hard, had preserved the inside like a kernel in the
shell, so that I had near sixty pounds of very good powder
in the centre of the cask. This was a very agreeable dis-
covery to me at that time; so I carried all away thither,
never keeping above two or three pounds of powder with me 20
in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind; I also carried
thither all the lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who
were said to live in caves and holes in the rocks, where none
could come at them; for I persuaded myself, while I was 25
here, that if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they
could never find me out—or if they did, they would not
venture to attack me here. The old goat whom I found

* expiring died in the mouth of the cave the next day after I
made this discovery; and I found it much easier to dig a 30
great hole there, and throw him in and cover him with earth,

« than to drag him out; so I interred him there, to prevent
offence to my nose. ;

I was now in the twenty-third year of my residence in this

x island, and was so naturalized to the place and the manner of 85
living, that, could I but have enjoyed the certainty that no
savages would come to the place to disturb me, I could have

* been content to have capitulated for spending the rest of my
time there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me down
and died, like the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived to 40
some little diversions and amusements, which made the time
pass a great deal more pleasantly with me than it did before.



29 expiring—dying, breathing his last. | 38 capitulated for—arranged, agreed to;
32 interred—buried. to “capitulate” is generally a military
25 naturalized—accustomed. term, meaning to surrender,
198 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

—first, I had taught my Poll, as I named before, to speak ;
«and he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately and
plain, that it was very pleasant to me; and he lived with me
no less than six-and-twenty years. How long he might have
lived afterwards I know not, though I know they have a 9
notion in the Brazils that they live a hundred years. My
dog was a pleasant and loving companion to me for no less
than sixteen years of my time, and then died of mere old age.
As for my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to that
degree, that I was obliged to shoot several of them at first, to 10
keep them from devouring me and all I had; but, at length,
when the two old ones I brought with me were gone, and
after some time continually driving them from me, and letting
them have no provision with me, they all ran wild into the
woods, except two or three favourites, which I kept tame, and 15
whose young, when they had any, I always drowned; and
these were part of my family. Besides these I always kept
two or three household kids about me, whom I taught to feed
out of my hand; and I had two more parrots, which talked
pretty well, and would all call “‘ Robin Crusoe,” but none like 20
my first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any of them
that I had done with him. I had also several tame sea fowls,
whose name I knew not, that I caught upon the shore, and
cut their wings; and the little stakes which I had planted
before my castle-wall being now grown up to a good thick 25
grove, these fowls all lived among these low trees, and bred
there, which was very agreeable to me; so that, as I said
above, I began to be very well contented with the life I led,
if I could have been secured from the dread of the savages.
But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss for 30
all people who shall meet with my story to make this just
observation from it:—How frequently, in the course of our
lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which,
when we are fallen into, is the most dreadful to us, is often-
times the very means or door of our deliverance, by which 35
alone we can be raised again from the afiliction we are fallen
into. I could give many examples of this in the course of my
unaccountable life; but in nothing was it more particularly
remarkable than in the circumstances of my last years of
solitary residence in this island. 40
It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my
* twenty-third year; and this, being the southern solstice (for
2 articulately—distinctly, clearly.
42 southern solstice—the solstice is that point in the ecliptic where the sun is farthest

from the Equator and seems fo stand still. This on Crusoe’s Island would be on
December 2ist. [Lat. sol, the sun; sisto, to stop.]


CRUSOE BURIES HIS DOG,
LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 201

winter I cannot call it), was the particular time of my harvest,
and required me to be pretty much abroad in the fields, when,
going out early in the morning, even before it was thorough
daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some fire upon
the shore, at a distance from me of about two miles, toward 6
that part of the island where I had observed some savages
had been, as before, and not on the other side,—but, to my
great affliction, it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped
short within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be 10



CRUSOE SEES A LIGHT ON THE SHORE IN THE EARLY MORNING.

surprised; and yet IJ had no more peace within, from the
* apprehensions I had that if these savages, in rambling over
the island, should find my corn standing or cut, or any of
my works or improvements, they would immediately conclude
that there were people in the place, and would then nevez 15
x rest till they had found me out. In this extremity I went
back directly to my castle, pulled up the ladder after me,
and made all things without look as wild and natural as
I could.
Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture 20
of defence. I loaded all my cannon, as I called them—that







12 apprehensions—fears. | 16 extremity—difficult position.
202 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

is to say, my muskets, which were mounted upon my new
fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself

to the last gasp,—not forgetting seriously to commend myself

to the Divine protection, and earnestly to \vay to God to
deliver me out of the hands of the barbarians. I continued 5
in this posture about two hours, and began to be impatient
for intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to send out. After
sitting a while longer, and musing what I should do in this
case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance longer; so
setting up my ladder to the side of the hill, where there was 10
a flat place, as I observed before, and then pulling the ladder
after me, I set it up again and mounted the top of the hill,
and pulling out my perspective glass, which I had taken on
purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the ground, and
began to look for the place. I presently found there were no 15
less than nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire they
had made, not to warm them, for they had no need of that,
the weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to
dress some of their barbarous diet of human flesh which they
had brought with them, whether alive or dead I could not 20
tell.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up
upon the shore; and as it was then ebb of tide, they seemed
to me to wait for the return of the flood to go away again. It
is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me into, 2
especially seeing them come on my side of the island, and so
near to me; but when I considered their coming must be
always with the current of the ebb, I began afterwards to be
more sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad
with safety all the time of the flood of tide, if they were not on 30
shore before ; and having made this observation, I went abroad
about my harvest work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for, as soon as the tide made
to the westward, I saw them all take boat and row (or paddle
as we call it) away. I should have observed, that for an 85
hour or more before they went off they were dancing, and I
could easily discern their postures and gestures by my glass.

* I could not perceive, by my nicest observation, but that they
«x were stark naked, and had not the least covering upon them ;
but whether they were men or women I could not distinguish. 40

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two gung

upon my shoulders, and two pistols in my girdle, and my

Or



38 nicest—closest. The modern conversational use of the word nice (pleasant) is hardly
used in literature.
39 stark—absolutely, entirely (lit. stiff).
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 203

great sword by my side without a scabbard, and with all the
speed I was able to make went away to the hill where I
had discovered the first appearance of all; and as soon as I
got thither, which was not in less than two hours (for I could
not go quickly, being so loaded with arms as I was), I per- 5

-ceived there had been three canoes more of the savages at
that place; and looking out farther, I saw they were all at
sea together, making over for the main. This was a dreadful
sight to me, especially as, going down to the shore, I could
see the marks of horror which the dismal work they had been 10
about had left behind it, viz. the blood, the bones, and part
of the flesh of human bodies eateneand devoured by those
wretches with merriment and sport. I was so filled with

«indignation at the sight, that I now began to premeditate the

«destruction of the next that I saw there, let them be whom 15
or how many soever. It seemed evident to me that the visits
which they made thus to this island were not very frequent,
for it was above fifteen ~ nths before any more of them came
on shore there again,—inat is to say, I neither saw them nor

xany footsteps or signals of them in all that time; for as to 20
the rainy seasons, then they are sure not to come abroad, at
least not so far. Yet all this while I lived uncomfortably,
by reason of the constant apprehensions of their coming upon
me by surprise: from whence I observe,.that the expectation
of evil is more bitter than the suffering, especially if there is 25
no room to shake off that expectation, or those apprehensions.

During all this time I was in the murdering humour, and
spent most of my hours, which should have been better em-

* ployed, in contriving how to circumvent and fall upon them
the very next time I should see them,—especially if they 30
should be divided, as they were the last time, into two
-parties ; nor did I consider at all that if I killed one party
—suppose ten or a dozen—I was still the next day, or week,

*or month, to kill another, and so another, even ad infinitum,
till I should be, at length, no less a murderer than they were 35
in being man-eaters—and perhaps much more so. I spent
my days now in great perplexity and anxiety of mind, ex-
pecting that I should one day or other fall into the hands
of these merciless creatures; and if I did at any time venture
abroad, it was not without looking around me with the 40
greatest care and caution imaginable. And now I found, to
my great comfort, how happy it was that I had provided a



14 premeditate —reflect (beforehand) 20 signals—signs, traces. %
upon, 29 circumvent — outwit, surprise. (Lat.
15 whom - this should, grammatically, be who circum, round; venio, I come.). ches
(nom.), as there is‘no reason for it 34 ad infinitum—Latin for ‘‘ to infinity’ pte.
being objective case. for any amount of time.
204 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

tame flock or herd of goats, for I durst not upon any account
fire my gun, especially near that side of the island where they
usually came, lest I should alarm the savages; and if they
had fled from me now, I was sure to have them come again
with perhaps two or three hundred canoes with them in a few
days, and then I knew what to expect. However, I wore out
a year and three months more before I ever saw any more
of the savages, and then I found them again, as I shall soon
observe. It is true they might have been there once or twice ;
but either they made no stay, or at least I did not see them ; 10
but in the month of May, as near as I could calculate, and in
my four-and-twentieth year, I had a very strange encounter
with them; of which in its placo.

« The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or sixteen
months’ interval was very great; I slept unquietly, dreamed 15
always frightful dreams, and often started out of my sleep in
the night. In the day, great troubles overwhelmed my mind ;
and in the night, I dreamed often of killing the savages, and
of the reasons why I might justify doing it.

+ But to wave all this for a while—It was in the middle of 20
May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor

* wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked all upon the
post still; I say, it was on the sixteenth of May that it blew
a very great storm of wind all day, with a great deal of
lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it was after it. 25
I knew not what was the particular occasion of it; but as 1
was reading in the Bible, and taken up with very serious
thoughts about my present condition, I was surprised with
the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea. This was, to be
sure, a surprise quite of a different nature from any I had 380
met with before; for the notions this put into my thoughts
were quite of another kind. JI started up in the greatest haste

imaginable; and, in a trice, clapped my ladder to the middle
place of the rock, and pulled it after me; and mounting it the
second time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that a 85
flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun, which, accordingly,
in about half a minute, I heard ; and by the sound, knew that
it was from that part of the sea where I was driven down the
current in my boat. I immediately considered that this must
be some ship in distress, and that they had some comrade, or 40
some other ship in company, and fired these for signals of
distress, and to obtain help. I had the presence of mind, at

Or

l4 perturbation—disturbance. 22 wooden calendar—the wooden post, on
which Crusoe cut notches, whereby to
reckon time (see p. 87).

33 in a trice—in an instant. (Spanish

over. “tris,” the noise of breaking glass.)

20 Wave—generally spelt waive : to pass
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 205

that minute, to think, that though I could not help them, it
might be they might help me; so [ brought together all the
dry wood I could get at hand, and, making a good handsome
pile, I set it on fire upon the hill. The wood was dry, and
blazed freely ; and, though the wind blew very hard, yet it
burned fairly out; so that I was certain, if there was any
such thing as a ship, they must need see it. And no doubt
they did; for as soon as ever iy fire blazed up, I heard
another gun, and after that several others, all from the same
quarter. I plied my fire all night long, till daybreak: and
when it was broad day, and the air cleared up, I saw some-
thing at a great distance at sea, full east of the island,
whether a sail or a hull I could not distinguish—no, not with
my glass; the distance was so great, and the weather still
something hazy also ; at least, it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived
that it did not move; so I presently concluded that it was a
ship at anchor; and being eager, you may be sure, to be
satisfied, I took my gun in my hand, and ran towards the
south side of the island, to the rocks where I had formerly
been carried away by the current; and getting up there, the
weather by this time being perfectly clear, I could plainly see,
to my great sorrow, the wreck of a ship, cast away in the
night upon those concealed rocks which I found when I was
out in my boat; and which rocks, as they checked the violence
of the stream, and made a kind of counter-stream, or eddy,
were the occasion of my recovering from the most desperate,
hopeless condition that ever I had been in in all my life,
Thus, what is one man’s safety is another man’s destruction ;
for it seems these men, whoever they were, being out of their
knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water, had been
driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at
E.N.E. Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily
suppose they did not, they must, as I thought, have endea-
voured to have saved themselves on shore by the help 6f their
boat ; but their firing off guns for help, especially when they
saw, as I imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts.
First, I imagined that upon seeing my light, they might have
put themselves into their boat, and endeavoured to make the
shore; but that the sea running very high, they might have
been cast away. Other times, I imagined that they might have
lost their hoat before, as might be the case many ways;

10

20

26

30

35

40
206 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

particularly, by the breaking of the sea upon their ship. which
many times obliged men to stave, or take in pieces, their
boat, and sometimes to throw it overboard with their own
hands. Other times, I imagined they had some other ship or



CRUSOE GETS A VIEW OF THE WRECK.

ships in company, who, upon the signals of distress they made,
had taken them up, and carried them off. Other times, I
fancied they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and being
hurried away by the current that I had been formerly in,
%

would press the palms of my hands, so that if I had had any

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 207

were carried out into the great ocean, where there was nothing
but misery and perishing: and that, perhaps, they might by
this time think of starving, and of being in a condition to eat
one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condi-
tion I was in, I could do no more than look on upon the misery
of the poor men, and pity them; which had still this good
effect upon my side, that it gave me more and more cause tc
give thanks to God, who had so happily and comfortably pro-
vided for me in my desolate condition ; and that of two ships’
companies, who were now cast away upon this part of the
world, not one life should be spared but mine. I learned here
again to observe, that it is very rare that the providence of
God casts us into any condition so low, or any misery so great,
but we may see something or other to be thankful for, and
may see others in worse circumstances than our own, Such
certainly was the case of these men, of whom I could not so
much ag see room to suppose any were saved ; nothing could
make it rational so much as to wish or expect that they did
not all perish there, except the possibility only of their being
taken up by another ship in company ; and this was but mere
possibility indeed, for I saw not the least sign or appearance
of any such thing. I cannot explain, by any possible energy
of words, what a strange longing I felt in my soul upon this

sight, breaking out Lometenes “thus :—O that there had been £

16

but one or two, nay, or but one soul, saved out of this ship, to |

have escaped to me, that I might but have had one companion,
one fellow-creature, to have spoken to me and to have con-
versed with!” *In all the time of my solitary life, I never
‘felt. so earnest, so strong a desire after the society of my
fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret at the want of it.

There are some secret springs : in the affections, which, when
they are set a-going by some object in view, or, though not in
view, yet rendered present to the mind by the power of

imagination, that motion carries out the soul, by its impetu- 3

osity, to such violent, eager embracings of the object, that

«the absence of it is insupportable. Such were these earnest

wishings that but one man had been saved. I believe I re-
peated the words, ‘“O that it had been but one!” a thousand
times ; and my desires were so moved by it, that when I spoke
the words my hands would clinch together, and my fingers

5 conjectures—guesses | 87 insupportable—unbearable.

30

40
208 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

soft thing in my hand, I should have crushed it involuntarily ;
and the teeth in my head would strike together, and set against
one another so strong, that for some time I could not part
‘them again. Let the naturalists explain these things, and the
reason and manner of them. All I can do is, to describe the
fact, which was even surprising to me when I found it, though
I knew not from whence it proceeded ; it was doubtless the
effect of ardent wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my
mind, realizing the comfort which the conversation of one of
my fellow Christians would have been tome. But it was not 10
to be; either their fate or mine, or both, forbade it; for till
the last year of my being on this island, I never knew whether
any were saved out of that ship or no; and had only the
afiliction, some days after, to see the corpse of a drowned boy
come on shore at the end of the island which was next the 15
shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a seaman’s waistcoat, a
pair of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt; but
nothing to direct me so much as to guess what nation he was
«of. He had nothing in his pockets but two pieces of eight and
a tobacco-pipe—the last was to me of ten times more value 20
than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in
my boat to this wreck, not doubting but I might find some-
thing on board that might be useful tome. But that did not
altogether press me so much as the possibility that there 25
might be yet some living creature on board, whose life I might
not only save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own
to the last degree ; and this thought clung so to my heart
that I could not be quiet night or day, but I 1hust venture out
in my boat on board this wreck ; and committing the rest to 30
God's providence, I thought the impression was so strong upon
my mind that it could not be resisted—that it must come from
some invisible direction, and that I should be wanting to
myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my 35
castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a quantity of
bread, a great pot of fresh water, a compass to steer by, a
bottle of rum (for I had still a great deal of that left), and a
basket of raisins ; and thus, loading myself with everything
necessary, I went down to my boat, got the water out of her, 40
got her afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home
again for more. My second cargo was a great bag of rice,

Or

4 naturalists—this must mean here those who enquire scientifically into Nature, In
ordinary language nowadays it is narrowed to mean those who study animal nature,

19 pieces of eight (as on p. 59)—Spanish ccins worth about 4 shillings.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 209

the umbrella to set up over my head for a shade, another large
pot of fresh water, and about two dozen of small loaves, or
barley cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat’s-milk,
and a cheese: all which with great labour and sweat I carried
tomy boat; and praying to God to direct my voyage, I put
out, and rowing or paddling the canoe along the shore, came
at last to the utmost point of the island on the north-east
side. And now I was to launch out into the ocean, and either
to venture or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents
which ran constantly on both sides of the island at a distance, 10
and which were very terrible to me, from the remembrance of
the hazard I had been in before, and my heart began to fail
me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those
currents, [ should be carried a great way out to sea, and per-
haps out of my reach, or sight of the island again; and that 15
then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale of wind
should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give
over my enterprise ; and having hauled my boat into a little
creek on the shore; I stepped out, and sat down upon a rising 20
bit of ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear and
desire, about my voyage; when, as I was musing, I could per-
ceive that the tide was turned, and the flood come on; upon

«which, my going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon
this, presently it occurred to me, that I should go up to the 25
highest piece of ground I could find, and observe, if I could,
how the sets of the tide or currents lay when the flood came
in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out,

I might not expect to be driven another way home, with the
same rapidity of the currents. This thought was no sooner in 30
my head than I cast my eye upon a little hill, which sufti-
ciently overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence I had
a clear view of the currents or sets of the tide, and which way
I was to guide myself in my return. Here I found, that as:
the current of ebb set out close by the south point of the 35
island, so the current of the flood set in close by the shore
of the north side; and that I had nothing to do but to keep
to the north side of the island in my return, and I should do
well enough.
Encouraged by this observation, I resolved, the next morn- 40
ing, to set out with the first of the tide; and, reposing myself
for the night in my canoe, under the watch-coat T mentioned,

ou



24 impracticable —unworkable, impossible,
210 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I launchea out. I first made a little out to sea, full north,
till I began to feel the benefit of the current, which set east-
ward, and which carried me ata great rate; and yet did not
so hurry me as the current on the south side had done before,
so as to take from me all government of the boat; but having 5
a strong steerage with my paddle, I went, at a great rate,
directly for the wreck, and in less than two hours I came up
to it. It was a dismal sight to look at: the ship, which, by
its building, was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two
rocks. All the stern and quarter of her were beaten to pieces 10
by the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck in the rocks, .
had run on with great violence, her mainmast and foremast
were brought by the board—that is to say, broken short off ;
but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared
firm. When I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her, 15
who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried; and, as soon as I
called him, jumped into the sea to come to me. I took him
into the boat, but found him almost dead with hunger and
thirst. I gave hima cake of my bread, and he devoured it
like a ravenous wolf that had been starving a fortnight in the 20
snow; I then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with
which, if I would have let him, he would have burst himself.
After this I went on board ; but the first sight I met with
was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle of the
ship, with their arms fast about one another. I concluded, 25
as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being in a
storm, the sea broke so high, and so continually over her, that
the men were not able to bear it, and were strangled with the
constant rushing in of the water, as much as if they had been
under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left in the 30
ship that had life; nor any goods, that I could see, but what
were spoiled by the water. There were some casks of liquor,
whether wine or brandy I knew not, which lay lower in
the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I could see ;
but they were too big to meddle with. J saw several chests, 35
which, I believe, belonged to some of the seamen; and I got
two of them into the boat, without examining what was in
them. Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the forepart
broken off, Iam persuaded I might have made a good voyage ;

* for, by what I found in these two chests, I had room to sup- 40
* pose the ship had a great deal of wealth on board; and, if I

may guess from the course she steered, she must have been



40 room to suppose—reason to suppose,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 211

bound from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the south
part of America, beyond the Brazils to the Havannah, in the
Gulf of Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. She had, no doubt,
a great treasure in her, but of no use, at that time, to any-
body ; but what became of the crew I then knew nct. 5
I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of
about twenty gallons, which I got into my boat with much
difficulty. There were several muskets in the cabin, and a
great powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in it:
as for the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left them, 10
but took the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs,
which I wanted extremely ; as also two little brass kettles, a
copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron ; and with this
cargo, and the dog, I came away, the tide beginning to make
home again: and the same evening, about an hour within 15
night, I reached the island again, weary and fatigued to the
last degree. I reposed that night in the boat; and in the
xmorning I resolved to harbour what I had got in my new cave,
and not carry it home to my castle. After refreshing myself,
I got all my cargo on shore, and began to examine the par- 30
ticulars, The cask of liquor I found to be a kind of rum, but
not such as we had at the Brazils; and, in a word, not at all
good; but when I came to open the chests, I found several
things of great use to me: for example, I found in one a fine
> case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and filled with 25
cordial waters, fine and very good; the bottles held about
three pints each, and were tipped with silver. I found two
;pots of very good succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on
the top that the salf-water had not hurt them ; and two more
of the same, which the water had spoiled. I found some very 30
good shirts, which were very welcome to me; and about a
dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs and coloured
neckcloths ; the former were also very welcome, being exceed-
ingly refreshing to wipe my face ina hot day. Besides this,
when I came to the till in the chest, I found there three great 35
bags of pieces of eight, which held about eleven hundred
pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six
x doubloons of gold, and some small bars or wedges of gold; I
suppose they might all weigh near a pound. In the other
’ chest were some clothes, but of little value ; but, by the cir- 40
cumstances, it must have belonged to the gunner’s mate ;
though there was no ,powder in it, except two pounds of fine

oe



18 to harbour—to store up, save.

28 succades—sugared fruit. :

38 doubloons-—Spanish coins, so-called because they are double the value of a pistole; i
doubloon is about equivalent to an English sovereign,
919 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

glazed powder, in’ three flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging
their fowling-pieces on occasion. Upon the whole, I got very
little by this voyage that was of any use to me; for, as to the
money, I had no manner of occasion for it ; it was to me as
the dirt under my feet, and I would have given it all for three 5
or four pair of English shoes and stockings, which were things
I greatly wanted, but had had none on my feet for many
years. I had, indeed, got two pair of shoes now, which I took
off the feet of the two drowned men whom I saw in the wreck,
and I found two pair more in one of the chests, which were 10
very welcome to me; but they were not like our English
shoes, either for ease or service, being rather what we call
pumps than shoes, I found in this seaman’s chest about fifty
* pieces of eight, in rials, but no gold: I suppose this belonged
to a poorer man than the other, which seemed to belong to 15
some officer. Well, however, I lugged this money home to my
cave, and laid it up, as I had done that before which I had
brought from our own ship ; but it was a great pity, as I said,
that the other part of this ship had not come to my share ; for
I am satisfied I might have loaded my canoe several times over 20
with money ; and, thought I, if I ever escape to England, it
might lie here safe enough till I come again and fetch it.
‘Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured
them, f went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along
the shore to her old harbour, where I laid her up, and made 25
the best of my way to my old habitation, where I found
everything safe and quiet. I began now to repose myself, live
after my old fashion, and take care of my family affairs ; and
for a while I lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant
than I used to be, locked out oftener, and did not go abroad 80
so much ; and if at any time I did stir with any freedom, it
was always to the east part of the island, where I was pretty
well satisfied the savages never came, and where I could go
without so many precautions, and such a load of arms and
ammunition as I always carried with me if I went the other 85
way. I lived in this condition near two years mores but my
unlucky head, that was always to let me know it was born to
make my body miserable, was all these two years filled with pro-
jects and designs, how, if it were possible, I might get away from
this island: for, sometimes I was for making another voyage 40
_ to the wreck, though my reason told me that there was
nothing left there worth the hazard of my voyage ; sometimes

14 rials—otherwise spelt reales, or royales, are coins of about the value of 24d. Engtish
money.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 213

for a ramble one way, sometimes another: and I believe
verily, if I had had the boat that I went from Sallee in, I
should have ventured to sea, bound anywhere, { knew not
«whither, I have been, in all my circumstances, a memento to
those who are touched with the general plague of mankind,
whence, for aught I know, one half of their miseries flow; I
mean that of not being satisfied with the station wherein God
and Nature hath placed them : for, not to look back upon my
primitive condition, and the excellent advice of my father, the
opposition to which was, as I may call it, my original sin, my 10
subsequent mistakes of the same kind had been the means of
my coming into this miserable condition ; for had that Provi-
dence which so happily seated me at the Brazils as a planter
blessed me with confined desires, and I could have been
contented to have gone on gradually, I might have been by 15
this time —I mean in the time of my being in this island—
one of the most considerable planters in the Brazils: nay,
I am persuaded, that by the improveme.ts I had made in
that little time I lived there, and the increase I should
probably have made if I had remained, I might have been 20
worth a hudred thousand moidores: and what business had I
to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation, improving
and increasing, to turn supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes,
when patience and time would have so increased our stock at
home, that we could have bought them at our own door from 25
those whose business it was to fetch them? and though it had
cost us something more, yet the difference of that price was
by no means worth saving at so great a hazard, But as this
is usually the fate of young heads, so reflection upon the folly
of it is as commonly the exercise of more years, or of the 30
dear-bought experience of time: so it was with me now; and
yet so deep had the mistake taken root in my temper, that I
could not satisfy myself in my station, but was continually
poring upon the means and possibility of my escape from this
place: and that I may, with greater pleasure to the reader, 35
bring on the remaining part of my story, it may not be
improper to give some account of my first conceptions on the
subject of this foolish scheme for my escape, and how, and
upon what foundation I acted.
I am now to be supposed retired in my castle, after my late 40
voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under
water, as usual, and my condition restored to what it was

cr



4 memento—properly, a Latin imperative 21 moidores—a Portuguese gold coin, now
meaning ‘‘remember"'; as a noun, it . says
means a token, whereby one may re- disused, of the value of 27 shillings of
member something. our money.
214 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

before: I had more wealth; indeed, than I had before, but
was not at all the richer; for I had no more use for it than
* the Indians of Peru had before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the
four-and-twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island
of solitude, I was lying in my bed or hammock, awake, very
well in health, had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of
body, nor any uneasiness of mind more than ordinary, but
could by no means close my eyes, that is, so as to sleep; no,
not a wink all night long, otherwise than as follows :—It is 10
impossible to set down the innumerable crowd of thoughts

* that whirled through that great thoroughfare of the brain,
the memory, in this night’s time : Iran over the whole history

* of my life in miniature, or by abridgment, as I may call it, to
my coming to this island, and also of that part of my life 15
since I came to this island. In my reflections upon the state
of my case since I came on shore on this island, I was com-
paring the happy posture of my affairs in the first years of my
habitation here, with the life of anxiety, fear, and care, which
I had lived in ever since I had seen the print of a foot in the 20
sand. Not that I did not believe the savages had frequented
the island even all the while, and might have been several
hundreds of them at times on shore there; but I had never
known it, and was incapable of any apprehensions about it ;
my satisfaction was perfect, though my danger was the same, 25
and I was as happy in not knowing my danger as if I had
never really been exposed to it. This furnished my thoughts
with many very profitable reflections, and particularly this
one: How infinitely good that Providence is, which has
provided, in its government of mankind, such narrow bounds 80
to his sight and knowledge of things; and though he walks
in the midst of so many thousand dangers, the sight of which,
if discovered to him, would distract his mind and sink his

‘ spirits, he is kept serene and calm, by having the events of
things hid from his eyes, and knowing nothing of the dangers 35
which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I
came to reflect seriously upon the real danger I had been in
for so many years in this very island, and how I had walked

. about in the greatest security, and with all possible tranquillity, 40
even when perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great
tree. or the casual approach of night, had been between me

or

*

3 Indians of Peru, etc.—The Spaniards 12 thoroughfare—main street. The memory
is so-called because all ideas have to

had discovered th ilver-mi 7
e he silver-mines of pass through it.

Peru, which had been unknown to 14 miniature—a small, reduced copy.
14 abridgment—a shortening, curtailing.

“oinali ; 5 (““Indians”
the original inhabitants (‘‘ Indians”). 34 events—ends, issues, results,


OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 215

and the worst kind of destruction, viz. that of falling into the
hands of cannibals and savages, who would have seized on me
with the same view as I would on-a goat or turtle; and have
thought it no more crime to kill and devour me, than I did of
:@ pigeon ora curlew. I would unjustly slander myself, if I
should say I-was not sincerely thankful to my great Preserver,
to whose singular protection I acknowledged, with great
humility, all these unknown deliverances were due, and
‘without which I must inevitably have fallen into their
merciless hands. 10

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time
taken up in considering the nature of these wretched creatures,

I mean the savages, and how it came to pass in the world,
that the wise Governor of all things should give up any of his
creatures to such inhumanity—nay, to something so much 15
below even brutality itself—as to devour its own kind: but as
this ended. in some (at that time) fruitless speculations, it
occurred to me to inquire, what part of the world these
wretches lived in? how far off the coast was from whence
they came? what they ventured over so far from home for ? 20
what kind of boats they had? and why I might not order
myself and my business’so, that I might be able to go over
thither, as they were to come to me ?

I-never so much as troubled myself to consider what I
should do with myself when I went thither; what would 25
become of me if I fell into the hands of these savages; or
how I should escape them if they attacked me; no, nor so
much as how it was possible for me to reach the coast, and
not be attacked by some or other of them, without any
possibility of delivering myself: and if I should not fall into 80
their hands, what I should do for provision, or whither I
should bend my course: none of these thoughts, I say, so
much as came in my way; but my mind was wholly bent
upon the notion of my passing over in my boat to the main-
land. JI looked upon my present condition as the most 35
miserable that could possibly be; that I was not able.to
throw myself into anything but death, that could be called
worse; and if I reached the shore of the main, I might
perhaps meet with relief, or I might coast along, as I did on
the African shore, till I came to some inhabited country, and 40
where I might find some relief; and, after all, perhaps I
might fall in with some Christian ship that might take me in :

ou



5 slander—speak ill of.
216 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

and if the worst came to the worst, I could but die, which
would put an end to all these miseries at once. Pray note, all
this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impatient temper,
made desperate, as it were, by the long continuance of my
troubles, and the diseppointments I had met in the wreck I
had been on board of, and where I had been so near obtaining
what I so earnestly longed for—-somebody to speak to, and to
learn some knowledge from them of the place where I was,
and of the probable means of my deliverance. I was agitated
wholly by these thoughts; all my calm of mind, in my
«resignation to Providence, and waiting the issue of the dispo-
sitions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended; and I had, as it
were, no power to turn my thoughts to anything but to the
project of a voyage to the main, which came upon me with
such force, and such an impetuosity of desire, that it was not
to be resisted.
When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more,
«with such violence that it set my very blood into a ferment,
and my pulse beat as if I had been in a fever, merely with
the extraordinary fervour of my mind about it, Nature—as if
I had been fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts of
it—threw me into a sound sleep. One would have thought
I should have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything
relating to it: but I dreamed that as I was going out in the
morning as usual, from my castle, I saw upon the shore two
canoes and eleven savages, coming to land, and that they
brought with them another savage, whom they were going to
kill, in order to eat him ; when, on a sudden, the savage that
they were going to kill jumped away, and ran for his life; and
I thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my little
thick grove before my fortification, to hide himself; and that
I, seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the others sought
him that way, showed myself to him, and smiling upon him,
encouraged him: that he kneeled down to me, seeming to
pray me to assist him; upon which I showed him my ladder,
made him go up, and carried him into my cave, and he
became my servant : and that as soon as I had got this man,
I said to myself, ‘“‘ Now I may certainly venture to the main-
«land, for this fellow will serve me as a pilot and will tell me
what to do, and whither to go for provisions, and whither not
to go for fear of being devoured ; what places to venture into,
and what to shun.” I waked with this thought; and was



11 dispositions - arrangements.
18 ferment —restlessness of mind (lit, heat, or boiling).
39 pilot—guide.

10

16

20

26

30

38

40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 217

under such inexpressible impressions of joy at the prospect of
my escape in my dream, that the disappointments which I
felt upon coming to myself, and finding that it was no more
than a dream, were equally extravagant the other way, and
threw me into a very great dejection of spirits. 5

Upon this, however, I mide this conclusion: that my only
way to go about to attempt an escapa was, to endeavour to get
a savage into my possession ; and, if possible, it should be one
of their prisoners, whom they had condemned to be eaten, and
should bring hither to kill. But these thoughts still were 10
attended with this difficulty: that it was impossible to effect
. this without attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing
them all; and this was not only a very desperate attempt, and
might miscarry; but, on the other hand, I had greatly
scrupled the lawfulness of it to myself; and my heart 15
trembled at the thoughts of shedding so much blood, though
it was for my deliverance. I need not repeat the arguments
which occurred to me against this, they being the same men-
tioned before; but though I had other reasons to offer now,
viz. that those men were enemies to my life, and would devour 20
me if they could; that it was self-presorvation, in the highest
degree, to deliver myself from this death of a life, and was
acting in my own defence as much as if they were actually
assaulting me, and the like; I say, though these things argued
for it, yet the thoughts of shedding human blood for my 25
deliverance were very terrible to me, and such as I could by
no means reconcile myself to for a great while. However, at
last, after many secret disputes with myself, and after great
« perplexities about it (for all these arguments, one way and
another, struggled in my head a long time), the eager pre- 30
vailing desire of deliverance at length mastered all the rest ;
and I resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages into my
hands, cost what it would. My next thing was to contrive
how to do it, and this indeed was very difficult to resolve on ;
but as I could pitch upon no probable means for it, so I 35
resolved to put myself upon the watch, to see them when they
came on shore, and leave the rest to the event; taking
such measures as the opportunity should present, let what
would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon 40
the scout as often as possible, and indeed so often, that I was

heartily tired of it; for it was above a year and a half that I

*

“

“9p



4 extravagant—excessive, violent (not, as East) in crossing the deserts; then, a
in ordinary conversation, meaning large, close carriage,
lavish of money). 15 scrupled—hesitated, weighed carefully.

5 dejection—casting down, despondency. 29 perplexities—doubts.

12 caravan—lit. a company of travellers 40 set myself upon the scout—went upon
jeurneying together for safety (in the the watch.
218 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

waited; and for great part of that time went out to the
west end, and to the south-west corner of the island almost
every day, to look for canoes, but none appeared. This was
very discouraging, and began to trouble me much; though I
cannot say that it did in this case (as it had done some time 5
before) wear off the edge of my desire to the thing ; but the
longer it seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was for it:
in a word, I was not at first so careful to shun the sight of
these savages, and avoid being seen by them, as I was now
eager to be upon them. Besides, I fancied myself able to 10
manage one, nay, two or three savages, if I had them, so as
to make them entirely slaves to me, to do whatever I should
direct them, and to prevent their being able at any time to do
me any hurt. It was a great while that I pleased myself
with this affair; but nothing still presented itself; all my 15
fancies and schemes came to nothing, for no savages came near
me for a great while.

About a year anda half after I entertained these notions

* (and by long musing had, as it were, resolved them all into

ct

nothing, for want of an occasion to put them into execution), 20
I was surprised one morning by seeing no less than five
canoes all on shore together on my side the island, and the
people who belonged to them all landed and out of my sight.

* The number of them broke all my measures; for seeing so

many, and knowing that they always came four or six, or 25
sometimes more in a boat, I could not tell what to think of

it, or how to take my measures to attack twenty or thirty
men single-handed ; so lay still in my castle, perplexed and
discomforted. However, I put myself into the same position
for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was just 30
ready for action, if anything had presented. Having waited

a good while, listening to hear if they made any noise, at
length, being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my
ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two
stages, as usual ; standing so, however, that my head did not 34
appear above the hill, so that they could not perceive me by
any means. Here I observed, by the help of my perspective
glass, that they were no less than thiity in number; that
they had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed.
How they had cooked it, I knew not, or what it was; but 40
they were all dancing, in I know not how many barbarous
gestures and figures, their own way, round the fire,





19 musing—thinking, pondering.
24 broke all my measures—upset all my calculations.
37 perspective glass—telescope (as before).
OF ROBINSON GRUSOE, 219

*x While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my per-
spective, two miserable wretches dragged from the boats,
where, it seems, they were laid by, and were now brought out
for the slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fall ;
being knocked down, I suppose, with a club, or wooden sword,
for that was their way ; and two or three others were at work
immediately, cutting him open for their cookery, while the
other victim was left standing by himself, till they should be
ready for him. In that very moment, this poor wretch,
seeing himself a little at liberty, and unbound, Nature 10
inspired him with hopes of life, and he started away from
them, and ran with incredible swiftness along the sands,
directly towards me ; I mean, towards that part of the coast
where my habitation was. I was dreadfully frightened, I
must acknowledge, when I perceived him run my way; and 15
especially when as I thought, I saw him pursued by the
whole body ; and now I expected that part of my dream was
coming to pass, and that he would certainly take shelter in
my grove: but I could not depend, by any means, upon my
dream, that the other savages would not pursue him thither, 20
and find him there. However, I kept my station, and my
spirits began to recover when I found that there was not
above three men that followed him; and still more was I

: encouraged, when I found that he outstripped them exceed-
ingly in running, and gained ground on them ; so that, if he 25
could but hold cut for half an hour, I saw easily he would
fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle, the creek, which I
mentioned often in the first part of my story, where I landed
my cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw plainly he must 30
necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken
there; but when the savage escaping came thither, he made
nothing of it, though the tide was then up; but, plunging in,
swam through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed,
and ran with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the 85
three persons same to the creek, I found that two of them
could swim, but the third could not, and that, standing on the
other side, he looked at the others, but went no farther, and
soon after went softly back again; which, as it happened, was
very well for him in the end. I observed that the two who 40
swam were yet more than twice as long swimming over the
creek as the fellow was that fled from them. It came very

an

1 perspective—(i.e. glass) as on last page. | 24 outstripped—outran,
220 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now
was the time to get me a servant, and perhaps a companion or
assistant ; and that I was plainly called by Providence to save
this poor creature’s life. immediately ran down the ladders
« with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns, for they
were both at the foot of the ladders, as I observed before, and
getting up again with the same haste to the top of the hill, I
crossed towards the sea ; and having a very short cut, and all
down hill, placed myself in the way between the pursuers and
the pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back,
was at first perhaps as much frightened at me as at them ; but
I beckoned with my hand to him to come back ; and, in the
meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two that followed;
then rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked him down
* with the stock of my piece. I was loath to fire, because I
would not have the rest hear; though, at that distance, it
would not have been easily heard, and being out of sight of
the smoke, too, they would not have known what to make of
it. Having knocked this fellow down, the other who pursued
him stopped, as if he had been frightened, and I advanced
towards him: but as I came nearer, I perceived presently he
had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me: so I was
then obliged to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed him
at the first shot. The poor savage who fled, but had stopped,
though he saw both his enemies fallen and killed, as he
thought, yet was so frightened with the fire and noise of my
* piece, that he stood stock still, and neither came forward, nor
went backward, though he seemed rather inclined still to fly
than to come on. [I hallooed again to him, and made signs to
come forward, which he easily understood, and came a little
way; then stopped again, and then a little farther, and
stopped again; and 1 could then perceive that he stood
trembling, as.if he had been taken prisoner, and had just been
to be killed, as his two enemies were. I beckoned to him
again to come to me, and gave him all the signs of encourage-
ment that I could think of ; and he came nearer and nearer,
kneeling down every ten or twelve steps, in token of acknow-
ledgment for saving his life. I smiled at him, and looked
pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer ; at length,
he came close to me ;. and then he kneeled down again, kissed
the ground, and laid his head upon the ground, and, taking me
by the foot, set my foot upon his head ; this, it seems, was in



5 expedition—speed.
15 stock of my piece—the butt-end of my gun.
27 stock still, i.e. as sit¥ as a stock (or post).

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40
*

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 221

token of swearing to be my slave for ever. I took him
up and made much of him, and encouraged him all I could.
But there was more work to do yet; for I perceived the

‘savage whom I had knocked down was not killed, but stunned

with the blow, and began to come to himself: so I pointed to 5
him, and showed him the savage, that he was not dead ; upon
this he spoke some words to me, and though I could not under-
stand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear; for
they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard,
my own excepted, for above twenty-five years. But there was 10
no time for such reflections now ; the savage who was knocked
down recovered himself so far as to sit up upon the ground,
and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid ; but when
I saw that, I presented my other piece at the man, as if I
would shoot him : upon this, my savage, for so I call him now, 15
made a motion to me to lend him my sword, which hung
naked in a belt by my side, which I did. He no sooner had
it, but he runs to his enemy, and at one blow, cut off his head
so cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done it
sooner or better ; which I thought very strange for one who, 20
I had reason to believe, never saw a sword in his life before,
except their own wooden swords: however, it seems, as I
learned afterwards, they make their wooden swords so sharp,
so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will even cut
off heads with them, ay, and arms, and that at one blow too. 25
When he had done this, he comes laughing to me in sign of
triumph, and brought me the sword again, and with abundance
of gestures which I did not understand, laid it down, with
the head of the savage that he had killed, just before me.
But that which astonished him most, was to know how I 80
killed the other Indian so far off; so, pointing to him, he
made signs to me to let him go to him ; and I bade him go, as
well as I could. When he came to him, he stood like one
amazed, looking at him, turning him first on one side, then on
the other ; looked at the wound the bullet had made, which 35
it seems was just in his breast, where it had made a hole, and
no great quantity of blood had followed; but he had bled
inwardly, for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and
arrows, and came back ; so I turned to go away, and beckoned
him to follow me, making signs to him that more might come 40
after them. Upon this he made signs to me that he should
bury them with sand, that they might not be seen by the rest



17 naked—unsheathed.
19 no executioner in Germany—apparently, the German headsmen or swordsmen had
a reputation for exceptional skill in Defoe's day.

“
%

3

oo

17 comely—good-looking. 27 tawny—dark, brownish colour.
20 surly aspect—sulky appearance. 27 nauseous—disgusting, unpleasant,

25 vivacity—liveliness. 1 46 antic—quaint, curious (Lat. antiqutts, old),

222 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

if they followed; and so I made signs to him again to do so.
He fell to work ; and in an instant he had scraped a hole in
the sand with his hands, big enough to bury the first in, and
then dragged him into it, and covered him; and did so by the
other also ; I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of
an hour. Then, calling him away, I carried him, not to my
castle, but quite away to my cave, on the farther part of the
island :. so I did not let my dream come to pass in that part,
that he. came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him
bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water,
which I found he was indeed in great distress for, from his
running : and having refreshed him, I made signs for him to go
and lie down to sleep, showing him a place where I had laid
some rice-straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to sleep
upon myself sometimes ; so the poor creature lay down, and
went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made,
with straight strong limbs, not too large, tall and well
shaped; and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age.

x He had a very good countenance, not a fierce and surly

aspect, but seemed to have something very manly in his face ;
and yet he had all the sweetness and softness of a European
in his countenance too, especially when he smiled. His hair
was long and black, not curled like wool; his forehead very

« high and large; and a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness

in his eyes. The colour of his skin was not quite black, but

«very tawny; and yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as

the Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of America
are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive-colour, that had in it
something very agreeable, though not very easy to describe.
His face was round and plump; his nose small, not flat like
the Negroes ; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth
well set, and as white as ivory.

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half an
hour, le awoke again, and came out of the cave to me; for I
had been milking my goats, which I had in the inclosure just
by: when he espied me, he came running to me, laying
himself down again upon the ground, with all the possible
signs of an humble, thankful disposition, making a great
many antic gestures to show it. At last he lays his head
flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my other foot
upon his head, as he had done before; and after this, made

10

15

20

25

30

40


OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 223

x all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission
imaginable, to let me know how he would serve me so long as
he lived. I understood him in many things, and let him
know I was very well pleased with him. In a little time I
began to speak to him, and teach him to speak to me; and, 5
first, I let him know his name should be Fripay, which was
the day I saved his life: I called him so for the memory of
the time. I likewise taught him to say Master; and then let
him know that was to be my name: I likewise taught him to
say Yes and No, and to know the meaning of them. I gave 10
him some milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it
before him, and sop my bread in it; and gave him a cake of
bread to do the like, which he quickly complied with, and
made signs that it was very good for him. I kept there with
him all that night ; but, as soon as it was day, I beckoned to 15
him to come with me, and let him know I would give him
some clothes; at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark
naked. As we went by the place where he had buried the
two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the
marks that he had made to find them again, making signs to 20
me that we should dig them up again and eat them. At this,
* I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made
as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with
my hand to him to come away, which he did immediately,
with great submission. I then led him up to the top of the 25
hill, to see if his enemies were gone; and pulling out my
glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place where they had
been, but no appearance of them or their canoes; so that it
was plain they were gone, and had left their two comrades
behind them, without any search after them. 30
But I was not content with this discovery ; but having now
more courage, and consequently more curiosity, I took my
man Friday with me, giving him the sword in his hand, with
the bow and arrows at his back, which I found he could use
very dexterously, making him carry one gun for me, and I 35
two for myself; and away we marched to the place where
these creatures had been; for I had a mind now to get some
fuller intelligence of them. When I came tv’ the place, my
very blood ran chill in my veins, and my heart sunk within
me, at the horror of the spectacle ; indeed, it was a dreadful 40
sight, at least it was so to me, though Friday made nothing
of it. The place was covered with human bones, the ground

%



lL subjection, servitude, submission — 22 abhorrence—hatred.
all have practically the same 35 dexterously — cleverly, neatly (Lat
meaning. dexter, the right hand).

Oo
224 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

dyed with their blood, and great pieces of flesh left here and
there, half-eaten, mangled, and scorched; and, in short, all
the tokens of the triumphant feast they had been making
there, after a victory over their enemies. J saw three skulls,
five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and 5
abundances of other parts of the bodies; and Friday, by his
signs, made me understand that they brought over four
prisoners to feast upon ; that three of them were eaten up,
and that he, pointing to himself, was the fourth; that there
had been a great battle between them and their next king, of 10
whose subjects, it seems, he had been one, and that they had
taken a great number of prisoners; all which were carried to
several places, by those who had taken them in the fight, in
order to feast upon them, as was done here by these wretches
upon those they brought hither. 15

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and
whatever remained, and lay them together in a heap, and
make a great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I

«found Friday had still a hankering stomach after some of the
flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature; but I showed so 20
much abhorrence at the very thoughts of it, and at the least
appearance of it, that he durst not discover it: for I had, by
some means, let him know that I would kill him if he
offered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our castle; and 25
there I fell to work for my man Friday; and first of all, I
gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the
poor gunner’s chest I mentioned, which I found in the wreck,
and which, with a little alteration, fitted him very well; and

* then I made him a jerkin of goat’s skin, as well as my skill 30

* would allow (for I was now grown a tolerably good tailor) ;
and I gave him a cap which I made of hare’s skin, very con-
venient, and fashionable enough; and thus he was clothed,
for the present, tolerably well, and was mighty well pleased
to see himself almost as well clothed as his master. It is 35
true, he went awkwardly in these clothes at first: wearing
the drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the

* waistcoat galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms ; but
a little easing them where he complained they hurt him, and
using himself to them, he took to them at length very well. 40

* The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I

began to consider where I should lodge him; and, that T

oe

se

5

19 hankering—eager, desirous, 88 galled—chafed, rubbed sore.
80 jerkin—a short jacket.
81 tolerably—fairly, 41 hutch—(as before), cabin, dwelling.


CRUSOE DRESSES FRIDAY.
*

LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CBUSOE. 227

might do well for him and yet be perfectly easy myself, I
made a little tent for him in the vacant place between my
two fortifications, in the inside of the last, and in the outside
of the first. As there was a door or entrance there into my
cave, I made a formal framed door-case, and a door to it, of
boards, and set it up in the passage, a little within the
entrance; and, causing the door to open in the inside, I
barred it up in the night, taking in my ladders, too; so that
Friday could no way come ‘at me in the inside of my inner-
most wall, without making so much noise in getting over that
it must needs awaken me; for my first wall had now a com-
plete roof over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and
leaning up to the side of the hill; which was again laid

x: across With smaller sticks, instead of laths, and then thatched

over a great thickness with the rice-straw, which was strong,
like reeds; and at the hole or place which was left to go in
or out by the ladder I had placed a kind of trap-door, which,
if it had been attempted on the outside, would not have
opened at all, but would have fallen down and made a great
noise: as to weapons, I took them all into my side every
night. But I needed none of all this precaution; for never
man had a more faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday
was to me; without passions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly
obliged and engaged ; his very affections were tied to me, like
those of a child to a father; and I dare say he would have
sacrificed his life to save mine, upon any occasion whatsoever :
the many testimonies he gave me of this put it out of doubt,
and soon convinced me that I needed to use no precautions
for my safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with
wonder, that however it had pleased God in His providence,
and in the government of the works of His hands, to take
from so great a part of the world of His creatures the best
uses to which their faculties and the powers of their souls
are adapted, yet that He has bestowed upon them the same
powers, the same reason, the same affections ; the same senti-
ments of kindness and obligation; the same passions, and
resentments of wrongs, the same sense of gratitnde, sincerity,
fidelity, and all the capacities of doing good, and receiving
good, that He has given to us; and that when He pleases to
offer them occasions of exerting these, they are as ready, nay,

more ready, to apply them to the right uses for which they

14 laths—thin planks of wood, | 88 resentment—indignation.

a

10

15

20

25

30

85

40
928 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

«were bestowed, than we are. This made me very melancholy
sometimes, in reflecting, as the several occasions presented,
how mean a use we make of all these, even though we hava
these powers enlightened by the great lamp of instruction,
the Spirit of God, and by the knowledge of His word added
to our understanding ; and why it has pleased God to hide
the like saving knowledge from so many millions of souls,
who, if I might judge by this poor savage, would make a
much better use of it than we did. From hence, I sometimes
was led too far, to invade the sovereignty of Providence, and, 10
sas it were, arraign the justice of so arbitrary a disposition of
things, that should hide that sight from some, and reveal it

to others, and yet expect a like duty from both; but I shut it
up, and checked my thoughts with this conclusion : first, That
we did not know by what light and Jaw these should be con- 15
demned ; but that as God was necessarily, and, by the nature

of His being, infinitely holy and just, so it could not be, but

if these creatures were all sentenced to absence from Himself,

it was on account of sinning against that light, which, as the
Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and, by such rules as 20
their consciences would acknowledge to be just, though the
foundation was not discovered to us; and, secondly, That
still, as we all are the clay in the hand of the potter, no
vessel could say to him, ‘‘ Why hast thou formed me thus ?”’

But to return to my new companion :—I was greatly 25

delighted with him, and made it my business to teach him
everything that was proper to make him useful, handy, and
helpful; but esrecially to make him speak, and understand
*me when I spoke ; and he was the aptest scholar that ever
was; and particularly was so merry, so constantly diligent, 30
*and so pleased when he could but understand me, or make me

understand him, that it was very pleasant to me to talk to
him. Now my life began to be so easy that I began to say

to myself, that could I but have been safe from more savages,

TI cared not if I was never to remove from the place where I 35
lived.

After I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I

thought that, in order to bring Friday off from his horrid way

of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s stomach, I
ought to let him taste other flesh ; so I took him out with me 40
one morning to the woods. I went, indeed, intending to kill

a kid out of my own flock, and bring it hgme and dress it ;

ou

3

i bestowed—given. 29 aptest—fittest, readiest.
11 arraign—accuse, indict, bring to trial. 31 but—only.


OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, © 999

but as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade,
*xand two young kids sitting by her. I catched hold of Friday ;
—“Hold,” said I, “stand still ;” and made signs to him not
to stir: immediately, I presented my piece, shot, and killed
one of the kids. The poor creature, who had, at a distance, 5
indeed, seen me kill the savage, his enemy, buat did not know,
«nor could imagine how it was done, was sensibly surprised ;
trembled, and shook, and looked so amazed that I thought he
would have sunk down. He did not see the kid I shot at, or
perceive I had kilied it, but ripped up his waistcoat, to fee) 10
whether he was not wounded; and, as I found presently,
thought I was resolved to kill him: for he came and kneeled
down to me, and embracing my knees, said a great many
things I did not understand; but I could easily see the
meaning was, to pray me not to kill him, 15
I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no
harm ; and taking him up by the hand, laughed at him, and
pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned to him to run
and fetch it, which he did: and while he was wondering, and
looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun 20
again, By-and-by, I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sitting
upon a tree within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little
what I would do, I called him to me again, pointed at the
fowl, which was indeed a parrot, though 1 thought it had been
a hawk; I say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and te 25
the ground under the parrot, to let him see I would make it
fall, I made him understand that I would shoot and kill that
bird; accordingly, I fired, and bade him look, and immediately
he saw the parrot fall. He stood like one frightened again,
notwithstanding all I had said to him; and I found he was 30
the more amazed, because he did not see me put anything into
*the gun, but thought that there must be some wonderful fund
of death and destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast,
bird, or anything near or far off; and the astonishment this
created in him was such as could not wear off for a long time: 35
and, I believe, if I would have let him, he would have wor-
shipped me and my gun. As for the gun itself, he would not
so much as couch it for several days after; but ae would
speak to it and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he
was by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to 40
desire it not to kill him. Well, after his astonishment was a
little over at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird

2catched — we should say caught | 7 sensibly—evidently.
nowadays. 32 fund—store.
ot

930 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

IT had shot, which he did, but stayed some time; for the
parrot, not being quite dead, had fluttered away a good dis-
tance from the place where she fell: however, he found her,
took her up, and brought her to me; and as I had perceived
his ignorance about the gun before, I took this advantage to 5
charge the gun again, and not to let him see me do it, that I
might be ready for any other mark that might present ; but
nothing more offered at that time: so I brought home the
kid, and the same evening I took the skin off, and cut it out

- as well as I could; and having a pot fit for that purpose, I 10

boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and made some very good
broth. After I had begun to eat some, I gave some to my
man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very well; but
that which was strangest to him was to see me eat salt with
it. He made a sign to me that the salt was not good to eat ; 15

; and putting a little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate

it, and would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth with
fresh water after it: on the other land, I took some meat into

«my mouth without salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter
. for want of salt, as much as he had done at the salt; but it 20

would not do; he would never care for salt with meat or
in his broth; at least, not for a great while, and then but a

very little.
Having thus fed him with bviled meat and broth, I was

, resolved to feast him the next day by roasting a piece of the 25

kid: this I did by hanging it before the fire on a string, as I
had seen many people do in England, setting two poles up, one
on each side of the fire, and one across the top, and tying the
string to the cross stick, letting the meat turn continually. This
Friday admired very much; but when he came to taste the 30
flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked it,
that I could not but understand him: an.l at last he told me,

as well as he could, he would never eat man’s flesh any more,
which I was very glad to hear.

The next day, I set him to work beating some corn out, ana 35
sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I observed before ;
and he goon understood how to do it as well as I, especially
after he had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was
to make bread of ; for after that, I let him see me make my
bread, and bake it too; and in a little time, Friday was able 40
to do all the work for me, as well as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed



16 nauseate—strongly dislike, from Lat. 19 sputter—(a word formed from the sound

nausea, sea-sickness. of the action it is intended to represent)
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 231

instead of one, I must provide more ground for my harvest,
and plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do; so I
marked out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the
same manner as before, in which Friday worked not only very
willingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully : and I told
him what it was for; that it was for corn to make more bread,
because he was now with me, and that I might have enough

*for him and myself too. He appeared very sensible of that

* part, and let me know that he thought I had much more
Jabour upon me on his account than I had for myself; and 10
that he would work the harder for me, if I, would tell him
what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this
place. Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the
names of almost everything I had occasion to call for, and of 15
every place I had to send him to, and talked a great deal to
me; so that, in short, I began now to have some use for my
tongue again, which, indeed, I had very little occasion for
before. Besides the pleasure of talking to him, I had a

* singular satisfaction in the fellow himself: his simple, un- 20
feigned honesty appeared to me more and more every day, and
I began really to love the creature ; and on his side, I believe
he loved me more than it was possible for him ever to
love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any inclination for his 25
own country again; and having taught him English so well
that he couid answer me almost any question, I asked him
whether the nation that he belonged to never conquered in
battle? At which he smiled, and said, “‘ Yes, yes, we always
fight the better ;” that is, he meant, always get the better in 30
fight ; and so we began the following discourse :—

Master.—You always fight the better ; how came you to be
taken prisoner then, Friday 4

LFriday.—My nation beat much for all that.

Master.—How beat? If your nation beat them, how came. 35
you to be taken ?

Friday.—They more many ‘than my nation, in the place
where me was; they take one, two, three, and me: my natior
over-beat them in the yonder place, where me no was ; there
my nation take one, two, great thousand. 40

Master.—But why did not your side recover you-from the
hands of your enemies then ?

or







8 very sensible of that part—very capable of understanding and falling in with my plan,
20 unfeigned—unpretended, honest.
232 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Friday.—They run, one, two, three, and me, and make go
in the canoe ; my nation have no canoe that time.

AMaster.—Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with
the men they take? Do they carry them away and eat them,
as these did ?

friday.—Yes, my nation eat mans too: eat all up.

Master.—Where do they carry them?

Friday.—Go to other place, where they think.

Master.—_Do they come hither ?

Friday.—Y es, yes, they come hither ; come other else place, 10

Master.— Have you been here with them ?

Lriday.—Yes, I have been here (points to the N.W. side of
the island, which, it seems, was their side).

By this, I understood that my man Friday: had formerly
been among the savages who used to come on shore on the 15
farther part of the island, on the same man-eating occasions
he was now brought for: and, some time after, when I took
the courage to carry him to that side, being the same I
formerly mentioned, he presently knew the place, and told me
he was there once, when they ate up twenty men, two women, 20
and one child: he could not tell twenty in English, but he
numbered them, by laying so many stones in a row, and

« polnting to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage, because it introduces what follows:
that after this discourse I had with him, I asked him how far 25
it was from our island to the shore, and whether the canoes
were not often lost. He told me there was no danger, no
canoes ever lost ; but that after a little way out to sea, there
was a current and wind, always one way in the morning, the
other in the afternoon. This [ understood to beno more than 30
the sets of the tide, as going out or coming in; but I after-

wards understood it was occasioned by the great draft and
«reflux of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth or gulph
of which river, as 1 found afterwards, our island lay; and that
this land which I perceived to be W. and N.W. was the great 35
* ae Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth of the river.

I asked Friday a thousand questions about the country, the
inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what nations were near:
he told me all he knew with the greatest openness imaginable,
Lasked him the names of the several nations of his sort of 40
people, but could get no other name than Caribs: from whence
Teasily understood that these were the Caribbees, which ou

Cr



23 tell—here (as in older English often) to 33 Oroonoko—the Orinoco, the great river

count (Cf. the tellers, who count votes of Venezuela.
at a meeting). 36 Trinidad -- this island was taken by
82 draft and reflux—flowing in and flowing Great Britain from the Spanish in

out, 1797+
OF ROBINSON CRUSORK. 233

maps place on the part of America which reaches from the
x mouth of the river Oroonoko to Guiana, and onwards to St.
« Martha. He told me, that up a great way beyond the moon,
that was beyond the setting of the moon, which must be
west from their country, there dwelt white bearded men,
like me, and pointed to my great whiskers, which I men-
tioned before; and that they had killed much mans, that
was his word: by all which I understood he meant the
Spaniards, whose cruelties in America had been spread over
the whole country, and were remembered by all the nations 10
from father to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might go from this
island, and get among those white men: he told me, “ Yes,
yes, you may go in two canoe.” I could not understand what
he meant, or make him describe to me what he meant by two 15
canoe, till at last, with great difficulty, I found he meant it
must be in a large boat, as big as two canoes. This part of
Friday’s discourse I began to relish very well; and from this
time I entertained some hopes that, one time or other, I might
find an opportunity to make my escape from this place, and 20
that this poor savage might be a means to help me.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me,
and that he began to speak to me, and understand me, I was
not wanting to lay a foundation of religious knowledge in his
mind ; particularly I asked him one time, who made him. 25
The poor creature did not understand me at all, but thought
I had asked who was his father: but I took it up by another
handle, and asked him, who made the sea, the ground we

walked on, and the hills and woods. He told me, ‘ Jt was
one Benamuckee, that lived beyond all;” he could describe 30
nothing of this great person, but that he was very old, “ muck,
older,”’ he said, ‘‘than the sea or land, than the moon or the
stars.” I asked him then, if this old person had made all
things, why did not all things worship him? He looked
very grave, and, with a perfect look of innocence, said, “ All 35
things say O to him.’’ J asked him, if the people who die in his
country went away anywhere? He said, “‘ Yes; they all went

to Benamuckee.”’ Then I asked him whether those they eat
up went thither too? He said, ‘ Yes.”’

From these things, I began to instruct him in the know- 40

ledge of the true God : I told him that the great Maker of all
things lived up there, pointing up towards heaven: that He

an

oe

ov



2 Guiana — the Caribbean Islands are 18 religh—to like, he pleased at.
hardly placed as far east as Guiana _ es ‘ .
in our maps. 23 was not wanting—did not fail to...
2 St. Martha—a cape on the North Coast ss :
of Colombia, just west of the Gulf of 27 took it up by another handle — i.e
Venezuela. tried another way.
234 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

%

governed the world by the same powér and providence by

: which He made it; that He was omnipotent, and could do
everything for us, give everything to us—take everything
from us; and thus, by degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened
with great attention, and received with pleasure the notion of 5
Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us; and of the manner of
making our prayers tc God, and His being able to hear us,
even in heaven. He tcld me one day, that if our God could
hear us, up beyond the sun, he must needs be a greater God
than their Benamuckee, who lived but a little way off, and yet 10
could not hear till they went up to the great mountains where
he dwelt to speak to him. I asked him if ever he went thither
to speak to him? He said, ‘‘ No; they never went that were
young men; none went thither but the old men,” whom he
called their Oowokakee ; that is, as I made him explain to 15
me, their religious, or clergy ; and that they went to say O
(so he called saying prayers), and then came back and told
them what Benamuckee said. By this I observed, that there

*is priesteraft even among the most blinded, ignorant pagans
in the world; and the policy of making a secret of religion, 20

*in order to preserve the veneration of the people to the
clergy, not only to be found in the Roman, but, perhaps,
among all religions in the world, even among the most brutish
and barbarous savages.

Tendeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man Friday ; 25
and told him that the pretence of their old men going up to
the mountains to say O to their god Benamuckee was a cheat;
and their bringing word from thence what he said was much
more so ; that if they met with any answer, or spake with any
one there, it must be with an evil spirit ; and then I entered into 30
a long discourse with him about the devil, the origin of him, his
rebellion against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, hig
setting himself up in the dark parts of the world to be wor-

* shipped instead of God, and as God, and the many stratagems

‘ae made use of to delude mankind to their ruin ; how he had 85
a secret access to our passions and to our affections, and to
adapt his snares to our inclinations, so as to cause us even to
be our own tempters, and run upon our destruction by our
own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his 40

mind about the devil as it was about the being of a God:
« nature assisted all my arguments to evidence to him even the

oe



1 providence—foresight. 21 veneration—reverence.
2 omnipotent—all-powerful. : 2 ‘
19 pagans—heathens (lit. villagers ; those in 34 stratagems—tricks, devices, plots.

the outlying villages of the Roman ie a ,

Empire were the last to become 35 delude—deceive.

Christians), 42 evidence—prove.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 235

necessity of a great First Cause—an overruling, governing
Power—a secret directing Providence ; and of the equity and
justice of paying homage to Him that made us, and the like ;
but there appeared nothing of this kind in the notion. of an
evil spirit ; of his origin, his being, his nature; and, above 6
all, of his inclination to do evil, and to draw us in to do so
too: and the poor creature puzzled me once in such a ‘manner,
by a question merely natural and innocent, that I scarce knew
what to say to him. I had been talking a-great deal to
«him of the power of God, His omnipotence, His aversion to 10
«sin, His being a consuming fire to the workers of iniquity ;
how, as He had made us all, He could destroy us and all the
world in a moment ; and he listened with great seriousness to
me all the while. After this, I had been telling him how the
devil was God’s enemy in the hearts of men, and used all his 15
malice and skill to defeat the good designs of Providence, and
to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world, and the like.
“ Well,” says Friday, “ but you say God is so strong, so great;
is he not much strong, much might as the devil?’’ ‘‘ Yes, yes,”
says I, ‘‘ Friday ; God is stronger than the devil : God is above 20
the devil, and therefore we pray to God to tread him down under
«our feet, and enable us to resist his temptations and quench
his fiery darts.”’ “ But,” says he again, ‘if God much stronger,
much might as the wicked devil, why God no kill the devil, so
make him no more do wicked?” I was strangely surprised at 25
this question ; and, after all, though I was now an old man,
xyet I was but a young doctor, and ill qualified for a casuist, or
a solver of difficulties; and at first I could not tell what to
say ; so I pretended not to hear him, and asked him what he
said: but he was too earnest for an answer to forget his 30
question, so that he repeated it in the very same broken words
as above. By this time I had recovered myself a little, and I
xgaid, “God will at last punish him severely ; he is reserved
:for the judgment, and is to be cast into the bottomless pit, to
dwell with everlasting fire.” This did not satisfy Friday ; but 35
he returns upon me, repeating my words, ‘“‘‘ Reserve at
last /’ me no understand: but why not kill the devil now;
not kill great ago?” ‘You may as well ask me,’ said I,
“why God does not kill you or me, when we do wicked
things here that offend Him : we are preserved to repent and 40
be pardoned.” He mused some time on this: ‘‘ Well, well,”
says he, mightily affectionately, “that well: so you, I, devil.

5)



10 aversion—dislike (Lat. a, from; verto, I 27 doctor—teacher.

turn.) 27 casuist—one who took upon pe Ai
11 iniquity — wrong-doing (Lat. iniquus, nine cases of conscience for the
unjust). 383 reserved—kept back.

22 quench his fiery darts—the reference is 34 bottomless pit—see 2 Peter ii. 14 and
to Romans xwi. aa, Revelations xx. 3.
236 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

all wicked, all preserve, repent, God pardon all.”’ Here I was

* run down again by him to the last degree: and it was a testi-
mony to me, how the mere notions of nature, though they will
guide reasonable creatures to the knowledge of a God, and of a
worship or homage due to the supreme being of God, as the 5
consequence of our nature, yet nothing but divine revelation
can form the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of redemption

* purchased for us; of a Mediator of the new covenant, and of

an Intercessor at the footstool of God’s throne ; I say, nothing

* but a revelation from heaven can form these in the soul; and 10
that, therefore, the gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus
Christ, I mean the Word of God, and the Spirit of God,

* promised for the guide and sanctifier of His people, are the
absolutely nevessary instructors of the souls of men in the
saving knowledge of God, and the means of salvation. 15

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and
my man, rising up hastily, as upon some sudden occasion of
going out; then sending him for something a good way off, I
seriously prayed to God that He would enable me to instruct

*«gavingly this poor savage ; assisting, by His Spirit, the heart 20
of the poor ignorant creature to receive the light of the know-
ledge of God in Christ reconciling him to Himself, and would
guide me so to speak to him from the Word of God, that his con-
science might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved.
When he came again to me, I entered into a long discourse with 25
him upon the subject of the redemption of man by the Saviour
of the world, and of the doctrine of the gospel preached from
heaven, viz. of repentance towards God, and faith in our
blessed Lord Jesus. I then explained to him as well as I could
why our blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature of 30

* angels, but the seed of Abraham; and how, for that reason, the
fallen angels had no share in the redemption; that he came

* only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all
the methods J took for this poor creature’s instruction, and 35
must acknowledge, what I believe all that act upon the same
principle will find, that in laying things open to him, I really
informed and instructed myself in many things that either I
did not know, or had not fully considered before, but which
occurred naturally to my mind upon searching into them, for 40
the information of this poor savage; and I had more affection
in my inquiry after things upon this occasion than ever I felt



2 run down—caught, ‘ cornered"? (as we
say).

8 Mediator—one who mediates, or stands
between man and God

8 covenant—agreement.

9 Intercessor—one who intercedes for man,
or pleads for him,

10 revelation—a ‘ lifting of the veil.”

13 sanctifier—one who makes holy. (Lat.
sanctus, holy.)

20 savingly—i. e. so as to save (his soul).

31 bat oe of Abraham—See Hebrews

33 lost. aneap of the, etc.—see Matthew
xV. od,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 237

before: so that, whether this poor wild wretch was the better
for me or no, I had great reason to be thankful that ever he
came to me; my grief sat lighter upon me; my habitation
grew comfortable to me beyond measure: and when I re-
flected that in this solitary life which I have been confined to, 5
Thad not only been moved to look up to heaven myself, and to
seek the hand that had brought me here, but was now to be
made an instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and,
for aught I knew, the soul of a poor savage, and bring him to
the true knowledge of religion, and of the Christian doctrine, 10

+: that he might know Christ Jesus, in whom is life eternal; I
say, when I reflected upon all these things, a secret joy ran
through every part of my soul, and I frequently rejoiced that
ever I was brought to this place, which I had so often thought
the most dreadful of all afflictions that could possibly have 15
befallen me.

I continued in this thankful frame all the remainder of my
time ; and the conversation which employed the hours between
Friday and me was such as made the three years which we
lived there together perfectly and completely happy, if any 20

* such thing as complete happiness can be formed in a sublunary
state. This savage was now a good Christian, a much better
than I; though I have reason to hope, and bless God for it,

«that we were equally penitent, and comforted, restored peni-
tents. We had here the Word of God to read, and no farther 25
off from His Spirit to instruct, than if we had been in England.

I always applied myself, in reading the Scripture, to let him
know, as well as I could, the meaning of what I read; and he
again, by his serious inquiries and questionings, made me, as
I said before, a much better scholar in the Scripture know- 30
ledge than I should ever have been by my own mere private
zeading. Another thing I cannot refrain from observing here
also, from experience in this retired part of my life, viz. how
infinite and inexpressible a blessing it is that the knowledge of
God, and of the doctrine of salvation by Christ Jesus, is so 35
plainly laid down in the Word of God, so easy to be received
and understood, that, as the bare reading the Scripture made
me capable of understanding enough of my duty to carry me
directly on to the great work of simcere repentance for my
sins, and laying hold of a Saviour for life and salvation, to a 40

«stated reformation in practice, and obedience to all God’s

commands, and this without any teacher or instructor, I mean

oo



il in whom is life, etc.—See St. John xvii. 3. 24 penitent—sorry for past sins and deter-
fap : mining to forsake them.

21 sublunary—earthly (lit. under the moon, 41 reformation — improvement, amend-

Lat. sub, under; Juna, the moon.) ment,
238 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

human ; so the same plain instruction sufficiently served to
the enlightening this savage creature, and bringing him to
be such a Christian as I have known few equal to him in
my life.

Ags to all the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contention
which have happened in the world about religion, whether

«niceties in doctrines, or schemes of Church government, they
were all perfectly useless to us, and, for aught I can yet see,
they have been so to the rest of the world. We had the sure
guide to heaven, viz. the Word of God; and we had, blessed 10
be God, comfortable views of the Spirit of God teaching and.
instructing by His word, leading us into all truth, and making
us both willing and obedient to the instruction of His word.
And I cannot see the least use that the greatest knowledge of
‘the disputed points of religion, which have made such confu- 15
sion in the world, would have been to us, if we could have
obtained it. But I must go on with the historical part of
things, and take every part in its order.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and
that he could understand almost all I said to him, and speak 20
pretty fluently, though in broken English, to me, I acquainted
him with my own history, or at least so much of it as related
to my coming to this place ; how I had lived there, and how
long ; I let him into the mystery, for such it was to him, of
gunpowder and bullet, and taught him how to shoot. I gave 25
him a knife, which he was wonderfully delighted with ; and I

«made him a belt, with a frog hanging to it, such as in England

*we wear hangers in; and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I
gave him a hatchet, which was not only as good a weapon in
some cases, but much more useful upon other occasions. 30

I described to him the country of Europe, particularly
England, which I came from; how we lived, how we wor-
shipped God, how we behaved to one another, and how we
traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an
account of the wreck which I had been on board of, and 35
showed him, as near as I could, the place where she lay ; but
she was all beaten in pieces before, and gone. I showed him
the ruins of our boat, which we lost when we escaped, and
which I could not stir with my whole strength then ; but was
now fallen almost: all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday 40
stood musing a great while, and said nothing. I asked him
what it was he studied upon. At last says he, ‘‘ Me see such

or



5 wrangling—quarrelling. 27 frog—a leather sheath for a dagger, etc.
5 contention—strife, rivalry.
7 niceties—delicate points, minute ques- | 28 hangers—short swords, curved near the

tions. (Cf. note I on p. 202, * nicest,’’) point,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 239

boat like come to place at my nation.” I did not understand
him a good while; but, at last, when I had examined further
into it, I understood by him, that a boat, such as that had
been, came on shore upon the country where he lived: that
is, as he explained it, was driven thither by stress of weather.
I presently imagined that some European ship must have been
cast away upon their coast, and the boat might get loose and
drive ashore; but was so dull that I never once thought oi
men making their escape from a wreck thither, much less
whence they might come : so I only inquired after a description
of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough ; but brought
me better to understand him when he added with scme
warmth, ‘‘“ We save the white mans from drown.” Then I
presently asked if there were any white mans, as he called
them, in the boat. ‘“ Yes,’’ ke said; ‘“‘the boat full of white
mans.” I asked him how many. He told upon his fingers
seventeen. J asked him then what became of them. He told
me, ‘‘ They live, they dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently
imagined that these might be the men belonging to the ship
that was cast away in the sight of my island, as I now called
it; and who after the ship wag struck on the rock and they
saw her inevitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat,
and were landed upon that wild shore among the savages.

« Upon this I inquired of him more critically what was become

of them. He assured me they lived still there; that they
had been there about four years; that the savages left them
alone, and gave them victuals to live on. I asked him how it
came to pass they did not kill them and eat them. He said,
“‘ No, they make brother with them ;” that is, as I understood
him, a truce; and then he added, “They no eat mans but
when make the war fight ;” that is to say, they never eat any
men but such as come to fight with them and are taken iz
battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon
the top of the hill, at the east side of the island, from whence,
as I have said, I had, in a clear day, discovered the main or
continent of America, Friday, the weather being very serene,
looks very earnestly towards the main land, and, in a kind of
surprise, falls a jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for

24 inevitably—unavoidably. | 26 critically—carefully,

qn

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

TI was at some distance from him. I asked him what was the
240 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

matter. ‘O joy!” says he; “O glad! there see my country,
there my nation!’’ I observed an extraordinary sense of
pleasure appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his
countenance discovered a strange eagerness, as if. he had a
mind to be in his own country again. This observation of 5
mine put a great many thoughts into me, which made me, at
first, not so easy about my new man Friday as I was before ;
and I made no doubt but that, if Friday could get back to his
own nation again, he would not only forget all his religion,
but all his obligation to me, and would be forward enough to 10
give his countrymen an account of me, and come back, perhaps,
with a hundred or two of them, and make a feast upon me, at
which he might be as merry as he used to be with those of his
enemies, when they were taken in war. But I wronged the
poor honest creature very much, for which I was very sorry 15
afterwards. However, as my jealousy increased, and held
* some weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar
and kind to him as before: in which I was certainly wrong
too; the honest, grateful creature having no thought about it,
but what consisted with the best principles, both as a religious 20
Christian, and as a grateful friend; as appeared afterwards to
my full satisfaction.
While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was
‘every day pumping him, to see if he would discover any of the
new thoughts which I suspected were in him; but I found 25
everything he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could
* find nothing to nourish my suspicion ; and, in spite of all my
uneasiness, he made me at last entirely his own again; nor
did he in the least perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore
T could not suspect him of deceit. 30
One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being
hazy at sea, so that we could not see the continent, I called
to him, and said, “Friday, do not you wish yourself in your
own country, your own nation?” “Yes,” he said, “I be
much O glad to be at my own nation.” ‘What would you 35
do there?”’ said I: ‘would you turn wild again, eat men’s
flesh again, and bea savage, as you were before?” He
* looked full of concern, and shaking his head, said, ‘No,
no, Friday tell them to live good; tell them to pray God ;
tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk; no eat 40
man again.’’? ‘Why, then,” said I to him, “they will kill
you.’ He looked grave at that, and then said, ‘“‘ No, no.

ae





4 discovered—revealed, shewed, displayed. 27 nourish my suspicion—to give cause for

17 circumspect—careful, watchful.

21 pumping—trying to get information from
(metaphor). 38 concern—anxiety.

iny distrust.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 241

they no kill me, they willing love learn.’ He meant by
this, they would be willing to learn. He added, they learned
much of the bearded mans that came in the boat. Then I
asked him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that,
and told me that he could not swim so far. I told him, 1 5
would make a canoe for him. He told me he would go, if
I would go with him. “Igo!” says 1; ‘why they will eat
me if I come there.” ‘No, no,’’ says he, ‘‘me make they no
eat you; me make they much love you.’’ He meant, he would
tell them how I had killed his enemies, and saved his life, 10
and so he would make them love me. Then he told me, as
well as he could, how kind they were to seventeen white men,
or bearded men, as he called them, who came on shore there
in distress.
From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over, 15
and see if I could possibly join with those bearded men, who
I made no doubt were Spaniards and Portuguese ; not doubting
but, if I could, we might find some method to escape from
« thence, being upon the continent, and a good company together,
better than I could from an island forty miles off the shore, 20
alone, and without help. So, after some days, I took Friday
* to work again, by way of discourse, and told him I would
give him a boat to go back to his own nation ; and, accordingly,
I carried him to my frigate, which lay on the other side of the
island, and having cleared it of water (for I always kept it 25
sunk in water), I brought it out, showed it him, and we both
went into it. I found he was a most dexterous fellow at
managing it, and would make it go almost as swift again as
I could. So when he was in, I said to him, ‘“‘ Well, now,
Friday, shall we go to your nation?’’ He looked very dull 80
at my saying so; which it seems was because he thought the
boat was too small to go so far. I then told him I had a
bigger ; so the next day I went to the place where the first
boat lay which I had made, but which I could not get into
the water. He said that was big enough ; but then, as I had 35
taken no care of it, and it had lain two or three-and-twenty
years there, the sun had split and dried it, that it was rotten.
Friday told me such a boat would do very well, and would
«carry “much enough vittle, drink, bread ;’’—this was his
way of talking. 40
Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my
design of going over with him to the continent, that I told



19 continent—mainland. :
22 by way of discourse—in the course of conversation.
39 vittle—victuals, eatables, food.
242 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE,

him we would go and make one as big as that, and he should
go home in it. Hoe answered not one word, but looked very
grave and sad. I asked him what was the matter with him,
He asked me again, “‘ Why you angry mad with Friday ?—
what me done?’’ Iasked him what he meant. I told him §
I was not angry with him at all. ‘No angry!” says he,
repeating the words several times; ‘‘ why send Friday home
away to my nation?” “Why,” says I, “Friday, did not
you say you wished you were there?’ ‘Yes, yes,” says he,
“wish we both there; no. wish Friday there, no master 10
there.” Ina word, he would not think of going there with-
out me. “I go there, Friday?” says I, “what shall I do
there?”’ He turned very quick upon me at this. ‘ You do
great deal much good,” says he; ‘you teach wild mans be
good, sober, tame mans ; you tell them know God, pray God, 15
and live new life.” ‘ Alas, Friday !’’ says I, ‘thou knowest
not wiiat thou sayest; I am but an ignorant man myself.”
“Yes, yes,” says he, “ you teachee me good, you teachee them
good.” ‘No, no, Friday,” says I, “you shall go without me ;
leave me here to live by myself, as I did before.” He looked 20
confused again at that word; and running to one of the
hatchets which he used to wear, he takes it up hastily, and
gives it tome. ‘ What must I do with this?” says I to him.
“You take kill Friday,” says he. ‘ What must I kill you
for?” said I again. He returns very quick—‘‘ What you 25
send Friday away for? ‘Take kill Friday, no send Friday
away.’ This he spoke so earnestly that I saw tears stand in
his eyes. In a word, I so plainly discovered the utmost
affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in him, that I
told him then, and often after, that I would never send him 30
away from me, if he was willing to stay with me.
Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled
affection to me, and that nothing could part him from me, so
I found all the foundation of his desire to go to his own
« country was laid in his ardent affection to the people,-and his 35
hopes of my doing them good; a thing which, as [ had no
notion of myself, so I had not the least thought or intention,
or desire of undertaking it. But still I found a strong in-
clination to attempting my escape, founded on the supposition
gathered from the discourse, that there were seventeen bearded 40
men there ; and therefore, without any more delay, I went to
work with Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and



85 ardent—warm, burning.


FRIDAY SHOWS HIS SETTLED AFFECTION TO CRUSOEB,
LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 245

make a large periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage.
There were trees enough in the island to have built a little
fleet, not of periaguas or canoes, but even of good large
vessels ; but the main thing I looked at was, to get one sq
near the water that we might launch it when it was made, to 5
avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last, Friday
pitched upon a tree; for I found he knew much better than
I what kind of wood was fittest for it; nor can I tell, to this
day, what wood to call the tree we cut down, except that it
*was very like the tree we call fustic, or between that and the 10
«Nicaragua wood, for it was much of the same colour and
smell. Friday wished to burn the hollow or cavity of this
tree out, to make it for a boat, but I showed him how to cut
it with tools ; which, after I had showed him how to use, he
did very handily ; and in about a month’s hard labour, we 15
finished it and made it very handsome; especially, when,
with our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we cut
and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat. After
this, however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her
along, as it were inch by inch, upon great rollers into the 20
water ; but when she was in, she would have carried twenty
men with great ease.

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it
amazed me to see with what dexterity and how swift my man
Friday could manage her, turn her, and paddle her along. 25
So I asked him if he would, and if we might venture over
in her. “ Yes,’ he said, ‘we venture over in her very well,
though great blow wind.’ However, I had a farther design
that he knew nothing of, and that was, to make a mast and a
sail, and to fit her with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, 30
that was easy enough to get; so I pitched upon a straight
young cedar-tree, which I found near the place, and which
there were great plenty of in the island, and I set Friday to
work to cut it down, and gave him directions how to shape
and order it. But as to the sail, that was my particular care 35
I knew I had old sails, or rather pieces of old sails, enough ;
but as I had had them now six-and-twenty years by me, and
had not been very careful to preserve them, not imagining
that I should ever have this kind of use for them, I did not
doubt but they were all rotten; and, indeed, most of them 40
were so. However, I found two pieces, which appeared
pretiy good, and with these I went to work: and with a

%

LO fustic—the word of a West Indian tree, | 11 Nicaragua—in Central America, exports
used for dye-stuffs. a hard, red wood.
246 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

great deal of pains, and awkward stitching, you may be sure,
for want of needles, I at length made a three-cornered ugly
thing, like what we call in England a shoulder-of-mutton sail,

«to go with a ’vx0om at bottom, and a little short sprit at the
top, such as asually our ships’ long-boats sail with, and such
as I best knew how to manage, as it was such a one as I had
to the boat in which I made my escape from Barbary, as
related in the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work, viz.
rigging and fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them 10
very complete, making a small stay, and a sail, or foresail to
it, to assist if we should turn to windward; and, what was
more than all, I fixed a rudder to the stern of her to steer

«with. I was but a bungling shipwright, yet as I knew the
usefulness, and even necessity of such a thing, I applied my- 15
self with so much pains to do it, that at last I brought it to
pass; though, considering the many dull contrivances I had
for it that failed, I think it cost me almost as much labour as
making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as 20
to what belonged to the navigation of my boat; for, though
he knew very well how to paddle a canoe, he knew nothing of
what belonged to a sail and a rudder; and was the most

» amazed when he saw me work the boat to and again in the sea

*by the rudder, and how the sail gibbed, and filled this way or 25
that way, as the course we sailed changed; I say, when he
saw this, he stood like one astonished and amazed. However,
with a little use, I made all these things familiar to him, and
he became an expert sailor, except that of the compass I could
make him understand very little. On the other hand, as there 30
was very little cloudy weather, and seldom or never any fogs
in those parts, there was the less occasion for a compass,
seeing the stars were always to be seen by night, and the
shore by day, except in the rainy seasons, and then nobody
cared to stir abroad either by land or sea. 35

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my
captivity in this place ; though the three last years that I had
this creature with me ought rather to be left out of the
account, my habitation being quite of another kind than in
all the rest of the time. I kept the anniversary of my land- 40
ing here with the same thankfulness to God for His mercies
as at first: and if I had such cause of acknowledgment at

ar

4 boom—a pole-en which a sail is fastened. 14 baneNe shipwright—a clumsy ship-
ullder..

4 sprit—small spar to which a sail is 24 to and again—to and fro.
fastened. 25 gibbed—shifted, moved suddenly.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 247

first, I had much more so now, having such additional testi-

monies of the care of Providence over me, and the great hopes

I had of being effectually and speedily delivered; for I had

an invincible impression upon my thoughts that my deliver-

ance was at hand, and that I should not be another year in 5

«this place, [ went on, however, with my husbandry ; digging,
planting, and fencing, as usual. I gathered and cured my
grapes, and did every necessary thing as before.

The rainy season was in the meantime, upon me, when [

« kept more within doors than at other times. We had stowed 10
our new vessel as secure as we could, bringing her up into the
creek, where, as I said in the beginning, I landed my rafts
from the ship; and hauling her up to the shore at high-water
mark, I made my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough
to hold her, and just deep enough to give her water enough to 15
float in; and then, when the tide was out, we made a strong

«dam across the end of it, to keep the water out; and so she
lay dry as to the tide from the sea: and to keep the rain off
we laid a great many boughs of trees, so thick that she was as
well thatched as a house ; and thus we waited for the months 20
of November and December, in which I designed to make my
adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought
of my design returned with the fair weather, I was preparing
daily for the voyage. And the first thing I did was to lay by 25
a certain quantity of provisions, being the stores for our
voyage ; and intended in a week or a fortnight’s time to open
the dock, and launch out our boat. I was busy one morning
upon something of this kind, when I called to Friday, and bid
him to go to the sea-shore, and see if he could find a turtle or 30
tortoise, a thing which we generally got once a week, for the
sake of the eggs as well as the flesh. Friday had not been
long gone when he came running back, and flew over my outer
wall, or fence, like one that felt not the ground, or the steps
he set his feet on; and before I had time to speak to him, he 35
cries out to me, “O master! O master! Osorrow! O bad! ”—
“What's the matter, Friday?” says I. ‘O yonder there,”
says he, “one, two, three canoes ; one, two, three!” By this
way of speaking, I concluded there were six; but on inquiry
I found there were but three. ‘‘ Well, Friday,” says I, “do 40
not be frightened.” So I heartened him up as well as I could.
However I saw the poor fellow was most terribly scared, for



4 invincible—unconquerable. 10 stowed—stored, laid up.
6 husbandry—farming. 17 dam—a bank to keep out water.
248 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

nothing ran in his head but that they were come to look for him,
and would cut him in pieces and eat him ; and the poor fellow
trembled so that I scarcely knew what to do with him. I
comforted him as well as I could, and told him I was in as
much danger as he, and that they would,.eat me as well as
him, “But,” says I, “ Friday, we must resolve to fight them.
Can you fight, Friday?” ‘‘ Me shoot,” says he, “‘ but there
come many great number.” ‘No matter for that,” said I,
again ; “our guns will fright them that we do not kill.” Soi
asked him whether, if I resolved to defend him, he would
defend me, and stand by me, and do just as I bid him. He
said, ‘Me die, when you bid die, master.” So I went and
fetched a good dram of rum and gave him; for I had been so
« good a husband of my rum, that I had a great deal left. When
he had drunk it, I made him take the two fowling-pieces,
which we always carried, and loaded them with large swan-
shot, as big as small pistol-bullets. Then I took four muskets,
and loaded them with two slugs and five small bullets each ;
and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets each. I
hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my side, and gave
Friday his hatchet. When I had thus prepared myself, I
took my perspective-glass, and went up to the side of the hill,
to see what I could discover; and I found quickly by my
glass, that there were one-and-twenty savages, three prisoners,
and three canoes; and that their whole business seemed to be
the triumphant banquet upon these three human bodies; a
barbarous feast, indeed! but nothing more than, as I had
observed, was usual with them. I observed also, that they
had landed, not where they had done when Friday made his
escape, but nearer to my creek, where the shore was low, and
where a thick wood came almost close down to the sea. This,
with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches
came about, filled me with such indignation that I came down
again to Friday, and told him I was resolved to go down to
them, and kill them all; and asked him if he wotld stand by
me. He had now got over his fright, and his spirits being a
little raised with the dram I had given him, he was very
cheerful, and told me, as before, he would die when TI bid die,

In this fit of fury I divided the arms which I had charged,
as before, between us ; I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his
girdle, and three guns upon his shoulder, and I took one pistol

and the other threr guns myself; and in this posture we

10

15

20

26

30

40

14 a husband of—‘‘to husband"? is to use sparingly, so the noun husband here wilt

mean economiser, saver.
18 slugs—irregular shaped oval bullets.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOR. 249

marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my pocket, and
gave Friday a large bag with more powder and bullets; and
as to orders, I charged him to keep close behind me, and not
to stir, or shoot, or do anything till I bid him, and in the

x meantime not to speak a word. In this posture I fetched a
compass to my right hand of near a mile, as well to get over
the creek as to get into the wood, so that I could come within
shot of them before I should be discovered, which I had seen
by my glass it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts re- 10

turning, I began to abate my resolution :—I do not mean that
I entertained any fear of their number, for, as they were
naked, unarmed wretches, it is certain I was superior to them
—nay, -though I had been alone. But it occurred to my
thoughts, what call, what occasion, much less what necessity, 15
I was in to go and dip my hands in blood, to attack people
who had neither done or intended me any wrong? who, as to
me, were innocent, and whose barbarous customs were their

«x own disaster, being in them a token, indeed, of God’s having
left them, with the other nations of that part of the world, to 20
such stupidity, and to such inhuman courses, but did not call
me to take upon me to be a judge of their actions, much less
an executioner of His justice,—that whenever He thought fit
He would take the cause into His own hands, and by national
vengeance punish them as a people for national crimes, but 25
that, in the meantime, it was none of my business,—that it
was true Friday might justify it, because he was a declared
enemy, and in a state of war with those very particular
people, and it was lawful for him to attack them,—but I could
not say the same with regard to myself. These things were 30
so warmly pressed upon my thoughts all the way as I went,
that I resolved I would only go and place myself near them
that I might observe their barbarous feast, and that I would
act then as God should direct; but that unless something
offered that was more a call to me than yet I knew of, I would 35
not meddle with them.

With. this resolution. I entered the wood, and, with all

* possible wariness and silence, Friday following close at my
heels, I marched till I came to the skirt of the wood on the
side which was next to them, only that one corner of the wood 40
lay between me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and

showing him a great tree which was just at the corner of the
Be EO Rn ONS Eg I a eS a
6 fetched a compass, etc.—went by a | 19 token—a sign or proof.
circuitous journey to the right. 88 wariness—caution, care.

a
250 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

wood, I bade him go to the tree, and bring me word if he
could see there plainly what they were doing. He did so, and
came immediately back to me, and told me they might be
plainly viewed there—that they were all about their fire,
eating the flesh of one of their prisoners, and that another lay
bound upon the sand a little from them, whom he said they
would kill next; and this fired the very soul within me. He
told me it was not one of their nation, but one of the bearded
men he had told me of, that came to their country in the boat.
I was filled with horror at the very naming of the white
bearded man ; and going to the tree, I saw plainly by my
glass a white man, who lay upon the beach of the sea with his
hands and his feet tied with flags, or things like rushes, and
that he was an European, and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it,
about fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I was,
which, by going a little way about, I saw I might come at un-
discovered, and that then I should be within half a shot of
them ; so I withheld my passion, though I was indeed enraged
to the highest degree ; and going back about twenty paces, I
got behind some bushes, which held all the way till I came to
the other tree, and then came to a little rising ground, which
gave me a full view of them at the distance of about eighty

ards.

z I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful
wretches sat upou the ground, all close huddled together, and
had just sent the other two to butcher the poor Christian, and
bring him perhaps limb by limb to their fire, and they were
stooping down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to
Friday :—“ Now, Friday,” said I, “do ag I bid thee.” Friday
said he would. “Then, Friday,” says I, ‘do exactly as you
see me do; failin nothing.” So I set down one of the mus-
kets and the fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday did
the like by his, and with the other musket I took my aim at
the savages, bidding him to do the like ; then asking him if
he was ready, he said, ‘Yes.’ ‘*Then fire at them,”’ said I;
and at the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side
that he shot he killed two of them, and wounded three more ;
and on my side I killed one, and wounded two. They were,
you may be sure, in a dreadful consternation: and all of them
that were not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not

10

15

20

25

30

40
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 251

immediately know which way to run, or which way to look,
for they knew not from whence their destruction came,
Friday kept his eyes close upon me, that, as I had bid him,
he might observe what I did; so, as soon as the first shot
was made, I threw down the piece, and took up the fowling-

< piece, and Friday did the like ; he saw me cock and present ;

he did the same again. “Are you ready, Friday?” said I.
“Yes,” says he. “Let fly, then,’’ says I, “in the name of
God!” and with that I fired again among the amazed wretches,
and so did Friday ; and as our pieces were now loaded with
what I call swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we found only
two drop; but so many were wounded, that they ran about
yelling and screaming like mad creatuves, all bloody, and most
of them miserably wounded ; whereof three more fell quickly
after, though not quite dead.

“Now, Friday,” says I, laying down the discharged pieces,
and taking up the musket which was yet loaded, “follow
me,” which he did with a great deal of courage ; upon which
I rushed out of the wood and showed myself, and Friday
close at my foot. As soon as I perceived they saw me, I
shouted as loud as I could, and bade Friday do so too, and
running as fast as I could, which by the way was not very
fast, being loaded with arms as I was, T made directly towards
the poor victim, who was, as I said, lying upon the beach or
shore, between the place where they sat and the sea. The
two butchers who were just going to work with him had left
him at the surprise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible
fright to the sea-side, and had jumped into a canoe, and three
more of the rest made the same way. I turned to Friday,
and bade him step forwards and fire at them; he understood
me immediately, and running about forty yards, to be nearez
them, he shot at them ; and I thought he had killed them all,
for I saw them all fall of a heap into the boat, though I saw
two of them up again quickly ; however, he killed two of
them, and wounded the. third, so that he lay down in the
bottom of the boat as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife
and cut the flags that bound the poor victim ; and loosing his
hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him in the Portu-
guese tongue, what he was. He answered in Latin, Chris-
tianus ; but was so weak and faint that he could scarce stand
or speak. I took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it



6 cock—raise the hammer previous to pressing the trigger.
6 present—hold the gun to the shoulder to take aim,
88 flags—i.e. the rushes mentioned in the last page.

10

15

20

25

30

40
252 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

him, making signs that he should drink, which he did; and
I gave him a piece of bread, which he ate. Then I asked
«him what countryman he was: and he said Espagniole ; and
being a little recovered, let me know, by all the signs he could
possibly make, how much he was in my debt for his deliver- §
ance. ‘Seignior,” said I, with as much Spanish as I could
make up, “ we will talk afterwards, but we must fight now:
if you have any strength left, take this pistol and sword, and
lay about you.” He took them very thankfully; and no
sooner had he the arms in his hands, but, as if they had put 10
new vigour into him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury,
and had cut two of them in pieces in an instant ; for the truth
is, as the whole was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures
were so much frightened with the noise of our pieces that they
fell down for mere amazement and fear, and had no more 15
power to attempt their own escape, than their flesh had to
resist our shot: and that was tae case of those five that Friday
shot at in the boat; for as three of them fell with the hurt
they received, so the other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand sti!l without firing, being 20
willing to keep my charge ready, because I had given the
Spaniard my pistol and sword: so I called to Friday, and bade
him run up to the tree from whence we first fired, and fetch
the arms which lay there that had been discharged, which he
did with great swiftness; and then giving him my musket, I 25
sat down myself to load all the rest again, and bade them
come to me when they wanted. While I was loading these
pieces, there happened a fierce engagement between the
Spaniard and one of the savages, who made at him with one of
their great wooden swords, the weapon that was to have killed 30
him before, if I had not prevented it. The Spaniard, who was
as bold and brave as could be imagined, though weak, had
fought the Indian a good while. and had cut two great wounds

«on his head; but the savage being a stout, lusty fellow, clos-
ing in with him, had thrown him down, being faint, and was 35
wringing my sword out of his hand; when the Spaniard,
though undermost, wisely quitting the sword, drew the pistol
from his girdle, shot the savage through the body, and killed
him upon the spot, before I, who was running to help him,
could come near him. 40

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying
wretches, with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet; and



3 Espagniole—Spanish, | 84 lusty—strong, vigorous,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 253

with that he despatched those three who, as I said before,
were wounded at first, and fallen, and all the rest he could
come up with: and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I
gave him one of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued
two of the savages, and wounded them both; but, as he was
not able to run, they both got from him into the wood, where
Friday pursued them, and killed one of them, but the other
was too nimble for him ; and though he was wounded, yet had
plunged himself into the sea, and swam with all his might off to
those two who were left in the canoe ; which three in the canoe,
with one wounded, that we knew not whether he died or no,
were all that escaped our hands, of one-and-twenty. The
account of the whole is as follows :—three killed at our first
shot from the tree; two killed at the next shot; two killed
by Friday in the boat; two killed by Friday of vhose at first
wounded ; one killed by Friday in the wood ; three killed by
the Spaniard ; four killed, being found dropped here and there,
of the wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them; four
escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded, if not dead—twenty-
one in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of
gunshot, and though Friday made two or three shots at them,
I did not find that he hit any of them. Friday would fain
have had me take one of their canoes, and pursue them; and,
indeed, I was very anxious about their escape, lest carrying
the news home to their people, they should come back perhaps
with two or three hundred of the canoes, and devour us by
mere multitude ; so I consented to pursue them by sea, and
running to one of their canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday
follow me; but when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to
find another poor creature lie there, bound hand and foot, as
the Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost dead with
fear, not knowing what was the matter; for he had not been
able to look up over the side of the boat, he was tied so hard
neck and heels, and had been tied so long, that he had really
but little life in him.

IT immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they
had bound him with, and would have helped him up; but he
could not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously, believ-
ing, it seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be
killed. When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him,
and tell him of his deliverance ; and pulling out my bottle,

1 despatched—killed, ‘ finished off.”

10

15

20

25

380

40
254 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

made him give the poor wretch a dram; which, with the news
of his being delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat.
But when Friday came to hear him speak, and look in his face,
it would have moved any one to tears to have seen how Friday
kissed him, embraced , him, hugged him, cried, laughed,
halloced, jumped about, danced, sang; then cried again,
wrung his hands, beat his own face and head; and then

«sang and jumped about again like a distracted creature. It
was a good while before I could make him speak to me, or tell
ne what was the matter; but when he came a little to
himself, he told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see
what ecstasy and filial affection had worked in this poor
savage at the sight of his father, and of his being delivered
from death; nor, indeed, can I describe half the extrava-
gances of his affection after this; for he went into the boat,
and out of the boat, a great many times: when he went in to
him, he would sit down by him, open his breast, and hold his
father’s head close to his bosom for many minutes together, to
nourish it; then he took his arms and ankles, which were

«numbed and stiff with the binding, and chafed and rubbed
them with his hands; and I, perceiving what the case was,
gave him some rum out of iny bottle to rub them with, which
did them a great deal of good.

This affair put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the
other savages, who were now almost out of sight ; and it was
happy for us that we did not, for it blew so hard within two
hours after, and before they could be got a quarter of their
way, and continued blowing so hard all night, and that from
the north-west, which was against them, that I could not
suppose their boat could live, or that they ever reached thei)
own coast. /

But to return to Friday ; he was so busy about his father,
that I could not find in my heart to take him off for some
time: but after I thought he could leave him a little, I called
him to me, and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased to
the highest extreme: then I asked him if he had given his
father any bread. He shook his head, and said, “ None;
ugly dog eat all up self.” I then gave him a cake of bread,
out of a little pouch I carried on purpose; I also gave him a
dram for himself ; but he would not taste it, but carried it to
his father. I had in my pocket two or three bunches of

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40



8 distracted—(or distraught) mad. | 21 chafed—rubbed so as to warm,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 255

raisins, so I gave him a handful of them for his father. He
had no sooner given his father these raisins, but I saw him
come out of the boat, and run away as if he had been
bewitched, fnr he was the swiftest fellow on his feet that
ever I saw: I say, he ran at such a rate that he was out of 5
sight as it were, in an instant; and though I called, and
hallooed out too, after him, it was all one—away he went;
and in a quarter of an hour I saw him come back again,
though not so fast as he went; and, as he came nearer, I
* found his pace slacker, because he had something in his hand. 10

‘When he came up to me, I found he had been quite home for
an earthen jug or pot, to bring his father some fresh water,
and that he had got two more cakes or loaves of bread: the
bread he gave me, but the water he carried to his father ;
however, as I was very thirsty too, I took a little of it. The 15
water revived his father more than all the rum or spirits Thad .
given him, for he was fainting with thirst.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there
was any water left: he said “ Yes; ’’ and I bade him give it
to the poor Spaniard, who was in as much want of it as his 20
father; and I sent one of the cakes, that Friday brought, to
the Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak, and was re-
posing himself upon a green place under the shade of a tree ;
and whose limbs were also very stiff, and very much swelled
with the rude bandage he had been tied with. When I saw 25
that upon Friday’s coming to him with the water, he sat up
and drank, and took the bread and began to eat, I went to
him and gave him a handful of raisins: he looked up in my
face with all the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness that
could appear in any countenance ; but was so weak, notwith- 30
standing he had so exerted himself in the fight, that he could
not stand up upon his feet: he tried to do it two or three
times, but was really not able, his ankles were so swelled and
so painful to him; so T bade him sit still, and caused Friday
to rub his ankles, and bathe them with rum, as he had done 35
his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes,
or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turn his head about,
to see if his father was in the same place and posture as he
left him sitting ; and at last he found he was not to be seen; 40
at which he started up, and, without speaking a word, flew
with that swiftness to him, that one could scarce perceive his



10: slacker—slower.

Q
256 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

feet to touch the ground as he went: but when he came, he
only found he had laid himself down to ease his limbs, so

. Friday came back to me presently ; and then I spoke to the
Spaniard to let Friday help him up, if he could, and lead him
to the boat, and then he should carry him to our dwelling, 5
where I would take care of him. But Friday, a lusty strong
fellow, took the Spaniard upon his back, and carried him away

« to the boat, and set him down softly upon the side or gunnel
of the canoe, with his feet in the inside of it ; and then lifting
him quite in, he set him close to his father; and presently 10
stepping out again, launched the boat off, and paddled it along
the shore faster than I could walk, though the wind blew
pretty hard too; so he brought them both safe into our creek,
and leaving them in the boat, ran away to fetch the other
canoe. As he passed me I spoke to him, and asked him 15
whither he went. He told me, “Go fetch more boat:’ so
away he went like the wind, for sure never man or horse ran
like him ; and he had the other canoe in the creek almost as

«Soon as I got to it by land; so he wafted me over, and then
went to help our new guests out of the boat, which he did; 20
but they were neither of them able to walk; so that poor
Friday knew not what to do.

To remedy this, 1 went to work in my thought, and calling
to Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while he came to
me, I soon made a kind of hand-barrow to lay them on, and 25
Friday and I carried them both up together upon it between
us.

But when we got them to the outside of our wall, or
fortification, we were at a worse loss than before, for it was
impossible to get them over, and I was resolved not to break 30
it down; so I set to work again, and Friday and I, in about
two hours’ time, made a very handsome tent, covered with
old sails, and above that with boughs of trees, being in the
space without our outward fence, and between that and the
grove of young wood which I had planted; and here we made 35
them two heds of such things as I had; viz. of good rice-
straw, with vlankets laid upon it to lie on, and another to
cover them, on each bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very
rich in subjects; and it was a merry reflection, which I fre- 40
quently made, how like a king I looked. First of all, the
whole country was my own property, so that I had an

8 gunnel—(or gunwale) : the wale, or edge, of a ship’s side, next to the bulwarks ; so called

because the guns are pointed from it,
19 wafted—rowed, ferried.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 257

«x undoubted right of dominion. Secondly, my people were
perfectly subjected: I was absolutely lord and lawgiver:
they all owed their lives to me, and were ready to lay down
their lives, if there had been occasion for it. for me. It was
remarkable, too, I had but three subjects, and they were of 5
three different religions: my man Friday was a Protestant,

« his father was a Pagan and a cannibal, and the Spaniard was

a Papist. However, I allowed liberty of conscience through-

out my dominions :—But this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak, rescued prisoners, 10
and given them shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I
began to think of making some provision for them: and the
first thing I did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling goat,
betwixt a kid and a goat, out of my particular flock, to be
killed ; when I cut off the hinder-quarter, and chopping it 15
into small pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling and stewing,
and made them a very good dish, I assure you, of flesh and
broth ; and as JI cooked it without-doors, for I made no fire
within my inner wall, so I carried it all into the new tent,
and having set a table there for them, I sat down, and ate 20
my own dinner also with them, and, as well as I could,

«x ¢heered them and encouraged them, Friday was my inter-
preter, especially to his father, and, indeed, to the Spaniard
too; for the Spaniard spoke the language of the savages
pretty well. 25

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to
take one of the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets and
other fire-arms, which, for want of time, we had left upon the
place of battle; and, the next day, I ordered him to go and
bury the dead bodies of the savages, which lay open to the 30
sun, and would presently be offensive. I also ordered him to
bury the horrid remains of their barbarous feast, which I
could not think of doing myself: nay, I could not bear to
see them, if I went that way; all which he punctually per-
formed, and effaced the very appearance of the savages being 35
there ; so that when I went again, I could scarce know where
it was, otherwise than by the corner of the wood pointing to
the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my
two new subjects; and, first, I set Friday to inquire of his 40
rather what he thought of the escape of the savages 1n that
canoe, and whether we might expect a return of them, with

*

1 dominion—sway, power. { 13 yearling—one year old.
22 interpreter—one who explains between
7 Pagan—not a Christian; a heathen. two people.


258 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

a power too great for us to resist. His*first opinion was, that
the savages in the boat never could live out the storm which
blew that night they went off, but must, of necessity, be
drowned, or driven south to those other shores, where they
were as sure to be devoured as they were to be drowned if
they were cast away ; but, as to what they would do if they
came safe on shore, he said he knew not; but, it was his
opinion, that they were so dreadfully frightened with the
manner of their being attacked, the noise, and the fire, that
he believed they would tell the people they were all killed by 10
thunder and lightning, not by the hand of man; and that
the two which appeared, viz. Friday and I, were two heavenly
spirits, or furies, come down to destroy them, and not men
with weapons. This, he said he knew; because he heard
them all cry out so, in their language, one to another; for it 15
was impossible for them to conceive that a man could dart
fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a distance, without lifting
up the hand, as was done now: and this old savage was in
the right; for, as I understood since, by other hands, the
savages never attempted to go over to the island afterwards, 20
they were so terrified with the accounts given by those four
men (for it seems they did escape the sea), that they believed
* whoever went to that enchanted island would be destroyed
with fire from the gods. This, however, I knew not; and
- therefore was under continual apprehensions for a good while,
and kept always upon my guard, with all my army: for, as
there were now four of us, I would have ventured upon a
hundred of them, fairly in the open field, at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the
fear of their coming wore off ; and I began to take my former 30
thoughts of a voyage to the main into consideration ; being
likewise assured, by Friday’s father, that I might depend
upon good usage from their nation, on his account, if I would
go. But my thoughts were a little suspended when I had a
serious discourse with the Spaniard, and when I understood 35
that there were sixteen more of his countrymen and
Portuguese, who having been cast away and made their
escape to that side, lived there at peace, indeed, with the

* Savages, but were very sore put to it for necessaries, and,
indeed, for life. I asked him all the particulars of theix 40
voyage, and found they were a Spanish ship, bound from the

* Rio de la Plata to the Havanna, being directed to leave their

a

bo
Or



93 enchanted—bewitched, magical.

39 sore—at a loss for, in great straits for.

42 Rio de la Plata—a large bay at the mouth of the Parana and Uruguay rivers on the
South-east Coast of South America.

42 Havanna—chief town of Cuba, one of the greater Antilles; famous for its tobacco industry.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 259

loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver, and to bring
back what European goods they could meet with there; that
they had five Portuguese seamen on board, whom they took
out of another wreck; that five of their own men were
drowned when first the ship was lost, and that these escaped 5
* through infinite dangers and hazards, and arrived, almost
starved, on the cannibal coast, where they expected to have
been devoured every moment. He told me they had some
arms with them, but they were perfectly useless, for that
they had neither powder nor ball, the washing of the sea 10
having spoiled all their powder but a little, which they used
at their first landing, to provide themselves with some food.
I asked him what he thought would become of them there,
and if they had formed any design of making their escape.
* He said they had many consultations about it; but that 15
having neither vessel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions
of any kind, their councils always ended in tears and despair.
I asked him how he thought they would receive a proposal
from me, which might tend towards an escape; and whether,
if they were all here, it might not be done. I told him with 20
freedom, I feared mostly their treachery and ill-usage of me,
if I put my life in their hands; for that gratitude was no
inherent virtue in the nature of man, nor did men always
square their dealings by the obligations they had received, so
much as they did by the advantages they expected. I told 25
him it would be very hard that I should be the instrument
of their deliverance, and that they should afterwards make
**me their prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman was
certain to be made a sacrifice, what necessity, or what accident
soever brought him thither; and that I had rather be de- 30
livered up to the savages, and be devoured alive, than fall
into the merciless claws of the priests, and be carried into
* the Inquisition. I added that, otherwise, I was persuaded, if
they were all here, we might, with so many hands, build a
barque large enough to carry us all away, either to the Brazils 35
southward, or to the islands or Spanish coast northward ; but
* that if, in requital, they should, when I had put weapons intr
their hands, carry me by force among their own people, I
might be ill used for my kindness to them, and make my case
worse than it was before. 40
* He answered, with a great deal of candour and ingenuous:
ness. that their condition was so miserable, and that they

a

’





6 hazards—dangers, chances, 33 Inquisition — a tribunal in Catholic
15 consultations—talks, arguments. countries, in the 16th century, for
28 New Spain —the name given to the examining and punishing all heretics,

Spanish towns and_ islands in 37 requital—payment, punishment.
America. 41 ingenuousness—openness, frankness.
260 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

: were so sensible of it, that he believed they would abhor the
thought of using any man unkindly that should contribute to
their deliverance; and that, if I pleased, he would go to
them, with the old man, and discourse with them about it,
and return again, and bring me their answer; that he would 5
make conditions with them upon their solemn oath, that they
should be absolutely under my direction, as their commander

« and captain ; and they should swear upon the holy sacraments
and gospel, to be true to me, and go to such Christian country
as I should agree to, and no other; and to be directed wholly 10
and absolutely by my orders, till they were landed safely in
such country as I intended; and that he would bring a con-

; tract from them, under their hands, for that purpose. Then
he told me he would first swear to me himself, that he would
never stir from me as long as he lived, till I gave him orders ; 15
and that he would take my side to the last drop of his blood,
if there should happen the least breach of faith among his .
countrymen. He told me they were all of them very civil,
honest men, and they were under the greatest distress
imaginable, having neither weapons nor clothes, nor any food, 20
but at the mercy and discretion of the savages; out of all
hopes of ever returning to their own country; and that he
was sure, if I would undertake their relief, they would live
and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to veuture to relieve 25
them, if possible, and to send the old savage and this

: Spaniard over to them to treat. But when we had got all
things in readiness to go, the Spaniard himself started an ob-
jection, which had so much prudence in it on one hand, and so
much sincerity on the other hand, that I could not but be very 30
well satisfied in it; and, by his advice, put off the deliverance
of his comrades for at least half a year. The case was thus:
he had been with us now about a month, during which time
I had let him see in what manner I had provided, with the
assistance of Providence, for my support; and he saw evi- 35
dently what stock of corn and rice I had laid up; which.
though it was more than sufficient for myself, yet it was not
sufficient, without good husbandry, for my family, now it was
increased to four ; but much less would it be sufficient if his
countrymen, who were, as he said, sixteen, still alive, should 40
come over; and, least of all would it be sufficient to vietual
our vessel, if we should build one, for a voyave to any of the



1 sensible of—aware of, 13 under their hands— signed by turn,

1 abhor —forsake, loathe. under their seal.

8 holy sacraments—the Bread and Wine 27 to treat—to arrange a treaty, or agree-
of the Christian Communion. ment.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE 261

Christian colonies of America; so he told me he thought it
would be more advisable to let him and the other two dig and
cultivate some more land, as much as I could spare seed to
sow, and that we should wait another harvest, that we might
have a supply of corn for his countrymen, when they should 5
come ; for want might be a temptation to them to disagree, or
not to think themselves delivered, otherwise than out of one
«difficulty into another. “You know,” says he, ‘the children
of Israel, though they rejoiced at first for their being de-
livered out of Egypt, yet rebelled even against God Himself, 10
that delivered them, when they came to want bread in the
wilderness.”
His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that
I could not but be very well pleased with his proposal, as well
as I was satisfied with his fidelity ; so we fell to digging, all 15
four of us, as well as the wooden tools we were furnished
with permitted ; and, in about a month’s time, by the end of
which it was seed-time, we had got as much land cured and
trimmed up, as we sowed twoand-twenty bushels of barley
on, and sixteen jars of rice, which was, in short, all the seed 20
we had to spare: indeed, we left ourselves barely sutlicient
for our own food for the six months that we had to expect
our crop; that is to say, reckoning from the time we set our
seed aside for sowing; for it is not to be supposed it is six
months in the ground in that country. 25
Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient
to put us out of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless
their number had been very great, we went freely all over the
island, whenever we found occasion; and as we had our
escape or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, 30
at least for me, to have the means of it out of mine. For
this purpose, I marked out several trees, which I thought fit
for our work, and I set Friday and his father to cut them
down; and then I caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted
my thoughts on that affair, to oversee and direct their work, 35
* I showed them with what indefatigable pains 1 had hewed a
large tree into single planks, and I caused them to do the
like, till they made about a dozen large planks of good oak,
near two feet broad, thirty-five feet long, and from two
*inches to four inches thick : what prodigious labour it took 40
up, any one may imagine.
At the same time, I contrived to increase my little flock of

8 the children of Israel—the reference is to Exodus xvi. 2, 3.
36 indefatigable—untiring, that cannot be wearied.
40 prodigious—wonderful.
262 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

tame goats as much as I could; and for this purpose, I made
Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and myself with
Friday the next day (for we took our turns), and by this
means we got about twenty young kids to breed up with the

: rest ; for whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, and

added them to our flock. But, above all, the season for
curing the grapes coming on, I caused such a prodigious
quantity to be hung up in the sun, that, I believe, had we

« been at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun are cured, we

could have filled sixty or eighty barrels ; and these, with our
bread, formed a great part of our food—very good living too,
I assure you, for they are exceedingly nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order: it was not
the most plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but,
however, it was enough to answer our end; for, from twenty-
two bushels of barley we brought in and thrashed out above
two hundred and twenty bushels ; and the like in proportion
of the rice ; which was store enough for our food to the next
harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore
with me; or, if we had been ready for a voyage, it would
very plentifully have victualled our ship to have carried us
to any part of the world, that is to say, any part of America,
When we had thus housed and secured our magazine of corn,
we fell to work to make more wicker-ware, viz. great baskets,
in which we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and
dexterous at this part, and often blamed me that I did not
make some things for defence of this kind of work; but I
saw no need of it.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests I
expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the main, to
see what he could do with those he had left behind him there.
I gave him a strict charge not to bring any man who would
not first swear, in the presence of himself and the old savage.
that he would in no way injure, fight with, or attack the
person he should findin the island, who was so kind as to
send for them in order to their deliverance ; but that they
would stand by him and defend him against all such attempts,
and wherever they went, would be entirely under and sub-
jected to his command; and that this should be put in
writing, and signed in their hands. How they were to have
done this, when I knew they had neither pen nor ink, was a
question which we never asked. Under these instructions,

5 dam—the mother animal. : “4
9 Alicant—a port on the South Coast of Spain, famous for its wines,

cr

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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 262

the Spaniard and the old savage, the father of Friday, went

away in one of the canoes which they might be said to have

come in, or rather were brought in, when they came as

prisoners to be devoured by the savages. I gave each of
«them a musket, with a firelock on it, and about eight charges 5
“of powder and ball, charging them to be very good husbands

of both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent

occasions.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by
me, in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven years 10
and some days. I gave them provisions of bread, and of
dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for many days, and
sutlicient for all the Spaniards for about eight days’ time ;
and wishing them a good voyage, I saw them go, agreeing
with them about a signal they should hang out at their 15
return, by which I should know them again, when they came
back, at a distance, before they came on shore. They went
away, with a fair gale, on the day that the moon was at full,
by my account in the month of October; but as for an exact
reckoning of days, after I had once lost it, I could never 20
recover it again ; nor had I kept even the number of years
so punctually as to be sure I was right; though, as it proved,
when I afterwards examined my account, I found I had kept
a true reckoning of years.

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when 25

*a strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the
like has not, perhaps, been heard of in history. I was fast
asleep in my hutch one morning, when my man Friday came
running in to me, and called aloud, ‘‘ Master, master, they
are come, they are come!” I jumped up, and, regardless of 30
danger, I went as soon as I could get my clothes on, through
my little grove, which, by the way, was by this time grown
to be a very thick wood; I say, regardless of danger, I went
without my arms, which was not my custom to do; but I was
surprised, When, turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw 35
a boat at about a league and a half distance, standing in
for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it,
and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in; also I
observed, presently, that they did not come from that side
which the shore lay on, but from the southernmost end of the 40
island. Upon this I called Friday in, and bade him lie close,
tor these were not the people we looked for, and that we might





5 firelock—a gun in which the five is 6 good husbands of—use sparingly.
caused by a Jock with steel and flint. 26 intervened—come between, occurred.
264 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

not know yet whether they were friends or enemies. In the
next place, I went in to fetch my perspective glass, to see what
I could make of them; and, having taken the ladder out, I
climbed up to the top of the hill, as I used to do whe. I was
apprehensive of anything, and to take my view the plainer, 6
without being discovered. I had scarce set my foot upon the
hill, when my eye plainly discovered a ship lying at anchor,
at about two leagues and a half distance from me, 8.8.E., but
not above.a league and a half from the shore. By my obser-
vation it appeared plainly to be an English ship, and the boat 10
appeared to be an English long-boat.
I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of
seeing a ship, and one that I had reason to believe was manned
by my own countrymen, and consequently friends, was such
as I cannot describe; but yet I had some secret doubts hung 15
about me —I cannot tell from whence they came—bidding me
keep upon my guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to
consider what business an English ship could have in that
part of the world, since it was not the way to or from any
part of the world where the English had any traffic; and I 20
knew there had been no storms to drive them in there, in
distress; and that if they were really English, it was most
probable that they were here upon no good design ; and that
I had better continue as I was, than fall into the hands of
thieves and murderers. 25
Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger
which sometimes are given him when he may think there is
no possibility of its being real. That such hints and notices
are given us, I believe few that have made any observations of
things can deny; that they are certa‘n discoveries of an 30
invisible world, and a converse of spirits, we cannot doubt ;
and if the tendency of them seems to be to warn us of danger,
why should we not suppose they are from some friendly agent
* (whether supreme, or inferior and subordinate, is not the
question), and that they are given for our good? 35
The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice
of this reasoning ; for had I not been made cautious by this
* secret admonition, come it from whence it will, I had been
* undone inevitably, and in a far worse condition than before,
as you will see presently. J had not kept myself long in 40
this posture, till I] saw the boat draw near the shore, as if
they looked for a creek to thrust in at, for the convenience of



,34 supreme—highest. 38 admonition—hint, warning.
ts 38 had been undone inevitably—should
34 subordinate—in a lower position. have been hopelessly ruined,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 265

landing; however, as they did not come quite far enough,
they did not see the little inlet where I formerly landed my
rafts, but ran their boat on shore upon the beach, at about
h lf a mile from me; which was very happy for me; for
otherwise they would have landed just at my door, as I may
say, and would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and

perhaps have plundered me of all I had. When they were

on shore, I was fully satisfied they were Englishmen, at least
most of them; one or two I thought were Dutch, but it did
not prove so; there were in all eleven men, whereof three of
t!em I found were unarmed, and, as J thought, bound; and
when the first four or five of them were jumped on shore,
they took those three out of the boat, as prisoners: one of
the three I could perceive using the most passionite gestures

* of entreaty, affliction, and despair, even to a kind of extra-

a

>

vagance ; the other two, I could perceive, lifted up their
hands sometimes, and appeared concerned indeed, but not to
such a degree as the first. I was perfectly confounded at the
sight, and knew not what the meaning of it should be.
Friday called out to me in English, as well as he could, “‘O
master! you see English mans eat prisoner as well as savage
mans.” ‘ Why Friday,” says I, “do you think they are going
to eat them, then?” “ Yes,’ says Friday, ‘they will eat
them.” ‘No, no,” says I, ‘Friday; I am afraid they will
murder them, indeed ; but you may be sure they will not eat
them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really
was, but stood trembling with the horror of the sight, ex-
pecting every moment when the three prisoners should be
killed; nay, once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm
with a great cutlass, as the seamen call it, or sword, to strike
one of the poor men; and I expected to see him fall every
moment; at which all the blood in my body seemed to run
chill in my veins. I wished heartily now for the Spaniard,

10

16

20

25

30

and the savage that was gone with him, or that I had any way 385

to have come undiscovered within shot of them, that I might
have secured the three men, for I saw no fire-arms they had

* among them ; but it fell out to my mind another way. After

T had observed the outrageous usage of the three men by the
insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run scattering about
the island, as if they wanted to see the country. I observed

that the three other men had liberty to go also where they

40



15 entreaty—prayer, supplication,
18 confounded—amazed, stupefied (a very strong word in the older usage).
38 it fell out to my mind another way—I hit upon another plan.
»

266 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

pleased ; but they sat down all three upon the ground, very
pensive, and looked like men in despair. This put me in
mind of the first time when I came on shore, and began to
look about me ; how I gave myself over for lost ; how wildly
I looked round me ; what dreadful apprehensions I had ; and
how I lodged in the tree all night, for fear of being devoured
by wile beasts. As I knew nothing, that night, of the
supply I was to receive by the providential driving of the
ship nearer the land by the storms and tide, by which I have
since been so long nourished and supported ; so these three
poor desolate men knew nothing how certain of deliverance
and supply they were, how near it was to them, and how
effectually and really they were in a condition of safety, at
the same time that they thought themselves lost, and their
case desperate. So little do we see before us in the world,
and so much reason have we to depend cheerfully upon the
great Maker of the world, that He does not leave His

« creatures so absolutely destitute, but that, in the worst cir-

cumstances, they have always something to be thankful for,
and sometimes are nearer deliverance than they imagine; nay,
are even brought to their deliverance by the means by which
they seem to be brought to their destruction.

It was just at high-water when these people came on shore ;
and while they rambled about to see what kind of a place
they were in, they had carelessly stayed till the tide was
spent, and the water was ebbed considerably away, leaving
their boat aground. They had left two men in the boat, who,
as I found afterwards, having drunk a little too much brandy,
fell asleep ; however, one of them waking a little sooner than
the other, and finding the boat too fast aground for him to
Stir it, hallooed out for the rest, who were straggling about ;
upon which they all soon came to the boat: but it was past
all their strength to launch her, the boat being very heavy,
and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand, almost like
a quicksand. In this condition, like true seamen, who are,

: perhaps, the least of all mankind given to forethought, they

gave it over, and away they strolled about the country again ;
and I heard one of them say aloud to another, calling them
off from the boat, ‘Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t you?
she'll float next tide ;’’ by which I was fully confirmed in the
main inquiry of what countrymen they were. All this while
I kept myself very close, not once daring to stir out of my

10

15

20

25

30

385

40



18 destitute—in want.
36 forethought—prudence, thought for the future.
oe

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE, 267

castle, any farther than to my place of observation, near the
top of the hill: and very glad I was to think how well it was
fortified. I knew it was no less than ten hours before the
boat could float again, and by that time it would be dark, and
I might be at more liberty to see their motions, and to hear
their discourse, if they had any. In the meantime, I fitted
myself up for a battle, as before, though with more caution,
knowing I had to do with another kind of enemy than I had
at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had made an ex-
cellent marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms.
I took myself two fowling-pieces, and I gave him three
muskets. My figure, indeed, was very fierce; I had my

‘formidable goat-skin coat on, with the great cap I have

mentioned, a naked sword by my side, two pistols in my belt,
and a gun upon each shoulder.

Tt was my design, as I said above, not to have made any
attempt till it was dark; but about two o’clock, being the
heat of the day, I found that they were all gone straggling
into the woods, and, as I thought, laid down to sleep. The
three poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition to
get any sleep, had, however, sat down under the shelter of a
great tree, at about a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I
thought, out of sight of any of the rest. Upon this I
resolved to discover myself to them, and learn something of
their condition; immediately I marched as above, my man
Friday at a good distance behind me, as formidable for his
arms as I, but not making quite so staring a spectre-like
figure as I did. - I came as near them undiscovered as I could
and then, before any of them saw me, I called aloud to them
in Spanish, ‘‘ What are ye, gentlemen?” They started up at
the noise, but were ten times more ‘confounded when they

saw me, and the uncouth figure that I made. They made

no answer at all, but I thought I perceived them just going
to fly from me, when I spoke to them in English: ‘Gentle-
men,” said I, ‘do not be surprised at me; perhaps you may
have a friend near, when you did not expect it.” ‘He must

- be sent directly from Heaven then,” said one of them very

gravely to me, and pulling off his hat at the same time to me;
“for our condition is past the help of man.” ‘All help is
from Heaven, sir,” said I: “but can you puta stranger in
the way to help you? for you seem to be in some great
distress. I saw you when you landed ; and when you seemed



13 formidable—terrible, terrifying.
32 uncouth—strange, forbidding (originally ‘“‘ unknown"’).

10

15

20

25

30

35

40
268 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

to make application to the brutes that came with you, I saw
one of them lift up his sword to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and
trembling, looked like one astonished, returned, “Am I
talking to God, or man? Is it a real man, or an angel ?”’—
“ Be in no fear about that, sir,’ said I; “if God had sent an
angel to relieve you, he would have come better clothed, and

cr



CRUSOE APPEARS BEFORE THE DESPAIRING PRISONERS.

armed after another manner than you see me; pray lay aside
your fears; J am a man, an Englishman, and disposed to
assist you; you see I have one servant only; we have arms 10
and ammunition ; tell us freely, can we serve you? What is
your case?” %Our case; sir,” said he, ‘is too long to tell
you, while our murderers are so near us; but, in short, sir, I

* was commander of that ship: my men have mutinied against

«me; they have been hardly prevailed on not to murder me, 15



14 mening a mutiny is the term applied to an organized defiance of authority, military
or naval,
15 hardly—scarcely, with difficulty,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 269

and, at last, have set me on shore in this desolate place, with
these two men with me,—one my mate, the other a passenger,
where we expected to perish, believing the place to be unin-
habited, and know not yet what to think of it.” ‘Where
are these brute., your enemies?” said I; ‘do you know where 5
they are gone?” “There they lie, sir,” said he, pointing to a
thicket of trees; ‘‘my heart trembles-for fear they have seen
us, and heard you speak; if they have, they will certainly
murder us all.’’ “Have they any firearms?” said I. He
answered, ‘‘ They had only two pieces, one of which they left 10
in the boat.” ‘‘ Well, then,’’ said I, “leave the rest to me;
I see they are all asleep; it is an easy thing to kill them all;
but shall we rather take them prisoners?’’ He told me
there were two desperate villains among them that it was
scarce safe to show any mercy to; but if they were secured, 15
he believed all the rest would return to their duty. I asked
him which they were. He told me he could not at that
distance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in
anything I would direct. ‘‘ Well,” says I, “let us retreat
out of their view or hearing, lest they awake, and we will 20
resolve further.” So they willingly went back with me, till
the woods covered us from them.

“Look you, sir,” said I, ‘if I venture upon your de-
liverance, are you willing to make two conditions with me?”

* He anticipated my proposals by telling me that both he and 25
the ship, if recovered, should be wholly directed and com-
manded by me in everything; and if the ship was not
recovered, he would live and die with me in what part of
the world soever I would send him; and the two other men
said the same. “Well,” says I, ‘‘my conditions are but 30
two ; first,—that while you stay in this island with me, you

« will not pretend to any authority here; and if I put arms in
your hands, you will, upon all occasions, give them up to me,
and do no prejudice to me or mine upon this island, and in
the meantime be governed by my orders ; secondly,—-that if 35
the ship is or may be recovered, you will carry me and my
man to England passage free.”

He gave me all the assurances that the invention or faith
of man could devise that he would comply with these most

reasonable demands, and besides would owe his life to me; 40
and acknowledge it upon all occasions as long as he lived.
‘Well, then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you, with

xy

25 anticipated—forestalled, told me before 32 pretend to—aim at (Cf. the ‘“‘ Pretender ”
I could tell him, to the throne).
270 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

powder and ball; tell me next what you think is proper to,
*be done.” He showed all the testimonies of his gratitude
that he was able, but offered to be wholly guided by me. I
told him I thought it was hard venturing anything; but the
best method I could think of was to fire on them at once as 9
they lay, and if any were not killed at the first volley, and
offered to submit, we might save them, and so put it wholly
upon God’s providence to direct the shot. He said, very
modestly, that he was loath to kill them, if he could help it;
but that those two were incorrigible villains. and had been 10
the authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they escaped,
we should be undone still, for they would go on board and
bring the whole ship’s company, and destroy us all. “ Well,
< then.’ says I, “necessity legitimates my advice, for it is the
only way to save our lives.’ However, seeing him still 15
cautious of shedding blood, I told him they should go them-
selves, and manage as they found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them
awake, and soon after we saw two of them on their feet. I
asked him if either of them were the heads of the mutiny? 20
He said, “No.” “Well, then,” said I, “you may let them
escape; and Providence seems to have awakened them on
purpose to save themselves. Now,” says I, “if the rest
escape you, it is your fault.’? Animated with this, he took
the musket I had given him in his hand, and a pistol in his 25
belt, and his two comrades with him, with each a piece in
his hand; the two men who were with him going first made
‘some noise, at which one of the seamen, who was awake,
turned about, and seeing them coming, cried out to the rest;
but it was too late then, for the moment he cried out they 30<